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Sample records for active place avoidance

  1. New spatial cognition tests for mice: passive place avoidance on stable and active place avoidance on rotating arenas.

    PubMed

    Cimadevilla, J M; Fenton, A A; Bures, J

    2001-03-15

    Dry arenas are a convenient tool for assessing the spatial navigation abilities of rodents. In this paper, mice must avoid a punished sector of a dry arena from which they are expelled by a puff of compressed air. The position of the punished sector is defined relative to the coordinate system of the room. In a stable environment the mice can use both extramaze and intramaze landmarks to orient themselves accurately. However, when the shock area is defined by extramaze landmarks, continuous rotation of the arena at 1 rpm makes it impossible to solve the avoidance task using arena-based cues or idiothesis. The avoidance can only be solved by paying attention to extramaze cues. Our protocol tested spatial abilities on stable and rotating arenas. The acquisition of the task was manifested under both conditions by a significant improvement of performance within the first session (short-term memory component) and at the beginning of the 24-h delayed second session (long-term memory component).

  2. Temporal and spatial strategies in an active place avoidance task on Carousel: a study of effects of stability of arena rotation speed in rats.

    PubMed

    Bahník, Štěpán; Stuchlík, Aleš

    2015-01-01

    The active place avoidance task is a dry-arena task used to assess spatial navigation and memory in rodents. In this task, a subject is put on a rotating circular arena and avoids an invisible sector that is stable in relation to the room. Rotation of the arena means that the subject's avoidance must be active, otherwise the subject will be moved in the to-be-avoided sector by the rotation of the arena and a slight electric shock will be administered. The present experiment explored the effect of variable arena rotation speed on the ability to avoid the to-be-avoided sector. Subjects in a group with variable arena rotation speed learned to avoid the sector with the same speed and attained the same avoidance ability as rats in a group with a stable arena rotation speed. Only a slight difference in preferred position within the room was found between the two groups. No difference was found between the two groups in the dark phase, where subjects could not use orientation cues in the room. Only one rat was able to learn the avoidance of the to-be-avoided sector in this phase. The results of the experiment suggest that idiothetic orientation and interval timing are not crucial for learning avoidance of the to-be-avoided sector. However, idiothetic orientation might be sufficient for avoiding the sector in the dark. PMID:26417540

  3. Dizocilpine (MK-801) impairs learning in the active place avoidance task but has no effect on the performance during task/context alternation.

    PubMed

    Vojtechova, Iveta; Petrasek, Tomas; Hatalova, Hana; Pistikova, Adela; Vales, Karel; Stuchlik, Ales

    2016-05-15

    The prevention of engram interference, pattern separation, flexibility, cognitive coordination and spatial navigation are usually studied separately at the behavioral level. Impairment in executive functions is often observed in patients suffering from schizophrenia. We have designed a protocol for assessing these functions all together as behavioral separation. This protocol is based on alternated or sequential training in two tasks testing different hippocampal functions (the Morris water maze and active place avoidance), and alternated or sequential training in two similar environments of the active place avoidance task. In Experiment 1, we tested, in adult rats, whether the performance in two different spatial tasks was affected by their order in sequential learning, or by their day-to-day alternation. In Experiment 2, rats learned to solve the active place avoidance task in two environments either alternately or sequentially. We found that rats are able to acquire both tasks and to discriminate both similar contexts without obvious problems regardless of the order or the alternation. We used two groups of rats, controls and a rat model of psychosis induced by a subchronic intraperitoneal application of 0.08mg/kg of dizocilpine (MK-801), a non-competitive antagonist of NMDA receptors. Dizocilpine had no selective effect on parallel/sequential learning of tasks/contexts. However, it caused hyperlocomotion and a significant deficit in learning in the active place avoidance task regardless of the task alternation. Cognitive coordination tested by this task is probably more sensitive to dizocilpine than spatial orientation because no hyperactivity or learning impairment was observed in the Morris water maze.

  4. A spatial paradigm, the allothetic place avoidance alternation task, for testing visuospatial working memory and skill learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Dockery, Colleen A; Wesierska, Malgorzata J

    2010-08-30

    We present a paradigm for assessing visuospatial working memory and skill learning in a rodent model, based on the place avoidance test. In our allothetic place avoidance alternation task (APAAT) the paradigm is comprised of minimal training sessions, tests various aspects of learning and memory and provides a rich set of parameters. A single working memory session consists of four conditions: habituation (no shock), two place avoidance training intervals (shock activated) and a retrieval test (shock inactivated). The location of the shock sector is alternated for each training day which initially requires extinction of previous representations and further working memory to achieve effective place avoidance across sessions. Visuospatial skill memory was evaluated by the shock/entrance ratio by tracking locomotor activity which is essential to execute a place avoidance strategy. For each day rats learned to avoid a new place with shock, as shown by a decreased number of entrances, and an increased time to the first entrance and maximum avoidance time. Skill learning improved according to the decreased number of shocks per entrance across conditions. These results indicate that complex cognitive functions are captured by this behavioral method. This APAAT paradigm expands and complements existing tools for studying hippocampal-prefrontal dependent functions to support development of treatment interventions.

  5. Place avoidance learning and stress-induced analgesia in the attacked mouse: role of endogenous opioids.

    PubMed

    Siegfried, B; Frischknecht, H R

    1989-07-01

    In this study, mechanisms of pain inhibition (tail-flick test) and memory (place avoidance paradigm) were investigated in attacked, DBA/2 and C57BL/6, mice. During training, exposure of test animals to 10 or 30 bites by an aggressive, isolated ICR mouse situated in the dark half of a bright/dark conditioning box induced a significantly higher social conflict analgesia in DBA than in C57 mice. Naltrexone (0.5 and 2.0 mg/kg) reduced this response in DBA mice that received 30, but not 10, bites and was ineffective in C57 mice. This points to different, opioid versus naltrexone-insensitive nonopioid, analgesic mechanisms. During place choice testing in the same box 24 h later, DBA mice that had received 30, but not 10, bites showed a significant, naltrexone-reversible, avoidance of the attack place. No place avoidance learning was observed in C57 mice. The data provided unequivocal evidence that place avoidance learning was a result of associative conditioning, in that neither pairing nor social conflict per se significantly changed the preference for the dark side seen in experimentally naive DBA mice. Antagonism of place avoidance conditioning was observed regardless of whether testing was carried out in the drugged or undrugged state, excluding possible state-dependent effects as an explanation for the naltrexone-induced impairment. Individual correlational analysis in saline-injected, attacked DBA mice revealed a negative relationship between the analgesic state immediately after training and the avoidance of attack place during testing. In summary, the results suggest strain-dependent analgesic and learning mechanisms and indicate that endogenous opioids released in attacked DBA mice support pain inhibition and modulate the memorization of attack place by their analgesic effects, as well as by mechanisms independent of pain inhibitory systems.

  6. Active Collision Avoidance for Planetary Landers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rickman, Doug; Hannan, Mike; Srinivasan, Karthik

    2014-01-01

    Present day robotic missions to other planets require precise, a priori knowledge of the terrain to pre-determine a landing spot that is safe. Landing sites can be miles from the mission objective, or, mission objectives may be tailored to suit landing sites. Future robotic exploration missions should be capable of autonomously identifying a safe landing target within a specified target area selected by mission requirements. Such autonomous landing sites must (1) 'see' the surface, (2) identify a target, and (3) land the vehicle. Recent advances in radar technology have resulted in small, lightweight, low power radars that are used for collision avoidance and cruise control systems in automobiles. Such radar systems can be adapted for use as active hazard avoidance systems for planetary landers. The focus of this CIF proposal is to leverage earlier work on collision avoidance systems for MSFC's Mighty Eagle lander and evaluate the use of automotive radar systems for collision avoidance in planetary landers.

  7. Continuous place avoidance task reveals differences in spatial navigation in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Cimadevilla, J M; Fenton, A A; Bures, J

    2000-01-01

    A new place navigation test was used to estimate the spatial orientation abilities of male and female rats. Animals had to avoid a room frame defined area on a rotating arena, entering of which was punished by mild footshock, i.e. rats had to avoid the same place in the room but different parts of the floor, which was rotated through the punished zone. Because of the rotation of the arena (one revolution per min), animals could not rely on intramaze cues and only extramaze landmarks could be used for accurate navigation. During 8 consecutive days rats were exposed to daily 40-min sessions, consisting of 20-min acquisition and 20-min extinction (shock discontinued). The position of the punished sector centered around one of the four mutually perpendicular azimuths was daily changed in a predetermined sequence. The results showed no male female differences during acquisition and better performance of males during extinction. The performance of females was not affected by estral cycle-related hormonal changes. The findings are discussed in the light of controversial results of research into sex differences in spatial abilities.

  8. Spatial memory formation differentially affects c-Fos expression in retrosplenial areas during place avoidance training in rats.

    PubMed

    Malinowska, Monika; Niewiadomska, Monika; Wesierska, Malgorzata

    2016-01-01

    The retrosplenial cortex is involved in spatial memory function, but the contribution of its individual areas is not well known. To elucidate the involvement of retrosplenial cortical areas 29c and 30 in spatial memory, we analyzed the expression of c-Fos in these areas in the experimental group of rats that were trained in a spatial place avoidance task, i.e. to avoid shocks presented in an unmarked sector of a stable arena under light conditions. Control rats were trained in the same context as the experimental rats either without (Control-noUS) or with shocks (Control-US) that were delivered in a random, noncontingent manner for three days. On the first day of place avoidance learning, the experimental group exhibited c-Fos induction in area 29c, similar to both control groups. In area 30, similarly high levels of c-Fos expression were observed in the experimental and Control-US groups. On the third day of training, when the experimental group efficiently avoided c-Fos expression in areas 29c and 30 was lower compared with the first day of training. In area 29c c-Fos level was also lower in the experimental than in comparison to the Control-US group. In area 30, c-Fos expression in the experimental group was lower than in both control groups. In conclusion, areas 29c and 30 appear to be activated during spatial memory acquisition on the first day of training, whereas area 30 seems suppressed during long-term memory functioning on the third day of training when rats effectively avoid. PMID:27685777

  9. Conditioned Place Avoidance of Zebrafish (Danio rerio) to Three Chemicals Used for Euthanasia and Anaesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Devina; von Keyserlingk, Marina A. G.; Richards, Jeffrey G.; Weary, Daniel M.

    2014-01-01

    Zebrafish are becoming one of the most used vertebrates in developmental and biomedical research. Fish are commonly killed at the end of an experiment with an overdose of tricaine methanesulfonate (TMS, also known as MS-222), but to date little research has assessed if exposure to this or other agents qualifies as euthanasia (i.e. a “good death”). Alternative agents include metomidate hydrochloride and clove oil. We use a conditioned place avoidance paradigm to compare aversion to TMS, clove oil, and metomidate hydrochloride. Zebrafish (n = 51) were exposed to the different anaesthetics in the initially preferred side of a light/dark box. After exposure to TMS zebrafish spent less time in their previously preferred side; aversion was less pronounced following exposure to metomidate hydrochloride and clove oil. Nine of 17 fish exposed to TMS chose not to re-enter the previously preferred side, versus 2 of 18 and 3 of 16 refusals for metomidate hydrochloride and clove oil, respectively. We conclude that metomidate hydrochloride and clove oil are less aversive than TMS and that these agents be used as humane alternatives to TMS for killing zebrafish. PMID:24505365

  10. Place cell activation predicts subsequent memory.

    PubMed

    Robitsek, R Jonathan; White, John A; Eichenbaum, Howard

    2013-10-01

    A major quandary in memory research is how hippocampal place cells, widely recognized as elements of a spatial map, contribute to episodic memory, our capacity to remember unique experiences that depends on hippocampal function. Here we recorded from hippocampal neurons as rats performed a T-maze alternation task in which they were required to remember a preceding experience over a delay in order to make a subsequent spatial choice. As it has been reported previously in other variations of this task, we observed differential firing that predicted correct subsequent choices, even as the animal traversed identical locations prior to the choice. Here we also observed that most place cells also fired differently on correct as compared to error trials. Among these cells, a large majority fired strongly before the delay or during the retrieval phase but were less active or failed to activate when the animal subsequently made an error. These findings join the place cell phenomenon with episodic memory performance dependent on the hippocampus, revealing that memory accuracy can be predicted by the activation of single place cells in the hippocampus.

  11. Neural correlates of active avoidance behavior in superior colliculus

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Jeremy D.; Castro-Alamancos, Manuel A.

    2010-01-01

    Active avoidance of harmful situations seems highly adaptive, but the underlying neural mechanisms are largely unknown. Rats can effectively use the superior colliculus during active avoidance to detect a salient whisker conditioned stimulus (WCS) that signals an aversive event. Here, we recorded unit and field potential activity in the intermediate layers of the superior colliculus of rats during active avoidance behavior. During the period preceding the onset of the WCS, avoids are associated with a higher firing rate than escapes (unsuccessful avoids), indicating that a prepared superior colliculus is more likely to detect the WCS and lead to an avoid. Moreover, during the WCS, a robust ramping up of overall firing rate is observed for trials leading to avoids. The firing rate ramping is not due to shuttling, and may serve to drive downstream circuits to avoid. Therefore, a robust neural correlate of active avoidance behavior is found in the superior colliculus, emphasizing its role in the detection of salient sensory signals that require immediate action. PMID:20573897

  12. Dopamine and octopamine influence avoidance learning of honey bees in a place preference assay.

    PubMed

    Agarwal, Maitreyi; Giannoni Guzmán, Manuel; Morales-Matos, Carla; Del Valle Díaz, Rafael Alejandro; Abramson, Charles I; Giray, Tugrul

    2011-01-01

    Biogenic amines are widely characterized in pathways evaluating reward and punishment, resulting in appropriate aversive or appetitive responses of vertebrates and invertebrates. We utilized the honey bee model and a newly developed spatial avoidance conditioning assay to probe effects of biogenic amines octopamine (OA) and dopamine (DA) on avoidance learning. In this new protocol non-harnessed bees associate a spatial color cue with mild electric shock punishment. After a number of experiences with color and shock the bees no longer enter the compartment associated with punishment. Intrinsic aspects of avoidance conditioning are associated with natural behavior of bees such as punishment (lack of food, explosive pollination mechanisms, danger of predation, heat, etc.) and their association to floral traits or other spatial cues during foraging. The results show that DA reduces the punishment received whereas octopamine OA increases the punishment received. These effects are dose-dependent and specific to the acquisition phase of training. The effects during acquisition are specific as shown in experiments using the antagonists Pimozide and Mianserin for DA and OA receptors, respectively. This study demonstrates the integrative role of biogenic amines in aversive learning in the honey bee as modeled in a novel non-appetitive avoidance learning assay.

  13. 33 CFR 150.925 - How long may a safety zone, no anchoring area, or area to be avoided remain in place?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... anchoring area, or area to be avoided remain in place? 150.925 Section 150.925 Navigation and Navigable...: OPERATIONS Safety Zones, No Anchoring Areas, and Areas To Be Avoided § 150.925 How long may a safety zone, no anchoring area, or area to be avoided remain in place? A safety zone, no anchoring area, or area to...

  14. Contributions of the anterior cingulate cortex and amygdala to pain- and fear-conditioned place avoidance in rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yong-Jing; Ren, Wen-Hua; Zhang, Yu-Qiu; Zhao, Zhi-Qi

    2004-07-01

    The pain experience includes a sensory-discriminative and an affective-emotional component. The sensory component of pain has been extensively studied, while data about the negative affective component of pain are quite limited. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and amygdala are thought to be key neural substrates underlying emotional responses. Using formalin-induced conditioned place avoidance (F-CPA) and electric foot-shock conditioned place avoidance (S-CPA) models, the present study observed the effects of bilateral excitotoxic (quinolinic acid 200 nmol/microl) lesions of the ACC and amygdala on pain and fear induced negative emotion, as well as on sensory component of pain. In the place-conditioning paradigm, both intraplantar (i.pl.) injection of formalin and electric foot-shock produced conditioned place avoidance. Excitotoxin-induced lesion of either the ACC or amygdala significantly reduced the magnitude of F-CPA. However, the decrease in the magnitude of S-CPA occurred only in the amygdala, but not ACC lesioned animals. Neither ACC nor amygdala lesion significantly changed formalin-induced acute nociceptive behaviors. These results suggest that the amygdala is involved in both pain- and fear-related negative emotion, and the ACC might play a critical role in the expression of pain-related negative emotion.

  15. Active place recognition using image signatures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engelson, Sean P.

    1992-11-01

    For reliable navigation, a mobile robot needs to be able to recognize where it is in the world. We previously described an efficient and effective image-based representation of perceptual information for place recognition. Each place is associated with a set of stored image signatures, each a matrix of numbers derived by evaluating some measurement functions over large blocks of pixels. One difficulty, though, is the large number of inherently ambiguous signatures which bloats the database and makes recognition more difficult. Furthermore, since small differences in orientation can produce very different images, reliable recognition requires many images. These problems can be ameliorated by using active methods to select the best signatures to use for the recognition. Two criteria for good images are distinctiveness (is the scene distinguishable from others?) and stability (how much do small viewpoint motions change image recognizability?). We formulate several heuristic distinctiveness metrics which are good predictors of real image distinctiveness. These functions are then used to direct the motion of the camera to find locally distinctive views for use in recognition. This method also produces some modicum of stability, since it uses a form of local optimization. We present the results of applying this method with a camera mounted on a pan-tilt platform.

  16. Using PlacesOnline in Instructional Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Longan, Michael W.; Owusu, Francis; Roseman, Curtis C.

    2008-01-01

    PlacesOnLine.org is a Web portal that provides easy access to high quality Web sites that focus on places from around the world. It is intended for use by a wide range of people, including professional geographers, teachers and students at all levels, and the general public. This article explores the potential uses of PlacesOnLine as an…

  17. Nucleus accumbens core lesions enhance two-way active avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Lichtenberg, Nina T.; Kashtelyan, Vadim; Burton, Amanda C.; Bissonette, Gregory B.; Roesch, Matthew R.

    2014-01-01

    The majority of work examining nucleus accumbens core (NAc) has focused on functions pertaining to behaviors guided by appetitive outcomes. These studies have pointed to NAc as being critical for motivating behavior toward desirable outcomes. For example, we have recently shown that lesions of NAc impaired performance on a reward-guided decision-making task that required rats to choose between differently valued rewards. Unfortunately, much less is known about the role that NAc plays in motivating behavior when aversive outcomes are predicted. To address this issue we asked if NAc lesions impact performance on a two-way active avoidance task in which rats must learn to shuttle back and forth in a behavioral training box in order to avoid a footshock predicted by an auditory tone. Although bilateral NAc lesions initially impaired reward-guided decision-making, we found that the same lesions improved acquisition and retention of two-way active avoidance. PMID:24275320

  18. Disruption avoidance through active magnetic feedback in tokamak plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paccagnella, Roberto; Zanca, Paolo; Yanovskiy, Vadim; Finotti, Claudio; Manduchi, Gabriele; Piron, Chiara; Carraro, Lorella; Franz, Paolo; RFX Team

    2014-10-01

    Disruptions avoidance and mitigation is a fundamental need for a fusion relevant tokamak. In this paper a new experimental approach for disruption avoidance using active magnetic feedback is presented. This scheme has been implemented and tested on the RFX-mod device operating as a circular tokamak. RFX-mod has a very complete system designed for active mode control that has been proved successful for the stabilization of the Resistive Wall Modes (RWMs). In particular the current driven 2/1 mode, unstable when the edge safety factor, qa, is around (or even less than) 2, has been shown to be fully and robustly stabilized. However, at values of qa (qa > 3), the control of the tearing 2/1 mode has been proved difficult. These results suggested the idea to prevent disruptions by suddenly lowering qa to values around 2 where the tearing 2/1 is converted to a RWM. Contrary to the universally accepted idea that the tokamaks should disrupt at low qa, we demonstrate that in presence of a well designed active control system, tokamak plasmas can be driven to low qa actively stabilized states avoiding plasma disruption with practically no loss of the plasma internal energy.

  19. Activity-dependent plasticity of hippocampal place maps

    PubMed Central

    Schoenenberger, Philipp; O'Neill, Joseph; Csicsvari, Jozsef

    2016-01-01

    Hippocampal neurons encode a cognitive map of space. These maps are thought to be updated during learning and in response to changes in the environment through activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Here we examine how changes in activity influence spatial coding in rats using halorhodopsin-mediated, spatially selective optogenetic silencing. Halorhoposin stimulation leads to light-induced suppression in many place cells and interneurons; some place cells increase their firing through disinhibition, whereas some show no effect. We find that place fields of the unaffected subpopulation remain stable. On the other hand, place fields of suppressed place cells were unstable, showing remapping across sessions before and after optogenetic inhibition. Disinhibited place cells had stable maps but sustained an elevated firing rate. These findings suggest that place representation in the hippocampus is constantly governed by activity-dependent processes, and that disinhibition may provide a mechanism for rate remapping. PMID:27282121

  20. The habenulo-raphe serotonergic circuit encodes an aversive expectation value essential for adaptive active avoidance of danger.

    PubMed

    Amo, Ryunosuke; Fredes, Felipe; Kinoshita, Masae; Aoki, Ryo; Aizawa, Hidenori; Agetsuma, Masakazu; Aoki, Tazu; Shiraki, Toshiyuki; Kakinuma, Hisaya; Matsuda, Masaru; Yamazaki, Masako; Takahoko, Mikako; Tsuboi, Takashi; Higashijima, Shin-ichi; Miyasaka, Nobuhiko; Koide, Tetsuya; Yabuki, Yoichi; Yoshihara, Yoshihiro; Fukai, Tomoki; Okamoto, Hitoshi

    2014-12-01

    Anticipation of danger at first elicits panic in animals, but later it helps them to avoid the real threat adaptively. In zebrafish, as fish experience more and more danger, neurons in the ventral habenula (vHb) showed tonic increase in the activity to the presented cue and activated serotonergic neurons in the median raphe (MR). This neuronal activity could represent the expectation of a dangerous outcome and be used for comparison with a real outcome when the fish is learning how to escape from a dangerous to a safer environment. Indeed, inhibiting synaptic transmission from vHb to MR impaired adaptive avoidance learning, while panic behavior induced by classical fear conditioning remained intact. Furthermore, artificially triggering this negative outcome expectation signal by optogenetic stimulation of vHb neurons evoked place avoidance behavior. Thus, vHb-MR circuit is essential for representing the level of expected danger and behavioral programming to adaptively avoid potential hazard.

  1. Hierarchical Brain Networks Active in Approach and Avoidance Goal Pursuit

    PubMed Central

    Spielberg, Jeffrey M.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2013-01-01

    Effective approach/avoidance goal pursuit is critical for attaining long-term health and well-being. Research on the neural correlates of key goal-pursuit processes (e.g., motivation) has long been of interest, with lateralization in prefrontal cortex being a particularly fruitful target of investigation. However, this literature has often been limited by a lack of spatial specificity and has not delineated the precise aspects of approach/avoidance motivation involved. Additionally, the relationships among brain regions (i.e., network connectivity) vital to goal-pursuit remain largely unexplored. Specificity in location, process, and network relationship is vital for moving beyond gross characterizations of function and identifying the precise cortical mechanisms involved in motivation. The present paper integrates research using more spatially specific methodologies (e.g., functional magnetic resonance imaging) with the rich psychological literature on approach/avoidance to propose an integrative network model that takes advantage of the strengths of each of these literatures. PMID:23785328

  2. Hippocampus and two-way active avoidance conditioning: Contrasting effects of cytotoxic lesion and temporary inactivation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jia; Bast, Tobias; Wang, Yu-Cong; Zhang, Wei-Ning

    2015-12-01

    Hippocampal lesions tend to facilitate two-way active avoidance (2WAA) conditioning, where rats learn to cross to the opposite side of a conditioning chamber to avoid a tone-signaled footshock. This classical finding has been suggested to reflect that hippocampus-dependent place/context memory inhibits 2WAA (a crossing response to the opposite side is inhibited by the memory that this is the place where a shock was received on the previous trial). However, more recent research suggests other aspects of hippocampal function that may support 2WAA learning. More specifically, the ventral hippocampus has been shown to contribute to behavioral responses to aversive stimuli and to positively modulate the meso-accumbens dopamine system, whose activation has been implicated in 2WAA learning. Permanent hippocampal lesions may not reveal these contributions because, following complete and permanent loss of hippocampal output, other brain regions may mediate these processes or because deficits could be masked by lesion-induced extra-hippocampal changes, including an upregulation of accumbal dopamine transmission. Here, we re-examined the hippocampal role in 2WAA learning in Wistar rats, using permanent NMDA-induced neurotoxic lesions and temporary functional inhibition by muscimol or tetrodotoxin (TTX) infusion. Complete hippocampal lesions tended to facilitate 2WAA learning, whereas ventral (VH) or dorsal hippocampal (DH) lesions had no effect. In contrast, VH or DH muscimol or TTX infusions impaired 2WAA learning. Ventral infusions caused an immediate impairment, whereas after dorsal infusions rats showed intact 2WAA learning for 40-50 min, before a marked deficit emerged. These data show that functional inhibition of ventral hippocampus disrupts 2WAA learning, while the delayed impairment following dorsal infusions may reflect the time required for drug diffusion to ventral hippocampus. Overall, using temporary functional inhibition, our study shows that the ventral

  3. Modeling place field activity with hierarchical slow feature analysis

    PubMed Central

    Schönfeld, Fabian; Wiskott, Laurenz

    2015-01-01

    What are the computational laws of hippocampal activity? In this paper we argue for the slowness principle as a fundamental processing paradigm behind hippocampal place cell firing. We present six different studies from the experimental literature, performed with real-life rats, that we replicated in computer simulations. Each of the chosen studies allows rodents to develop stable place fields and then examines a distinct property of the established spatial encoding: adaptation to cue relocation and removal; directional dependent firing in the linear track and open field; and morphing and scaling the environment itself. Simulations are based on a hierarchical Slow Feature Analysis (SFA) network topped by a principal component analysis (ICA) output layer. The slowness principle is shown to account for the main findings of the presented experimental studies. The SFA network generates its responses using raw visual input only, which adds to its biological plausibility but requires experiments performed in light conditions. Future iterations of the model will thus have to incorporate additional information, such as path integration and grid cell activity, in order to be able to also replicate studies that take place during darkness. PMID:26052279

  4. The intersection of gender and place in online health activities.

    PubMed

    Goldner, Melinda; Hale, Timothy M; Cotten, Shelia R; Stern, Michael J; Drentea, Patricia

    2013-01-01

    This study examines how rurality and gender are related to online health activities. Rural women face greater health risks and yet have access to a weaker health system infrastructure, which has resulted in a health disadvantage. New health information technologies may ameliorate some of these disparities; thus, the authors examine the relevance of gender and place in going online to search for health information, buy medicines, participate in health-related support groups, communicate with physicians, or maintain a personal health record. Analyzing data from the National Cancer Institute's 2007 Health Information National Trends Survey, the authors found that the relations between rurality and gender vary, depending on the specific type of online health activity, and that gender may be a more salient factor than rurality in determining whether individuals engage in particular types of online health activities. This study contributes to the literature by examining how gender and place are related to online health activities, a combined area neglected in past research, and advancing research on gender and technology. This research highlights the importance of expanding high-speed access in rural locations, increasing technological and health literacy, and tailoring the Internet to specific populations. PMID:23886026

  5. Active core rewarming avoids bioelectrical impedance changes in postanesthetic patients

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Postoperative hypothermia is a common cause of complications in patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy. Hypothermia is known to elicit electrophysiological, biochemical, and cellular alterations thus leading to changes in the active and passive membrane properties. These changes might influence the bioelectrical impedance (BI). Our aim was to determine whether the BI depends on the core temperature. Methods We studied 60 patients (52 female and 8 male) age 40 to 80 years with an ASA I-II classification that had undergone laparoscopic cholecystectomy under balanced inhalation anesthesia. The experimental group (n = 30) received active core rewarming during the transanesthetic and postanesthesic periods. The control group (n = 30) received passive external rewarming. The BI was recorded by using a 4-contact electrode system to collect dual sets of measurements in the deltoid muscle. The body temperature, hemodynamic variables, respiratory rate, blood-gas levels, biochemical parameters, and shivering were also measured. The Mann-Whitney unpaired t-test was used to determine the differences in shivering between each group at each measurement period. Measurements of body temperature, hemodynamics variables, respiratory rate, and BI were analyzed using the two-way repeated-measures ANOVA. Results The gradual decrease in the body temperature was followed by the BI increase over time. The highest BI values (95 ± 11 Ω) appeared when the lowest values of the temperature (35.5 ± 0.5°C) were reached. The active core rewarming kept the body temperature within the physiological range (over 36.5°C). This effect was accompanied by low stable values (68 ± 3 Ω) of BI. A significant decrease over time in the hemodynamic values, respiratory rate, and shivering was seen in the active core-rewarming group when compared with the controls. The temporal course of shivering was different from those of body temperatue and BI. The control patients showed a

  6. Graduated Exposure and Positive Reinforcement to Overcome Setting and Activity Avoidance in an Adolescent with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Jonathan D.; Luiselli, James K.; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when…

  7. Antecedents of Approach-Avoidance Achievement Goal Adoption: An Analysis of Two Physical Education Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warburton, Victoria; Spray, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the relationship between implicit theories of ability and competence perceptions to changes in approach-avoidance goal adoption in two specific activities in the curriculum. Four hundred and thirty pupils, aged 11-15 years, completed measures of approach-avoidance goals, perceived competence and implicit…

  8. Individual differences in sensitivity to reward and punishment and neural activity during reward and avoidance learning.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sang Hee; Yoon, HeungSik; Kim, Hackjin; Hamann, Stephan

    2015-09-01

    In this functional neuroimaging study, we investigated neural activations during the process of learning to gain monetary rewards and to avoid monetary loss, and how these activations are modulated by individual differences in reward and punishment sensitivity. Healthy young volunteers performed a reinforcement learning task where they chose one of two fractal stimuli associated with monetary gain (reward trials) or avoidance of monetary loss (avoidance trials). Trait sensitivity to reward and punishment was assessed using the behavioral inhibition/activation scales (BIS/BAS). Functional neuroimaging results showed activation of the striatum during the anticipation and reception periods of reward trials. During avoidance trials, activation of the dorsal striatum and prefrontal regions was found. As expected, individual differences in reward sensitivity were positively associated with activation in the left and right ventral striatum during reward reception. Individual differences in sensitivity to punishment were negatively associated with activation in the left dorsal striatum during avoidance anticipation and also with activation in the right lateral orbitofrontal cortex during receiving monetary loss. These results suggest that learning to attain reward and learning to avoid loss are dependent on separable sets of neural regions whose activity is modulated by trait sensitivity to reward or punishment.

  9. Anxiety, not anger, induces inflammatory activity: An avoidance/approach model of immune system activation.

    PubMed

    Moons, Wesley G; Shields, Grant S

    2015-08-01

    Psychological stressors reliably trigger systemic inflammatory activity as indexed by levels of proinflammatory cytokines. This experiment demonstrates that one's specific emotional reaction to a stressor may be a significant determinant of whether an inflammatory reaction occurs in response to that stressor. Based on extant correlational evidence and theory, a causal approach was used to determine whether an avoidant emotion (anxiety) triggers more inflammatory activity than an approach emotion (anger). In an experimental design (N = 40), a 3-way Emotion Condition × Time × Analyte interaction revealed that a writing-based anxiety induction, but not a writing-based anger induction, increased mean levels of interferon-γ (IFN- γ) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but not interleukin-6 (IL-6) in oral mucous, F(2, 54) = 4.64, p = .01, ηp(²) = .15. Further, self-reported state anxiety predicted elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, all ΔR(²) >.06, ps <.04, but self-reported state anger did not. These results constitute the first evidence to our knowledge that specific negative emotions can differentially cause inflammatory activity and support a theoretical model explaining these effects based on the avoidance or approach motivations associated with emotions. PMID:26053247

  10. Anxiety, not anger, induces inflammatory activity: An avoidance/approach model of immune system activation.

    PubMed

    Moons, Wesley G; Shields, Grant S

    2015-08-01

    Psychological stressors reliably trigger systemic inflammatory activity as indexed by levels of proinflammatory cytokines. This experiment demonstrates that one's specific emotional reaction to a stressor may be a significant determinant of whether an inflammatory reaction occurs in response to that stressor. Based on extant correlational evidence and theory, a causal approach was used to determine whether an avoidant emotion (anxiety) triggers more inflammatory activity than an approach emotion (anger). In an experimental design (N = 40), a 3-way Emotion Condition × Time × Analyte interaction revealed that a writing-based anxiety induction, but not a writing-based anger induction, increased mean levels of interferon-γ (IFN- γ) and interleukin-1β (IL-1β), but not interleukin-6 (IL-6) in oral mucous, F(2, 54) = 4.64, p = .01, ηp(²) = .15. Further, self-reported state anxiety predicted elevated levels of proinflammatory cytokines, all ΔR(²) >.06, ps <.04, but self-reported state anger did not. These results constitute the first evidence to our knowledge that specific negative emotions can differentially cause inflammatory activity and support a theoretical model explaining these effects based on the avoidance or approach motivations associated with emotions.

  11. Graduated exposure and positive reinforcement to overcome setting and activity avoidance in an adolescent with autism.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Jonathan D; Luiselli, James K; Rue, Hanna; Whalley, Katherine

    2013-01-01

    Some students who have developmental disabilities avoid settings and activities that can improve their learning and quality of life. This two-phase study concerned an adolescent boy with autism who avoided the gross-motor exercise room, gymnasium, and music room at his school; he demonstrated distress, agitation, and problem behaviors when prompted to enter these areas. Using graduated exposure combined with positive reinforcement, he learned to enter these settings without resisting and eventually to participate in activities within the settings. This article discusses this intervention approach for reducing and eliminating avoidant behavior.

  12. Context-dependent activation of reduced autobiographical memory specificity as an avoidant coping style.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Hermans, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    According to the affect-regulation hypothesis (Williams et al., 2007), reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) or overgeneral memory (OGM) might be considered a cognitive avoidance strategy; that is, people learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. Based on this hypothesis, one would predict significant negative associations between AMS and avoidant coping. However, studies investigating this prediction have led to equivocal results. In the present study we tested a possible explanation for these contradictory findings. It was hypothesized that rAMS (in part) reflects an avoidant coping strategy, which might only become apparent under certain conditions, that is, conditions that signal the possibility of 'danger.' To test this hypothesis, we assessed AMS and behavioral avoidance but experimentally manipulated the instructions. In the neutral condition, two parallel versions of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) were presented under neutral instructions. In the threat condition, the first AMT was presented under neutral instructions, while the second AMT was presented under 'threat instructions.' Results showed no significant correlations between avoidance and OGM under neutral conditions but significant and markedly stronger correlations under threat conditions, with more avoidance being associated with fewer specific and more categoric memories. In addition, high avoiders showed a stronger reduction in AMS in the threat condition as compared with the neutral condition, while low avoiders showed no such difference between conditions. The data confirm that OGM can be considered as part of a broader avoidant coping style. However, more importantly, they show that, at least in nonclinical individuals, the activation of this coping style may depend on the context.

  13. Vulnerability factors in anxiety determined through differences in active-avoidance behavior.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kevin D; Jiao, Xilu; Pang, Kevin C H; Servatius, Richard J

    2010-08-16

    The risk for developing anxiety disorders is greater in females and those individuals exhibiting a behaviorally inhibited temperament. Growth of behavioral avoidance in people is a significant predictor of symptom severity in anxiety disorders, including post-traumatic stress disorder. Using an animal model, our lab is examining how the process of learning avoidant behavior may lead certain individuals to develop anxiety. Here we examined whether the known vulnerabilities of female sex and behaviorally inhibited temperament have individual or additive effects upon the acquisition of an active-avoidance response. A discrete trial lever-press escape-avoidance protocol was used to examine the acquisition of behavioral avoidance in male and female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and behaviorally inhibited inbred Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats. Overall, WKY rats of both sexes were indistinguishable in their behavior during the acquisition of an active-avoidance response, exhibiting quicker acquisition of reinforced responses both between and within session compared to SD rats. Further WKY rats emitted more non-reinforced responses than SD rats. Sex differences were evident in SD rats in both the acquisition of the reinforced response and the emission of non-reinforced responses, with SD females acquiring the response quicker and emitting more non-reinforced responses following lever presses that led to an escape from shock. As vulnerability factors, behavioral inhibition and female sex were each associated with more prevalent reinforced and non-reinforced avoidant behavior, but an additive effect of these 2 factors was not observed. These data illustrate the importance of genetics (both strain and sex) in the assessment and modeling of anxiety vulnerability through the acquisition of active-avoidance responses and the persistence of emitting those responses in periods of non-reinforcement.

  14. The Role of Amygdala Nuclei in the Expression of Auditory Signaled Two-Way Active Avoidance in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, June-Seek; Cain, Christopher K.; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2010-01-01

    Using a two-way signaled active avoidance (2-AA) learning procedure, where rats were trained in a shuttle box to avoid a footshock signaled by an auditory stimulus, we tested the contributions of the lateral (LA), basal (B), and central (CE) nuclei of the amygdala to the expression of instrumental active avoidance conditioned responses (CRs).…

  15. Interhemispheric transfer of extinction of the active avoidance reaction in rats.

    PubMed

    Islam, S; Bures, J; Buresová, O

    1975-07-01

    Cortical spreading depression (CSD) was employed in rats to study the lateralization of extinction of a jumping avoidance reaction. Under unilateral CSD, 181 nonreinforced trials were needed to extinguish the avoidance reaction acquired in three 100-trial sessions of intact-brain training. During a second extinction session, either with the same or with the contralateral hemisphere depressed, the mean number of trials to the extinction criterion (9/10) was 39 (n = 12) or 186 (n = 15), respectively. Five extinction trials performed with the brain intact 1 hr before extinction with contralateral CSD decreased the number of trials to extinction of 98 (n = 11). Thus, extinction of active avoidance can be lateralized and interhemispherically transferred in the same way as acquisition of this habit.

  16. Mindfulness, Physical Activity and Avoidance of Secondhand Smoke: A Study of College Students in Shanghai

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Yu; Shi, Lu

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: To better understand the documented link between mindfulness and longevity, we examine the association between mindfulness and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke (SHS), as well as the association between mindfulness and physical activity. Method: In Shanghai University of Finance and Economics (SUFE) we surveyed a convenience sample of 1516 college freshmen. We measured mindfulness, weekly physical activity, and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke, along with demographic and behavioral covariates. We used a multilevel logistic regression to test the association between mindfulness and conscious avoidance of secondhand smoke, and used a Tobit regression model to test the association between mindfulness and metabolic equivalent hours per week. In both models the home province of the student respondent was used as the cluster variable, and demographic and behavioral covariates, such as age, gender, smoking history, household registration status (urban vs. rural), the perceived smog frequency in their home towns, and the asthma diagnosis. Results: The logistic regression of consciously avoiding SHS shows that a higher level of mindfulness was associated with an increase in the odds ratio of conscious SHS avoidance (logged odds: 0.22, standard error: 0.07, p < 0.01). The Tobit regression shows that a higher level of mindfulness was associated with more metabolic equivalent hours per week (Tobit coefficient: 4.09, standard error: 1.13, p < 0.001). Discussion: This study is an innovative attempt to study the behavioral issue of secondhand smoke from the perspective of the potential victim, rather than the active smoker. The observed associational patterns here are consistent with previous findings that mindfulness is associated with healthier behaviors in obesity prevention and substance use. Research designs with interventions are needed to test the causal link between mindfulness and these healthy behaviors. PMID:26308029

  17. Telencephalic neural activation following passive avoidance learning in a terrestrial toad.

    PubMed

    Puddington, Martín M; Daneri, M Florencia; Papini, Mauricio R; Muzio, Rubén N

    2016-12-15

    The present study explores passive avoidance learning and its neural basis in toads (Rhinella arenarum). In Experiment 1, two groups of toads learned to move from a lighted compartment into a dark compartment. After responding, animals in the experimental condition were exposed to an 800-mM strongly hypertonic NaCl solution that leads to weight loss. Control animals received exposure to a 300-mM slightly hypertonic NaCl solution that leads to neither weight gain nor loss. After 10 daily acquisition trials, animals in the experimental group showed significantly longer latency to enter the dark compartment. Additionally, 10 daily trials in which both groups received the 300-mM NaCl solution after responding eliminated this group effect. Thus, experimental animals showed gradual acquisition and extinction of a passive avoidance respond. Experiment 2 replicated the gradual acquisition effect, but, after the last trial, animals were sacrificed and neural activation was assessed in five brain regions using AgNOR staining for nucleoli-an index of brain activity. Higher activation in the experimental animals, relative to controls, was observed in the amygdala and striatum. Group differences in two other regions, lateral pallium and septum, were borderline, but nonsignificant, whereas group differences in the medial pallium were nonsignificant. These preliminary results suggest that a striatal-amygdala activation could be a key component of the brain circuit controlling passive avoidance learning in amphibians. The results are discussed in relation to the results of analogous experiments with other vertebrates.

  18. Inhibition of memory consolidation after active avoidance conditioning by antisense intervention with ependymin gene expression.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, R; Brysch, W; Rother, S; Schlingensiepen, K H

    1995-10-01

    A rapid increase in ependymin mRNA expression demonstrated by semiquantitative in situ hybridization after avoidance conditioning on goldfish suggested a molecular demand for newly synthesized ependymin translation product. To inhibit de novo synthesis of ependymin molecules without interference with preexisting ones, 18 mer anti-ependymin mRNA-phosphorothioate oligodeoxynucleotides (S-ODNs) were injected into the perimeningeal brain fluid before active avoidance training. S-ODN-injected animals learned the avoidance response; however, they were amnesic in the test. When injected into overtrained animals, S-ODNs did not interfere with retrieval or performance of the avoidance response. Fish treated with randomized S-ODN sequences served as further controls. Incorporation of S-ODNs was analyzed by injection of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)-conjugated oligodeoxynucleotide probes. Microscopic observation revealed strong FITC-S-ODN fluorescence in reticular-shaped fibroblasts, the only known site of ependymin synthesis. Results demonstrate that selective inhibition of ependymin gene expression in vivo can specifically prevent memory formation. We conclude that in particular the newly synthesized ependymin molecules are involved in memory consolidation, possibly because they have not yet undergone irreversible molecular changes, which have been reported of this glycoprotein in a low-calcium microenvironment.

  19. Avoidant symptoms in PTSD predict fear circuit activation during multimodal fear extinction.

    PubMed

    Sripada, Rebecca K; Garfinkel, Sarah N; Liberzon, Israel

    2013-01-01

    Convergent evidence suggests that individuals with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) exhibit exaggerated avoidance behaviors as well as abnormalities in Pavlonian fear conditioning. However, the link between the two features of this disorder is not well understood. In order to probe the brain basis of aberrant extinction learning in PTSD, we administered a multimodal classical fear conditioning/extinction paradigm that incorporated affectively relevant information from two sensory channels (visual and tactile) while participants underwent fMRI scanning. The sample consisted of fifteen OEF/OIF veterans with PTSD. In response to conditioned cues and contextual information, greater avoidance symptomatology was associated with greater activation in amygdala, hippocampus, vmPFC, dmPFC, and insula, during both fear acquisition and fear extinction. Heightened responses to previously conditioned stimuli in individuals with more severe PTSD could indicate a deficiency in safety learning, consistent with PTSD symptomatology. The close link between avoidance symptoms and fear circuit activation suggests that this symptom cluster may be a key component of fear extinction deficits in PTSD and/or may be particularly amenable to change through extinction-based therapies.

  20. Children's Avoidance of Interrupting Others' Activities in Requesting Help: Cultural Aspects of Considerateness.

    PubMed

    Ruvalcaba, Omar; Rogoff, Barbara; López, Angélica; Correa-Chávez, Maricela; Gutiérrez, Kris

    2015-01-01

    To be able to collaborate skillfully, people need to coordinate well with others, taking into account how their actions fit with those of their partners. This is a key aspect of an approach to learning called Learning by Observing and Pitching In, hypothesized to be common in many Indigenous-heritage communities of the Americas. This chapter considers cultural values that emphasize considerateness and awareness of how one's actions impact others such as the Mexican cultural value of respeto and cultural differences in children's efforts to avoid interrupting others' activity. US Mexican-heritage children showed more evidence of avoiding interrupting the ongoing activity of an adult when they requested help, compared with European American children from families with extensive schooling experience. Most of the Mexican-heritage children's requests for help that gave evidence of avoiding interruption were made nonverbally, which may facilitate unobtrusive requests. There were no significant differences among children from two US Mexican-heritage backgrounds varying in experience with Western schooling and likely experience with Indigenous-American practices, suggesting that the Mexican cultural value of respeto and associated considerateness is widespread even among US Mexican-heritage families with extensive experience with Western schooling and life in the United States.

  1. Gustatory-mediated avoidance of bacterial lipopolysaccharides via TRPA1 activation in Drosophila

    PubMed Central

    Soldano, Alessia; Alpizar, Yeranddy A; Boonen, Brett; Franco, Luis; López-Requena, Alejandro; Liu, Guangda; Mora, Natalia; Yaksi, Emre; Voets, Thomas; Vennekens, Rudi; Hassan, Bassem A; Talavera, Karel

    2016-01-01

    Detecting pathogens and mounting immune responses upon infection is crucial for animal health. However, these responses come at a high metabolic price (McKean and Lazzaro, 2011, Kominsky et al., 2010), and avoiding pathogens before infection may be advantageous. The bacterial endotoxins lipopolysaccharides (LPS) are important immune system infection cues (Abbas et al., 2014), but it remains unknown whether animals possess sensory mechanisms to detect them prior to infection. Here we show that Drosophila melanogaster display strong aversive responses to LPS and that gustatory neurons expressing Gr66a bitter receptors mediate avoidance of LPS in feeding and egg laying assays. We found the expression of the chemosensory cation channel dTRPA1 in these cells to be necessary and sufficient for LPS avoidance. Furthermore, LPS stimulates Drosophila neurons in a TRPA1-dependent manner and activates exogenous dTRPA1 channels in human cells. Our findings demonstrate that flies detect bacterial endotoxins via a gustatory pathway through TRPA1 activation as conserved molecular mechanism. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.13133.001 PMID:27296646

  2. Telencephalic neural activation following passive avoidance learning in a terrestrial toad.

    PubMed

    Puddington, Martín M; Daneri, M Florencia; Papini, Mauricio R; Muzio, Rubén N

    2016-12-15

    The present study explores passive avoidance learning and its neural basis in toads (Rhinella arenarum). In Experiment 1, two groups of toads learned to move from a lighted compartment into a dark compartment. After responding, animals in the experimental condition were exposed to an 800-mM strongly hypertonic NaCl solution that leads to weight loss. Control animals received exposure to a 300-mM slightly hypertonic NaCl solution that leads to neither weight gain nor loss. After 10 daily acquisition trials, animals in the experimental group showed significantly longer latency to enter the dark compartment. Additionally, 10 daily trials in which both groups received the 300-mM NaCl solution after responding eliminated this group effect. Thus, experimental animals showed gradual acquisition and extinction of a passive avoidance respond. Experiment 2 replicated the gradual acquisition effect, but, after the last trial, animals were sacrificed and neural activation was assessed in five brain regions using AgNOR staining for nucleoli-an index of brain activity. Higher activation in the experimental animals, relative to controls, was observed in the amygdala and striatum. Group differences in two other regions, lateral pallium and septum, were borderline, but nonsignificant, whereas group differences in the medial pallium were nonsignificant. These preliminary results suggest that a striatal-amygdala activation could be a key component of the brain circuit controlling passive avoidance learning in amphibians. The results are discussed in relation to the results of analogous experiments with other vertebrates. PMID:27498147

  3. Socio-demographic, health-related and psychosocial correlates of fear of falling and avoidance of activity in community-living older persons who avoid activity due to fear of falling

    PubMed Central

    Kempen, Gertrudis IJM; van Haastregt, Jolanda CM; McKee, Kevin J; Delbaere, Kim; Zijlstra, GA Rixt

    2009-01-01

    Background Fear of falling and avoidance of activity are common in old age and are suggested to be (public) health problems of equal importance to falls. Earlier studies of correlates of fear of falling and avoidance of activity did hardly differentiate between severe and mild levels of fear of falling and avoidance of activity which may be relevant from clinical point of view. Furthermore, most studies focused only on socio-demographics and/or health-related variables and hardly incorporated an extensive range of potential correlates of fear of falling including psychosocial variables. This study analyzes the univariate and multivariate associations between five socio-demographic, seven health-related and six psychosocial variables and levels of fear of falling and avoidance of activity in older persons who avoid activity due to fear of falling. Methods Cross-sectional study in 540 community-living older people aged ≥ 70 years with at least mild fear of falling and avoidance of activity. Chi-squares, t-tests and logistics regression analyses were performed to study the associations between the selected correlates and both outcomes. Results Old age, female sex, limitations in activity of daily living, impaired vision, poor perceived health, chronic morbidity, falls, low general self-efficacy, low mastery, loneliness, feelings of anxiety and symptoms of depression were identified as univariate correlates of severe fear of falling and avoidance of activity. Female sex, limitations in activity of daily living and one or more falls in the previous six months correlated independently with severe fear of falling. Higher age and limitations in activity of daily living correlated independently with severe avoidance of activity. Conclusion Psychosocial variables did not contribute independently to the difference between mild and severe fear of falling and to the difference between mild and severe avoidance of activity due to fear of falling. Although knowledge about the

  4. Time Out from Sex or Romance: Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Decisions to Purposefully Avoid Sexual Activity or Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A

    2016-05-01

    Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The

  5. Time Out from Sex or Romance: Sexually Experienced Adolescents' Decisions to Purposefully Avoid Sexual Activity or Romantic Relationships.

    PubMed

    Byers, E Sandra; O'Sullivan, Lucia F; Brotto, Lori A

    2016-05-01

    Researchers have given significant attention to abstinence among adolescents, but far less is known about purposeful avoidance of sexual activity (and relationship involvement). Typically, it is assumed that, once adolescents have initiated sexual activity, they will thereafter engage in sexual activity if given the opportunity. However, it is unclear whether that is true as some research indicates that many adolescents engage in sexual activity intermittently. Sexually experienced adolescents may purposefully avoid engaging in sexual activity for a period of time and, if so, this has implications for understanding their sexual decision-making. We used a mixed methods approach to investigate sexually experienced adolescents' decisions to purposefully avoid further sexual activity and/or romantic relationships with a focus on how common these decisions are and factors influencing them. Participants were 411 (56 % female) adolescents (16-21 years old) who completed an on-line survey that assessed reasons for each type of avoidance, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs. Overall, 27 % of participants had engaged in sexual avoidance and 47 % had engaged in romantic avoidance. Significantly more female than male adolescents reported sexual and romantic avoidance. Adolescents' reasons for sexual avoidance included: lack of sexual pleasure or enjoyment, relationship reasons, negative emotions, values, fear of negative outcomes, negative physical experience, and other priorities. Reasons for romantic avoidance included: effects of previous relationship, not interested in commitment, wrong time, other priorities, negative emotions, no one was good enough, and sexual concerns. Logistical regressions were used to assess associations between age, religiosity, sexual esteem, sexual distress, experience of sexual coercion, and dysfunctional sexual beliefs and having engaged in romantic and/or sexual avoidance. The

  6. Training bottlenose dolphins to overcome avoidance of environmental enrichment objects in order to stimulate play activities.

    PubMed

    Neto, Márcia P; Silveira, Miguel; Dos Santos, Manuel E

    2016-05-01

    Enrichment programs may contribute to the quality of life and stress reduction in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) kept in zoos and aquaria. The results of these programs are generally positive in terms of welfare, but the magnitude of their effects may vary greatly between individuals of the same species, especially when the enrichment plans are based on the introduction of manipulative objects. Some animals will interact spontaneously with novel objects, even without food rewards and in the absence of the trainers, while others show no interest or even aversion toward the objects. To determine if formal training can improve these conditions, we measured the effects of an operant conditioning program in the manipulation of objects by dolphins that initially avoided them. This program took place between April and October 2013 at Zoomarine Portugal. Subjects were two female and two male bottlenose dolphins (adults with ages from 17 to 35 years) that after a preliminary analysis showed avoidance or low interest in the manipulation of various toys. The level of interaction with introduced enrichment objects was observed before and after formal training to explore the toys (sixteen 20-min observation sessions per animal "before" and "after training"). In all subjects, an index of interest in object manipulation, in the absence of trainers, increased significantly after the application of the training techniques. The results show that an initial reinforcement program focused on the manipulation of toys may overcome resistance, improving the effects of environmental enrichment plans, and it is a potentially useful strategy to increase the welfare of some captive animals. Zoo Biol. 35:210-215, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Training bottlenose dolphins to overcome avoidance of environmental enrichment objects in order to stimulate play activities.

    PubMed

    Neto, Márcia P; Silveira, Miguel; Dos Santos, Manuel E

    2016-05-01

    Enrichment programs may contribute to the quality of life and stress reduction in bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) kept in zoos and aquaria. The results of these programs are generally positive in terms of welfare, but the magnitude of their effects may vary greatly between individuals of the same species, especially when the enrichment plans are based on the introduction of manipulative objects. Some animals will interact spontaneously with novel objects, even without food rewards and in the absence of the trainers, while others show no interest or even aversion toward the objects. To determine if formal training can improve these conditions, we measured the effects of an operant conditioning program in the manipulation of objects by dolphins that initially avoided them. This program took place between April and October 2013 at Zoomarine Portugal. Subjects were two female and two male bottlenose dolphins (adults with ages from 17 to 35 years) that after a preliminary analysis showed avoidance or low interest in the manipulation of various toys. The level of interaction with introduced enrichment objects was observed before and after formal training to explore the toys (sixteen 20-min observation sessions per animal "before" and "after training"). In all subjects, an index of interest in object manipulation, in the absence of trainers, increased significantly after the application of the training techniques. The results show that an initial reinforcement program focused on the manipulation of toys may overcome resistance, improving the effects of environmental enrichment plans, and it is a potentially useful strategy to increase the welfare of some captive animals. Zoo Biol. 35:210-215, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26969822

  8. [The dependence of learning an active avoidance reaction on overcoming a problem-solving situation in a shuttle box].

    PubMed

    Savonenko, A V; Zieliński, K

    1998-01-01

    The two-way avoidance procedure dramatically differs from the one-way procedure in rate of learning. The present study was conducted to prove that retardation of the two-way avoidance acquisition resulted from development of the behavioral conflict tendency not to reenter the previous shock compartment. Cluster analysis of avoidance response indices divided rats into three distinctive classes. The occurrence of avoidance, escape, and freezing responses in the first session was analyzed in these three groups. Freezing during the shock action reflected the conflict tendency and showed a negative correlation with avoidance response indices. Only the rats which overcame the conflict and performed at least one avoidance reaction toward the end of the first session significantly improved their avoidance score in the following session. Discriminant analysis of indices of the three reaction types in the first session revealed sufficiency of these indices for prediction of the success in avoidance learning in subsequent sessions. Our results proved the hypothesis formulated previously that the conflict situation inherent to the two-way shuttle box procedure retarded the active avoidance acquisition. A number of trials have to be reserved in the first session for solving the conflict situation (direct effect on the rate of learning). The conflict intensity which directly effects the avoidance performance in the first session, presumably, influences learning in subsequent sessions (secondary effect on learning).

  9. 77 FR 2350 - Agency Information Collection (Request for Change of Program or Place of Training): Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ....Regulations.gov or to VA's OMB Desk Officer, OMB Human Resources and Housing Branch, New Executive Office... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Request for Change of Program or Place of Training): Activity Under... INFORMATION: Title: Request for Change of Program or Place of Training, VA Form 22-1995. OMB Control...

  10. Remote Maneuver of Space Debris Using Photon Pressure for Active Collision Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, C.

    2014-09-01

    The Space Environment Research Corporation (SERC) is a consortium of companies and research institutions that have joined together to pursue research and development of technologies and capabilities that will help to preserve the orbital space environment. The consortium includes, Electro Optics Systems (Australia), Lockheed Martin Australia, Optus Satellite Systems (Australia), The Australian national University, RMIT University, National Institute of Information and Communications Technology (NICT, Japan) as well as affiliates from NASA Ames and ESA. SERC is also the recipient of and Australian Government Cooperative Research Centre grant. SERC will pursue a wide ranging research program including technologies to improve tracking capability and capacity, orbit determination and propagation algorithms, conjunction analysis and collision avoidance. All of these technologies will contribute to the flagship program to demonstrate active collision avoidance using photon pressure to provide remote maneuver of space debris. This project joins of the proposed NASA Lightforce concept with infrastructure and capabilities provided by SERC. This paper will describe the proposed research and development program to provide an on-orbit demonstration within the next five years for remote maneuver of space debris.

  11. Patterns of Theta Activity in Limbic Anxiety Circuit Preceding Exploratory Behavior in Approach-Avoidance Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Jacinto, Luis R.; Cerqueira, João J.; Sousa, Nuno

    2016-01-01

    Theta oscillations within the hippocampus-amygdala-medial prefrontal cortex (HPC-AMY-mPFC) circuit have been consistently implicated in the regulation of anxiety behaviors, including risk-assessment. To study if theta activity during risk-assessment was correlated with exploratory behavior in an approach/avoidance paradigm we recorded simultaneous local field potentials from this circuit in rats exploring the elevated-plus maze (EPM). Opposing patterns of power variations in the ventral hippocampus (vHPC), basolateral amygdala (BLA), and prelimbic (PrL) mPFC, but not in the dorsal hippocampus (dHPC), during exploratory risk-assessment of the open arms preceded further exploration of the open arms or retreat back to the safer closed arms. The same patterns of theta power variations in the HPC-BLA-mPFC(PrL) circuit were also displayed by animals submitted to chronic unpredictable stress protocol known to induce an anxious state. Diverging patterns of vHPC-mPFC(PrL) theta coherence were also significantly correlated with forthcoming approach or avoidance behavior in the conflict situation in both controls and stressed animals; interestingly, vHPC-BLA, and BLA-mPFC(PrL) theta coherence correlated with future behavior only in stressed animals, underlying the pivotal role of the amygdala on the stress response. PMID:27713693

  12. Src kinase activity is required for avoidance memory formation and recall.

    PubMed

    Bevilaqua, L R M; Rossato, J I; Medina, J H; Izquierdo, I; Cammarota, M

    2003-12-01

    Using 4-amino-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-(t-butyl)pyrazolo[3,4-D]pyrimidine (PP2), a specific inhibitor of the Src family of tyrosine kinases, here we show a direct involvement of these enzymes in memory formation and recall. When infused into the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus, immediately or 30 min after training rats in a one-trial inhibitory avoidance task, PP2 but not its inactive analog 4-amino-7-phenylpyrazol[3,4-D]pyrimidine (PP3), blocked short- (STM) and long-term memory (LTM) formation, as tested 2 or 24 h post-training, respectively. PP2 had no effect on STM when given at 60 min post-training or on LTM when administered at 60, 120 or 180 min after the training session, but blocked memory recall when infused into CA1 15 min before a LTM expression test. Hence, activity of the Src family of tyrosine kinases is required in the CA1 region of the rat dorsal hippocampus for the normal formation and retrieval of one-trial inhibitory avoidance memory.

  13. Behavioral effects of cocoa and its main active compound theobromine: evaluation by ambulatory activity and discrete avoidance in mice.

    PubMed

    Kuribara, H; Tadokoro, S

    1992-04-01

    Effects of cocoa and its main CNS active constituent methylxanthine theobromine as well as caffeine were evaluated by ambulatory activity, and discrete lever-press and shuttle avoidance in mice. Cocoa (1 g/kg p.o.) and theobromine (10 mg/kg p.o.) significantly increased ambulatory activity. However, the other doses of cocoa and theobromine had no effect on the ambulatory activity. Caffeine increased ambulatory activity with the maximum action at 30 mg/kg p.o. Furthermore, cocoa (0.1, 0.3 and 1 g/kg), theobromine (3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) and caffeine (3, 10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) enhanced the ambulation-increasing effect of methamphetamine (2 mg/kg s.c.). The ambulation-increasing effect of cocaine (20 mg/kg s.c.) was also enhanced by cocoa (1 g/kg), theobromine (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg) and caffeine (10, 30 and 100 mg/kg). On the other hand, comparatively higher doses of theobromine and caffeine disrupted the well established avoidance response. Thus, the avoidance rate was significantly decreased by theobromine (100 mg/kg and more) and caffeine (30 mg/kg and more) under the lever-press situation, and by theobromine (100 mg/kg and more) and caffeine (100 mg/kg) under the shuttle situation. These dose effect relationships revealed that cocoa contains about 1% theobromine. The present results indicate that we may receive the CNS action of theobromine through consumption of theobromine-containing foodstuffs or beverages in our every day life. PMID:1586288

  14. Active faults crossing trunk pipeline routes: some important steps to avoid the disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Besstrashnov, Vladimir; Strom, Alexander

    2010-05-01

    Trunk pipelines that pass through tectonically active areas connecting oil and gas reservoirs with terminals and refineries cross active faults that can produce large earthquakes. Besides strong motion affecting vast areas, these earthquakes are often associated with surface faulting that provides additional hazard to pipelines. To avoid significant economic losses and environmental pollution, pipelines should be designed to sustain both effects (shaking and direct rupturing) without pipe damage and spill. Special studies aimed to provide necessary input data for the designers should be performed in the course of engineering survey. However, our experience on conducting and review of such studies for several oil and gas trunk pipelines in Russia show urgent need of more strict definition of basic conceptions and approaches used for identification and localization of these potentially hazardous tectonic features. Identification of active faults (fault zones) considered as causative faults - sources of strong motion caused by seismic waves that affect dozens kilometers of pipeline route can be done by use of both direct and indirect evidence of Late Pleistocene - Holocene activity of faults and fault zones. Since strong motion parameters can be considered as constant within the near-field zone, which width in case of large earthquake is up to dozens kilometers, accuracy of active fault location is not so critical and ±1-2 km precision provided by use of indirect evidence is acceptable. In contrast, if one have to identify and characterize zones of potential surface rupturing that require special design of the endangered pipeline section, only direct evidence of such activity can provide reliable input data for crossing design with relevant accuracy of fault location, amount and direction of displacement. Only traces of surface faults displacing Late Pleistocene - Holocene sediments and/or geomorphic features are considered as direct evidence of fault activity. Just

  15. The effect of delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol and LSD on the acquisition of an active avoidance response in the rat.

    PubMed

    Waser, P G; Martin, A; Heer-Carcano, L

    1976-04-15

    The course of active avoidance learning of rats in a symmetrical Y-maze under the influence of 1, 3, and 9 mg/kg of delta 9-THC i.p., and 5, 20, and mug/kg of LSD was investigated. Delta-THC in a dosage of 1 mg/kg had no effect on avoidance learning. Three to a lesser extent 9 mg/kg produced more rapid learning with a significantly better performance. Learning under delta 9-THC proved to be state-dependent. The withdrawal of delta 9-THC caused a decrease in the avoidance rate, which was dependent on the dosage. Upon renewal of the THC doses, the animals reattained their earlier preformance. In the course of the experiment there was rapid tolerance development, especially of the sedative properties of THC. LSD retarded the rate of acquisition of the active avoidance response. Whereas the control animals displayed over 80% successful active avoidance from the 14th session onwards, this was achieved by the LSD groups only after the 20th session. However, in contrast to the control group the LSD animals were able to increase their avoidance rate to over 90%, and this was maintained to the end of the experiment (a total of 24 sessions with LSD). The sudden withdrawal of LSD produced a fall in avoidance rate, which was dependent on the pervious training dosage; as with delta 9-THC state-dependent learning can also be assumed for LSD.

  16. The role of rat posterior parietal cortex in coordinating spatial representations during place avoidance in dissociated reference frames on a continuously rotating arena (Carousel).

    PubMed

    Svoboda, Jan; Telensky, Petr; Blahna, Karel; Vodicka, Martin; Stuchlik, Ales

    2015-10-01

    On the Carousel maze, rats are trained to avoid a sector of a circular rotating arena, punishable by a mild electric foot-shock. In the room frame (RF) variant, the punishable sector remains stable relative to the room, while in the arena frame (AF) version, the sector rotates with the arena. The rats therefore need to disregard local olfactory, tactile and self-motion cues in RF condition and distal extra-maze landmarks in the AF task. In both primates and rodents, the coordination of various spatial reference frames is thought to depend on the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). We have previously shown that PPC-lesioned rats can solve both variants of the Carousel avoidance task. Here we aimed to determine the effects of bilateral thermocoagulation lesion of the PPC in Long-Evans rats on the ability to transition between multiple spatial strategies. The rats were first trained in five sessions in one condition and then another five sessions in the other. The following training schemes were used: RF to AF, RF to RF reversal (sector on the opposite side), and AF to RF. We found a PPC lesion-associated impairment in the transition from the AF to RF task, but not vice versa. Furthermore, PPC lesion impaired performance in RF reversal. In accordance to the literature, we also found an impairment in navigation guided by intra-maze visuospatial cues, but not by extra-maze cues in the water maze. Therefore, the PPC lesion-induced impairment is neither specific to distant cues nor to allocentric processing. Our results thus indicate a role of the PPC in the flexibility in spatial behaviors guided by visual orientation cues. PMID:25986405

  17. Heterogeneity in signaled active avoidance learning: substantive and methodological relevance of diversity in instrumental defensive responses to threat cues

    PubMed Central

    Galatzer-Levy, Isaac R.; Moscarello, Justin; Blessing, Esther M.; Klein, JoAnna; Cain, Christopher K.; LeDoux, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Individuals exposed to traumatic stressors follow divergent patterns including resilience and chronic stress. However, researchers utilizing animal models that examine learned or instrumental threat responses thought to have translational relevance for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) and resilience typically use central tendency statistics that assume population homogeneity. This approach potentially overlooks fundamental differences that can explain human diversity in response to traumatic stressors. The current study tests this assumption by identifying and replicating common heterogeneous patterns of response to signaled active avoidance (AA) training. In this paradigm, rats are trained to prevent an aversive outcome (shock) by performing a learned instrumental behavior (shuttling between chambers) during the presentation of a conditioned threat cue (tone). We test the hypothesis that heterogeneous trajectories of threat avoidance provide more accurate model fit compared to a single mean trajectory in two separate studies. Study 1 conducted 3 days of signaled AA training (n = 81 animals) and study 2 conducted 5 days of training (n = 186 animals). We found that four trajectories in both samples provided the strongest model fit. Identified populations included animals that acquired and retained avoidance behavior on the first day (Rapid Avoiders: 22 and 25%); those who never successfully acquired avoidance (Non-Avoiders; 20 and 16%); a modal class who acquired avoidance over 3 days (Modal Avoiders; 37 and 50%); and a population who demonstrated a slow pattern of avoidance, failed to fully acquire avoidance in study 1 and did acquire avoidance on days 4 and 5 in study 2 (Slow Avoiders; 22.0 and 9%). With the exception of the Slow Avoiders in Study 1, populations that acquired demonstrated rapid step-like increases leading to asymptotic levels of avoidance. These findings indicate that avoidance responses are heterogeneous in a way that may be informative for

  18. Testing conditions in shock-based contextual fear conditioning influence both the behavioral responses and the activation of circuits potentially involved in contextual avoidance.

    PubMed

    Viellard, Juliette; Baldo, Marcus Vinicius C; Canteras, Newton Sabino

    2016-12-15

    Previous studies from our group have shown that risk assessment behaviors are the primary contextual fear responses to predatory and social threats, whereas freezing is the main contextual fear response to physically harmful events. To test contextual fear responses to a predator or aggressive conspecific threat, we developed a model that involves placing the animal in an apparatus where it can avoid the threat-associated environment. Conversely, in studies that use shock-based fear conditioning, the animals are usually confined inside the conditioning chamber during the contextual fear test. In the present study, we tested shock-based contextual fear responses using two different behavioral testing conditions: confining the animal in the conditioning chamber or placing the animal in an apparatus with free access to the conditioning compartment. Our results showed that during the contextual fear test, the animals confined to the shock chamber exhibited significantly more freezing. In contrast, the animals that could avoid the conditioning compartment displayed almost no freezing and exhibited risk assessment responses (i.e., crouch-sniff and stretch postures) and burying behavior. In addition, the animals that were able to avoid the shock chamber had increased Fos expression in the juxtadorsomedial lateral hypothalamic area, the dorsomedial part of the dorsal premammillary nucleus and the lateral and dorsomedial parts of the periaqueductal gray, which are elements of a septo/hippocampal-hypothalamic-brainstem circuit that is putatively involved in mediating contextual avoidance. Overall, the present findings show that testing conditions significantly influence both behavioral responses and the activation of circuits involved in contextual avoidance. PMID:27544875

  19. The Dense Core Vesicle Protein IA-2, but not IA-2β, is Required for Active Avoidance Learning

    PubMed Central

    Carmona, Gilberto Nepthali; Nishimura, Takuya; Schindler, Charles Weber; Panlilio, Leigh Vincent; Notkins, Abner Louis

    2014-01-01

    The islet-antigens IA-2 and IA-2β are major autoantigens in type-1 diabetes and transmembrane proteins in dense core vesicles (DCV). Recently we showed that deletion of both IA-2 and IA-2β alters the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters and impairs behavior and learning. The present study was designed to evaluate the contribution to learning of each of these genes by using single knockout (SKO) and double knockout (DKO) mice in an active avoidance test. After 5 days of training, wild type (WT) mice showed 60–70% active avoidance responses, whereas the DKO mice showed only 10–15% active avoidance responses. The degree of active avoidance responses in the IA-2 SKO mice was similar to that of the DKO mice, but in contrast, the IA-2β SKO mice behaved like WT mice showing 60–70% active avoidance responses. Molecular studies revealed a marked decrease in the phosphorylation of the cAMP Response Element-Binding Protein (CREB) and Ca2+/Calmodulin-Dependent Protein Kinase II (CAMKII) in the striatum and hippocampus of the IA-2 SKO and DKO mice, but not in the IA-2β SKO mice. To evaluate the role of CREB and CAMKII in the SKO and DKO mice, GBR-12909, which selectively blocks the dopamine uptake transporter and increases CREB and CAMKII phosphorylation, was administered. GBR-12909 restored the phosphorylation of CREB and CAMKII and increased active avoidance learning in the DKO and IA-2 SKO to near the normal levels found in the WT and IA-2β SKO mice. We conclude that in the absence of the DCV protein IA-2, active avoidance learning is impaired. PMID:24662847

  20. The dense core vesicle protein IA-2, but not IA-2β, is required for active avoidance learning.

    PubMed

    Carmona, G N; Nishimura, T; Schindler, C W; Panlilio, L V; Notkins, A L

    2014-06-01

    The islet-antigens IA-2 and IA-2β are major autoantigens in type-1 diabetes and transmembrane proteins in dense core vesicles (DCV). Recently we showed that deletion of both IA-2 and IA-2β alters the secretion of hormones and neurotransmitters and impairs behavior and learning. The present study was designed to evaluate the contribution to learning of each of these genes by using single knockout (SKO) and double knockout (DKO) mice in an active avoidance test. After 5 days of training, wild-type (WT) mice showed 60-70% active avoidance responses, whereas the DKO mice showed only 10-15% active avoidance responses. The degree of active avoidance responses in the IA-2 SKO mice was similar to that of the DKO mice, but in contrast, the IA-2β SKO mice behaved like WT mice showing 60-70% active avoidance responses. Molecular studies revealed a marked decrease in the phosphorylation of the cAMP response element-binding protein (CREB) and Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CAMKII) in the striatum and hippocampus of the IA-2 SKO and DKO mice, but not in the IA-2β SKO mice. To evaluate the role of CREB and CAMKII in the SKO and DKO mice, GBR-12909, which selectively blocks the dopamine uptake transporter and increases CREB and CAMKII phosphorylation, was administered. GBR-12909 restored the phosphorylation of CREB and CAMKII and increased active avoidance learning in the DKO and IA-2 SKO to near the normal levels found in the WT and IA-2β SKO mice. We conclude that in the absence of the DCV protein IA-2, active avoidance learning is impaired.

  1. Delayed Administration and Contraindicated Drugs Place Hospitalized Parkinson's Disease Patients at Risk; Doxorubicin Liposomal Mix-up; Avoid Mix-ups Between Hydroxyprogesterone and Medroxyprogesterone.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Michael R; Smetzer, Judy L

    2015-07-01

    These medication errors have occurred in health care facilities at least once. They will happen again-perhaps where you work. Through education and alertness of personnel and procedural safeguards, they can be avoided. You should consider publishing accounts of errors in your newsletters and/or presenting them at your inservice training programs. Your assistance is required to continue this feature. The reports described here were received through the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Medication Errors Reporting Program. Any reports published by ISMP will be anonymous. Comments are also invited; the writers' names will be published if desired. ISMP may be contacted at the address shown below. Errors, close calls, or hazardous conditions may be reported directly to ISMP through the ISMP Web site (www.ismp.org), by calling 800-FAIL-SAFE, or via e-mail at ismpinfo@ismp.org. ISMP guarantees the confidentiality and security of the information received and respects reporters' wishes as to the level of detail included in publications. PMID:26448665

  2. Delayed Administration and Contraindicated Drugs Place Hospitalized Parkinson’s Disease Patients at Risk; Doxorubicin Liposomal Mix-up; Avoid Mix-ups Between Hydroxyprogesterone and Medroxyprogesterone

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Michael R.; Smetzer, Judy L.

    2015-01-01

    These medication errors have occurred in health care facilities at least once. They will happen again—perhaps where you work. Through education and alertness of personnel and procedural safeguards, they can be avoided. You should consider publishing accounts of errors in your newsletters and/or presenting them at your inservice training programs. Your assistance is required to continue this feature. The reports described here were received through the Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) Medication Errors Reporting Program. Any reports published by ISMP will be anonymous. Comments are also invited; the writers’ names will be published if desired. ISMP may be contacted at the address shown below. Errors, close calls, or hazardous conditions may be reported directly to ISMP through the ISMP Web site (www.ismp.org), by calling 800-FAIL-SAFE, or via e-mail at ismpinfo@ismp.org. ISMP guarantees the confidentiality and security of the information received and respects reporters’ wishes as to the level of detail included in publications. PMID:26448665

  3. Studying Activities That Take Place in Speech Interactions: A Theoretical and Methodological Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saint-Dizier de Almeida, Valérie; Colletta, Jean-Marc; Auriac-Slusarczyk, Emmanuelle; Specogna, Antonietta; Simon, Jean-Pascal; Fiema, Gabriela; Luxembourger, Christophe

    2016-01-01

    The paper proposes a theoretical and methodological framework based on a pluralistic, concerted approach to the study of activities that take place in and through speech interactions. The framework has a general scope, applying to any collective activity taking form through language interactions. It contributes to a fuller understanding of the…

  4. Place-Based Science Teaching and Learning: 40 Activities for K-8 Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buxton, Cory A.; Provenzo, Eugene F., Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Grounded in theory and best-practices research, this practical text provides elementary and middle school teachers with 40 place-based activities that will help them to make science learning relevant to their students. This text provides teachers with both a rationale and a set of strategies and activities for teaching science in a local context…

  5. Active avoidance from a crude oil soluble fraction by an Andean paramo copepod.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Sousa, José P; Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Encalada, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Rui

    2014-09-01

    Several oil spills due to ruptures in the pipeline oil systems have occurred at the Andean paramo. A sample of this crude oil was mixed with water from a nearby Andean lagoon and the toxicity of the soluble fraction was assessed through lethal and avoidance assays with a locally occurring copepod (Boeckella occidentalis intermedia). The integration of mortality and avoidance aimed at predicting the immediate decline of copepod populations facing an oil leakage. The 24-h median lethal PAH concentration was 42.7 (26.4-91.6) µg L(-1). In the 12-h avoidance assay, 30% avoidance was recorded at the highest PAH concentration (19.4 µg L(-1)). The mortality at this PAH concentration would be of 25% and, thus, the population immediate decline would be of 55%. The inclusion of non-forced exposure testing with the quantification of the avoidance response in environmental risk assessments is, therefore, supported due to underestimation of the lethal assays.

  6. Avoidance and activation as keys to depression: adaptation of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale in a Spanish sample.

    PubMed

    Barraca, Jorge; Pérez-Alvarez, Marino; Lozano Bleda, José Héctor

    2011-11-01

    In this paper we present the adaptation of the Behavioral Activation for Depression Scale (BADS), developed by Kanter, Mulick, Busch, Berlin, and Martell (2007), in a Spanish sample. The psychometric properties were tested in a sample of 263 participants (124 clinical and 139 non-clinical). The results show that, just as in the original English version, the Spanish BADS is a valid and internally consistent scale. Construct validity was examined by correlation with the BDI-II, AAQ, ATQ, MCQ-30, STAI and EROS. Factor analysis justified the four-dimensions of the original instrument (Activation, Avoidance/Rumination, Work/School Impairment and Social Impairment), although with some differences in the factor loadings of the items. Further considerations about the usefulness of the BADS in the clinical treatment of depressed patients are also suggested.

  7. A computerized system for the simultaneous monitoring of place conditioning and locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Brockwell, N T; Ferguson, D S; Beninger, R J

    1996-02-01

    Place conditioning is one of the most popular behavioral methods for assessing the rewarding properties of various substances. Many substances that are rewarding also influence motor activity. This report describes a computerized system designed to simultaneously monitor both place conditioning and locomotor activity. The system consists of 4 independent conditioning boxes, each equipped with 6 pairs of photosensors connected to an Experiment Controller, an electronic board containing a microprocessor, a programable timer, and 16 K of RAM used to store both instructions and data. The effects of the stimulant (+)-amphetamine were assessed using this system and found to produce a place preference comparable to that obtained from a previously utilized mechanical timer system. The computerized system also demonstrated that amphetamine increased unconditioned activity. There are a number of advantages and broader applications of the new methodology.

  8. Memory retrieval of inhibitory avoidance requires histamine H1 receptor activation in the hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Roberta; Furini, Cristiane Regina Guerino; Passani, Maria Beatrice; Provensi, Gustavo; Baldi, Elisabetta; Bucherelli, Corrado; Izquierdo, Ivan; de Carvalho Myskiw, Jociane; Blandina, Patrizio

    2016-05-10

    Retrieval represents a dynamic process that may require neuromodulatory signaling. Here, we report that the integrity of the brain histaminergic system is necessary for retrieval of inhibitory avoidance (IA) memory, because rats depleted of histamine through lateral ventricle injections of α-fluoromethylhistidine (a-FMHis), a suicide inhibitor of histidine decarboxylase, displayed impaired IA memory when tested 2 d after training. a-FMHis was administered 24 h after training, when IA memory trace was already formed. Infusion of histamine in hippocampal CA1 of brain histamine-depleted rats (hence, amnesic) 10 min before the retention test restored IA memory but was ineffective when given in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) or the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (vmPFC). Intra-CA1 injections of selective H1 and H2 receptor agonists showed that histamine exerted its effect by activating the H1 receptor. Noteworthy, the H1 receptor antagonist pyrilamine disrupted IA memory retrieval in rats, thus strongly supporting an active involvement of endogenous histamine; 90 min after the retention test, c-Fos-positive neurons were significantly fewer in the CA1s of a-FMHis-treated rats that displayed amnesia compared with in the control group. We also found reduced levels of phosphorylated cAMP-responsive element binding protein (pCREB) in the CA1s of a-FMHis-treated animals compared with in controls. Increases in pCREB levels are associated with retrieval of associated memories. Targeting the histaminergic system may modify the retrieval of emotional memory; hence, histaminergic ligands might reduce dysfunctional aversive memories and improve the efficacy of exposure psychotherapies.

  9. Detecting short-term responses to weekend recreation activity: desert bighorn sheep avoidance of hiking trails

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Longshore, Kathleen; Lowrey, Chris; Thompson, Daniel B.

    2013-01-01

    To study potential effects of recreation activity on habitat use of desert bighorn sheep (Ovis canadensis nelsoni), we placed Global Positioning System collars on 10 female bighorn sheep within the Wonderland of Rocks–Queen Mountain region of Joshua Tree National Park (JOTR), California, USA, from 2002 to 2004. Recreation use was highest from March to April and during weekends throughout the year. Daily use of recreation trails was highest during midday. By comparing habitat use (slope, ruggedness, distance to water, and distance to recreation trails) of female bighorn sheep on weekdays versus weekends, we were able to detect short-term shifts in behavior in response to recreation. In a logistic regression of bighorn sheep locations versus random locations for March and April, female locations at midday (1200 hours) were significantly more distant from recreation trails on weekends compared with weekdays. Our results indicate that within this region of JOTR, moderate to high levels of human recreation activity may temporarily exclude bighorn females from their preferred habitat. However, the relative proximity of females to recreation trails during the weekdays before and after such habitat shifts indicates that these anthropogenic impacts were short-lived. Our results have implications for management of wildlife on public lands where the co-existence of wildlife and recreational use is a major goal.

  10. More than Activities: Using a "Sense of Place" to Enrich Student Experience in Adventure Sport

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leather, Mark; Nicholls, Fiona

    2016-01-01

    There has been increasing interest in recent years in the significance of a sense of place in the literature of outdoor adventure education. In the UK relationships between outdoor education and the environment still appear largely focused on the science of the natural environment and the activity in question. In this paper, we present empirical…

  11. Place as Text: Approaches to Active Learning. 2nd Edition. National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braid, Bernice, Ed.; Long, Ada, Ed.

    2010-01-01

    The decade since publication of "Place as Text: Approaches to Active Learning" has seen an explosion of interest and productivity in the field of experiential education. This monograph presents a story of an experiment and a blueprint of sorts for anyone interested in enriching an existing program or willing to experiment with pedagogy…

  12. Active avoidance from a crude oil soluble fraction by an Andean paramo copepod.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Cristiano V M; Moreira-Santos, Matilde; Sousa, José P; Ochoa-Herrera, Valeria; Encalada, Andrea C; Ribeiro, Rui

    2014-09-01

    Several oil spills due to ruptures in the pipeline oil systems have occurred at the Andean paramo. A sample of this crude oil was mixed with water from a nearby Andean lagoon and the toxicity of the soluble fraction was assessed through lethal and avoidance assays with a locally occurring copepod (Boeckella occidentalis intermedia). The integration of mortality and avoidance aimed at predicting the immediate decline of copepod populations facing an oil leakage. The 24-h median lethal PAH concentration was 42.7 (26.4-91.6) µg L(-1). In the 12-h avoidance assay, 30% avoidance was recorded at the highest PAH concentration (19.4 µg L(-1)). The mortality at this PAH concentration would be of 25% and, thus, the population immediate decline would be of 55%. The inclusion of non-forced exposure testing with the quantification of the avoidance response in environmental risk assessments is, therefore, supported due to underestimation of the lethal assays. PMID:24898412

  13. Improving Active and Passive Avoidance Memories Deficits Due to Permanent Cerebral Ischemia by Pomegranate Seed Extract in Female Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sarkaki, Alireza; Rezaiei, Moslem; Gharib naseri, MohammadKazem; Rafieirad, Maryam

    2013-01-01

    Background: This study aimed to evaluate the effect of two weeks oral administration of pomegranate seed extract (PGSE) on active and passive avoidance memories after permanent bilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (2CCAO) to induce permanent cerebral ischemia in adult female rats. Methods: Seventy adult female Wistar rats (250 ± 20 g) were used. Animals were divided randomly into seven groups with 10 in each: 1) Sham-operated; 2) Ischemic; 3–6) Ischemic received PGSE (100, 200, 400, and 800 mg/2mL/kg, orally) for 14 days; 7) Ischemic received vehicle. In order to create 2CCAO, carotid arteries were ligatured and then cut bilaterally. Active and passive avoidance task were measured using criterion condition responses (CCRs) in Y-maze and step-through latency (STL) in two-way shuttle box in all female rats. Results: Both active and passive avoidance memories were significantly impaired in rats after cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (CHI) (P < 0.001). PGSE treatment significantly improved passive and active memory impairments with 2CCAO (P < 0.05, P < 0.01, and P < 0.001). No toxicity was observed even with high-dose PGSE consumption (800 mg/kg, for 14 days). Conclusion: PGSE exhibits therapeutic potential for avoidance memories, which is most likely related at least in part to its antioxidative and free radical scavenging actions. PMID:23983574

  14. Bilateral injection of fasciculin into the amygdala of rats: effects on two avoidance tasks, acetylcholinesterase activity, and cholinergic muscarinic receptors.

    PubMed

    Quillfeldt, J; Raskovsky, S; Dalmaz, C; Dias, M; Huang, C; Netto, C A; Schneider, F; Izquierdo, I; Medina, J H; Silveira, R

    1990-11-01

    These experiments examined the effects of the bilateral injection of fasciculin-2 (FAS), a natural acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory peptide, into the amygdala of rats on acquisition and retention of two avoidance behaviors. Intraamygdala injection of FAS (150 ng/amygdala) produced a pronounced and long-lasting inhibition of AChE activity: 85% and 74% on day 2 and day 5, respectively. After 48 hr, FAS-treated animals showed no changes in training or test session performance in a step-down inhibitory avoidance task (training-test interval was 24 hr). In a 2-way shuttle avoidance task, intraamygdala FAS slightly reduced retention test performance without modifying training session scores. Two and five days after FAS injections into the amygdala, the density of muscarinic receptor decreased about 50% as measured by the specific bindings of 3H-quinuclidinyl benzilate and 3H-oxotremorine. No alterations were observed in the apparent dissociation constants. On the other hand, the central-type benzodiazepine receptor population of the amygdala remained unchanged, suggesting that FAS microinjection did not produce damage to neuronal components of these nuclei. In conclusion, the results presented have indicated that a clear-cut and long-lasting inhibition of AChE activity in the amygdala is not accompanied by a facilitation of learning and memory of two different avoidance tasks. Compensation of the increased cholinergic activity by a down-regulation of muscarinic receptors could account for these findings.

  15. Contribution of wood stoves and fire places to mutagenic activity of airborne particulate matter inside homes.

    PubMed

    van Houdt, J J; Daenen, C M; Boleij, J S; Alink, G M

    1986-01-01

    Wood combustion produces compounds that are mutagenic in the Salmonella/microsome assay. As combustion products can be emitted in the home and the use of wood as a residential energy source is growing, an impact on human health might be of concern. In this study experiments were carried out to determine the contribution of wood combustion in stoves and fire places to indoor mutagenic activity under normal living conditions. Airborne particles from living rooms which were heated by stoves, or by fire places, and from outdoors were collected simultaneously. In each room two samples were collected during two consecutive weeks: one week the room was heated by central heating, the other week by wood combustion. Sampling took place in a total of 24 homes. Methanol extracts of the samples were tested in the Salmonella/mammalian microsome assay. Results show that mutagenic activity of outdoor air exceeds indoor mutagenicity. At the same time a correlation is found between in- and out-door mutagenicity, both with and without S9. However, a large difference is found between the ratio -S9/+S9 of in- and out-door mutagenic activity. Systematic differences in the ratio -S9/+S9 between control and experimental conditions are not observed. The use of wood stoves caused an increase of indoor mutagenicity in 8 out of 12 homes. It could be concluded that the use of an open fire consistently leads to an increase of mutagenic activity. This increase was caused by wood combustion products.

  16. A computer approach to measuring shuttle box activity and conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Bozarth, M A

    1983-12-01

    A procedure is described for measuring locomotor activity and place preference using an Apple II + computer. The interface consists of a single integrated circuit connected by a 16 pin jumper cable to the Apple's game I/O connector. This approach can be easily adapted to provide sequential reading of one to seven input lines from up to 16 different test boxes. The software is written in basic and doesn't require any knowledge of memory addressing or machine language programming.

  17. Active Power Rescheduling for Avoiding Voltage Collapse Using Modified Bare Bones Particle Swarm Optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arya, Rajesh; Purey, Pradeep

    2016-06-01

    MW-generation rescheduling is being considered for voltage stability improvement under stressed operating condition. At times it can avoid voltage collapse. This paper describes an algorithm for determination of optimum MW-generation participation pattern for static voltage stability margin enhancement. The optimum search direction has been obtained by employing modified bare born particle swarm optimization technique. Optimum search direction is based on maximization of distance to point of collapse in generation space. Developed algorithm has been implemented on a standard 25 bus test system. Results obtained have been compared with those obtained using standard particle swarm optimization.

  18. Putting Activism in Its Place: The Neighborhood Context of Participation in Neighborhood-Focused Activism.

    PubMed

    Gilster, Megan E

    2014-02-01

    Neighborhood-focused activism is one way residents enact their vision for their community. This study examines the neighborhood socioeconomic antecedents of participation in neighborhood-focused activism in a diverse sample of residents of Chicago neighborhoods to test three theories of neighborhood socioeconomic context and participation: 1) affluence affords participation, 2) activism addresses neighborhood needs associated with disadvantage, and 3) socioeconomic inequality creates contention that necessitates participation. Measuring neighborhood socioeconomic status as two unique dimensions, neighborhood affluence and neighborhood disadvantage, and accounting for both individual and neighborhood characteristics, I find support for each theory. Neighborhood socioeconomic context matters for participation, regardless of individual socioeconomic characteristics. Only when these three perspectives are considered jointly can they fully capture the socioeconomic context of participation in neighborhood-focused activism.

  19. Lateralized human hippocampal activity predicts navigation based on sequence or place memory

    PubMed Central

    Iglói, Kinga; Doeller, Christian F.; Berthoz, Alain; Rondi-Reig, Laure; Burgess, Neil

    2010-01-01

    The hippocampus is crucial for both spatial navigation and episodic memory, suggesting that it provides a common function to both. Here we adapt a spatial paradigm, developed for rodents, for use with functional MRI in humans to show that activation of the right hippocampus predicts the use of an allocentric spatial representation, and activation of the left hippocampus predicts the use of a sequential egocentric representation. Both representations can be identified in hippocampal activity before their effect on behavior at subsequent choice-points. Our results suggest that, rather than providing a single common function, the two hippocampi provide complementary representations for navigation, concerning places on the right and temporal sequences on the left, both of which likely contribute to different aspects of episodic memory. PMID:20660746

  20. Inhibition of long-term memory formation by anti-ependymin antisera after active shock-avoidance learning in goldfish.

    PubMed

    Piront, M L; Schmidt, R

    1988-02-23

    Ependymins are acidic glycoprotein constituents of goldfish brain cytoplasm and extracellular fluid which are known to participate in biochemical reactions of long-term memory formation. In earlier experiments, anti-ependymin antisera were found to cause amnesia when injected into goldfish brain ventricles after the acquisition of a vestibulomotoric training task. To investigate whether they also inhibit memory consolidation after other learning events the anti-ependymin antisera were injected after an active shock-avoidance learning paradigm, as follows: goldfish were trained in a shuttle-box to cross a barrier in order to avoid electric shocks (unconditioned stimulus) applied shortly after a light signal (conditioned stimulus). Anti-ependymin antisera blocked retention of the learned avoidance when injected 0.5, 4.5 or 24 h after acquisition of the new behavior. They had no effect, however, when injected 72 h after learning. Apparently, long-term memory was already consolidated at this point. Antisera injected 0.5 or 72 h prior to training, also did not influence learning or memory. Thirteen percent of the goldfish fled the light stimulus spontaneously. These fish therefore did not experience the unconditioned stimulus and thus were unable to learn the task. When they were treated with the anti-ependymin antisera and tested 3 days later, the spontaneous escape reaction was not affected (active control group). The ability of anti-ependymin antisera to inhibit memory consolidation and their efficacy after administration at specific time intervals are very similar for the active shock-avoidance learning and for the vestibulomotoric training. We conclude that ependymins are not task-specific, but serve a general function in biochemical reactions essential for long-term memory formation.

  1. Dissociating the past from the present in the activity of place cells.

    PubMed

    de Hoz, Livia; Wood, Emma R

    2006-01-01

    It has been proposed that declarative memories can be dependent on both an episodic and a semantic memory system. While the semantic system deals with factual information devoid of reference to its acquisition, the episodic system, characterized by mental time travel, deals with the unique past experience in which an event took place. Episodic memory is characteristically hippocampus-dependent. Place cells are recorded from the hippocampus of rodents and their firing reflects many of the key characteristics of episodic memory. For example, they encode information about "what" happens "where," as well as temporal information. However, when these features are expressed during an animal's behavior, the neuronal activity could merely be categorizing the present situation and could therefore reflect semantic memory rather than episodic memory. We propose that mental time travel is the key feature of episodic memory and that it should take a form, in the awake animal, similar to the replay of behavioral patterns of activity that has been observed in hippocampus during sleep. Using tasks designed to evoke episodic memory, one should be able to see memory reactivation of behaviorally relevant sequences of activity in the awake animal while recording from hippocampus and other cortical structures.

  2. Protein synthesis is not required for acquisition, consolidation, and extinction of high foot-shock active avoidance training.

    PubMed

    González-Salinas, Sofía; Medina, Andrea C; Marín-Vignando, Vera; Ruiz-López, Clyo X; Quirarte, Gina L; Prado-Alcalá, Roberto A

    2015-01-01

    Long-term memory of active avoidance in mice is not disturbed by administration of protein synthesis inhibitors (PSIs) when relatively high levels of training are used, whereas a detrimental effect is produced with lower levels of training. PSIs also disrupt extinction of avoidance behaviors in rodents, but it is not clear whether PSIs also affect this form of learning when the behavior to be extinguished was produced by a high level of training. Experiment 1 demonstrated that rats treated with the PSI cycloheximide (CXM) 30 min before training developed normal acquisition after training with either high or low foot-shock stimulation, but that memory consolidation was hindered only after low foot-shock training. Experiment 2 demonstrated that CXM disrupted extinction when administered before the first of a series of extinction sessions when low foot-shock intensity was used during training; in contrast, after training with a higher foot-shock, the PSI treatment only interfered transiently with extinction. These results indicate that acquisition, consolidation, and extinction of active avoidance learning produced by high aversive stimulation are not dependent on protein synthesis and that these processes are governed by mechanisms different from those underlying moderate forms of learning.

  3. Infection-avoidance behaviour in humans and other animals.

    PubMed

    Curtis, Valerie A

    2014-10-01

    Compared with living free, the parasitic way of life has many attractions. Parasites create problems for all animals. Potential hosts can respond by learning to live with parasites (tolerance), actively fighting them (resistance), or they can avoid becoming infected in the first place (avoidance). I propose here a new classification of avoidance behaviour according to the epidemiology of infection risk, where animals must avoid (i) conspecifics, (ii) parasites and their vectors, (iii) parasite-rich environments, and (iv) niche infestation. I further explore how the disgust adaptive system, which coordinates avoidance behaviour, may form a continuum with the immune system through the sharing of signalling pathways, sites of action, and evolutionary history.

  4. Using an Informal Cardiovascular System Activity to Study the Effectiveness of Science Education in Unexpected Places

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monzack, Elyssa Lynne; Petersen, Greta M. Zenner

    2011-08-01

    Venues for informal science education are usually those sought out by people who are specifically looking for an educational experience. Whether planning a trip to a museum or choosing a television program, these individuals are actively seeking an informal educational experience; they are a self-selected group. This paper investigates whether members of the public will respond to an informal science activity that is placed in a location where learning about science would be unexpected. This project developed and used an activity about the cardiovascular system in which participants were able to walk the path of blood flow through the heart, body, and lungs. This activity was tested in two types of settings: where science was either expected or unexpected. A non-traditional assessment method was used to evaluate the effectiveness of the activity in the unexpected versus the expected settings. Ultimately, the activity was found to be equally effective in both settings, providing evidence for success in bringing informal science education to the general population in non-traditional venues.

  5. Are fear-avoidance beliefs in low back pain patients a risk factor for low physical activity or vice versa? A cross-lagged panel analysis

    PubMed Central

    Leonhardt, Corinna; Lehr, Dirk; Chenot, Jean-François; Keller, Stefan; Luckmann, Judith; Basler, Heinz-Dieter; Baum, Erika; Donner-Banzhoff, Norbert; Pfingsten, Michael; Hildebrandt, Jan; Kochen, Michael M.; Becker, Annette

    2009-01-01

    Objective: The assumption that low back pain (LBP) patients suffer from “disuse” as a consequence of high fear-avoidance beliefs is currently under debate. A secondary analysis served to investigate whether fear-avoidance beliefs are associated cross-sectionally and longitudinally with the physical activity level (PAL) in LBP patients. Methods: A total of 787 individuals (57% acute and 43% chronic LBP) were followed up over a period of one year with measurements of fear-avoidance beliefs and physical activity level. Fear-avoidance beliefs concerning physical activity were measured by the physical-activity subscale of the FABQ (Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire), the physical activity level was assessed in weighted metabolic equivalents (MET) hours/week with a German self-report questionnaire. Data were investigated by structural equation modelling in a cross-lagged panel design for the whole sample and separately for acute and chronic LBP. Results: The acute and chronic sub sample increased their total physical activity level significantly after one year. The structural equation modelling results did not support the disuse-aspect inherent in the fear-avoidance belief model. Cross-lagged path coefficients were low (.04 and .05 respectively) and, therefore, did not allow to predict final physical activity by initial fear-avoidance beliefs or vice versa. Discussion: Consequently, due to missing links between fear-avoidance beliefs and physical activity in a longitudinal design, the assumptions of the fear-avoidance belief model have to be questioned. These findings are in line with other investigations published recently. Most probably, “fear-avoidance belief” represents a cognitive scheme that does not limit activity per se, but only is directed to the avoidance of specific movements. PMID:19742047

  6. Avoiding Ticks

    MedlinePlus

    ... Avoiding ticks On people On pets In the yard Removing a tick Symptoms of tickborne illness Geographic ... ticks on your pets Preventing ticks in the yard File Formats Help: How do I view different ...

  7. Engager and Avoider Behaviour in Types of Activities Performed by Out-of-Class Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Louisa; Kember, David

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the out-of-class learning activities undertaken, at the students' volition, by groups of students. Data were gathered through 57 individual and 15 focus group interviews with university students in Hong Kong. Group activities reported included: copying, sharing material, consulting peers, consulting teachers, studying and…

  8. Post-traumatic stress avoidance is attenuated by corticosterone and associated with brain levels of steroid receptor co-activator-1 in rats.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Annie M; Farooq, Muhammad A; Edwards, Scott; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) avoid trauma-related stimuli and exhibit blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation at the time of stress. Our rodent model of stress mimics the avoidance symptom cluster of PTSD. Rats are classified as "Avoiders" or "Non-Avoiders" post-stress based on the avoidance of a predator-odor paired context. Previously, we found Avoiders exhibit an attenuated HPA stress response to predator odor. We hypothesized that corticosterone administration before stress would reduce the magnitude and incidence of stress-paired context avoidance. Furthermore, we also predicted that Avoiders would exhibit altered expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling machinery elements, including steroid receptor co-activator (SRC)-1. Male Wistar rats (n = 16) were pretreated with corticosterone (25 mg/kg) or saline and exposed to predator-odor stress paired with a context and tested for avoidance 24 h later. A second group of corticosterone-naïve rats (n = 24) were stressed (or not), indexed for avoidance 24 h later, and killed 48 h post-odor exposure to measure phosphorylated GR, FKBP51 and SRC-1 levels in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central amygdala (CeA) and ventral hippocampus (VH), all brain sites that highly express GRs and regulate HPA function. Corticosterone pretreatment reduced the magnitude and incidence of avoidance. In Avoiders, predator-odor exposure led to lower SRC-1 expression in the PVN and CeA, and higher SRC-1 expression in the VH. SRC-1 expression in PVN, CeA and VH was predicted by prior avoidance behavior. Hence, a blunted HPA stress response may contribute to stress-induced neuroadaptations in central SRC-1 levels and behavioral dysfunction in Avoider rats.

  9. Habituation of dairy heifers to milking routine-Effects on human avoidance distance, behavior, and cardiac activity during milking.

    PubMed

    Kutzer, T; Steilen, M; Gygax, L; Wechsler, B

    2015-08-01

    The onset of lactation marks a significant turning point in a heifer's life, and prior experience with the milking routine could have positive effects on animal welfare and productivity. The objectives of this multifarm (n=5) study were to investigate (1) whether prelactation training sessions affected behavior during milking, cardiac activity, human avoidance distance, and milk yield, and (2) whether these responses would be modified by the heifer's initial level of fear of humans. Trained heifers (TH, n=30) experienced the routine in the milking parlor on at least 10 d prepartum, whereas untrained heifers (UH, n=29) entered the parlor for the first time after calving. Behavior and cardiac activity were recorded on d 1 and 7 after calving, and an avoidance test was carried out on the day of integration into the dairy herd as well as on d 1, 7, and 28 postpartum. Each animal's initial level of fear of humans was classified as high or low based on the first human avoidance distance measured toward an unknown person. Results showed that TH showed less stepping and kicking during the udder preparation phase in the parlor and UH had higher probabilities to put their ears flat on the head, clamp their tail between the hind legs, and have their eyes wide open throughout the different phases in the milking parlor. Heart rate decreased from d 1 to 7, increased from before to during and to after milking and was slightly elevated in TH compared with UH. Milk yield did not differ between TH and UH. Human avoidance distance was not influenced by training, but distance decreased in heifers with a high initial level of fear of humans across repetitions of the test, whereas heifers with a low initial level of fear of humans had generally short avoidance distances. However, initial level of fear of humans neither determined behavior and heart rate during milking nor milk yield of TH and UH. The results indicate that the training regimen applied in the present study habituated

  10. Mephedrone ('bath salt') elicits conditioned place preference and dopamine-sensitive motor activation.

    PubMed

    Lisek, Renata; Xu, Wei; Yuvasheva, Ekaterina; Chiu, Yi-Ting; Reitz, Allen B; Liu-Chen, Lee-Yuan; Rawls, Scott M

    2012-11-01

    Abuse of a dangerous street drug called mephedrone (4-methylmethcathinone) has become commonplace in the United States. Mephedrone is hypothesized to possess abuse liability, share pharmacological properties with psychostimulants, and display toxicity that has been linked to fatalities and non-fatal overdoses. Knowledge about the pharmacology of mephedrone has been obtained primarily from surveys of drug abusers and emergency room visits rather than experimental studies. The present study used motor activity and conditioned place preference (CPP) assays to investigate behavioral effects of mephedrone. Acute mephedrone (3, 5, 10, 30 mg/kg, ip) administration increased ambulatory activity in rats. Mephedrone (5 mg/kg, ip)-induced ambulation was inhibited by pretreatment with a dopamine D1 receptor antagonist (SCH 23390) (0.5, 1, 2 mg/kg, ip) and enhanced by pretreatment with a dopamine D2 receptor antagonist (sulpiride) (2 mg/kg, ip). Rats injected for 5 days with low dose mephedrone (0.5 mg/kg, ip) and then challenged with mephedrone (0.5 mg/kg, ip) following 10 days of abstinence displayed sensitization of ambulatory activity. In CPP experiments, mephedrone (30 mg/kg, ip) conditioning elicited a preference shift in both rats and mice. The CPP and dopamine-sensitive motor activation produced by mephedrone is suggestive of abuse liability and indicates commonalities between the neuropharmacological profiles of mephedrone and established drugs of abuse.

  11. [Influence of chronic melipramine administration abolition on locomotion and defensive conditioned reflexes in passive and active avoidance in rats].

    PubMed

    Orlova, N V; Folomkina, A A; Koshtoiants, O Kh; Bazian, A S

    2005-01-01

    The chronic (21 days duration) administration of tricyclic antidepressant melipramine of Wistar rats strain (15 mg/kg daily, intraperitoneally) evoked weight loss of animals. The 7 days after melipramine abolition its sedative effect was observed in the "open field" test by decrease of locomotion and the number of boles. The 7 and 14 days after melipramine abolition the difference between control and melipramine treated animals in passive and active avoidance learning and memory not found. The experimental results comparison with the literature data show, that chronic melipramine administration of intact animals evokes a sedative state. This conclusion does not contradict to idea of punishment function of brain serotoninergic system. PMID:15828425

  12. Molecular pathways activation in coronary artery bypass surgery: which role for pump avoidance?

    PubMed

    Parolari, Alessandro; Poggio, Paolo; Myasoedova, Veronika; Songia, Paola; Pilozzi, Alberto; Alamanni, Francesco; Tremoli, Elena

    2016-01-01

    In this study, we review current knowledge regarding molecular pathways activation and their possible mechanisms in the perioperative period of coronary artery bypass surgery (CABG). We also highlight the role of off-pump CABG as a possible way to better understand these biological changes.We show that, after both on-pump and off-pump CABG, there is a marked and protracted activation of several molecular pathways indicating increased inflammatory status, haemostasis activation, as well as increased oxidative stress and unfavourable endothelial milieu. These changes persist for days and even weeks after surgery. Interestingly, a relatively limited number of these pathways show a more pronounced activation in case of cardiopulmonary bypass use, and these markers are mainly associated with oxidative stress activation; on the contrary, the vast majority of the pathways has a similar course both in on and off-pump procedures. Surgical stress accounts for more protracted and marked molecular pathway perturbations overall, being the effect of cardiopulmonary, if any, limited to the very early hours after surgery. The near future of the translational research in coronary bypass surgery is to develop therapeutic strategies aimed at reducing this response, that is largely unrelated to cardiopulmonary bypass use, in order to reduce perioperative complications and to speed up patients' recovery.

  13. Social observation enhances cross-environment activation of hippocampal place cell patterns

    PubMed Central

    Mou, Xiang; Ji, Daoyun

    2016-01-01

    Humans and animals frequently learn through observing or interacting with others. The local enhancement theory proposes that presence of social subjects in an environment facilitates other subjects' understanding of the environment. To explore the neural basis of this theory, we examined hippocampal place cells, which represent spatial information, in rats as they stayed in a small box while a demonstrator rat running on a separate, nearby linear track, and as they ran on the same track themselves. We found that place cell firing sequences during self-running on the track also appeared in the box. This cross-environment activation occurred even prior to any self-running experience on the track and was absent without a demonstrator. Our data thus suggest that social observation can facilitate the observer’s spatial representation of an environment without actual self-exploration. This finding may contribute to neural mechanisms of local enhancement. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.18022.001 PMID:27692067

  14. On the participation of hippocampal p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase in extinction and reacquisition of inhibitory avoidance memory.

    PubMed

    Rossato, J I; Bevilaqua, L R M; Lima, R H; Medina, J H; Izquierdo, I; Cammarota, M

    2006-11-17

    Inhibitory avoidance (IA) learning relies on the formation of an association between stepping down from a platform present in a certain context (conditioned stimulus; CS) with an aversive unconditioned stimulus (US; i.e. a footshock). A single CS-US pairing establishes a robust long-term memory expressed as an increase in step-down latency at testing. However, repeated retrieval of the avoidance response in the absence of the US induces extinction of IA memory. That is, recurring presentation of the CS alone results in a new learning indicating that the CS no longer predicts the US. Although the signaling pathways involved in the consolidation of IA and other fear-motivated memories have been profusely studied, little is known about the molecular requirements of fear memory extinction. Here we report that, as happens with its consolidation, extinction of IA long-term memory requires activity of the p38 subfamily of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) in the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus. Moreover, we found that inhibition of hippocampal p38MAPK blocked memory reacquisition after extinction without affecting either the increase in IA memory retention induced by a second training session or animal's locomotor/exploratory activity and anxiety state.

  15. [Impact of market place activity on the spread of STI/AIDS in Sikasso, Mali].

    PubMed

    Maiga, Y; Cissoko, Y; Toloba, Y; Samake, A; Kampo, B; Bougoudogo, F

    2010-02-01

    Since the beginning of the global HIV pandemic, more than 47 million people have been infected and more than 14 millions of people have died with 95% living in developing countries. Mali is located in West Africa that has been relatively less affected. However Mali is a country with a migratory culture. This study was conducted in primary health care centers located on the main road to neighboring countries with higher HIV prevalence. Attention was focused on healthcare services provided around market places in the main cities where diverse populations converge on a weekly basis. Attendance measured at five health centers on market day was compared with attendance on the other days of the week. In addition the level of sexually transmitted infections (STI) diagnosed on market days was determined to compare prevalence in the resident versus non-resident population in function of market activity. Attendance at all the centers was significantly higher on market days. This increase was due mainly to the non-resident population (60.2% vs. 46.5%; p=0.005). Findings also showed that the proportion of STI diagnosed was higher in the non-resident than resident population, but the difference was not statistically significant (15.6% vs. 11.3%; p=0.320). These results indicate that migration has an impact on the spread of STI. This is probably the same for HIV since these pathologies are known to be linked. Control strategies to fight against STI/AIDS could be improved by taking into account market place activity that is common in all localities of Mali and Africa.

  16. Dominance of the proximal coordinate frame in determining the locations of hippocampal place cell activity during navigation.

    PubMed

    Siegel, Jennifer J; Neunuebel, Joshua P; Knierim, James J

    2008-01-01

    The place-specific activity of hippocampal cells provides downstream structures with information regarding an animal's position within an environment and, perhaps, the location of goals within that environment. In rodents, recent research has suggested that distal cues primarily set the orientation of the spatial representation, whereas the boundaries of the behavioral apparatus determine the locations of place activity. The current study was designed to address possible biases in some previous research that may have minimized the likelihood of observing place activity bound to distal cues. Hippocampal single-unit activity was recorded from six freely moving rats as they were trained to perform a tone-initiated place-preference task on an open-field platform. To investigate whether place activity was bound to the room- or platform-based coordinate frame (or both), the platform was translated within the room at an "early" and at a "late" phase of task acquisition (Shift 1 and Shift 2). At both time points, CA1 and CA3 place cells demonstrated room-associated and/or platform-associated activity, or remapped in response to the platform shift. Shift 1 revealed place activity that reflected an interaction between a dominant platform-based (proximal) coordinate frame and a weaker room-based (distal) frame because many CA1 and CA3 place fields shifted to a location intermediate to the two reference frames. Shift 2 resulted in place activity that became more strongly bound to either the platform- or room-based coordinate frame, suggesting the emergence of two independent spatial frames of reference (with many more cells participating in platform-based than in room-based representations).

  17. School Avoidance

    MedlinePlus

    ... at school, a place where pressures in the classroom and relationships with other children can be quite ... becomes symptomatic, and encourage his return to the classroom. If a problem like a school bully or ...

  18. Shade Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Casal, Jorge J.

    2012-01-01

    The presence of neighboring vegetation modifies the light environment experienced by plants, generating signals that are perceived by phytochromes and cryptochromes. These signals cause large changes in plant body form and function, including enhanced growth of the hypocotyl and petioles, a more erect position of the leaves and early flowering in Arabidopsis thaliana. Collectively, these so-called shade-avoidance responses tend to reduce the degree of current or future shade by neighbors. Shade light signals increase the abundance of PHYTOCHROME INTERACTING FACTOR 4 (PIF4) and PIF5 proteins, promote the synthesis and redirection of auxin, favor the degradation of DELLA proteins and increase the expression of auxin, gibberellins and brassinosteroid-promoted genes, among other events downstream the photoreceptors. Selectively disrupting these events by genetic or pharmacological approaches affects shade-avoidance responses with an intensity that depends on the developmental context and the environment. Shade-avoidance responses provide a model to investigate the signaling networks used by plants to take advantage of the cues provided by the environment to adjust to the challenges imposed by the environment itself. PMID:22582029

  19. Stormwater chemical contamination caused by cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) infrastructure rehabilitation activities.

    PubMed

    Tabor, Matthew L; Newman, Derrick; Whelton, Andrew J

    2014-09-16

    Cured-in-place pipe (CIPP) is becoming a popular U.S. stormwater culvert rehabilitation method. Several State transportation agencies have reported that CIPP activities can release styrene into stormwater, but no other contaminants have been monitored. CIPP's stormwater contamination potential and that of its condensate waste was characterized. Condensate completely dissolved Daphnia magna within 24 h. Condensate pH was 6.2 and its chemical oxygen demand (COD) level was 36,000 ppm. D. magna mortality (100%) occurred in 48 h, even when condensate was diluted by a factor of 10,000 and styrene was present at a magnitude less than its LC50. Condensate and stormwater contained numerous carcinogenic solvents used in resin synthesis, endocrine disrupting contaminants such as plasticizers, and initiator degradation products. For 35 days, COD levels at the culvert outlets and downstream ranged from 100 to 375 ppm and styrene was 0.01 to 7.4 ppm. Although contaminant levels generally reduced with time, styrene levels were greatest 50 ft downstream, not at the culvert outlet. Cured CIPP extraction tests confirmed that numerous contaminants other than styrene were released into the environment and their persistence and toxicity should be investigated. More effective contaminant containment and cleaner installation processes must be developed to protect the environment.

  20. Effect of MDMA (ecstasy) on activity and cocaine conditioned place preference in adult and adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Aberg, Maria; Wade, Dean; Wall, Erin; Izenwasser, Sari

    2007-01-01

    MDMA (ecstasy) is a drug commonly used in adolescence, and many users of MDMA also use other illicit drugs. It is not known whether MDMA during adolescence alters subsequent responses to cocaine differently than in adults. This study examined the effects of MDMA in adolescent and adult rats on cocaine conditioned reward. At the start of these experiments, adolescent rats were at postnatal day (PND) 33 and adult rats at PND 60. Each rat was treated for 7 days with MDMA (2 or 5 mg/kg/day or vehicle) and locomotor activity was measured. Five days later cocaine conditioned place preference (CPP) was begun. Rats were trained for 3 days, in the morning with saline and in the afternoon with 10 mg/kg cocaine in 30 min sessions, and tested on the fourth day. MDMA stimulated activity in both age groups, but with a greater effect in the adult rats. Sensitization to the locomotor-stimulant effects of the lower dose of MDMA occurred in adult rats and in both groups to the higher dose. Cocaine did not produce a CPP in vehicle-treated adolescent rats, but a significant CPP was observed subsequent to treatment with MDMA. In contrast, cocaine-induced CPP was diminished after MDMA in adult rats. These effects were still evident 2 weeks later upon retest. Thus, under the present conditions, MDMA increased cocaine conditioned reward in adolescent and decreased it in adult rats. These findings suggest that exposure to MDMA during this critical developmental period may carry a greater risk than during adulthood and that male adolescents may be particularly vulnerable to the risk of stimulant abuse after use of MDMA.

  1. RelB activation in anti-inflammatory decidual endothelial cells: a master plan to avoid pregnancy failure?

    PubMed

    Masat, Elisa; Gasparini, Chiara; Agostinis, Chiara; Bossi, Fleur; Radillo, Oriano; De Seta, Francesco; Tamassia, Nicola; Cassatella, Marco A; Bulla, Roberta

    2015-01-01

    It is known that excessive inflammation at fetal-maternal interface is a key contributor in a compromised pregnancy. Female genital tract is constantly in contact with microorganisms and several strategies must be adopted to avoid pregnancy failure. Decidual endothelial cells (DECs) lining decidual microvascular vessels are the first cells that interact with pro-inflammatory stimuli released into the environment by microorganisms derived from gestational tissues or systemic circulation. Here, we show that DECs are hypo-responsive to LPS stimulation in terms of IL-6, CXCL8 and CCL2 production. Our results demonstrate that DECs express low levels of TLR4 and are characterized by a strong constitutive activation of the non-canonical NF-κB pathway and a low responsiveness of the canonical pathway to LPS. In conclusion, DECs show a unique hypo-responsive phenotype to the pro-inflammatory stimulus LPS in order to control the inflammatory response at feto-maternal interface. PMID:26463648

  2. When Threat Is Near, Get Out of Here: Dynamics of Defensive Behavior During Freezing and Active Avoidance.

    PubMed

    Löw, Andreas; Weymar, Mathias; Hamm, Alfons O

    2015-11-01

    When detecting a threat, humans and other animals engage in defensive behaviors and supporting physiological adjustments that vary with threat imminence and potential response options. In the present study, we shed light on the dynamics of defensive behaviors and associated physiological adjustments in humans using multiple psychophysiological and brain measures. When participants were exposed to a dynamically approaching, uncontrollable threat, attentive freezing was augmented, as indicated by an increase in skin conductance, fear bradycardia, and potentiation of the startle reflex. In contrast, when participants had the opportunity to actively avoid the approaching threat, attention switched to response preparation, as indicated by an inhibition of the startle magnitude and by a sharp drop of the probe-elicited P3 component of the evoked brain potentials. These new findings on the dynamics of defensive behaviors form an important intersection between animal and human research and have important implications for understanding fear and anxiety-related disorders.

  3. Normal inhibitory avoidance learning and anxiety, but increased locomotor activity in mice devoid of PrP(C).

    PubMed

    Roesler, R; Walz, R; Quevedo, J; de-Paris, F; Zanata, S M; Graner, E; Izquierdo, I; Martins, V R; Brentani, R R

    1999-08-25

    Prions are the causative agents of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies. The transmissible agent (PrP(Sc)) is an abnormal form of PrP(C), a normal neuronal protein. The physiological role of PrP(C) remains unclear. In the present report, we evaluated behavioral parameters in Prnp(0/0) mice devoid of PrP(C). Prnp(0/0) mice showed normal short- and long-term retention of a step-down inhibitory avoidance task and normal behavior in an elevated plus maze test of anxiety. During a 5-min exploration of an open field, Prnp(0/0) mice showed normal number of rearings, defecation, and latency to initiate locomotion, but a significant increase in the number of crossings. The results suggest that Prnp(0/0) mice show normal fear-motivated memory, anxiety and exploratory behavior, and a slight increase in locomotor activity during exploration of a novel environment.

  4. Spatial Polygamy and Contextual Exposures (SPACEs): Promoting Activity Space Approaches in Research on Place and Health.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Stephen A; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2013-08-01

    Exposure science has developed rapidly and there is an increasing call for greater precision in the measurement of individual exposures across space and time. Social science interest in an individual's environmental exposure, broadly conceived, has arguably been quite limited conceptually and methodologically. Indeed, we appear to lag behind our exposure science colleagues in our theories, data, and methods. In this paper we discuss a framework based on the concept of spatial polygamy to demonstrate the need to collect new forms of data on human spatial behavior and contextual exposures across time and space. Adopting new data and methods will be essential if we want to better understand social inequality in terms of exposure to health risks and access to health resources. We discuss the opportunities and challenges focusing on the potential seemingly offered by focusing on human mobility, and specifically the utilization of activity space concepts and data. A goal of the paper is to spatialize social and health science concepts and research practice vis-a-vis the complexity of exposure. The paper concludes with some recommendations for future research focusing on theoretical and conceptual development, promoting research on new types of places and human movement, the dynamic nature of contexts, and on training. "When we elect wittingly or unwittingly, to work within a level … we tend to discern or construct - whichever emphasis you prefer - only those kinds of systems whose elements are confined to that level."Otis Dudley Duncan (1961, p. 141)."…despite the new ranges created by improved transportation, local government units have tended to remain medieval in size."Torsten Hägerstrand (1970, p.18)"A detective investigating a crime needs both tools and understanding. If he has no fingerprint powder, he will fail to find fingerprints on most surfaces. If he does not understand where the criminal is likely to have put his fingers, he will not look in the right

  5. Spatial Polygamy and Contextual Exposures (SPACEs): Promoting Activity Space Approaches in Research on Place and Health

    PubMed Central

    Matthews, Stephen A.; Yang, Tse-Chuan

    2014-01-01

    Exposure science has developed rapidly and there is an increasing call for greater precision in the measurement of individual exposures across space and time. Social science interest in an individual’s environmental exposure, broadly conceived, has arguably been quite limited conceptually and methodologically. Indeed, we appear to lag behind our exposure science colleagues in our theories, data, and methods. In this paper we discuss a framework based on the concept of spatial polygamy to demonstrate the need to collect new forms of data on human spatial behavior and contextual exposures across time and space. Adopting new data and methods will be essential if we want to better understand social inequality in terms of exposure to health risks and access to health resources. We discuss the opportunities and challenges focusing on the potential seemingly offered by focusing on human mobility, and specifically the utilization of activity space concepts and data. A goal of the paper is to spatialize social and health science concepts and research practice vis-a-vis the complexity of exposure. The paper concludes with some recommendations for future research focusing on theoretical and conceptual development, promoting research on new types of places and human movement, the dynamic nature of contexts, and on training. “When we elect wittingly or unwittingly, to work within a level … we tend to discern or construct – whichever emphasis you prefer – only those kinds of systems whose elements are confined to that level.”Otis Dudley Duncan (1961, p. 141). “…despite the new ranges created by improved transportation, local government units have tended to remain medieval in size.”Torsten Hägerstrand (1970, p.18) “A detective investigating a crime needs both tools and understanding. If he has no fingerprint powder, he will fail to find fingerprints on most surfaces. If he does not understand where the criminal is likely to have put his fingers, he will not

  6. Plasma Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Bottlenose Dolphins Contributes to Avoiding Accumulation of Non-recyclable Purines

    PubMed Central

    López-Cruz, Roberto I.; Crocker, Daniel E.; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal, Jaime A.; Real-Valle, Roberto A.; Lugo-Lugo, Orlando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals are exposed to ischemia/reperfusion and hypoxia/reoxygenation during diving. During oxygen deprivation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) breakdown implies purine metabolite accumulation, which in humans is associated with pathological conditions. Purine recycling in seals increases in response to prolonged fasting and ischemia. Concentrations of metabolites and activities of key enzymes in purine metabolism were examined in plasma and red blood cells from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and humans. Hypoxanthine and inosine monophosphate concentrations were higher in plasma from dolphins than humans. Plasma hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity in dolphins suggests an elevated purine recycling rate, and a mechanism for avoiding accumulation of non-recyclable purines (xanthine and uric acid). Red blood cell concentrations of hypoxanthine, adenosine diphosphate, ATP and guanosine triphosphate were lower in dolphins than in humans; adenosine monophosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentrations were higher in dolphins. HGPRT activity in red blood cells was higher in humans than in dolphins. The lower concentrations of purine catabolism and recycling by-products in plasma from dolphins could be beneficial in providing substrates for recovery of ATP depleted during diving or vigorous swimming. These results suggest that purine salvage in dolphins could be a mechanism for delivering nucleotide precursors to tissues with high ATP and guanosine triphosphate requirements. PMID:27375492

  7. Plasma Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Bottlenose Dolphins Contributes to Avoiding Accumulation of Non-recyclable Purines.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Roberto I; Crocker, Daniel E; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal, Jaime A; Real-Valle, Roberto A; Lugo-Lugo, Orlando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals are exposed to ischemia/reperfusion and hypoxia/reoxygenation during diving. During oxygen deprivation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) breakdown implies purine metabolite accumulation, which in humans is associated with pathological conditions. Purine recycling in seals increases in response to prolonged fasting and ischemia. Concentrations of metabolites and activities of key enzymes in purine metabolism were examined in plasma and red blood cells from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and humans. Hypoxanthine and inosine monophosphate concentrations were higher in plasma from dolphins than humans. Plasma hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity in dolphins suggests an elevated purine recycling rate, and a mechanism for avoiding accumulation of non-recyclable purines (xanthine and uric acid). Red blood cell concentrations of hypoxanthine, adenosine diphosphate, ATP and guanosine triphosphate were lower in dolphins than in humans; adenosine monophosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentrations were higher in dolphins. HGPRT activity in red blood cells was higher in humans than in dolphins. The lower concentrations of purine catabolism and recycling by-products in plasma from dolphins could be beneficial in providing substrates for recovery of ATP depleted during diving or vigorous swimming. These results suggest that purine salvage in dolphins could be a mechanism for delivering nucleotide precursors to tissues with high ATP and guanosine triphosphate requirements.

  8. Plasma Hypoxanthine-Guanine Phosphoribosyl Transferase Activity in Bottlenose Dolphins Contributes to Avoiding Accumulation of Non-recyclable Purines.

    PubMed

    López-Cruz, Roberto I; Crocker, Daniel E; Gaxiola-Robles, Ramón; Bernal, Jaime A; Real-Valle, Roberto A; Lugo-Lugo, Orlando; Zenteno-Savín, Tania

    2016-01-01

    Marine mammals are exposed to ischemia/reperfusion and hypoxia/reoxygenation during diving. During oxygen deprivation, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) breakdown implies purine metabolite accumulation, which in humans is associated with pathological conditions. Purine recycling in seals increases in response to prolonged fasting and ischemia. Concentrations of metabolites and activities of key enzymes in purine metabolism were examined in plasma and red blood cells from bottlenose dolphins (Tursiops truncatus) and humans. Hypoxanthine and inosine monophosphate concentrations were higher in plasma from dolphins than humans. Plasma hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (HGPRT) activity in dolphins suggests an elevated purine recycling rate, and a mechanism for avoiding accumulation of non-recyclable purines (xanthine and uric acid). Red blood cell concentrations of hypoxanthine, adenosine diphosphate, ATP and guanosine triphosphate were lower in dolphins than in humans; adenosine monophosphate and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide concentrations were higher in dolphins. HGPRT activity in red blood cells was higher in humans than in dolphins. The lower concentrations of purine catabolism and recycling by-products in plasma from dolphins could be beneficial in providing substrates for recovery of ATP depleted during diving or vigorous swimming. These results suggest that purine salvage in dolphins could be a mechanism for delivering nucleotide precursors to tissues with high ATP and guanosine triphosphate requirements. PMID:27375492

  9. α1-Adrenoceptors in the hippocampal dentate gyrus involved in learning-dependent long-term potentiation during active-avoidance learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Zhan, Su-Yang; Li, Guang-Xie; Wang, Dan; Li, Ying-Shun; Jin, Qing-Hua

    2016-11-01

    The hippocampus is the key structure for learning and memory in mammals and long-term potentiation (LTP) is an important cellular mechanism responsible for learning and memory. The influences of norepinephrine (NE) on the modulation of learning and memory, as well as LTP, through β-adrenoceptors are well documented, whereas the role of α1-adrenoceptors in learning-dependent LTP is not yet clear. In the present study, we measured extracellular concentrations of NE in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region using an in-vivo brain microdialysis and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques during the acquisition and extinction of active-avoidance behavior in freely moving conscious rats. Next, the effects of prazosin (an antagonist of α1-adrenoceptor) and phenylephrine (an agonist of the α1-adrenoceptor) on amplitudes of field excitatory postsynaptic potential were measured in the DG region during the active-avoidance behavior. Our results showed that the extracellular concentration of NE in the DG was significantly increased during the acquisition of active-avoidance behavior and gradually returned to the baseline level following extinction training. A local microinjection of prazosin into the DG significantly accelerated the acquisition of the active-avoidance behavior, whereas a local microinjection of phenylephrine retarded the acquisition of the active-avoidance behavior. Furthermore, in all groups, the changes in field excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude were accompanied by corresponding changes in active-avoidance behavior. Our results suggest that NE activation of α1-adrenoceptors in the hippocampal DG inhibits active-avoidance learning by modulation of synaptic efficiency in rats.

  10. α1-Adrenoceptors in the hippocampal dentate gyrus involved in learning-dependent long-term potentiation during active-avoidance learning in rats.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jing; Zhan, Su-Yang; Li, Guang-Xie; Wang, Dan; Li, Ying-Shun; Jin, Qing-Hua

    2016-11-01

    The hippocampus is the key structure for learning and memory in mammals and long-term potentiation (LTP) is an important cellular mechanism responsible for learning and memory. The influences of norepinephrine (NE) on the modulation of learning and memory, as well as LTP, through β-adrenoceptors are well documented, whereas the role of α1-adrenoceptors in learning-dependent LTP is not yet clear. In the present study, we measured extracellular concentrations of NE in the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) region using an in-vivo brain microdialysis and high-performance liquid chromatography techniques during the acquisition and extinction of active-avoidance behavior in freely moving conscious rats. Next, the effects of prazosin (an antagonist of α1-adrenoceptor) and phenylephrine (an agonist of the α1-adrenoceptor) on amplitudes of field excitatory postsynaptic potential were measured in the DG region during the active-avoidance behavior. Our results showed that the extracellular concentration of NE in the DG was significantly increased during the acquisition of active-avoidance behavior and gradually returned to the baseline level following extinction training. A local microinjection of prazosin into the DG significantly accelerated the acquisition of the active-avoidance behavior, whereas a local microinjection of phenylephrine retarded the acquisition of the active-avoidance behavior. Furthermore, in all groups, the changes in field excitatory postsynaptic potential amplitude were accompanied by corresponding changes in active-avoidance behavior. Our results suggest that NE activation of α1-adrenoceptors in the hippocampal DG inhibits active-avoidance learning by modulation of synaptic efficiency in rats. PMID:27603730

  11. Inhibition of urokinase plasminogen activator “uPA” activity alters ethanol consumption and conditioned place preference in mice

    PubMed Central

    Al Maamari, Elyazia; Al Ameri, Mouza; Al Mansouri, Shamma; Bahi, Amine

    2014-01-01

    Urokinase plasminogen activator, uPA, is a serine protease implicated in addiction to drugs of abuse. Using its specific inhibitor, B428, we and others have characterized the role of uPA in the rewarding properties of psychostimulants, including cocaine and amphetamine, but none have examined the role of uPA in ethanol use disorders. Therefore, in the current study, we extended our observations to the role of uPA in ethanol consumption and ethanol-induced conditioned place preference. The general aim of the present series of experiments was to investigate the effects of the administration of the B428 on voluntary alcohol intake and ethanol conditioned reward. A two-bottle choice, unlimited-access paradigm was used to compare ethanol intake between vehicle- and 3, 10, and 30 mg/kg B428-administered mice. For this purpose, the mice were presented with an ethanol solution (2.5%–20%) and water, at each concentration for 4 days, and their consumption was measured daily. Consumption of saccharin and quinine solutions was also measured. Systemic administration of B428 dose-dependently decreased ethanol intake and preference. Additionally, B428 mice did not differ from vehicle mice in their intake of graded solutions of tastants, suggesting that the uPA inhibition did not alter taste function. Also, ethanol metabolism was not affected following B428 injection. More importantly, 1.5 g/kg ethanol-induced conditioned place preference acquisition was blocked following B428 administration. Taken together, our results are the first to implicate uPA inhibition in the regulation of ethanol consumption and preference, and suggest that uPA may be considered as a possible therapeutic drug target for alcoholism and abstinence. PMID:25258509

  12. Vulnerability factors in anxiety: Strain and sex differences in the use of signals associated with non-threat during the acquisition and extinction of active-avoidance behavior.

    PubMed

    Beck, Kevin D; Jiao, Xilu; Ricart, Thomas M; Myers, Catherine E; Minor, Thomas R; Pang, Kevin C H; Servatius, Richard J

    2011-08-15

    Rats that exhibit a behaviorally inhibited temperament acquire active-avoidance behaviors quicker, and extinguish them slower, than normal outbred rats. Here we explored the contribution of stimuli that signal periods of non-threat (i.e. safety signals) in the process of acquiring active-avoidance behavior. Utilizing a discrete lever-press escape-avoidance protocol, outbred Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and inbred, behaviorally inhibited, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were tested under conditions where a flashing light was either presented or not during periods of non-threat (the inter-trial interval, ITI). For males, we found the absence of the ITI-signal slowed the acquisition of avoidance behavior selectively in WKY rats. However, extinction of the avoidance behavior was not influenced by training with or without the ITI-signal; WKY males extinguished slower than SD males. For females, the presence of the ITI-signal did not affect acquisition in either strain. However, after training with the ITI-signal, females of both strains extinguished quicker in its absence than in its presence. In order to determine if facilitated acquisition of avoidance learning in male WKY rats was due to a paradigm-independent influence of the visual stimulus used as ITI-signal upon associative learning, we conducted eyeblink conditioning in the presence or absence of a similar visual stimulus. No differences in acquisition, as a function of this visual stimulus, were observed within the male WKY rats, but, as was observed in avoidance learning, male WKY rats extinguished slower than male SD rats. Thus, avoidance susceptibility for male WKY rats may be tied both to the presence of non-threat signals as well as a resistance to extinguish Pavlovian-conditioned associations. Female susceptibility to resist extinguishing avoidant behavior is discussed with respect to the possible role of stimuli serving as occasion setters for threat contexts.

  13. 76 FR 67558 - Proposed Information Collection (Request for Change of Program or Place of Training) Activity...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-01

    ... comments on the information needed to determine a claimant's eligibility for continued educational... techniques or the use of other forms of information technology. Title: Request for Change of Program or Place... approved collection. Abstract: Claimants receiving educational benefits complete VA Form 22-1995 to...

  14. The Body and the Place of Physical Activity in Education: Some Classical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozolinš, Janis

    2013-01-01

    The place of physical education has been contested in recent times and it has been argued that its justification as part of school curricula seems to be marginal at best. Such justifications as have been offered, propose that physical education is justified because of its contribution to moral development or because it is capable of being studied…

  15. Electrical Stimulation of Lateral Habenula during Learning: Frequency-Dependent Effects on Acquisition but Not Retrieval of a Two-Way Active Avoidance Response

    PubMed Central

    Wetzel, Wolfram; Scheich, Henning; Ohl, Frank W.

    2013-01-01

    The lateral habenula (LHb) is an epithalamic structure involved in signaling reward omission and aversive stimuli, and it inhibits dopaminergic neurons during motivated behavior. Less is known about LHb involvement in the acquisition and retrieval of avoidance learning. Our previous studies indicated that brief electrical stimulation of the LHb, time-locked to the avoidance of aversive footshock (presumably during the positive affective “relief” state that occurs when an aversive outcome is averted), inhibited the acquisition of avoidance learning. In the present study, we used the same paradigm to investigate different frequencies of LHb stimulation. The effect of 20 Hz vs. 50 Hz vs. 100 Hz stimulation was investigated during two phases, either during acquisition or retrieval in Mongolian gerbils. The results indicated that 50 Hz, but not 20 Hz, was sufficient to produce a long-term impairment in avoidance learning, and was somewhat more effective than 100 Hz in this regard. None of the stimulation parameters led to any effects on retrieval of avoidance learning, nor did they affect general motor activity. This suggests that, at frequencies in excess of the observed tonic firing rates of LHb neurons (>1–20 Hz), LHb stimulation may serve to interrupt the consolidation of new avoidance memories. However, these stimulation parameters are not capable of modifying avoidance memories that have already undergone extensive consolidation. PMID:23840355

  16. Pre- and postnatally administered ACTH, Organon 2766 and CRF facilitate or inhibit active avoidance task performance in young adult mice.

    PubMed

    Honour, L C; White, M H

    1988-01-01

    This study investigated the effect of learning/memory-related neuropeptides on behavioral task performance in later life. A 1 mg/kg dosage of adrenocorticotropic hormone 4-9, Organon 2766, ACTH/MSH 4-10, ACTH 1-24, CRF, or diluent was subcutaneously injected into either pregnant females or into newborn pups during specific neural developmental windows. Each of the progeny was trained in an active-avoidance task and tested for acquisition on postpartum days 35-37. The mice were then tested for memory task performance and reacquisition on days 42-44 postpartum using the identical experimental paradigm as that used in the training sessions. Prenatal treatment with these memory-related neuropeptides resulted in significant facilitation of learning/memory task performance in male and female mice treated with Organon 2766 (p less than 0.001), and a significant inhibition of learning/memory task performance in males and females treated with ACTH 1-24 (p less than 0.01). Additional sex-specific performance facilitations and inhibitions resulted from the pre- or postnatal administration of the various neuropeptides used in this study. These results suggest that neuropeptides, when available in increased amounts during specific neural developmental windows, can significantly improve or suppress related behavioral performance capability in later life.

  17. Facilitation and nonfacilitation of active avoidance behavior of rats with septal lesions in the shuttle box and running wheel.

    PubMed

    Blatt, R C

    1976-07-01

    It was hypothesized that facilitation of avoidance performance of rats with septal lesions occurs only in tasks that punish responses having the same topography as the avoidance response, such as intertrial responses, or tasks that have aversive consequences for making the avoidance response, such as a brightly illuminated safe compartment. Twenty-eight male rats were trained in two shuttle box tasks, and 24 were trained in two running-wheel avoidance tasks under conditions of punishment or nonpunishment of intertrial responses. Rats with septal lesions performed better than control rats in both the shuttle box and the wheel tasks when intertrial responses were punished. When intertrial responding was not punished, experimental and control groups did not differ in avoidance performance. Avoidance performance of punished and unpunished rats with septal lesions did not differ from each other or from unpunished control rats in either wheel or shuttle box tasks. These results were discussed in the context of the species-specific defense reaction (SSDR) avoidance theory of Bolles. It was suggested that septal lesions interfere with the suppression of ineffective SSDRs.

  18. Active and Avoidant Coping and Coping Efficacy as Mediators of the Relation of Maternal Involvement to Depressive Symptoms among Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Prelow, Hazel M.

    2007-01-01

    Our study tested an extension of the social resource model in an urban sample of 129 African American and 114 European American adolescents. Maternal involvement was positively related to the use of active and avoidant coping strategies among youth of both ethnicities. Additionally, use of active coping strategies was related to greater coping…

  19. Ten weeks of physical-cognitive-mindfulness training reduces fear-avoidance beliefs about work-related activity: Randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Berthelsen, Kasper Gymoese; Schraefel, Mc; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars L

    2016-08-01

    People with chronic musculoskeletal pain often experience pain-related fear of movement and avoidance behavior. The Fear-Avoidance model proposes a possible mechanism at least partly explaining the development and maintenance of chronic pain. People who interpret pain during movement as being potentially harmful to the organism may initiate a vicious behavioral cycle by generating pain-related fear of movement accompanied by avoidance behavior and hyper-vigilance.This study investigates whether an individually adapted multifactorial approach comprised of biopsychosocial elements, with a focus on physical exercise, mindfulness, and education on pain and behavior, can decrease work-related fear-avoidance beliefs.As part of a large scale 10-week worksite randomized controlled intervention trial focusing on company initiatives to combat work-related musculoskeletal pain and stress, we evaluated fear-avoidance behavior in 112 female laboratory technicians with chronic neck, shoulder, upper back, lower back, elbow, and hand/wrist pain using the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire at baseline, before group allocation, and again at the post intervention follow-up 10 weeks later.A significant group by time interaction was observed (P < 0.05) for work-related fear-avoidance beliefs. The between-group difference at follow-up was -2.2 (-4.0 to -0.5), corresponding to a small to medium effect size (Cohen's d = 0.30).Our study shows that work-related, but not leisure time activity-related, fear-avoidance beliefs, as assessed by the Fear-avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, can be significantly reduced by 10 weeks of physical-cognitive-mindfulness training in female laboratory technicians with chronic pain.

  20. Ten weeks of physical-cognitive-mindfulness training reduces fear-avoidance beliefs about work-related activity: Randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Jay, Kenneth; Brandt, Mikkel; Jakobsen, Markus Due; Sundstrup, Emil; Berthelsen, Kasper Gymoese; Schraefel, Mc; Sjøgaard, Gisela; Andersen, Lars L

    2016-08-01

    People with chronic musculoskeletal pain often experience pain-related fear of movement and avoidance behavior. The Fear-Avoidance model proposes a possible mechanism at least partly explaining the development and maintenance of chronic pain. People who interpret pain during movement as being potentially harmful to the organism may initiate a vicious behavioral cycle by generating pain-related fear of movement accompanied by avoidance behavior and hyper-vigilance.This study investigates whether an individually adapted multifactorial approach comprised of biopsychosocial elements, with a focus on physical exercise, mindfulness, and education on pain and behavior, can decrease work-related fear-avoidance beliefs.As part of a large scale 10-week worksite randomized controlled intervention trial focusing on company initiatives to combat work-related musculoskeletal pain and stress, we evaluated fear-avoidance behavior in 112 female laboratory technicians with chronic neck, shoulder, upper back, lower back, elbow, and hand/wrist pain using the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire at baseline, before group allocation, and again at the post intervention follow-up 10 weeks later.A significant group by time interaction was observed (P < 0.05) for work-related fear-avoidance beliefs. The between-group difference at follow-up was -2.2 (-4.0 to -0.5), corresponding to a small to medium effect size (Cohen's d = 0.30).Our study shows that work-related, but not leisure time activity-related, fear-avoidance beliefs, as assessed by the Fear-avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, can be significantly reduced by 10 weeks of physical-cognitive-mindfulness training in female laboratory technicians with chronic pain. PMID:27559939

  1. Localization of genes influencing ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and locomotor activity in BXD recombinant inbred mice.

    PubMed

    Cunningham, C L

    1995-07-01

    Genetic differences in ethanol's ability to induce conditioned place preference were studied in 20 BXD Recombinant Inbred (RI) mouse strains and in the C57BL/6J and DBA/2J progenitor strains. Male mice from each strain were exposed to a Pavlovian conditioning procedure in which a distinctive floor stimulus (CS+) was paired four times with ethanol (2 g/kg). A different floor stimulus (CS-) was paired with saline. Control mice were injected only with saline. Floor preference testing without ethanol revealed significant genetic differences in conditioned place preference, with some strains spending nearly 80% time on the ethanol-paired floor while others spent only 50% (i.e., no preference). Control mice showed genetic differences in unconditioned preference for the floor cues, but unconditioned preference was not genetically correlated with conditioned preference. There were also substantial genetic differences in ethanol-stimulated activity, but contrary to psychomotor stimulant theory, ethanol-induced activity on conditioning trials was not positively correlated with strength of conditioned place preference. However, there was a significant negative genetic correlation (r = -0.42) between test session activity and preference. Quantitative trait loci (QTL) analyses showed strong associations (P < 0.01) between conditioned place preference and marker loci on chromosomes 4, 8, 9, 18 and 19. Weaker associations (0.01 < P < 0.05) were identified on several other chromosomes. Analysis also yielded several significant QTL for unconditioned preference, ethanol-stimulated activity, and sensitization. Overall, these data support the conclusion that genotype influences ethanol-induced conditioned place preference, presumably via genetic differences in sensitivity to ethanol's rewarding effects. Moreover, several chromosomal regions containing candidate genes of potential relevance to ethanol-induced conditioned place preference have been identified.

  2. Episodic-like memory trace in awake replay of hippocampal place cell activity sequences.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory retrieval of events at a specific place and time is effective for future planning. Sequential reactivation of the hippocampal place cells along familiar paths while the animal pauses is well suited to such a memory retrieval process. It is, however, unknown whether this awake replay represents events occurring along the path. Using a subtask switching protocol in which the animal experienced three subtasks as 'what' information in a maze, I here show that the replay represents a trial type, consisting of path and subtask, in terms of neuronal firing timings and rates. The actual trial type to be rewarded could only be reliably predicted from replays that occurred at the decision point. This trial-type representation implies that not only 'where and when' but also 'what' information is contained in the replay. This result supports the view that awake replay is an episodic-like memory retrieval process. PMID:26481131

  3. Episodic-like memory trace in awake replay of hippocampal place cell activity sequences.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory retrieval of events at a specific place and time is effective for future planning. Sequential reactivation of the hippocampal place cells along familiar paths while the animal pauses is well suited to such a memory retrieval process. It is, however, unknown whether this awake replay represents events occurring along the path. Using a subtask switching protocol in which the animal experienced three subtasks as 'what' information in a maze, I here show that the replay represents a trial type, consisting of path and subtask, in terms of neuronal firing timings and rates. The actual trial type to be rewarded could only be reliably predicted from replays that occurred at the decision point. This trial-type representation implies that not only 'where and when' but also 'what' information is contained in the replay. This result supports the view that awake replay is an episodic-like memory retrieval process.

  4. 41 CFR 102-75.130 - If hazardous substance activity took place on the property, what specific information must an...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... substance activity took place on the property, the reporting agency must include information on the type and.... The reporting agency must also advise the disposal agency if all remedial action necessary to protect... the date the property was reported excess. If such action was not taken, the reporting agency...

  5. Training in the step-down inhibitory avoidance task time-dependently increases cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity in the entorhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Pereira, P; Ardenghi, P; Mello e Souza, T; Medina, J H; Izquierdo, I

    2001-06-01

    The cAMP/cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA) signaling pathway has been implicated in synaptic plasticity changes and memory consolidation. Several cortical structures are involved in the consolidation of memory for inhibitory avoidance. The aim of the present work was to observe the effects of training in the inhibitory avoidance task on the levels of PKA activity in the entorhinal, parietal and posterior cingulate cortex (EC, PARIET and PC), and the medial precentral area (Fr2) of the rat, at different post-training times (0, 1.5, 3 and 6h). PKA activity, assayed using [gamma-32P]ATP and kemptide, a selective substrate, increased in the EC 3 h after training, but no changes were observed in PARIET, PC and Fr2. These results suggest that the late phase of memory consolidation of inhibitory avoidance requires a functional PKA signaling pathway in the EC in a way that a 'peak' of PKA activity is observed.

  6. Medial temporal lobe activation during autobiographical context memory retrieval of time and place and its dependency upon recency.

    PubMed

    Lux, Silke; Bindrich, Valeska N; Markowitsch, Hans J; Fink, Gereon R

    2015-02-01

    The contribution of the medial temporal lobe (MTL) to the retrieval of autobiographical memories is widely accepted. Results of former patient studies and functional imaging studies suggest different involvement of the MTL during the retrieval of autobiographical context information and the remoteness of these. Varying recency, the MTL contribution during chronological and locational autobiographical context information processing was investigated in this study. Thirteen males (mean = 25 years) judged the event's place or time in a two-choice recognition task. Subjects made significantly more errors on chronological judgments. Retrieval of chronological information activated the left MTL, while retrieval of locational information activated the MTL bilaterally. Retrieval of more recent than remote context information activated especially the right MTL. Our results underline different MTL contributions on the retrieval of autobiographical context information, depending on the content and on the remoteness of the event that took place.

  7. Episodic-like memory trace in awake replay of hippocampal place cell activity sequences

    PubMed Central

    Takahashi, Susumu

    2015-01-01

    Episodic memory retrieval of events at a specific place and time is effective for future planning. Sequential reactivation of the hippocampal place cells along familiar paths while the animal pauses is well suited to such a memory retrieval process. It is, however, unknown whether this awake replay represents events occurring along the path. Using a subtask switching protocol in which the animal experienced three subtasks as ‘what’ information in a maze, I here show that the replay represents a trial type, consisting of path and subtask, in terms of neuronal firing timings and rates. The actual trial type to be rewarded could only be reliably predicted from replays that occurred at the decision point. This trial-type representation implies that not only ‘where and when’ but also ‘what’ information is contained in the replay. This result supports the view that awake replay is an episodic-like memory retrieval process. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.08105.001 PMID:26481131

  8. Absence of "Warm-Up" during Active Avoidance Learning in a Rat Model of Anxiety Vulnerability: Insights from Computational Modeling.

    PubMed

    Myers, Catherine E; Smith, Ian M; Servatius, Richard J; Beck, Kevin D

    2014-01-01

    Avoidance behaviors, in which a learned response causes omission of an upcoming punisher, are a core feature of many psychiatric disorders. While reinforcement learning (RL) models have been widely used to study the development of appetitive behaviors, less attention has been paid to avoidance. Here, we present a RL model of lever-press avoidance learning in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and in the inbred Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat, which has been proposed as a model of anxiety vulnerability. We focus on "warm-up," transiently decreased avoidance responding at the start of a testing session, which is shown by SD but not WKY rats. We first show that a RL model can correctly simulate key aspects of acquisition, extinction, and warm-up in SD rats; we then show that WKY behavior can be simulated by altering three model parameters, which respectively govern the tendency to explore new behaviors vs. exploit previously reinforced ones, the tendency to repeat previous behaviors regardless of reinforcement, and the learning rate for predicting future outcomes. This suggests that several, dissociable mechanisms may contribute independently to strain differences in behavior. The model predicts that, if the "standard" inter-session interval is shortened from 48 to 24 h, SD rats (but not WKY) will continue to show warm-up; we confirm this prediction in an empirical study with SD and WKY rats. The model further predicts that SD rats will continue to show warm-up with inter-session intervals as short as a few minutes, while WKY rats will not show warm-up, even with inter-session intervals as long as a month. Together, the modeling and empirical data indicate that strain differences in warm-up are qualitative rather than just the result of differential sensitivity to task variables. Understanding the mechanisms that govern expression of warm-up behavior in avoidance may lead to better understanding of pathological avoidance, and potential pathways to modify these processes. PMID:25183956

  9. Healthy places, active transport and path dependence: a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Hensley, Melissa; Mateo-Babiano, Derlie; Minnery, John

    2014-12-01

    Children walking to school, people cycling to the shops or work and neighbours chatting in the street, these are some of the gauges of an active and healthy community that can be achieved through utilising good design principles. But are these principles being applied in urban developments or are policy-makers following a 'path dependent' trajectory that severely limits the best practice outcomes sought? This review examines current research on path dependence to determine how this concept advances our understanding of barriers to change in the built environment, active transport and healthy communities. An online database search of scholarly bibliographic records identified 22 relevant articles for a critical review of studies that evaluated path dependence in the urban and built environment literature with a focus on transport, urban planning and health. A thematic analysis of the articles showed that different types of path dependence have contributed to the dominance of policies and designs supporting car-based transport to the detriment of public transport and active transport modes, leading to sub-optimal development patterns becoming 'locked-in'. However, the outcomes for active transport and physical activity are not all dire, and path dependence theory does provide some guidance on changing policy to achieve better outcomes. This review suggests that path dependence is one of the best theoretical frameworks to help health promoters understand barriers to change and can provide insights into developing future successful public health interventions. Future studies could focus further on active transport, local neighbourhood development and physical activity.

  10. Intra-Amygdala ZIP Injections Impair the Memory of Learned Active Avoidance Responses and Attenuate Conditioned Taste-Aversion Acquisition in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gamiz, Fernando; Gallo, Milagros

    2011-01-01

    We have investigated the effect of protein kinase Mzeta (PKM[zeta]) inhibition in the basolateral amygdala (BLA) upon the retention of a nonspatial learned active avoidance response and conditioned taste-aversion (CTA) acquisition in rats. ZIP (10 nmol/[mu]L) injected into the BLA 24 h after training impaired retention of a learned…

  11. Using MapMyFitness to Place Physical Activity into Neighborhood Context.

    PubMed

    Hirsch, Jana A; James, Peter; Robinson, Jamaica R M; Eastman, Kyler M; Conley, Kevin D; Evenson, Kelly R; Laden, Francine

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to obtain detailed information on the context of physical activity at large geographic scales, such as the entire United States, as well as over long periods of time, such as over years. MapMyFitness is a suite of interactive tools for individuals to track their workouts online or using global positioning system in their phones or other wireless trackers. This method article discusses the use of physical activity data tracked using MapMyFitness to examine patterns over space and time. An overview of MapMyFitness, including data tracked, user information, and geographic scope, is explored. We illustrate the utility of MapMyFitness data using tracked physical activity by users in Winston-Salem, NC, USA between 2006 and 2013. Types of physical activities tracked are described, as well as the percent of activities occurring in parks. Strengths of MapMyFitness data include objective data collection, low participant burden, extensive geographic scale, and longitudinal series. Limitations include generalizability, behavioral change as the result of technology use, and potential ethical considerations. MapMyFitness is a powerful tool to investigate patterns of physical activity across large geographic and temporal scales.

  12. Using MapMyFitness to Place Physical Activity into Neighborhood Context

    PubMed Central

    Hirsch, Jana A.; James, Peter; Robinson, Jamaica R. M.; Eastman, Kyler M.; Conley, Kevin D.; Evenson, Kelly R.; Laden, Francine

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to obtain detailed information on the context of physical activity at large geographic scales, such as the entire United States, as well as over long periods of time, such as over years. MapMyFitness is a suite of interactive tools for individuals to track their workouts online or using global positioning system in their phones or other wireless trackers. This method article discusses the use of physical activity data tracked using MapMyFitness to examine patterns over space and time. An overview of MapMyFitness, including data tracked, user information, and geographic scope, is explored. We illustrate the utility of MapMyFitness data using tracked physical activity by users in Winston-Salem, NC, USA between 2006 and 2013. Types of physical activities tracked are described, as well as the percent of activities occurring in parks. Strengths of MapMyFitness data include objective data collection, low participant burden, extensive geographic scale, and longitudinal series. Limitations include generalizability, behavioral change as the result of technology use, and potential ethical considerations. MapMyFitness is a powerful tool to investigate patterns of physical activity across large geographic and temporal scales. PMID:24653982

  13. Activity recognition using a single accelerometer placed at the wrist or ankle

    PubMed Central

    Mannini, Andrea; Intille, Stephen S.; Rosenberger, Mary; Sabatini, Angelo M.; Haskell, William

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE Large physical activity surveillance projects such as the UK Biobank and NHANES are using wrist-worn accelerometer-based activity monitors that collect raw data. The goal is to increase wear time by asking subjects to wear the monitors on the wrist instead of the hip, and then to use information in the raw signal to improve activity type and intensity estimation. The purpose of this work is obtaining an algorithm to process wrist and ankle raw data and classify behavior into four broad activity classes: ambulation, cycling, sedentary and other. METHODS Participants (N = 33) wearing accelerometers on the wrist and ankle performed 26 daily activities. The accelerometer data were collected, cleaned, and preprocessed to extract features that characterize 2 s, 4 s, and 12.8 s data windows. Feature vectors encoding information about frequency and intensity of motion extracted from analysis of the raw signal were used with a support vector machine classifier to identify a subject’s activity. Results were compared with categories classified by a human observer. Algorithms were validated using a leave-one-subject-out strategy. The computational complexity of each processing step was also evaluated. RESULTS With 12.8 s windows, the proposed strategy showed high classification accuracies for ankle data (95.0%) that decreased to 84.7% for wrist data. Shorter (4 s) windows only minimally decreased performances of the algorithm on the wrist to 84.2%. CONCLUSIONS A classification algorithm using 13 features shows good classification into the four classes given the complexity of the activities in the original dataset. The algorithm is computationally-efficient and could be implemented in real-time on mobile devices with only 4 s latency. PMID:23604069

  14. Attributing activity space as risky and safe: The social dimension to the meaning of place for urban adolescents.

    PubMed

    Mason, Michael J

    2010-09-01

    The social dimension of urban adolescents' interpretation of their activity space was investigated by examining reasons for attributing place as risky and safe, and analyzing these reasons by social network quality. Activity space and social network data were collected on 301 teens presenting for routine medical check-ups. SPSS Text Analysis for Surveys performed linguistic analyses on open-ended survey responses, applying concept derivation, concept inclusion, semantic networks, and co-occurrence rules. Results produced 13 categories of reasons for locations attributed as risky and safe. Categories were then transformed into dichotomous variables and analyzed with chi-square tests by social network quality. Results indicated two categories of reasons for locations attributed as risky: alcohol and drugs and Illegal activity, which were dependent upon social network quality. Two categories of reasons for locations attributed as safe, namely protective place and Neighborhood, were also dependent upon social network quality. These findings assert that adolescents' social networks influence their interpretations of risk and safety, highlighting a social dimension to the meaning of place.

  15. Promoting active transportation as a partnership between urban planning and public health: the columbus healthy places program.

    PubMed

    Green, Christine Godward; Klein, Elizabeth G

    2011-01-01

    Active transportation has been considered as one method to address the American obesity epidemic. To address obesity prevention through built-environment change, the local public health department in Columbus, Ohio, established the Columbus Healthy Places (CHP) program to formally promote active transportation in numerous aspects of community design for the city. In this article, we present a case study of the CHP program and discuss the review of city development rezoning applications as a successful strategy to link public health to urban planning. Prior to the CHP review, 7% of development applications in Columbus included active transportation components; in 2009, 64% of development applications adopted active transportation components specifically recommended by the CHP review. Active transportation recommendations generally included adding bike racks, widening or adding sidewalks, and providing sidewalk connectivity. Recommendations and lessons learned from CHP are provided.

  16. Effects of ionizing radiation and restraint stress on activity, avoidance conditioning, and stomach ulcers in albino rats. Final report October 1980-December 1981

    SciTech Connect

    Lanum, J.; Blick, D.W.; Campbell, M.E.; Wheeler, T.G.; Koger, S.A.

    1984-03-01

    In an experiment with albino rats, we have tried to model a nuclear attack scenario in which military personnel receiving 600 to 800 rads of ionizing radiation would be making a counterattack under the stress of an emergency situation. We used a dose of radiation that, though higher than the human exposure field, was estimated to be its physiological equivalent. Restraining the rat in an immobile position, a technique previously shown to have stressing qualities for rats, was chosen as an analogy to the stress of being in a war emergency. Activity and conditioned avoidance acquisition were chosen as test responses. Performance in the activity maze was affected only to a minor degree and in the direction of considering irradiation as activating. However, all irradiated groups showed retarded conditioned avoidance acquisition, which can be interpreted as decreased adaptability to a stressful situation. Further, our results support the expectation of performance decrements in the military scenario that could not be predicted by considering ionizing radiation in isolation. On the avoidance task, male rats in the combination stress-irradiation condition showed more failures to respond and longer response latencies than any other group. Female rats, on the other hand, showed shorter escape/avoidance latencies in the combined stress-irradiation condition than in the irradiation condition alone. This sex difference may be useful as a clue for investigating mechanisms of radiation resistance and interactions between stressors.

  17. Place Disparities in Supportive Environments for Extracurricular Physical Activity in North Carolina Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Michael B.; Bocarro, Jason N.; Kanters, Michael A.

    2013-01-01

    Disadvantaged rural youth may be especially at risk for obesity and poorer health due to physical inactivity. Research suggests that extracurricular school programs can increase physical activity for this population. This study sought to determine whether local differences existed in the availability of supportive environments for extracurricular…

  18. Does Father Absence Place Daughters at Special Risk for Early Sexual Activity and Teenage Pregnancy?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Bruce J.; Bates, John E.; Dodge, Kenneth A.; Fergusson, David M.; Horwood, L. John; Pettit, Gregory S.; Woodward, Lianne

    2003-01-01

    Longitudinal studies in two countries investigated impact of father absence on girls' early sexual activity (ESA) and teenage pregnancy. Findings indicated that greater exposure to father absence strongly related to elevated ESA and adolescent pregnancy risk. Elevated risk was not explained (U.S. sample) or only partly explained (New Zealand…

  19. Using an Informal Cardiovascular System Activity to Study the Effectiveness of Science Education in Unexpected Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monzack, Elyssa Lynne; Zenner Petersen, Greta M.

    2011-01-01

    Venues for informal science education are usually those sought out by people who are specifically looking for an educational experience. Whether planning a trip to a museum or choosing a television program, these individuals are actively seeking an informal educational experience; they are a self-selected group. This paper investigates whether…

  20. Public Libraries as Places for Empowering Women through Autonomous Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoshida, Yuko

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. The purpose of this research is to investigate the significance of public libraries as educational institutions. The meaning of lifelong learning in public libraries from the perspective of women's autonomous activities is re-examined. Method. The literature of the grassroots library movement and that of the empowerment of women…

  1. [Analyses of the activities of home care supporting clinics in Tokyo from the standpoint of place of death].

    PubMed

    Tsukada, Chihiro; Hanabusa, Hiroo; Akiyama, Akiko

    2013-12-01

    We examined the activities of home care supporting clinics (HCSC) in Tokyo, Japan, from the standpoint of the place of death. The number of HCSCs in Tokyo was 1,246 in 2010. Fifteen HCSCs cared for > or = 50 patients who died at home in a year. In contrast, the 19 HCSCs in the top 10 percentile for the number of patients (> or = 176) did not have any patients who died at home. Their patients died at hospitals or facilities. These results suggest that the activities of HCSCs in Tokyo are diverse.

  2. Involvement of tissue plasminogen activator "tPA" in ethanol-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned-place preference.

    PubMed

    Bahi, Amine; Dreyer, Jean-Luc

    2012-01-01

    Ethanol is one of the most abused drugs in the western societies. It is well established that mesolimbic dopaminergic neurons mediate the rewarding properties of ethanol. In our previous studies we have shown that the serine protease tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) is involved in the rewarding properties of morphine and amphetamine. In the current study, we investigated the role of tPA in ethanol-induced behavioral sensitization and conditioned-place preference (CPP). Ethanol treatment dose-dependently induced tPA enzymatic activity in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). In addition, ethanol-induced increase in tPA activity was completely inhibited by pre-treatment with the dopamine D1 and D2 receptor antagonists SCH23390 and raclopride respectively. Furthermore, ethanol-induced locomotor stimulation, behavioral sensitization and conditioned-place preference were enhanced following tPA over-expression in the NAc using a lentiviral vector. In contrast, tPA knock down in the NAc with specific shRNA blocked the rewarding properties of ethanol. The defect of locomotor stimulation in shRNA-injected mice was reversed by microinjections of exogenous recombinant tPA into the nucleus accumbens. Collectively, these results indicate, for the first time, that activation of tPA is effective in enhancing the rewarding effects of ethanol. Targeting the tissue plasminogen activator system would provide new therapeutic approaches to the treatment of alcoholism.

  3. Localized injections of various compounds effecting neurotransmitter activity in the mammillary complex enhance (T-maze) avoidance retention.

    PubMed

    Flood, J F; Scherrer, J F; Morley, J E

    1995-03-14

    The mammillary complex is implicated in the amnesic syndrome associated clinically with Korsakoff's syndrome, Alzheimer's disease and experimentally with lesions in animals. There is however no direct evidence that the mammillary bodies are involved in long term memory processing. Mice were partially trained on a footshock avoidance task. Immediately after training drugs were injected into the mammillary complex. Retention was tested 1 week later by continuing training until each mouse made five avoidance responses in six trials. The results indicated that muscarine, nicotine, dopamine, glutamine and adrenoceptor agonists as well as GABA and 5-HT receptor antagonists and neuropeptide Y improved retention test performance relative to the control. Injection of the same drugs 1 mm above the injection site for the mammillary complex failed to significantly improve retention test performance. It is concluded that the mammillary complex, with its important connections to other areas of the limbic system, is involved in memory processing events that occur shortly after training.

  4. [Effect of serotonin on the activity of the neurons involved in the realization of the avoidance reflex of the snail].

    PubMed

    Chistiakova, M V; Balaban, P M

    1988-01-01

    Bath application of 10(-5) mol/l of serotonin (5-HT) elicited a 50% increase of summary EPSPs recorded in command neurones for avoidance behaviour. No significant changes of rest potential and input resistance were seen in these cells. 5-HT evoked an increase of spontaneous level of firing in motoneurones involved in the same reflex, as well as an increase in the number of spikes which paralleled increase of EPSPs to the same stimulus in command neurones. In sensory cells, presynaptic to the command neurones, application of 5-HT evoked a significant increase of excitability and of input resistance. Monosynaptic EPSPs recorded in the command neurones showed a 40% increase after serotonin application. It is concluded that the major locus of plastic changes evoked by 5-HT application in the neuronal chain underlying avoidance reflex is the synaptic contact between sensory and command neurones.

  5. Elbow and wrist joint contact forces during occupational pick and place activities.

    PubMed

    Chadwick, E K; Nicol, A C

    2000-05-01

    A three-dimensional, mathematical model of the elbow and wrist joints, including 15 muscle units, 3 ligaments and 4 joint forces, has been developed. A new strain gauge transducer has been developed to measure functional grip forces. The device measures radial forces divided into six components and forces of up to 250N per segment can be measured with an accuracy of +/-1%. Ten normal volunteers were asked to complete four tasks representing occupational activities, during which time their grip force was monitored. Together with kinematic information from the six-camera Vicon data, the moment effect of these loads at the joints was calculated. These external moments are assumed to be balanced by the internal moments, generated by the muscles, passive soft tissue and bone contact. The effectiveness of the body's internal structures in generating joint moments was assessed by studying the geometry of a simplified model of the structures, where information about the lines of action and moment arms of muscles, tendons and ligaments is contained. The assumption of equilibrium between these external and internal joint moments allows formulation of a set of equations from which muscle and joint forces can be calculated. A two stage, linear optimisation routine minimising the overall muscle stress and the sum of the joint forces has been used to overcome the force-sharing problem. Humero-ulnar forces of up to 1600N, humero-radial forces of up to 800N and wrist joint forces of up to 2800N were found for moderate level activity. The model was validated by comparison with other studies.

  6. Identifying Place Histories from Activity Traces with an Eye to Parameter Impact.

    PubMed

    Andrienko, Gennady; Andrienko, Natalia; Mladenov, Martin; Mock, Michael; Pölitz, Christian

    2012-05-01

    Events that happened in the past are important for understanding the ongoing processes, predicting future developments, and making informed decisions. Important and/or interesting events tend to attract many people. Some people leave traces of their attendance in the form of computer-processable data, such as records in the databases of mobile phone operators or photos on photo sharing web sites. We developed a suite of visual analytics methods for reconstructing past events from these activity traces. Our tools combine geocomputations, interactive geovisualizations, and statistical methods to enable integrated analysis of the spatial, temporal, and thematic components of the data, including numeric attributes and texts.We also support interactive investigation of the sensitivity of the analysis results to the parameters used in the computations. For this purpose, statistical summaries of computation results obtained with different combinations of parameter values are visualized in a way facilitating comparisons. We demonstrate the utility of our approach on two large real data sets, mobile phone calls in Milano during 9 days and flickr photos made on British Isles during 5 years.

  7. The Volunteering-in-Place (VIP) Program: Providing meaningful volunteer activity to residents in assisted living with mild cognitive impairment.

    PubMed

    Klinedinst, N Jennifer; Resnick, Barbara

    2016-01-01

    The Volunteering-in-Place (VIP) Program was developed to provide individualized meaningful volunteer activities matched to interests and capabilities for older adults with MCI in assisted living. The purposes of this single-site pre-test/post-test pilot study were to (1) establish feasibility of the VIP Program based on treatment fidelity (design, treatment, delivery, enactment); and (2) evaluate preliminary efficacy via improvement in psychological health (depressive symptoms, usefulness, purpose, resilience, and life satisfaction) and decreased sedentary activity (survey and Fitbit) at 3 and 6 months. Ten residents participated. The majority was white, female and educated, and on average 88 years old. The VIP Program was feasible and most participants continued to volunteer at 6 months. There were non-significant improvements in depressive symptoms, usefulness, purpose, resilience and recreational physical activity. The results of this study provide support for the feasibility of the VIP Program. Further study is necessary to examine efficacy.

  8. Teachers Avoiding Learners' Avoidance: Is It Possible?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tadayyon, Maedeh; Zarrinabadi, Nourollah; Ketabi, Saeed

    2016-01-01

    Dealing with learners who prefer to take the back seat and avoid classroom participation can be every teacher's nightmare. This lack of participation may cause teacher frustration, and possibly the only way to reduce this lack of participation is to access the concept of avoidance strategy. Avoidance strategy is the abandonment of a classroom task…

  9. [Yearly change of the relationship between the place of death and activity of home care supporting clinics in Tokyo, Japan].

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Akiko; Hanabusa, Hiroo; Mikami, Hiroshi

    2011-12-01

    We examined a yearly change of the relationship between the place of death and the activity of home care supporting clinics(HCSC)in Tokyo, Japan. The number of HCSCs by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare has edged up slightly from 1, 166 in 2008 to 1, 246 in 2010. The number of total patients provided the care by HCSC has increased by 24. 4% from 2009 to 2010. There was a 9. 3% increase in the patients provided the care by HCSC, and died at home from 2009 to 2010. These results suggested that the home care support system has proceeded gradually in Tokyo, Japan.

  10. [Relationship between the activity of home care supporting clinics and the place of death in Tokyo, Japan].

    PubMed

    Akiyama, Akiko; Hanabusa, Hiroo; Mikami, Hiroshi

    2010-12-01

    We examined the relation between the activity of home care supporting clinics and the place of death in Tokyo, Japan. Of 1,209 clinics certified home care supporting clinics by the Japanese Ministry of Health, Labor and Welfare, 9.1% were not functioning for a year and 34.7% of them did not deal with patient's home death. Of patients who died at home, 64.3% utilized home care supporting clinics which dealt with 11 or more patient's death at home per year.

  11. Avoidable waste management costs

    SciTech Connect

    Hsu, K.; Burns, M.; Priebe, S.; Robinson, P.

    1995-01-01

    This report describes the activity based costing method used to acquire variable (volume dependent or avoidable) waste management cost data for routine operations at Department of Energy (DOE) facilities. Waste volumes from environmental restoration, facility stabilization activities, and legacy waste were specifically excluded from this effort. A core team consisting of Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Los Alamos National Laboratory, Rocky Flats Environmental Technology Site, and Oak Ridge Reservation developed and piloted the methodology, which can be used to determine avoidable waste management costs. The method developed to gather information was based on activity based costing, which is a common industrial engineering technique. Sites submitted separate flow diagrams that showed the progression of work from activity to activity for each waste type or treatability group. Each activity on a flow diagram was described in a narrative, which detailed the scope of the activity. Labor and material costs based on a unit quantity of waste being processed were then summed to generate a total cost for that flow diagram. Cross-complex values were calculated by determining a weighted average for each waste type or treatability group based on the volume generated. This study will provide DOE and contractors with a better understanding of waste management processes and their associated costs. Other potential benefits include providing cost data for sites to perform consistent cost/benefit analysis of waste minimization and pollution prevention (WMIN/PP) options identified during pollution prevention opportunity assessments and providing a means for prioritizing and allocating limited resources for WMIN/PP.

  12. Supramammillary serotonin reduction alters place learning and concomitant hippocampal, septal, and supramammillar theta activity in a Morris water maze.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Pérez, J Jesús; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca E; López-Vázquez, Miguel Á; Olvera-Cortés, María E

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal theta activity is related to spatial information processing, and high-frequency theta activity, in particular, has been linked to efficient spatial memory performance. Theta activity is regulated by the synchronizing ascending system (SAS), which includes mesencephalic and diencephalic relays. The supramamillary nucleus (SUMn) is located between the reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum (MS), in close relation with the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PHn), all of which are part of this ascending system. It has been proposed that the SUMn plays a role in the modulation of hippocampal theta-frequency; this could occur through direct connections between the SUMn and the hippocampus or through the influence of the SUMn on the MS. Serotonergic raphe neurons prominently innervate the hippocampus and several components of the SAS, including the SUMn. Serotonin desynchronizes hippocampal theta activity, and it has been proposed that serotonin may regulate learning through the modulation of hippocampal synchrony. In agreement with this hypothesis, serotonin depletion in the SUMn/PHn results in deficient spatial learning and alterations in CA1 theta activity-related learning in a Morris water maze. Because it has been reported that SUMn inactivation with lidocaine impairs the consolidation of reference memory, we asked whether changes in hippocampal theta activity related to learning would occur through serotonin depletion in the SUMn, together with deficiencies in memory. We infused 5,7-DHT bilaterally into the SUMn in rats and evaluated place learning in the standard Morris water maze task. Hippocampal (CA1 and dentate gyrus), septal and SUMn EEG were recorded during training of the test. The EEG power in each region and the coherence between the different regions were evaluated. Serotonin depletion in the SUMn induced deficient spatial learning and altered the expression of hippocampal high-frequency theta activity. These results provide evidence in

  13. Supramammillary serotonin reduction alters place learning and concomitant hippocampal, septal, and supramammillar theta activity in a Morris water maze

    PubMed Central

    Hernández-Pérez, J. Jesús; Gutiérrez-Guzmán, Blanca E.; López-Vázquez, Miguel Á.; Olvera-Cortés, María E.

    2015-01-01

    Hippocampal theta activity is related to spatial information processing, and high-frequency theta activity, in particular, has been linked to efficient spatial memory performance. Theta activity is regulated by the synchronizing ascending system (SAS), which includes mesencephalic and diencephalic relays. The supramamillary nucleus (SUMn) is located between the reticularis pontis oralis and the medial septum (MS), in close relation with the posterior hypothalamic nucleus (PHn), all of which are part of this ascending system. It has been proposed that the SUMn plays a role in the modulation of hippocampal theta-frequency; this could occur through direct connections between the SUMn and the hippocampus or through the influence of the SUMn on the MS. Serotonergic raphe neurons prominently innervate the hippocampus and several components of the SAS, including the SUMn. Serotonin desynchronizes hippocampal theta activity, and it has been proposed that serotonin may regulate learning through the modulation of hippocampal synchrony. In agreement with this hypothesis, serotonin depletion in the SUMn/PHn results in deficient spatial learning and alterations in CA1 theta activity-related learning in a Morris water maze. Because it has been reported that SUMn inactivation with lidocaine impairs the consolidation of reference memory, we asked whether changes in hippocampal theta activity related to learning would occur through serotonin depletion in the SUMn, together with deficiencies in memory. We infused 5,7-DHT bilaterally into the SUMn in rats and evaluated place learning in the standard Morris water maze task. Hippocampal (CA1 and dentate gyrus), septal and SUMn EEG were recorded during training of the test. The EEG power in each region and the coherence between the different regions were evaluated. Serotonin depletion in the SUMn induced deficient spatial learning and altered the expression of hippocampal high-frequency theta activity. These results provide evidence in

  14. Nicotine-induced place conditioning and locomotor activity in an adolescent animal model of attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD).

    PubMed

    Watterson, Elizabeth; Daniels, Carter W; Watterson, Lucas R; Mazur, Gabriel J; Brackney, Ryan J; Olive, M Foster; Sanabria, Federico

    2015-09-15

    Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is a risk factor for tobacco use and dependence. This study examines the responsiveness to nicotine of an adolescent model of ADHD, the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). The conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure was used to assess nicotine-induced locomotion and conditioned reward in SHR and the Wistar Kyoto (WKY) control strain over a range of nicotine doses (0.0, 0.1, 0.3 and 0.6 mg/kg). Prior to conditioning, SHRs were more active and less biased toward one side of the CPP chamber than WKY rats. Following conditioning, SHRs developed CPP to the highest dose of nicotine (0.6 mg/kg), whereas WKYs did not develop CPP to any nicotine dose tested. During conditioning, SHRs displayed greater locomotor activity in the nicotine-paired compartment than in the saline-paired compartment across conditioning trials. SHRs that received nicotine (0.1, 0.3, 0.6 mg/kg) in the nicotine-paired compartment showed an increase in locomotor activity between conditioning trials. Nicotine did not significantly affect WKY locomotor activity. These findings suggest that the SHR strain is a suitable model for studying ADHD-related nicotine use and dependence, but highlights potential limitations of the WKY control strain and the CPP procedure for modeling ADHD-related nicotine reward.

  15. Successive positive contrast in one-way avoidance behavior with Roman low-avoidance rats.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, A; Torres, C; Escarabajal, M D; Cándido, A; de la Torre, L; Gómez, M J; Tobeña, A; Fernández-Teruel, A

    2007-04-23

    The inbred Roman High- (RHA-I) and Roman Low-Avoidance (RLA-I) rats, psychogenetically selected for rapid (RHA-I) vs. extremely poor (RLA-I) acquisition of two-way active avoidance, exhibit a lower or a higher level of fearfulness, respectively, that can be observed in many laboratory anxiety models. The present study analyzed the performance of female RLA-I and RHA-I rats in a successive positive contrast situation induced during one-way avoidance learning. Three groups of RLA-I and three of RHA-I rats (1-30, 30-30 and 1-1 groups, the numbers stand for the time spent in the safe compartment during the first and second phase of training) were trained to avoid an electric foot-shock administered in a "danger" compartment, by running from this compartment to a "safe" one. Only RLA-I rats showed a significant positive contrast effect, in such a way that the reinforcement increase from the lower (1 s spent in safety) to the higher reward (30 s) led to a response enhancement, surpassing the performance of rats trained with the low (1-1 s) or the high (30-30 s) reward from the beginning of training. The results are discussed in the context of an opponent process theory based upon the interaction between the motivational strength of fear and the incentive value of relief taking place during one-way avoidance learning.

  16. Pyrazine analogs are active components of wolf urine that induce avoidance and fear-related behaviors in deer

    PubMed Central

    Osada, Kazumi; Miyazono, Sadaharu; Kashiwayanagi, Makoto

    2014-01-01

    Our previous studies indicated that a cocktail of pyrazine analogs, identified in wolf urine, induced avoidance and fear behaviors in mice. The effects of the pyrazine cocktail on Hokkaido deer (Cervus nippon yesoensis) were investigated in field bioassays at a deer park in Hokkaido, Japan. A set of feeding bioassay trials tested the effects of the pyrazine cocktail odor on the behavior of the deer located around a feeding area in August and September 2013. This odor effectively suppressed the approach of the deer to the feeding area. In addition, the pyrazine cocktail odor provoked fear-related behaviors, such as “tail-flag”, “flight” and “jump” actions, of the deer around the feeding area. This study is the first experimental demonstration that the pyrazine analogs in wolf urine have robust and continual fearful aversive effects on ungulates as well as mice. The pyrazine cocktail might be suitable for a chemical repellent that could limit damage to forests and agricultural crops by wild ungulates. PMID:25177281

  17. The activation of histamine-sensitive sites of the ventral hippocampus modulates the consolidation of a learned active avoidance response in rats.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Edgardo O; Banzan, Arturo M

    2008-05-16

    Previous evidence from our laboratory has shown that histamine receptors located into the ventral hippocampus modulate learning and memory processes. Stimulation of histamine hippocampal sensitive receptors during the acquisition phase of a conditioned avoidance response to an ultrasonic tone was able to increase latency to escape and impair memory in the rat. Histamine application into the same hippocampal region also impaired the evocation of the response. The purpose of the present work was to evaluate if histaminergic neuron circuits have participation on the consolidation processes of the conditioned avoiding response. Male adult rats were implanted into the ventral hippocampus with microinjection cannulae and subjected consecutively to 2 sessions of 8 trials to learn an avoidance response after an ultrasonic tone of 40 kHz was on, as it was previously described. Immediately after the training period was over, or 15 min after, different groups of rats were microinjected with saline, histamine or a combination of histamine H(1)- or H(2)-receptor antagonists. Twenty four hours later, animals were tested in a new session for the retention of the avoiding response. Results showed that histamine treatment interfered with the consolidation of the avoiding response, affecting latency and the memory efficiency. This interference was mediated by histamine H(1)- and H(2)-receptors, since pretreatment with pyrilamine or ranitidine blocked the inhibitory effect of histamine. Results support the concept that histaminergic neurotransmission modulates learning and memory by affecting selectively the three stages of learning.

  18. Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swihart, Donald E.; Skoog, Mark A.

    2007-01-01

    This document represents two views of the Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). One viewgraph presentation reviews the development and system design of Automatic Collision Avoidance Technology (ACAT). Two types of ACAT exist: Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance (AGCAS) and Automatic Air Collision Avoidance (AACAS). The AGCAS Uses Digital Terrain Elevation Data (DTED) for mapping functions, and uses Navigation data to place aircraft on map. It then scans DTED in front of and around aircraft and uses future aircraft trajectory (5g) to provide automatic flyup maneuver when required. The AACAS uses data link to determine position and closing rate. It contains several canned maneuvers to avoid collision. Automatic maneuvers can occur at last instant and both aircraft maneuver when using data link. The system can use sensor in place of data link. The second viewgraph presentation reviews the development of a flight test and an evaluation of the test. A review of the operation and comparison of the AGCAS and a pilot's performance are given. The same review is given for the AACAS is given.

  19. Feasibility of a cognitive behavioural group intervention to reduce fear of falling and associated avoidance of activity in community-living older people: a process evaluation

    PubMed Central

    van Haastregt, Jolanda CM; Zijlstra, GA Rixt; van Rossum, Erik; van Eijk, Jacques ThM; de Witte, Luc P; Kempen, Gertrudis IJM

    2007-01-01

    Background Fear of falling and associated avoidance of activity are common among older people and may have negative consequences in terms of functional decline, quality of life and institutionalisation. We evaluated the effects of a cognitive behavioural group intervention to reduce fear of falling and associated avoidance of activity among older persons. This intervention showed favourable effects on fear of falling, avoidance of activity, daily activity, and several secondary outcomes. The aim of the present study is to assess the feasibility of this cognitive behavioural group intervention for participants and facilitators. Methods The intervention consisted of eight weekly group sessions lasting two hours each and a booster session after six months. Self-administered questionnaires, registration forms and interviews were used to collect data from participants (n = 168) and facilitators (n = 6) on the extent to which the intervention was performed according to protocol, participant attendance, participant adherence, and participants' and facilitators' opinion of the intervention. Quantitative data from the questionnaires and registration forms were analysed by means of descriptive statistics. Qualitative data were categorised based on matching contents of the answers. Results Facilitators reported no major protocol deviations. Twenty-six percent of the participants withdrew before the start of the programme. Of the persons who started the programme, 84% actually completed it. The participants reported their adherence as good, but facilitators had a less favourable opinion of this. The majority of participants still reported substantial benefits from the programme after six and twelve months of follow-up (71% and 61% respectively). Both participants and facilitators provided suggestions for improvement of the intervention. Conclusion Results of this study show that the current cognitive behavioural group intervention is feasible for both participants and

  20. Effect of radicicol infusion on the Src tyrosine kinase activity of rat hippocampus before and after training in an inhibitory avoidance task.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Patrícia; Vinadé, Elsa; Rodrigues, Letícia; De David e Silva, Tiago L; Ardenghi, Patrícia; da Silva Brum, Lucimar Filot; Gonçalves, Carlos Alberto; Izquierdo, Iván

    2007-07-01

    The participation of protein serine/threonine kinases in memory formation and retrieval is well established. In contrast, relatively little is known on the role of protein tyrosine kinases (PTKs). Previous work showed that intra-hippocampal infusion of the Src-PTK inhibitor radicicol inhibits memory acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval of one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance task. In this study, we investigated the possible interaction between levels of Src-PTK activity in hippocampus and memory acquisition, formation, and retrieval of this task. Radicicol (0.5 microg/ml) was infused into the CA1 region of the hippocampus of rats trained in a one-trial step-down inhibitory avoidance task. Radicicol infused 15 min before training decreased Src-PTK activity, as measured 0, 1.5, and 24 h after training, and impaired memory acquisition of the task. When given immediately after training, there was a decrease in Src-PTK activity 1.5 h, but not 0 or 24 h after training. This treatment depressed memory consolidation. Radicicol infused into CA1 10 min prior to retrieval testing inhibited hippocampal Src-PTK activity, as measured immediately after the test session. The results suggest that Src-PTKs participate in memory acquisition, consolidation, and retrieval processes, but the timing of the role of the enzyme is different in each case.

  1. Avoiding Infusion Confusion 7th through 9th Grades. A Practical Handbook for Infusing Environmental Activities into Your Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayden, Harvey; And Others

    To some educators, infusing environmental education into different subject areas at different levels may seem like an insurmountable task. This handbook was developed to take the guesswork out of this process and alleviate the fear and confusion that may result. It was designed to assist with infusing knowledge, skill and attitude activities into…

  2. Unpredictable chronic stress decreases inhibitory avoidance learning in Tuebingen long-fin zebrafish: stronger effects in the resting phase than in the active phase.

    PubMed

    Manuel, Remy; Gorissen, Marnix; Zethof, Jan; Ebbesson, Lars O E; van de Vis, Hans; Flik, Gert; van den Bos, Ruud

    2014-11-01

    Zebrafish (Danio rerio Hamilton) are increasingly used as a model to study the effects of chronic stress on brain and behaviour. In rodents, unpredictable chronic stress (UCS) has a stronger effect on physiology and behaviour during the active phase than during the resting phase. Here, we applied UCS during the daytime (active phase) for 7 and 14 days or during the night-time (resting phase) for 7 nights in an in-house-reared Tuebingen long-fin (TLF) zebrafish strain. Following UCS, inhibitory avoidance learning was assessed using a 3 day protocol where fish learn to avoid swimming from a white to a black compartment where they will receive a 3 V shock. Latencies of entering the black compartment were recorded before training (day 1; first shock) and after training on day 2 (second shock) and day 3 (no shock, tissue sampling). Fish whole-body cortisol content and expression levels of genes related to stress, fear and anxiety in the telencephalon were quantified. Following 14 days of UCS during the day, inhibitory avoidance learning decreased (lower latencies on days 2 and 3); minor effects were found following 7 days of UCS. Following 7 nights of UCS, inhibitory avoidance learning decreased (lower latency on day 3). Whole-body cortisol levels showed a steady increase compared with controls (100%) from 7 days of UCS (139%), to 14 days of UCS (174%) to 7 nights of UCS (231%), suggestive of an increasing stress load. Only in the 7 nights of UCS group did expression levels of corticoid receptor genes (mr, grα, grβ) and of bdnf increase. These changes are discussed as adaptive mechanisms to maintain neuronal integrity and prevent overload, and as being indicative of a state of high stress load. Overall, our data suggest that stressors during the resting phase have a stronger impact than during the active phase. Our data warrant further studies on the effect of UCS on stress axis-related genes, especially grβ; in mammals this receptor has been implicated in

  3. Dissociation of exteroceptive and idiothetic orientation cues: effect on hippocampal place cells and place navigation.

    PubMed

    Bures, J; Fenton, A A; Kaminsky, Y; Rossier, J; Sacchetti, B; Zinyuk, L

    1997-10-29

    Navigation by means of cognitive maps appears to require the hippocampus; hippocampal place cells (PCs) appear to store spatial memories because their discharge is confined to cell-specific places called firing fields (FFs). Experiments with rats manipulated idiothetic and landmark-related information to understand the relationship between PC activity and spatial cognition. Rotating a circular arena in the light caused a discrepancy between these cues. This discrepancy caused most FFs to disappear in both the arena and room reference frames. However, FFs persisted in the rotating arena frame when the discrepancy was reduced by darkness or by a card in the arena. The discrepancy was increased by 'field clamping' the rat in a room-defined FF location by rotations that countered its locomotion. Most FFs dissipated and reappeared an hour or more after the clamp. Place-avoidance experiments showed that navigation uses independent idiothetic and exteroceptive memories. Rats learned to avoid the unmarked footshock region within a circular arena. When acquired on the stable arena in the light, the location of the punishment was learned by using both room and idiothetic cues; extinction in the dark transferred to the following session in the light. If, however, extinction occurred during rotation, only the arena-frame avoidance was extinguished in darkness; the room-defined location was avoided when the lights were turned back on. Idiothetic memory of room-defined avoidance was not formed during rotation in light; regardless of rotation, there was no avoidance when the lights were turned off, but room-frame avoidance reappeared when the lights were turned back on. The place-preference task rewarded visits to an allocentric target location with a randomly dispersed pellet. The resulting behaviour alternated between random pellet searching and target-directed navigation, making it possible to examine PC correlates of these two classes of spatial behaviour. The independence of

  4. Places for Children - Children's Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rasmussen, Kim

    2004-01-01

    In their everyday lives, children largely stay within and relate to three settings - their homes, schools and recreational institutions. These environments have been created by adults and designated by them as "places for children". A more differentiated picture of children's spatial culture emerges when children discuss and take photographs of…

  5. [Effects of activation and blockade of dopamine receptors on extinction of passive avoidance response in mice with depressive-like state].

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, N I; Zinov'eva, D V

    2008-01-01

    Selectivity of training and extinction of passive avoidance response caused by pharmacological influences on D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in intact mice and mice in depressive-like state was shown. Training was impaired only by administration of D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride and did not depend on the initial functional condition of mice. In intact mice, activation of D2 receptors by quinpirole evoked deficiency of extinction, i.e., impairment of the capability of new inhibitory training under conditions of disappearance of the expected punishment. In mice with reaction of "behavioral despair" characterized by a delay of extinction, activation of D1 receptors by SKF38393 normalized this process (as distinct from the inefficiency of D2 agonist). The positive effect of acceleration of fear memory extinction was revealed also under conditions of blockade of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors. PMID:19004320

  6. Effects of activation and blockade of dopamine receptors on the extinction of a passive avoidance reaction in mice with a depressive-like state.

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, N I; Zinov'eva, D V

    2010-01-01

    Learning and extinction of a conditioned passive avoidance reaction resulting from neuropharmacological actions on dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors were demonstrated to be specific in intact mice and in mice with a depressive-like state. Learning was degraded only after administration of the D(2) receptor antagonist sulpiride and was independent of the initial functional state of the mice. In intact mice, activation of D(2) receptors with quinpirole led to a deficit of extinction, consisting of a reduction in the ability to acquire new inhibitory learning in conditions associated with the disappearance of the expected punishment. In mice with the "behavioral despair" reaction, characterized by delayed extinction, activation of D(1) receptors with SKF38393 normalized this process, while the D(2) agonist was ineffective. A positive effect consisting of accelerated extinction of the memory of fear of the dark ("dangerous") sector of the experimental chamber was also seen on blockade of both types of dopamine receptor. PMID:20012492

  7. Effects of activation and blockade of dopamine receptors on the extinction of a passive avoidance reaction in mice with a depressive-like state.

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, N I; Zinov'eva, D V

    2010-01-01

    Learning and extinction of a conditioned passive avoidance reaction resulting from neuropharmacological actions on dopamine D(1) and D(2) receptors were demonstrated to be specific in intact mice and in mice with a depressive-like state. Learning was degraded only after administration of the D(2) receptor antagonist sulpiride and was independent of the initial functional state of the mice. In intact mice, activation of D(2) receptors with quinpirole led to a deficit of extinction, consisting of a reduction in the ability to acquire new inhibitory learning in conditions associated with the disappearance of the expected punishment. In mice with the "behavioral despair" reaction, characterized by delayed extinction, activation of D(1) receptors with SKF38393 normalized this process, while the D(2) agonist was ineffective. A positive effect consisting of accelerated extinction of the memory of fear of the dark ("dangerous") sector of the experimental chamber was also seen on blockade of both types of dopamine receptor.

  8. [Effects of activation and blockade of dopamine receptors on extinction of passive avoidance response in mice with depressive-like state].

    PubMed

    Dubrovina, N I; Zinov'eva, D V

    2008-01-01

    Selectivity of training and extinction of passive avoidance response caused by pharmacological influences on D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in intact mice and mice in depressive-like state was shown. Training was impaired only by administration of D2 receptor antagonist sulpiride and did not depend on the initial functional condition of mice. In intact mice, activation of D2 receptors by quinpirole evoked deficiency of extinction, i.e., impairment of the capability of new inhibitory training under conditions of disappearance of the expected punishment. In mice with reaction of "behavioral despair" characterized by a delay of extinction, activation of D1 receptors by SKF38393 normalized this process (as distinct from the inefficiency of D2 agonist). The positive effect of acceleration of fear memory extinction was revealed also under conditions of blockade of D1 and D2 dopamine receptors.

  9. Avoiding the Flu

    MedlinePlus

    ... of this page please turn Javascript on. Feature: Flu Avoiding the Flu Past Issues / Fall 2009 Table of Contents Children ... help avoid getting and passing on the flu. Influenza (Seasonal) The flu is a contagious respiratory illness ...

  10. Executive function is necessary for the regulation of the stepping activity when stepping in place in older adults.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Christopher; Sciadas, Ria; Nantel, Julie

    2016-10-01

    To determine the effect of age on stepping performance and to compare the cognitive demand required to regulate repetitive stepping between older and younger adults while performing a stepping in place task (SIP). Fourteen younger (25.4 ± 6.5) and 15 older adults (71.0 ± 9.0) participated in this study. They performed a seated category fluency task and Stroop test, followed by a 60 s SIP task. Following this, both the cognitive and motor tasks were performed simultaneously. We assessed cognitive performance, SIP cycle duration, asymmetry, and arrhythmicity. Compared to younger adults, older adults had larger SIP arrhythmicity both as a single task and when combined with the Category (p < 0.001) and Stroop (p < 0.01) tasks. Older adults also had larger arrhythmicity when dual tasking compared to SIP alone (p < 0.001). Older adults showed greater SIP asymmetry when combined with Category (p = 0.006) and Stroop (p = 0.06) tasks. Finally, they had lower cognitive performance than younger adults in both single and dual tasks (p < 0.01). Age and type of cognitive task performed with the motor task affected different components of stepping. While SIP arrhythmicity was larger for all conditions in older compared to younger adults, cycle duration was not different, and asymmetry tended to be larger during SIP when paired with a verbal fluency task. SIP does not require a high level of control for dynamic stability, therefore demonstrating that higher-level executive function is necessary for the regulation of stepping activity independently of the regulation of postural balance. Furthermore, older adults may lack the cognitive resources needed to adequately regulate stepping activity while performing a cognitive task relying on the executive function.

  11. Consistent inter‐individual differences in common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) in Boldness‐Shyness, Stress‐Activity, and Exploration‐Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Gunhold‐de Oliveira, Tina; Tadić, Zoran; Massen, Jorg J.M.; Bugnyar, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    The study of animal personality, defined as consistent inter‐individual differences in correlated behavioral traits stable throughout time and/or contexts, has recently become one of the fastest growing areas in animal biology, with study species ranging from insects to non‐human primates. The latter have, however, only occasionally been tested with standardized experiments. Instead their personality has usually been assessed using questionnaires. Therefore, this study aimed to test 21 common marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in three family groups, in five different experiments, and their corresponding controls. We found that behavioral differences between our animals were not only consistent over time, but also across different contexts. Moreover, the consistent behaviors formed a construct of four major non‐social personality components: Boldness‐Shyness in Foraging, Boldness‐Shyness in Predation, Stress‐Activity, and Exploration‐Avoidance. We found no sex or age differences in these components, but our results did reveal differences in Exploration‐Avoidance between the three family groups. As social environment can have a large influence on behavior of individuals, our results may suggest group‐level similarity in personality (i.e., “group personality”) in common marmosets, a species living in highly cohesive social groups. Am. J. Primatol. 78:961–973, 2016. © 2016 The Authors. American Journal of Primatology published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27286098

  12. Dyadic social interaction inhibits cocaine-conditioned place preference and the associated activation of the accumbens corridor.

    PubMed

    Zernig, Gerald; Pinheiro, Barbara S

    2015-09-01

    Impaired social interaction is a hallmark symptom of many psychiatric disorders. In substance use disorders, impaired social interaction is triply harmful (a) because addicts increasingly prefer the drug of abuse to the natural reward of drug-free social interaction, thus worsening the progression of the disease by increasing their drug consumption, (b) because treatment adherence and, consequently, treatment success itself depends on the ability of the recovering addict to maintain social interaction and adhere to treatment, and (c) because socially interacting with an individual suffering from a substance use disorder may be harmful for others. Helping the addict reorient his/her behavior away from the drug of abuse toward social interaction would therefore be of considerable therapeutic benefit. This article reviews our work on the neural basis of such a reorientation from cocaine, as a prototypical drug of abuse, toward dyadic (i.e. one-to-one) social interaction and compares our findings with the effects of other potentially beneficial interventions, that is, environmental enrichment or paired housing, on the activation of the accumbens and other brain regions involved in behavior motivated by drugs of abuse or nondrug stimuli. Our experimental models are based on the conditioned place preference paradigm. As the therapeutically most promising finding, only four 15 min episodes of dyadic social interaction were able to inhibit both the subsequent reacquisition/re-expression of preference for cocaine and the neural activation associated with this behavior, that is, an increase in the expression of the immediate early gene Early Growth Response protein 1 (EGR1, Zif268) in the nucleus accumbens, basolateral and central amygdala, and the ventral tegmental area. The time spent in the cocaine-associated conditioning compartment was correlated with the density of EGR1-activated neurons not only in the medial core (AcbCm) and medial shell (AcbShm) of the nucleus

  13. Conditioned place preference and locomotor activity in response to methylphenidate, amphetamine and cocaine in mice lacking dopamine D4 receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Thanos, P.K.; Thanos, P.K.; Bermeo, C.; Rubinstein, M.; Suchland, K.L.; Wang, G.-J.; Grandy, D.K.; Volkow, N.D.

    2010-05-01

    Methylphenidate (MP) and amphetamine (AMPH) are the most frequently prescribed medications for the treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). Both drugs are believed to derive their therapeutic benefit by virtue of their dopamine (DA)-enhancing effects, yet an explanation for the observation that some patients with ADHD respond well to one medication but not to the other remains elusive. The dopaminergic effects of MP and AMPH are also thought to underlie their reinforcing properties and ultimately their abuse. Polymorphisms in the human gene that codes for the DA D4 receptor (D4R) have been repeatedly associated with ADHD and may correlate with the therapeutic as well as the reinforcing effects of responses to these psychostimulant medications. Conditioned place preference (CPP) for MP, AMPH and cocaine were evaluated in wild-type (WT) mice and their genetically engineered littermates, congenic on the C57Bl/6J background, that completely lack D4Rs (knockout or KO). In addition, the locomotor activity in these mice during the conditioning phase of CPP was tested in the CPP chambers. D4 receptor KO and WT mice showed CPP and increased locomotor activity in response to each of the three psychostimulants tested. D4R differentially modulates the CPP responses to MP, AMPH and cocaine. While the D4R genotype affected CPP responses to MP (high dose only) and AMPH (low dose only) it had no effects on cocaine. Inasmuch as CPP is considered an indicator of sensitivity to reinforcing responses to drugs these data suggest a significant but limited role of D4Rs in modulating conditioning responses to MP and AMPH. In the locomotor test, D4 receptor KO mice displayed attenuated increases in AMPH-induced locomotor activity whereas responses to cocaine and MP did not differ. These results suggest distinct mechanisms for D4 receptor modulation of the reinforcing (perhaps via attenuating dopaminergic signalling) and locomotor properties of these stimulant drugs

  14. Dyadic social interaction inhibits cocaine-conditioned place preference and the associated activation of the accumbens corridor

    PubMed Central

    Pinheiro, Barbara S.

    2015-01-01

    Impaired social interaction is a hallmark symptom of many psychiatric disorders. In substance use disorders, impaired social interaction is triply harmful (a) because addicts increasingly prefer the drug of abuse to the natural reward of drug-free social interaction, thus worsening the progression of the disease by increasing their drug consumption, (b) because treatment adherence and, consequently, treatment success itself depends on the ability of the recovering addict to maintain social interaction and adhere to treatment, and (c) because socially interacting with an individual suffering from a substance use disorder may be harmful for others. Helping the addict reorient his/her behavior away from the drug of abuse toward social interaction would therefore be of considerable therapeutic benefit. This article reviews our work on the neural basis of such a reorientation from cocaine, as a prototypical drug of abuse, toward dyadic (i.e. one-to-one) social interaction and compares our findings with the effects of other potentially beneficial interventions, that is, environmental enrichment or paired housing, on the activation of the accumbens and other brain regions involved in behavior motivated by drugs of abuse or nondrug stimuli. Our experimental models are based on the conditioned place preference paradigm. As the therapeutically most promising finding, only four 15 min episodes of dyadic social interaction were able to inhibit both the subsequent reacquisition/re-expression of preference for cocaine and the neural activation associated with this behavior, that is, an increase in the expression of the immediate early gene Early Growth Response protein 1 (EGR1, Zif268) in the nucleus accumbens, basolateral and central amygdala, and the ventral tegmental area. The time spent in the cocaine-associated conditioning compartment was correlated with the density of EGR1-activated neurons not only in the medial core (AcbCm) and medial shell (AcbShm) of the nucleus

  15. Factor affecting the endogenous β-glucuronidase activity in rapeseed haploid cells: how to avoid interference with the Gus transgene in transformation studies.

    PubMed

    Abdollahi, M R; Memari, H Rajabi; van Wijnen, A J

    2011-11-01

    The gus gene is one of the most frequently used reporter genes in transgenic plants. However, this gene can only be used if the selected plant species does not show endogenous GUS activity. Rapeseed (Brassica napus) microspores and microspore-derived embryos (MDEs) were found to exhibit high activity of endogenous β-glucuronidase which interferes with the expression of bacterial β-glucuronidase that was transferred into these tissues by biolistic transformation. In order to eliminate this background activity from rapeseed MDEs, different pHs of the assay buffer (5.8, 7 and 8) with or without methanol in the reaction buffer and incubation of these tissues at different temperatures (24°C, 38°C and 55°C) were investigated. To avoid this problem in microspores, two incubation temperatures (38°C and 55°C) at different periods after GUS assay (4, 24 and 48h) and in the presence of 1mM potassium ferricyanide and 1mM potassium ferrocyanide were tested. The endogenous GUS activity was significantly decreased in transformed and untransformed MDEs, when the phosphate buffer was adjusted to pH 8 and 28% methanol in the reaction solution was used. In rapeseed microspores, use of 1mM potassium ferricyanide and 1mM potassium ferrocyanide in the reaction buffer enhanced the expression rate of gus transgene rather than endogenous GUS activity where the high levels of gus transgene expression was observed 4h after histochemical GUS assay. Incubation of rapeseed microspores and MDEs at 55°C completely eliminated the endogenous GUS activity. In this study, we also examined changes in endogenous GUS activity in rapeseed MDEs at several stages including the globular, heart, torpedo and cotyledonary stages. The level of endogenous GUS activity was increased 4.33 folds in heart embryos, 6.54 folds in torpedo embryos and 8.5 folds in cotyledonary embryos. Furthermore, the level of GUS activity increased 1.72 folds in MDEs of B. napus in 12-h treatment with 2μM gibberellic acid

  16. Dose-dependent impairment of inhibitory avoidance retention in rats by immediate post-training infusion of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor into cortical structures.

    PubMed

    Walz, R; Roesler, R; Quevedo, J; Rockenbach, I C; Amaral, O B; Vianna, M R; Lenz, G; Medina, J H; Izquierdo, I

    1999-11-15

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is a serine/threonine protein kinase abundantly expressed in postmitotic neurons of the developed nervous system. MAPK is activated in and required for both the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in hippocampal slices and the acquisition of fear conditioning training in rats. The present work was performed in order to test the effect of the specific inhibitor of MAPK kinase (MAPKK), PD 098059, on retention of a step-down inhibitory avoidance (IA). Adult male Wistar rats were bilaterally injected (0.5 microl/side) with PD 098059 (at 0.5, 5, or 50 microM) or vehicle into the entorhinal cortex or into the parietal cortex immediately after IA training using a 0.4 mA footshock. Retention testing was carried out 24 h after training. PD 098059 impaired retention when injected into the entorhinal cortex at the dose of 50 microM, but not at the doses of 5 or 0.5 microM. When infused into the parietal cortex, PD 098059 was amnestic at the doses of 5 and 50 microM. The drug had no effect when infused at the highest dose in either structure 6 h after training. Our results suggest that the MAPKK inhibitor impairs IA retention memory in a dose-dependent manner when injected immediately after training into entorhinal cortex or parietal cortex. The effective dose is variable according to the neocortical structure studied.

  17. Avoiding Statistical Mistakes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strasser, Nora

    2007-01-01

    Avoiding statistical mistakes is important for educators at all levels. Basic concepts will help you to avoid making mistakes using statistics and to look at data with a critical eye. Statistical data is used at educational institutions for many purposes. It can be used to support budget requests, changes in educational philosophy, changes to…

  18. Increased Physical Activity and Fitness above the 50(th) Percentile Avoid the Threat of Older Adults Becoming Institutionalized: A Cross-sectional Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Catarina; Fernandes, Jorge; Raimundo, Armando; Biehl-Printes, Clarissa; Marmeleira, José; Tomas-Carus, Pablo

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to analyze the impact of physical fitness and physical activity on the threat of older adults without cognitive impairment becoming institutionalized. This cross-sectional study involved 195 non-institutionalized (80.1 ± 4.4 years) and 186 institutionalized (83.8 ± 5.2years) participants. Cognitive impairment was assessed using Mini-Mental State Examination, measures of physical fitness were determined by the Senior Fitness Test, and physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. Multivariate binary logistic analysis selected four main determinants of institutionalization in both genders: The likelihood of becoming institutionalized increased by +18.6% for each additional year of age, whereas it decreased by -24.8% by each fewer kg/m(2) in body mass index (BMI), by -0.9% for each additional meter performed in the aerobic endurance test, and by -2.0% for each additional 100 metabolic equivalent of task (MET)-min/week of physical activity expenditure (p < 0.05). Values ≤50(th) percentile (age ≥81 years, BMI ≥26.7 kg/m(2), aerobic endurance ≤367.6 meters, and physical activity ≤693 MET-min/week) were computed using receiver operating characteristics analysis as cutoffs discriminating institutionalized from non-institutionalized older adults. The performance of physical activity, allied to an improvement in physical fitness (mainly BMI and aerobic endurance), may avoid the threat of institutionalization of older adults without cognitive impairment only if they are above the 50(th) percentile. The following parameters are highly recommended: Expending ≥693 MET-min/week on physical activity, having a BMI ≤26.7 kg/m(2), and being able to walk ≥367.6 meters in the aerobic endurance test, especially above the age of 80 years. The discovery of this trigger justifies the development of physical activity programs targeting the pointed cutoffs in old and very old adults.

  19. Approach/avoidance in dreams.

    PubMed

    Malcolm-Smith, Susan; Koopowitz, Sheri; Pantelis, Eleni; Solms, Mark

    2012-03-01

    The influential threat simulation theory (TST) asserts that dreaming yields adaptive advantage by providing a virtual environment in which threat-avoidance may be safely rehearsed. We have previously found the incidence of biologically threatening dreams to be around 20%, with successful threat avoidance occurring in approximately one-fifth of such dreams. TST asserts that threat avoidance is over-represented relative to other possible dream contents. To begin assessing this issue, we contrasted the incidence of 'avoidance' dreams with that of their opposite: 'approach' dreams. Because TST states that the threat-avoidance function is only fully activated in ecologically valid (biologically threatening) contexts, we also performed this contrast for populations living in both high- and low-threat environments. We find that 'approach' dreams are significantly more prevalent across both contexts. We suggest these results are more consistent with the view that dreaming is generated by reward-seeking systems than by fear-conditioning systems, although reward-seeking is clearly not the only factor determining the content of dreams.

  20. Geosynchronous satellite collision avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fraser, W.

    1985-01-01

    The increases in the number of satellite systems, the growing dependency on these systems, and the potentially hazardous conjunctions in space, dictates careful management of satellite positions. The potential for satellite collision increases as more objects are placed in orbit. At geosynchronous altitudes active satellites maintain fixed longitudinal station-keeping control while inactive satellites and debris generally drift around the globe or oscillate about two geopotential stable points. Portions of the total objects in geosynchronous orbit are tracked by ground stations while a significant number of additional pieces of space debris regularly pass through geosynchronous orbit altitudes. The probability of an operational satellite colliding with another satellite or a piece of space debris will increase in the number of space objects, their sizes, and on-orbit lifetimes.

  1. Time-dependent impairment of inhibitory avoidance retention in rats by posttraining infusion of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor into cortical and limbic structures.

    PubMed

    Walz, R; Roesler, R; Quevedo, J; Sant'Anna, M K; Madruga, M; Rodrigues, C; Gottfried, C; Medina, J H; Izquierdo, I

    2000-01-01

    Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) is abundantly expressed in postmitotic neurons of the developed nervous system. MAPK is activated and required for induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in the CA1 area of the hippocampus, which is blocked by the specific inhibitor of the MAPK kinase, PD 098059. Recently it was demonstrated that MAPK is activated in the hippocampus after training and is necessary for contextual fear conditioning learning. The present work tests the role of the MAPK cascade in step-down inhibitory avoidance (IA) retention. PD 098059 (50 microM) was bilaterally injected (0.5 microl/side) into the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus or entorhinal cortex at 0, 90, 180, or 360 min, or into the amygdala or parietal cortex at 0, 180, or 360 min after IA training in rats using a 0.4-mA foot shock. Retention testing was carried out 24 h after training. PD 098059 impaired retention when injected into the dorsal hippocampus at 180 min, but not 0, 90, and 360 min after training. When infused into the entorhinal cortex, PD 098059 was amnestic at 0 and 180 min, but not at 90 and 360 min after training. The MAPKK inhibitor also impairs IA retention when infused into the parietal cortex immediately after training, but not at 180 or 360 min. Infusions performed into amygdala were amnestic at 180 min, but not at 0 and 360 min after training. Our results suggest a time-dependent involvement of the MAPK cascade in the posttraining memory processing of IA; the time dependency is different in the hippocampus, amygdala, entorhinal cortex, or parietal cortex of rats.

  2. Normalization of EEG activity among previously institutionalized children placed into foster care: A 12-year follow-up of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project.

    PubMed

    Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-02-01

    Extreme social and cognitive deprivation as a result of institutional care has profound effects on developmental outcomes across multiple domains for many abandoned or orphaned children. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) examines the outcomes for children originally placed in institutions who were assessed comprehensively and then randomized to foster care (FCG) or care as usual (CAUG) and followed longitudinally. Here we report on the brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram: EEG) of 12-year-old children enrolled in the BEIP. Previous reports suggested improvement in resting EEG activity for the group of children placed in the foster care intervention, particularly those placed before 24 months of age compared to children who were randomized to CAUG or those placed into families after this age. At 12 years, differences between those in the FCG and those in the CAUG persist in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), but not in higher frequency bands (i.e. in the beta band; 15-30 Hz), except in those children placed into the FCG who remained in high quality care environments over the course of the study. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a stable high quality caregiving environment, particularly for children exposed to early psychosocial deprivation, for promoting healthy brain development.

  3. Normalization of EEG activity among previously institutionalized children placed into foster care: A 12-year follow-up of the Bucharest Early Intervention Project.

    PubMed

    Vanderwert, Ross E; Zeanah, Charles H; Fox, Nathan A; Nelson, Charles A

    2016-02-01

    Extreme social and cognitive deprivation as a result of institutional care has profound effects on developmental outcomes across multiple domains for many abandoned or orphaned children. The Bucharest Early Intervention Project (BEIP) examines the outcomes for children originally placed in institutions who were assessed comprehensively and then randomized to foster care (FCG) or care as usual (CAUG) and followed longitudinally. Here we report on the brain electrical activity (electroencephalogram: EEG) of 12-year-old children enrolled in the BEIP. Previous reports suggested improvement in resting EEG activity for the group of children placed in the foster care intervention, particularly those placed before 24 months of age compared to children who were randomized to CAUG or those placed into families after this age. At 12 years, differences between those in the FCG and those in the CAUG persist in the alpha band (8-13 Hz), but not in higher frequency bands (i.e. in the beta band; 15-30 Hz), except in those children placed into the FCG who remained in high quality care environments over the course of the study. These findings highlight the importance of maintaining a stable high quality caregiving environment, particularly for children exposed to early psychosocial deprivation, for promoting healthy brain development. PMID:26724564

  4. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  5. Avoiding Construction Snafus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rochefort, Mark; Gosch, Jerry

    2001-01-01

    Discusses risk management planning tips that help schools avoid project-delaying construction problems. Preconstruction planning topics explored include the type of construction method to use, contract selection, and the need for efficient project management. (GR)

  6. Avoiding the SCAMs.

    PubMed

    Kidd, Thomas; Condron, Barry

    2007-05-01

    Dendrites from the same neuron usually avoid contact with one another, a behavior known as self-avoidance. In this issue of Neuron and in the upcoming May 4, 2007 issue of Cell, a pair of studies by Soba et al. and Hughes et al. and a study by Matthews et al., respectively, identify products from the highly alternatively spliced Dscam gene as central to this behavior in Drosophila. Signaling induced by adhesion between identical isoforms triggers repulsion between sister dendrites.

  7. Avoided Crossing and Synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sekii, T.; Shibahashi, H.

    2013-12-01

    We examine avoided crossing of stellar pulsations in the nonlinear regime, where synchronization may occur, based on a simple model of weakly coupled van der Pol oscillators with close frequencies. For this simple case, avoided crossing is unaffected in the sense that there is a frequency difference between the symmetric and antisymmetric modes, but as a result of synchronization, unlike the linear oscillations case, the system can vibrate in only one of the modes.

  8. Operational Collision Avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Guit, Bill

    2015-01-01

    This presentation will describe the early days of the EOS Aqua and Aura operational collision avoidance process. It will highlight EOS debris avoidance maneuvers, EOS high interest event statistic and A-Train systematic conjunctions and conclude with future challenges. This is related to earlier e-DAA (tracking number 21692) that an abstract was submitted to a different conference. Eric Moyer, ESMO Deputy Project Manager has reviewed and approved this presentation on May 6, 2015

  9. Places where preschoolers are (in)active: An observational study on Latino preschoolers and their parents using objective measures

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To combat the disproportionately higher risk of childhood obesity in Latino preschool-aged children, multilevel interventions targeting physical (in)activity are needed. These require the identification of environmental and psychosocial determinants of physical (in)activity for this ethnic group. Th...

  10. A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    PubMed

    Maitland, Clover; Stratton, Gareth; Foster, Sarah; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2013-08-17

    The home environment is an important influence on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children, who have limited independent mobility and spend much of their time at home. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the influence of the home physical environment on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children aged 8-14 years. A literature search of peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2011 resulted in 38 observational studies (21 with activity outcomes, 23 with sedentary outcomes) and 11 experimental studies included in the review. The most commonly investigated behavioural outcomes were television watching and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Media equipment in the home and to a lesser extent the bedroom were positively associated with children's sedentary behaviour. Physical activity equipment and the house and yard were not associated with physical activity, although environmental measures were exclusively self-reported. On the other hand, physical activity equipment was inversely associated with sedentary behaviours in half of studies. Observational studies that investigated the influence of the physical and social environment within the home space, found that the social environment, particularly the role of parents, was important. Experimental studies that changed the home physical environment by introducing a television limiting device successfully decreased television viewing, whereas the influence of introducing an active video game on activity outcomes was inconsistent. Results highlight that the home environment is an important influence on children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity, about which much is still unknown. While changing or controlling the home physical environment shows promise for reducing screen based sedentary behaviour, further interventions are needed to understand the broader impact of these changes. Future studies should prioritise investigating the influence of the home

  11. A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children's physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    PubMed

    Maitland, Clover; Stratton, Gareth; Foster, Sarah; Braham, Rebecca; Rosenberg, Michael

    2013-01-01

    The home environment is an important influence on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children, who have limited independent mobility and spend much of their time at home. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the influence of the home physical environment on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children aged 8-14 years. A literature search of peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2011 resulted in 38 observational studies (21 with activity outcomes, 23 with sedentary outcomes) and 11 experimental studies included in the review. The most commonly investigated behavioural outcomes were television watching and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Media equipment in the home and to a lesser extent the bedroom were positively associated with children's sedentary behaviour. Physical activity equipment and the house and yard were not associated with physical activity, although environmental measures were exclusively self-reported. On the other hand, physical activity equipment was inversely associated with sedentary behaviours in half of studies. Observational studies that investigated the influence of the physical and social environment within the home space, found that the social environment, particularly the role of parents, was important. Experimental studies that changed the home physical environment by introducing a television limiting device successfully decreased television viewing, whereas the influence of introducing an active video game on activity outcomes was inconsistent. Results highlight that the home environment is an important influence on children's sedentary behaviour and physical activity, about which much is still unknown. While changing or controlling the home physical environment shows promise for reducing screen based sedentary behaviour, further interventions are needed to understand the broader impact of these changes. Future studies should prioritise investigating the influence of the home

  12. A place for play? The influence of the home physical environment on children’s physical activity and sedentary behaviour

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    The home environment is an important influence on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children, who have limited independent mobility and spend much of their time at home. This article reviews the current evidence regarding the influence of the home physical environment on the sedentary behaviour and physical activity of children aged 8–14 years. A literature search of peer reviewed articles published between 2005 and 2011 resulted in 38 observational studies (21 with activity outcomes, 23 with sedentary outcomes) and 11 experimental studies included in the review. The most commonly investigated behavioural outcomes were television watching and moderate to vigorous physical activity. Media equipment in the home and to a lesser extent the bedroom were positively associated with children’s sedentary behaviour. Physical activity equipment and the house and yard were not associated with physical activity, although environmental measures were exclusively self-reported. On the other hand, physical activity equipment was inversely associated with sedentary behaviours in half of studies. Observational studies that investigated the influence of the physical and social environment within the home space, found that the social environment, particularly the role of parents, was important. Experimental studies that changed the home physical environment by introducing a television limiting device successfully decreased television viewing, whereas the influence of introducing an active video game on activity outcomes was inconsistent. Results highlight that the home environment is an important influence on children’s sedentary behaviour and physical activity, about which much is still unknown. While changing or controlling the home physical environment shows promise for reducing screen based sedentary behaviour, further interventions are needed to understand the broader impact of these changes. Future studies should prioritise investigating the influence of the

  13. Relationships among genetic makeup, active ingredient content, and place of origin of the medicinal plant Gastrodia tuber.

    PubMed

    Tao, Jun; Luo, Zhi-yong; Msangi, Chikira Ismail; Shu, Xiao-shun; Wen, Li; Liu, Shui-ping; Zhou, Chang-quan; Liu, Rui-xin; Hu, Wei-xin

    2009-02-01

    Gastrodia tuber and its component gastrodin have many pharmacological effects. The chemical fingerprints and gastrodin contents of eight Gastrodia populations were determined, and the genomic DNA polymorphism of the populations was investigated. Genetic distance coefficients among the populations were calculated using the DNA polymorphism data. A dendrogram of the genetic similarities between the populations was constructed using the genetic distance coefficients. The results indicated that the genomic DNA of Gastrodia tubers was highly polymorphic; the eight populations clustered into three major groups, and the gastrodin content varied greatly among these groups. There were obvious correlations among genetic makeup, gastrodin content, and place of origin. The ecological environments in Guizhou and Shanxi may be conducive to evolution and to gastrodin biosynthesis, and more suitable for cultivation of Gastrodia tubers. These findings may provide a scientific basis for overall genetic resource management and for the selection of locations for cultivating Gastrodia tubers.

  14. Reactive Collision Avoidance Algorithm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scharf, Daniel; Acikmese, Behcet; Ploen, Scott; Hadaegh, Fred

    2010-01-01

    The reactive collision avoidance (RCA) algorithm allows a spacecraft to find a fuel-optimal trajectory for avoiding an arbitrary number of colliding spacecraft in real time while accounting for acceleration limits. In addition to spacecraft, the technology can be used for vehicles that can accelerate in any direction, such as helicopters and submersibles. In contrast to existing, passive algorithms that simultaneously design trajectories for a cluster of vehicles working to achieve a common goal, RCA is implemented onboard spacecraft only when an imminent collision is detected, and then plans a collision avoidance maneuver for only that host vehicle, thus preventing a collision in an off-nominal situation for which passive algorithms cannot. An example scenario for such a situation might be when a spacecraft in the cluster is approaching another one, but enters safe mode and begins to drift. Functionally, the RCA detects colliding spacecraft, plans an evasion trajectory by solving the Evasion Trajectory Problem (ETP), and then recovers after the collision is avoided. A direct optimization approach was used to develop the algorithm so it can run in real time. In this innovation, a parameterized class of avoidance trajectories is specified, and then the optimal trajectory is found by searching over the parameters. The class of trajectories is selected as bang-off-bang as motivated by optimal control theory. That is, an avoiding spacecraft first applies full acceleration in a constant direction, then coasts, and finally applies full acceleration to stop. The parameter optimization problem can be solved offline and stored as a look-up table of values. Using a look-up table allows the algorithm to run in real time. Given a colliding spacecraft, the properties of the collision geometry serve as indices of the look-up table that gives the optimal trajectory. For multiple colliding spacecraft, the set of trajectories that avoid all spacecraft is rapidly searched on

  15. ENU mutagenesis screening for dominant behavioral mutations based on normal control data obtained in home-cage activity, open-field, and passive avoidance tests.

    PubMed

    Wada, Yumiko; Furuse, Tamio; Yamada, Ikuko; Masuya, Hiroshi; Kushida, Tomoko; Shibukawa, Yoko; Nakai, Yuji; Kobayashi, Kimio; Kaneda, Hideki; Gondo, Yoichi; Noda, Tetsuo; Shiroishi, Toshihiko; Wakana, Shigeharu

    2010-01-01

    To establish the cutoff values for screening ENU-induced behavioral mutations, normal variations in mouse behavioral data were examined in home-cage activity (HA), open-field (OF), and passive-avoidance (PA) tests. We defined the normal range as one that included more than 95% of the normal control values. The cutoffs were defined to identify outliers yielding values that deviated from the normal by less than 5% for C57BL/6J, DBA/2J, DBF(1), and N(2) (DXDB) progenies. Cutoff values for G1-phenodeviant (DBF(1)) identification were defined based on values over +/- 3.0 SD from the mean of DBF(1) for all parameters assessed in the HA and OF tests. For the PA test, the cutoff values were defined based on whether the mice met the learning criterion during the 2nd (at a shock intensity of 0.3 mA) or the 3rd (at a shock intensity of 0.15 mA) retention test. For several parameters, the lower outliers were undetectable as the calculated cutoffs were negative values. Based on the cutoff criteria, we identified 275 behavioral phenodeviants among 2,646 G1 progeny. Of these, 64 were crossed with wild-type DBA/2J individuals, and the phenotype transmission was examined in the G2 progeny using the cutoffs defined for N(2) mice. In the G2 mice, we identified 15 novel dominant mutants exhibiting behavioral abnormalities, including hyperactivity in the HA or OF tests, hypoactivity in the OF test, and PA deficits. Genetic and detailed behavioral analysis of these ENU-induced mutants will provide novel insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying behavior.

  16. Collision Avoidance System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Ames Research Center teamed with the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to study human performance factors associated with the use of the Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance system (TCAS II) in an operational environment. TCAS is designed to alert pilots of the presence of other aircraft in their vicinity, to identify and track those who could be a threat, and to recommend action to avoid a collision. Ames conducted three laboratory experiments. The first showed that pilots were able to use the TCAS II correctly in the allowable time. The second tested pilots' response to changes in the avoidance advisories, and the third examined pilots' reactions to alternative displays. After a 1989 congressional mandate, the FAA ruled that TCAS would be required on all passenger carrying aircraft (to be phased in completely by 1995).

  17. Hippocampal-dependent memory in the plus-maze discriminative avoidance task: The role of spatial cues and CA1 activity.

    PubMed

    Leão, Anderson H F F; Medeiros, André M; Apolinário, Gênedy K S; Cabral, Alícia; Ribeiro, Alessandra M; Barbosa, Flávio F; Silva, Regina H

    2016-05-01

    The plus-maze discriminative avoidance task (PMDAT) has been used to investigate interactions between aversive memory and an anxiety-like response in rodents. Suitable performance in this task depends on the activity of the basolateral amygdala, similar to other aversive-based memory tasks. However, the role of spatial cues and hippocampal-dependent learning in the performance of PMDAT remains unknown. Here, we investigated the role of proximal and distal cues in the retrieval of this task. Animals tested under misplaced proximal cues had diminished performance, and animals tested under both misplaced proximal cues and absent distal cues could not discriminate the aversive arm. We also assessed the role of the dorsal hippocampus (CA1) in this aversive memory task. Temporary bilateral inactivation of dorsal CA1 was conducted with muscimol (0.05 μg, 0.1 μg, and 0.2 μg) prior to the training session. While the acquisition of the task was not altered, muscimol impaired the performance in the test session and reduced the anxiety-like response in the training session. We also performed a spreading analysis of a fluorophore-conjugated muscimol to confirm selective inhibition of CA1. In conclusion, both distal and proximal cues are required to retrieve the task, with the latter being more relevant to spatial orientation. Dorsal CA1 activity is also required for aversive memory formation in this task, and interfered with the anxiety-like response as well. Importantly, both effects were detected by different parameters in the same paradigm, endorsing the previous findings of independent assessment of aversive memory and anxiety-like behavior in the PMDAT. Taken together, these findings suggest that the PMDAT probably requires an integration of multiple systems for memory formation, resembling an episodic-like memory rather than a pure conditioning behavior. Furthermore, the concomitant and independent assessment of emotionality and memory in rodents is relevant to

  18. The Place of Sport and Physical Activity in Young People's Lives and Its Implications for Health: Some Sociological Comments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Andrew; Green, Ken

    2005-01-01

    This exploratory paper seeks, first, to offer some critical sociological comments on the common-sense, or rather ideological, claims surrounding two supposedly emerging "crises": namely, the alleged poor health and declining sport and physical activity participation levels of young people. In this regard, it is suggested that while young people…

  19. Avoiding the "M" Word.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klinger, Donna

    2001-01-01

    Provides an overview of roundtable discussions by top business officers about how higher education can capitalize on strategic alliances. Describes how, by working with one another and with corporate partners, colleges and universities can avoid closing their doors or merging with stronger institutions. (EV)

  20. Psychological Treatments to Avoid

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomason, Timothy C.

    2010-01-01

    Certain psychological treatments should be avoided, and a list of such treatments would provide valuable guidance for counselors, as well as potential clients. It is well established that some therapies are potentially dangerous, and some fringe therapies are highly unlikely to help clients beyond a placebo effect. This article provides an…

  1. Myelin Avoids the JAM.

    PubMed

    Follis, Rose M; Carter, Bruce D

    2016-08-17

    In this issue of Neuron, Redmond et al. (2016) identify junction adhesion molecule 2 (JAM2) as an inhibitor of somatodendritic myelination in spinal cord neurons, thereby elucidating how myelin forms on axons but avoids dendrites and cell bodies. PMID:27537479

  2. Plants to Avoid

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Knowledge of poisonous plants is extremely important for home owners, gardeners, farmers, hunters, hikers, and the rest of the general public. Among the most important plants to avoid in the Delta Region are poison ivy, bull nettle, eastern black nightshade, Queen Ann’s lace, jimsonweed, and trumpe...

  3. Absence of “Warm-Up” during Active Avoidance Learning in a Rat Model of Anxiety Vulnerability: Insights from Computational Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Catherine E.; Smith, Ian M.; Servatius, Richard J.; Beck, Kevin D.

    2014-01-01

    Avoidance behaviors, in which a learned response causes omission of an upcoming punisher, are a core feature of many psychiatric disorders. While reinforcement learning (RL) models have been widely used to study the development of appetitive behaviors, less attention has been paid to avoidance. Here, we present a RL model of lever-press avoidance learning in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and in the inbred Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rat, which has been proposed as a model of anxiety vulnerability. We focus on “warm-up,” transiently decreased avoidance responding at the start of a testing session, which is shown by SD but not WKY rats. We first show that a RL model can correctly simulate key aspects of acquisition, extinction, and warm-up in SD rats; we then show that WKY behavior can be simulated by altering three model parameters, which respectively govern the tendency to explore new behaviors vs. exploit previously reinforced ones, the tendency to repeat previous behaviors regardless of reinforcement, and the learning rate for predicting future outcomes. This suggests that several, dissociable mechanisms may contribute independently to strain differences in behavior. The model predicts that, if the “standard” inter-session interval is shortened from 48 to 24 h, SD rats (but not WKY) will continue to show warm-up; we confirm this prediction in an empirical study with SD and WKY rats. The model further predicts that SD rats will continue to show warm-up with inter-session intervals as short as a few minutes, while WKY rats will not show warm-up, even with inter-session intervals as long as a month. Together, the modeling and empirical data indicate that strain differences in warm-up are qualitative rather than just the result of differential sensitivity to task variables. Understanding the mechanisms that govern expression of warm-up behavior in avoidance may lead to better understanding of pathological avoidance, and potential pathways to modify these processes. PMID

  4. Avoiding congestion in recommender systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Xiaolong; Lü, Linyuan; Liu, Runran; Zhang, Jianlin

    2014-06-01

    Recommender systems use the historical activities and personal profiles of users to uncover their preferences and recommend objects. Most of the previous methods are based on objects’ (and/or users’) similarity rather than on their difference. Such approaches are subject to a high risk of increasingly exposing users to a narrowing band of popular objects. As a result, a few objects may be recommended to an enormous number of users, resulting in the problem of recommendation congestion, which is to be avoided, especially when the recommended objects are limited resources. In order to quantitatively measure a recommendation algorithm's ability to avoid congestion, we proposed a new metric inspired by the Gini index, which is used to measure the inequality of the individual wealth distribution in an economy. Besides this, a new recommendation method called directed weighted conduction (DWC) was developed by considering the heat conduction process on a user-object bipartite network with different thermal conductivities. Experimental results obtained for three benchmark data sets showed that the DWC algorithm can effectively avoid system congestion, and greatly improve the novelty and diversity, while retaining relatively high accuracy, in comparison with the state-of-the-art methods.

  5. ETHANOL-INDUCED LOCOMOTOR ACTIVITY IN ADOLESCENT RATS AND THE RELATIONSHIP WITH ETHANOL-INDUCED CONDITIONED PLACE PREFERENCE AND CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION

    PubMed Central

    Acevedo, María Belén; Nizhnikov, Michael E.; Spear, Norman E.; Molina, Juan C.; Pautassi, Ricardo Marcos

    2012-01-01

    Adolescent rats exhibit ethanol-induced locomotor activity (LMA), which is considered an index of ethanol’s motivational properties likely to predict ethanol self-administration, but few studies have reported or correlated ethanol-induced LMA with conditioned place preference by ethanol at this age. The present study assessed age-related differences in ethanol’s motor stimulating effects and analysed the association between ethanol-induced LMA and conventional measures of ethanol-induced reinforcement. Experiment 1 compared ethanol-induced LMA in adolescent and adult rats. Subsequent experiments analyzed ethanol-induced conditioned place preference and conditioned taste aversion in adolescent rats evaluated for ethanol-induced LMA. Adolescent rats exhibit a robust LMA after high-dose ethanol. Ethanol-induced LMA was fairly similar across adolescents and adults. As expected, adolescents were sensitive to ethanol’s aversive reinforcement, but they also exhibited conditioned place preference. These measures of ethanol reinforcement, however, were not related to ethanol-induced LMA. Spontaneous LMA in an open field was, however, negatively associated with ethanol-induced CTA. PMID:22592597

  6. Effects of central activation of serotonin 5-HT2A/2C or dopamine D2/3 receptors on the acute and repeated effects of clozapine in the conditioned avoidance response test

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Min; Gao, Jun; Sui, Nan; Li, Ming

    2014-01-01

    Rationale: Acute administration of clozapine (a gold standard of atypical antipsychotics) disrupts avoidance response in rodents, while repeated administration often causes a tolerance effect. Objective: The present study investigated the neuroanatomical basis and receptor mechanisms of acute and repeated effects of clozapine treatment in the conditioned avoidance response test in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Methods: DOI (2,5-dimethoxy-4-iodo-amphetamine, a preferential 5-HT2A/2C agonist) or quinpirole (a preferential dopamine D2/3 agonist) was microinjected into the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) or nucleus accumbens shell (NAs), and their effects on the acute and long-term avoidance-disruptive effect of clozapine were tested. Results: Intra-mPFC microinjection of quinpirole enhanced the acute avoidance disruptive effect of clozapine (10 mg/kg, sc), while DOI microinjections reduced it marginally. Repeated administration of clozapine (10 mg/kg, sc) daily for 5 days caused a progressive decrease in its inhibition of avoidance responding, indicating tolerance development. Intra-mPFC microinjection of DOI at 25.0 (but not 5.0) μg/side during this period completely abolished the expression of clozapine tolerance. This was indicated by the finding that clozapine-treated rats centrally infused with 25.0 μg/side DOI did not show higher levels of avoidance responses than the vehicle-treated rats in the clozapine challenge test. Microinjection of DOI into the mPFC immediately before the challenge test also decreased the expression of clozapine tolerance. Conclusions: Acute behavioral effect of clozapine can be enhanced by activation of the D2/3 receptors in the mPFC. Clozapine tolerance expression relies on the neuroplasticity initiated by its antagonist action against 5-HT2A/2C receptors in the mPFC. PMID:25288514

  7. Landing Hazard Avoidance Display

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abernathy, Michael Franklin (Inventor); Hirsh, Robert L. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    Landing hazard avoidance displays can provide rapidly understood visual indications of where it is safe to land a vehicle and where it is unsafe to land a vehicle. Color coded maps can indicate zones in two dimensions relative to the vehicles position where it is safe to land. The map can be simply green (safe) and red (unsafe) areas with an indication of scale or can be a color coding of another map such as a surface map. The color coding can be determined in real time based on topological measurements and safety criteria to thereby adapt to dynamic, unknown, or partially known environments.

  8. Obstacle-avoiding navigation system

    DOEpatents

    Borenstein, Johann; Koren, Yoram; Levine, Simon P.

    1991-01-01

    A system for guiding an autonomous or semi-autonomous vehicle through a field of operation having obstacles thereon to be avoided employs a memory for containing data which defines an array of grid cells which correspond to respective subfields in the field of operation of the vehicle. Each grid cell in the memory contains a value which is indicative of the likelihood, or probability, that an obstacle is present in the respectively associated subfield. The values in the grid cells are incremented individually in response to each scan of the subfields, and precomputation and use of a look-up table avoids complex trigonometric functions. A further array of grid cells is fixed with respect to the vehicle form a conceptual active window which overlies the incremented grid cells. Thus, when the cells in the active window overly grid cell having values which are indicative of the presence of obstacles, the value therein is used as a multiplier of the precomputed vectorial values. The resulting plurality of vectorial values are summed vectorially in one embodiment of the invention to produce a virtual composite repulsive vector which is then summed vectorially with a target-directed vector for producing a resultant vector for guiding the vehicle. In an alternative embodiment, a plurality of vectors surrounding the vehicle are computed, each having a value corresponding to obstacle density. In such an embodiment, target location information is used to select between alternative directions of travel having low associated obstacle densities.

  9. "Numbers, Numerals, Numeration": Activities Using Numeration Cards with Emphasis on Place Value, 100 Board Activities, and Number Words. (Grades 1-4.) Title I Elementary Mathematics Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oxberger, Nancy; Sollenbarger, Sherry

    Mathematics activities and materials for teaching and reinforcing number concepts are presented. The activities, which rely primarily on number cards, are divided into the following sections: (1) sets less than ten; (2) the teen numbers; (3) sets and numerals to 100; (4) numeration; and (5) words that represent numbers (e.g., "one=1"). An…

  10. Highly specific role of hypocretin (orexin) neurons: differential activation as a function of diurnal phase, operant reinforcement versus operant avoidance and light level.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Ronald; Wu, Ming-Fung; Barber, Grace; Ramanathan, Lalini; Siegel, Jerome M

    2011-10-26

    Hypocretin (Hcrt) cell loss is responsible for narcolepsy, but Hcrt's role in normal behavior is unclear. We found that Hcrt knock-out mice were unable to work for food or water reward during the light phase. However, they were unimpaired relative to wild-type (WT) mice when working for reward during the dark phase or when working to avoid shock in the light or dark phase. In WT mice, expression of Fos in Hcrt neurons occurs only in the light phase when working for positive reinforcement. Expression was seen throughout the mediolateral extent of the Hcrt field. Fos was not expressed when expected or unexpected unearned rewards were presented, when working to avoid negative reinforcement, or when given or expecting shock, even though these conditions elicit maximal electroencephalogram (EEG) arousal. Fos was not expressed in the light phase when light was removed. This may explain the lack of light-induced arousal in narcoleptics and its presence in normal individuals. This is the first demonstration of such specificity of arousal system function and has implications for understanding the motivational and circadian consequences of arousal system dysfunction. The current results also indicate that comparable and complementary specificities must exist in other arousal systems.

  11. Avoiding dangerous climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Hans Joachim Schellnhuber; Wolfgang Cramer; Nebojsa Nakicenovic; Tom Wigley; Gary Yohe

    2006-02-15

    In 2005 the UK Government hosted the Avoiding Dangerous Climate Change conference to take an in-depth look at the scientific issues associated with climate change. This volume presents the most recent findings from the leading international scientists that attended the conference. The topics addressed include critical thresholds and key vulnerabilities of the climate system, impacts on human and natural systems, socioeconomic costs and benefits of emissions pathways, and technological options for meeting different stabilisation levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. Contents are: Foreword from Prime Minister Tony Blair; Introduction from Rajendra Pachauri, Chairman of the IPCC; followed by 41 papers arranged in seven sections entitled: Key Vulnerabilities of the Climate System and Critical Thresholds; General Perspectives on Dangerous Impacts; Key Vulnerabilities for Ecosystems and Biodiversity; Socio-Economic Effects; Regional Perspectives; Emission Pathways; and Technological Options. Four papers have been abstracted separately for the Coal Abstracts database.

  12. Measuring Experiential Avoidance in Adults: The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmalz, Jonathan E.; Murrell, Amy R.

    2010-01-01

    To date, general levels of experiential avoidance are primarily measured by the Acceptance and Action Questionnaire-II (AAQ-II), but it includes items of questionable comprehensibility. The Avoidance and Fusion Questionnaire for Youth (AFQ-Y), previously validated as a measure of experiential avoidance with children and adolescents, was…

  13. Places for Pedagogies, Pedagogies for Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duhn, Iris

    2012-01-01

    Working with an understanding of assemblage as the ad hoc groupings of vibrant materials and elements, this article argues that conceptualizing place as an assemblage opens possibilities for bridging the gap between subjects and objects that continue to structure pedagogy. Considering "place" as an assemblage of humans and their multiple "others"…

  14. In-place electrically heated regeneration of vapor-phase activated carbon. Final report, 11 July 1989-11 April 1990

    SciTech Connect

    Levy, R.; Hicks, R.E.; Gold, H.

    1990-09-01

    The Air Force is using the air stripping process to remove a variety of volatile organic contaminants from groundwater. Vapor-phase granular activated carbon (GAC) has proven successful in treating the contaminated air stream emanating from air stripping columns. but conventional regeneration methods are expensive, require transfer of the carbon. and degrade the carbon. The objective of this experimental program was to determine the feasibility of using electrically-heated processes for the in-place regeneration of vapor-phase GAC. Two processes were considered, namely microwave heating and electric resistance heating using the carbon itself as the resistance. The microwave heating equipment used gave nonuniform heating over the length of the carbon column and was not pursued further. Electric resistance, or Rintoul, heating is a commercially proven process that has been applied to the high-temperature regeneration of liquid-phase GAC in special purpose furnaces. The experimental program demonstrated that the Rintoul process can be efficiently applied to low-temperature, low energy, in-place regeneration of vapor-phase GAO. Repeated loading and regeneration of the carbon column showed no loss of adsorption capacity. Two methods of collecting TCE in a concentrated form were also successfully tested. Both processes involved recovery of the TCE in a condensate.

  15. Diverging frequency-modulated 50-kHz vocalization, locomotor activity and conditioned place preference effects in rats given repeated amphetamine treatment.

    PubMed

    Taracha, Ewa; Kaniuga, Ewelina; Chrapusta, Stanisław J; Maciejak, Piotr; Sliwa, Lech; Hamed, Adam; Krząścik, Paweł

    2014-08-01

    Behavioral sensitization and tolerance to repetitive exposure to addictive drugs are commonly used for the assessment of the early stages of the drug dependence progress in animals. The orchestra of tools for studying the progress of drug dependence in laboratory rodents has been considerably enriched in the 1980s by the introduction of ultrasonic vocalization (USV) detection and characterization. However, the relationship between the results of this technology and those of traditional behavioral tests is not clear. We attempted to elucidate some of the respective ambiguities by comparing the effects of an intermittent amphetamine treatment, which was aimed both at the induction of sensitization and tolerance to this drug and at testing the persistence of these effects, on the locomotor activity and 50-kHz USV responses to both the drug and the context of drug exposure in adult male rats showing diverging susceptibility for sensitization to amphetamine. Categorization of the rats into low and high responders/callers based on sensitization of their frequency-modulated 50-kHz USV responsiveness showed some correspondence with conditioned place preference effects, but not with responses to amphetamine. The study showed distinct changes in the rate and latency of the frequency-modulated 50-kHz USV responses to repetitive amphetamine treatment, which were reminiscent of classical behavioral signs of sensitization and tolerance. These results show the utility of the appetitive USV for monitoring of early phases of complex processes leading to drug dependence. However, USV, locomotor activity and conditioned place preference seem to reflect different aspects of these phenomena.

  16. Frequency and rates of outdoor activities, and perceptions of places to perform these activities by Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Marchioni, Meredith

    2012-12-01

    Activity patterns and perceptions play a key role in human health risk, management, and planning. A sample of 233 people attending a Native American festival in Cookeville, Tennessee was interviewed to determine the types, percent participation, and outdoor activities rates, and their perceptions of the importance of characteristics of nuclear sites. Results indicate that: (1) a high percentage of respondents used outdoor environments, (2) they used them for consumptive (hunting, fishing), non-consumptive (hiking, walking, bird-watching), and religious/sacred activities, (3) a higher percentage of respondents engaged in non-consumptive than consumptive activities, (4) praying or meditating, communing with nature, and bird-watching had the highest uses rates (5) the environmental characteristics rated the highest were lack of radionuclides that presented a health risk, no visible smog, clean air, and unpolluted water, (6) the presence of people, buildings and roads were rated the lowest, and (7) Native Americans had higher outdoor participation rates, participated more frequently, and evaluated environmental characteristics higher than did Caucasians. This information can be used by managers to create and maintain outdoor habitats that fit the needs of local people. Planning and management require information on public policy, human needs and requirements, and human perceptions and evaluations of environmental characteristics. PMID:23229153

  17. Frequency and rates of outdoor activities, and perceptions of places to perform these activities by Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed in Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn

    2015-01-01

    Activity patterns and perceptions play a key role in human health risk, management, and planning. A survey of 233 people attending a Native American festival in Cookeville Tennessee were interviewed to determine the types, percent participation, and outdoor activities rates, and their perceptions of the importance of characteristics of sites. The indicate that: 1) a high percentage of respondents used outdoor environments, 2) they used them for consumptive (hunting, fishing), non-consumptive (hiking, walking, bird-watching), and religious/sacred activities, 3) a higher percentage of respondents engaged in non-consumptive than consumptive activities, 4) praying or meditating, communing with nature, and bird-watching had the highest uses rates 5) the environmental characteristics rated the highest were lack of radionuclides that presented a health risk, no visible smog, clean air, and unpolluted water, 6) presence of people, buildings and roads were rated the lowest and 7) Native Americans had higher participation rates, participated more frequently, and evaluated environmental characteristics higher than did Caucasians. This information can be used by managers to create and maintain outdoor habitats that fit the needs of local people. Planning and management require information on public policy, human needs and requirements, and human perceptions and evaluations of environmental characteristics. PMID:23229153

  18. Frequency and rates of outdoor activities, and perceptions of places to perform these activities by Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed in Tennessee

    PubMed Central

    Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn

    2015-01-01

    Activity patterns and perceptions play a key role in human health risk, management, and planning. A survey of 233 people attending a Native American festival in Cookeville Tennessee were interviewed to determine the types, percent participation, and outdoor activities rates, and their perceptions of the importance of characteristics of sites. The indicate that: 1) a high percentage of respondents used outdoor environments, 2) they used them for consumptive (hunting, fishing), non-consumptive (hiking, walking, bird-watching), and religious/sacred activities, 3) a higher percentage of respondents engaged in non-consumptive than consumptive activities, 4) praying or meditating, communing with nature, and bird-watching had the highest uses rates 5) the environmental characteristics rated the highest were lack of radionuclides that presented a health risk, no visible smog, clean air, and unpolluted water, 6) presence of people, buildings and roads were rated the lowest and 7) Native Americans had higher participation rates, participated more frequently, and evaluated environmental characteristics higher than did Caucasians. This information can be used by managers to create and maintain outdoor habitats that fit the needs of local people. Planning and management require information on public policy, human needs and requirements, and human perceptions and evaluations of environmental characteristics. PMID:23229153

  19. Frequency and rates of outdoor activities, and perceptions of places to perform these activities by Native Americans and Caucasians interviewed in Tennessee.

    PubMed

    Burger, Joanna; Gochfeld, Michael; Jeitner, Christian; Pittfield, Taryn; Marchioni, Meredith

    2012-12-01

    Activity patterns and perceptions play a key role in human health risk, management, and planning. A sample of 233 people attending a Native American festival in Cookeville, Tennessee was interviewed to determine the types, percent participation, and outdoor activities rates, and their perceptions of the importance of characteristics of nuclear sites. Results indicate that: (1) a high percentage of respondents used outdoor environments, (2) they used them for consumptive (hunting, fishing), non-consumptive (hiking, walking, bird-watching), and religious/sacred activities, (3) a higher percentage of respondents engaged in non-consumptive than consumptive activities, (4) praying or meditating, communing with nature, and bird-watching had the highest uses rates (5) the environmental characteristics rated the highest were lack of radionuclides that presented a health risk, no visible smog, clean air, and unpolluted water, (6) the presence of people, buildings and roads were rated the lowest, and (7) Native Americans had higher outdoor participation rates, participated more frequently, and evaluated environmental characteristics higher than did Caucasians. This information can be used by managers to create and maintain outdoor habitats that fit the needs of local people. Planning and management require information on public policy, human needs and requirements, and human perceptions and evaluations of environmental characteristics.

  20. Avoidance of late abortion.

    PubMed

    1979-11-24

    Induced abortion is now a common procedure in the United States and Britain. Methods for performing induced abortion are reviewed. Menstrual regulation, aspiration with a hand-held syringe and a flexible cannula within 6 weeks of the last period, is not often practiced in Britain. Several developing countries are using this simple technique to advantage. Vacuum aspiration in the 1st 12 weeks of pregnancy is the main method being used everywhere for 1st trimester procedures. Mortality rates with this method are low and, in well-organized clinics with experienced personnel, the rates can be reduced even further. It is agreed that 2nd trimester procedures are more complex, both physically and emotionally. In the last several years, dilatation and evacuation (D&E) has increased in popularity for 2nd trimester procedures. Dilation of the cervix is generally accomplished with laminaria, evacuation of the uterus with forceps, and then suction curettage applied. This procedure has replaced intraamniotic infusion, hysterotomy, and hysterectomy as the most commonly - practiced method, despite its need for special surgical skills and good clinical backup. Follow-up of abortions is difficult. Different long-term effects have been noted with different abortion procedures. Early abortion seems to have only a modest effect, if that. Whether late abortion has long-lasting effects remains open to question. Late abortion should be avoided.

  1. CAT altitude avoidance system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, B. L. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    A method and apparatus are provided for indicating the altitude of the tropopause or of an inversion layer wherein clear air turbulence (CAT) may occur, and the likely severity of any such CAT, includes directing a passive microwave radiometer on the aircraft at different angles with respect to the horizon. The microwave radiation measured at a frequency of about 55 GHz represents the temperature of the air at an ""average'' range of about 3 kilometers, so that the sine of the angle of the radiometer times 3 kilometers equals the approximate altitude of the air whose temperature is measured. A plot of altitude (with respect to the aircraft) versus temperature of the air at that altitude, can indicate when an inversion layer is present and can indicate the altitude of the tropopause or of such an inversion layer. The plot can also indicate the severity of any CAT in an inversion layer. If CAT has been detected in the general area, then the aircraft can be flown at an altitude to avoid the tropopause or inversion layer.

  2. Place and Being

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cannatella, Howard

    2007-01-01

    Do places matter educationally? When Edward Casey remarks: "The world is, minimally and forever, a place-world", we might take this statement as presupposing without argument that places exist as a given, that we know what a place is, a point that Aristotle would have never taken for granted and in fact neither does Casey. I find Casey's remark…

  3. Is Avoiding an Aversive Outcome Rewarding? Neural Substrates of Avoidance Learning in the Human Brain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hackjin; Shimojo, Shinsuke

    2006-01-01

    Avoidance learning poses a challenge for reinforcement-based theories of instrumental conditioning, because once an aversive outcome is successfully avoided an individual may no longer experience extrinsic reinforcement for their behavior. One possible account for this is to propose that avoiding an aversive outcome is in itself a reward, and thus avoidance behavior is positively reinforced on each trial when the aversive outcome is successfully avoided. In the present study we aimed to test this possibility by determining whether avoidance of an aversive outcome recruits the same neural circuitry as that elicited by a reward itself. We scanned 16 human participants with functional MRI while they performed an instrumental choice task, in which on each trial they chose from one of two actions in order to either win money or else avoid losing money. Neural activity in a region previously implicated in encoding stimulus reward value, the medial orbitofrontal cortex, was found to increase, not only following receipt of reward, but also following successful avoidance of an aversive outcome. This neural signal may itself act as an intrinsic reward, thereby serving to reinforce actions during instrumental avoidance. PMID:16802856

  4. Collision avoidance sensor skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to totally eliminate the possibility of a robot (or any mechanism for that matter) inducing a collision in space operations. We were particularly concerned that human beings were safe under all circumstances. This was apparently accomplished, and it is shown that GSFC has a system that is ready for space qualification and flight. However, it soon became apparent that much more could be accomplished with this technology. Payloads could be made invulnerable to collision avoidance and the blind spots behind them eliminated. This could be accomplished by a simple, non-imaging set of 'Capaciflector' sensors on each payload. It also is evident that this system could be used to align and dock the system with a wide margin of safety. Throughout, lighting problems could be ignored, and unexpected events and modeling errors taken in stride. At the same time, computational requirements would be reduced. This can be done in a simple, rugged, reliable manner that will not disturb the form factor of space systems. It will be practical for space applications. The lab experiments indicate we are well on the way to accomplishing this. Still, the research trail goes deeper. It now appears that the sensors can be extended to end effectors to provide precontact information and make robot docking (or any docking connection) very smooth, with minimal loads impacted back into the mating structures. This type of ability would be a major step forward in basic control techniques in space. There are, however, baseline and restructuring issues to be tackled. The payloads must get power and signals to them from the robot or from the astronaut servicing tool. This requires a standard electromechanical interface. Any of several could be used. The GSFC prototype shown in this presentation is a good one. Sensors with their attendant electronics must be added to the payloads, end effectors, and robot arms and integrated into the system.

  5. Affordable MMW aircraft collision avoidance system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Almsted, Larry D.; Becker, Robert C.; Zelenka, Richard E.

    1997-06-01

    Collision avoidance is of concern to all aircraft, requiring the detection and identification of hazardous terrain or obstacles in sufficient time for clearance maneuvers. The collision avoidance requirement is even more demanding for helicopters, as their unique capabilities result in extensive operations at low-altitude, near to terrain and other hazardous obstacles. TO augment the pilot's visual collision avoidance abilities, some aircraft are equipped with 'enhanced-vision' systems or terrain collision warning systems. Enhanced-vision systems are typically very large and costly systems that are not very covert and are also difficult to install in a helicopter. The display is typically raw images from infrared or radar sensors, and can require a high degree of pilot interpretation and attention. Terrain collision warning system that rely on stored terrain maps are often of low resolution and accuracy and do not represent hazards to the aircraft placed after map sampling. Such hazards could include aircraft parked on runway, man- made towers or buildings and hills. In this paper, a low cost dual-function scanning pencil-beam, millimeter-wave radar forward sensor is used to determine whether an aircraft's flight path is clear of obstructions. Due to the limited space and weight budget in helicopters, the system is a dual function system that is substituted in place of the existing radar altimeter. The system combines a 35 GHz forward looking obstacle avoidance radar and a 4.3 GHz radar altimeter. The forward looking 35 GHz 3D radar's returns are used to construct a terrain and obstruction database surrounding an aircraft, which is presented to the pilot as a synthetic perspective display. The 35 GHz forward looking radar and the associated display was evaluated in a joint NASA Honeywell flight test program in 1996. The tests were conducted on a NASA/Army test helicopter. The test program clearly demonstrated the systems potential usefulness for collision avoidance.

  6. Blockage of acquisition and expression of morphine-induced conditioned place preference in rats due to activation of glutamate receptors type II/III in nucleus accumbens.

    PubMed

    Baharlouei, Negar; Sarihi, Abdolrahman; Komaki, Alireza; Shahidi, Siamak; Haghparast, Abbas

    2015-08-01

    Numerous studies have shown that glutamate in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) is an essential neurotransmitter for the extension of morphine-induced place preference. mGlu2/3 glutamate receptors in the NAc have important roles in the reward pathway. However, less is known about the role of this glutamate receptor subtype in morphine-induced conditioned place preference (CPP). In this study, we examined the effects of bilateral intra-accumbal administration of LY379268, an mGlu2/3 receptor agonist on the acquisition and expression of morphine-induced CPP in rats. Adult male Wistar rats (n=136; 220-250g) were evaluated in a CPP paradigm. Doses of LY379268 (0.3, 1 and 3μg/0.5μL saline per side) were administered into the NAc on both sides during the 3days of the conditioning (acquisition) or post-conditioning (expression) phase. The results show that bilateral intra-accumbal administration of LY379268 (0.3, 1 and 3μg) markedly decreased the acquisition of morphine-induced CPP in a dose-dependent manner. In a second series of experiments, we determined that injection of LY379268 into the NAc considerably attenuated the expression of morphine CPP only at the highest dose (3μg). Our findings suggest that activation of mGlu2/3 receptors in the NAc dose-dependently blocked both the establishment and the maintenance of morphine-induced CPP and confirmed the role of this system as a potential therapeutic target for addiction.

  7. Avoiding criminal liabilities

    SciTech Connect

    Blattner, J.W. ); Bramble, G.M. )

    1994-06-01

    Armed with more than 120 investigative agents, the US Environmental Protection Agency, through its attorneys at the Dept. of Justice, charges 5 to 10 engineers and business people with criminal violations of the nation's environmental regulations in any given week. There are some 10,000 pages of federal (let alone state) environmental regulations. The rules apply to large and small companies alike. As a practical matter, the sheer scope and complexity of environmental regulatory programs make 100% compliance virtually unattainable for most industrial enterprises. Where it is no longer a defense to claim lack of knowledge of one's regulatory obligations, and where courts allow the inference of criminal knowledge based on what the defendant should have known, what is a company to do The environmental audit provides a solution to this problem. Progressive audit programs are established with three goals in mind: to ensure that programs and practices at facilities are in compliance with applicable rules and regulations; to affirm that management systems are in place at the facilities to support ongoing compliance; and to identify needs or opportunities where it may be desirable to go beyond compliance to protect human health and the environment. This paper discusses the implementation of an audit program.

  8. Effects of post-training infusions of a mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase inhibitor into the hippocampus or entorhinal cortex on short- and long-term retention of inhibitory avoidance.

    PubMed

    Walz, R; Roesler, R; Barros, D M; de Souza, M M; Rodrigues, C; Sant'Anna, M K; Quevedo, J; Choi, H K; Neto, W P; DeDavid e Silva, T L; Medina, J H; Izquierdo, I

    1999-12-01

    We recently demonstrated the time-dependent impairment of long-term retention of a step-down inhibitory avoidance task in rats induced by post-training infusion of the specific MAPKK (mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase) inhibitor PD 098059 into the hippocampus (HIP), amygdala (AMY), entorhinal cortex (EC) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Here we investigate the role of the MAPK cascade in the HIP and the EC on both short- and long-term retention of inhibitory avoidance in rats, using three different doses of the MAPKK inhibitor PD 098059. Adult male Wistar rats were trained and tested in inhibitory avoidance and given an infusion of PD 098059 (0.5, 5.0 or 50.0 microM) at 0, 30, 90, 120, 180, 270 or 360 min after training. A retention test session was carried out at 90, 180 or 270 min after training (short-term memory, STM) and/ or 24 h after training (long-term memory, LTM). When infused into the HIP at 0 min, but not at 30, 90, 120 or 180 min after training, PD 098059 impaired STM. Intrahippocampal PD 098059 impaired LTM when infused at 180 min, but not at 0, 30, 90, 120 or 270 min after training. When infused into the EC, PD 098059 enhanced STM when given at 0 min after training and had no effect when given at 30, 90, 120 or 180 min after training. In this structure, PD 098059 impaired LTM when given at 180 or 270 min, but not at 30, 90, 120 or 360 min after training. All effects were dose-dependent. These findings indicate that the MAPK cascade in the HIP and EC is differentially involved in short- and long-term retention of inhibitory avoidance in rats.

  9. Wheel-running mitigates psychomotor sensitization initiation but not post-sensitization conditioned activity and conditioned place preference induced by cocaine in mice.

    PubMed

    Geuzaine, Annabelle; Tirelli, Ezio

    2014-04-01

    Previous literature suggests that physical exercise allowed by an unlimited access to a running wheel for several weeks can mitigate chronic neurobehavioral responsiveness to several addictive drugs in rodents. Here, the potential preventive effects of unlimited wheel-running on the initiation of psychomotor sensitization and the acquisition and extinction of conditioned place preference (CPP) induced by 10 mg/kg cocaine in C56BL/6J mice were assessed in two independent experiments. To this end, half of the mice were singly housed with a running wheel at 28 days of age for 10 weeks prior to psychopharmacological tests, during which housing conditions did not change, and the other half of mice were housed without running wheel. In Experiment 1, prior to initiating sensitization, psychomotor activity on the two first drug-free once-daily sessions was not affected by wheel-running. This was also found for the acute psychomotor-activating effect of cocaine on the first sensitization session. Psychomotor sensitization readily developed over the 9 following once-daily sessions in mice housed without wheel, whereas it was inhibited in mice housed with a wheel. However, that difference did not transfer to post-sensitization conditioned activity. In contrast with the sensitization results, mice housed with a wheel still expressed a clear-cut CPP which did not extinguish differently from that of the other group, a result in disaccord with previous studies reporting either an attenuating or an increasing effect of wheel-running on cocaine-induced conditioned reward. The available results together indicate that interactions between wheel-running and cocaine effects are far from being satisfactorily characterized.

  10. Disconnecting the Yin and Yang Relation of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR)-Mediated Delivery: A Fully Synthetic, EGFR-Targeted Gene Transfer System Avoiding Receptor Activation

    PubMed Central

    Schäfer, A.; Pahnke, A.; Schaffert, D.; van Weerden, W.M.; de Ridder, C.M.A.; Rödl, W.; Vetter, A.; Spitzweg, C.; Kraaij, R.; Wagner, E.

    2011-01-01

    Abstract The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is upregulated within a high percentage of solid tumors and hence is an attractive target for tumor-targeted therapies including gene therapy. The natural EGFR ligand epidermal growth factor (EGF) has been used for this purpose, despite the risk of mitogenic effects due to EGFR activation. We have developed a fully synthetic, EGFR-targeted gene delivery system based on PEGylated linear polyethylenimine (LPEI), allowing evaluation of different EGFR-binding peptides in terms of transfection efficiency and EGFR activation. Peptide sequences directly derived from the human EGF molecule enhanced transfection efficiency with concomitant EGFR activation. Only the EGFR-binding peptide GE11, which has been identified by phage display technique, showed specific enhancement of transfection on EGFR-overexpressing tumor cells including glioblastoma and hepatoma, but without EGFR activation. EGFR targeting led to high levels of cell association of fluorescently labeled polyplexes after only 30 min of incubation. EGF pretreatment of cells induced enhanced cellular internalization of all polyplex types tested, pointing at generally enhanced macropinocytosis. EGF polyplexes diminished cell surface expression of EGFR for up to 4 hr, whereas GE11 polyplexes did not. In a clinically relevant orthotopic prostate cancer model, intratumorally injected GE11 polyplexes were superior in inducing transgene expression when compared with untargeted polyplexes. PMID:21644815

  11. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    PubMed

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance.

  12. Healthcare avoidance: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Sharon K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk.

  13. Stimulus conflict triggers behavioral avoidance.

    PubMed

    Dignath, David; Eder, Andreas B

    2015-12-01

    According to a recent extension of the conflict-monitoring theory, conflict between two competing response tendencies is registered as an aversive event and triggers a motivation to avoid the source of conflict. In the present study, we tested this assumption. Over five experiments, we examined whether conflict is associated with an avoidance motivation and whether stimulus conflict or response conflict triggers an avoidance tendency. Participants first performed a color Stroop task. In a subsequent motivation test, participants responded to Stroop stimuli with approach- and avoidance-related lever movements. These results showed that Stroop-conflict stimuli increased the frequency of avoidance responses in a free-choice motivation test, and also increased the speed of avoidance relative to approach responses in a forced-choice test. High and low proportions of response conflict in the Stroop task had no effect on avoidance in the motivation test. Avoidance of conflict was, however, obtained even with new conflict stimuli that had not been presented before in a Stroop task, and when the Stroop task was replaced with an unrelated filler task. Taken together, these results suggest that stimulus conflict is sufficient to trigger avoidance. PMID:25931151

  14. Healthcare avoidance: a critical review.

    PubMed

    Byrne, Sharon K

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to provide a critical review and synthesis of theoretical and research literature documenting the impact of avoidance on healthcare behaviors, identify the factors that influence healthcare avoidance and delay in the adult population, and propose a direction for future research. The Theory of Reasoned Action, Theory of Planned Behavior, Theory of Care-Seeking Behavior, the Transtheoretical Model, and the Behavioral Model of Health Services Use/Utilization are utilized to elaborate on the context within which individual intention to engage in healthcare behaviors occurs. Research literature on the concept of healthcare avoidance obtained by using computerized searches of CINAHL, MEDLINE, PSYCH INFO, and HAPI databases, from 1995 to 2007, were reviewed. Studies were organized by professional disciplines. Healthcare avoidance is a common and highly variable experience. Multiple administrative, demographic, personal, and provider factors are related to healthcare avoidance, for example, distrust of providers and/or the science community, health beliefs, insurance status, or socioeconomic/income level. Although the concept is recognized by multiple disciplines, limited research studies address its impact on healthcare decision making. More systematic research is needed to determine correlates of healthcare avoidance. Such studies will help investigators identify patients at risk for avoidant behaviors and provide the basis for health-promoting interventions. Methodological challenges include identification of characteristics of individuals and environments that hinder healthcare behaviors, as well as, the complexity of measuring healthcare avoidance. Studies need to systematically explore the influence of avoidance behaviors on specific healthcare populations at risk. PMID:18758277

  15. Place and Pedagogy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Orr, David

    2013-01-01

    David Orr's classic article links education to living in the outdoors and studying all disciplines through the unifying lens of place. Pedagogy of place counters abstraction, it is the natural world embodying principles of learning that involve direct observation, investigation, experimentation, and manual skills. Place is the laboratory providing…

  16. Neuroimaging the temporal dynamics of human avoidance to sustained threat.

    PubMed

    Schlund, Michael W; Hudgins, Caleb D; Magee, Sandy; Dymond, Simon

    2013-11-15

    Many forms of human psychopathology are characterized by sustained negative emotional responses to threat and chronic behavioral avoidance, implicating avoidance as a potential transdiagnostic factor. Evidence from both nonhuman neurophysiological and human neuroimaging studies suggests a distributed frontal-limbic-striatal brain network supports avoidance. However, our understanding of the temporal dynamics of the network to sustained threat that prompts sustained avoidance is limited. To address this issue, 17 adults were given extensive training on a modified free-operant avoidance task in which button pressing avoided money loss during a sustained threat period. Subsequently, subjects underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging while completing the avoidance task. In our regions of interest, we observed phasic, rather than sustained, activation during sustained threat in dorsolateral and inferior frontal regions, anterior and dorsal cingulate, ventral striatum and regions associated with emotion, including the amygdala, insula, substantia nigra and bed nucleus of the stria terminalis complex. Moreover, trait levels of experiential avoidance were negatively correlated with insula, hippocampal and amygdala activation. These findings suggest knowledge that one can consistently avoid aversive outcomes is not associated with decreased threat-related responses and that individuals with greater experiential avoidance exhibit reduced reactivity to initial threat. Implications for understanding brain mechanisms supporting human avoidance and psychological theories of avoidance are discussed. PMID:24095880

  17. Audit shock avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Cooper, H.A.

    1994-10-01

    As the number of generating facilities constructed by independent power companies grows in the United States, one undesired by-product will likely be increased scrutiny of the federal income tax treatment of these projects by the Internal Revenue Service (IRS). The IRS has been quite active in recent years auditing electric generating facilities owned by electric utilities, and there is no reason to believe independent power plants will receive any different treatment. In auditing independent power plants, the IRS can be expected to use many of the same arguments and take many of the same positions that it has developed in utility audits.

  18. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs.

  19. Chemical avoidance responses of fishes.

    PubMed

    Tierney, Keith B

    2016-05-01

    The hydrosphere is a repository for all of our waste and mistakes, be they sewage, garbage, process-affected waters, runoff, and gases. For fish living in environments receiving undesirable inputs, moving away seems an obvious way to avoid harm. While this should occur, there are numerous examples where it will not. The inability to avoid harmful environments may lead to sensory impairments that in turn limit the ability to avoid other dangers or locate benefits. For avoidance to occur, the danger must first be perceived, which may not happen if the fish is 'blinded' in some capacity. Second, the danger must be recognized for what it is, which may also not happen if the fish is cognitively confused or impaired. Third, it is possible that the fish may not be able to leave the area, or worse, learns to prefer a toxic environment. Concerning generating regulations around avoidance, there are two possibilities: that an avoidance threshold be used to set guidelines for effluent release with the intention of driving fishes away; the second is to set a contaminant concentration that would not affect the avoidance or attraction responses to other cues. With the complexities of the modern world in which we release diverse pollutants, from light to municipal effluents full of 1000s of chemicals, to the diversity present in ecosystems, it is impossible to have avoidance data on every stimulus-species combination. Nevertheless, we may be able to use existing avoidance response data to predict the likelihood of avoidance of untested stimuli. Where we cannot, this review includes a framework that can be used to direct new research. This review is intended to collate existing avoidance response data, provide a framework for making decisions in the absence of data, and suggest studies that would facilitate the prediction of risk to fish health in environments receiving intentional and unintentional human-based chemical inputs. PMID:26970365

  20. Organising European technical documentation to avoid duplication.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The development of comprehensive accurate and well-organised technical documentation that demonstrates compliance with regulatory requirements is a resource-intensive, but critically important activity for medical device manufacturers. This article discusses guidance documents and method of organising technical documentation that may help avoid costly and time-consuming duplication.

  1. Organising European technical documentation to avoid duplication.

    PubMed

    Donawa, Maria

    2006-04-01

    The development of comprehensive accurate and well-organised technical documentation that demonstrates compliance with regulatory requirements is a resource-intensive, but critically important activity for medical device manufacturers. This article discusses guidance documents and method of organising technical documentation that may help avoid costly and time-consuming duplication. PMID:16736662

  2. Cigarette tax avoidance and evasion.

    PubMed

    Stehr, Mark

    2005-03-01

    Variation in state cigarette taxes provides incentives for tax avoidance through smuggling, legal border crossing to low tax jurisdictions, or Internet purchasing. When taxes rise, tax paid sales of cigarettes will decline both because consumption will decrease and because tax avoidance will increase. The key innovation of this paper is to compare cigarette sales data to cigarette consumption data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). I show that after subtracting percent changes in consumption, residual percent changes in sales are associated with state cigarette tax changes implying the existence of tax avoidance. I estimate that the tax avoidance response to tax changes is at least twice the consumption response and that tax avoidance accounted for up to 9.6% of sales between 1985 and 2001. Because of the increase in tax avoidance, tax paid sales data understate the level of smoking and overstate the drop in smoking. I also find that the level of legal border crossing was very low relative to other forms of tax avoidance. If states have strong preferences for smoking control, they must pair high cigarette taxes with effective policies to curb smuggling and other forms of tax avoidance or employ alternative policies such as counter-advertising and smoking restrictions. PMID:15721046

  3. Hurt but still alive: Residual activity in the parahippocampal cortex conditions the recognition of familiar places in a patient with topographic agnosia☆

    PubMed Central

    van Assche, Mitsouko; Kebets, Valeria; Lopez, Ursula; Saj, Arnaud; Goldstein, Rachel; Bernasconi, Françoise; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Assal, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The parahippocampal cortex (PHC) participates in both perception and memory. However, the way perceptual and memory processes cooperate when we navigate in our everyday life environment remains poorly understood. We studied a stroke patient presenting a brain lesion in the right PHC, which resulted in a mild and quantifiable topographic agnosia, and allowed us to investigate the role of this structure in overt place recognition. Photographs of personally familiar and unfamiliar places were displayed during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Familiar places were either recognized or unrecognized by the patient and 6 age- and education-matched controls in a visual post-scan recognition test. In fMRI, recognized places were associated with a network comprising the fusiform gyrus in the intact side, but also the right anterior PHC, which included the lesion site. Moreover, this right PHC showed increased connectivity with the left homologous PHC in the intact hemisphere. By contrasting recognized with unrecognized familiar places, we replicate the finding of the joint involvement of the retrosplenial cortex, occipito-temporal areas, and posterior parietal cortex in place recognition. This study shows that the ability for left and right anterior PHC to communicate despite the neurological damage conditioned place recognition success in this patient. It further highlights a hemispheric asymmetry in this process, by showing the fundamental role of the right PHC in topographic agnosia. PMID:26909331

  4. Hurt but still alive: Residual activity in the parahippocampal cortex conditions the recognition of familiar places in a patient with topographic agnosia.

    PubMed

    van Assche, Mitsouko; Kebets, Valeria; Lopez, Ursula; Saj, Arnaud; Goldstein, Rachel; Bernasconi, Françoise; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Assal, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The parahippocampal cortex (PHC) participates in both perception and memory. However, the way perceptual and memory processes cooperate when we navigate in our everyday life environment remains poorly understood. We studied a stroke patient presenting a brain lesion in the right PHC, which resulted in a mild and quantifiable topographic agnosia, and allowed us to investigate the role of this structure in overt place recognition. Photographs of personally familiar and unfamiliar places were displayed during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Familiar places were either recognized or unrecognized by the patient and 6 age- and education-matched controls in a visual post-scan recognition test. In fMRI, recognized places were associated with a network comprising the fusiform gyrus in the intact side, but also the right anterior PHC, which included the lesion site. Moreover, this right PHC showed increased connectivity with the left homologous PHC in the intact hemisphere. By contrasting recognized with unrecognized familiar places, we replicate the finding of the joint involvement of the retrosplenial cortex, occipito-temporal areas, and posterior parietal cortex in place recognition. This study shows that the ability for left and right anterior PHC to communicate despite the neurological damage conditioned place recognition success in this patient. It further highlights a hemispheric asymmetry in this process, by showing the fundamental role of the right PHC in topographic agnosia.

  5. Hurt but still alive: Residual activity in the parahippocampal cortex conditions the recognition of familiar places in a patient with topographic agnosia.

    PubMed

    van Assche, Mitsouko; Kebets, Valeria; Lopez, Ursula; Saj, Arnaud; Goldstein, Rachel; Bernasconi, Françoise; Vuilleumier, Patrik; Assal, Frédéric

    2016-01-01

    The parahippocampal cortex (PHC) participates in both perception and memory. However, the way perceptual and memory processes cooperate when we navigate in our everyday life environment remains poorly understood. We studied a stroke patient presenting a brain lesion in the right PHC, which resulted in a mild and quantifiable topographic agnosia, and allowed us to investigate the role of this structure in overt place recognition. Photographs of personally familiar and unfamiliar places were displayed during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Familiar places were either recognized or unrecognized by the patient and 6 age- and education-matched controls in a visual post-scan recognition test. In fMRI, recognized places were associated with a network comprising the fusiform gyrus in the intact side, but also the right anterior PHC, which included the lesion site. Moreover, this right PHC showed increased connectivity with the left homologous PHC in the intact hemisphere. By contrasting recognized with unrecognized familiar places, we replicate the finding of the joint involvement of the retrosplenial cortex, occipito-temporal areas, and posterior parietal cortex in place recognition. This study shows that the ability for left and right anterior PHC to communicate despite the neurological damage conditioned place recognition success in this patient. It further highlights a hemispheric asymmetry in this process, by showing the fundamental role of the right PHC in topographic agnosia. PMID:26909331

  6. Administration of activated glial condition medium in the nucleus accumbens extended extinction and intensified reinstatement of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Arezoomandan, Reza; Moradi, Marzieh; Attarzadeh-Yazdi, Ghassem; Tomaz, Carlos; Haghparast, Abbas

    2016-07-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a psychostimulant drug with significant abuse potential and neurotoxic effects. A high percentage of users relapse to use after detoxification and no effective medication has been developed for treatment of METH addiction. Developing evidences indicated the role of glial cells in drugs abused related phenomena. However, little is known about the role of these cells in the maintenance and reinstatement of METH-seeking behaviors. Therefore, the current study was conducted to clarify the role of glial cells in the maintenance and reinstatement of METH-induced conditioned place preference (CPP) in rats. Astrocyte condition medium (ACM) and neuroglia conditioned medium (NCM) are liquid mediums prepared from primary astrocyte and neuroglia cells. These mediums seem to contain many factors that release by glia cells. CPP was induced by systemic administration of METH (1mg/kg for 5days, s.c.). Following the establishment of CPP, the rats were given daily bilateral injections (0.5μl/side) of either vehicle, ACM or NCM into the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and then were tested for the maintenance and reinstatement. Intra-NAc administration of ACM treated with METH, could extend the extinction period and also, intensified the magnitude of METH reinstatement. Furthermore, intra-accumbal administration of NCM treated with METH notably delayed the extinction period by four days and significantly increased the magnitude of CPP score in the reinstatement phase compared to the post-test phase. Collectively, these findings suggested that activation of glial cells may be involved in the maintenance and reinstatement of METH-seeking behaviors. It provides new evidence that glia cells might be considered as a potential target for the treatment of METH addiction. PMID:27346277

  7. From grid cells and visual place cells to multimodal place cell: a new robotic architecture.

    PubMed

    Jauffret, Adrien; Cuperlier, Nicolas; Gaussier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a new architecture for the generation of grid cells (GC) was implemented on a real robot. In order to test this model a simple place cell (PC) model merging visual PC activity and GC was developed. GC were first built from a simple "several to one" projection (similar to a modulo operation) performed on a neural field coding for path integration (PI). Robotics experiments raised several practical and theoretical issues. To limit the important angular drift of PI, head direction information was introduced in addition to the robot proprioceptive signal coming from the wheel rotation. Next, a simple associative learning between visual place cells and the neural field coding for the PI has been used to recalibrate the PI and to limit its drift. Finally, the parameters controlling the shape of the PC built from the GC have been studied. Increasing the number of GC obviously improves the shape of the resulting place field. Yet, other parameters such as the discretization factor of PI or the lateral interactions between GC can have an important impact on the place field quality and avoid the need of a very large number of GC. In conclusion, our results show our GC model based on the compression of PI is congruent with neurobiological studies made on rodent. GC firing patterns can be the result of a modulo transformation of PI information. We argue that such a transformation may be a general property of the connectivity from the cortex to the entorhinal cortex. Our model predicts that the effect of similar transformations on other kinds of sensory information (visual, tactile, auditory, etc…) in the entorhinal cortex should be observed. Consequently, a given EC cell should react to non-contiguous input configurations in non-spatial conditions according to the projection from its different inputs.

  8. From grid cells and visual place cells to multimodal place cell: a new robotic architecture.

    PubMed

    Jauffret, Adrien; Cuperlier, Nicolas; Gaussier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a new architecture for the generation of grid cells (GC) was implemented on a real robot. In order to test this model a simple place cell (PC) model merging visual PC activity and GC was developed. GC were first built from a simple "several to one" projection (similar to a modulo operation) performed on a neural field coding for path integration (PI). Robotics experiments raised several practical and theoretical issues. To limit the important angular drift of PI, head direction information was introduced in addition to the robot proprioceptive signal coming from the wheel rotation. Next, a simple associative learning between visual place cells and the neural field coding for the PI has been used to recalibrate the PI and to limit its drift. Finally, the parameters controlling the shape of the PC built from the GC have been studied. Increasing the number of GC obviously improves the shape of the resulting place field. Yet, other parameters such as the discretization factor of PI or the lateral interactions between GC can have an important impact on the place field quality and avoid the need of a very large number of GC. In conclusion, our results show our GC model based on the compression of PI is congruent with neurobiological studies made on rodent. GC firing patterns can be the result of a modulo transformation of PI information. We argue that such a transformation may be a general property of the connectivity from the cortex to the entorhinal cortex. Our model predicts that the effect of similar transformations on other kinds of sensory information (visual, tactile, auditory, etc…) in the entorhinal cortex should be observed. Consequently, a given EC cell should react to non-contiguous input configurations in non-spatial conditions according to the projection from its different inputs. PMID:25904862

  9. From grid cells and visual place cells to multimodal place cell: a new robotic architecture

    PubMed Central

    Jauffret, Adrien; Cuperlier, Nicolas; Gaussier, Philippe

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, a new architecture for the generation of grid cells (GC) was implemented on a real robot. In order to test this model a simple place cell (PC) model merging visual PC activity and GC was developed. GC were first built from a simple “several to one” projection (similar to a modulo operation) performed on a neural field coding for path integration (PI). Robotics experiments raised several practical and theoretical issues. To limit the important angular drift of PI, head direction information was introduced in addition to the robot proprioceptive signal coming from the wheel rotation. Next, a simple associative learning between visual place cells and the neural field coding for the PI has been used to recalibrate the PI and to limit its drift. Finally, the parameters controlling the shape of the PC built from the GC have been studied. Increasing the number of GC obviously improves the shape of the resulting place field. Yet, other parameters such as the discretization factor of PI or the lateral interactions between GC can have an important impact on the place field quality and avoid the need of a very large number of GC. In conclusion, our results show our GC model based on the compression of PI is congruent with neurobiological studies made on rodent. GC firing patterns can be the result of a modulo transformation of PI information. We argue that such a transformation may be a general property of the connectivity from the cortex to the entorhinal cortex. Our model predicts that the effect of similar transformations on other kinds of sensory information (visual, tactile, auditory, etc…) in the entorhinal cortex should be observed. Consequently, a given EC cell should react to non-contiguous input configurations in non-spatial conditions according to the projection from its different inputs. PMID:25904862

  10. A Role for p38 Mitogen-activated Protein Kinase-mediated Threonine 30-dependent Norepinephrine Transporter Regulation in Cocaine Sensitization and Conditioned Place Preference*

    PubMed Central

    Mannangatti, Padmanabhan; NarasimhaNaidu, Kamalakkannan; Damaj, Mohamad Imad; Ramamoorthy, Sammanda; Jayanthi, Lankupalle Damodara

    2015-01-01

    The noradrenergic and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) systems are implicated in cocaine-elicited behaviors. Previously, we demonstrated a role for p38 MAPK-mediated norepinephrine transporter (NET) Thr30 phosphorylation in cocaine-induced NET up-regulation (Mannangatti, P., Arapulisamy, O., Shippenberg, T. S., Ramamoorthy, S., and Jayanthi, L. D. (2011) J. Biol. Chem. 286, 20239–20250). The present study explored the functional interaction between p38 MAPK-mediated NET regulation and cocaine-induced behaviors. In vitro cocaine treatment of mouse prefrontal cortex synaptosomes resulted in enhanced NET function, surface expression, and phosphorylation. Pretreatment with PD169316, a p38 MAPK inhibitor, completely blocked cocaine-mediated NET up-regulation and phosphorylation. In mice, in vivo administration of p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580 completely blocked cocaine-induced NET up-regulation and p38 MAPK activation in the prefrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens. When tested for cocaine-induced locomotor sensitization and conditioned place preference (CPP), mice receiving SB203580 on cocaine challenge day or on postconditioning test day exhibited significantly reduced cocaine sensitization and CPP. A transactivator of transcription (TAT) peptide strategy was utilized to test the involvement of the NET-Thr30 motif. In vitro treatment of synaptosomes with TAT-NET-Thr30 (wild-type peptide) completely blocked cocaine-mediated NET up-regulation and phosphorylation. In vivo administration of TAT-NET-Thr30 peptide but not TAT-NET-T30A (mutant peptide) completely blocked cocaine-mediated NET up-regulation and phosphorylation. In the cocaine CPP paradigm, mice receiving TAT-NET-Thr30 but not TAT-NET-T30A on postconditioning test day exhibited significantly reduced cocaine CPP. Following extinction, TAT-NET-Thr30 when given prior to cocaine challenge significantly reduced reinstatement of cocaine CPP. These results demonstrate that the direct inhibition of p38

  11. Postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance in guppies.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, J L; Evans, J P

    2014-12-01

    In many species, the negative fitness effects of inbreeding have facilitated the evolution of a wide range of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. Although avoidance mechanisms operating prior to mating are well documented, evidence for postcopulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance remain scarce. Here, we examine the potential for paternity biases to favour unrelated males when their sperm compete for fertilizations though postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. To test this possibility, we used a series of artificial inseminations to deliver an equal number of sperm from a related (either full sibling or half sibling) and unrelated male to a female while statistically controlling for differences in sperm quality between rival ejaculates. In this way, we were able to focus exclusively on postcopulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance and account for differences in sperm competitiveness between rival males. Under these carefully controlled conditions, we report a significant bias in paternity towards unrelated males, although this effect was only apparent when the related male was a full sibling. We also show that sperm competition generally favours males with highly viable sperm and thus that some variance in sperm competitiveness can be attributed to difference in sperm quality. Our findings for postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance are consistent with prior work on guppies, revealing that sperm competition success declines linearly with the level of relatedness, but also that such effects are only apparent at relatedness levels of full siblings or higher. These findings reveal that postcopulatory processes alone can facilitate inbreeding avoidance.

  12. Postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance in guppies.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, J L; Evans, J P

    2014-12-01

    In many species, the negative fitness effects of inbreeding have facilitated the evolution of a wide range of inbreeding avoidance mechanisms. Although avoidance mechanisms operating prior to mating are well documented, evidence for postcopulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance remain scarce. Here, we examine the potential for paternity biases to favour unrelated males when their sperm compete for fertilizations though postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance mechanisms in the guppy, Poecilia reticulata. To test this possibility, we used a series of artificial inseminations to deliver an equal number of sperm from a related (either full sibling or half sibling) and unrelated male to a female while statistically controlling for differences in sperm quality between rival ejaculates. In this way, we were able to focus exclusively on postcopulatory mechanisms of inbreeding avoidance and account for differences in sperm competitiveness between rival males. Under these carefully controlled conditions, we report a significant bias in paternity towards unrelated males, although this effect was only apparent when the related male was a full sibling. We also show that sperm competition generally favours males with highly viable sperm and thus that some variance in sperm competitiveness can be attributed to difference in sperm quality. Our findings for postcopulatory inbreeding avoidance are consistent with prior work on guppies, revealing that sperm competition success declines linearly with the level of relatedness, but also that such effects are only apparent at relatedness levels of full siblings or higher. These findings reveal that postcopulatory processes alone can facilitate inbreeding avoidance. PMID:25387854

  13. Vertical jumping and signaled avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Cándido, Antonio; Maldonado, Antonio; Vila, Jaime

    1988-01-01

    This paper reports an experiment intended to demonstrate that the vertical jumping response can be learned using a signaled-avoidance technique. A photoelectric cell system was used to record the response. Twenty female rats, divided equally into two groups, were exposed to intertrial intervals of either 15 or 40 s. Subjects had to achieve three successive criteria of acquisition: 3, 5, and 10 consecutive avoidance responses. Results showed that both groups learned the avoidance response, requiring increasingly larger numbers of trials as the acquisition criteria increased. No significant effect of intertrial interval was observed. PMID:16812559

  14. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats

    PubMed Central

    Scariot, Pedro P. M.; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia de Barros; Torsoni, Adriana S.; dos Reis, Ivan G. M.; Beck, Wladimir R.; Gobatto, Claudio A.

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Because every movement in daily life (i.e., SPA) is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative) and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT). Sixty-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co) in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr) in which rats swam for 40 min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT). We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their home

  15. Continuous Aerobic Training in Individualized Intensity Avoids Spontaneous Physical Activity Decline and Improves MCT1 Expression in Oxidative Muscle of Swimming Rats.

    PubMed

    Scariot, Pedro P M; Manchado-Gobatto, Fúlvia de Barros; Torsoni, Adriana S; Dos Reis, Ivan G M; Beck, Wladimir R; Gobatto, Claudio A

    2016-01-01

    Although aerobic training has been shown to affect the lactate transport of skeletal muscle, there is no information concerning the effect of continuous aerobic training on spontaneous physical activity (SPA). Because every movement in daily life (i.e., SPA) is generated by skeletal muscle, we think that it is possible that an improvement of SPA could affect the physiological properties of muscle with regard to lactate transport. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of 12 weeks of continuous aerobic training in individualized intensity on SPA of rats and their gene expressions of monocarboxylate transporters (MCT) 1 and 4 in soleus (oxidative) and white gastrocnemius (glycolytic) muscles. We also analyzed the effect of continuous aerobic training on aerobic and anaerobic parameters using the lactate minimum test (LMT). Sixty-day-old rats were randomly divided into three groups: a baseline group in which rats were evaluated prior to initiation of the study; a control group (Co) in which rats were kept without any treatment during 12 weeks; and a chronic exercise group (Tr) in which rats swam for 40 min/day, 5 days/week at 80% of anaerobic threshold during 12 weeks. After the experimental period, SPA of rats was measured using a gravimetric method. Rats had their expression of MCTs determined by RT-PCR analysis. In essence, aerobic training is effective in maintaining SPA, but did not prevent the decline of aerobic capacity and anaerobic performance, leading us to propose that the decline of SPA is not fully attributed to a deterioration of physical properties. Changes in SPA were concomitant with changes in MCT1 expression in the soleus muscle of trained rats, suggestive of an additional adaptive response toward increased lactate clearance. This result is in line with our observation showing a better equilibrium on lactate production-remotion during the continuous exercise (LMT). We propose an approach to combat the decline of SPA of rats in their home

  16. The value of place

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dentzau, Michael W.

    2014-03-01

    This commentary seeks to expand the dialogue on place-based science education presented in Katie Lynn Brkich's article, where the connections fifth grade students make between their formal earth science curriculum and their lived experiences are highlighted. The disconnect between the curriculum the students are offered and their immediate environment is clear, and we are presented with examples of how they strive to make connections between the content and what they are familiar with—namely their surroundings. "Place" is identified as a term with complex meanings and interpretations, even in the scope of place-based science education, and understanding how the term is used in any given scenario is essential to understanding the implications of place-based education. Is place used as a location, locale or a sense of place? To understand "place" is to acknowledge that for the individual, it is highly situational, cultural and personal. It is just such attributes that make place-based education appealing, and potentially powerful, pedagogically on one hand, yet complex for implementation on the other. The argument is posed that place is particularly important in the context of education about the environment, which in its simplest manifestation, connects formal science curriculum to resources that are local and tangible to students. The incorporation of place in such a framework seeks to bridge the gap between formal school science subjects and students' lived experiences, yet acknowledges the tensions that can arise between accommodating place meanings and the desire to acculturate students into the language of the scientific community. The disconnect between guiding policy frameworks and the reality of the Next Generation Science Standards is addressed opening an avenue for further discussion of the importance of socio-cultural frameworks of science learning in an ever increasing era of accountability.

  17. Isolation-hypoxia and re-oxygenation of the pallial cavity of female Crepipatella dilatata during estuarine salinity changes requires increased glyoxylase activity and antioxidant metabolism to avoid oxidative damage to female tissues and developing embryos.

    PubMed

    Cubillos, Víctor; Chaparro, Oscar; Segura, Cristian; Montory, Jaime; Cruces, Edgardo; Burritt, David

    2016-08-01

    The estuarine slipper limpet Crepipatella dilatata is a gastropod that can survive prolonged periods of low salinities (< 24 PSU) caused by tidal changes and/or prolonged periods of rain. During low salinity events, C. dilatata can isolate its body from the outside environment, by sealing its shell against the substrate on which it grows. Prolonged isolation periods from the surrounding environment can greatly lower available oxygen levels inside of the pallial cavity, impacting on the physiology of both females and their incubated encapsulated embryos. When salinity levels return to normal, isolation is terminated and the inflow of seawater results in re-oxygenation. In this study we show that when re-oxygenation of the pallial cavity takes place, oxidative damage, in the form of increased levels of lipid peroxides and protein carbonyls, occurs in both maternal tissues and in incubated embryos. To avoid terminal oxidative damage both females and their embryos increase their levels of the glyoxalase pathway enzymes (GLX-I and GLX-II) and general antioxidant metabolism (SOD, CAT, GR, GPOX and GST). As a result the levels of oxidative damage decline to basal levels within 24 h of reoxygenation. Thus the combination of isolation, a behavioural strategy, combined with encapsulation of embryos and a capacity to up regulate relatively rapidly the glyoxylase pathway and general antioxidant metabolism, play major roles in facilitating the survival of C. dilatata in the small estuaries of Southern Chile. PMID:27232979

  18. A woman's rightful place?

    PubMed

    1993-04-01

    Rural development projects in sub-Saharan Africa tend not to succeed because they do not consider women's role and their significance, even though women constitute 70% of agricultural workers, 80% of food producers, 100% of people who prepare meals, and 60-90% do food marketing. Development specialists ignore women because they are not involved in political activities and in decision making. As long as women and women's contributions are not considered, rural development projects will remain inefficient and development will not take place. Thus, projects must include women as agents and beneficiaries of development in key sectors of the economy. Rural development specialists must also consider the effect male labor emigration has on rural women. For example, drought has forced many men to leave their villages, leaving a work force consisting of 95% women to fight desertification. All too often, women have no or limited land ownership rights, thereby keeping them from improving the land, e.g., planting perennial fruit crops. They also tend to be hired hands rather than food producers. They cannot obtain bank loans because they do not own land, and because they are often illiterate (over 90% female illiteracy in 28 African countries), they can neither understand nor complete bank loan forms. Rural development projects further alienate women by aiming training programs to men or by using male agricultural extension agents. Women react to this alienation by rejecting projects that do not benefit them and follow more profitable activities which sometimes interfere with projects. Thus, rural development programs need to invest in women to ensure viable and efficient sustainable development.

  19. Converging evidence of social avoidant behavior in schizophrenia from two approach-avoidance tasks.

    PubMed

    de la Asuncion, Javier; Docx, Lise; Sabbe, Bernard; Morrens, Manuel; de Bruijn, Ellen R A

    2015-10-01

    Many people with schizophrenia suffer from social impairments characterized by active social avoidance, which is related to social phobia common in schizophrenia, while motivational impairments can also result in passive social withdrawal. Although social avoidance is frequently reported in this population, this is the first study to directly compare approach-avoidance tendencies in schizophrenia patients (N = 37) and healthy controls (N = 29). Participants performed two tasks: a computerized approach-avoidance task (AAT) to assess response tendencies toward images of happy and angry faces with direct or averted gaze and a one-to-one personal space test (PST) to gauge more naturalistic approach-avoidance behaviors toward a real person bearing a neutral expression. The AAT results showed that both groups showed faster avoidance responses to angry faces and faster approach responses to happy faces with a direct gaze. Happy faces with averted gaze, however, resulted in faster avoidance responses in the patient group only. On the PST, the patients approached the experimenter less than healthy controls did. This measure of interpersonal distance was positively related to positive symptom severity. Delusions of reference and increased sensitivity to social rejection may explain the patients' avoidance tendencies in response to pictures of happy faces with averted gaze and in the presence of an actual person. The current findings demonstrate the importance of others adopting positive and unambiguous attitudes when interacting with schizophrenia patients to minimize behavioral avoidance patterns, which is particularly relevant for relatives and clinicians whose interactions with the patients are crucial to facilitating treatment and promoting healthy social relationships.

  20. Converging evidence of social avoidant behavior in schizophrenia from two approach-avoidance tasks.

    PubMed

    de la Asuncion, Javier; Docx, Lise; Sabbe, Bernard; Morrens, Manuel; de Bruijn, Ellen R A

    2015-10-01

    Many people with schizophrenia suffer from social impairments characterized by active social avoidance, which is related to social phobia common in schizophrenia, while motivational impairments can also result in passive social withdrawal. Although social avoidance is frequently reported in this population, this is the first study to directly compare approach-avoidance tendencies in schizophrenia patients (N = 37) and healthy controls (N = 29). Participants performed two tasks: a computerized approach-avoidance task (AAT) to assess response tendencies toward images of happy and angry faces with direct or averted gaze and a one-to-one personal space test (PST) to gauge more naturalistic approach-avoidance behaviors toward a real person bearing a neutral expression. The AAT results showed that both groups showed faster avoidance responses to angry faces and faster approach responses to happy faces with a direct gaze. Happy faces with averted gaze, however, resulted in faster avoidance responses in the patient group only. On the PST, the patients approached the experimenter less than healthy controls did. This measure of interpersonal distance was positively related to positive symptom severity. Delusions of reference and increased sensitivity to social rejection may explain the patients' avoidance tendencies in response to pictures of happy faces with averted gaze and in the presence of an actual person. The current findings demonstrate the importance of others adopting positive and unambiguous attitudes when interacting with schizophrenia patients to minimize behavioral avoidance patterns, which is particularly relevant for relatives and clinicians whose interactions with the patients are crucial to facilitating treatment and promoting healthy social relationships. PMID:26343605

  1. The Mushroom Place. Part III.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schlichter, Carol

    1978-01-01

    The final installment of a series of articles on the "Mushroom Place" learning center program, which involves creative thinking activities for young, gifted students, describes "Doing It the Hard Way," a performance task which involves the actual construction of objects from a selected set of materials in the absence of the usual project tools.…

  2. Place as Library?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davenport, Nancy

    2006-01-01

    Digital technology is redrawing the library's blueprint. Planners are thinking in new ways about how to design libraries as places for learning rather than primarily as storehouses of information. This thinking has given rise to much discussion--and to many publications--about the "library as place." In this article, the author asks why not also…

  3. The Case for Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Lisa Carlucci

    2012-01-01

    Bookstores, record stores, libraries, Facebook: these places--both physical and virtual--demonstrate an established and essential purpose as centers of community, expertise, convenience, immediacy, and respect. Yet as digital, mobile, and social shifts continue to transform culture and interactions, these spaces and places transform, too.…

  4. Teaching Bodies in Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Stephanie; Woglom, James F.

    2013-01-01

    Background/Context: This piece draws on literature in justice-oriented teacher education, feminist pedagogy, and postmodern notions of bodies and place to make sense of data generated from a three-year study of an undergraduate teacher education course. A feminist lens was used to engage a body- and place-focused pedagogy that aimed to engage…

  5. Understanding Place Value

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Linda L.; Tomayko, Ming C.

    2011-01-01

    Developing an understanding of place value and the base-ten number system is considered a fundamental goal of the early primary grades. For years, teachers have anecdotally reported that students struggle with place-value concepts. Among the common errors cited are misreading such numbers as 26 and 62 by seeing them as identical in meaning,…

  6. Schooling Out of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McConaghy, Cathryn

    2006-01-01

    Education in rural communities is an interesting site for an analysis of the relationship between place and the cultural politics of schooling. In particular the movements of people, ideas and practices to and from, and also within, rural places suggest the need for theorizing on rural education to consider the relevance of new mobility…

  7. Conditioned flavor aversion and location avoidance in hamsters from toxic extract of tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi)

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Studies were conducted to address conditioned flavour aversion (CFA) and place avoidance learning in hamsters given injections of alkaloid extracts from tall larkspur (Delphinium barbeyi), to determine if larkspur had reinforcing or negative properties sufficient to cause place avoidance or preferen...

  8. Vision-based obstacle avoidance

    DOEpatents

    Galbraith, John

    2006-07-18

    A method for allowing a robot to avoid objects along a programmed path: first, a field of view for an electronic imager of the robot is established along a path where the electronic imager obtains the object location information within the field of view; second, a population coded control signal is then derived from the object location information and is transmitted to the robot; finally, the robot then responds to the control signal and avoids the detected object.

  9. Predator Avoidance in Extremophile Fish

    PubMed Central

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis. PMID:25371337

  10. Predator avoidance in extremophile fish.

    PubMed

    Bierbach, David; Schulte, Matthias; Herrmann, Nina; Zimmer, Claudia; Arias-Rodriguez, Lenin; Indy, Jeane Rimber; Riesch, Rüdiger; Plath, Martin

    2013-01-01

    Extreme habitats are often characterized by reduced predation pressures, thus representing refuges for the inhabiting species. The present study was designed to investigate predator avoidance of extremophile populations of Poecilia mexicana and P. sulphuraria that either live in hydrogen sulfide-rich (sulfidic) springs or cave habitats, both of which are known to have impoverished piscine predator regimes. Focal fishes that inhabited sulfidic springs showed slightly weaker avoidance reactions when presented with several naturally occurring predatory cichlids, but strongest differences to populations from non-sulfidic habitats were found in a decreased shoaling tendency with non-predatory swordtail (Xiphophorus hellerii) females. When comparing avoidance reactions between P. mexicana from a sulfidic cave (Cueva del Azufre) and the adjacent sulfidic surface creek (El Azufre), we found only slight differences in predator avoidance, but surface fish reacted much more strongly to the non-predatory cichlid Vieja bifasciata. Our third experiment was designed to disentangle learned from innate effects of predator recognition. We compared laboratory-reared (i.e., predator-naïve) and wild-caught (i.e., predator-experienced) individuals of P. mexicana from a non-sulfidic river and found no differences in their reaction towards the presented predators. Overall, our results indicate (1) that predator avoidance is still functional in extremophile Poecilia spp. and (2) that predator recognition and avoidance reactions have a strong genetic basis.

  11. Increased conditioned place preference for cocaine in high anxiety related behavior (HAB) mice is associated with an increased activation in the accumbens corridor

    PubMed Central

    Prast, Janine M.; Schardl, Aurelia; Sartori, Simone B.; Singewald, Nicolas; Saria, Alois; Zernig, Gerald

    2014-01-01

    Anxiety disorders and substance use disorders are strongly associated in humans. Accordingly, a widely held but controversial concept in the addiction field, the so-called “self-medication hypothesis,” posits that anxious individuals are more vulnerable for drug dependence because they use drugs of abuse to alleviate their anxiety. We tested this hypothesis under controlled experimental conditions by quantifying the conditioned place preference (CPP) to 15 mg/kg i.p. cocaine given contingently (COCAINE) in CD1 mice selectively bred for high anxiety-related behavior (HAB) vs. normal anxiety-related behavior (NAB). Cocaine was conditioned to the initially non-preferred compartment in an alternate day design (cocaine vs. saline, four pairings each). HAB and NAB mice were also tested for the effects of non-contingent (NONCONT) cocaine administration. HAB mice showed a slightly higher bias for one of the conditioning compartments during the pretest than NAB mice that became statistically significant (p = 0.045) only after pooling COCAINE and NONCONT groups. Cocaine CPP was higher (p = 0.0035) in HAB compared to NAB mice. The increased cocaine CPP was associated with an increased expression of the immediate early genes (IEGs) c-Fos and Early Growth Related Protein 1 (EGR1) in the accumbens corridor, i.e., a region stretching from the anterior commissure to the interhemispheric border and comprising the medial nucleus accumbens core and shell, the major island of Calleja and intermediate part of the lateral septum, as well as the vertical limb of the diagonal band and medial septum. The cocaine CPP-induced EGR1 expression was only observed in D1- and D2-medium spiny neurons, whereas other types of neurons or glial cells were not involved. With respect to the activation by contingent vs. non-contingent cocaine EGR1 seemed to be a more sensitive marker than c-Fos. Our findings suggest that cocaine may be more rewarding in high anxiety individuals, plausibly due to an

  12. Neural systems underlying approach and avoidance in anxiety disorders.

    PubMed

    Aupperle, Robin L; Paulus, Martin P

    2010-01-01

    Approach-avoidance conflict is an important psychological concept that has been used extensively to better understand cognition and emotion. This review focuses on neural systems involved in approach, avoidance, and conflict decision making, and how these systems overlap with implicated neural substrates of anxiety disorders. In particular, the role of amygdala, insula, ventral striatal, and prefrontal regions are discussed with respect to approach and avoidance behaviors. Three specific hypotheses underlying the dysfunction in anxiety disorders are proposed, including: (i) over-representation of avoidance valuation related to limbic overactivation; (ii) under- or over-representation of approach valuation related to attenuated or exaggerated striatal activation respectively; and (iii) insufficient integration and arbitration of approach and avoidance valuations related to attenuated orbitofrontal cortex activation. These dysfunctions can be examined experimentally using versions of existing decision-making paradigms, but may also require new translational and innovative approaches to probe approach-avoidance conflict and related neural systems in anxiety disorders. PMID:21319496

  13. Neural systems underlying approach and avoidance in anxiety disorders

    PubMed Central

    Robin L., Aupperle; Martin, P. Paulus

    2010-01-01

    Approach-avoidance conflict is an important psychological concept that has been used extensively to better understand cognition and emotion. This review focuses on neural systems involved in approach, avoidance, and conflict decision making, and how these systems overlap with implicated neural substrates of anxiety disorders. In particular, the role of amygdala, insula, ventral striatal, and prefrontal regions are discussed with respect to approach and avoidance behaviors. Three specific hypotheses underlying the dysfunction in anxiety disorders are proposed, including: (i) over-representation of avoidance valuation related to limbic overactivation; (ii) under- or over-representation of approach valuation related to attenuated or exaggerated striatal activation respectively; and (iii) insufficient integration and arbitration of approach and avoidance valuations related to attenuated orbitofrontal cortex activation. These dysfunctions can be examined experimentally using versions of existing decision-making paradigms, but may also require new translational and innovative approaches to probe approach-avoidance conflict and related neural systems in anxiety disorders. PMID:21319496

  14. Neural substrates of approach-avoidance conflict decision-making.

    PubMed

    Aupperle, Robin L; Melrose, Andrew J; Francisco, Alex; Paulus, Martin P; Stein, Murray B

    2015-02-01

    Animal approach-avoidance conflict paradigms have been used extensively to operationalize anxiety, quantify the effects of anxiolytic agents, and probe the neural basis of fear and anxiety. Results from human neuroimaging studies support that a frontal-striatal-amygdala neural circuitry is important for approach-avoidance learning. However, the neural basis of decision-making is much less clear in this context. Thus, we combined a recently developed human approach-avoidance paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural substrates underlying approach-avoidance conflict decision-making. Fifteen healthy adults completed the approach-avoidance conflict (AAC) paradigm during fMRI. Analyses of variance were used to compare conflict to nonconflict (avoid-threat and approach-reward) conditions and to compare level of reward points offered during the decision phase. Trial-by-trial amplitude modulation analyses were used to delineate brain areas underlying decision-making in the context of approach/avoidance behavior. Conflict trials as compared to the nonconflict trials elicited greater activation within bilateral anterior cingulate cortex, anterior insula, and caudate, as well as right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (PFC). Right caudate and lateral PFC activation was modulated by level of reward offered. Individuals who showed greater caudate activation exhibited less approach behavior. On a trial-by-trial basis, greater right lateral PFC activation related to less approach behavior. Taken together, results suggest that the degree of activation within prefrontal-striatal-insula circuitry determines the degree of approach versus avoidance decision-making. Moreover, the degree of caudate and lateral PFC activation related to individual differences in approach-avoidance decision-making. Therefore, the approach-avoidance conflict paradigm is ideally suited to probe anxiety-related processing differences during approach-avoidance decision

  15. About Maggie's Place.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Emmens, Carol E.

    1982-01-01

    Describes "Maggie's Place," the library computer system of the Pikes Peak Library District, Colorado Springs, Colorado, noting its use as an electronic card catalog and community information file, accessibility by home users and library users, and terminal considerations. (EJS)

  16. Artist Place Settings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pellegrino, Linda

    2009-01-01

    Art history can be a little dry at times, but the author is always trying to incorporate new ways of teaching it. In this article, she describes a project in which students were to create a place setting out of clay that had to be unified through a famous artist's style. This place setting had to consist of at least five pieces (dinner plate, cup…

  17. Motive to Avoid Success, Locus of Control, and Reinforcement Avoidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katovsky, Walter

    Subjects were four groups of 12 college women, high or low in motive to avoid success (MAS) and locus of control (LC), were reinforced for response A on a fixed partial reinforcement schedule on three concept learning tasks, one task consisting of combined reward and punishment, another of reward only, and one of punishment only. Response B was…

  18. Food Avoidance Diets for Dermatitis.

    PubMed

    Scott, Jeffrey F; Hammond, Margaret I; Nedorost, Susan T

    2015-10-01

    Food allergy is relatively common in both children and adults, and its prevalence is increasing. Early exposure of food allergens onto skin with an impaired epidermal barrier predisposes to sensitization and prevents the development of oral tolerance. While immediate-type food allergies are well described, less is known about delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. This is due, in part, to limitations with current diagnostic testing for delayed-type food allergy, including atopy patch testing. We conducted a systematic review of food avoidance diets in delayed-type food allergies manifesting as dermatitis. While beneficial in some clinical circumstances, avoidance diets should be used with caution in infants and children, as growth impairment and developmental delay may result. Ultimately, dermatitis is highly multifactorial and avoidance diets may not improve symptoms of delayed-type food allergy until combined with other targeted therapies, including restoring balance in the skin microbiome and re-establishing proper skin barrier function.

  19. A problem of collision avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vincent, T. L.; Cliff, E. M.; Grantham, W. J.; Peng, W. Y.

    1972-01-01

    Collision avoidance between two vehicles of constant speed with limited turning radii, moving in a horizontal plane is investigated. Collision avoidance is viewed as a game by assuming that the operator of one vehicle has perfect knowledge of the state of the other, whereas the operator of the second vehicle is unaware of any impending danger. The situation envisioned is that of an encounter between a commercial aircraft and a small light aircraft. This worse case situation is examined to determine the conditions under which the commercial aircraft should execute a collision avoidance maneuver. Three different zones of vulnerability are defined and the boundaries, or barriers, between these zones are determined for a typical aircraft encounter. A discussion of the methods used to obtain the results as well as some of the salient features associated with the resultant barriers is included.

  20. Time-dependent enhancement of inhibitory avoidance retention and MAPK activation by post-training infusion of nerve growth factor into CA1 region of hippocampus of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Walz, R; Lenz, G; Roesler, R; Vianna, M M; Martins, V; Brentani, R; Rodnight, R; Izquierdo, I

    2000-06-01

    Several studies have demonstrated that chronic intracerebroventricular nerve growth factor (NGF) infusion has a beneficial effect on cognitive performance of lesioned as well as old and developing animals. Here we investigate: (i) the effect of post-training infusion of NGF into the CA1 region of hippocampus on inhibitory avoidance (IA) retention in rats; (ii) the extension of the effect, in time and space, of NGF infusion into CA1 on the activity of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK, syn: ERK1/2, p42/p44 MAPK). NGF was bilaterally injected into the CA1 regions of the dorsal hippocampus (0.05, 0.5 or 5.0 ng diluted in 0.5 microL of saline per side ) at 0, 120 or 360 min after IA training in rats. Retention testing was carried out 24 h after training. The injection of 5.0 and 0.5, but not 0.05, ng per side of NGF at 0 and 120 min after IA training enhanced IA retention. The highest dose used was ineffective when injected 360 min after training. The infusion of 0. 5 microL of NGF (5.0 ng) induced a significant enhancement of MAPK activity in hippocampal microslices; this enhancement was restricted to a volume with 0.8 mm radius at 30 min after injection. The MAPK activation was still seen 180 min after NGF infusion, although this value showed only a tendency. In conclusion, localized infusion of NGF into the CA1 region enhanced MAPK activity, restricted in time and space, and enhanced IA retention in a time- and dose-dependent manner.

  1. Place learning by mechanical contact.

    PubMed

    Harrison, Steven J; Turvey, Michael T

    2010-05-01

    For some animals (e.g. the night-active wandering spider) the encounters with the habitat that result in place learning are predominantly mechanical. We asked whether place learning limited to mechanical contact, like place learning in general, entails vectors tied to individual landmarks and relations between landmarks. We constructed minimal environments for blindfolded human participants. Landmarks were raised steps. 'Home' was a mechanically indistinct location. Travel was linear. The mechanical contacts were those of walking, stepping, and probing with a soft-tipped cane. Home-orienting activities preceded tests of finding home from a given location with landmarks unchanged or (unbeknown to participants) shifted. In a one-landmark environment, perceived home shifted in the same direction, with the same magnitude, as the shifted landmark. In an environment of two landmarks located in the same direction from home, shifting the further landmark toward home resulted in a change in home's perceived location that preserved the original ratio of distances separating home, nearer landmark, and further landmark. Both findings were invariant over the travel route to the test location and repetitions of testing. It seems, therefore, that for humans (and, perhaps, for wandering spiders), mechanical contact can reveal the vectors and relations specifying places.

  2. Healthy Youth Places: A Randomized Controlled Trial to Determine the Effectiveness of Facilitating Adult and Youth Leaders to Promote Physical Activity and Fruit and Vegetable Consumption in Middle Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dzewaltowski, David A.; Estabrooks, Paul A.; Welk, Greg; Hill, Jennie; Milliken, George; Karteroliotis, Kostas; Johnston, Judy A.

    2009-01-01

    The Healthy Youth Places (HYP) intervention targeted increased fruit and vegetable consumption (FV) and physical activity (PA) through building the environmental change skills and efficacy of adults and youth. HYP included group training for adult school site leaders, environmental change skill curriculum, and youth-led FV and PA environment…

  3. Alprazolam treatment of avoidant personality traits in social phobic patients.

    PubMed

    Reich, J; Noyes, R; Yates, W

    1989-03-01

    The authors examined the effect of alprazolam treatment on avoidant personality traits in 14 DSM-III-R social phobics. Six of the nine avoidant traits examined improved with treatment. However, all but one trait (avoiding social or occupational activities requiring interpersonal contact) returned to baseline levels posttreatment. Treatment response and intercorrelation of items indicated two traits that may represent a separate segment of avoidant personality: "No close friends or confidants outside of relatives and family members" and "Exaggerates the potential dangers or risks of everyday situations."

  4. Regulating Cognitive Control through Approach-Avoidance Motor Actions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koch, Severine; Holland, Rob W.; van Knippenberg, Ad

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, the regulatory function of approach-avoidance cues in activating cognitive control processes was investigated. It was hypothesized that avoidance motor actions, relative to approach motor actions, increase the recruitment of cognitive resources, resulting in better performance on tasks that draw on these capacities. In Study 1,…

  5. A collision avoidance system for a spaceplane manipulator arm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sciomachen, Anna; Magnani, Piergiovanni

    1989-01-01

    Part of the activity in the area of collision avoidance related to the Hermes spaceplane is reported. A collision avoidance software system which was defined, developed and implemented in this project is presented. It computes the intersection between the solids representing the arm, the payload, and the objects. It is feasible with respect to the resources available on board, considering its performance.

  6. Neural substrates of approach-avoidance conflict decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Aupperle, Robin L.; Melrose, Andrew J.; Francisco, Alex; Paulus, Martin P.; Stein, Murray B.

    2014-01-01

    Animal approach-avoidance conflict paradigms have been used extensively to operationalize anxiety, quantify the effects of anxiolytic agents, and probe the neural basis of fear and anxiety. Results from human neuroimaging studies support that a frontal-striatal-amygdala neural circuitry is important for approach-avoidance learning. However, the neural basis of decision-making is much less clear in this context. Thus, we combined a recently developed human approach-avoidance paradigm with functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural substrates underlying approach-avoidance conflict decision-making. Fifteen healthy adults completed the approach-avoidance conflict (AAC) paradigm during fMRI. Analyses of variance were used to compare conflict to non-conflict (avoid-threat and approach-reward) conditions and to compare level of reward points offered during the decision phase. Trial-by-trial amplitude modulation analyses were used to delineate brain areas underlying decision-making in the context of approach/avoidance behavior. Conflict trials as compared to the non-conflict trials elicited greater activation within bilateral anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), anterior insula, and caudate, as well as right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Right caudate and lateral PFC activation was modulated by level of reward offered. Individuals who showed greater caudate activation exhibited less approach behavior. On a trial-by-trial basis, greater right lateral PFC activation related to less approach behavior. Taken together, results suggest that the degree of activation within prefrontal-striatal-insula circuitry determines the degree of approach versus avoidance decision-making. Moreover, the degree of caudate and lateral PFC activation is related to individual differences in approach-avoidance decision-making. Therefore, the AAC paradigm is ideally suited to probe anxiety-related processing differences during approach-avoidance decision-making. PMID:25224633

  7. Why a Critical Pedagogy of Place Is an Oxymoron

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowers, C. A.

    2008-01-01

    Given the growing environmental awareness, educators - especially in science and environmental education - need to avoid embracing a "critical pedagogy of place". Why conflating critical pedagogy with place-based education is an oxymoron, and why it perpetuates the thinking and silences that undermine both the diversity of the world's cultures and…

  8. Biochar aging reduces earthworm avoidance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Biochar, a black carbon substance produced by the pyrolysis of organic feedstocks, has been used in many soil improvement strategies ranging from nutrient addition to sequestration of C. Simple toxicity studies and laboratory preference/avoidance assays are recommended but results rarely reported. ...

  9. Avoided cost pricing: who wins

    SciTech Connect

    Einhorn, M.A.

    1985-05-30

    This article calls for a reevaluation of current Federal Energy Regulatory Commission regulations on the calculation of avoided cost rates for sales of power to utilities by small producers in the light of market conditions not contemplated at the time of the regulations' adoption. 8 references.

  10. Avoiding plagiarism in academic writing.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Irene

    Plagiarism means taking the work of another and presenting it as one's own, resulting in potential upset for the original author and disrepute for the professions involved. This article aims to explore the issue of plagiarism and some mechanisms for detection and avoidance.

  11. Accessory cells with a veiled morphology and movement pattern generated from monocytes after avoidance of plastic adherence and of NADPH oxidase activation. A comparison with GM-CSF/IL-4-induced monocyte-derived dendritic cells.

    PubMed

    Ruwhof, Cindy; Canning, Martha O; Grotenhuis, Kristel; de Wit, Harm J; Florencia, Zenovia Z; de Haan-Meulman, Meeny; Drexhage, Hemmo A

    2002-07-01

    Veiled cells (VC) present in afferent lymph transport antigen from the periphery to the draining lymph nodes. Although VC in lymph form a heterogeneous population, some of the cells clearly belong on morphological grounds to the Langerhans cell (LC)/ dendritic cell (DC) series. Here we show that culturing monocytes for 24 hrs while avoiding plastic adherence (polypropylene tubes) and avoiding the activation of NADPH oxidase (blocking agents) results in the generation of a population of veiled accessory cells. The generated VC were actively moving cells like lymph-borne VC in vivo. The monocyte (mo)-derived VC population existed of CD14(dim/-) and CD14(brighT) cells. Of these the CD14(dim/-) VC were as good in stimulating allogeneic T cell proliferation as immature DC (iDC) obtained after one week of adherent culture of monocytes in granulocyte-macrophage-colony stimulating factor (GM-CSF)/interleukin (IL)-4. This underscores the accessory cell function of the mo-derived CD14(dim/-) VC. Although the CD14(dim/-)VC had a modest expression of the DC-specific marker CD83 and were positive for S100, expression of the DC-specific markers CD1a, Langerin, DC-SIGN, and DC-LAMP were absent. This indicates that the here generated CD14(dim/-) VC can not be considered as classical LC/DC. It was also impossible to turn the CD14(dim/-) mo-derived VC population into typical DC by culture for one week in GM-CSF/IL-4 or LPS. In fact the cells died tinder such circumstances, gaining some macrophage characteristics before dying. The IL-12 production from mo-derived CD14(dim/-) VC was lower, whereas the production of IL-10 was higher as compared to iDC. Consequently the T cells that were stimulated by these mo-derived VC produced less IFN-gamma as compared with T cells stimulated by iDC. Our data indicate that it is possible to rapidly generate a population of CD14(dim/-) veiled accessory cells from monocytes. The marker pattern and cytokine production of these VC indicate that this

  12. Guanosine impairs inhibitory avoidance performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Roesler, R; Vianna, M R; Lara, D R; Izquierdo, I; Schmidt, A P; Souza, D O

    2000-08-01

    The nucleoside guanosine, previously found to exert trophic and neuroprotective effects, was found to impair retention of inhibitory avoidance responses, with a complete effect at 7.5 mg/kg i.p. pretraining. Treated animals, when retrained 1 week later, showed normal learning ability. Guanosine injected immediately after training or pretest did not alter retention latency. Combined pretraining and pretest treatments with guanosine failed to reverse its amnestic effect, excluding the contribution of state dependency. Open field parameters and shock sensitivity were mostly unaltered by guanosine. These results suggest an amnestic effect of guanosine on inhibitory avoidance in rats, in a pattern compatible with inhibition of glutamatergic activity. However, the mechanism for the amnestic effect of guanosine is yet to be elucidated.

  13. Places to Go: Moodle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Downes, Stephen

    2006-01-01

    Educators are becoming increasingly interested in alternatives to learning management systems (LMS) Blackboard and WebCT. Stephen Downes's column Places to Go turns to one internationally popular open source LMS--Moodle. Downes takes the reader through Moodle's Web site, which is simultaneously a Web site about its LMS and an example of what its…

  14. Finding Place in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Chris

    2011-01-01

    As a society, we are less and less comfortable in our localities. We have embraced the idea of a globalized placelessness, where everything, everywhere, resonates with a sameness. What do we lose, educationally and in society at large, when we reduce our inhabited places to those components that provide material wealth alone? If students and…

  15. Schools as Dangerous Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Potts, Anthony

    2006-01-01

    When students set off for school each day how many of them or their caregivers consider for a moment that they will spend the day at a potentially dangerous place? On the contrary, students and caregivers probably view schools as safe havens, and official research suggests that this is the case for the majority of teachers and pupils. However,…

  16. Tracking Self into Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piersol, Laura

    2010-01-01

    In an effort to figure out what it means to educate "ecologically," I decided to track down some of the stories that I was living, telling and making as an educator. I ended up lost in the house of environmental education, stuck within the rooms of ecological science and political advocacy. Outside on the lawn sat the story of place based…

  17. Teaching With Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Ronald M., Ed.

    1993-01-01

    Designed for social studies educators, this theme issue presents 11 articles about historic places that feature a variety of ideas for elementary and secondary lesson plans, curricula, and program development. The articles are: (1) "Where did History Happen?" (Beth M. Boland); (2) "Creating a Partnership" (Carol D. Shull); (3) "Heritage Education:…

  18. The Value of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dentzau, Michael W.

    2014-01-01

    This commentary seeks to expand the dialogue on place-based science education presented in Katie Lynn Brkich's article, where the connections fifth grade students make between their formal earth science curriculum and their lived experiences are highlighted. The disconnect between the curriculum the students are offered and their immediate…

  19. Designing Places for Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meek, Anne, Ed.

    This book presents information about the condition of schools around the United States. It also describes the link between architecture and academic success and offers suggestions for improving the design of existing and future school buildings. Eleven articles look at schools as places of deep meaning and show how that view can alter approaches…

  20. Creativity: Does Place Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Finbarr

    2012-01-01

    This article argues that creativity has the greatest potential to flourish if a learning environment is embedded within a community that emphasises a deep sense of place. Yet in a globalised world, rootedness is often regarded as antithetical to creativity. But far from representing dead artefacts that are anti-modern and non-economic, culture and…

  1. Universities Are Funny Places!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawless, Ann

    2006-01-01

    Universities are funny places. They have a strong sense of hierarchy and rank. They have an amazing disparity in salary levels and status between staff, are class conscious, and are run by a large bureaucracy that oils and keeps the machinery going. They operate as educational institutions and yet also are entrepreneurial, marketing themselves in…

  2. EtOH self-administration on shuttle box avoidance learning and extinction in rats.

    PubMed

    Pallarés, M A; Nadal, R A; Hernández-Torres, M; Ferré, N A

    1997-01-01

    The effects of ethanol on the acquisition and extinction of the two-way active avoidance response were examined in adult, male Wistar rats from two treatment groups, oral self-administration of alcohol solution (10% v/v ethanol and 3% w/v glucose in distilled water) and oral self-administration of control solution (3% w/v glucose in distilled water). Alcohol or control solutions were available 1 h per day during 15 days simultaneously with food, with free water for the rest of the day. Blood was drawn in the last day of this phase to evaluate blood ethanol levels (BEL). After this period, rats were tested in a two-bottle paradigm for 1 h per day and placed in a shuttle box immediately afterwards. This phase went lasted for 10 days. Subjects were trained to avoid an electric foot shock in the first 5 days (15 trials per day). Following this, half of the subjects were tested in an "easy extinction with punishment" (EEP) and the other half in a "difficult extinction with punishment" (DEP) of the avoidance response for the last 5 days. Alcohol accelerates the avoidance responding acquisition, and no significant effects of alcohol were seen in the extinction phase. Data are discussed in terms of the specificity of the effects of alcohol on learning. PMID:9305467

  3. An Algorithm for Autonomous Formation Obstacle Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cruz, Yunior I.

    The level of human interaction with Unmanned Aerial Systems varies greatly from remotely piloted aircraft to fully autonomous systems. In the latter end of the spectrum, the challenge lies in designing effective algorithms to dictate the behavior of the autonomous agents. A swarm of autonomous Unmanned Aerial Vehicles requires collision avoidance and formation flight algorithms to negotiate environmental challenges it may encounter during the execution of its mission, which may include obstacles and chokepoints. In this work, a simple algorithm is developed to allow a formation of autonomous vehicles to perform point to point navigation while avoiding obstacles and navigating through chokepoints. Emphasis is placed on maintaining formation structures. Rather than breaking formation and individually navigating around the obstacle or through the chokepoint, vehicles are required to assemble into appropriately sized/shaped sub-formations, bifurcate around the obstacle or negotiate the chokepoint, and reassemble into the original formation at the far side of the obstruction. The algorithm receives vehicle and environmental properties as inputs and outputs trajectories for each vehicle from start to the desired ending location. Simulation results show that the algorithm safely routes all vehicles past the obstruction while adhering to the aforementioned requirements. The formation adapts and successfully negotiates the obstacles and chokepoints in its path while maintaining proper vehicle separation.

  4. Collision avoidance for CTV: Requirements and capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosek, Thomas P.

    1991-01-01

    Cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) operations near Space Station Freedom will require positive collision avoidance maneuver (CAM) capability to preclude any change of collision, even in the event of CTV failures. The requirements for CAM are discussed, and the CAM design approach and design of the Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) are reviewed; this design met requirements for OMV operation near the Space Station, provided a redundant collision avoidance maneuver capability. Significant portions of the OMV CAM design should be applicable to CTV. The key features of the OMV design are summarized and related to the CTV mission design to that of OMV's. CAM is a defined sequence of events executed by the CTV to place the vehicle in a safe position relative to a target such as the Space Station. CAM can be performed through software commands to the propulsion system, or through commands pre-stored in hardware. Various techniques for triggering CAM are considered, and the risks associated with CAM enable and execution in phases are considered. OMV CAM design features both hardware and software CAM capability, with analyses conducted to assess the ability to meet the collision-free requirement during all phases of the mission.

  5. Collision avoidance for CTV: Requirements and capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosek, Thomas P.

    Cargo transfer vehicle (CTV) operations near Space Station Freedom will require positive collision avoidance maneuver (CAM) capability to preclude any change of collision, even in the event of CTV failures. The requirements for CAM are discussed, and the CAM design approach and design of the Orbiting Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) are reviewed; this design met requirements for OMV operation near the Space Station, provided a redundant collision avoidance maneuver capability. Significant portions of the OMV CAM design should be applicable to CTV. The key features of the OMV design are summarized and related to the CTV mission design to that of OMV's. CAM is a defined sequence of events executed by the CTV to place the vehicle in a safe position relative to a target such as the Space Station. CAM can be performed through software commands to the propulsion system, or through commands pre-stored in hardware. Various techniques for triggering CAM are considered, and the risks associated with CAM enable and execution in phases are considered. OMV CAM design features both hardware and software CAM capability, with analyses conducted to assess the ability to meet the collision-free requirement during all phases of the mission.

  6. The insanity of place.

    PubMed

    Scull, Andrew

    2004-12-01

    This paper uses English examples to scrutinize the complex interrelations of insanity and place over the past three centuries, taking as its starting point the late Erving Goffman's paper of the same title. From eighteenth-century Bedlam and the emerging trade in lunacy, through the county asylums and licensed madhouses of the nineteenth century to the return of the the mentally ill to the 'community' in the last half of the twentieth century, the place occupied by insanity has varied sharply, symbolically as well as concretely. These various techniques of containment and damage limitation must be understood as a response to the threats, symbolic and practical, that serious mental illness poses to the social order, at both the micro- and macroscopic levels of analysis.

  7. Rapid jamming avoidance in biosonar.

    PubMed

    Gillam, Erin H; Ulanovsky, Nachum; McCracken, Gary F

    2007-03-01

    The sonar systems of bats and dolphins are in many ways superior to man-made sonar and radar systems, and considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the signal-processing strategies underlying these capabilities. A major feature determining the efficiency of sonar systems is the sensitivity to noise and jamming signals. Previous studies indicated that echolocating bats may adjust their signal structure to avoid jamming ('jamming avoidance response'; JAR). However, these studies relied on behavioural correlations and not controlled experiments. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence for JAR in bats. We presented bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) with 'playback stimuli' consisting of recorded echolocation calls at one of six frequencies. The bats exhibited a JAR by shifting their call frequency away from the presented playback frequency. When the approaching bats were challenged by an abrupt change in the playback stimulus, they responded by shifting their call frequencies upwards, away from the playback. Interestingly, even bats initially calling below the playback's frequency shifted their frequencies upwards, 'jumping' over the playback frequency. These spectral shifts in the bats' calls occurred often within less than 200 ms, in the first echolocation call emitted after the stimulus switch-suggesting that rapid jamming avoidance is important for the bat.

  8. Rapid avoidance acquisition in Wistar-Kyoto rats.

    PubMed

    Servatius, R J; Jiao, X; Beck, K D; Pang, K C H; Minor, T R

    2008-10-10

    The relationship between trait stress-sensitivity, avoidance acquisition and perseveration of avoidance was examined using male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Behavior in an open field was measured prior to escape/avoidance (E/A) acquisition and extinction. E/A was assessed in a discrete trial lever-press protocol. The signal-shock interval was 60s with subsequent shocks delivered every 3s until a lever-press occurred. A 3-min flashing light safety signal was delivered contingent upon a lever-press (or failure to respond in 5 min). WKY rats displayed phenotypic low open field activity, but were clearly superior to SD rats in E/A performance. As avoidance responses were acquired and reached asymptotic performance, SD rats exhibited "warm up", that is, SD rats rarely made avoidance responses on the initial trial of a session, even though later trials were consistently accompanied with avoidance responses. In contrast, WKY rats did not show the "warm up" pattern and avoided on nearly all trials of a session including the initial trial. In addition to the superior acquisition of E/A, WKY rats demonstrated several other avoidance features that were different from SD rats. Although the rates of nonreinforced intertrial responses (ITRs) were relatively low and selective to the early safety period, WKY displayed more ITRs than SD rats. With removal of the shocks extinction was delayed in WKY rats, likely reflecting their nearly perfect avoidance performance. Even after extensive extinction, first trial avoidance and ITRs were evident in WKY rats. Thus, WKY rats have a unique combination of trait behavioral inhibition (low open field activity and stress sensitivity) and superior avoidance acquisition and response perseveration making this strain a good model to understand anxiety disorders.

  9. GEO Collision Avoidance using a Service Vehicle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, M.; Concha, M.

    2013-09-01

    Space Situational Awareness (SSA) is defined as the knowledge and characterization of all aspects of space. SSA is now a fundamental and critical component of space operations. The increased dependence on our space assets has in turn lead to a greater need for accurate, near real-time knowledge of all space activities. Key areas of SSA include improved tracking of small objects, determining the intent of maneuvering spacecraft, identifying all potential high risk conjunction events, and leveraging non-traditional sensors in support of the SSA mission. As the size of the space object population grows, the number of collision avoidance maneuvers grows. Moreover, as the SSA mission evolves to near real-time assessment and analysis, the need for new, more sophisticated collision avoidance methods are required. This paper demonstrates the utility of using a service vehicle to perform collision avoidance maneuver for GEO satellites. We present the planning and execution details required to successfully execute a maneuver; given the traditional conjunction analysis timelines. Various operational constraints and scenarios are considered as part of the demonstration. Development of the collision avoidance strategy is created using SpaceNav's collision risk management tool suite. This study aims to determine the agility required of any proposed servicing capability to provide collision avoidance within traditional conjunction analysis and collision avoidance operations timelines. Key trades and analysis items are given to be: 1. How do we fuse the spacecraft state data with the tracking data collected from the proximity sensor that resides on the servicing spacecraft? 2. How do we deal with the possibility that the collision threat for the event may change as the time to close approach is reduced? 3. Perform trade space of maneuver/thrust time versus achievable change in the spacecraft's orbit. 4. Perform trade space of proximity of service vehicle to spacecraft versus time

  10. Space Place Prime

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Austin J.; Novati, Alexander; Fisher, Diane K.; Leon, Nancy J.; Netting, Ruth

    2013-01-01

    Space Place Prime is public engagement and education software for use on iPad. It targets a multi-generational audience with news, images, videos, and educational articles from the Space Place Web site and other NASA sources. New content is downloaded daily (or whenever the user accesses the app) via the wireless connection. In addition to the Space Place Web site, several NASA RSS feeds are tapped to provide new content. Content is retained for the previous several days, or some number of editions of each feed. All content is controlled on the server side, so features about the latest news, or changes to any content, can be made without updating the app in the Apple Store. It gathers many popular NASA features into one app. The interface is a boundless, slidable- in-any-direction grid of images, unique for each feature, and iconized as image, video, or article. A tap opens the feature. An alternate list mode presents menus of images, videos, and articles separately. Favorites can be tagged for permanent archive. Face - book, Twitter, and e-mail connections make any feature shareable.

  11. Physical activity among Norwegian adolescents- a multilevel analysis of how place of residence is associated with health behaviour: the Young-HUNT study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of this article is to investigate whether and to what degree participation in physical activity among adolescents is associated with area economic deprivation in the municipality where they live. In the study we took account of aggregated informal social capital at the municipality level and compositional effects due to spatial concentration of individual variables known to be associated with physical activity. These include informal social participation, participation in other cultural activities, and family affluence. Methods The study was based on a secondary analysis of data from the Norwegian HUNT study and municipality characteristics from the Norwegian Social Science Data Service ‘Commune Database’ from 2006. The sample consisted of 8114 adolescents whose ages ranged from 13 to 19. The explanatory power of the independent variables on the dependent variable was assessed using a multilevel analysis in which individuals comprised the first level and were nested within the municipality level. Results The average level of physical activity was not negatively associated with the level of area economic deprivation when we adjusted for informal social participation at the community level. Adjusting for area economic deprivation, we found that informal social participation at the community level was associated with a higher level of participation in physical activity at p< .01. Conclusion For adolescents in a given municipality, informal social participation is more strongly associated with a higher level of physical activity than the degree of area economic deprivation. This finding supports our social capital hypothesis, which states that the amount of social capital is strengthening the individual’s ability to take part in physical activity. PMID:23883144

  12. Urban Environmental Education and Sense of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kudryavtsev, Alexey

    2013-01-01

    Urban environmental educators are trying to connect students to the urban environment and nature, and thus develop a certain sense of place. To do so, educators involve students in environmental stewardship, monitoring, activism, and outdoor recreation in cities. At the same time, sense of place has been linked to pro-environmental behaviors and…

  13. Place-focused physical activity research, human agency, and social justice in public health: taking agency seriously in studies of the built environment.

    PubMed

    Blacksher, Erika; Lovasi, Gina S

    2012-03-01

    Built environment characteristics have been linked to health outcomes and health disparities. However, the effects of an environment on behavior may depend on human perception, interpretation, motivation, and other forms of human agency. We draw on epidemiological and ethical concepts to articulate a critique of research on the built environment and physical activity. We identify problematic assumptions and enumerate both scientific and ethical reasons to incorporate subjective perspectives and public engagement strategies into built environment research and interventions. We maintain that taking agency seriously is essential to the pursuit of health equity and the broader demands of social justice in public health, an important consideration as studies of the built environment and physical activity increasingly focus on socially disadvantaged communities. Attention to how people understand their environment and navigate competing demands can improve the scientific value of ongoing efforts to promote active living and health, while also better fulfilling our ethical obligations to the individuals and communities whose health we strive to protect.

  14. System-Events Toolbox--Activating Urban Places for Social Cohesion through Designing a System of Events That Relies on Local Resources

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fassi, Davide; Motter, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    This paper is a reflection on the use of public spaces in towns and the development of a system-events toolbox to activate them towards social cohesion. It is the result of a 1 year action research developed together with POLIMI DESIS Lab of the Department of Design to develop design solutions to open up the public spaces of the campus to the…

  15. Shatter the Glassy Stare: Implementing Experiential Learning in Higher Education--"A Companion Piece to Place as Text: Approaches to Active Learning." National Collegiate Honors Council Monograph Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machonis, Peter A., Ed.

    2008-01-01

    This monograph presents in some detail the ways in which Faculty Institutes--professional development opportunities where instructors immerse themselves in site-specific learning activities exactly as students would, though only for several days--allow participants to acquire the skill to design such adventures elsewhere for their own students.…

  16. Just Being Kids: Supports and Services for Infants and Toddlers and Their Families in Everyday Routines, Activities, and Places. [Videotape with Facilitator's Guide].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelman, Larry

    Each of the six stories on this 50-minute videotape demonstrates recommended practices as therapists and early childhood specialists work collaboratively with families to achieve meaningful goals for their children in everyday routines and activities. "Just Being Kids" was developed for use in both pre-service and in-service training programs with…

  17. Introducing the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale.

    PubMed

    Resendez, Josephine R; Hughes, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    We present the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale (DARAS). The DARAS is a measure of a woman's behaviors used to avoid date and acquaintance rape. Three factor structures were possible. The DARAS may have measured several factors related to alcohol and drug use, self-defense, and date behaviors; 2 factors related to behaviors to avoid acquaintance versus date rape; or a single factor that represented general vigilance. The data revealed a highly reliable, 63 item single factor that was correlated with stranger rape avoidance, rejection of rape myths, hostile sexist beliefs about men, and benevolent sexist beliefs about women. The creation of the DARAS adds to the growing body of research on rape avoidance. The DARAS is key to understanding the behaviors women employ to avoid date rape. Rather than placing the responsibility for rape on the victim, the DARAS was developed as a theoretical and applied tool that can be used to improve theory and construct rape education and prevention programs. PMID:27302901

  18. Introducing the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale.

    PubMed

    Resendez, Josephine R; Hughes, Jamie S

    2016-01-01

    We present the Date and Acquaintance Rape Avoidance Scale (DARAS). The DARAS is a measure of a woman's behaviors used to avoid date and acquaintance rape. Three factor structures were possible. The DARAS may have measured several factors related to alcohol and drug use, self-defense, and date behaviors; 2 factors related to behaviors to avoid acquaintance versus date rape; or a single factor that represented general vigilance. The data revealed a highly reliable, 63 item single factor that was correlated with stranger rape avoidance, rejection of rape myths, hostile sexist beliefs about men, and benevolent sexist beliefs about women. The creation of the DARAS adds to the growing body of research on rape avoidance. The DARAS is key to understanding the behaviors women employ to avoid date rape. Rather than placing the responsibility for rape on the victim, the DARAS was developed as a theoretical and applied tool that can be used to improve theory and construct rape education and prevention programs.

  19. Lessons from NAEYC Accreditation: Avoiding Lapses in Supervision that Place Children at Risk

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young Children, 2010

    2010-01-01

    Lapses in supervision of children can happen in all types of programs, and even a momentary lapse can have disastrous consequences. When a lapse occurs that affects program quality and puts children at risk, it is critical to consider the nature of the incident and its lessons for future risk management. Between September 2006 and September 2009,…

  20. Activation of antigen-exposed iMC-DCs at the "right place" and "right time" promotes potent anti-tumor immunity.

    PubMed

    Spencer, David M

    2012-05-01

    To better control the "licensing" of pro-Th1 dendritic cells (DCs), Spencer and colleagues have developed a synthetic ligand-inducible chimeric receptor, iMyD88/CD40 (iMC), incorporating synergistic Toll-like receptor (TLR) and costimulatory signaling elements, permitting DC regulation in vivo within the context of an immunological synapse. This novel technology results in potent anti-cancer activity.

  1. Blue light regulated shade avoidance.

    PubMed

    Keuskamp, Diederik H; Keller, Mercedes M; Ballaré, Carlos L; Pierik, Ronald

    2012-04-01

    Most plants grow in dense vegetation with the risk of being out-competed by neighboring plants. These neighbors can be detected not only through the depletion in light quantity that they cause, but also through the change in light quality, which plants perceive using specific photoreceptors. Both the reduction of the red:far-red ratio and the depletion of blue light are signals that induce a set of phenotypic traits, such as shoot elongation and leaf hyponasty, which increase the likelihood of light capture in dense plant stands. This set of phenotypic responses are part of the so called shade avoidance syndrome (SAS). This addendum discusses recent findings on the regulation of the SAS of Arabidopsis thaliana upon blue light depletion. Keller et al. and Keuskamp et al. show that the low blue light attenuation induced shade avoidance response of seedling and rosette-stage A. thaliana plants differ in their hormonal regulation. These studies also show there is a regulatory overlap with the R:FR-regulated SAS.

  2. Children and Place: A Natural Connection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vickers, Valerie G.; Matthews, Catherine E.

    2002-01-01

    Presents seven outdoor activities on the environment and ecology to be used at the K-12 grade level. Connects students with the environment they live in and develops the critical sense of place. (Contains 26 references.) (YDS)

  3. Infliximab: the evidence for its place in therapy in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Van Assche, Gert; Vermeire, Séverine; Rutgeerts, Paul

    2007-01-01

    Introduction: Refractory ulcerative colitis has a high, unmet medical need for avoiding steroid dependency and avoiding colectomy. Controlled trials with biologic agents have recently been reported. Aims: We aimed to review the current evidence supporting the use of the monoclonal antitumor necrosis factor antibody, infliximab, in active ulcerative colitis and determine its current place in therapy. Evidence review: Although faced with initial conflicting data particularly in steroid-refractory patients, two large, placebo-controlled trials have shown that intravenous infliximab induces and maintains clinical improvement in a clinically significant proportion of patients when used with scheduled re-treatment. Infliximab also spares steroids and induces endoscopic remission in moderately ill patients. In fulminant colitis unresponsive to intravenous steroids, one placebo-controlled trial indicates that infliximab is able to prevent colectomy in this patient population. Evidence for cost effectiveness and avoidance of colectomy long term are still lacking. Place in therapy: Infliximab 5 mg/kg induction at 0, 2, and 6 weeks, and every 8 weeks thereafter should be considered in patients with moderately to severely active ulcerative colitis failing medical therapy. Steroid-dependent and steroid-refractory patients also qualify for infliximab therapy. PMID:21221182

  4. Breastfeeding in public places.

    PubMed

    McIntyre, E; Turnbull, D; Hiller, J E

    1999-06-01

    This study reports the results of a survey of restaurant and shopping center managers concerning breastfeeding in their facilities. Managers from 66 restaurants and 27 shopping centers were interviewed by telephone. One-third of the restaurant managers and 48% of the shopping center managers stated that a mother could breastfeed anywhere in their facility regardless of what other customers might say. The remaining managers would either discourage breastfeeding anywhere in their facility, suggest a mother move to a more secluded area if she wished to breastfeed, or were unsure how they would react. The variability in support for breastfeeding by managers of restaurants and shopping centers will continue to create uncertainty for mothers wishing to breastfeed in these public places.

  5. Place memory in crickets

    PubMed Central

    Wessnitzer, Jan; Mangan, Michael; Webb, Barbara

    2008-01-01

    Certain insect species are known to relocate nest or food sites using landmarks, but the generality of this capability among insects, and whether insect place memory can be used in novel task settings, is not known. We tested the ability of crickets to use surrounding visual cues to relocate an invisible target in an analogue of the Morris water maze, a standard paradigm for spatial memory tests on rodents. Adult female Gryllus bimaculatus were released into an arena with a floor heated to an aversive temperature, with one hidden cool spot. Over 10 trials, the time taken to find the cool spot decreased significantly. The best performance was obtained when a natural scene was provided on the arena walls. Animals can relocate the position from novel starting points. When the scene is rotated, they preferentially approach the fictive target position corresponding to the rotation. We note that this navigational capability does not necessarily imply the animal has an internal spatial representation. PMID:18230590

  6. Corticotropin-releasing factor 1 receptor mediates the activity of the reward system evoked by morphine-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Lasheras, M Carmen; Laorden, M Luisa; Milanés, M Victoria; Núñez, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Different neurotransmitter systems are involved in behavioural and molecular responses to morphine. The brain stress system is activated by acute administration of drugs of abuse, being CRF the main neuropeptide of this circuitry. In this study we have studied the role of CRF1R in the rewarding effects of morphine using the CPP paradigm. For that, animals were treated with a CRF1R antagonist (CP-154,526) or vehicle during 6 days. Thirty min after receiving the antagonist, mice were injected with morphine on the same days that CP-154,526 was administered; another group received saline on the same days that vehicle was administered, and both groups were immediately conditioned. Control animals received vehicle and saline every day. On day 7, animals were tested for morphine-induced CPP. c-Fos, TH and OXA immunohistochemistry, NA turnover (HPLC), and corticosterone plasma concentration (RIA) were evaluated. Administration of a CRF1R antagonist CP-154,526 blocked the morphine-induced CPP and the increased NA turnover in the NAc in morphine-paired mice. CP-154-526 antagonised the enhancement in c-Fos expression evoked by morphine-induced CPP in the VTA and NAc, and the activation of the orexinergic neurons in the LLH. Present work demonstrates that morphine-induced CPP activates different brain areas involved in reward, and points out a critical role of CRF1R in molecular changes involved in morphine-conducted behaviours. Thus, our study supports a therapeutic potential of CRF1R antagonists in addictive disorders. PMID:25556110

  7. Corticotropin-releasing factor 1 receptor mediates the activity of the reward system evoked by morphine-induced conditioned place preference.

    PubMed

    Lasheras, M Carmen; Laorden, M Luisa; Milanés, M Victoria; Núñez, Cristina

    2015-08-01

    Different neurotransmitter systems are involved in behavioural and molecular responses to morphine. The brain stress system is activated by acute administration of drugs of abuse, being CRF the main neuropeptide of this circuitry. In this study we have studied the role of CRF1R in the rewarding effects of morphine using the CPP paradigm. For that, animals were treated with a CRF1R antagonist (CP-154,526) or vehicle during 6 days. Thirty min after receiving the antagonist, mice were injected with morphine on the same days that CP-154,526 was administered; another group received saline on the same days that vehicle was administered, and both groups were immediately conditioned. Control animals received vehicle and saline every day. On day 7, animals were tested for morphine-induced CPP. c-Fos, TH and OXA immunohistochemistry, NA turnover (HPLC), and corticosterone plasma concentration (RIA) were evaluated. Administration of a CRF1R antagonist CP-154,526 blocked the morphine-induced CPP and the increased NA turnover in the NAc in morphine-paired mice. CP-154-526 antagonised the enhancement in c-Fos expression evoked by morphine-induced CPP in the VTA and NAc, and the activation of the orexinergic neurons in the LLH. Present work demonstrates that morphine-induced CPP activates different brain areas involved in reward, and points out a critical role of CRF1R in molecular changes involved in morphine-conducted behaviours. Thus, our study supports a therapeutic potential of CRF1R antagonists in addictive disorders.

  8. Application of industrial hygiene techniques for work-place exposure assessment protocols related to petro-chemical exploration and production field activities

    SciTech Connect

    Koehn, J.

    1995-12-31

    Standard industrial hygiene techniques for recognition, evaluation, and control can be directly applied to development of technical protocols for workplace exposure assessment activities for a variety of field site locations. Categories of occupational hazards include chemical and physical agents. Examples of these types of hazards directly related to oil and gas exploration and production workplaces include hydrocarbons, benzene, oil mist, hydrogen sulfide, Naturally Occurring Radioactive Materials (NORM), asbestos-containing materials, and noise. Specific components of well process chemicals include potential hazardous chemical substances such as methanol, acrolein, chlorine dioxide, and hydrochloric acid. Other types of exposure hazards may result from non-routine conduct of sandblasting and painting operations.

  9. Angiotensin II disrupts inhibitory avoidance memory retrieval.

    PubMed

    Bonini, Juliana S; Bevilaqua, Lia R; Zinn, Carolina G; Kerr, Daniel S; Medina, Jorge H; Izquierdo, Iván; Cammarota, Martín

    2006-08-01

    The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) is involved in learning and memory, but the actual role of angiotensin II (A(II)) and its metabolites in this process has been difficult to comprehend. This has been so mainly due to procedural issues, especially the use of multi-trial learning paradigms and the utilization of pre-training intracerebroventricular infusion of RAS-acting compounds. Here, we specifically analyzed the action of A(II) in aversive memory retrieval using a hippocampal-dependent, one-trial, step-down inhibitory avoidance task (IA) in combination with stereotaxically localized intrahippocampal infusion of drugs. Rats bilaterally implanted with infusion cannulae aimed to the CA1 region of the dorsal hippocampus were trained in IA and tested for memory retention 24 h later. We found that when given into CA1 15 min before IA memory retention test, A(II), but not angiotensin IV or angiotensin(1-7) induced a dose-dependent and reversible amnesia without altering locomotor activity, exploratory behavior or anxiety state. The effect of A(II) was blocked in a dose-dependent manner by the A(II)-type 2 receptor (AT(2)) antagonist PD123319 but not by the A(II)-type 1 receptor (AT(1)) antagonist losartan. By themselves, neither PD123319 nor losartan had any effect on memory expression. Our data indicate that intra-CA1 A(II) hinders retrieval of avoidance memory through a process that involves activation of AT(2) receptors.

  10. Deprivation amplification revisited; or, is it always true that poorer places have poorer access to resources for healthy diets and physical activity?

    PubMed Central

    Macintyre, Sally

    2007-01-01

    Background It has commonly been suggested (including by this author) that individual or household deprivation (for example, low income) is amplified by area level deprivation (for example, lack of affordable nutritious food or facilities for physical activity in the neighbourhood). Discussion The idea of deprivation amplification has some intuitive attractiveness and helps divert attention away from purely individual determinants of diet and physical activity, and towards health promoting or health damaging features of the physical and social environment. Such environmental features may be modifiable, and environmental changes may help promote healthier behaviors. However, recent empirical examination of the distribution of facilities and resources shows that location does not always disadvantage poorer neighbourhoods. This suggests that we need: a) to ensure that theories and policies are based on up-to-date empirical evidence on the socio-economic distribution of neighbourhood resources, and b) to engage in further research on the relative importance of, and interactions between, individual and environmental factors in shaping behavior. Summary In this debate paper I suggest that it may not always be true that poorer neighbourhoods are more likely to lack health promoting resources, and to be exposed to more health damaging resources. The spatial distribution of environmental resources by area socioeconomic status may vary between types of resource, countries, and time periods. It may also be that the presence or absence of resources is less important than their quality, their social meaning, or local perceptions of their accessibility and relevance. PMID:17683624

  11. Perforant pathway stimulation as a conditioned stimulus for active avoidance learning triggers BOLD responses in various target regions of the hippocampus: a combined fMRI and electrophysiological study.

    PubMed

    Angenstein, Frank; Krautwald, Karla; Wetzel, Wolfram; Scheich, Henning

    2013-07-15

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging and electrophysiology were combined to monitor blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) signals in the entire rat brain and neuronal activities in the dentate gyrus during electrical stimulation of the right perforant pathway. In naïve, medetomidine sedated animals, stimulation of the fiber bundle with 15 trains (i.e. 8 bursts of 20 pulses given with 10 ms intervals, one burst per second, pulse width 0.2 ms) generated significant BOLD responses in the right hippocampal formation and the left entorhinal cortex. The stimulation condition also caused changes in the synaptic efficacy of perforant pathway granular cell synapses that lasted for at least one day. Rerun of the same experiment one day later resulted in a significantly increased electrophysiological response in the dentate gyrus and an increase of the BOLD response in the entire hippocampal formation. Consequently, long-lasting changes in synaptic efficacy go along with changes in the generated BOLD response. Additional electrical stimulations of the perforant pathway in the awake animal between the two fMRI experiments caused in the second fMRI measurement an increased BOLD response in the hippocampal formation and an appearance of significant BOLD responses in target regions of the hippocampus, such as the septum, nucleus accumbens (NAcc), and anterior cingulate cortex/medial prefrontal cortex/motor cortex (ACC/mPFC/MC) regions. Consequently, the efficacy of signal processing in and propagation through the hippocampus can be monitored by variations of the BOLD response in target regions of the hippocampus. Using the electrical perforant pathway stimulations as conditioned stimulus for an active avoidance task (shuttle box) caused a further spreading of the BOLD response in the hippocampus formation, septum and ACC/mPFC/MC but not in the NAcc. In addition, the magnitude of the BOLD response in the trained animals was further increased in the right and left hippocampus and

  12. Osteonecrosis: avoiding total hip arthroplasty.

    PubMed

    Hungerford, David S

    2002-06-01

    Osteonecrosis of the femoral head afflicts approximately 20,000 new patients per year, at an average age of 38. Of the patients seen in our institution, 25% are <25 years old. Without treatment, most of these patients can be expected to need a total hip arthroplasty. Joint-preserving procedures have a significant failure rate, and some have significant morbidity. It is desirable to avoid or delay total hip arthroplasty because most patients with osteonecrosis outlive the current state-of-the-art prostheses. Four issues need to be weighed to arrive at a reasonable algorithm for the preservative treatment of osteonecrosis: i) patient risk factors, ii) morbidity of the proposed procedure, iii) size of the lesion, and iv) stage of the lesion. All of the issues must be considered to make sense out of a complex clinical situation.

  13. Autonomous hazard detection and avoidance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pien, Homer

    1992-01-01

    During GFY 91, Draper Laboratory was awarded a task by NASA-JSC under contract number NAS9-18426 to study and evaluate the potential for achieving safe autonomous landings on Mars using an on-board autonomous hazard detection and avoidance (AHDA) system. This report describes the results of that study. The AHDA task had four objectives: to demonstrate, via a closed-loop simulation, the ability to autonomously select safe landing sites and the ability to maneuver to the selected site; to identify key issues in the development of AHDA systems; to produce strawman designs for AHDA sensors and algorithms; and to perform initial trade studies leading to better understanding of the effect of sensor/terrain/viewing parameters on AHDA algorithm performance. This report summarizes the progress made during the first year, with primary emphasis on describing the tools developed for simulating a closed-loop AHDA landing. Some cursory performance evaluation results are also presented.

  14. Short communication: Little change takes place in Camembert-type cheese water activities throughout ripening in terms of relative humidity and salt.

    PubMed

    Leclercq-Perlat, M-N; Hélias, A; Corrieu, G

    2013-01-01

    Water activity (a(w)) affects the growth and activity of ripening microorganisms. Moreover, it is generally accepted that a(w) depends on relative humidity (RH) and salt content; these 3 variables were usually measured on a given day in a cheese without the microorganism layer and without accounting for a distinction between the rind, the underrind, and the core. However, a(w) dynamics have never been thoroughly studied throughout cheese ripening. Experimental Camembert cheeses were ripened under controlled and aseptic conditions (temperature, gaseous atmosphere, and RH) for 14 d. In this study, only RH was varied. Samples were taken from the cheese (microorganism layer)-air interface, the rind, and the core. The aw of the cheese-air interface did not change over ripening when RH varied between 91 and 92% or between 97 and 98%. However, on d 5, we observed a small but significant increase in a(w), which coincided with the beginning of growth of Penicillium camemberti mycelia. After d 3, no significant differences were found between the a(w) of the cheese-air interface, the rind, and the core. From d 0 to 3, cheese rind a(w) increased from 0.94 to 0.97, which was probably due to the diffusion of salt from the rind to the core: NaCl content in the rind decreased from 3.7 to 1.6% and NaCl content in the core increased from 0.0 to 1.6%. Nevertheless, aw did not significantly vary in the core, raising questions about the real effect of salt on a(w).

  15. NASA satellite helps airliners avoid ozone concentrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Results from a test to determine the effectiveness of satellite data for helping airlines avoid heavy concentrations of ozone are reported. Information from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer, aboard the Nimbus-7 was transmitted, for use in meteorological forecast activities. The results show: (1) Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer profile of total ozone in the atmosphere accurately represents upper air patterns and can be used to locate meteorological activity; (2) route forecasting of highly concentrated ozone is feasible; (3) five research aircraft flights were flown in jet stream regions located by the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer to determine winds, temperatures, and air composition. It is shown that the jet stream is coincides with the area of highest total ozone gradient, and low total ozone amounts are found where tropospheric air has been carried along above the tropopause on the anticyclonic side of the subtropical jet stream.

  16. [Effect of iontophoretically administered L-DOPA and ketamin on the impulse activity of the somatomotor cortex neurons during the conditioned placing movements].

    PubMed

    Khorievin, V I

    2010-01-01

    Interactions between the neuronal dopamine and NMDA glutamate receptors were investigated by iontophoresis of L-DOPA and ketamin to 19 single cortical neurons of the somatomotor cortex neurons in cats performing the operant reflex. L-DOPA producing bursts of 8-12 impulses that led to the significant increase of the total number of spikes related to the movements and insignificant decreased the power or the average number of spikes in a conditional response. Effects of ketamin on impulse activity were multidirectional resulting in most cases (16 cells) in the significant increase of the response power and in other three cells producing the suppression of discharges related to movements. It is supposed that following the ketamin iontophoresis the facilitation of conditional responses was caused by the blocking of the NMDA-glutamatergic transmission to intracortical inhibitory neurons, whereas inhibition of conditioned responses of other cortical cells was produced by blocking NMDA-glutamatergic transmission to pyramidal neurons. The total number of spikes associated with the performance of movements following the joint application of L-DOPA and ketamin was significantly higher compared with the effect of the isolated L-DOPA iontophoresis. These data indicate the NMDA-glutamatergic transmission, which plays an important role in shaping the cortical neuron responses in the performance of behavioral reactions may be modulated by L-DOPA.

  17. ACAT Ground Collision Avoidance Flight Tests Over

    NASA Video Gallery

    NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center has concluded flight tests of an Automatic Ground Collision Avoidance System (Auto GCAS) under the joint U.S. Air Force/NASA F-16D Automatic Collision Avoidance...

  18. Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder

    MedlinePlus

    ... Professional Version Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ... they eat. Eating Disorders Definition of Eating Disorders Anorexia Nervosa Avoidant/Restrictive Food Intake Disorder Binge Eating ...

  19. Dynamics of jamming avoidance in echolocating bats.

    PubMed Central

    Ulanovsky, Nachum; Fenton, M. Brock; Tsoar, Asaf; Korine, Carmi

    2004-01-01

    Animals using active sensing systems such as echolocation or electrolocation may experience interference from the signals of neighbouring conspecifics, which can be offset by a jamming avoidance response (JAR). Here, we report JAR in one echolocating bat (Tadarida teniotis: Molossidae) but not in another (Taphozous perforatus: Emballonuridae) when both flew and foraged with conspecifics. In T. teniotis, JAR consisted of shifts in the dominant frequencies of echolocation calls, enhancing differences among individuals. Larger spectral overlap of signals elicited stronger JAR. Tadarida teniotis showed two types of JAR: (i) for distant conspecifics: a symmetric JAR, with lower- and higher-frequency bats shifting their frequencies downwards and upwards, respectively, on average by the same amount; and (ii) for closer conspecifics: an asymmetric JAR, with only the upper-frequency bat shifting its frequency upwards. In comparison, 'wave-type' weakly electric fishes also shift frequencies of discharges in a JAR, but unlike T. teniotis, the shifts are either symmetric in some species or asymmetric in others. We hypothesize that symmetric JAR in T. teniotis serves to avoid jamming and improve echolocation, whereas asymmetric JAR may aid communication by helping to identify and locate conspecifics, thus minimizing chances of mid-air collisions. PMID:15306318

  20. Avoidance of strobe lights by zooplankton

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hamel, Martin J.; Richards, Nathan S.; Brown, Michael L.; Chipps, Steven R.

    2010-01-01

    Underwater strobe lights can influence the behavior and distribution of fishes and are increasingly used as a technique to divert fish away from water intake structures on dams. However, few studies examine how strobe lights may affect organisms other than targeted species. To gain insight on strobe lighting effects on nontarget invertebrates, we investigated whether underwater strobe lights influence zooplankton distributions and abundance in Lake Oahe, South Dakota. Zooplankton were collected using vertical tows at 3 discrete distances from an underwater strobe light to quantify the influence of light intensity on zooplankton density. Samples were collected from 3 different depth ranges (0–10 m, 10–20 m and 20–30 m) at <1 m, 15 m and ⩾100 m distance intervals away from the strobe light. Copepods represented 67.2% and Daphnia spp. represented 23.3% of all zooplankton sampled from 17 August to 15 September 2004. Night time zooplankton densities significantly decreased in surface waters when strobe lights were activated. Copepods exhibited the greatest avoidance patterns, while Daphnia avoidance varied throughout sampling depths. These results indicate that zooplankton display negative phototaxic behavior to strobe lights and that researchers must be cognizant of potential effects to the ecosystem such as altering predator–prey interactions or affecting zooplankton distribution and growth.

  1. Convective Weather Avoidance with Uncertain Weather Forecasts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karahan, Sinan; Windhorst, Robert D.

    2009-01-01

    Convective weather events have a disruptive impact on air traffic both in terminal area and in en-route airspaces. In order to make sure that the national air transportation system is safe and efficient, it is essential to respond to convective weather events effectively. Traffic flow control initiatives in response to convective weather include ground delay, airborne delay, miles-in-trail restrictions as well as tactical and strategic rerouting. The rerouting initiatives can potentially increase traffic density and complexity in regions neighboring the convective weather activity. There is a need to perform rerouting in an intelligent and efficient way such that the disruptive effects of rerouting are minimized. An important area of research is to study the interaction of in-flight rerouting with traffic congestion or complexity and developing methods that quantitatively measure this interaction. Furthermore, it is necessary to find rerouting solutions that account for uncertainties in weather forecasts. These are important steps toward managing complexity during rerouting operations, and the paper is motivated by these research questions. An automated system is developed for rerouting air traffic in order to avoid convective weather regions during the 20- minute - 2-hour time horizon. Such a system is envisioned to work in concert with separation assurance (0 - 20-minute time horizon), and longer term air traffic management (2-hours and beyond) to provide a more comprehensive solution to complexity and safety management. In this study, weather is dynamic and uncertain; it is represented as regions of airspace that pilots are likely to avoid. Algorithms are implemented in an air traffic simulation environment to support the research study. The algorithms used are deterministic but periodically revise reroutes to account for weather forecast updates. In contrast to previous studies, in this study convective weather is represented as regions of airspace that pilots

  2. Math Avoidance and Pursuit of Fantasy Careers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benton, Barbara L.

    Math avoidance has been hypothesized as related to career choice restrictions. Few attempts have been made, however, to assess the relative importance of the various components of math avoidance to career choice. Furthermore, it has been implied that persons fearful of math not only avoid specific careers but also reject careers that are otherwise…

  3. Termites eavesdrop to avoid competitors.

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A; Inta, Ra; Lai, Joseph C S; Prueger, Stefan; Foo, Nyuk Wei; Fu, Eugene Wei'en; Lenz, Michael

    2009-11-22

    Competition exclusion, when a single species dominates resources due to superior competitiveness, is seldom observed in nature. Termites compete for resources with deadly consequences, yet more than one species can be found feeding in the same wooden resource. This is especially surprising when drywood species, with colonies of a few hundred, are found cohabiting with subterranean species, with colonies of millions. Termites communicate vibro-acoustically and, as these signals can travel over long distances, they are vulnerable to eavesdropping. We investigated whether drywood termites could eavesdrop on vibration cues from subterranean species. We show, using choice experiments and recordings, that the drywood termite Cryptotermes secundus can distinguish its own species from the dominant competitor in the environment, the subterranean termite Coptotermes acinaciformis. The drywood termite was attracted to its own vibration cues, but was repelled by those of the subterranean species. This response increased with decreasing wood size, corresponding with both increased risk and strength of the cue. The drywood termites appear to avoid confrontation by eavesdropping on the subterranean termites; these results provide further evidence that vibro-acoustic cues are important for termite sensory perception and communication.

  4. Development and Validation of the Athlete Fear Avoidance Questionnaire

    PubMed Central

    Dover, Geoffrey; Amar, Vanessa

    2015-01-01

    Context The fear-avoidance model was developed in an attempt to explain the process by which “pain experience” and “pain behavior” become dissociated from the actual pain sensation in individuals who manifest the phenomenon of exaggerated pain perception. High levels of fear avoidance can lead to chronic pain and disability and have successfully predicted rehabilitation time in the work-related–injury population. Existing fear-avoidance questionnaires have all been developed for the general population, but these questionnaires may not be specific enough to fully assess fear avoidance in an athletic population that copes with pain differently than the general population. Objective To develop and validate the Athlete Fear Avoidance Questionnaire (AFAQ). Design Qualitative research to develop the AFAQ and a cross-sectional study to validate the scale. Patients or Other Participants For questionnaire development, a total of 8 experts in the fields of athletic therapy, sport psychology, and fear avoidance were called upon to generate and rate items for the AFAQ. For determining concurrent validity, 99 varsity athletes from various sports participated. Data Collection and Analysis A total of 99 varsity athletes completed the AFAQ, the Fear-Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire, and the Pain Catastrophizing Scale. We used Pearson correlations to establish concurrent validity. Results Concurrent validity was established with significant correlations between the AFAQ and the Fear Avoidance Beliefs Questionnaire-Physical Activity (r = 0.352, P > .001) as well as with the Pain Catastrophizing Scale (r = 0.587, P > .001). High internal consistency of our questionnaire was established with a Cronbach α coefficient of 0.805. The final version of the questionnaire includes 10 items with good internal validity (P < .05). Conclusions We developed a questionnaire with good internal and external validity. The AFAQ is a scale that measures sport-injury–related fear avoidance in

  5. Discharge properties of hippocampal neurons during performance of a jump avoidance task

    PubMed Central

    Lenck-Santini, Pierre-Pascal; Fenton, André A.; Muller, Robert U.

    2008-01-01

    We recorded single hippocampal cells while rats performed a jump avoidance task. In this task, a rat was dropped onto the metal floor of a 33 cm gray wooden cube and was given a mild electric shock if it did not jump up onto the box rim in less than 15 sec. We found that many hippocampal pyramidal cells and most interneurons discharged preferentially at either the drop, the jump or on both events. By simultaneously recording the hippocampal EEG, we found that the discharge of most of the event-related pyramidal cells was modulated by the theta rhythm and moreover that discharge precessed with theta cycles in the same fashion seen for pyramidal cells in their role as place cells. The elevations of firing rate at drop and jump were accompanied by increases in theta frequency. We conclude that many of the features of event-related discharge can be interpreted as being equivalent to the activity of place cells with firing fields above the box floor. Nevertheless, there are sufficient differences between expectations from place cells and observed activity to indicate that pyramidal cells may be able to signal events as well as location. PMID:18596153

  6. Incautiously Optimistic: Positively-Valenced Cognitive Avoidance in Adult ADHD

    PubMed Central

    Knouse, Laura E.; Mitchell, John T.

    2015-01-01

    Clinicians who conduct cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) targeting attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in adulthood have noted that their patients sometimes verbalize overly positive automatic thoughts and set overly optimistic goals. These cognitions are frequently related to failure to engage in compensatory behavioral strategies emphasized in CBT. In this paper, we offer a functional analysis of this problematic pattern, positively-valenced cognitive avoidance, and suggest methods for addressing it within CBT for adult ADHD. We propose that maladaptive positive cognitions function to relieve aversive emotions in the short-term and are therefore negatively reinforced but that, in the long-term, they are associated with decreased likelihood of active coping and increased patterns of behavioral avoidance. Drawing on techniques from Behavioral Activation (BA), we offer a case example to illustrate these concepts and describe step-by-step methods for clinicians to help patients recognize avoidant patterns and engage in more active coping. PMID:25908901

  7. Avoidance of aluminum by rainbow trout

    SciTech Connect

    Exley, C.

    2000-04-01

    Aluminum is the principal toxicant in fish in acid waters. The ability to avoid Al, particularly at low concentrations, would confer a considerable ecological advantage, but previous research into avoidance of Al has produced mixed results. The author used a cylindrical perspex tank, 150 cm in length, to study avoidance of Al by rainbow trout fry. The fish avoided Al, and their response was dependent on pH. Avoidance that was demonstrated at pHs of 5.00, 5.50, 5.50, and 5.75 was abolished at a pH of 6.00. Fry avoided very low Al concentrations being sensitive to [Al] > 1.00 {micro}mol L{sup {minus}1} at a pH of 5.00. This unequivocal demonstration of avoidance by rainbow trout fry of Al may have important implications for the ecology of indigenous fish populations in surface waters impacted by acidic deposition.

  8. Nothing to fear? Neural systems supporting avoidance behavior in healthy youths

    PubMed Central

    Schlund, Michael W; Siegle, Greg J; Ladouceur, Cecile D; Silk, Jennifer S; Cataldo, Michael F; Forbes, Erika E; Dahl, Ronald E; Ryan, Neal D

    2010-01-01

    Active avoidance involving controlling and modifying threatening situations characterizes many forms of clinical pathology, particularly childhood anxiety. Presently our understanding of the neural systems supporting human avoidance is largely based on nonhuman research. Establishing the generality of nonhuman findings to healthy children is a needed first step towards advancing developmental affective neuroscience research on avoidance in childhood anxiety. Accordingly, this investigation examined brain activation patterns to threatening cues that prompted avoidance in healthy youths. During functional magnetic resonance imaging, fifteen youths (ages 9-13) completed a task that alternately required approach or avoidance behaviors. On each trial either a threatening ‘Snake’ cue or a ‘Reward’ cue advanced towards a bank containing earned points. Directional buttons enabled subjects to move cues away from (Avoidance) or towards the bank (Approach). Avoidance cues elicited activation in regions hypothesized to support avoidance in nonhumans (amygdala, insula, striatum and thalamus). Results also highlighted that avoidance response rates were positively correlated with amygdala activation and negatively correlated with insula and anterior cingulate activation. Moreover, increased amygdala activity was associated with decreased insula and anterior cingulate activity. Our results suggest nonhuman neurophysiological research findings on avoidance may generalize to neural systems associated with avoidance in childhood. Perhaps most importantly, the amygdala/insula activation observed suggests threat related responses can be maintained even when aversive events are consistently avoided, which may account for the persistence of avoidance-coping in childhood anxiety. The present approach may offer developmental affective neuroscience a conceptual and methodological framework for investigating avoidance in childhood anxiety. PMID:20430103

  9. Impact of contour on aesthetic judgments and approach-avoidance decisions in architecture.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Oshin; Navarrete, Gorka; Chatterjee, Anjan; Fich, Lars Brorson; Leder, Helmut; Modroño, Cristián; Nadal, Marcos; Rostrup, Nicolai; Skov, Martin

    2013-06-18

    On average, we urban dwellers spend about 90% of our time indoors, and share the intuition that the physical features of the places we live and work in influence how we feel and act. However, there is surprisingly little research on how architecture impacts behavior, much less on how it influences brain function. To begin closing this gap, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study to examine how systematic variation in contour impacts aesthetic judgments and approach-avoidance decisions, outcome measures of interest to both architects and users of spaces alike. As predicted, participants were more likely to judge spaces as beautiful if they were curvilinear than rectilinear. Neuroanatomically, when contemplating beauty, curvilinear contour activated the anterior cingulate cortex exclusively, a region strongly responsive to the reward properties and emotional salience of objects. Complementing this finding, pleasantness--the valence dimension of the affect circumplex--accounted for nearly 60% of the variance in beauty ratings. Furthermore, activation in a distributed brain network known to underlie the aesthetic evaluation of different types of visual stimuli covaried with beauty ratings. In contrast, contour did not affect approach-avoidance decisions, although curvilinear spaces activated the visual cortex. The results suggest that the well-established effect of contour on aesthetic preference can be extended to architecture. Furthermore, the combination of our behavioral and neural evidence underscores the role of emotion in our preference for curvilinear objects in this domain.

  10. Impact of contour on aesthetic judgments and approach-avoidance decisions in architecture.

    PubMed

    Vartanian, Oshin; Navarrete, Gorka; Chatterjee, Anjan; Fich, Lars Brorson; Leder, Helmut; Modroño, Cristián; Nadal, Marcos; Rostrup, Nicolai; Skov, Martin

    2013-06-18

    On average, we urban dwellers spend about 90% of our time indoors, and share the intuition that the physical features of the places we live and work in influence how we feel and act. However, there is surprisingly little research on how architecture impacts behavior, much less on how it influences brain function. To begin closing this gap, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study to examine how systematic variation in contour impacts aesthetic judgments and approach-avoidance decisions, outcome measures of interest to both architects and users of spaces alike. As predicted, participants were more likely to judge spaces as beautiful if they were curvilinear than rectilinear. Neuroanatomically, when contemplating beauty, curvilinear contour activated the anterior cingulate cortex exclusively, a region strongly responsive to the reward properties and emotional salience of objects. Complementing this finding, pleasantness--the valence dimension of the affect circumplex--accounted for nearly 60% of the variance in beauty ratings. Furthermore, activation in a distributed brain network known to underlie the aesthetic evaluation of different types of visual stimuli covaried with beauty ratings. In contrast, contour did not affect approach-avoidance decisions, although curvilinear spaces activated the visual cortex. The results suggest that the well-established effect of contour on aesthetic preference can be extended to architecture. Furthermore, the combination of our behavioral and neural evidence underscores the role of emotion in our preference for curvilinear objects in this domain. PMID:23754408

  11. Impact of contour on aesthetic judgments and approach-avoidance decisions in architecture

    PubMed Central

    Vartanian, Oshin; Navarrete, Gorka; Chatterjee, Anjan; Fich, Lars Brorson; Leder, Helmut; Modroño, Cristián; Nadal, Marcos; Rostrup, Nicolai; Skov, Martin

    2013-01-01

    On average, we urban dwellers spend about 90% of our time indoors, and share the intuition that the physical features of the places we live and work in influence how we feel and act. However, there is surprisingly little research on how architecture impacts behavior, much less on how it influences brain function. To begin closing this gap, we conducted a functional magnetic resonance imaging study to examine how systematic variation in contour impacts aesthetic judgments and approach-avoidance decisions, outcome measures of interest to both architects and users of spaces alike. As predicted, participants were more likely to judge spaces as beautiful if they were curvilinear than rectilinear. Neuroanatomically, when contemplating beauty, curvilinear contour activated the anterior cingulate cortex exclusively, a region strongly responsive to the reward properties and emotional salience of objects. Complementing this finding, pleasantness—the valence dimension of the affect circumplex—accounted for nearly 60% of the variance in beauty ratings. Furthermore, activation in a distributed brain network known to underlie the aesthetic evaluation of different types of visual stimuli covaried with beauty ratings. In contrast, contour did not affect approach-avoidance decisions, although curvilinear spaces activated the visual cortex. The results suggest that the well-established effect of contour on aesthetic preference can be extended to architecture. Furthermore, the combination of our behavioral and neural evidence underscores the role of emotion in our preference for curvilinear objects in this domain. PMID:23754408

  12. ITI-Signals and Prelimbic Cortex Facilitate Avoidance Acquisition and Reduce Avoidance Latencies, Respectively, in Male WKY Rats

    PubMed Central

    Beck, Kevin D.; Jiao, Xilu; Smith, Ian M.; Myers, Catherine E.; Pang, Kevin C. H.; Servatius, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    As a model of anxiety disorder vulnerability, male Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats acquire lever-press avoidance behavior more readily than outbred Sprague-Dawley rats, and their acquisition is enhanced by the presence of a discrete signal presented during the inter-trial intervals (ITIs), suggesting that it is perceived as a safety signal. A series of experiments were conducted to determine if this is the case. Additional experiments investigated if the avoidance facilitation relies upon processing through medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC). The results suggest that the ITI-signal facilitates acquisition during the early stages of the avoidance acquisition process, when the rats are initially acquiring escape behavior and then transitioning to avoidance behavior. Post-avoidance introduction of the visual ITI-signal into other associative learning tasks failed to confirm that the visual stimulus had acquired the properties of a conditioned inhibitor. Shortening the signal from the entirety of the 3 min ITI to only the first 5 s of the 3 min ITI slowed acquisition during the first four sessions, suggesting the flashing light (FL) is not functioning as a feedback signal. The prelimbic (PL) cortex showed greater activation during the period of training when the transition from escape responding to avoidance responding occurs. Only combined PL + infralimbic cortex lesions modestly slowed avoidance acquisition, but PL-cortex lesions slowed avoidance response latencies. Thus, the FL ITI-signal is not likely perceived as a safety signal nor is it serving as a feedback signal. The functional role of the PL-cortex appears to be to increase the drive toward responding to the threat of the warning signal. Hence, avoidance susceptibility displayed by male WKY rats may be driven, in part, both by external stimuli (ITI signal) as well as by enhanced threat recognition to the warning signal via the PL cortex. PMID:25484860

  13. Apply an Augmented Reality in a Mobile Guidance to Increase Sense of Place for Heritage Places

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yu-Lien; Hou, Huei-Tse; Pan, Chao-Yang; Sung, Yao-Ting; Chang, Kuo-En

    2015-01-01

    Based on the sense of place theory and the design principles of guidance and interpretation, this study developed an augmented reality mobile guidance system that used a historical geo-context-embedded visiting strategy. This tool for heritage guidance and educational activities enhanced visitor sense of place. This study consisted of 3 visitor…

  14. Infection control: avoiding the inevitable.

    PubMed

    Mollitt, Daniel L

    2002-04-01

    Infection, while a major cause of morbidity, should not be considered an inevitable consequence of injury. Good aseptic technique, compulsive attention to detail, and thorough understanding of the points addressed in the following list of critical points are the best guarantee that infection will not add avoidable morbidity to misfortune. Critical points regarding infectious problems in care of the injured child: 1. Polymicrobial infection is the rule with 50% of isolates being mixed aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. 2. It is a misnomer to consider antibiotic use in a pediatric trauma victim as prophylactic. Antimicrobials used in this setting are best considered adjunctive. 3. The major indication for anti-infective therapy in pediatric trauma is an injury with a high probability of infection. 4. Antibiotics do not sterilize the wound or body cavity; they limit bacterial proliferation, thereby supplementing effective immune control. 5. Available studies suggest that 24 hours is as efficacious as a longer treatment duration in a purely adjunctive mode. 6. In bites inflicted by dogs and cats, Pasturella species are frequent. 7. Human bites may result in infection by Eikenella corrodens. 8. Based on this bacteriology, adjunctive intravenous ampicillin sulbactam or oral amoxicillin clavulanate are recommended for human and animal bites. 9. Tetanus prophylaxis is indicated in all significant soft tissue injuries. 10. Risk of osteomyelitis correlates directly with the extent of the associated soft tissue injury and vascular compromise. 11. The majority of infectious complications in the injured child are not a consequence of the injury itself, but rather in the treatment thereof. 12. In the injured child the most common nosocomial infection is lower respiratory followed by primary blood stream and the urinary tract. 13. The management of nosocomial pneumonia in the injured child is based on the time of diagnoses. Early evidence of pulmonary infection requires treatment

  15. Disease avoidance as a functional basis for stigmatization

    PubMed Central

    Oaten, Megan; Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.

    2011-01-01

    Stigmatization is characterized by chronic social and physical avoidance of a person(s) by other people. Infectious disease may produce an apparently similar form of isolation—disease avoidance—but on symptom remission this often abates. We propose that many forms of stigmatization reflect the activation of this disease-avoidance system, which is prone to respond to visible signs and labels that connote disease, irrespective of their accuracy. A model of this system is presented, which includes an emotional component, whereby visible disease cues directly activate disgust and contamination, motivating avoidance, and a cognitive component, whereby disease labels bring to mind disease cues, indirectly activating disgust and contamination. The unique predictions of this model are then examined, notably that people who are stigmatized evoke disgust and are contaminating. That animals too show avoidance of diseased conspecifics, and that disease-related stigma targets are avoided in most cultures, also supports this evolutionary account. The more general implications of this approach are then examined, notably how it can be used to good (e.g. improving hygiene) or bad (e.g. racial vilification) ends, by yoking particular labels with cues that connote disease and disgust. This broadening of the model allows for stigmatization of groups with little apparent connection to disease. PMID:22042920

  16. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance.

    PubMed

    Cameron, Gemma; Schlund, Michael W; Dymond, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead to the inference that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known however about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance-instructions and social observation-on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+) and another was a safety cue (CS-). Groups were then either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock (instructed-learning group) or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group). During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed. PMID:26150773

  17. Modeling and Simulation of an UAS Collision Avoidance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliveros, Edgardo V.; Murray, A. Jennifer

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a Modeling and Simulation of an Unmanned Aircraft Systems (UAS) Collision Avoidance System, capable of representing different types of scenarios for UAS collision avoidance. Commercial and military piloted aircraft currently utilize various systems for collision avoidance such as Traffic Alert and Collision A voidance System (TCAS), Automatic Dependent Surveillance-Broadcast (ADS-B), Radar and ElectroOptical and Infrared Sensors (EO-IR). The integration of information from these systems is done by the pilot in the aircraft to determine the best course of action. In order to operate optimally in the National Airspace System (NAS) UAS have to work in a similar or equivalent manner to a piloted aircraft by applying the principle of "detect-see and avoid" (DSA) to other air traffic. Hence, we have taken these existing sensor technologies into consideration in order to meet the challenge of researching the modeling and simulation of an approximated DSA system. A Schematic Model for a UAS Collision Avoidance System (CAS) has been developed ina closed loop block diagram for that purpose. We have found that the most suitable software to carry out this task is the Satellite Tool Kit (STK) from Analytical Graphics Inc. (AGI). We have used the Aircraft Mission Modeler (AMM) for modeling and simulation of a scenario where a UAS is placed on a possible collision path with an initial intruder and then with a second intruder, but is able to avoid them by executing a right tum maneuver and then climbing. Radars have also been modeled with specific characteristics for the UAS and both intruders. The software provides analytical, graphical user interfaces and data controlling tools which allow the operator to simulate different conditions. Extensive simulations have been carried out which returned excellent results.

  18. Telecommunications: Avoiding the Black Hole.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riel, Margaret

    1993-01-01

    Careful planning is required for teachers to take full advantage of the cross-cultural learning opportunities afforded by electronic networks and telecommunications. Networking with more than one classroom and using a well-defined group project integral to other classroom activities are recommended. (EA)

  19. Crowdsourcing a Collective Sense of Place.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Andrew; Croitoru, Arie; Crooks, Andrew T; Stefanidis, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Place can be generally defined as a location that has been assigned meaning through human experience, and as such it is of multidisciplinary scientific interest. Up to this point place has been studied primarily within the context of social sciences as a theoretical construct. The availability of large amounts of user-generated content, e.g. in the form of social media feeds or Wikipedia contributions, allows us for the first time to computationally analyze and quantify the shared meaning of place. By aggregating references to human activities within urban spaces we can observe the emergence of unique themes that characterize different locations, thus identifying places through their discernible sociocultural signatures. In this paper we present results from a novel quantitative approach to derive such sociocultural signatures from Twitter contributions and also from corresponding Wikipedia entries. By contrasting the two we show how particular thematic characteristics of places (referred to herein as platial themes) are emerging from such crowd-contributed content, allowing us to observe the meaning that the general public, either individually or collectively, is assigning to specific locations. Our approach leverages probabilistic topic modelling, semantic association, and spatial clustering to find locations are conveying a collective sense of place. Deriving and quantifying such meaning allows us to observe how people transform a location to a place and shape its characteristics. PMID:27050432

  20. Crowdsourcing a Collective Sense of Place

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Andrew; Croitoru, Arie; Crooks, Andrew T.; Stefanidis, Anthony

    2016-01-01

    Place can be generally defined as a location that has been assigned meaning through human experience, and as such it is of multidisciplinary scientific interest. Up to this point place has been studied primarily within the context of social sciences as a theoretical construct. The availability of large amounts of user-generated content, e.g. in the form of social media feeds or Wikipedia contributions, allows us for the first time to computationally analyze and quantify the shared meaning of place. By aggregating references to human activities within urban spaces we can observe the emergence of unique themes that characterize different locations, thus identifying places through their discernible sociocultural signatures. In this paper we present results from a novel quantitative approach to derive such sociocultural signatures from Twitter contributions and also from corresponding Wikipedia entries. By contrasting the two we show how particular thematic characteristics of places (referred to herein as platial themes) are emerging from such crowd-contributed content, allowing us to observe the meaning that the general public, either individually or collectively, is assigning to specific locations. Our approach leverages probabilistic topic modelling, semantic association, and spatial clustering to find locations are conveying a collective sense of place. Deriving and quantifying such meaning allows us to observe how people transform a location to a place and shape its characteristics. PMID:27050432

  1. Behavioral avoidance of contagion in childhood.

    PubMed

    Blacker, Katy-Ann; LoBue, Vanessa

    2016-03-01

    Although there is a large literature on children's reasoning about contagion, there has been no empirical research on children's avoidance of contagious individuals. This study is the first to investigate whether children avoid sick individuals. Participants (4- to 7-year-old children) were invited to play with two confederates-one of whom was "sick." Afterward, their knowledge of contagion was assessed. Overall, children avoided proximity to and contact with the sick confederate and her toys, but only 6- and 7-year-olds performed above chance. The best predictor of avoidance behavior was not age but rather children's ability to make predictions about illness outcomes. This provides the first evidence of behavioral avoidance of contagious illness in childhood and suggests that causal knowledge underlies avoidance behavior. PMID:26615972

  2. Generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Cameron, Gemma; Schlund, Michael W.; Dymond, Simon

    2015-01-01

    Excessive avoidance behavior, in which an instrumental action prevents an upcoming aversive event, is a defining feature of anxiety disorders. Left unchecked, both fear and avoidance of potentially threatening stimuli may generalize to perceptually related stimuli and situations. The behavioral consequences of generalization mean that aversive learning experiences with specific threats may lead to the inference that classes of related stimuli are threatening, potentially dangerous, and need to be avoided, despite differences in physical form. Little is known however about avoidance generalization in humans and the learning pathways by which it may be transmitted. In the present study, we compared two pathways to avoidance—instructions and social observation—on subsequent generalization of avoidance behavior, fear expectancy and physiological arousal. Participants first learned that one cue was a danger cue (conditioned stimulus, CS+) and another was a safety cue (CS−). Groups were then either instructed that a simple avoidance response in the presence of the CS+ cancelled upcoming shock (instructed-learning group) or observed a short movie showing a demonstrator performing the avoidance response to prevent shock (observational-learning group). During generalization testing, danger and safety cues were presented along with generalization stimuli that parametrically varied in perceptual similarity to the CS+. Reinstatement of fear and avoidance was also tested. Findings demonstrate, for the first time, generalization of socially transmitted and instructed avoidance: both groups showed comparable generalization gradients in fear expectancy, avoidance behavior and arousal. Return of fear was evident, suggesting that generalized avoidance remains persistent following extinction testing. The utility of the present paradigm for research on avoidance generalization is discussed. PMID:26150773

  3. Flight Tests Validate Collision-Avoidance System

    NASA Video Gallery

    Flights tests of a smartphone-assisted automatic ground collision avoidance system at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center consistently commanded evasive maneuvers when it sensed that the unmanned ...

  4. Integration of Weather Avoidance and Traffic Separation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Consiglio, Maria C.; Chamberlain, James P.; Wilson, Sara R.

    2011-01-01

    This paper describes a dynamic convective weather avoidance concept that compensates for weather motion uncertainties; the integration of this weather avoidance concept into a prototype 4-D trajectory-based Airborne Separation Assurance System (ASAS) application; and test results from a batch (non-piloted) simulation of the integrated application with high traffic densities and a dynamic convective weather model. The weather model can simulate a number of pseudo-random hazardous weather patterns, such as slow- or fast-moving cells and opening or closing weather gaps, and also allows for modeling of onboard weather radar limitations in range and azimuth. The weather avoidance concept employs nested "core" and "avoid" polygons around convective weather cells, and the simulations assess the effectiveness of various avoid polygon sizes in the presence of different weather patterns, using traffic scenarios representing approximately two times the current traffic density in en-route airspace. Results from the simulation experiment show that the weather avoidance concept is effective over a wide range of weather patterns and cell speeds. Avoid polygons that are only 2-3 miles larger than their core polygons are sufficient to account for weather uncertainties in almost all cases, and traffic separation performance does not appear to degrade with the addition of weather polygon avoidance. Additional "lessons learned" from the batch simulation study are discussed in the paper, along with insights for improving the weather avoidance concept. Introduction

  5. Context-dependent differences in grooming behavior among the NIH heterogeneous stock and the Roman high- and low-avoidance rats.

    PubMed

    Estanislau, C; Díaz-Morán, S; Cañete, T; Blázquez, G; Tobeña, A; Fernández-Teruel, A

    2013-12-01

    Grooming occurs during/after stress and seems to accompany dearousal. Here, grooming was investigated under testing situations involving different levels of aversiveness, taking advantage of differences among three rat strains in fearfulness/anxiety. Inbred Roman High Avoidance (RHA-I) rats are less anxious/fearful than inbred Roman Low Avoidance (RLA-I). The outbred genetically heterogeneous stock of rats (NIH-HS), which resembles the RLA-I in many behavioral traits, was also studied. Adult male rats (RLA-I: n=9, RHA-I: n=10, NIH-HS: n=12) were observed for 30min in: a novel open-field, a novel hole-board and in the home-cage. They were also observed during two-way active avoidance training. Differences in grooming depended on test situation: (a) No differences were found in the home-cage. (b) While tested in a novel environment, RHA-I showed less grooming activity than the other rats. (c) After avoidance responses appeared, differences among the strains were opposite to the observed in novelty tests. Furthermore, results suggest that (i) grooming is mostly suppressed when assured aversive experience is under way; (ii) rostral grooming prevails when experience with aversive stimuli is unpredictable (novelty) or potential (avoidance training); (iii) body grooming increases for a period in novel environments. In general, our results support that grooming takes place during dearousal.

  6. Avoiding horror autotoxicus: the importance of dendritic cells in peripheral T cell tolerance.

    PubMed

    Steinman, Ralph Marvin; Nussenzweig, Michel C

    2002-01-01

    The immune system generally avoids horror autotoxicus or autoimmunity, an attack against the body's own constituents. This avoidance requires that self-reactive T cells be actively silenced or tolerized. We propose that dendritic cells (DCs) play a critical role in establishing tolerance, especially in the periphery, after functioning T cells have been produced in the thymus. In the steady state, meaning in the absence of acute infection and inflammation, DCs are in an immature state and not fully differentiated to carry out their known roles as inducers of immunity. Nevertheless, immature DCs continuously circulate through tissues and into lymphoid organs, capturing self antigens as well as innocuous environmental proteins. Recent experiments have provided direct evidence that antigen-loaded immature DCs silence T cells either by deleting them or by expanding regulatory T cells. This capacity of DCs to induce peripheral tolerance can work in two opposing ways in the context of infection. In acute infection, a beneficial effect should occur. The immune system would overcome the risk of developing autoimmunity and chronic inflammation if, before infection, tolerance were induced to innocuous environmental proteins as well as self antigens captured from dying infected cells. For chronic or persistent pathogens, a second but dire potential could take place. Continuous presentation of a pathogen by immature DCs, HIV-1 for example, may lead to tolerance and active evasion of protective immunity. The function of DCs in defining immunologic self provides a new focus for the study of autoimmunity and chronic immune-based diseases.

  7. Divergent effects of isolation rearing on prepulse inhibition, activity, anxiety and hippocampal-dependent memory in Roman high- and low-avoidance rats: A putative model of schizophrenia-relevant features.

    PubMed

    Oliveras, Ignasi; Sánchez-González, Ana; Piludu, Maria Antonietta; Gerboles, Cristina; Río-Álamos, Cristóbal; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    Social isolation of rats induces a constellation of behavioral alterations known as "isolation syndrome" that are consistent with some of the positive and cognitive symptoms observed in schizophrenic patients. In the present study we have assessed whether isolation rearing of inbred Roman high-avoidance (RHA-I) and Roman low-avoidance (RLA-I) strains can lead to the appearance of some of the key features of the "isolation syndrome", such as prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits, increased anxious behavior, hyperactivity and memory/learning impairments. Compared to RLA-I rats, the results show that isolation rearing (IR) in RHA-I rats has a more profound impact, as they exhibit isolation-induced PPI deficits, increased anxiety, hyperactivity and long-term reference memory deficits, while isolated RLA-I rats only exhibit deficits in a spatial working memory task. These results give further support to the validity of RHA-I rats as a genetically-based model of schizophrenia relevant-symptoms. PMID:27478139

  8. Divergent effects of isolation rearing on prepulse inhibition, activity, anxiety and hippocampal-dependent memory in Roman high- and low-avoidance rats: A putative model of schizophrenia-relevant features.

    PubMed

    Oliveras, Ignasi; Sánchez-González, Ana; Piludu, Maria Antonietta; Gerboles, Cristina; Río-Álamos, Cristóbal; Tobeña, Adolf; Fernández-Teruel, Alberto

    2016-11-01

    Social isolation of rats induces a constellation of behavioral alterations known as "isolation syndrome" that are consistent with some of the positive and cognitive symptoms observed in schizophrenic patients. In the present study we have assessed whether isolation rearing of inbred Roman high-avoidance (RHA-I) and Roman low-avoidance (RLA-I) strains can lead to the appearance of some of the key features of the "isolation syndrome", such as prepulse inhibition (PPI) deficits, increased anxious behavior, hyperactivity and memory/learning impairments. Compared to RLA-I rats, the results show that isolation rearing (IR) in RHA-I rats has a more profound impact, as they exhibit isolation-induced PPI deficits, increased anxiety, hyperactivity and long-term reference memory deficits, while isolated RLA-I rats only exhibit deficits in a spatial working memory task. These results give further support to the validity of RHA-I rats as a genetically-based model of schizophrenia relevant-symptoms.

  9. Privileged Girls: The Place of Femininity and Femininity in Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fahey, Johannah

    2014-01-01

    Constructions of femininity and attendant notions of feminism are being produced in different ways in different places around the world. This is a complicated global process that cannot be reduced to analyses that take place in nation states. This paper seeks to respond to and enhance Angela McRobbie's compelling argument about understandings…

  10. Adjusting to New Places: International Student Adjustment and Place Attachment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrazas-Carrillo, Elizabeth C.; Hong, Ji Y.; Pace, Terry M.

    2014-01-01

    Using data obtained from in-depth semistructured interviews, we examined international students' attachments to place in the local American Midwestern community where they have attended college for at least 2 years. The results of this study suggest that participants engage in a process of renegotiation of meanings attached to new places in…

  11. How to avoid the high costs of physician turnover.

    PubMed

    Berger, J E; Boyle, R L

    1992-01-01

    Physician recruitment is a complex, time consuming and competitive activity that is costly in terms of incurred expenses, administrative and physician time and lost revenue. Judith Berger and Robert Boyle, FACMGA, describe how to develop a well-designed retention and recruitment plan to avoid such costs.

  12. How Do Speakers Avoid Ambiguous Linguistic Expressions?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferreira, V.S.; Slevc, L.R.; Rogers, E.S.

    2005-01-01

    Three experiments assessed how speakers avoid linguistically and nonlinguistically ambiguous expressions. Speakers described target objects (a flying mammal, bat) in contexts including foil objects that caused linguistic (a baseball bat) and nonlinguistic (a larger flying mammal) ambiguity. Speakers sometimes avoided linguistic-ambiguity, and they…

  13. Recommendations for Sense and Avoid Policy Compliance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    Since unmanned aircraft do not have a human on board, they need to have a sense and avoid capability that provides an "equivalent level of safety" (ELOS) to manned aircraft. The question then becomes - is sense and avoid ELOS for unmanned aircraft adequate to satisfy the requirements of 14 CFR 91.113? Access 5 has proposed a definition of sense and avoid, but the question remains as to whether any sense and avoid system can comply with 14 CFR 91.113 as currently written. The Access 5 definition of sense and avoid ELOS allows for the development of a sense and avoid system for unmanned aircraft that would comply with 14 CFR 91.113. Compliance is based on sensing and avoiding other traffic at an equivalent level of safety for collision avoidance, as manned aircraft. No changes to Part 91 are necessary, with the possible exception of changing "see" to "sense," or obtaining an interpretation from the FAA General Counsel that "sense" is equivalent to "see."

  14. 47 CFR 74.604 - Interference avoidance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Interference avoidance. 74.604 Section 74.604 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) BROADCAST RADIO SERVICES EXPERIMENTAL RADIO... Stations § 74.604 Interference avoidance. (a) (b) Where two or more licensees are assigned a common...

  15. Human Hippocampus Arbitrates Approach-Avoidance Conflict

    PubMed Central

    Bach, Dominik R.; Guitart-Masip, Marc; Packard, Pau A.; Miró, Júlia; Falip, Mercè; Fuentemilla, Lluís; Dolan, Raymond J.

    2014-01-01

    Summary Animal models of human anxiety often invoke a conflict between approach and avoidance [1, 2]. In these, a key behavioral assay comprises passive avoidance of potential threat and inhibition, both thought to be controlled by ventral hippocampus [2–6]. Efforts to translate these approaches to clinical contexts [7, 8] are hampered by the fact that it is not known whether humans manifest analogous approach-avoidance dispositions and, if so, whether they share a homologous neurobiological substrate [9]. Here, we developed a paradigm to investigate the role of human hippocampus in arbitrating an approach-avoidance conflict under varying levels of potential threat. Across four experiments, subjects showed analogous behavior by adapting both passive avoidance behavior and behavioral inhibition to threat level. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we observe that threat level engages the anterior hippocampus, the human homolog of rodent ventral hippocampus [10]. Testing patients with selective hippocampal lesions, we demonstrate a causal role for the hippocampus with patients showing reduced passive avoidance behavior and inhibition across all threat levels. Our data provide the first human assay for approach-avoidance conflict akin to that of animal anxiety models. The findings bridge rodent and human research on passive avoidance and behavioral inhibition and furnish a framework for addressing the neuronal underpinnings of human anxiety disorders, where our data indicate a major role for the hippocampus. PMID:24560572

  16. Population properties affect inbreeding avoidance in moose.

    PubMed

    Herfindal, Ivar; Haanes, Hallvard; Røed, Knut H; Solberg, Erling J; Markussen, Stine S; Heim, Morten; Sæther, Bernt-Erik

    2014-12-01

    Mechanisms reducing inbreeding are thought to have evolved owing to fitness costs of breeding with close relatives. In small and isolated populations, or populations with skewed age- or sex distributions, mate choice becomes limited, and inbreeding avoidance mechanisms ineffective. We used a unique individual-based dataset on moose from a small island in Norway to assess whether inbreeding avoidance was related to population structure and size, expecting inbreeding avoidance to be greater in years with larger populations and even adult sex ratios. The probability that a potential mating event was realized was negatively related to the inbreeding coefficient of the potential offspring, with a stronger relationship in years with a higher proportion or number of males in the population. Thus, adult sex ratio and population size affect the degree of inbreeding avoidance. Consequently, conservation managers should aim for sex ratios that facilitate inbreeding avoidance, especially in small and isolated populations.

  17. Living with food allergy: allergen avoidance.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jennifer S; Sicherer, Scott H

    2011-04-01

    The primary treatment of food allergy is to avoid the culprit foods. This is a complex undertaking that requires education about reading the labels of manufactured products, understanding how to avoid cross-contact with allergens during food preparation, and communicating effectively with persons who are providing allergen-safe meals including relatives and restaurant personnel. Successful avoidance also requires a knowledge of nuances such as appropriate cleaning practices, an understanding of the risks of ingestion compared to skin contact or inhalation, that exposure could occur through unanticipated means such as through sharing utensils or passionate kissing, and that food may be a component of substances that are not ingested such as cosmetics, bath products, vaccines and medications. The authors review the necessary tools of avoidance that physicians and medical practitioners can use to guide their patients through the complexities of food avoidance.

  18. How do speakers avoid ambiguous linguistic expressions?

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Victor S; Slevc, L Robert; Rogers, Erin S

    2005-07-01

    Three experiments assessed how speakers avoid linguistically and nonlinguistically ambiguous expressions. Speakers described target objects (a flying mammal, bat) in contexts including foil objects that caused linguistic (a baseball bat) and nonlinguistic (a larger flying mammal) ambiguity. Speakers sometimes avoided linguistic-ambiguity, and they did so equally regardless of whether they also were about to describe foils. This suggests that comprehension processes can sometimes detect linguistic-ambiguity before producing it. However, once produced, speakers consistently avoided using the same linguistically ambiguous expression again for a different meaning. This suggests that production processes can successfully detect linguistic-ambiguity after-the-fact. Speakers almost always avoided nonlinguistic-ambiguity. Thus, production processes are especially sensitive to nonlinguistic- but not linguistic-ambiguity, with the latter avoided consistently only once it is already articulated.

  19. Make Your School Library a Noisy Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braxton, Barbara

    2005-01-01

    A common stereotype of a library is that of a place wherein people are required to be quiet. However, the author prefers a noisy and active library wherein books and ideas are discussed, recommended, and shared. The author believes that speaking is inextricably intertwined with thinking, and reading requires reflection on and a response to someone…

  20. What Kind of Place Is Secondary School?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Monie; Vivian, Craig

    2008-01-01

    Secondary school introduces students to a public space that differs from the private spaces commonly found in elementary schools. One of the markers signaling a transition from private to public space is the use of discourse. Secondary schools are places where social practices reject the democratic and caring activities found in the elementary…

  1. Parentally Placed Private School Students with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sopko, Kimberly M.

    2013-01-01

    This document focuses on state education agency (SEA) support for child find, consultation and provision of equitable service provisions for parentally placed private school students with disabilities. Project Forum at the National Association of State Directors of Special Education (NASDSE) completed this activity as part of its cooperative…

  2. PLACE NAMES IN THE CLASSROOM.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HARDER, KELSIE B.

    ALTHOUGH "PLACE-NAMING" IS A BASIC HUMAN FUNCTION, THE STUDY OF THE ORIGIN OF PROPER NAMES OF PERSONS AND PLACES (ONOMASTICS) HAS BEEN LARGELY IGNORED BY AMERICAN PHILOLOGISTS AND TEACHERS OF ENGLISH. DESPITE A PAUCITY OF RESEARCH, HOWEVER, ANY ENGLISH TEACHER WHO WANTS TO INTEREST STUDENTS IN ONOMASTIC INVESTIGATION CAN EXPLOIT THE GREAT BODY OF…

  3. Boundary Avoidance Tracking for Instigating Pilot Induced Oscillations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Craun, Robert W.; Acosta, Diana M.; Beard, Steven D.; Hardy, Gordon H.; Leonard, Michael W.; Weinstein, Michael

    2013-01-01

    In order to advance research in the area of pilot induced oscillations, a reliable method to create PIOs in a simulated environment is necessary. Using a boundary avoidance tracking task, researchers performing an evaluation of control systems were able to create PIO events in 42% of cases using a nominal aircraft, and 91% of cases using an aircraft with reduced actuator rate limits. The simulator evaluation took place in the NASA Ames Vertical Motion Simulator, a high-fidelity motion-based simulation facility.

  4. Comparison of outcomes between surgically placed and percutaneously placed peritoneal dialysis catheters: A retrospective study.

    PubMed

    Sivaramakrishnan, R; Gupta, S; Agarwal, S K; Bhowmik, D; Mahajan, S

    2016-01-01

    There is lack of adequate data on comparison of outcomes between percutaneously placed peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters inserted by nephrologists and PD catheters placed by surgeons. The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the outcomes of PD catheters inserted by surgeons (by open surgical or laparoscopic technique) and compare them with those inserted by nephrologists among ESRD patients who underwent elective PD catheter insertions between January 2009 and December 2012. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of catheters removed because of primary nonfunction. The secondary outcome measures were catheter survival, patient survival, and incidence of complications of catheter insertion. A total of 143 PD catheter insertions (88 by surgeons and 55 by nephrologists) performed in 132 patients were considered for the analysis. The primary nonfunction rate of PD catheter insertions in both groups was comparable (18.2% and 7.3%, P = 0.08). Break-in period was shorter in Group N (p = <0.001). No differences were noted in patient or catheter survival. Percutaneously placed PD catheters performed by nephrologists have comparable outcomes with surgically placed PD catheters among selected cases and have the advantage of lower costs, avoidance of operation theater scheduling issues, smaller incision length, and shorter break-in period. Therefore, more nephrologists should acquire the expertise on percutaneous PD catheter placement as it leads to lesser waiting times and better utilization of PD. PMID:27512299

  5. Comparison of outcomes between surgically placed and percutaneously placed peritoneal dialysis catheters: A retrospective study

    PubMed Central

    Sivaramakrishnan, R.; Gupta, S.; Agarwal, S. K.; Bhowmik, D.; Mahajan, S.

    2016-01-01

    There is lack of adequate data on comparison of outcomes between percutaneously placed peritoneal dialysis (PD) catheters inserted by nephrologists and PD catheters placed by surgeons. The aim of this study is to retrospectively analyze the outcomes of PD catheters inserted by surgeons (by open surgical or laparoscopic technique) and compare them with those inserted by nephrologists among ESRD patients who underwent elective PD catheter insertions between January 2009 and December 2012. The primary outcome measure was the proportion of catheters removed because of primary nonfunction. The secondary outcome measures were catheter survival, patient survival, and incidence of complications of catheter insertion. A total of 143 PD catheter insertions (88 by surgeons and 55 by nephrologists) performed in 132 patients were considered for the analysis. The primary nonfunction rate of PD catheter insertions in both groups was comparable (18.2% and 7.3%, P = 0.08). Break-in period was shorter in Group N (p = <0.001). No differences were noted in patient or catheter survival. Percutaneously placed PD catheters performed by nephrologists have comparable outcomes with surgically placed PD catheters among selected cases and have the advantage of lower costs, avoidance of operation theater scheduling issues, smaller incision length, and shorter break-in period. Therefore, more nephrologists should acquire the expertise on percutaneous PD catheter placement as it leads to lesser waiting times and better utilization of PD. PMID:27512299

  6. Characterization of shade avoidance responses in Lotus japonicus.

    PubMed

    Ueoka-Nakanishi, Hanayo; Hori, Nanako; Ishida, Kai; Ono, Natsuko; Yamashino, Takafumi; Nakamichi, Norihito; Mizuno, Takeshi

    2011-01-01

    Sessile plants must continuously adjust their growth and development to optimize photosynthetic activity under ever-fluctuating light conditions. Among such light responses in plants, one of the best-characterized events is the so-called shade avoidance, for which a low ratio of the red (R):far-red (FR) light intensities is the most prominent stimulus. Such shade avoidance responses enable plants to overtop their neighbors, thereby enhancing fitness and competitiveness in their natural habitat. Considerable progress has been achieved during the last decade in understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the shade avoidance responses in the model rosette plant, Arabidopsis thaliana. We characterize here the fundamental aspects of the shade avoidance responses in the model legume, Lotus japonicus, based on the fact that its phyllotaxis (or morphological architecture) is quite different from that of A. thaliana. It was found that L. japonicus displays the characteristic shade avoidance syndrome (SAS) under defined laboratory conditions (a low R:FR ratio, low light intensity, and low blue light intensity) that mimic the natural canopy. In particular, the outgrowth of axillary buds (i.e., both aerial and cotyledonary shoot branching) was severely inhibited in L. japonicus grown in the shade. These results are discussed with special emphasis on the unique aspects of SAS observed with this legume.

  7. Visually guided collision avoidance and collision achievement.

    PubMed

    Regan; Gray

    2000-03-01

    To survive on today's highways, a driver must have highly developed skills in visually guided collision avoidance. To play such games as cricket, tennis or baseball demands accurate, precise and reliable collision achievement. This review discusses evidence that some of these tasks are performed by predicting where an object will be at some sharply defined instant, several hundred milliseconds in the future, while other tasks are performed by utilizing the fact that some of our motor actions change what we see in ways that obey lawful relationships, and can therefore be learned. Several monocular and binocular visual correlates of the direction of an object's motion relative to the observer's head have been derived theoretically, along with visual correlates of the time to collision with an approaching object. Although laboratory psychophysics can identify putative neural mechanisms by showing which of the known correlates are processed by the human visual system independently of other visual information, it is only field research on, for example, driving, aviation and sport that can show which visual cues are actually used in these activities. This article reviews this research and describes a general psychophysically based rational approach to the design of such field studies.

  8. [Complete bridge on osseointegrated fixtures avoiding a temporary complete denture].

    PubMed

    Bunni, J

    1990-06-01

    The possibility of placing fixtures between periodontically compromised teeth enables the immediate conversion from a fixed prosthesis supported by natural abutments to a temporary one supported by osseo-integrated fixtures. During the second surgical stage, the bridge on natural teeth is removed, the abutments are placed on the osseo-integrated fixtures and a new temporary bridge is prepared out of acrylic resin and gold cylinders screwed on the titanium abutments after the extraction of the residual teeth. The temporary bridge is realised for one side of the arc and then the other in order to control at all time the occlusion as well as the cosmetic aspect of the bridge. This approach avoids the passage by a mobile denture, shortens the healing period from 18 to 6 months and enables the prosthodentist to foresee the potential problems with the permanent fixed prosthesis.

  9. Ontogenetic development of avoidance learning in rats after eye opening.

    PubMed

    Köllner, O; Köllner, U; Göb, R; Klingberg, F

    1988-01-01

    Five male and one female group of 8 pups were selected from 8 liters on the second postnatal day and returned to 6 dams. The animals were investigated in two subsequent tests; first, in a peripheral field avoidance test using a 60 x 75 x 22 cm open field subdivided into 20 equal squares of 15 x 15 cm with separate floor grids for electrical punishment and, second, in a W-like maze with a start arm falling into a common alley from which left and right each two goal arms branched off. Four qualities were measured in the first test: finding out that only central fields remained unpunished; the stay duration in central fields indicating passive avoidance; the response to a conditioned stimulus, when they entered peripheral fields indicating active avoidance; the quality of extinction. The differences of these qualities changed significantly from week to week as the acquisition speed and the consolidation increased, the extinction was rapid in the third week, very slow in the fourth week and adult-like in the fifth week. The self-chosen strategy of pups showed dominance of escape with subsequent motor inhibition in the third week, dominance of trials and active avoidance in the fourth week, dominance of passive avoidance in the fifth week. We found no difference between males and females, or between blind and control rats. The W-maze test revealed additionally that reversal learning from left goal to right goal was still difficult in the fourth week and that brightness-cued alteration of goals in which wrong choices were punished when a time limit was overcome could not be learned before the sixth week and not consolidated before the end of the seventh week. The results suggest that various brain processes are involved in the development of avoidance and learning strategies which mature unevenly and reach their peaks at different ages. PMID:3254159

  10. Individual differences in women's rape avoidance behaviors.

    PubMed

    McKibbin, William F; Shackelford, Todd K; Miner, Emily J; Bates, Vincent M; Liddle, James R

    2011-04-01

    Rape can exact severe psychological, physical, and reproductive costs on women, and likely was a recurrent adaptive problem over human evolutionary history. Therefore, women may have evolved psychological mechanisms that motivate rape avoidance behaviors. Guided heuristically by an evolutionary perspective, we tested the hypothesis that women's rape avoidance behaviors would vary with several individual difference variables. Specifically, we predicted that rape avoidance behaviors would covary positively with (1) women's attractiveness, (2) women's involvement in a committed romantic relationship, and (3) the number of family members living nearby. We also predicted that women's rape avoidance behaviors would covary negatively with age. We administered the Rape Avoidance Inventory (McKibbin et al., Pers Indiv Differ 39:336-340, 2009) and a demographic survey to a sample of women (n = 144). The results of correlational and regression analyses were consistent with the predictions, with the exception that women's rape avoidance behaviors did not covary with women's age. Discussion highlighted limitations of the current research and directions for future research on women's rape avoidance psychology and behaviors.

  11. Moving Obstacle Avoidance for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yucong

    There has been a vast increase in applications of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs) in civilian domains. To operate in the civilian airspace, a UAV must be able to sense and avoid both static and moving obstacles for flight safety. While indoor and low-altitude environments are mainly occupied by static obstacles, risks in space of higher altitude primarily come from moving obstacles such as other aircraft or flying vehicles in the airspace. Therefore, the ability to avoid moving obstacles becomes a necessity for Unmanned Aerial Vehicles. Towards enabling a UAV to autonomously sense and avoid moving obstacles, this thesis makes the following contributions. Initially, an image-based reactive motion planner is developed for a quadrotor to avoid a fast approaching obstacle. Furthermore, A Dubin's curve based geometry method is developed as a global path planner for a fixed-wing UAV to avoid collisions with aircraft. The image-based method is unable to produce an optimal path and the geometry method uses a simplified UAV model. To compensate these two disadvantages, a series of algorithms built upon the Closed-Loop Rapid Exploratory Random Tree are developed as global path planners to generate collision avoidance paths in real time. The algorithms are validated in Software-In-the-Loop (SITL) and Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulations using a fixed-wing UAV model and in real flight experiments using quadrotors. It is observed that the algorithm enables a UAV to avoid moving obstacles approaching to it with different directions and speeds.

  12. Grouping facilitates avoidance of parasites by fish

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Parasite distribution is often highly heterogeneous, and intensity of infection depends, among other things, on how well hosts can avoid areas with a high concentration of parasites. We studied the role of fish behaviour in avoiding microhabitats with a high infection risk using Oncorhynchus mykiss and cercariae of Diplostomum pseudospathaceum as a model. Spatial distribution of parasites in experimental tanks was highly heterogeneous. We hypothesized that fish in groups are better at recognizing a parasitized area and avoiding it than solitary fish. Methods Number of fish, either solitary or in groups of 5, was recorded in different compartments of a shuttle tank where fish could make a choice between areas with different risk of being infected. Intensity of infection was assessed and compared with the number of fish recorded in the compartment with parasites and level of fish motility. Results Both solitary fish and fish in groups avoided parasitized areas, but fish in groups avoided it more strongly and thus acquired significantly fewer parasites than solitary fish. Prevalence of infection among grouped and solitary fish was 66 and 92 %, respectively, with the mean abundance two times higher in the solitary fish. Between-individual variation in the number of parasites per fish was higher in the “groups” treatment (across all individuals) than in the “solitary” treatment. Avoidance behaviour was more efficient when fish were allowed to explore the experimental arena prior to parasite exposure. High motility of fish was shown to increase the acquisition of D. pseudospathaceum. Conclusion Fish in groups better avoided parasitized habitat, and acquired significantly fewer parasites than solitary fish. We suggest that fish in groups benefit from information about parasites gained from other members of a group. Grouping behaviour may be an efficient mechanism of parasite avoidance, together with individual behaviour and immune responses of fishes

  13. When Is Topic Avoidance Unsatisfying? Examining Moderators of the Association between Avoidance and Dissatisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caughlin, John P.; Afifi, Tamara D.

    2004-01-01

    Despite theoretical arguments that avoiding certain topics can be functional, there is consistent evidence that avoiding topics tends to be associated with dissatisfying relationships. This disparity between theory and empirical findings suggests a need to understand better the connection between topic avoidance and relational dissatisfaction. The…

  14. Place recognition using batlike sonar.

    PubMed

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Steckel, Jan; Boen, Andre; Peremans, Herbert; Holderied, Marc W

    2016-01-01

    Echolocating bats have excellent spatial memory and are able to navigate to salient locations using bio-sonar. Navigating and route-following require animals to recognize places. Currently, it is mostly unknown how bats recognize places using echolocation. In this paper, we propose template based place recognition might underlie sonar-based navigation in bats. Under this hypothesis, bats recognize places by remembering their echo signature - rather than their 3D layout. Using a large body of ensonification data collected in three different habitats, we test the viability of this hypothesis assessing two critical properties of the proposed echo signatures: (1) they can be uniquely classified and (2) they vary continuously across space. Based on the results presented, we conclude that the proposed echo signatures satisfy both criteria. We discuss how these two properties of the echo signatures can support navigation and building a cognitive map. PMID:27481189

  15. Place recognition using batlike sonar.

    PubMed

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Steckel, Jan; Boen, Andre; Peremans, Herbert; Holderied, Marc W

    2016-01-01

    Echolocating bats have excellent spatial memory and are able to navigate to salient locations using bio-sonar. Navigating and route-following require animals to recognize places. Currently, it is mostly unknown how bats recognize places using echolocation. In this paper, we propose template based place recognition might underlie sonar-based navigation in bats. Under this hypothesis, bats recognize places by remembering their echo signature - rather than their 3D layout. Using a large body of ensonification data collected in three different habitats, we test the viability of this hypothesis assessing two critical properties of the proposed echo signatures: (1) they can be uniquely classified and (2) they vary continuously across space. Based on the results presented, we conclude that the proposed echo signatures satisfy both criteria. We discuss how these two properties of the echo signatures can support navigation and building a cognitive map.

  16. Aging in place: knowing where you are.

    PubMed

    Rosel, Natalie

    2003-01-01

    Research on aging in place appropriately emphasizes the value of familiar surroundings. The current study contributes an exploration of elders' personal knowledge of where and with whom they are aging in place, knowledge actively accumulated from a lifetime spent in the same area. Structured conversations over a four-month period with 10 elders living on a peninsula in northern Maine provide richly detailed narratives of physical and social particulars of where they live. I use Rowles's (1978) image of concentric circles radiating out from home to organize the information gathered regarding each elder's dwelling, neighborhood and community. Most notable is the depth and detail of their personal knowledge of where they are and with whom they are growing old. I conclude that both the knowledge itself, and the sharing of that knowledge with others, contribute to the implicit and explicit support deemed so valuable for elders who age in place.

  17. Family Key to Helping Teens Avoid Obesity

    MedlinePlus

    ... 159681.html Family Key to Helping Teens Avoid Obesity Good relationship with parents, especially between fathers and ... develop healthy habits that may protect them against obesity, a new study suggests. The researchers also found ...

  18. Avoiding Anemia: Boost Your Red Blood Cells

    MedlinePlus

    ... link, please review our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Avoiding Anemia Boost Your Red Blood Cells If you’re ... and sluggish, you might have a condition called anemia. Anemia is a common blood disorder that many ...

  19. The challenges for scientists in avoiding plagiarism.

    PubMed

    Fisher, E R; Partin, K M

    2014-01-01

    Although it might seem to be a simple task for scientists to avoid plagiarism and thereby an allegation of research misconduct, assessment of trainees in the Responsible Conduct of Research and recent findings from the National Science Foundation Office of Inspector General regarding plagiarism suggests otherwise. Our experiences at a land-grant academic institution in assisting researchers in avoiding plagiarism are described. We provide evidence from a university-wide multi-disciplinary course that understanding how to avoid plagiarism in scientific writing is more difficult than it might appear, and that a failure to learn the rules of appropriate citation may cause dire consequences. We suggest that new strategies to provide training in avoiding plagiarism are required.

  20. When Should a Mother Avoid Breastfeeding?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Address What's this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Breastfeeding Information for Families Breastfeeding Hotline The HHS Office ... Tweet Share Compartir When should a mother avoid breastfeeding? Health professionals agree that human milk provides the ...

  1. Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure

    MedlinePlus

    ... Tools & Resources Stroke More Avoid the Consequences of High Blood Pressure Infographic Updated:Jun 19,2014 View a downloadable version of this infographic High Blood Pressure • Home • About High Blood Pressure (HBP) • Why HBP ...

  2. The influence of object identity on obstacle avoidance reaching behaviour.

    PubMed

    de Haan, A M; Van der Stigchel, S; Nijnens, C M; Dijkerman, H C

    2014-07-01

    When reaching for target objects, we hardly ever collide with other objects located in our working environment. Behavioural studies have demonstrated that the introduction of non-target objects into the workspace alters both spatial and temporal parameters of reaching trajectories. Previous studies have shown the influence of spatial object features (e.g. size and position) on obstacle avoidance movements. However, obstacle identity may also play a role in the preparation of avoidance responses as this allows prediction of possible negative consequences of collision based on recognition of the obstacle. In this study we test this hypothesis by asking participants to reach towards a target as quickly as possible, in the presence of an empty or full glass of water placed about half way between the target and the starting position, at 8 cm either left or right of the virtual midline. While the spatial features of full and empty glasses of water are the same, the consequences of collision are clearly different. Indeed, when there was a high chance of collision, reaching trajectories veered away more from filled than from empty glasses. This shows that the identity of potential obstacles, which allows for estimating the predicted consequences of collision, is taken into account during obstacle avoidance.

  3. A Robot Manipulator with Adaptive Fuzzy Controller in Obstacle Avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sreekumar, Muthuswamy

    2016-07-01

    Building robots and machines to act within a fuzzy environment is a problem featuring complexity and ambiguity. In order to avoid obstacles, or move away from it, the robot has to perform functions such as obstacle identification, finding the location of the obstacle, its velocity, direction of movement, size, shape, and so on. This paper presents about the design, and implementation of an adaptive fuzzy controller designed for a 3 degree of freedom spherical coordinate robotic manipulator interfaced with a microcontroller and an ultrasonic sensor. Distance between the obstacle and the sensor and its time rate are considered as inputs to the controller and how the manipulator to take diversion from its planned trajectory, in order to avoid collision with the obstacle, is treated as output from the controller. The obstacles are identified as stationary or moving objects and accordingly adaptive self tuning is accomplished with three set of linguistic rules. The prototype of the manipulator has been fabricated and tested for collision avoidance by placing stationary and moving obstacles in its planned trajectory. The performance of the adaptive control algorithm is analyzed in MATLAB by generating 3D fuzzy control surfaces.

  4. Assessment of aversion to different concentrations of CO2 gas by weaned pigs using an approach-avoidance paradigm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to examine the aversiveness of carbon dioxide (CO2) to weaned pigs using approach-avoidance and condition place avoidance paradigms. A preference-testing device was custom designed with two connected chambers maintained at static gas concentrations. The control chambe...

  5. Singularity avoidance and time in quantum gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Kreienbuehl, Andreas

    2009-06-15

    We consider the quantization of a Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We derive a reduced square root Hamiltonian by choosing the scale factor as time variable and quantize the theory using Pauli matrices a la Dirac. From the resulting spinor equation we show that there is no semiclassical wave packet that avoids the big bang singularity. Our work raises the question concerning the relationship between the choice of time and singularity avoidance.

  6. Do approach-avoidance actions create attitudes?

    PubMed

    Centerbar, David B; Clore, Gerald L

    2006-01-01

    Do approach-avoidance actions create attitudes? Prior influential studies suggested that rudimentary attitudes could be established by simply pairing novel stimuli (Chinese ideographs) with arm flexion (approach) or arm extension (avoidance). In three experiments, we found that approach-avoidance actions alone were insufficient to account for such effects. Instead, we found that these affective influences resulted from the interaction of these actions with a priori differences in stimulus valence. Thus, with negative stimuli, the effect of extension on attitude was more positive than the effect of flexion. Experiment 2 demonstrated that the affect from motivationally compatible or incompatible action can also influence task evaluations. A final experiment, using Chinese ideographs from the original studies, confirmed these findings. Both approach and avoidance actions led to more positive evaluations of the ideographs when the actions were motivationally compatible with the prior valence of the ideographs. The attitudinal impact of approach-avoidance action thus reflects its situated meaning, which depends on the valence of stimuli being approached or avoided.

  7. John Dewey and a Pedagogy of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jayanandhan, Stephanie Raill

    2009-01-01

    If asked to define the idea of "place" one might struggle. Yet people across time and cultures readily share examples of important places or safe places or "foreign" places with one another and offer heartfelt descriptions in literature and art of childhood places, favorite places, strange places. Akinbola Akinwumi, paraphrasing Yi-Fu Tuan,…

  8. The Greenhouse: A Place for Year-Round Plant Investigations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanif, Muhammad

    1989-01-01

    Activities that may take place in a greenhouse are discussed. Included are learning how to grow plants, plant growth, soil, vegetative reproduction, and plant habitat adaptations. Materials, procedures, and results are presented for the activities. (CW)

  9. Earthworm (Eisenia andrei) Avoidance of Soils Treated with Cypermethrin

    PubMed Central

    de Sousa, Ana Paula A.; de Andréa, Mara M.

    2011-01-01

    The pyrethroid insecticide cypermethrin is used for agricultural and public health campaigns. Its residues may contaminate soils and the beneficial soil organisms, like the earthworms, that may ingest the contaminated soil particles. Due to its ecological relevance, earthworms Eisenia andrei/fetida have been used in different ecotoxicological tests. The avoidance of soils treated with cypermethrin by compost worms Eisenia andrei was studied here as a bioindicator of the influence of treatment dosage and the pesticide formulation in three different agricultural soils indicated by the Brazilian environmental authorities for ecotoxicological tests. This earthworms’ behavior was studied here as a first attempt to propose the test for regulation purposes. The two-compartment test systems, where the earthworms were placed for a two-day exposure period, contained samples of untreated soil alone or together with soil treated with technical grade or wettable powder formulation of cypermethrin. After 48 h, there was no mortality, but the avoidance was clear because all earthworms were found in the untreated section of each type of soil (p < 0.05). No differences were found by the Fisher’s exact test (p ≤ 1.000) for each soil and treatment, demonstrating that the different soil characteristics, the cypermethrin concentrations and formulation, as well as the smaller amounts of soil and earthworms did not influence the avoidance behavior of the earthworms to cypermethrin. The number and range of treatments used in this study do not allow a detailed recommendation of the conditions applied here, but to the best of our knowledge, this is the first reported attempt to identify the avoidance of pesticide treated tropical soils by earthworms. PMID:22247652

  10. Green light induces shade avoidance symptoms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Tingting; Maruhnich, Stefanie A; Folta, Kevin M

    2011-11-01

    Light quality and quantity affect plant adaptation to changing light conditions. Certain wavelengths in the visible and near-visible spectrum are known to have discrete effects on plant growth and development, and the effects of red, far-red, blue, and ultraviolet light have been well described. In this report, an effect of green light on Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) rosette architecture is demonstrated using a narrow-bandwidth light-emitting diode-based lighting system. When green light was added to a background of constant red and blue light, plants exhibited elongation of petioles and upward leaf reorientation, symptoms consistent with those observed in a shaded light environment. The same green light-induced phenotypes were also observed in phytochrome (phy) and cryptochrome (cry) mutant backgrounds. To explore the molecular mechanism underlying the green light-induced response, the accumulation of shade-induced transcripts was measured in response to enriched green light environments. Transcripts that have been demonstrated to increase in abundance under far-red-induced shade avoidance conditions either decrease or exhibit no change when green light is added. However, normal far-red light-associated transcript accumulation patterns are observed in cryptochrome mutants grown with supplemental green light, indicating that the green-absorbing form of cryptochrome is the photoreceptor active in limiting the green light induction of shade-associated transcripts. These results indicate that shade symptoms can be induced by the addition of green light and that cryptochrome receptors and an unknown light sensor participate in acclimation to the enriched green environment.

  11. The Path Is Place: Skateboarding, Graffiti and Performances of Place

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ong, Adelina

    2016-01-01

    This article reflects on two performances of place involving graffiti and skateboarding: the first looks at a graffiti intervention by SKL0, an urban artist in Singapore, and the second examines the "Long Live Southbank" ("LLSB") campaign to resist the relocation of Southbank's Undercroft, an appropriated skate space in London.…

  12. Beyond negligence: avoidability and medical injury compensation.

    PubMed

    Kachalia, Allen B; Mello, Michelle M; Brennan, Troyen A; Studdert, David M

    2008-01-01

    Disenchantment with the tort system and negligence standard in the United States is fueling interest in alternate compensation systems for medical injury. One possibility is experimentation with administrative "health courts," through which specialized adjudicators would utilize neutral experts to render compensability determinations. Compensation would be based not on negligence, but rather on a broader avoidable medical injury (avoidability) standard. Although considerable interest in health courts exists, stakeholders frequently express uncertainty about the meaning and operation of an avoidability standard. Three nations-Sweden, Denmark, and New Zealand-have long operated administrative schemes. We conducted interviews with administrators and stakeholders in these systems. Our goal was to garner lessons on how to operate a health court, and specifically, how to develop and apply alternate compensation criteria such as avoidability. This article reports our findings on the origins and operations of the systems, the evolution of their compensation criteria, and how these criteria are actually applied. We found that all three systems had their primary genesis in ensuring compensation for the injured, as opposed to sanctioning providers. All have abandoned the negligence standard. The Nordic systems use an avoidability standard, principally defined as injury that would not occur in the hands of the best practitioner. Their experience demonstrates that this definition is feasible to apply. New Zealand's recent move to a no-fault system sheds light on the benefits and drawbacks of a variety of compensation standards. Key lessons for successfully applying an alternate standard, such as avoidability, include a strict adherence to national precedent, the use of neutral and experienced experts, and a block on routine transfer of information from compensation investigations to disciplinary authorities. Importantly, all three nations are harnessing their systems' power to

  13. Beyond negligence: avoidability and medical injury compensation.

    PubMed

    Kachalia, Allen B; Mello, Michelle M; Brennan, Troyen A; Studdert, David M

    2008-01-01

    Disenchantment with the tort system and negligence standard in the United States is fueling interest in alternate compensation systems for medical injury. One possibility is experimentation with administrative "health courts," through which specialized adjudicators would utilize neutral experts to render compensability determinations. Compensation would be based not on negligence, but rather on a broader avoidable medical injury (avoidability) standard. Although considerable interest in health courts exists, stakeholders frequently express uncertainty about the meaning and operation of an avoidability standard. Three nations-Sweden, Denmark, and New Zealand-have long operated administrative schemes. We conducted interviews with administrators and stakeholders in these systems. Our goal was to garner lessons on how to operate a health court, and specifically, how to develop and apply alternate compensation criteria such as avoidability. This article reports our findings on the origins and operations of the systems, the evolution of their compensation criteria, and how these criteria are actually applied. We found that all three systems had their primary genesis in ensuring compensation for the injured, as opposed to sanctioning providers. All have abandoned the negligence standard. The Nordic systems use an avoidability standard, principally defined as injury that would not occur in the hands of the best practitioner. Their experience demonstrates that this definition is feasible to apply. New Zealand's recent move to a no-fault system sheds light on the benefits and drawbacks of a variety of compensation standards. Key lessons for successfully applying an alternate standard, such as avoidability, include a strict adherence to national precedent, the use of neutral and experienced experts, and a block on routine transfer of information from compensation investigations to disciplinary authorities. Importantly, all three nations are harnessing their systems' power to

  14. Adoptive immunotherapy with genetically engineered T cells: modification of the IgG1 Fc 'spacer' domain in the extracellular moiety of chimeric antigen receptors avoids 'off-target' activation and unintended initiation of an innate immune response.

    PubMed

    Hombach, A; Hombach, A A; Abken, H

    2010-10-01

    Chimeric antigen receptors (CARs, immunoreceptors) are frequently used to redirect T cells with pre-defined specificity, in particular towards tumour cells for use in adoptive immunotherapy of malignant diseases. Specific targeting is mediated by an extracellularly located antibody-derived binding domain, which is joined to the transmembrane and intracellular CD3ζ moiety for T-cell activation. Stable CAR expression in T cells, however, requires a spacer domain interposed between the binding and the transmembrane domain and which is commonly the constant IgG1 Fc domain. We here revealed that CARs with Fc spacer domain bind to IgG Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs), thereby unintentionally activating innate immune cells, including monocytes and natural killer (NK) cells, which consequently secrete high amounts of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Engineered T cells, on the other hand, are likewise activated by FcγR binding resulting in cytokine secretion and lysis of monocytes and NK cells independently of the redirected specificity. To reduce FcγR binding, we modified the spacer domain without affecting CAR expression and antigen binding. Engineered with the modified CAR, T cells are not activated in presence of FcγR(+) cells, thereby minimizing the risk of off-target activation while preserving their redirected targeting specificity.

  15. Parallel neural pathways mediate CO2 avoidance responses in Drosophila.

    PubMed

    Lin, Hui-Hao; Chu, Li-An; Fu, Tsai-Feng; Dickson, Barry J; Chiang, Ann-Shyn

    2013-06-14

    Different stimulus intensities elicit distinct perceptions, implying that input signals are either conveyed through an overlapping but distinct subpopulation of sensory neurons or channeled into divergent brain circuits according to intensity. In Drosophila, carbon dioxide (CO2) is detected by a single type of olfactory sensory neuron, but information is conveyed to higher brain centers through second-order projection neurons (PNs). Two distinct pathways, PN(v)-1 and PN(v)-2, are necessary and sufficient for avoidance responses to low and high CO2 concentrations, respectively. Whereas low concentrations activate PN(v)-1, high concentrations activate both PN(v)s and GABAergic PN(v)-3, which may inhibit PN(v)-1 pathway-mediated avoidance behavior. Channeling a sensory input into distinct neural pathways allows the perception of an odor to be further modulated by both stimulus intensity and context.

  16. Key conclusions from AVOID Work Stream One

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warren, Rachel

    2010-05-01

    AVOID work stream (WS1)one has produced emission scenarios that simulate potential future global emission pathways for greenhouse gases during the 21st century. The study explored the influence of three key features of such pathways: (1) the year in which emissions peak globally, (2) the rate of emission reduction, and (3) the minimum level to which emissions are eventually reduced. It examined the resultant climate change, climate change impacts and economic implications using computer simulations. Avoided impacts, carbon taxes and GDP change increase throughout the 21st century in the models. AVOID-WS1 showed that in the absence of climate policy it is very likely that global mean temperatures would exceed 3 degrees and there are evens chances that the temperature would rise by 4 degrees relative to pre-industrial times. Scenarios that peak emissions in 2016 were more effective at constraining temperatures to below 3 degrees than those that peaked in 2030: one ‘2016' scenario achieved a probability of 45% of avoiding breaching of a 2 degree threshold. Scenarios peaking in 2030 were inconsistent with constraining temperatures to below 2 degrees. Correspondingly, scenarios that peak in 2030 are more effective at avoiding climate impacts than scenarios that peak in 2016, for all sectors that we studied. Hence the date at which emissions peak is more important than the rate of subsequent emissions reduction in determining the avoided impacts. Avoided impacts increase with time, being negligible in the 2030s, significant by the 2050s and large by the 2080s. Finally, the choice of GCM influences the magnitude of the avoided impacts strongly, so that the uncertainties in our estimates of avoided impacts for each scenario are larger than the difference between the scenarios. Our economic analysis is based on models which differ greatly in the assumptions that they make, but generally show that the date at which emissions peak is a stronger driver of induced GDP changes

  17. Consumer views about aging-in-place

    PubMed Central

    Grimmer, Karen; Kay, Debra; Foot, Jan; Pastakia, Khushnum

    2015-01-01

    Background Supporting older people’s choices to live safely and independently in the community (age-in-place) can maximize their quality of life and minimize unnecessary hospitalizations and residential care placement. Little is known of the views of older people about the aging-in-place process, and how they approach and prioritize the support they require to live in the community accommodation of their choice. Purpose To explore and synthesize the experiences and perspectives of older people planning for and experiencing aging-in-place. Methods Two purposively sampled groups of community-dwelling people aged 65+ years were recruited for individual interviews or focus groups. The interviews were semistructured, audio-recorded, and transcribed. Themes were identified by three researchers working independently, then in consort, using a qualitative thematic analysis approach. Results Forty-two participants provided a range of insights about, and strategies for, aging-in-place. Thematic saturation was reached before the final interviews. We identified personal characteristics (resilience, adaptability, and independence) and key elements of successful aging-in-place, summarized in the acronym HIPFACTS: health, information, practical assistance, finance, activity (physical and mental), company (family, friends, neighbors, pets), transport, and safety. Discussion This paper presents rich, and rarely heard, older people’s views about how they and their peers perceive, characterize, and address changes in their capacity to live independently and safely in the community. Participants identified relatively simple, low-cost, and effective supports to enable them to adapt to change, while retaining independence and resilience. The findings highlighted how successful aging-in-place requires integrated, responsive, and accessible primary health and community services. PMID:26604723

  18. Rape avoidance behavior among Slovak women.

    PubMed

    Prokop, Pavol

    2013-05-28

    Rape has been a recurrent adaptive problem for many species, including humans. Rape is costly to women in terms of disease transmission, partner abandonment, and unwanted pregnancy (among other costs). Therefore, behavioral strategies which allow women to avoid coercive men may have been favored by selection. In line with this evolutionary reasoning, the current research documented that physically stronger women and those in a committed romantic relationship reported more rape avoidance behavior. In addition, virgin women tended to perform more rape avoidance behavior compared with their non-virgin counterparts. Women with high conception risk perceived themselves as physically stronger, which may protect them against a potential rapist. Fear of unwanted pregnancy from rape decreased as age increased, reflecting higher fertility among younger participants. However, older women reported more rape avoidance behavior, which contradicts evolutionary predictions. The results provide some support for evolutionary hypotheses of rape avoidance behavior which suggest that woman's perception of rape is influenced by parental investment and perceived physical condition.

  19. Avoidance of Phycomyces in a controlled environment.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, P W; Matus, I J; Berg, H C

    1987-01-01

    The sporangiophore of the fungus Phycomyces bends away from nearby objects without ever touching them. It has been thought that these objects act as aerodynamic obstacles that damp random winds, thereby generating asymmetric distributions of a growth-promoting gas emitted by the growth zone. In the interest of testing this hypothesis, we studied avoidance in an environmental chamber in which convection was suppressed by a shallow thermal gradient. We also controlled pressure, temperature, and relative humidity of the air, electrostatic charge, and ambient light. A protocol was established that yielded avoidance rates constant from sporangiophore to sporangiophore to within +/- 10%. We found that avoidance occurred at normal rates in the complete absence of random winds. The rates were smaller at 100% than at lower values of relative humidity, but not by much. Remarkably, at a distance as great as 0.5 mm, avoidance from a 30-micron diam glass fiber (aligned parallel to the sporangiophore) was about the same as that from a planar glass sheet. However, the rate for the fiber fell more rapidly with distance. The rate for the sheet remained nearly constant out to approximately 4 mm. We conclude that avoidance depends either on adsorption by the barrier of a growth-inhibiting substance or emission by the barrier of a growth-promoting substance; it cannot occur by passive reflection. Models that can explain these effects are analyzed in the Appendix. PMID:3567313

  20. Thermal avoidance during flight in the locust Locusta migratoria

    PubMed

    Robertson; Kuhnert; Dawson

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, thermal avoidance in tethered flying locusts is described for the first time. Changes in body posture examined using high-speed cinematography revealed that the animals responded to a laterally positioned heat source with contralaterally directed abdomen and hindleg ruddering, behavioural patterns resembling manoeuvres observed in collision avoidance and in response to auditory signals. The analysis also showed that, during stimulation, left and right forewing depression became asymmetrical during the downstroke but remained symmetrical during the upstroke. Hindwing depression and elevation remained symmetrical during stimulus presentations. Electromyographic recordings from the left and right first basalar muscles (M97; forewing depressors) showed that contralateral depressor muscle activity was advanced by 10­12 ms relative to that on the stimulated side. There was also an increase in burst duration on the contralaterally stimulated side and an increase in wingbeat frequency of approximately 3 Hz. Ablation experiments showed that removal of the antennal flagella, which are the site of previously described thermoreceptors, did not abolish thermal avoidance manoeuvres. We conclude that thermal avoidance is triggered by an infrared sensitivity that is not mediated by the compound eyes, the ocelli or the antennal flagella. PMID:9319276

  1. A Place on the Shelf

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Devon

    2007-01-01

    If we read to discover new worlds, we also read to find ourselves. For gays and lesbians, this act of discovery can be problematic: literature has so often excluded them. In the last decades, as gays and lesbians have grown increasingly vocal in the effort to secure their rightful place in society, a broad range of fiction has emerged that…

  2. Creative Teaching with Historic Places.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberg, Ronald M., Ed.

    2000-01-01

    This journal contains articles and materials to help teachers instruct students about U.S. historical and cultural heritage. Articles and teaching materials are: "History in the Hands of Tomorrow's Citizens" (C. D. Shull; B. M. Boland); "On-Site Learning--The Power of Historic Places" (J. O. Horton); "Visualizing History--Inquiring Minds Want To…

  3. Sense of Place in Appalachia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnow, Pat, Ed.

    1989-01-01

    This journal issue contains interviews, essays, short stories, and poetry focusing on sense of place in Appalachia. In interviews, author Wilma Dykeman discussed past and recent novels set in Appalachia with interviewer Sandra L. Ballard; and novelist Lee Smith spoke with interviewer Pat Arnow about how Appalachia has shaped her writing. Essays…

  4. Place recognition using batlike sonar

    PubMed Central

    Vanderelst, Dieter; Steckel, Jan; Boen, Andre; Peremans, Herbert; Holderied, Marc W

    2016-01-01

    Echolocating bats have excellent spatial memory and are able to navigate to salient locations using bio-sonar. Navigating and route-following require animals to recognize places. Currently, it is mostly unknown how bats recognize places using echolocation. In this paper, we propose template based place recognition might underlie sonar-based navigation in bats. Under this hypothesis, bats recognize places by remembering their echo signature - rather than their 3D layout. Using a large body of ensonification data collected in three different habitats, we test the viability of this hypothesis assessing two critical properties of the proposed echo signatures: (1) they can be uniquely classified and (2) they vary continuously across space. Based on the results presented, we conclude that the proposed echo signatures satisfy both criteria. We discuss how these two properties of the echo signatures can support navigation and building a cognitive map. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.14188.001 PMID:27481189

  5. Enemy avoidance task: a novel behavioral paradigm for assessing spatial avoidance of a moving subject.

    PubMed

    Telensky, Petr; Svoboda, Jan; Pastalkova, Eva; Blahna, Karel; Bures, Jan; Stuchlik, Ales

    2009-05-30

    Navigation with respect to moving goals represents a useful ability in the everyday life of animals. We have developed a novel behavioral paradigm, "enemy avoidance task", in which a laboratory rat (subject) was trained to avoid another rat (enemy), while searching for small pasta pellets dispensed onto an experimental arena. Whenever the distance between the two animals was smaller than 25 cm, the subject was given a mild electric footshock. The results have shown that rats are capable of avoiding another rat while exploring an environment. Therefore, the enemy avoidance task can be used in electrophysiological, lesion or neuropharmacological studies exploring neuronal substrate coding for egocentric and allocentric positions of an observed animal.

  6. A collision avoidance system for workpiece protection

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, D.J.; Weber, T.M.; Novak, J.L.; Maslakowski, J.E.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes an application of Sandia`s non-contact capacitive sensing technology for collision avoidance during the manufacturing of rocket engine thrust chambers. The collision avoidance system consists of an octagon shaped collar with a capacitive proximity sensor mounted on each face. The sensors produced electric fields which extend several inches from the face of the collar and detect potential collisions between the robot and the workpiece. A signal conditioning system processes the sensor output and provides varying voltage signals to the robot controller for stopping the robot.

  7. Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology (ALHAT)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epp, Chirold

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the work towards technology that will result in an autonomous landing on the lunar surface, that will avoid the hazards of lunar landing. In October 2005, the Exploration Systems Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters assigned the development of new technologies to support the return to the moon. One of these was Autonomous Precision Landing and Hazard Detection and Avoidance Technology now known as ALHAT ALHAT is a lunar descent and landing GNC technology development project led by Johnson Space Center (JSC) with team members from Langley Research Center (LaRC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), Draper Laboratories (CSDL) and the Applied Physics Laboratory (APL)

  8. Telerobotics with whole arm collision avoidance

    SciTech Connect

    Wilhelmsen, K.; Strenn, S.

    1993-09-01

    The complexity of teleorbotic operations in a cluttered environment is exacerbated by the need to present collision information to the operator in an understandable fashion. In addition to preventing movements which will cause collisions, a system providing some form of virtual force reflection (VFR) is desirable. With this goal in mind, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) has installed a kinematically master/slave system and developed a whole arm collision avoidance system which interacts directly with the telerobotic controller. LLNL has also provided a structure to allow for automated upgrades of workcell models and provide collision avoidance even in a dynamically changing workcell.

  9. Integrated Collision Avoidance System for Air Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lin, Ching-Fang (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Collision with ground/water/terrain and midair obstacles is one of the common causes of severe aircraft accidents. The various data from the coremicro AHRS/INS/GPS Integration Unit, terrain data base, and object detection sensors are processed to produce collision warning audio/visual messages and collision detection and avoidance of terrain and obstacles through generation of guidance commands in a closed-loop system. The vision sensors provide more information for the Integrated System, such as, terrain recognition and ranging of terrain and obstacles, which plays an important role to the improvement of the Integrated Collision Avoidance System.

  10. Collision avoidance for CTV: Requirements and capabilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosek, Thomas; Rourke, Kenneth

    Collision avoidance must be ensured during Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV) operations near the space station. The design of the Collision Avoidance Maneuver (CAM) will involve analysis of CTV failure modes during rendezvous and proximity operations as well as analysis of possible problems external to the CTV, but that would require CTV to execute a CAM. In considering the requirements and design of the CAM for the CTV, the CAM design for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) is a useful reference point from which some lessons can be learned and many CTV design options can be set forth.

  11. Collision avoidance for CTV: Requirements and capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nosek, Thomas; Rourke, Kenneth

    1991-01-01

    Collision avoidance must be ensured during Cargo Transfer Vehicle (CTV) operations near the space station. The design of the Collision Avoidance Maneuver (CAM) will involve analysis of CTV failure modes during rendezvous and proximity operations as well as analysis of possible problems external to the CTV, but that would require CTV to execute a CAM. In considering the requirements and design of the CAM for the CTV, the CAM design for the Orbital Maneuvering Vehicle (OMV) is a useful reference point from which some lessons can be learned and many CTV design options can be set forth.

  12. Characteristics of single and double obstacle avoidance strategies: a comparison between adults and children.

    PubMed

    Berard, Jessica R; Vallis, Lori Ann

    2006-10-01

    Activities of daily living often require us to negotiate several obstacles in the travel path. To date, there is little work investigating how adults accomplish such tasks, and there is even less known about multiple obstacle avoidance strategies used by children. The current work will expand our knowledge about the role of vision in adults and children when avoiding two obstacles placed in their travel path under altered ambient lighting. Healthy 7-year old children (n=10; aged 7.51+/-0.2 years) and adults (n=10; aged 22.76+/-1.7 years) were instrumented with infrared markers (Optotrak, NDI) placed on anatomical landmarks and asked to walk along a ten meter path under three conditions: unobstructed, single obstacle, or double obstacle. These trials were performed under two lighting conditions: Full (simulating standard office lighting) and Low (simulating a dark hallway lit by nightlights). Data analyses included lead and trail clearance values, step length, step width and step velocity, take-off distance and Horizontal toe Displacement at Apex (HDA) which was defined as the distance between the horizontal position of the toe to the leading edge of the obstacle when the toe reaches its peak height. Adults were able to maintain consistent behaviour regardless of the number of obstacles in the travel path. Children, however, adjusted their foot placement for the second obstacle. This indicates that having multiple obstacles in the travel path is a more challenging task for 7-year old, and suggests that children at this age may not have fully developed anticipatory locomotor strategies. Children had larger clearance values than adults for the lead foot crossing the obstacle under all obstacle and lighting conditions, and consistently used larger HDA values than adults. Together, these findings suggest that children adopt more cautious strategies than adults in complex environments. Additionally, children decreased walking velocity, increased step width and decreased

  13. Reinforcing brain stimulation in competition with water reward and shock avoidance.

    PubMed

    VALENSTEIN, E S; BEER, B

    1962-09-28

    Employing response rate as the index of reinforcing strength in self-stimulation experiments is questioned. With water reward or shock avoidance placed in competition with brain stimulation, self-stimulation rate does not reflect relative reinforcement value. The results agree with preference tests which show that, for a given electrode site, stimulus intensity, not rate, is directly related to reward strength.

  14. Women Coping with a Partner's Sexual Avoidance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renshaw, Domeena C.

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the complexities of sexual avoidance, or Hypoactive Sexual Desire (HSD), a previously neglected aspect of a couple's relationship. Suggests that learning from a therapist to accept and enjoy other forms of sexual exchange can open up new horizons of physical and emotional intimacy. (Contains 17 references.) (GCP)

  15. Doppler micro sense and avoid radar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorwara, Ashok; Molchanov, Pavlo; Asmolova, Olga

    2015-10-01

    There is a need for small Sense and Avoid (SAA) systems for small and micro Unmanned Aerial Systems (UAS) to avoid collisions with obstacles and other aircraft. The proposed SAA systems will give drones the ability to "see" close up and give them the agility to maneuver through tight areas. Doppler radar is proposed for use in this sense and avoid system because in contrast to optical or infrared (IR) systems Doppler can work in more harsh conditions such as at dusk, and in rain and snow. And in contrast to ultrasound based systems, Doppler can better sense small sized obstacles such as wires and it can provide a sensing range from a few inches to several miles. An SAA systems comprised of Doppler radar modules and an array of directional antennas that are distributed around the perimeter of the drone can cover the entire sky. These modules are designed so that they can provide the direction to the obstacle and simultaneously generate an alarm signal if the obstacle enters within the SAA system's adjustable "Protection Border". The alarm signal alerts the drone's autopilot to automatically initiate an avoidance maneuver. A series of Doppler radar modules with different ranges, angles of view and transmitting power have been designed for drones of different sizes and applications. The proposed Doppler radar micro SAA system has simple circuitry, works from a 5 volt source and has low power consumption. It is light weight, inexpensive and it can be used for a variety of small unmanned aircraft.

  16. An Examination of Avoided Costs in Utah

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-01-07

    The Utah Wind Working Group (UWWG) believes there are currently opportunities to encourage wind power development in the state by seeking changes to the avoided cost tariff paid to qualifying facilities (QFs). These opportunities have arisen as a result of a recent renegotiation of Pacificorp's Schedule 37 tariff for wind QFs under 3 MW, as well as an ongoing examination of Pacificorp's Schedule 38 tariff for wind QFs larger than 3 MW. It is expected that decisions made regarding Schedule 38 will also impact Schedule 37. Through the Laboratory Technical Assistance Program (Lab TAP), the UWWG has requested (through the Utah Energy Office) that LBNL provide technical assistance in determining whether an alternative method of calculating avoided costs that has been officially adopted in Idaho would lead to higher QF payments in Utah, and to discuss the pros and cons of this method relative to the methodology recently adopted under Schedule 37 in Utah. To accomplish this scope of work, I begin by summarizing the current method of calculating avoided costs in Utah (per Schedule 37) and Idaho (the ''surrogate avoided resource'' or SAR method). I then compare the two methods both qualitatively and quantitatively. Next I present Pacificorp's four main objections to the use of the SAR method, and discuss the reasonableness of each objection. Finally, I conclude with a few other potential considerations that might add value to wind QFs in Utah.

  17. Social Work Education and Avoidable Ignorance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gambrill, Eileen

    2014-01-01

    The quality of professional education affects the quality of services offered to clients. Examples of avoidable ignorance that dilute the quality of education social workers receive are suggested, indicating that we have not been honest and energetic brokers of knowledge and ignorance. Related reasons are suggested, including a reluctance to take…

  18. Learn to Avoid or Overcome Leadership Obstacles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    D'Auria, John

    2015-01-01

    Leadership is increasingly recognized as an important factor in moving schools forward, yet we have been relatively random in how we prepare and support them. Four obstacles often block or diminish their effectiveness. Avoiding or overcoming each of these requires an underlying set of skills and knowledge that we believe can be learned and…

  19. Perspectives in avoidance-preference bioassays

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, C.W.; Taylor, D.H.; Strickler-Shaw, S.

    1996-12-31

    Although behavioral endpoints are used in hazard assessment, establishment of water quality criteria and assessment of a contaminant`s hazard to aquatic life rely primarily on standard acute and chronic toxicity tests. Sublethal effects of pollutants should, however, be of major concern because more organisms experience sublethal rather than acutely or chronically lethal exposures of contaminants. The avoidance-preference approach to behavioral bioassays is very useful in screening pollutants for which the mechanisms of perception or response are largely unknown. The underlying philosophy of these studies is that an animal which perceives a chemical can be attracted or repulsed by it. No response is frequently assumed to indicate lack of perception. All three responses have broad ecological implications. The authors discuss the conditions required for performing avoidance-preference bioassays, as well as their sensitivities, advantages, and limitations. In this regard, a comparative approach is used in examining the results of avoidance-preference bioassays with zebrafish in two different apparatuses. Finally, they compare the results of avoidance-preference studies with other measures of the behavioral toxicity of lead to tadpoles.

  20. Digital-Difference Processing For Collision Avoidance.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shores, Paul; Lichtenberg, Chris; Kobayashi, Herbert S.; Cunningham, Allen R.

    1988-01-01

    Digital system for automotive crash avoidance measures and displays difference in frequency between two sinusoidal input signals of slightly different frequencies. Designed for use with Doppler radars. Characterized as digital mixer coupled to frequency counter measuring difference frequency in mixer output. Technique determines target path mathematically. Used for tracking cars, missiles, bullets, baseballs, and other fast-moving objects.

  1. The employment interview. Avoiding discriminatory questioning.

    PubMed

    Poteet, G W

    1984-04-01

    The potential for legal action against health care institutions for unlawful preemployment interviews has never been greater. This article shows how to avoid discriminatory questions when interviewing job applicants in the health care setting. The author presents guidelines for helping nursing administrators obtain necessary information without violating the basic rights of the potential employee.

  2. Disgust as a Disease-Avoidance Mechanism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oaten, Megan; Stevenson, Richard J.; Case, Trevor I.

    2009-01-01

    Many researchers have claimed that the emotion of disgust functions to protect us from disease. Although there have been several discussions of this hypothesis, none have yet reviewed the evidence in its entirety. The authors derive 14 hypotheses from a disease-avoidance account and evaluate the evidence for each, drawing upon research on pathogen…

  3. Pathogen evolution under host avoidance plasticity.

    PubMed

    McLeod, David V; Day, Troy

    2015-09-01

    Host resistance consists of defences that limit pathogen burden, and can be classified as either adaptations targeting recovery from infection or those focused upon infection avoidance. Conventional theory treats avoidance as a fixed strategy which does not vary from one interaction to the next. However, there is increasing empirical evidence that many avoidance strategies are triggered by external stimuli, and thus should be treated as phenotypically plastic responses. Here, we consider the implications of avoidance plasticity for host-pathogen coevolution. We uncover a number of predictions challenging current theory. First, in the absence of pathogen trade-offs, plasticity can restrain pathogen evolution; moreover, the pathogen exploits conditions in which the host would otherwise invest less in resistance, causing resistance escalation. Second, when transmission trades off with pathogen-induced mortality, plasticity encourages avirulence, resulting in a superior fitness outcome for both host and pathogen. Third, plasticity ensures the sterilizing effect of pathogens has consequences for pathogen evolution. When pathogens castrate hosts, selection forces them to minimize mortality virulence; moreover, when transmission trades off with sterility alone, resistance plasticity is sufficient to prevent pathogens from evolving to fully castrate. PMID:26336170

  4. Freeze tolerance and avoidance in plants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cold acclimation is a multigenic, quantitative trait that involves biochemical and structural changes that effect the physiology of a plant. Mechanisms associated with freeze tolerance or freeze avoidance develop and are lost on an annual cycle. When conducting studies to characterize and determin...

  5. Pathogen evolution under host avoidance plasticity.

    PubMed

    McLeod, David V; Day, Troy

    2015-09-01

    Host resistance consists of defences that limit pathogen burden, and can be classified as either adaptations targeting recovery from infection or those focused upon infection avoidance. Conventional theory treats avoidance as a fixed strategy which does not vary from one interaction to the next. However, there is increasing empirical evidence that many avoidance strategies are triggered by external stimuli, and thus should be treated as phenotypically plastic responses. Here, we consider the implications of avoidance plasticity for host-pathogen coevolution. We uncover a number of predictions challenging current theory. First, in the absence of pathogen trade-offs, plasticity can restrain pathogen evolution; moreover, the pathogen exploits conditions in which the host would otherwise invest less in resistance, causing resistance escalation. Second, when transmission trades off with pathogen-induced mortality, plasticity encourages avirulence, resulting in a superior fitness outcome for both host and pathogen. Third, plasticity ensures the sterilizing effect of pathogens has consequences for pathogen evolution. When pathogens castrate hosts, selection forces them to minimize mortality virulence; moreover, when transmission trades off with sterility alone, resistance plasticity is sufficient to prevent pathogens from evolving to fully castrate.

  6. Teaching Preschool Children to Avoid Poison Hazards

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dancho, Kelly A.; Thompson, Rachel H.; Rhoades, Melissa M.

    2008-01-01

    We evaluated the effectiveness of group safety training and in situ feedback and response interruption to teach preschool children to avoid consuming potentially hazardous substances. Three children ingested ambiguous substances during a baited baseline assessment condition and continued to ingest these substances following group safety training.…

  7. Pathological Demand Avoidance: Exploring the Behavioural Profile

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Nions, Elizabeth; Viding, Essi; Greven, Corina U; Ronald, Angelica; Happé, Francesca

    2014-01-01

    "Pathological Demand Avoidance" is a term increasingly used by practitioners in the United Kingdom. It was coined to describe a profile of obsessive resistance to everyday demands and requests, with a tendency to resort to "socially manipulative" behaviour, including outrageous or embarrassing acts. Pathological demand…

  8. Pathogen evolution under host avoidance plasticity

    PubMed Central

    McLeod, David V.; Day, Troy

    2015-01-01

    Host resistance consists of defences that limit pathogen burden, and can be classified as either adaptations targeting recovery from infection or those focused upon infection avoidance. Conventional theory treats avoidance as a fixed strategy which does not vary from one interaction to the next. However, there is increasing empirical evidence that many avoidance strategies are triggered by external stimuli, and thus should be treated as phenotypically plastic responses. Here, we consider the implications of avoidance plasticity for host–pathogen coevolution. We uncover a number of predictions challenging current theory. First, in the absence of pathogen trade-offs, plasticity can restrain pathogen evolution; moreover, the pathogen exploits conditions in which the host would otherwise invest less in resistance, causing resistance escalation. Second, when transmission trades off with pathogen-induced mortality, plasticity encourages avirulence, resulting in a superior fitness outcome for both host and pathogen. Third, plasticity ensures the sterilizing effect of pathogens has consequences for pathogen evolution. When pathogens castrate hosts, selection forces them to minimize mortality virulence; moreover, when transmission trades off with sterility alone, resistance plasticity is sufficient to prevent pathogens from evolving to fully castrate. PMID:26336170

  9. The Role of Risk Avoidance in Anxiety

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maner, Jon K.; Schmidt, Norman B.

    2006-01-01

    Various forms of disinhibitory psychopathology (e.g., substance use disorder) are characterized by a tendency to make overly risky decisions. The current paper reports on data suggesting that, in contrast, anxiety is associated with an exaggerated tendency to engage in risk-avoidant decision making. In a nonclinical sample of university students,…

  10. Place prioritization for biodiversity content.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Sahotra; Aggarwal, Anshu; Garson, Justin; Margules, Chris R; Zeidler, Juliane

    2002-07-01

    The prioritization of places on the basis of biodiversity content is part of any systematic biodiversity conservation planning process. The place prioritization procedure implemented in the ResNet software package is described. This procedure is primarily based on the principles of rarity and complementarity. Application of the procedure is demonstrated with two analyses, one data set consisting of the distributions of termite genera in Namibia, and the other consisting of the distributions of bird species in the Islas Malvinas/Falkland Islands. The attributes that data sets should have for the effective and reliable application of such procedures are discussed. The procedure used here is compared to some others that are also currently in use. PMID:12177533

  11. The place of culture in forensic psychiatry.

    PubMed

    Kirmayer, Laurence J; Rousseau, Cécile; Lashley, Myrna

    2007-01-01

    Members of a multicultural society must all be subject to the same equitable system of justice. However, culture exerts profound influences on human behavior, and cultural considerations have a place in determinations of capacity and in appropriate sentencing. Cultural psychiatry can contribute to forensic psychiatry by helping to contextualize individuals' actions and experiences. This contextualizing can be done through cultural consultations that employ interpreters and culture brokers to identify the role of culture in individuals' psychopathology. Clarifying how cultural background has affected individuals' capacity to form a criminal intent or control their behavior may allow a better determination of level of culpability and guide appropriate sentencing. However, framing behavior as culturally influenced may also stereotype and stigmatize specific groups. To avoid this, culture must be understood in terms of power relationships between minority groups and the dominant society. Cultural factors are not only relevant to the experience of specific groups but pervade the entire judicial system shaping the process of moral and legal reasoning.

  12. Bursting Neurons and Ultrasound Avoidance in Crickets

    PubMed Central

    Marsat, Gary; Pollack, Gerald S.

    2012-01-01

    Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2’s spike train consists of clusters of spikes – bursts – that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing – the auditory receptor – already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2’s sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles. PMID:22783158

  13. Bursting neurons and ultrasound avoidance in crickets.

    PubMed

    Marsat, Gary; Pollack, Gerald S

    2012-01-01

    Decision making in invertebrates often relies on simple neural circuits composed of only a few identified neurons. The relative simplicity of these circuits makes it possible to identify the key computation and neural properties underlying decisions. In this review, we summarize recent research on the neural basis of ultrasound avoidance in crickets, a response that allows escape from echolocating bats. The key neural property shaping behavioral output is high-frequency bursting of an identified interneuron, AN2, which carries information about ultrasound stimuli from receptor neurons to the brain. AN2's spike train consists of clusters of spikes - bursts - that may be interspersed with isolated, non-burst spikes. AN2 firing is necessary and sufficient to trigger avoidance steering but only high-rate firing, such as occurs in bursts, evokes this response. AN2 bursts are therefore at the core of the computation involved in deciding whether or not to steer away from ultrasound. Bursts in AN2 are triggered by synaptic input from nearly synchronous bursts in ultrasound receptors. Thus the population response at the very first stage of sensory processing - the auditory receptor - already differentiates the features of the stimulus that will trigger a behavioral response from those that will not. Adaptation, both intrinsic to AN2 and within ultrasound receptors, scales the burst-generating features according to the stimulus statistics, thus filtering out background noise and ensuring that bursts occur selectively in response to salient peaks in ultrasound intensity. Furthermore AN2's sensitivity to ultrasound varies adaptively with predation pressure, through both developmental and evolutionary mechanisms. We discuss how this key relationship between bursting and the triggering of avoidance behavior is also observed in other invertebrate systems such as the avoidance of looming visual stimuli in locusts or heat avoidance in beetles.

  14. Personal Safety in Dangerous Places

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Terry; Dunlap, Eloise; Johnson, Bruce D.; Hamid, Ansley

    2009-01-01

    Personal safety during fieldwork is seldom addressed directly in the literature. Drawing from many prior years of ethnographic research and from field experience while studying crack distributors in New York City, the authors provide a variety of strategies by which ethnographic research can be safely conducted in dangerous settings. By projecting an appropriate demeanor, ethnographers can seek others for protector and locator roles, routinely create a safety zone in the field, and establish compatible field roles with potential subjects. The article also provides strategies for avoiding or handling sexual approaches, common law crimes, fights, drive-by shootings, and contacts with the police. When integrated with other standard qualitative methods, ethnographic strategies help to ensure that no physical harm comes to the field-worker and other staff members. Moreover, the presence of researchers may actually reduce (and not increase) potential and actual violence among crack distributors/abusers or others present in the field setting. PMID:19809525

  15. I/O Congestion Avoidance via Routing and Object Placement

    SciTech Connect

    Dillow, David A; Shipman, Galen M; Oral, H Sarp; Zhang, Zhe

    2011-01-01

    As storage systems get larger to meet the the demands of petascale systems, careful planning must be applied to avoid congestion points and extract the maximum performance. In addition, the large size of the data sets generated by such systems makes it desirable for all compute resources in a center to have common access to this data without needing to copy it to each machine. This paper describes a method of placing I/O close to the storage nodes to minimize contention on Cray's SeaStar2+ network, and extends it to a routed Lustre configuration to gain the same benefits when running against a center-wide file system. Our experiments show performance improvements for both direct attached and routed file systems.

  16. Adaptive Stress Testing of Airborne Collision Avoidance Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, Ritchie; Kochenderfer, Mykel J.; Mengshoel, Ole J.; Brat, Guillaume P.; Owen, Michael P.

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a scalable method to efficiently search for the most likely state trajectory leading to an event given only a simulator of a system. Our approach uses a reinforcement learning formulation and solves it using Monte Carlo Tree Search (MCTS). The approach places very few requirements on the underlying system, requiring only that the simulator provide some basic controls, the ability to evaluate certain conditions, and a mechanism to control the stochasticity in the system. Access to the system state is not required, allowing the method to support systems with hidden state. The method is applied to stress test a prototype aircraft collision avoidance system to identify trajectories that are likely to lead to near mid-air collisions. We present results for both single and multi-threat encounters and discuss their relevance. Compared with direct Monte Carlo search, this MCTS method performs significantly better both in finding events and in maximizing their likelihood.

  17. Multisensory interaction mediates the social transmission of avoidance in rats: dissociation from social transmission of fear.

    PubMed

    Masuda, Akira; Narikiyo, Kimiya; Someya, Nami; Aou, Shuji

    2013-09-01

    Social interaction enables animals to transmit various types of sensory information that can modulate learned avoidance behavior and fear responses, which are important to survival. We previously reported that, under a passive avoidance paradigm, avoidance behavior is facilitated when a rat observes another rat (demonstrator) receiving a shock when performing a specific behavior. However, the sensory mechanisms underlying this 'social facilitation of avoidance' are not well understood. The present study examined the role of sensory pathways for social transmission of avoidance, focusing on the olfactory and visual systems. The olfactory ability of observer rats was blocked by an intranasal application of ZnSO4, and their visual ability was blocked by an opaque partition placed between observer and demonstrator rats. We found that blocking either olfactory or visual input drastically diminished the social transmission of avoidance. Interestingly the social transmission of fear responses remained intact even when olfactory or visual information was blocked. These results indicate that the social transmission of avoidance is mediated not by any single sensory modality but by multisensory interaction in rats, suggesting a distinct sensory mechanism from that underlying the social transmission of fear.

  18. Facilitation and recovery of shuttle box avoidance behavior after frontal cortex lesions is induced by a contingent electrical stimulation in the ventral tegmental nucleus.

    PubMed

    Castro-Alamancos, M A; Borrell, J

    1992-09-28

    A bilateral ablation of the frontal cortex was performed in rats before and after training in an active avoidance task in a shuttle box. Animals with this lesion showed an impairment in learning and in the reversal of the avoidance task. If the animals with the lesion were implanted with an electrode in the ventral tegmental nucleus and received an electrical stimulation in this area contingent to a correct response (avoidance or escape response) in the behavioral task, they did not show any impairment in the performance of the task. Furthermore, the effect of the stimulation persisted after it was retrieved. The present findings indicate that the motivational and cue properties of the electrical stimulation of the ventral tegmental nucleus may serve to facilitate learning and reversal in an avoidance task and to induce at the long term a recovery process in animals in which the frontal cortex has been ablated. Therefore, this method may be useful to study the adaptative changes which take place in the nervous system after recovery from brain damage occurs. PMID:1333223

  19. Hospital admission avoidance through the introduction of a virtual ward.

    PubMed

    Jones, Joanne; Carroll, Andrea

    2014-07-01

    The ageing British population is placing increased demands on the delivery of care in mainstream health-care institutions. While people are living longer, a significant percentage is also living with one or more long-term conditions. These issues, alongside continuing financial austerity measures, require a radical improvement in the care of patients away from hospitals. The Wyre Forest Clinical Commissioning Group introduced a virtual ward model for two main purposes: to save on spiralling costs of hospital admissions, and, secondly, to ensure the preferred wishes of most patients to be cared for and even die at home were achieved. This commentary describes how the virtual ward model was implemented and the impact of preventing unplanned emergency admissions to hospitals. The setting up of enhanced care services and virtual wards in one county is discussed, aiming to highlight success points and potential pitfalls to avoid. The results from the implementation of the virtual ward model show a significant reduction in emergency and avoidable patient admissions to hospital. The success of virtual wards is dependent on integrated working between different health-care disciplines.

  20. An anthropologist in unexpected places

    PubMed Central

    Knutsen, Johan Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Much contemporary anthropology has turned away from exclusive focus on so-called “primitive” tribes in far-away places. The study of urban people has become more prominent, and some researchers have also turned their gaze towards marginalized minorities in their communities. Philippe Bourgois is an example of this. He is well known for studying crack dealers in East Harlem, New York ( In Search of Respect) and homeless heroin addicts in San Francisco (Righteous Dopefiend). Kula Kula was lucky enough to catch him in his office, and had a chat via skype. PMID:25436019

  1. Place of nutrition in yoga.

    PubMed

    Desai, B P

    1990-01-01

    Nutrition plays a very vital role in our life. Yoga and Ayurveda had laid down the foundations of dietetics. The valuable guidelines regarding various food articles and diet for Yoga Sadhaka, to achieve maximum benefits, are given in traditional yoga texts like Hatha Pradipika and Gheranda Samhitha. Now is the time to evaluate the place of nutrition in Yoga and to study how the dietetic principles in yoga will help to eradicate the national problem of Mal-nutrition and poverty which is the pressing need of the moment. PMID:22557690

  2. Multiway In-Place Merging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geffert, Viliam; Gajdoš, Jozef

    We present an algorithm for asymptotically efficient k-way merging. Given an array A containing sorted subsequences A 1,...,A k of respective lengths n 1,...,n k , where sum_{i=1}kn_i = n, our algorithm merges A 1,...,A k in-place, into a single sorted sequence, performing lceil{lg k}rceil \\cdot n + o(n) element comparisons and 3·n + o(n) element moves. That is, our algorithm runs in linear time, with the number of moves independent of k, the number of input sequences.

  3. PLACE OF NUTRITION IN YOGA

    PubMed Central

    Desai, B.P.

    1990-01-01

    Nutrition plays a very vital role in our life. Yoga and Ayurveda had laid down the foundations of dietetics. The valuable guidelines regarding various food articles and diet for Yoga Sadhaka, to achieve maximum benefits, are given in traditional yoga texts like Hatha Pradipika and Gheranda Samhitha. Now is the time to evaluate the place of nutrition in Yoga and to study how the dietetic principles in yoga will help to eradicate the national problem of Mal-nutrition and poverty which is the pressing need of the moment. PMID:22557690

  4. A Place Pedagogy for "Global Contemporaneity"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Somerville, Margaret J.

    2010-01-01

    Around the globe people are confronted daily with intransigent problems of space and place. Educators have historically called for place-based or place-conscious education to introduce pedagogies that will address such questions as how to develop sustainable communities and places. These calls for place-conscious education have included liberal…

  5. The Feasibility of Avoiding Future Climate Impacts: Results from the AVOID Programmes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowe, J. A.; Warren, R.; Arnell, N.; Buckle, S.

    2014-12-01

    The AVOID programme and its successor, AVOID2, have focused on answering three core questions: how do we characterise potentially dangerous climate change and impacts, which emissions pathways can avoid at least some of these impacts, and how feasible are the future reductions needed to significantly deviate from a business-as-usual future emissions pathway. The first AVOID project succeeded in providing the UK Government with evidence to inform its position on climate change. A key part of the work involved developing a range of global emissions pathways and estimating and understanding the corresponding global impacts. This made use of a combination of complex general circulation models, simple climate models, pattern-scaling and state-of-the art impacts models. The results characterise the range of avoidable impacts across the globe in several key sectors including river and coastal flooding, cooling and heating energy demand, crop productivity and aspects of biodiversity. The avoided impacts between a scenario compatible with a 4ºC global warming and one with a 2ºC global warming were found to be highly sector dependent and avoided fractions typically ranged between 20% and 70%. A further key aspect was characterising the magnitude of the uncertainty involved, which is found to be very large in some impact sectors although the avoided fraction appears a more robust metric. The AVOID2 programme began in 2014 and will provide results in the run up to the Paris CoP in 2015. This includes new post-IPCC 5th assessment evidence to inform the long-term climate goal, a more comprehensive assessment of the uncertainty ranges of feasible emission pathways compatible with the long-term goal and enhanced estimates of global impacts using the latest generation of impact models and scenarios.

  6. Spacecraft hazard avoidance utilizing structured light

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liebe, Carl Christian; Padgett, Curtis; Chapsky, Jacob; Wilson, Daniel; Brown, Kenneth; Jerebets, Sergei; Goldberg, Hannah; Schroeder, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    At JPL, a <5 kg free-flying micro-inspector spacecraft is being designed for host-vehicle inspection. The spacecraft includes a hazard avoidance sensor to navigate relative to the vehicle being inspected. Structured light was selected for hazard avoidance because of its low mass and cost. Structured light is a method of remote sensing 3-dimensional structure of the proximity utilizing a laser, a grating, and a single regular APS camera. The laser beam is split into 400 different beams by a grating to form a regular spaced grid of laser beams that are projected into the field of view of an APS camera. The laser source and the APS camera are separated forming the base of a triangle. The distance to all beam intersections of the host are calculated based on triangulation.

  7. UV Impacts Avoided by the Montreal Protocol

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, Paul; McKenzie, Richard

    2010-01-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "World Expected" UV environment are compared with the "World Avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on protection of the ozone layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes which could also be important.

  8. UV impacts avoided by the Montreal Protocol.

    PubMed

    Newman, Paul A; McKenzie, Richard

    2011-07-01

    Temporal and geographical variabilities in the future "world expected" UV environment are compared with the "world avoided", which would have occurred without the Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer and its subsequent amendments and adjustments. Based on calculations of clear-sky UV irradiances, the effects of the Montreal Protocol have been hugely beneficial to avoid the health risks, such as skin cancer, which are associated with high UV, while there is only a small increase in health risks, such as vitamin D deficiency, that are associated with low UV. However, interactions with climate change may lead to changes in cloud and albedo, and possibly behavioural changes that could also be important.

  9. ALHAT: Autonomous Landing and Hazard Avoidance Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Edward A.; Carson, John M., III

    2015-01-01

    The ALHAT project was chartered by NASA HQ in 2006 to develop and mature to TRL 6 an autonomous lunar landing GN&C and sensing system for crewed, cargo, and robotic planetary landing vehicles. The multi-center ALHAT team was tasked with providing a system capable of identifying and avoiding surface hazards in real time to enable safe precision landing to within tens of meters of a designated planetary landing site under any lighting conditions.

  10. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  11. Knowing and Avoiding Plagiarism During Scientific Writing

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, SVVS; Nagasree, M

    2014-01-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing. PMID:25364588

  12. How does a cyclist avoid obstacles?

    PubMed

    Miyadait, Masayuki; Uetake, Teruo; Shimoda, Masahiro

    2012-12-01

    The purpose of this research is to examine the ways bicycles swerve off sidewalks onto roads under various conditions. Seven students, five males and two females participated in an experiment on a road with a 100-cm wide sidewalk. Footage of each participant on a bicycle evading obstacles such as a utility pole and pedestrian were taken with a video camera, while a front-wheel view of the path taken by the bicycle was recorded simultaneously with a digital camera. Twelve experimental conditions were used for each participant, consisting of all the combinations of (1) three obstacle types, (2) the side (left or right) to which the bicycle went to avoid the obstacle, and (3) two weather conditions. Based on the two recorded scenes, the path was then analyzed from the viewpoint of how the bicycle swerved to avoid hitting the obstacle. We found that the conditions of riding a bicycle with an umbrella caused a larger swerve to avoid the obstacle than those conditions when the rider did not have an umbrella. In particular, the condition in which the obstacle was a pedestrian who also had an umbrella caused the largest swerve. Furthermore, the distance required to become aligned with the sidewalk when the obstacle was a pedestrian walking toward the cyclist was longer than that for other obstacles. The swerve width data showed interesting results, including a tendency for swerve width to be wider when the obstacle was a utility pole compared with other obstacles. PMID:25665202

  13. Acute carbon dioxide avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hallem, Elissa A; Sternberg, Paul W

    2008-06-10

    Carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product of cellular respiration by all aerobic organisms and thus serves for many animals as an important indicator of food, mates, and predators. However, whether free-living terrestrial nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans respond to CO2 was unclear. We have demonstrated that adult C. elegans display an acute avoidance response upon exposure to CO2 that is characterized by the cessation of forward movement and the rapid initiation of backward movement. This response is mediated by a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated heteromeric channel TAX-2/TAX-4. CO2 avoidance is modulated by multiple signaling molecules, including the neuropeptide Y receptor NPR-1 and the calcineurin subunits TAX-6 and CNB-1. Nutritional status also modulates CO2 responsiveness via the insulin and TGFbeta signaling pathways. CO2 response is mediated by a neural circuit that includes the BAG neurons, a pair of sensory neurons of previously unknown function. TAX-2/TAX-4 function in the BAG neurons to mediate acute CO2 avoidance. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans senses and responds to CO2 using multiple signaling pathways and a neural network that includes the BAG neurons and that this response is modulated by the physiological state of the worm.

  14. Traffic jam driving with NMV avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milanés, Vicente; Alonso, Luciano; Villagrá, Jorge; Godoy, Jorge; de Pedro, Teresa; Oria, Juan P.

    2012-08-01

    In recent years, the development of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) - mainly based on lidar and cameras - has considerably improved the safety of driving in urban environments. These systems provide warning signals for the driver in the case that any unexpected traffic circumstance is detected. The next step is to develop systems capable not only of warning the driver but also of taking over control of the car to avoid a potential collision. In the present communication, a system capable of autonomously avoiding collisions in traffic jam situations is presented. First, a perception system was developed for urban situations—in which not only vehicles have to be considered, but also pedestrians and other non-motor-vehicles (NMV). It comprises a differential global positioning system (DGPS) and wireless communication for vehicle detection, and an ultrasound sensor for NMV detection. Then, the vehicle's actuators - brake and throttle pedals - were modified to permit autonomous control. Finally, a fuzzy logic controller was implemented capable of analyzing the information provided by the perception system and of sending control commands to the vehicle's actuators so as to avoid accidents. The feasibility of the integrated system was tested by mounting it in a commercial vehicle, with the results being encouraging.

  15. Knowing and avoiding plagiarism during scientific writing.

    PubMed

    Kumar, P Mohan; Priya, N Swapna; Musalaiah, Svvs; Nagasree, M

    2014-09-01

    Plagiarism has become more common in both dental and medical communities. Most of the writers do not know that plagiarism is a serious problem. Plagiarism can range from simple dishonesty (minor copy paste/any discrepancy) to a more serious problem (major discrepancy/duplication of manuscript) when the authors do cut-copy-paste from the original source without giving adequate credit to the main source. When we search databases like PubMed/MedLine there is a lot of information regarding plagiarism. However, it is still a current topic of interest to all the researchers to know how to avoid plagiarism. It's time to every young researcher to know ethical guidelines while writing any scientific publications. By using one's own ideas, we can write the paper completely without looking at the original source. Specific words from the source can be added by using quotations and citing them which can help in not only supporting your work and amplifying ideas but also avoids plagiarism. It is compulsory to all the authors, reviewers and editors of all the scientific journals to know about the plagiarism and how to avoid it by following ethical guidelines and use of plagiarism detection software while scientific writing.

  16. Acute carbon dioxide avoidance in Caenorhabditis elegans.

    PubMed

    Hallem, Elissa A; Sternberg, Paul W

    2008-06-10

    Carbon dioxide is produced as a by-product of cellular respiration by all aerobic organisms and thus serves for many animals as an important indicator of food, mates, and predators. However, whether free-living terrestrial nematodes such as Caenorhabditis elegans respond to CO2 was unclear. We have demonstrated that adult C. elegans display an acute avoidance response upon exposure to CO2 that is characterized by the cessation of forward movement and the rapid initiation of backward movement. This response is mediated by a cGMP signaling pathway that includes the cGMP-gated heteromeric channel TAX-2/TAX-4. CO2 avoidance is modulated by multiple signaling molecules, including the neuropeptide Y receptor NPR-1 and the calcineurin subunits TAX-6 and CNB-1. Nutritional status also modulates CO2 responsiveness via the insulin and TGFbeta signaling pathways. CO2 response is mediated by a neural circuit that includes the BAG neurons, a pair of sensory neurons of previously unknown function. TAX-2/TAX-4 function in the BAG neurons to mediate acute CO2 avoidance. Our results demonstrate that C. elegans senses and responds to CO2 using multiple signaling pathways and a neural network that includes the BAG neurons and that this response is modulated by the physiological state of the worm. PMID:18524955

  17. Urban water restrictions: Attitudes and avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, Bethany; Burton, Michael; Crase, Lin

    2011-12-01

    In most urban cities across Australia, water restrictions remain the dominant policy mechanism to restrict urban water consumption. The extensive adoption of water restrictions as a means to limit demand, over several years, means that Australian urban water prices have consistently not reflected the opportunity cost of water. Given the generally strong political support for water restrictions and the likelihood that they will persist for some time, there is value in understanding households' attitudes in this context. More specifically, identifying the welfare gains associated with avoiding urban water restrictions entirely would be a nontrivial contribution to our knowledge and offer insights into the benefits of alternative policy responses. This paper describes the results from a contingent valuation study that investigates consumers' willingness to pay to avoid urban water restrictions. Importantly, the research also investigates the influence of cognitive and exogenous dimensions on the utility gain associated with avoiding water restrictions. The results provide insights into the impact of the current policy mechanism on economic welfare.

  18. Incorporating Choice and Preferred Activities into Classwide Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kern, Lee; State, Talida M.

    2009-01-01

    It is often said that the best intervention strategies prevent problem behaviors from starting in the first place. Two preventative strategies that teachers can use are choice making and incorporating preferred activities into classwide instruction. Not only do these strategies avoid problem behaviors, but teachers also find them easy to use in…

  19. Multiple value signals in dopaminergic midbrain and their role in avoidance contexts.

    PubMed

    Rigoli, Francesco; Chew, Benjamin; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2016-07-15

    The role of dopaminergic brain regions in avoidance behaviour is unclear. Active avoidance requires motivation, and the latter is linked to increased activity in dopaminergic regions. However, avoidance is also often tethered to the prospect of punishment, a state typically characterized by below baseline levels of dopaminergic function. Avoidance has been considered from the perspective of two-factor theories where the prospect of safety is considered to act as a surrogate for reward, leading to dopamine release and enhanced motivational drive. Using fMRI we investigated predictions from two-factor theory by separating the neural representation of a conventional net expected value, which is negative in the case of avoidance, from an adjusted expected value which factors in a possibility of punishment and is larger for both big rewards and big (predictably avoidable) punishments. We show that neural responses in ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area/substantial nigra (VTA/SN) covaried with net expected value. Activity in VTA/SN also covaried with an adjusted expected value, as did activity in anterior insula. Consistent with two-factor theory models, the findings indicate that VTA/SN and insula process an adjusted expected value during avoidance behaviour.

  20. Multiple value signals in dopaminergic midbrain and their role in avoidance contexts.

    PubMed

    Rigoli, Francesco; Chew, Benjamin; Dayan, Peter; Dolan, Raymond J

    2016-07-15

    The role of dopaminergic brain regions in avoidance behaviour is unclear. Active avoidance requires motivation, and the latter is linked to increased activity in dopaminergic regions. However, avoidance is also often tethered to the prospect of punishment, a state typically characterized by below baseline levels of dopaminergic function. Avoidance has been considered from the perspective of two-factor theories where the prospect of safety is considered to act as a surrogate for reward, leading to dopamine release and enhanced motivational drive. Using fMRI we investigated predictions from two-factor theory by separating the neural representation of a conventional net expected value, which is negative in the case of avoidance, from an adjusted expected value which factors in a possibility of punishment and is larger for both big rewards and big (predictably avoidable) punishments. We show that neural responses in ventral striatum and ventral tegmental area/substantial nigra (VTA/SN) covaried with net expected value. Activity in VTA/SN also covaried with an adjusted expected value, as did activity in anterior insula. Consistent with two-factor theory models, the findings indicate that VTA/SN and insula process an adjusted expected value during avoidance behaviour. PMID:27132047

  1. Cavity Femtochemistry: Manipulating Nonadiabatic Dynamics at Avoided Crossings.

    PubMed

    Kowalewski, Markus; Bennett, Kochise; Mukamel, Shaul

    2016-06-01

    Molecular potential energy surfaces can be actively manipulated by light. This is usually done by strong classical laser light but was recently demonstrated for the quantum field in an optical cavity. The photonic vacuum state of a localized cavity mode can be strongly mixed with the molecular degrees of freedom to create hybrid field-matter states known as polaritons. We simulate the avoided crossing of sodium iodide in a cavity by incorporating the quantized cavity field into the nuclear wave packet dynamics calculation. The quantized field is represented on a numerical grid in quadrature space, thus avoiding the limitations set by the rotating wave approximation (RWA) when the field is expanded in Fock space. This approach allows the investigation of cavity couplings in the vicinity of naturally occurring avoided crossings and conical intersections, which is too expensive in the fock space expansion when the RWA does not apply. Numerical results show how the branching ratio between the covalent and ionic dissociation channels can be strongly manipulated by the optical cavity. PMID:27186666

  2. Avoidance behavior of ruffe exposed to selected formulations of piscicides

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dawson, Verdel K.; Bills, Terry D.; Boogaard, Michael A.

    1998-01-01

    Ruffe were introduced into Duluth Harbor, Minnesota in the early 1980s, probably by release of ballast water from sea-going freighters. Since then, it has become the most abundant species in the fish community. The sensitivity of ruffe to a number of piscicides has been demonstrated, however, the feasibility of using piscicides to control populations depends on whether ruffe cart detect piscicides and move to untreated water, We used a two-choice preference resting system to evaluate avoidance or attraction reactions of ruffe during exposures to the lampricides TFM and bayluscide and the general fish toxicants rotenone and antimycin. We used a second testing system to evaluate the potential for benthic ruffe to move vertically in the water column to avoid piscicides dissolving from experimental bottom-release formulations of bayluscide and antimycin. Near-lethal concentrations of TFM and rotenone tended to repel ruffe. Antimycin and bayluscide did not seem to repel ruffe in the avoidance chamber, but bottom-release formulations (antimycin granules-0.25% a.i. And bayluscide granules-3.2% a.i.) did cause increased swimming and surfacing activity among ruffe in column tests. We conclude that TFM and rotenone could be used to trent entire bodies of water, while bottom-release formulations of antimycin and bayluscide may have more application for treating localized concentrations of ruffe.

  3. Detection and avoidance of a carnivore odor by prey

    PubMed Central

    Ferrero, David M.; Lemon, Jamie K.; Fluegge, Daniela; Pashkovski, Stan L.; Korzan, Wayne J.; Datta, Sandeep Robert; Spehr, Marc; Fendt, Markus; Liberles, Stephen D.

    2011-01-01

    Predator–prey relationships provide a classic paradigm for the study of innate animal behavior. Odors from carnivores elicit stereotyped fear and avoidance responses in rodents, although sensory mechanisms involved are largely unknown. Here, we identified a chemical produced by predators that activates a mouse olfactory receptor and produces an innate behavioral response. We purified this predator cue from bobcat urine and identified it to be a biogenic amine, 2-phenylethylamine. Quantitative HPLC analysis across 38 mammalian species indicates enriched 2-phenylethylamine production by numerous carnivores, with some producing >3,000-fold more than herbivores examined. Calcium imaging of neuronal responses in mouse olfactory tissue slices identified dispersed carnivore odor-selective sensory neurons that also responded to 2-phenylethylamine. Two prey species, rat and mouse, avoid a 2-phenylethylamine odor source, and loss-of-function studies involving enzymatic depletion of 2-phenylethylamine from a carnivore odor indicate it to be required for full avoidance behavior. Thus, rodent olfactory sensory neurons and chemosensory receptors have the capacity for recognizing interspecies odors. One such cue, carnivore-derived 2-phenylethylamine, is a key component of a predator odor blend that triggers hard-wired aversion circuits in the rodent brain. These data show how a single, volatile chemical detected in the environment can drive an elaborate danger-associated behavioral response in mammals. PMID:21690383

  4. The search for knowledge and the avoidance of knowledge.

    PubMed

    Waska, Robert

    2007-01-01

    In the psychoanalytic setting, patients can develop a strong reaction to the therapeutic opportunity to gain new knowledge about themselves. This reaction to knowledge is manifested in the patient by walling it off, splitting it off, or attacking it and erasing it from one's internal experience. The avoidance of knowledge can be the result of various phantasy states that bring on defensive postures. Knowledge can be experienced as a persecutory threat to be avoided and defended against. Knowledge can also elicit depressive concerns of loss and separation. Issues of dependence and autonomy can be equated with knowledge and therefore learning must be warded off. As a result of any or all of these internal threats, the ego can instigate a moratorium on thinking and creativity, a shutdown on feeling, thinking, and learning. As will be shown in the case material, wanting to know can be offset by a greater defensive need to not know. Through projective identification cycles, knowledge is placed into the analyst and experienced as dangerous, unobtainable, or a gift one deserves to be given rather than earned. The patient in the case example demonstrates a more paranoid experience of knowledge and a more paranoid avoidance of learning and change. When paranoid phantasies drive the patient to destroy object-relational links between self and analyst, the transference becomes colored with the phantasy of knowledge being equal to dangerous dependence that leads to destruction of either self or object. Therefore, curiosity and learning are to be avoided. Change is no longer a safe option. Psychic change can only occur when past and current knowledge are allowed to be part of the ego's self<-->object world. In other words, Psychic change is possible when the ego is less restrictive and open to new self<-->object experience. Therefore, the ego must tolerate conflicted feelings and thoughts about the self and others for knowledge to be allowable and accessible. This is the core

  5. Finding a Place to Live.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    NatureScope, 1985

    1985-01-01

    Provides background information and student activities on bird habitats, how birds have adapted to living in these habitats, and bird migration. Each activity includes an objective, recommended age level(s), subject area(s), list of materials needed, and procedures. Ready-to-copy student materials (puzzles and worksheets) are included. (JN)

  6. Real-time collision avoidance in space: the GETEX experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freund, Eckhard; Rossmann, Juergen; Schluse, Michael

    2000-10-01

    Intelligent autonomous robotic systems require efficient safety components to assure system reliability during the entire operation. Especially if commanded over long distances, the robotic system must be able to guarantee the planning of safe and collision free movements independently. Therefore the IRF developed a new collision avoidance methodology satisfying the needs of autonomous safety systems considering the dynamics of the robots to protect. To do this, the collision avoidance system cyclically calculates the actual collision danger of the robots with respect to all static and dynamic obstacles in the environment. If a robot gets in collision danger the methodology immediately starts an evasive action to avoid the collision and guides the robot around the obstacle to its target position. This evasive action is calculated in real-time in a mathematically exact way by solving a quadratic convex optimization problem. The secondary conditions of this optimization problem include the potential collision danger of the robots kinematic chain including all temporarily attached grippers and objects and the dynamic constraints of the robots. The result of the optimization procedure are joint accelerations to apply to prevent the robot from colliding and to guide it to its target position. This methodology has been tested very successfully during the Japanese/German space robot project GETEX in April 1999. During the mission, the collision avoidance system successfully protected the free flying Japanese robot ERA on board the satellite ETS-VII at all times. The experiments showed, that the developed system is fully capable of ensuring the safety of such autonomous robotic systems by actively preventing collisions and generating evasive actions in cases of collision danger.

  7. The influence of avoidance temperament and avoidance-based achievement goals on flow.

    PubMed

    Oertig, Daniela; Schüler, Julia; Brandstätter, Veronika; Augustine, Adam A

    2014-06-01

    In the present research, we conducted two studies designed to examine the joint influence of avoidance temperament and avoidance-based achievement goals on the experience of flow on a creativity task. In both a laboratory study (N = 101; M(age)  = 22.61, SD(age)  = 4.03; 74.3% female) and a naturalistic study (N = 102; M(age)  = 16.23, SD(age)  = 1.13; 48% female), participants high in avoidance temperament were shown to experience greater flow when performance-avoidance goals were induced; no differences were found in any of the other three achievement goal conditions from the 2 × 2 achievement goal framework. These findings reveal a short-term benefit for a disposition-goal match grounded in avoidance motivation, and point to the need for more research on both avoidance-based matches and the short-term versus long-term implications of such matches.

  8. Airborne Collision Detection and Avoidance for Small UAS Sense and Avoid Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahawneh, Laith Rasmi

    The increasing demand to integrate unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) into the national airspace is motivated by the rapid growth of the UAS industry, especially small UAS weighing less than 55 pounds. Their use however has been limited by the Federal Aviation Administration regulations due to collision risk they pose, safety and regulatory concerns. Therefore, before civil aviation authorities can approve routine UAS flight operations, UAS must be equipped with sense-and-avoid technology comparable to the see-and-avoid requirements for manned aircraft. The sense-and-avoid problem includes several important aspects including regulatory and system-level requirements, design specifications and performance standards, intruder detecting and tracking, collision risk assessment, and finally path planning and collision avoidance. In this dissertation, our primary focus is on developing an collision detection, risk assessment and avoidance framework that is computationally affordable and suitable to run on-board small UAS. To begin with, we address the minimum sensing range for the sense-and-avoid (SAA) system. We present an approximate close form analytical solution to compute the minimum sensing range to safely avoid an imminent collision. The approach is then demonstrated using a radar sensor prototype that achieves the required minimum sensing range. In the area of collision risk assessment and collision prediction, we present two approaches to estimate the collision risk of an encounter scenario. The first is a deterministic approach similar to those been developed for Traffic Alert and Collision Avoidance (TCAS) in manned aviation. We extend the approach to account for uncertainties of state estimates by deriving an analytic expression to propagate the error variance using Taylor series approximation. To address unanticipated intruders maneuvers, we propose an innovative probabilistic approach to quantify likely intruder trajectories and estimate the probability of

  9. Places to Avoid: Population-Based Study of Student Reports of Unsafe and High Bullying Areas at School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vaillancourt, Tracy; Brittain, Heather; Bennett, Lindsay; Arnocky, Steven; McDougall, Patricia; Hymel, Shelley; Short, Kathy; Sunderani, Shafik; Scott, Carol; Mackenzie, Meredith; Cunningham, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    Students' perceptions of school safety and experiences with bullying were examined in a large Canadian cohort of 5,493 girls and 5,659 boys in Grades 4 to 12. Results indicate notable differences in when and where students felt safe based on their own perceptions of safety and their own experiences with bullying, particularly across elementary and…

  10. Mergers in health care: avoiding divorce IDS style.

    PubMed

    Drazen, E; Kueber, M

    1998-08-01

    The recent flurry of merger activity in the healthcare industry has given rise to a significant number of integration efforts. Unfortunately, some of these "marriages" will end in "divorce." Reasons for failure can be found in four critical dimensions of integration: structural, operational, clinical, and informational. Each dimension has its associated pitfalls, and every merger confronts clearly identifiable risks. By taking steps to mitigate such risks, merging organizations can improve the chances the merger will succeed. If the merger does fail, measures taken prior to the merger, such as including an escape clause in the merger contract, can help avoid problems in dividing operational assets, physicians practices, and information assets.

  11. Surrounding sensing and obstacle predicting for vehicle collision avoidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, Dawei; Chen, Jing; Tao, Jing

    1998-08-01

    A basic concept of an advanced safety vehicle, which will emerge in the next century, is introduced in this paper, with the emphasis on the active obstacle avoidance system. A prototype system is put forward, in which a scanning laser radar is used for detecting ahead objects, the surrounding information can be understood from the radar data, and therefore once the serious situation emerges, the drive will be warned, or the auto-control system will operate according to the analysis of the surrounding condition.

  12. The place and time of drugs.

    PubMed

    Duff, Cameron

    2014-05-01

    'Context' is one of the most enduring analytical devices in social science accounts of alcohol and other drug (AOD) use, although its elaboration tends to emphasise macro-structural processes (like economic change, law enforcement, health policy, racism or stigma) at the expense of more finely-grained understandings of the place and time of consumption. Drawing on Gilles Deleuze's notion of the assemblage, and its reception in recent critical geographies of AOD use, I will characterise context as an assemblage of social, affective and material forces. Such a characterisation is not indifferent to the range of structural forces that are often understood to mediate AOD use. Rather, it is concerned to document how these forces actually participate in the modulations of consumption. The assemblage will thus be construed in ways that align context with the 'real conditions' (place and time) of drug use. I will develop this argument by way of a case study drawn from a recent qualitative study of the social contexts of methamphetamine use in Melbourne. My goal is to document the ways 'context' is produced in the activity of drug use, and how 'context' so constructed, comes to modulate this use. By contrasting traditional approaches to the analysis of context with methods borrowed from Deleuze, I aim to transcend structural understandings of context in order to clarify the active, local and contingent role of contexts in the mediation of what bodies do 'on' and 'with' drugs.

  13. [Alteration of neural oscillations in hippocampal CA3 area in the fast avoidance response rat before and after electric shock avoidance training].

    PubMed

    Wang, Wei-Wei; Wang, Dan-Dan; Wang, Dan; Guan, Yan; Tang, Ying-Ying; Ye, Zheng; Li, Jing; Li, Min; Zhu, Zai-Man; Pan, Qun-Wan

    2015-10-25

    The purpose of the present study is to explore the relationship of spatial learning ability and specific electrical activities of neural oscillations in the rat. The fast and general avoidance response groups were selected on the basis of the animals' responses to the electric shock in Y type maze, and their local field potentials (LFPs) of hippocampal CA3 area were recorded by wireless telemetry before and after shock avoidance training, respectively. The components of neural oscillations related to spatial identifying and learning ability were analyzed. The results showed that, compared with the general avoidance response group, the fast avoidance response group did not show any differences of LFPs in hippocampal CA3 area before electric shock avoidance trial, but showed significantly increased percentages of 0-10 Hz and 30-40 Hz rhythm in right hippocampal CA3 area after the shock avoidance training (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05). Fast Fourier transform showed that percentage increase of 0-10 Hz band occurred mainly in θ (3-7 Hz) frequency, and 30-40 Hz frequency change was equivalent to the γ1 band. Furthermore, compared with those before training, only the percentages of β, β2 (20-30 Hz) and γ1 rhythm increased (P < 0.01 or P < 0.05) in fast avoidance response rats after training, while the θ rhythm percentage remained unchanged. In contrast, θ rhythm percentage and the large amplitude (intensity: +2.5 - -2.5 db) θ waves in right CA3 area of general avoidance response rats were significantly reduced after training (P < 0.01). These results suggest that the increased percentages of β2 and γ1 rhythm and high-level (unchanged) percentage of θ rhythm in the right hippocampus CA3 area might be related to strong spatial cognition ability of fast avoidance response rats.

  14. Food Approach and Food Avoidance in Young Children: Relation with Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity

    PubMed Central

    Vandeweghe, Laura; Vervoort, Leentje; Verbeken, Sandra; Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that individual differences in Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity may determine how children respond to food. These temperamental traits reflect activity in two basic brain systems that respond to rewarding and punishing stimuli, respectively, with approach and avoidance. Via parent-report questionnaires, we investigate the associations of the general motivational temperamental traits Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity with Food Approach and Food Avoidance in 98 preschool children. Consistent with the conceptualization of Reward Sensitivity in terms of approach behavior and Punishment Sensitivity in terms of avoidance behavior, Reward Sensitivity was positively related to Food Approach, while Punishment Sensitivity was positively related to Food Avoidance. Future research should integrate these perspectives (i.e., general temperamental traits Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity, and Food Approach and Avoidance) to get a better understanding of eating behavior and related body weight. PMID:27445898

  15. Food Approach and Food Avoidance in Young Children: Relation with Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Vandeweghe, Laura; Vervoort, Leentje; Verbeken, Sandra; Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that individual differences in Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity may determine how children respond to food. These temperamental traits reflect activity in two basic brain systems that respond to rewarding and punishing stimuli, respectively, with approach and avoidance. Via parent-report questionnaires, we investigate the associations of the general motivational temperamental traits Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity with Food Approach and Food Avoidance in 98 preschool children. Consistent with the conceptualization of Reward Sensitivity in terms of approach behavior and Punishment Sensitivity in terms of avoidance behavior, Reward Sensitivity was positively related to Food Approach, while Punishment Sensitivity was positively related to Food Avoidance. Future research should integrate these perspectives (i.e., general temperamental traits Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity, and Food Approach and Avoidance) to get a better understanding of eating behavior and related body weight.

  16. Food Approach and Food Avoidance in Young Children: Relation with Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Vandeweghe, Laura; Vervoort, Leentje; Verbeken, Sandra; Moens, Ellen; Braet, Caroline

    2016-01-01

    It has recently been suggested that individual differences in Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity may determine how children respond to food. These temperamental traits reflect activity in two basic brain systems that respond to rewarding and punishing stimuli, respectively, with approach and avoidance. Via parent-report questionnaires, we investigate the associations of the general motivational temperamental traits Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity with Food Approach and Food Avoidance in 98 preschool children. Consistent with the conceptualization of Reward Sensitivity in terms of approach behavior and Punishment Sensitivity in terms of avoidance behavior, Reward Sensitivity was positively related to Food Approach, while Punishment Sensitivity was positively related to Food Avoidance. Future research should integrate these perspectives (i.e., general temperamental traits Reward Sensitivity and Punishment Sensitivity, and Food Approach and Avoidance) to get a better understanding of eating behavior and related body weight. PMID:27445898

  17. Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Concept Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2009-01-01

    An initial Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the initial concept for an aircraft-based method of conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) in the TMA focusing on conflict detection algorithms and alerting display concepts. This paper gives an overview of the CD&R concept, simulation study, and test results.

  18. Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic Simulation Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Denise R.; Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Shelton, Kevin J.; Bailey, Randall E.; Otero, Sharon D.; Barker, Glover D.

    2010-01-01

    A Collision Avoidance for Airport Traffic (CAAT) concept for the airport Terminal Maneuvering Area (TMA) was evaluated in a simulation study at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Langley Research Center. CAAT is being designed to enhance surface situation awareness and provide cockpit alerts of potential conflicts during runway, taxi, and low altitude air-to-air operations. The purpose of the study was to evaluate pilot reaction to conflict events in the TMA near the airport, different alert timings for various scenarios, alerting display concepts, and directive alerting concepts. This paper gives an overview of the conflict detection and resolution (CD&R) concept, simulation study, and test results

  19. Avoiding Lawsuits for Wage and Hour Violations.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Cherie L

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly technical language in the wage and hour laws and regulations, employers often find that they have unknowingly violated the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). This can occur because employers have improperly classified an employee as exempt or because employers do not realize that certain time should be paid in full. Improperly classifying employees as exempt or failing to compensate nonexempt employees for all time worked can lead to costly lawsuits, audits, or enforcement actions by the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor. This article discusses the most common FLSA exemptions and provides best practices to avoid liability under the FLSA.

  20. Avoiding Lawsuits for Wage and Hour Violations.

    PubMed

    Silberman, Cherie L

    2016-01-01

    Due to the highly technical language in the wage and hour laws and regulations, employers often find that they have unknowingly violated the Fair Labor Standards Act (FLSA). This can occur because employers have improperly classified an employee as exempt or because employers do not realize that certain time should be paid in full. Improperly classifying employees as exempt or failing to compensate nonexempt employees for all time worked can lead to costly lawsuits, audits, or enforcement actions by the Wage and Hour Division of the Department of Labor. This article discusses the most common FLSA exemptions and provides best practices to avoid liability under the FLSA. PMID:27249874