Science.gov

Sample records for active power quality

  1. Modelling and Simulation of Single-Phase Series Active Compensator for Power Quality Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Arun Kumar; Mathuria, Kirti; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneshwari, G.

    2016-10-01

    A single-phase active series compensator is proposed in this work to reduce harmonic currents at the ac mains and to regulate the dc link voltage of a diode bridge rectifier (DBR) that acts as the front end converter for a voltage source inverter feeding an ac motor. This ac motor drive is used in any of the domestic, commercial or industrial appliances. Under fluctuating ac mains voltages, the dc link voltage of the DBR depicts wide variations and hence the ac motor is used at reduced rating as compared to its name-plate rating. The active series compensator proposed here provides dual functions of improving the power quality at the ac mains and regulating the dc link voltage thus averting the need for derating of the ac motor.

  2. Power quality in India

    SciTech Connect

    Deodar, P.S.

    1995-12-01

    This article is a summary of a Faraday Memorial Lecture on the state of power quality and reliability and its impact on the pace of India`s industrial growth and development. Poor quality is hurting industrial competitiveness and therefore their efforts to become a global supplier of goods. In this information age, there is a fast growth of computer usage in industry, commerce, business, trade, finance, healthcare, etc. These sensitive electronic products need clean and consistent power from the utility, and India`s State Electricity Board and other utilities simply cannot deliver it. The users, however, are ultimately response for the health and the safe operation of their equipment. Bad power quality available in India and the clean power requirement of the Informatic infrastructure are the two unfortunate realities of today`s electronic age.

  3. Rural power quality

    SciTech Connect

    Koval, D.O. . Dept. of Electrical Engineering); Chang, J.C. ); Leonard, J. . Dept. of Agricultural Engineering)

    1992-07-01

    Very little published literature is available on the quality of power being delivered to rural industries. This paper will present the results of a detailed power quantity monitoring survey of 17 out of the 23 small rural industries surveyed (i.e., poultry broiler, poultry layer, beef feedlot, and pig (farrow to finish) rural industrial sites) and sponsored by the Canadian Electrical Association; the survey will provide a knowledge base on rural power quality and the possible origins of power supply anomalies. This paper will summarize the major power quality problems experienced at the various industrial sites and present some of the significant results of an across Canada questionnaire survey on On-farm Electrical Power Disturbances. The results of these surveys will provide a basis for mitigating actions by the utilities and their rural industrial customers by enhancing their ability to identify the possible origins of power supply disturbances affecting the performance of electronic and electrical equipment at the various farm industrial sites.

  4. RAVEN Quality Assurance Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Cogliati, Joshua Joseph

    2015-09-01

    This report discusses the quality assurance activities needed to raise the Quality Level of Risk Analysis in a Virtual Environment (RAVEN) from Quality Level 3 to Quality Level 2. This report also describes the general RAVEN quality assurance activities. For improving the quality, reviews of code changes have been instituted, more parts of testing have been automated, and improved packaging has been created. For upgrading the quality level, requirements have been created and the workflow has been improved.

  5. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality.

  6. Quality assurance program for isotopic power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hannigan, R.L.; Harnar, R.R.

    1982-12-01

    This report summarizes the Sandia National Laboratories Quality Assurance Program that applies to non-weapon (reimbursable) Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators. The program has been implemented over the past 16 years on power supplies used in various space and terrestrial systems. The quality assurance (QA) activity of the program is in support of the Department of Energy, Office of Space Nuclear Projects. Basic elements of the program are described in the report and examples of program decumentation are presented.

  7. Power quality in clinical facilities.

    PubMed

    Moreno-Muñoz, Antonio; González, Juan J

    2006-04-01

    This paper presents preliminary results from a power quality audit conducted at a clinical building over the last year. Voltage and current were measured at various laboratories; it was found that the main problems for the equipment installed were voltage sags and surges. The paper examines the causes and effects of power disturbances that affect computer or any other microprocessor-based equipment and analyzes the auto-protection capabilities of modern power supplies. The convenience of "enhanced power supply" or "low-cost customer-side" protection solutions is also discussed. Finally it is addresses the role of the Standards on the protection of electronic equipment and the implications for the final costumer. PMID:16705991

  8. Power Quality and Reliability Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Attia, John O.

    2001-01-01

    One area where universities and industry can link is in the area of power systems reliability and quality - key concepts in the commercial, industrial and public sector engineering environments. Prairie View A&M University (PVAMU) has established a collaborative relationship with the University of'Texas at Arlington (UTA), NASA/Johnson Space Center (JSC), and EP&C Engineering and Technology Group (EP&C) a small disadvantage business that specializes in power quality and engineering services. The primary goal of this collaboration is to facilitate the development and implementation of a Strategic Integrated power/Systems Reliability and Curriculum Enhancement Program. The objectives of first phase of this work are: (a) to develop a course in power quality and reliability, (b) to use the campus of Prairie View A&M University as a laboratory for the study of systems reliability and quality issues, (c) to provide students with NASA/EPC shadowing and Internship experience. In this work, a course, titled "Reliability Analysis of Electrical Facilities" was developed and taught for two semesters. About thirty seven has benefited directly from this course. A laboratory accompanying the course was also developed. Four facilities at Prairie View A&M University were surveyed. Some tests that were performed are (i) earth-ground testing, (ii) voltage, amperage and harmonics of various panels in the buildings, (iii) checking the wire sizes to see if they were the right size for the load that they were carrying, (iv) vibration tests to test the status of the engines or chillers and water pumps, (v) infrared testing to the test arcing or misfiring of electrical or mechanical systems.

  9. Recent Power Quality Technology Employing Power Electronics Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takasaki, Masahiro

    Power quality has become a common concern of customers and utilities in improving respective profits in the context of an open electricity market. Power electronics is the essential technology to control power quality in accordance with customer requirements and utility standards. This paper first summarizes power quality definitions and indices used in IEEE and IEC standards. It clarifies the problem to be solved and the role of power electronics devices. Then the overview of power quality control methods and equipments employing power electronics devices is explained. The control methodology discussed in this paper includes various schemes of future distribution and power supply system now under development.

  10. Measurement Practices for Reliability and Power Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Kueck, JD

    2005-05-06

    to support activities to develop and share information among industry and regulatory participants about critical resources and practices. The toolkit has been developed by investigating the status of indices and definitions, surveying utility organizations on information sharing, and preparing summaries of reliability standards and monitoring requirements--the issues, needs, work under way, existing standards, practices and guidelines--for the following three classifications: (1) terms and definitions of reliability; (2) power quality standards, guidelines, and measurements; and (3) activities and organizations developing and sharing information on distribution reliability. As these synopses of reliability measurement practices are provided, it must be noted that an economic penalty may be associated with requiring too high a reliability level from the distribution system for all customers. It may be appropriate for the distribution system to supply only some base, generally accepted level of reliability. This base level would be adequate for the majority of customers. Users who need a higher level may find it economical to supply using distributed energy resources (DER) and other local solutions to reliability and power quality needs. Local solutions implemented by the customer may be the most cost-effective method for addressing the more stringent needs of a digital economy. These local solutions include energy storage, small distributed generators, and microgrids. This report also considers the market's role in addressing reliability issues and requirements. The customer's needs are discussed in view of issues such as power quality requirements of digital electronic equipment, the cost of outages, the cost of storage and new infrastructure, and natural gas prices. The market role in addressing these issues and requirements is explored. The economic considerations associated with the reliability issues are discussed, as well as the levels at which these economic

  11. Power quality load management for large spacecraft electrical power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lollar, Louis F.

    1988-01-01

    In December, 1986, a Center Director's Discretionary Fund (CDDF) proposal was granted to study power system control techniques in large space electrical power systems. Presented are the accomplishments in the area of power system control by power quality load management. In addition, information concerning the distortion problems in a 20 kHz ac power system is presented.

  12. Power Quality Aspects in a Wind Power Plant

    SciTech Connect

    Muljadi, E.; Butterfield, C. P.; Chacon, J.; Romanowitz, H.

    2006-01-01

    Like conventional power plants, wind power plants must provide the power quality required to ensure the stability and reliability of the power system it is connected to and to satisfy the customers connected to the same grid. When wind energy development began, wind power plants were very small, ranging in size from under one megawatt to tens megawatts with less than 100 turbines in each plant. Thus, the impact of wind power plant on the grid was very small, and any disturbance within or created by the plant was considered to be in the noise level. In the past 30 years, the size of wind turbines and the size of wind power plants have increased significantly. Notably, in Tehachapi, California, the amount of wind power generation has surpassed the infrastructure for which it was designed. At the same time, the lack of rules, standards, and regulations during early wind development has proven to be an increasing threat to the stability and power quality of the grid connected to a wind power plant. Fortunately, many new wind power plants are equipped with state of the art technology, which enables them to provide good service while producing clean power for the grid. The advances in power electronics have allowed many power system applications to become more flexible and to accomplish smoother regulation. Applications such as reactive power compensation, static transfer switches, energy storage, and variable-speed generations are commonly found in modern wind power plants. Although many operational aspects affect wind power plant operation, this paper, focuses on power quality. Because a wind power plant is connected to the grid, it is very important to understand the sources of disturbances that affect the power quality. In general, the voltage and frequency must be kept as stable as possible. The voltage and current distortions created by harmonics will also be discussed in this paper as will self-excitation, which may occur in a wind power plant due to loss of line.

  13. Power quality improvement by unified power quality conditioner based on CSC topology using synchronous reference frame theory.

    PubMed

    Dharmalingam, Rajasekaran; Dash, Subhransu Sekhar; Senthilnathan, Karthikrajan; Mayilvaganan, Arun Bhaskar; Chinnamuthu, Subramani

    2014-01-01

    This paper deals with the performance of unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) based on current source converter (CSC) topology. UPQC is used to mitigate the power quality problems like harmonics and sag. The shunt and series active filter performs the simultaneous elimination of current and voltage problems. The power fed is linked through common DC link and maintains constant real power exchange. The DC link is connected through the reactor. The real power supply is given by the photovoltaic system for the compensation of power quality problems. The reference current and voltage generation for shunt and series converter is based on phase locked loop and synchronous reference frame theory. The proposed UPQC-CSC design has superior performance for mitigating the power quality problems.

  14. Automated recognition system for power quality disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdelgalil, Tarek

    The application of deregulation policies in electric power systems has resulted in the necessity to quantify the quality of electric power. This fact highlights the need for a new monitoring strategy which is capable of tracking, detecting, classifying power quality disturbances, and then identifying the source of the disturbance. The objective of this work is to design an efficient and reliable power quality monitoring strategy that uses the advances in signal processing and pattern recognition to overcome the deficiencies that exist in power quality monitoring devices. The purposed monitoring strategy has two stages. The first stage is to detect, track, and classify any power quality violation by the use of on-line measurements. In the second stage, the source of the classified power quality disturbance must be identified. In the first stage, an adaptive linear combiner is used to detect power quality disturbances. Then, the Teager Energy Operator and Hilbert Transform are utilized for power quality event tracking. After the Fourier, Wavelet, and Walsh Transforms are employed for the feature extraction, two approaches are then exploited to classify the different power quality disturbances. The first approach depends on comparing the disturbance to be classified with a stored set of signatures for different power quality disturbances. The comparison is developed by using Hidden Markov Models and Dynamic Time Warping. The second approach depends on employing an inductive inference to generate the classification rules directly from the data. In the second stage of the new monitoring strategy, only the problem of identifying the location of the switched capacitor which initiates the transients is investigated. The Total Least Square-Estimation of Signal Parameters via Rotational Invariance Technique is adopted to estimate the amplitudes and frequencies of the various modes contained in the voltage signal measured at the facility entrance. After extracting the

  15. Microgrids and Heterogeneous Power Quality and Reliability

    SciTech Connect

    LaCommare, Kristina; Marnay, Chris

    2007-10-01

    This paper describes two stylized alternative visions of how the power system might evolve to meet future requirements for the high quality electricity service that modern digital economies demand, a supergrids paradigm and a dispersed paradigm. Some of the economics of the dispersed vision are explored, and perspectives are presented on both the choice of homogeneous universal power quality upstream in the electricity supply chain and on the extremely heterogeneous requirements of end-use loads. It is argued that meeting the demanding requirements of sensitive loads by local provision of high quality power may be more cost effective than increasing the quality of universal homogeneous supply upstream in the legacy grid. Finally, the potential role of microgrids in delivering heterogeneous power quality is demonstrated by reference to two ongoing microgrid tests in the U.S. and Japan.

  16. Power quality enhancement at distribution level utilizing the unified power quality conditioner (UPQC)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khadkikar, Vinod

    The present doctoral work is based on the philosophy of optimal utilization of the available resources in a most effective and efficient way to improve the product efficiency and to reduce the overall cost. This work proposes a novel control philosophy termed as power angle control (PAC), in which both the series and shunt inverters share the load reactive power in co-ordination with each other without affecting the basic UPQC compensation capabilities. This eventually results in a better utilization of the series inverter, reduction in the shunt inverter rating to some extent and ultimately in the reduction of the overall cost of UPQC. Moreover, in this thesis work several other control approaches are also proposed, such as, unit vector template generation, quadrature voltage injection, generalized single-phase p-q theory and novel current unbalance compensation approach. All the developed concepts are successfully validated through digital simulation as well as extensive experimental investigations. Keywords. power quality, active power filter, unified power quality conditioner, reactive power compensation, harmonics compensation.

  17. Design of Interline Unified Power Quality Conditioner for Power Quality Disturbances using Simulink

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumaraswamy, G.; Reddy, Y. Rajasekhar; Harikrishna, Ch.

    2012-10-01

    Proliferation of electronic equipment in commercial and industrial processes has resulted in increasingly sensitive electrical loads to be fed from power distribution system which introduce contamination to voltage and current waveforms at the point of common coupling of industrial loads. The unified power quality conditioner (UPQC) is connected between two different feeders (lines), hence this method of connection of the UPQC is called as Interline UPQC (IUPQC).This paper proposes a new connection for a UPQC to improve the power quality of two feeders in a distribution system. Interline Unified Power Quality Conditioner (IUPQC), specifically aims at the integration of series VSC and Shunt VSC to provide high quality power supply by means of voltage sag/swell compensation, harmonic elimination and power factor correction in a power distribution network, so that improved power quality can be made available at the point of common coupling. The structure, control and capability of the IUPQC are discussed in this paper. The efficiency of the proposed configuration has been verified through simulation using MATLAB/ SIMULINK.

  18. Effect of Power Ultrasound on Food Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyoungill; Feng, Hao

    Recent food processing technology innovations have been centered around producing foods with fresh-like attributes through minimal processing or nonthermal processing technologies. Instead of using thermal energy to secure food safety that is often accompanied by quality degradation in processed foods, the newly developed processing modalities utilize other types of physical energy such as high pressure, pulsed electric field or magnetic field, ultraviolet light, or acoustic energy to process foods. An improvement in food quality by the new processing methods has been widely reported. In comparison with its low-energy (high-frequency) counterpart which finds applications in food quality inspection, the use of high-intensity ultrasound, also called power ultrasound, in food processing is a relatively new endeavor. To understand the effect of high-intensity ultrasound treatment on food quality, it is important to understand the interactions between acoustic energy and food ingredients, which is covered in Chapter 10. In this chapter, the focus will be on changes in overall food quality attributes that are caused by ultrasound, such as texture, color, flavor, and nutrients.

  19. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, Lloyd A.; Dane, Clifford B.

    1993-01-01

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  20. High power, high beam quality regenerative amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.

    1993-08-24

    A regenerative laser amplifier system generates high peak power and high energy per pulse output beams enabling generation of X-rays used in X-ray lithography for manufacturing integrated circuits. The laser amplifier includes a ring shaped optical path with a limited number of components including a polarizer, a passive 90 degree phase rotator, a plurality of mirrors, a relay telescope, and a gain medium, the components being placed close to the image plane of the relay telescope to reduce diffraction or phase perturbations in order to limit high peak intensity spiking. In the ring, the beam makes two passes through the gain medium for each transit of the optical path to increase the amplifier gain to loss ratio. A beam input into the ring makes two passes around the ring, is diverted into an SBS phase conjugator and proceeds out of the SBS phase conjugator back through the ring in an equal but opposite direction for two passes, further reducing phase perturbations. A master oscillator inputs the beam through an isolation cell (Faraday or Pockels) which transmits the beam into the ring without polarization rotation. The isolation cell rotates polarization only in beams proceeding out of the ring to direct the beams out of the amplifier. The diffraction limited quality of the input beam is preserved in the amplifier so that a high power output beam having nearly the same diffraction limited quality is produced.

  1. Active Power Control from Wind Power (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Brooks, D.

    2011-04-01

    In order to keep the electricity grid stable and the lights on, the power system relies on certain responses from its generating fleet. This presentation evaluates the potential for wind turbines and wind power plants to provide these services and assist the grid during critical times.

  2. Comparative Analysis of Power Quality Instruments in Measuring Power under Distorted Conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belchior, Fernando; Galvão, Thiago Moura; Ribeiro, Paulo Fernando; Silveira, Paulo Márcio

    2015-10-01

    This paper aims to evaluate the performance of commercial power quality (PQ) instruments. By using a high precision programmable voltage and current source, five meters from different manufacturers are analyzed and compared. At first, three-phase voltage signals are applied to those PQ instruments, considering harmonic distortion, voltage dip, voltage swell, as well as unbalanced voltages. These events are measured, compared and evaluated considering the different instruments. In addition, voltage and current signals are applied under different conditions, with and without harmonic and unbalances, in order to obtain the measurements of electrical power. After analyzing the data generated in all these tests, efforts are focused on establishing a relationship between the accuracy of the measurements. Considering the percentages of errors, a score is assigned to each instrument. The tests have shown "excellent" and "good" results regarding measuring active and apparent power, as well as power factor. However, for non-active power, almost all instruments had lower performance. This work is relevant considering that Brazil is deploying standardization in terms of power quality measurements aiming towards regulatory procedures and index limits.

  3. Enhanced power quality based single phase photovoltaic distributed generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panda, Aurobinda; Pathak, M. K.; Srivastava, S. P.

    2016-08-01

    This article presents a novel control strategy for a 1-ϕ 2-level grid-tie photovoltaic (PV) inverter to enhance the power quality (PQ) of a PV distributed generation (PVDG) system. The objective is to obtain the maximum benefits from the grid-tie PV inverter by introducing current harmonics as well as reactive power compensation schemes in its control strategy, thereby controlling the PV inverter to achieve multiple functions in the PVDG system such as: (1) active power flow control between the PV inverter and the grid, (2) reactive power compensation, and (3) grid current harmonics compensation. A PQ enhancement controller (PQEC) has been designed to achieve the aforementioned objectives. The issue of underutilisation of the PV inverter in nighttime has also been addressed in this article and for the optimal use of the system; the PV inverter is used as a shunt active power filter in nighttime. A prototype model of the proposed system is developed in the laboratory, to validate the effectiveness of the control scheme, and is tested with the help of the dSPACE DS1104 platform.

  4. Power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, H. R.; Kim, A. R.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.

    2011-11-01

    This paper deals with power quality enhancement of renewable energy source power network using SMES system and describes the operation characteristics of HTS SMES system using real-toroidal-type SMES coil for smoothening the fluctuation of large-scale renewable energy source such as photovoltaic (PV) power generation system. It generates maximum power of PV array under various weather conditions. SMES unit charges and discharges the HTS coil to mitigate the fluctuation of PV system output power. The SMES unit is controlled according to the PV array output and the utility power quality conditions. The grid connected PV and SMES system has been modeled and simulated using power-hard-in-the-loop simulation (PHILS). The PHILS results demonstrated the effectiveness of the SMES system for enhancing power quality in power network including large-scale renewable energy source, especially PV power generation system.

  5. Active Power Controls from Wind Power: Bridging the Gaps

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.; Gevorgian, V.; Fleming, P.; Zhang, Y. C.; Singh, M.; Muljadi, E.; Scholbrook, A.; Aho, J.; Buckspan, A.; Pao, L.; Singhvi, V.; Tuohy, A.; Pourbeik, P.; Brooks, D.; Bhatt, N.

    2014-01-01

    This paper details a comprehensive study undertaken by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, Electric Power Research Institute, and the University of Colorado to understand how the contribution of wind power providing active power control (APC) can benefit the total power system economics, increase revenue streams, improve the reliability and security of the power system, and provide superior and efficient response while reducing any structural and loading impacts that may reduce the life of the wind turbine or its components. The study includes power system simulations, control simulations, and actual field tests using turbines at NREL's National Wind Technology Center (NWTC). The study focuses on synthetic inertial control, primary frequency control, and automatic generation control, and analyzes timeframes ranging from milliseconds to minutes to the lifetime of wind turbines, locational scope ranging from components of turbines to large wind plants to entire synchronous interconnections, and additional topics ranging from economics to power system engineering to control design.

  6. Standby-battery autonomy versus power quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bitterlin, Ian F.

    Batteries are used in a wide variety of applications as an energy store to bridge gaps in the primary source of supplied power for a given period of time. In some cases this bridging time, the battery's "autonomy", is fixed by local legislation but it is also often set by historically common practices. However, even if common practice dictates a long autonomy time, we are entering a new era of "cost and benefit realism" underpinned by environmentally friendly policies and we should challenge these historical practices at every opportunity if it can lead to resource and cost savings. In some cases the application engineer has no choice in the design autonomy; either follow a piece of local legislation (e.g. 4 h autonomy for a "life safety" application), or actually work out what is needed! An example of the latter would be for a remote site, off-grid, using integrated wind/solar power (without emergency generator back-up) where you may have to design-in several days' battery autonomy. This short paper proposes that a battery's autonomy should be related to the time expected for the system to be without the primary power source, balanced by the capital costs and commercial risk of power failure. To discuss this we shall consider the factors in selecting the autonomy time and other related aspects for high voltage battery systems used in facility-wide uninterruptible power supply (UPS) systems.

  7. Shock-activated electrochemical power supplies

    DOEpatents

    Benedick, William B.; Graham, Robert A.; Morosin, Bruno

    1988-01-01

    A shock-activated electrochemical power supply is provided which is initiated extremely rapidly and which has a long shelf life. Electrochemical power supplies of this invention are initiated much faster than conventional thermal batteries. Power supplies of this invention comprise an inactive electrolyte and means for generating a high-pressure shock wave such that the shock wave is propagated through the electrolytes rendering the electrolyte electrochemically active.

  8. Shock-activated electrochemical power supplies

    DOEpatents

    Benedick, W.B.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.

    1987-04-20

    A shock-activated electrochemical power supply is provided which is initiated extremely rapidly and which has a long shelf life. Electrochemical power supplies of this invention are initiated much faster than conventional thermal batteries. Power supplies of this invention comprise an inactive electrolyte and means for generating a high-pressure shock wave such that the shock wave is propagated through the electrolyte rendering the electrolyte electrochemically active. 2 figs.

  9. Shock-activated electrochemical power supplies

    DOEpatents

    Benedick, W.B.; Graham, R.A.; Morosin, B.

    1988-11-08

    A shock-activated electrochemical power supply is provided which is initiated extremely rapidly and which has a long shelf life. Electrochemical power supplies of this invention are initiated much faster than conventional thermal batteries. Power supplies of this invention comprise an inactive electrolyte and means for generating a high-pressure shock wave such that the shock wave is propagated through the electrolytes rendering the electrolyte electrochemically active. 2 figs.

  10. Distributed Energy Resources, Power Quality and Reliability - Background

    SciTech Connect

    Schienbein, Lawrence A.; DeSteese, John G.

    2002-01-31

    Power quality [PQ] and power reliability [PR] gained importance in the industrialized world as the pace of installation of sensitive appliances and other electrical loads by utility customers accelerated, beginning in the mid 1980s. Utility-grid-connected customers rapidly discovered that this equipment was increasingly sensitive to various abnormalities in the electricity supply.

  11. Power to Production: Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Massachusetts Univ., Lowell. Tsongas Industrial History Center.

    This field trip program consists of a 90-minute interpretive tour and a 90-minute hands-on workshop. The tour and workshop explore the role of water power in the Industrial Revolution. On the tour, students discover firsthand the unique resources of Lowell, Massachusetts, and the Park, while the workshop brings these historic resources to life as…

  12. Off-grid power quality: Impacts, analysis and solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Arjun

    Good power quality is a critical factor for the reliable operation of electrical loads in a power system. However, the current drawn by many electronic devices and non-linear loads are non-sinusoidal, which can result in a poor power quality, particularly in off-grid power systems. Poor power quality is characterized by electrical disturbances such as transients, sags, swells, harmonics and even interruptions in the power supply. Off-grid power systems worldwide struggle with system failures and equipment damage due to poor power quality. To better understand off-grid system failures and equipment damage issues, the current and voltage characteristics of a number of electrical devices in two off-grid homes, one using a pure sine wave inverter and the other using a modified sine wave inverter, were recorded with a Fluke 43B power quality analyzer, and the devices' impact on the power quality of the off-grid systems was analyzed. The off-grid power quality data were then compared with data from a grid-connected apartment, to help identify the issues that were specific to off-grid systems. The MATLAB/Simulink software was used to model and analyze power quality for additional configurations of the two off-grid systems mentioned above. Strategies to mitigate the worst power quality issues were selected based upon their function and cost, and a few were tested in an off-grid system. Selection of an inverter was found to be important because not all devices are supported by each type of inverter. For example, the refrigerator in the off-grid home with a modified sine wave inverter produced a significant amount of current and voltage harmonics far above standards. In fact, this type of inverter does not support a number of sensitive devices including motors, refrigerators, microwave ovens, fluorescent lights, battery chargers etc. The major issues for the degradation of power quality in the off-grid system using a pure sine wave inverter were the current harmonics

  13. Review of power quality applications of energy storage systems

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-05-01

    Under the sponsorship of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage Systems Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories contracted Sentech, Inc., to assess the impact of power quality problems on the electricity supply system. This report contains the results of several studies that have identified the cost of power quality events for electricity users and providers. The large annual cost of poor power quality represents a national inefficiency and is reflected in the cost of goods sold, reducing US competitiveness. The Energy Storage Systems (ESS) Program takes the position that mitigation merits the attention of not only the DOE but affected industries as well as businesses capable of assisting in developing solutions to these problems. This study represents the preliminary stages of an overall strategy by the ESS Program to understand the magnitude of these problems so as to begin the process of engaging industry partners in developing solutions.

  14. Results from power quality measurements in Germany - An overview

    SciTech Connect

    Gerdes, G.J.; Santjer, F.

    1996-12-31

    Grid interferences caused by wind turbines (WT) are getting a severe problem in Germany with the fast increasing number of installed turbines. The wind energy capacity was doubled annually in the past three years. The actual situation and the plannings for the next years will lead to a situation, where high wind energy penetration will exercise a big influence on the power and voltage quality of local utility networks. Measurements performed in Germany according to a national guideline show a big variety in power quality performance of WT`s, which does affect the requirements for grid connection and thus the economical situation of wind energy projects to a large extent. The results from more than 25 power quality measurements will be discussed in this paper. 5 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  15. MATLAB Simulation of UPQC for Power Quality Mitigation Using an Ant Colony Based Fuzzy Control Technique.

    PubMed

    Kumarasabapathy, N; Manoharan, P S

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a fuzzy logic based new control scheme for the Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) for minimizing the voltage sag and total harmonic distortion in the distribution system consequently to improve the power quality. UPQC is a recent power electronic module which guarantees better power quality mitigation as it has both series-active and shunt-active power filters (APFs). The fuzzy logic controller has recently attracted a great deal of attention and possesses conceptually the quality of the simplicity by tackling complex systems with vagueness and ambiguity. In this research, the fuzzy logic controller is utilized for the generation of reference signal controlling the UPQC. To enable this, a systematic approach for creating the fuzzy membership functions is carried out by using an ant colony optimization technique for optimal fuzzy logic control. An exhaustive simulation study using the MATLAB/Simulink is carried out to investigate and demonstrate the performance of the proposed fuzzy logic controller and the simulation results are compared with the PI controller in terms of its performance in improving the power quality by minimizing the voltage sag and total harmonic distortion.

  16. MATLAB Simulation of UPQC for Power Quality Mitigation Using an Ant Colony Based Fuzzy Control Technique

    PubMed Central

    Kumarasabapathy, N.; Manoharan, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    This paper proposes a fuzzy logic based new control scheme for the Unified Power Quality Conditioner (UPQC) for minimizing the voltage sag and total harmonic distortion in the distribution system consequently to improve the power quality. UPQC is a recent power electronic module which guarantees better power quality mitigation as it has both series-active and shunt-active power filters (APFs). The fuzzy logic controller has recently attracted a great deal of attention and possesses conceptually the quality of the simplicity by tackling complex systems with vagueness and ambiguity. In this research, the fuzzy logic controller is utilized for the generation of reference signal controlling the UPQC. To enable this, a systematic approach for creating the fuzzy membership functions is carried out by using an ant colony optimization technique for optimal fuzzy logic control. An exhaustive simulation study using the MATLAB/Simulink is carried out to investigate and demonstrate the performance of the proposed fuzzy logic controller and the simulation results are compared with the PI controller in terms of its performance in improving the power quality by minimizing the voltage sag and total harmonic distortion. PMID:26504895

  17. A Power Factor Corrected SMPS with Improved Power Quality for Welding Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Narula, Swati; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneswari, G.; Pandey, Rahul

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents the analysis, design and implementation of a power factor corrected Arc Welding Power Supply (AWPS) with a boost converter at the front end and three full-bridge (FB) converters connected in parallel at the load end. The modular arrangement of the FB converters offers several meritorious features like usage of power devices with comparatively lower voltage and current ratings, ease of power expandability, easy maintenance, etc. The boost converter operates in continuous conduction mode minimizing the input current ripple and leading to the lowest RMS current thereby improving the input power quality. Individual control loops are designed for each power stage. A dual loop control scheme is employed to incorporate over-current limit on the proposed AWPS which ensures excellent weld bead quality. The proposed AWPS is implemented to validate its performance over a wide range of line/load variations. Test results confirm its fast parametrical response to load and source voltage variations and over-current protection leading to improved welding performance and weld bead quality. The system is found to perform extremely well with very low input current THD and unity power factor, adhering to international power quality norms.

  18. A Student Activity on Visual Resolving Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, T. H.; Henriksen, P. N.; Ramsier, R. D.

    2003-01-01

    We present a simple activity in which students measure the resolving power of their eyes. The approach can be used at various levels of sophistication with students having a wide variety of skills and scientific training. We discuss our experiences using this activity with a class of non-science majors as well as with a group of pre-engineering…

  19. Quality Certification, Regulation and Power in Fair Trade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Renard, Marie-Christine

    2005-01-01

    This article examines governance changes and shifting power relations within the fair-labelling network. These shifts are framed analytically by reference to broader changes in the agrofoods sector tied to the increasingly key role played by quality relations and standards in the production and marketing of food. The author argues that evident…

  20. Solar Activity-driven Variability of Instrumental Data Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martayan, C.; Smette, A.; Hanuschik, R.; van Der Heyden, P.; Mieske, S.

    2016-06-01

    The unexplained variability of the data quality from Very Large Telescope instruments and the frequency of power cuts have been investigated. Origins for the variability in ambient temperature variations, software, data reduction pipelines and internal to hardware could be discarded. The most probable cause appears to be correlated with the evolution of the cosmic ray rate, and also with solar and terrestrial geomagnetic activity. We report on the consequences of such variability and describe how the observatory infrastructure, instruments and data are affected.

  1. Anomaly Detection in Power Quality at Data Centers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grichine, Art; Solano, Wanda M.

    2015-01-01

    The goal during my internship at the National Center for Critical Information Processing and Storage (NCCIPS) is to implement an anomaly detection method through the StruxureWare SCADA Power Monitoring system. The benefit of the anomaly detection mechanism is to provide the capability to detect and anticipate equipment degradation by monitoring power quality prior to equipment failure. First, a study is conducted that examines the existing techniques of power quality management. Based on these findings, and the capabilities of the existing SCADA resources, recommendations are presented for implementing effective anomaly detection. Since voltage, current, and total harmonic distortion demonstrate Gaussian distributions, effective set-points are computed using this model, while maintaining a low false positive count.

  2. Piezoelectric Power Requirements for Active Vibration Control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brennan, Matthew C.; McGowan, Anna-Maria Rivas

    1997-01-01

    This paper presents a method for predicting the power consumption of piezoelectric actuators utilized for active vibration control. Analytical developments and experimental tests show that the maximum power required to control a structure using surface-bonded piezoelectric actuators is independent of the dynamics between the piezoelectric actuator and the host structure. The results demonstrate that for a perfectly-controlled system, the power consumption is a function of the quantity and type of piezoelectric actuators and the voltage and frequency of the control law output signal. Furthermore, as control effectiveness decreases, the power consumption of the piezoelectric actuators decreases. In addition, experimental results revealed a non-linear behavior in the material properties of piezoelectric actuators. The material non- linearity displayed a significant increase in capacitance with an increase in excitation voltage. Tests show that if the non-linearity of the capacitance was accounted for, a conservative estimate of the power can easily be determined.

  3. Power quality control of an autonomous wind-diesel power system based on hybrid intelligent controller.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hee-Sang; Lee, Kwang Y; Kang, Min-Jae; Kim, Ho-Chan

    2008-12-01

    Wind power generation is gaining popularity as the power industry in the world is moving toward more liberalized trade of energy along with public concerns of more environmentally friendly mode of electricity generation. The weakness of wind power generation is its dependence on nature-the power output varies in quite a wide range due to the change of wind speed, which is difficult to model and predict. The excess fluctuation of power output and voltages can influence negatively the quality of electricity in the distribution system connected to the wind power generation plant. In this paper, the authors propose an intelligent adaptive system to control the output of a wind power generation plant to maintain the quality of electricity in the distribution system. The target wind generator is a cost-effective induction generator, while the plant is equipped with a small capacity energy storage based on conventional batteries, heater load for co-generation and braking, and a voltage smoothing device such as a static Var compensator (SVC). Fuzzy logic controller provides a flexible controller covering a wide range of energy/voltage compensation. A neural network inverse model is designed to provide compensating control amount for a system. The system can be optimized to cope with the fluctuating market-based electricity price conditions to lower the cost of electricity consumption or to maximize the power sales opportunities from the wind generation plant. PMID:18996680

  4. Power quality control of an autonomous wind-diesel power system based on hybrid intelligent controller.

    PubMed

    Ko, Hee-Sang; Lee, Kwang Y; Kang, Min-Jae; Kim, Ho-Chan

    2008-12-01

    Wind power generation is gaining popularity as the power industry in the world is moving toward more liberalized trade of energy along with public concerns of more environmentally friendly mode of electricity generation. The weakness of wind power generation is its dependence on nature-the power output varies in quite a wide range due to the change of wind speed, which is difficult to model and predict. The excess fluctuation of power output and voltages can influence negatively the quality of electricity in the distribution system connected to the wind power generation plant. In this paper, the authors propose an intelligent adaptive system to control the output of a wind power generation plant to maintain the quality of electricity in the distribution system. The target wind generator is a cost-effective induction generator, while the plant is equipped with a small capacity energy storage based on conventional batteries, heater load for co-generation and braking, and a voltage smoothing device such as a static Var compensator (SVC). Fuzzy logic controller provides a flexible controller covering a wide range of energy/voltage compensation. A neural network inverse model is designed to provide compensating control amount for a system. The system can be optimized to cope with the fluctuating market-based electricity price conditions to lower the cost of electricity consumption or to maximize the power sales opportunities from the wind generation plant.

  5. Optical fiber system for combustion quality analysis in power boilers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wojcik, Waldemar; Surtel, Wojciech; Smolarz, Andrzej; Kotyra, Andrzej; Komada, Pawel

    2001-06-01

    The introduction of low emission techniques of combustion caused side-effects like oxygen lean corrosion. It also enforced more precise management of technological air, better coal milling and application of devices for combustion process monitoring. In the article authors presented their own solution of optical fiber system for combustion quality evaluation, already operating on power boiler type OP-650. Its functionality was described together with selected results of measurements. Directions of further development of the system were also indicated.

  6. Active micromachines: Microfluidics powered by mesoscale turbulence.

    PubMed

    Thampi, Sumesh P; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Shendruk, Tyler N; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M

    2016-07-01

    Dense active matter, from bacterial suspensions and microtubule bundles driven by motor proteins to cellular monolayers and synthetic Janus particles, is characterized by mesoscale turbulence, which is the emergence of chaotic flow structures. By immersing an ordered array of symmetric rotors in an active fluid, we introduce a microfluidic system that exploits spontaneous symmetry breaking in mesoscale turbulence to generate work. The lattice of rotors self-organizes into a spin state where neighboring discs continuously rotate in permanent alternating directions due to combined hydrodynamic and elastic effects. Our virtual prototype demonstrates a new research direction for the design of micromachines powered by the nematohydrodynamic properties of active turbulence.

  7. Active micromachines: Microfluidics powered by mesoscale turbulence

    PubMed Central

    Thampi, Sumesh P.; Doostmohammadi, Amin; Shendruk, Tyler N.; Golestanian, Ramin; Yeomans, Julia M.

    2016-01-01

    Dense active matter, from bacterial suspensions and microtubule bundles driven by motor proteins to cellular monolayers and synthetic Janus particles, is characterized by mesoscale turbulence, which is the emergence of chaotic flow structures. By immersing an ordered array of symmetric rotors in an active fluid, we introduce a microfluidic system that exploits spontaneous symmetry breaking in mesoscale turbulence to generate work. The lattice of rotors self-organizes into a spin state where neighboring discs continuously rotate in permanent alternating directions due to combined hydrodynamic and elastic effects. Our virtual prototype demonstrates a new research direction for the design of micromachines powered by the nematohydrodynamic properties of active turbulence. PMID:27419229

  8. Monitoring Biological Activity at Geothermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Peter Pryfogle

    2005-09-01

    The economic impact of microbial growth in geothermal power plants has been estimated to be as high as $500,000 annually for a 100 MWe plant. Many methods are available to monitor biological activity at these facilities; however, very few plants have any on-line monitoring program in place. Metal coupon, selective culturing (MPN), total organic carbon (TOC), adenosine triphosphate (ATP), respirometry, phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) characterizations have been conducted using water samples collected from geothermal plants located in California and Utah. In addition, the on-line performance of a commercial electrochemical monitor, the BIoGEORGE?, has been evaluated during extended deployments at geothermal facilities. This report provides a review of these techniques, presents data on their application from laboratory and field studies, and discusses their value in characterizing and monitoring biological activities at geothermal power plants.

  9. Statistical Performances of Resistive Active Power Splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lalléchère, Sébastien; Ravelo, Blaise; Thakur, Atul

    2016-03-01

    In this paper, the synthesis and sensitivity analysis of an active power splitter (PWS) is proposed. It is based on the active cell composed of a Field Effect Transistor in cascade with shunted resistor at the input and the output (resistive amplifier topology). The PWS uncertainty versus resistance tolerances is suggested by using stochastic method. Furthermore, with the proposed topology, we can control easily the device gain while varying a resistance. This provides useful tool to analyse the statistical sensitivity of the system in uncertain environment.

  10. Assessment of Power Quality based on Fuzzy Logic and Discrete Wavelet Transform for Nonstationary Disturbances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinha, Pampa; Nath, Sudipta

    2010-10-01

    The main aspects of power system delivery are reliability and quality. If all the customers of a power system get uninterrupted power through the year then the system is considered to be reliable. The term power quality may be referred to as maintaining near sinusoidal voltage at rated frequency at the consumers end. The power component definitions are defined according to the IEEE Standard 1459-2000 both for single phase and three phase unbalanced systems based on Fourier Transform (FFT). In the presence of nonstationary power quality (PQ) disturbances results in accurate values due to its sensitivity to the spectral leakage problem. To overcome these limitations the power quality components are calculated using Discrete Wavelet Transform (DWT). In order to handle the uncertainties associated with electric power systems operations fuzzy logic has been incorporated in this paper. A new power quality index has been introduced here which can assess the power quality under nonstationary disturbances.

  11. Multiple Chaos Synchronization System for Power Quality Classification in a Power System

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Cong-Hui; Lin, Chia-Hung

    2014-01-01

    This document proposes multiple chaos synchronization (CS) systems for power quality (PQ) disturbances classification in a power system. Chen-Lee based CS systems use multiple detectors to track the dynamic errors between the normal signal and the disturbance signal, including power harmonics, voltage fluctuation phenomena, and voltage interruptions. Multiple detectors are used to monitor the dynamic errors between the master system and the slave system and are used to construct the feature patterns from time-domain signals. The maximum likelihood method (MLM), as a classifier, performs a comparison of the patterns of the features in the database. The proposed method can adapt itself without the need for adjustment of parameters or iterative computation. For a sample power system, the test results showed accurate discrimination, good robustness, and faster processing time for the detection of PQ disturbances. PMID:24764771

  12. Impacts of Western Area Power Administration`s power marketing alternatives on air quality and noise

    SciTech Connect

    Chun, K.C.; Chang, Y.S.; Rabchuk, J.A.

    1995-05-01

    The Western Area Power Administration, which is responsible for marketing electricity produced at the hydroelectric power-generating facilities operated by the Bureau of Reclamation on the Upper Colorado River, has proposed changes in the levels of its commitment (sales) of long-term firm capacity and energy to its customers. This report describes (1) the existing conditions of air resources (climate and meteorology, ambient air quality, and acoustic environment) of the region potentially affected by the proposed action and (2) the methodology used and the results of analyses conducted to assess the potential impacts on air resources of the proposed action and the commitment-level alternatives. Analyses were performed for the potential impacts of both commitment-level alternatives and supply options, which include combinations of electric power purchases and different operational scenarios of the hydroelectric power-generating facilities.

  13. "Power quality system," a new system of quality management for globalization: towards innovation and competitive advantages.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Rahman, H; Berawi, M A

    Knowledge Management (KM) addresses the critical issues of organizational adoption, survival and competence in the face of an increasingly changing environment. KM embodies organizational processes that seek a synergistic combination of the data and information processing capabilities of information and communication technologies (ICT), and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings to improve ICT In that role, knowledge management will improve quality management and avoid or minimize losses and weakness that usually come from poor performance as well as increase the competitive level of the company and its ability to survive in the global marketplace. To achieve quality, all parties including the clients, company consultants, contractors, entrepreneurs, suppliers, and the governing bodies (i.e., all involved stake-holders) need to collaborate and commit to achieving quality. The design based organizations in major business and construction companies have to be quality driven to support healthy growth in today's competitive market. In the march towards vision 2020 and globalization (i.e., the one world community) of many companies, their design based organizations need to have superior quality management and knowledge management to anticipate changes. The implementation of a quality system such as the ISO 9000 Standards, Total Quality Management, or Quality Function Deployment (QFD) focuses the company's resources towards achieving faster and better results in the global market with less cost. To anticipate the needs of the marketplace and clients as the world and technology change, a new system, which we call Power Quality System (PQS), has been designed. PQS is a combination of information and communication technologies (ICT) and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings to meet the challenges of the new world business and to develop high quality products. PMID:12465710

  14. "Power quality system," a new system of quality management for globalization: towards innovation and competitive advantages.

    PubMed

    Abdul-Rahman, H; Berawi, M A

    Knowledge Management (KM) addresses the critical issues of organizational adoption, survival and competence in the face of an increasingly changing environment. KM embodies organizational processes that seek a synergistic combination of the data and information processing capabilities of information and communication technologies (ICT), and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings to improve ICT In that role, knowledge management will improve quality management and avoid or minimize losses and weakness that usually come from poor performance as well as increase the competitive level of the company and its ability to survive in the global marketplace. To achieve quality, all parties including the clients, company consultants, contractors, entrepreneurs, suppliers, and the governing bodies (i.e., all involved stake-holders) need to collaborate and commit to achieving quality. The design based organizations in major business and construction companies have to be quality driven to support healthy growth in today's competitive market. In the march towards vision 2020 and globalization (i.e., the one world community) of many companies, their design based organizations need to have superior quality management and knowledge management to anticipate changes. The implementation of a quality system such as the ISO 9000 Standards, Total Quality Management, or Quality Function Deployment (QFD) focuses the company's resources towards achieving faster and better results in the global market with less cost. To anticipate the needs of the marketplace and clients as the world and technology change, a new system, which we call Power Quality System (PQS), has been designed. PQS is a combination of information and communication technologies (ICT) and the creative and innovative capacity of human beings to meet the challenges of the new world business and to develop high quality products.

  15. Development of an expert system for power quality advisement using CLIPS 6.0

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chandrasekaran, A.; Sarma, P. R. R.; Sundaram, Ashok

    1994-01-01

    Proliferation of power electronic devices has brought in its wake both deterioration in and demand for quality power supply from the utilities. The power quality problems become apparent when the user's equipment or systems maloperate or fail. Since power quality concerns arise from a wide variety of sources and the problem fixes are better achieved from the expertise of field engineers, development of an expert system for power quality advisement seems to be a very attractive and cost-effective solution for utility applications. An expert system thus developed gives an understanding of the adverse effects of power quality related problems on the system and could help in finding remedial solutions. The paper reports the design of a power quality advisement expert system being developed using CLIPS 6.0. A brief outline of the power quality concerns is first presented. A description of the knowledge base is next given and details of actual implementation include screen output from the program.

  16. Ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles

    PubMed Central

    Ai, Bao-quan

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate the ratchet transport of mixtures of active and passive particles in a transversal asymmetric channel. A big passive particle is immersed in a ‘sea’ of active particles. Due to the chirality of active particles, the longitudinal directed transport is induced by the transversal asymmetry. For the active particles, the chirality completely determines the direction of the ratchet transport, the counterclockwise and clockwise particles move to the opposite directions and can be separated. However, for the passive particle, the transport behavior becomes complicated, the direction is determined by competitions among the chirality, the self-propulsion speed, and the packing fraction. Interestingly, within certain parameters, the passive particle moves to the left, while active particles move to the right. In addition, there exist optimal parameters (the chirality, the height of the barrier, the self-propulsion speed and the packing fraction) at which the rectified efficiency takes its maximal value. Our findings could be used for the experimental pursuit of the ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles. PMID:26795952

  17. Ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles.

    PubMed

    Ai, Bao-quan

    2016-01-01

    We numerically investigate the ratchet transport of mixtures of active and passive particles in a transversal asymmetric channel. A big passive particle is immersed in a 'sea' of active particles. Due to the chirality of active particles, the longitudinal directed transport is induced by the transversal asymmetry. For the active particles, the chirality completely determines the direction of the ratchet transport, the counterclockwise and clockwise particles move to the opposite directions and can be separated. However, for the passive particle, the transport behavior becomes complicated, the direction is determined by competitions among the chirality, the self-propulsion speed, and the packing fraction. Interestingly, within certain parameters, the passive particle moves to the left, while active particles move to the right. In addition, there exist optimal parameters (the chirality, the height of the barrier, the self-propulsion speed and the packing fraction) at which the rectified efficiency takes its maximal value. Our findings could be used for the experimental pursuit of the ratchet transport powered by chiral active particles.

  18. Energy and power limits for microbial activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    LaRowe, D.; Amend, J.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of this presentation is to describe a quantitative framework for determining how energy limits microbial activity, biomass and, ultimately, biogeochemical processes. Although this model can be applied to any environment, its utility is demonstrated in marine sediments, which are an attractive test habitat because they encompass a broad spectrum of energy levels, varying amounts of biomass and are ubiquitous. The potential number of active microbial cells in Arkonas Basin (Baltic Sea) sediments are estimated as a function of depth by quantifying the amount of energy that is available to them and the rate at which it is supplied: power. The amount of power supplied per cubic centimeter of sediment is determined by calculating the Gibbs energy of fermentation and sulfate reduction in combination with the rate of particulate organic carbon, POC, degradation. The Reactive Continuum Model (Boudreau and Ruddick, 1991), RCM, is used to determine the rate at which POC is made available for microbial consumption. The RCM represents POC as containing a range of different types of organic compounds whose ability to be consumed by microorganisms varies as a function of the age of the sediment and on the distribution of compound types that were initially deposited. The sediment age model and RCM parameters determined by (Mogollon et al., 2012) are used. The power available for fermentation and sulfate reduction coupled to H2 and acetate oxidation varies from 10-8 W cm-3 at the sediment water interface to between 10-11 - 10-12 W cm-3 at 3.5 meters below the seafloor, mbsf. Using values of maintenance powers for each of these catabolic activities taken from the literature, the total number of active cells in these sediments similarly decreases from just less than 108 cell cm-3 at the SWI to 4.6 x 104 cells cm-3 at 3.5 mbsf. The number of moles of POC decreases from 2.6 x 10-5 to 9.5 x 10-6, also becoming more recalcitrant with depth. Boudreau, B. P. and Ruddick, B. R

  19. Active microring based tunable optical power splitters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, Eldhose; Thomas, Arun; Dhawan, Anuj; Sarangi, Smruti R.

    2016-01-01

    In this paper we propose a set of novel tunable optical power splitters based on active microring resonators. They work by operating ring resonators in the transient zone between full resonance and off-resonance states for a specific wavelength. We can achieve different split ratios by either varying the bias voltage, or by selectively enabling a given resonator with a specific split ratio among an array of ring resonators. We take 500 ps to tune the resonator, which is at least 10× better that competing designs. Its split ratio varies from 0.4 to 1.8 for an applied voltage range of 0-5 V.

  20. Rapid algorithm prototyping and implementation for power quality measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kołek, Krzysztof; Piątek, Krzysztof

    2015-12-01

    This article presents a Model-Based Design (MBD) approach to rapidly implement power quality (PQ) metering algorithms. Power supply quality is a very important aspect of modern power systems and will become even more important in future smart grids. In this case, maintaining the PQ parameters at the desired level will require efficient implementation methods of the metering algorithms. Currently, the development of new, advanced PQ metering algorithms requires new hardware with adequate computational capability and time intensive, cost-ineffective manual implementations. An alternative, considered here, is an MBD approach. The MBD approach focuses on the modelling and validation of the model by simulation, which is well-supported by a Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) packages. This paper presents two algorithms utilized in modern PQ meters: a phase-locked loop based on an Enhanced Phase Locked Loop (EPLL), and the flicker measurement according to the IEC 61000-4-15 standard. The algorithms were chosen because of their complexity and non-trivial development. They were first modelled in the MATLAB/Simulink package, then tested and validated in a simulation environment. The models, in the form of Simulink diagrams, were next used to automatically generate C code. The code was compiled and executed in real-time on the Zynq Xilinx platform that combines a reconfigurable Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) with a dual-core processor. The MBD development of PQ algorithms, automatic code generation, and compilation form a rapid algorithm prototyping and implementation path for PQ measurements. The main advantage of this approach is the ability to focus on the design, validation, and testing stages while skipping over implementation issues. The code generation process renders production-ready code that can be easily used on the target hardware. This is especially important when standards for PQ measurement are in constant development, and the PQ issues in emerging smart

  1. Effects of a Meditation Program on Nurses' Power and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Chang, Sun Ju; Kwak, Eun Young; Hahm, Bong-Jin; Seo, Se Hee; Lee, Da Woon; Jang, Sun Joo

    2016-07-01

    This study evaluated the effects of meditation programs on nurses' power and quality of life. In this study, Barrett's power theory derived from Rogers' unitary human being science was used as a theoretical framework. A randomized controlled design with 50 recruited and randomly allocated participants was used. The results demonstrated that the eight-week meditation program significantly improved nurses' power and quality of life. These results suggest that meditation has positive effects on power and quality of life. PMID:27271136

  2. Why Do Electricity Policy and Competitive Markets Fail to Use Advanced PV Systems to Improve Distribution Power Quality?

    DOE PAGES

    McHenry, Mark P.; Johnson, Jay; Hightower, Mike

    2016-01-01

    The increasing pressure for network operators to meet distribution network power quality standards with increasing peak loads, renewable energy targets, and advances in automated distributed power electronics and communications is forcing policy-makers to understand new means to distribute costs and benefits within electricity markets. Discussions surrounding how distributed generation (DG) exhibits active voltage regulation and power factor/reactive power control and other power quality capabilities are complicated by uncertainties of baseline local distribution network power quality and to whom and how costs and benefits of improved electricity infrastructure will be allocated. DG providing ancillary services that dynamically respond to the networkmore » characteristics could lead to major network improvements. With proper market structures renewable energy systems could greatly improve power quality on distribution systems with nearly no additional cost to the grid operators. Renewable DG does have variability challenges, though this issue can be overcome with energy storage, forecasting, and advanced inverter functionality. This paper presents real data from a large-scale grid-connected PV array with large-scale storage and explores effective mitigation measures for PV system variability. We discuss useful inverter technical knowledge for policy-makers to mitigate ongoing inflation of electricity network tariff components by new DG interconnection requirements or electricity markets which value power quality and control.« less

  3. Wind Powering America FY07 Activities Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2008-02-01

    The Wind Powering America FY07 Activities Summary reflects the accomplishments of our state wind working groups, our programs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and our partner organizations. The national WPA team remains a leading force for moving wind energy forward in the United States. WPA continues to work with its national, regional, and state partners to communicate the opportunities and benefits of wind energy to a diverse set of stakeholders. WPA now has 30 state wind working groups (welcoming Georgia and Wisconsin in 2007) that form strategic alliances to communicate wind's benefits to the state stakeholders. More than 140 members of national and state public and private sector organizations from 39 U.S. states and Canada attended the 6th Annual WPA All-States Summit in Los Angeles in June. WPA's emphasis remains on the rural agricultural sector, which stands to reap the significant economic development benefits of wind energy development. Additionally, WPA continues its program of outreach, education, and technical assistance to Native American communities, public power entities, and regulatory and legislative bodies.

  4. Wind Powering America FY06 Activities Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2007-02-01

    The Wind Powering America FY06 Activities Summary reflects the accomplishments of our state wind working groups, our programs at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory, and our partner organizations. The national WPA team remains a leading force for moving wind energy forward in the United States. WPA continues to work with its national, regional, and state partners to communicate the opportunities and benefits of wind energy to a diverse set of stakeholders. WPA now has 29 state wind working groups (welcoming New Jersey, Indiana, Illinois, and Missouri in 2006) that form strategic alliances to communicate wind's benefits to the state stakeholders. More than 120 members of national and state public and private sector organizations from 34 states attended the 5th Annual WPA All-States Summit in Pittsburgh in June.

  5. Optically powered active sensing system for Internet Of Things

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Chen; Wang, Jin; Yin, Long; Yang, Jing; Jiang, Jian; Wan, Hongdan

    2014-10-01

    Internet Of Things (IOT) drives a significant increase in the extent and type of sensing technology and equipment. Sensors, instrumentation, control electronics, data logging and transmission units comprising such sensing systems will all require to be powered. Conventionally, electrical powering is supplied by batteries or/and electric power cables. The power supply by batteries usually has a limited lifetime, while the electric power cables are susceptible to electromagnetic interference. In fact, the electromagnetic interference is the key issue limiting the power supply in the strong electromagnetic radiation area and other extreme environments. The novel alternative method of power supply is power over fiber (PoF) technique. As fibers are used as power supply lines instead, the delivery of the power is inherently immune to electromagnetic radiation, and avoids cumbersome shielding of power lines. Such a safer power supply mode would be a promising candidate for applications in IOT. In this work, we built up optically powered active sensing system, supplying uninterrupted power for the remote active sensors and communication modules. Also, we proposed a novel maximum power point tracking technique for photovoltaic power convertors. In our system, the actual output efficiency greater than 40% within 1W laser power. After 1km fiber transmission and opto-electric power conversion, a stable electric power of 210mW was obtained, which is sufficient for operating an active sensing system.

  6. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the USGS Ohio Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Francy, Donna S.; Shaffer, Kimberly H.

    2008-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been written for use by the Ohio Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Ohio Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Ohio Water Science Center quality-assurance plans for water-quality monitors, the microbiology laboratory, and surface-water and ground-water activities.

  7. A workbook for preparing a district quality- assurance plan for water-quality activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schertz, Terry L.; Childress, Carolyn J.O.; Kelly, Valerie J.; Boucher, Michelle S.; Pederson, Gary L.

    1998-01-01

    APPEARS TO BE A REPORT ON HOW TO WRITE REPORTS --THE 'ABSTRACT' THAT FOLLOWS IS JUST THE GENERIC ABSTRACT TO BE USED FOR WATER USE REPORTS: In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Division of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the [State name] District in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the [State name] District for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the District quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and to supplement the [State name] District quality-assurance plan.

  8. Adaptive Harmonic Detection Control of Grid Interfaced Solar Photovoltaic Energy System with Power Quality Improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B.; Goel, S.

    2015-03-01

    This paper presents a grid interfaced solar photovoltaic (SPV) energy system with a novel adaptive harmonic detection control for power quality improvement at ac mains under balanced as well as unbalanced and distorted supply conditions. The SPV energy system is capable of compensation of linear and nonlinear loads with the objectives of load balancing, harmonics elimination, power factor correction and terminal voltage regulation. The proposed control increases the utilization of PV infrastructure and brings down its effective cost due to its other benefits. The adaptive harmonic detection control algorithm is used to detect the fundamental active power component of load currents which are subsequently used for reference source currents estimation. An instantaneous symmetrical component theory is used to obtain instantaneous positive sequence point of common coupling (PCC) voltages which are used to derive inphase and quadrature phase voltage templates. The proposed grid interfaced PV energy system is modelled and simulated in MATLAB Simulink and its performance is verified under various operating conditions.

  9. Direct charge radioisotope activation and power generation

    DOEpatents

    Lal, Amit; Li, Hui; Blanchard, James P.; Henderson, Douglass L.

    2002-01-01

    An activator has a base on which is mounted an elastically deformable micromechanical element that has a section that is free to be displaced toward the base. An absorber of radioactively emitted particles is formed on the base or the displaceable section of the deformable element and a source is formed on the other of the displaceable section or the base facing the absorber across a small gap. The radioactive source emits charged particles such as electrons, resulting in a buildup of charge on the absorber, drawing the absorber and source together and storing mechanical energy as the deformable element is bent. When the force between the absorber and the source is sufficient to bring the absorber into effective electrical contact with the source, discharge of the charge between the source and absorber allows the deformable element to spring back, releasing the mechanical energy stored in the element. An electrical generator such as a piezoelectric transducer may be secured to the deformable element to convert the released mechanical energy to electrical energy that can be used to provide power to electronic circuits.

  10. Evaluation of coal quality impacts on power plant operation

    SciTech Connect

    Doherty, M.B.

    1996-12-31

    The purpose of this presentation is to have the opportunity to discuss the relationships between coal quality and steam generation. American Electric Power (AEP) is the nations largest burner of coal, consuming approximately 55 million annual tons for its own use and that of companies for which it has management responsibilities. The System has a wide variety of steam generators representing many different steam conditions and boiler configurations. In addition, the company annually mines over 7.5 million tons of coal from its own reserves and operates a highly integrated coal transportation network of river barges, rail cars and terminal transfer facilities. AEP`s approach to evaluating fuels is to first match the fuel being considered to the needs of the steam generator. This includes meeting the environmental control requirements of the unit. Our objective is to supply the fuel to a unit that will enable the unit to operate at the lowest bus bar price. This concept acknowledges that the lowest price of coal per ton may not be synonymous with the lowest cost of production per net KWH.

  11. Physical activity and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Gill, Diane L; Hammond, Cara C; Reifsteck, Erin J; Jehu, Christine M; Williams, Rennae A; Adams, Melanie M; Lange, Elizabeth H; Becofsky, Katie; Rodriguez, Enid; Shang, Ya-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Physical activity (PA) professionals and participants recognize enhanced quality of life (QoL) as a benefit of and motivator for PA. However, QoL measures are often problematic and rarely consider the participants'perspective. This paper focuses on recent findings from a larger project on the role of QoL in PA and health promotion. More specifically, we focus on the views of participants and potential participants to better understand the relationship of PA and QoL. In earlier stages of the project we began with a conceptual model of QoL and developed a survey. We now focus on participants' views and ask two questions: 1) what is QoL? and 2) how does PA relate to QoL? We first asked those questions of a large sample of university students and community participants as open-ended survey items, and then asked focus groups of community participants. Overall, participants' responses reflected the multidimensional, integrative QoL model, but the responses and patterns provided information that may not be picked up with typical survey measures. Findings suggest that PA contributes to multiple aspects of QoL, that social and emotional benefits are primary motivators and outcomes for participants, and that the meaning of QoL and PA benefits is subjective and contextualized, varying across individuals and settings. Programs that directly target and highlight the multiple dimensions and integrative QoL, while considering the individual participants and contexts, may enhance both PA motivation and participants' health and QoL.

  12. Agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Zhenhua

    The active hybridization technique provides an effective approach to combining the best properties of a heterogeneous set of power sources to achieve higher energy density, power density and fuel efficiency. Active hybrid power sources can be used to power hybrid electric vehicles with selected combinations of internal combustion engines, fuel cells, batteries, and/or supercapacitors. They can be deployed in all-electric ships to build a distributed electric power system. They can also be used in a bulk power system to construct an autonomous distributed energy system. An important aspect in designing an active hybrid power source is to find a suitable control strategy that can manage the active power sharing and take advantage of the inherent scalability and robustness benefits of the hybrid system. This paper presents an agent-based power sharing scheme for active hybrid power sources. To demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed agent-based power sharing scheme, simulation studies are performed for a hybrid power source that can be used in a solar car as the main propulsion power module. Simulation results clearly indicate that the agent-based control framework is effective to coordinate the various energy sources and manage the power/voltage profiles.

  13. Challenges and Trends in Analyses of Electric Power Quality Measurement Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGranaghan, Mark F.; Santoso, Surya

    2007-12-01

    Power quality monitoring has expanded from a means to investigate customer complaints to an integral part of power system performance assessments. Besides special purpose power quality monitors, power quality data are collected from many other monitoring devices on the system (intelligent relays, revenue meters, digital fault recorders, etc.). The result is a tremendous volume of measurement data that is being collected continuously and must be analyzed to determine if there are important conclusions that can be drawn from the data. It is a significant challenge due to the wide range of characteristics involved, ranging from very slow variations in the steady state voltage to microsecond transients and high frequency distortion. This paper describes some of the problems that can be evaluated with both offline and online analyses of power quality measurement data. These applications can dramatically increase the value of power quality monitoring systems and provide the basis for ongoing research into new analysis and characterization methods and signal processing techniques.

  14. Adaptive Preheating Duration Control for Low-Power Ambient Air Quality Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Baek, Yoonchul; Atiq, Mahin K.; Kim, Hyung Seok

    2014-01-01

    Ceramic gas sensors used for measuring ambient air quality have features suitable for practical applications such as healthcare and air quality management, but have a major drawback—large power consumption to preheat the sensor for accurate measurements. In this paper; the adaptive preheating duration control (APC) method is proposed to reduce the power consumption of ambient air quality sensor networks. APC reduces the duration of unnecessary preheating, thereby alleviating power consumption. Furthermore, the APC can allow systems to meet user requirements such as accuracy and periodicity factor when detecting the concentration of a target gas. A performance evaluation of the power consumption of gas sensors is conducted with various user requirements and factors that affect the preheating duration of the gas sensor. This shows that the power consumption of the APC is lower than that of continuous power supply methods and constant power supply/cutoff methods. PMID:24658619

  15. The Effect of Line Maintenance Activity on Airline Safety Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rhoades, Dawna L.; Reynolds, Rosemarie; Waguespack, Blaise, Jr.; Williams, Michael

    2005-01-01

    One of the arguments against deregulation of the airline industry has been the possibility that financially troubled carriers would be tempted to lower line maintenance spending, thus lowering maintenance quality and decreasing the overall safety of the carrier. Given the financial crisis triggered by the events of 9/11: it appears to be a good time to revisit this issue. This paper examines the quality of airline line maintenance activity and examines the impact of maintenance spending on maintenance quality and overall safety. Findings indicate that increased maintenance spending is associated with increased line maintenance activity and increased overall safety quality for the major U.S. carriers.

  16. Active Learning: A PowerPoint Tutorial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gareis, Elisabeth

    2007-01-01

    Individual or group presentations are common assignments in business communication courses, and many students use PowerPoint slides as audiovisual support. Frequently, curriculum constraints don't allow instructors much time to teach effective design and delivery of presentation graphics in their courses; guidelines in the form of minilectures or…

  17. Social power and approach-related neural activity.

    PubMed

    Boksem, Maarten A S; Smolders, Ruud; De Cremer, David

    2012-06-01

    It has been argued that power activates a general tendency to approach whereas powerlessness activates a tendency to inhibit. The assumption is that elevated power involves reward-rich environments, freedom and, as a consequence, triggers an approach-related motivational orientation and attention to rewards. In contrast, reduced power is associated with increased threat, punishment and social constraint and thereby activates inhibition-related motivation. Moreover, approach motivation has been found to be associated with increased relative left-sided frontal brain activity, while withdrawal motivation has been associated with increased right sided activations. We measured EEG activity while subjects engaged in a task priming either high or low social power. Results show that high social power is indeed associated with greater left-frontal brain activity compared to low social power, providing the first neural evidence for the theory that high power is associated with approach-related motivation. We propose a framework accounting for differences in both approach motivation and goal-directed behaviour associated with different levels of power.

  18. The Power of Alignment: Educating Nurses in Quality and Safety.

    PubMed

    Drenkard, Karen Neil

    2015-01-01

    The Quality and Safety Education for Nurses (QSEN) grant was launched over 5 years after the Institute of Medicine's report that shared the stark truth about medical errors. The 4 phases of QSEN have provided a roadmap for nursing prelicensure and graduate students to integrate quality improvement and safety content into educational programs. By fully aligning the resources of academic programs with health care organizations, a more robust and comprehensive approach could be taken to ensure that all nurses receive the benefit of the most up-to-date and thorough education about quality and safety.

  19. Active Faults and Nuclear Power Plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chapman, Neil; Berryman, Kelvin; Villamor, Pilar; Epstein, Woody; Cluff, Lloyd; Kawamura, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    The destruction of the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) following the March 2011 Tohoku earthquake and tsunami brought into sharp focus the susceptibility of NPPs to natural hazards. This is not a new issue—seismic hazard has affected the development of plants in the United States, and volcanic hazard was among the reasons for not commissioning the Bataan NPP in the Philippines [Connor et al., 2009].

  20. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system to improve the power quality of a split shaft microturbine power generation system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oğuz, Yüksel; Üstün, Seydi Vakkas; Yabanova, İsmail; Yumurtaci, Mehmet; Güney, İrfan

    2012-01-01

    This article presents design of adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS) for the turbine speed control for purpose of improving the power quality of the power production system of a split shaft microturbine. To improve the operation performance of the microturbine power generation system (MTPGS) and to obtain the electrical output magnitudes in desired quality and value (terminal voltage, operation frequency, power drawn by consumer and production power), a controller depended on adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system was designed. The MTPGS consists of the microturbine speed controller, a split shaft microturbine, cylindrical pole synchronous generator, excitation circuit and voltage regulator. Modeling of dynamic behavior of synchronous generator driver with a turbine and split shaft turbine was realized by using the Matlab/Simulink and SimPowerSystems in it. It is observed from the simulation results that with the microturbine speed control made with ANFIS, when the MTPGS is operated under various loading situations, the terminal voltage and frequency values of the system can be settled in desired operation values in a very short time without significant oscillation and electrical production power in desired quality can be obtained.

  1. High Quality Factor Resonators for Inductive Power Transfer Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etemadrezaei, Mohammad

    In this dissertation, the Inductive Power Transfer (IPT) systems for multi-MHz frequency of operation are investigated, and new ideas for magnetic link inductive coils are presented. (Abstract shortened by ProQuest.).

  2. Ethical issues surrounding quality improvement activities: a review.

    PubMed

    Wise, Lowell C

    2007-06-01

    During the past 15 years, issues regarding the ethical conduct of quality improvement activities have emerged. Recently, many have called for regulation of quality improvement studies using institutional review boards. The author reviews the history of the human rights argument within the context of a relevant, newly released study by the Hastings Center and concludes with practical application of the study's findings.

  3. 42 CFR 423.162 - Quality improvement organization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Quality improvement organization activities. 423.162 Section 423.162 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements §...

  4. 42 CFR 423.162 - Quality improvement organization activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Quality improvement organization activities. 423.162 Section 423.162 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) MEDICARE PROGRAM VOLUNTARY MEDICARE PRESCRIPTION DRUG BENEFIT Cost Control and Quality Improvement Requirements §...

  5. Adolescent Sleep Quality Measured During Leisure Activities

    PubMed Central

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2013-01-01

    A one-week sleep monitoring by logs and actigraphs in preteens during summer camp was conducted. Campers aged 11-16 attended a two-week day camp that focused on the learning about science. Nine campers agreed to monitor their sleep and have their patterns explained (anonymously) to other campers during the expert lecture by the author. The aim of the study was to identify the sleep quality in an adolescent group. All nine of the sleep logs and actigraphs denoted severe sleep deprivation. The findings from the logs and actigraphs denoted sever sleep deprivation. The expert lecturer provided basic information about sleep per the science designation of the day camp. A follow up session provided strategies to address sleep deprivation. PMID:26973908

  6. Adolescent Sleep Quality Measured During Leisure Activities.

    PubMed

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2013-04-18

    A one-week sleep monitoring by logs and actigraphs in preteens during summer camp was conducted. Campers aged 11-16 attended a two-week day camp that focused on the learning about science. Nine campers agreed to monitor their sleep and have their patterns explained (anonymously) to other campers during the expert lecture by the author. The aim of the study was to identify the sleep quality in an adolescent group. All nine of the sleep logs and actigraphs denoted severe sleep deprivation. The findings from the logs and actigraphs denoted sever sleep deprivation. The expert lecturer provided basic information about sleep per the science designation of the day camp. A follow up session provided strategies to address sleep deprivation.

  7. Adolescent Sleep Quality Measured During Leisure Activities.

    PubMed

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy

    2013-04-18

    A one-week sleep monitoring by logs and actigraphs in preteens during summer camp was conducted. Campers aged 11-16 attended a two-week day camp that focused on the learning about science. Nine campers agreed to monitor their sleep and have their patterns explained (anonymously) to other campers during the expert lecture by the author. The aim of the study was to identify the sleep quality in an adolescent group. All nine of the sleep logs and actigraphs denoted severe sleep deprivation. The findings from the logs and actigraphs denoted sever sleep deprivation. The expert lecturer provided basic information about sleep per the science designation of the day camp. A follow up session provided strategies to address sleep deprivation. PMID:26973908

  8. Judgements of Quality, Listening, and Understanding Based Upon Vocal Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daly, John A.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Examines the relationships between vocal activity and three other variables: attribution of quality contributions; perceived listening, and perceived understanding. Concludes that frequency and duration of speech serve as a major mediating variable in communicative relationships. (MH)

  9. Daily activities and sleep quality in young adults.

    PubMed

    Sexton-Radek, Kathy; Pichler-Mowry, Rene

    2011-04-01

    Daily activity levels were investigated as related to sleep quality in young adult college students aged 18 to 30 years. 85 participants (20 men, 65 women) completed the Young Adult Daily Activity Scale (YADAS). This 37-item checklist has 34 items based on focus group discussion points of college students' typical daily activities and three blank items for students to include their daily activities if not in the listing. The tabulation of type and amount of waking daily activities represents a unique measurement of factors that may affect sleep quality. The participants also rated their typical sleep quality using a standard 5-point scale (low indicating poor sleep). Correlations of sleep ratings and activities were not significant. PMID:21667753

  10. Sustainable Buildings. Using Active Solar Power

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, M. Keith; Barnett, Russell

    2015-04-20

    The objective of this project is to promote awareness and knowledge of active solar energy technologies by installing and monitoring the following demonstration systems in Kentucky: 1) Pool heating system, Churchill Park School, 2) Water heating and daylighting systems, Middletown and Aiken Road Elementary Schools, 3) Photovoltaic street light comparison, Louisville Metro, 4) up to 25 domestic water heating systems across Kentucky. These tasks will be supported by outreach activities, including a solar energy installer training workshop and a Kentucky Solar Energy Conference.

  11. Mitochondrial quality control: decommissioning power plants in neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, Rukmini; Chakrabarti, Oishee

    2013-01-01

    The cell has an intricate quality control system to protect its mitochondria from oxidative stress. This surveillance system is multi-tiered and comprises molecules that are present inside the mitochondria, in the cytosol, and in other organelles like the nucleus and endoplasmic reticulum. These molecules cross talk with each other and protect the mitochondria from oxidative stress. Oxidative stress is a fundamental part of early disease pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. These disorders also damage the cellular quality control machinery that protects the cell against oxidative stress. This exacerbates the oxidative damage and causes extensive neuronal cell death that is characteristic of neurodegeneration. PMID:24288463

  12. The central power source in active galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptak, Roger; Stoner, Ronald

    Potential sources for the central power in AGN are examined. The continuum, emission line profiles, and time variability and broad emission line region for AGN are analyzed. The supermassive black hole hypothesis, the supermassive magnetized core model of Kundt (1978), and the model of Stoner and Ptak (1984) in which the supermassive stars maintain a kind of long-term quasi-stability, but accretion is balanced by mass loss and spherical bursts rather than in jets are considered. It is argued that the hypothesis that the supermassive blackholes are the central engines for AGN is based on theoretical principles; however, AGN emission line profiles and variability suggest a spherical geometry for the observed components of these engines. Also the supermassive black hole models do not account for all the AGN observations.

  13. Online physical activity information: will typical users find quality information?

    PubMed

    Bonnar-Kidd, Kelly K; Black, David R; Mattson, Marifran; Coster, Dan

    2009-03-01

    This study evaluated physical activity Web sites to determine quality, accuracy, and consistency with principles of the extended parallel process model (EPPM). Three keyword searches were conducted using 4 search engines to find a sample of N = 41 Web sites. Three raters evaluated the Web sites using the JAMA benchmarks to assess quality and American College of Sports Medicine and Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recommendations for physical activity to determine accuracy, as well as checking for inclusion of EPPM variables. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and analysis of variance with least squares means. Only 22% of the sites were high quality, none were highly accurate, and most were consistent with the EPPM. Quality ratings were weakly associated with accuracy. Educational and .net sites were rated significantly higher in quality and accuracy, and government sites were most consistent with the EPPM. Quality Web sites were more often found by using Yahoo and Google. "Exercise" yielded more accurate results, whereas "physical activity" and "fitness" produced more Web sites consistent with the EPPM. It is encouraging that most sites incorporated EPPM concepts; however, quality and accuracy were poor, leaving physical activity information seekers at risk for disease and injury.

  14. Hydrology and water quality of Powers Lake, southeastern Wisconsin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Field, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    The health of the lake was evaluated using Carlson's Trophic State Index and Vollenweider's model. Carlson's Trophic State Index showed that Powers Lake was moderately enriched and in the mesotrophic range. Comparison of guidelines from Vollenweider's model showed that the total phosphorus input for the study period and for an estimated average year would not cause eutrophic conditions.

  15. 12 CFR 721.2 - What is an incidental powers activity?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What is an incidental powers activity? 721.2... INCIDENTAL POWERS § 721.2 What is an incidental powers activity? An incidental powers activity is one that is... activity meets the definition of an incidental power activity if the activity: (a) Is convenient or...

  16. Space Power Amplification with Active Linearly Tapered Slot Antenna Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simons, Rainee N.; Lee, Richard Q.

    1993-01-01

    A space power amplifier composed of active linearly tapered slot antennas (LTSA's) has been demonstrated and shown to have a gain of 30 dB at 20 GHz. In each of the antenna elements, a GaAs monolithic microwave integrated circuit (MMIC) three-stage power amplifier is integrated with two LTSA's. The LTSA and the MMIC power amplifier has a gain of 11 dB and power added efficiency of 14 percent respectively. The design is suitable for constructing a large array using monolithic integration techniques.

  17. Knowledge, Power and Meanings Shaping Quality Assurance in Higher Education: A Systemic Critique

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houston, Don; Paewai, Shelley

    2013-01-01

    Internationally, quality assurance schemes persist despite long-standing dissatisfaction and critique of their impact and outcomes. Adopting a critical systems perspective, the article explores the relationships between the knowledge, power and meanings that stakeholder groups bring to the design and implementation of quality assurance systems.…

  18. Active lithium chloride cell for spacecraft power

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fleischmann, C. W.; Horning, R. J.

    1988-01-01

    An active thionyl chloride high rate battery is under development for spacecraft operations. It is a 540kC (150 Ah) battery capable of pulses up to 75A. This paper describes the design and initial test data on a 'state-of-the-art' cell that has been selected to be the baseline for the prototype cell for that battery. Initial data indicate that the specification can be met with fresh cells. Data for stored cells and additional environmental test data are in the process of being developed.

  19. S-PRIME Thermionic Space Nuclear Power System Quality Assurance Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, C.M.

    1992-09-23

    This Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP)describes how the Thermionic Space Nuclear Power System Design and Technology Demonstration Project addresses the Quality Assurance requirements delineated in DOE Order 5700.6C and the Thermionic Program Management Plan 214PMP000001. The Quality Assurance Program is based on the following fundamental principles, which Rocketdyne endorses and the QA Project Manager and Program Manager shall enforce: Quality Achievement is a continuing responsibility of line organization at all levels; the Quality Assurance organization through the effective overview of work, gives additional assurance that specified requirements are met; risk is the fundamental consideration in determining to what extent the Quality Assurance Plan should be applied to items and processes; action is based on facts and analysis, customer driven quality, strong quality leadership and continuous improvement.

  20. Muscle power is an independent determinant of pain and quality of life in knee osteoarthritis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    OBJECTIVE: This study examined the relationships between leg muscle strength, power, and perceived disease severity in subjects with knee osteoarthritis (OA) in order to determine whether dynamic leg extensor muscle power would be associated with pain and quality of life in knee OA. METHODS: Baseli...

  1. Input Power Quality Improvement in Switched Reluctance Motor Drive using Minnesota Rectifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, B.; Rajesh, M.

    2013-09-01

    This paper deals with an input power quality improvement in a midpoint converter based switched reluctance motor (SRM) drive at ac mains using Minnesota rectifier. Normally a midpoint converter is used as a power converter for SRM drive. Conventionally three phase ac mains fed bridge rectifier is used as a dc source to feed this power converter which produces high content of harmonics at ac mains with a very low power factor. The proposed Minnesota rectifier with a midpoint converter fed SRM drive improves the power factor at ac mains with low current harmonics. This method provides constant dc link voltage and balanced capacitor voltages of the midpoint converter. The Minnesota rectifier fed SRM drive is modelled and its performance is simulated in Matlab/Simulink environment. The performance of Minnesota rectifier is compared with a conventional bridge topology for SRM drive to demonstrate improved power quality at ac mains.

  2. Development of an analytical tool to study power quality of AC power systems for large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. Alan; Kankam, M. David

    1991-01-01

    A harmonic power flow program applicable to space power systems with sources of harmonic distortion is described. The algorithm is a modification of the Electric Power Research Institute's HARMFLO program which assumes a three phase, balanced, AC system with loads of harmonic distortion. The modified power flow program can be used with single phase, AC systems. Early results indicate that the required modifications and the models developed are quite adequate for the analysis of a 20 kHz testbed built by General Dynamics Corporation. This is demonstrated by the acceptable correlation of present results with published data. Although the results are not exact, the discrepancies are relatively small.

  3. Development of an analytical tool to study power quality of ac power systems for large spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kraft, L. A.; Kankam, M. D.

    1991-01-01

    A harmonic power flow program applicable to space power systems with sources of harmonic distortion is described. The algorithm is a modification of Electric Power Research Institute's HARMFLO program which assumes a three-phase, balanced, ac system with loads of harmonic distortion. The modified power flow program can be used with single phase, ac systems. Early results indicate that the required modifications and the models developed are quite adequate for the analysis of a 20-kHz testbed built by General Dynamics Corporation. This is demonstrated by the acceptable correlation of the present results with published data. Although the results are not exact, the discrepancies are relatively small.

  4. Power Supplies for Space Systems Quality Assurance by Sandia Laboratories

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Hannigan, R. L.; Harnar, R. R.

    1976-07-01

    The Sandia Laboratories` participation in Quality Assurance programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used in space systems over the past 10 years is summarized. Basic elements of this QA program are briefly described and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems for which Sandia has had the QA responsibility are presented, including SNAP 19 (Nimbus, Pioneer, Viking), SNAP 27 (Apollo), Transit, Multi Hundred Watt (LES 8/9 and MJS), and a new program, High Performance Generator Mod 3. The outlook for Sandia participation in RTG programs for the next several years is noted.

  5. Power conversion and quality of the Santa Clara 2 MW direct carbonate fuel cell demonstration plant

    SciTech Connect

    Skok, A.J.; Abueg, R.Z.; Schwartz, P.

    1996-12-31

    The Santa Clara Demonstration Project (SCDP) is the first application of a commercial-scale carbonate fuel cell power plant on a US electric utility system. It is also the largest fuel cell power plant ever operated in the United States. The 2MW plant, located in Santa Clara, California, utilizes carbonate fuel cell technology developed by Energy Research Corporation (ERC) of Danbury, Connecticut. The ultimate goal of a fuel cell power plant is to deliver usable power into an electrical distribution system. The power conversion sub-system does this for the Santa Clara Demonstration Plant. A description of this sub-system and its capabilities follows. The sub-system has demonstrated the capability to deliver real power, reactive power and to absorb reactive power on a utility grid. The sub-system can be operated in the same manner as a conventional rotating generator except with enhanced capabilities for reactive power. Measurements demonstrated the power quality from the plant in various operating modes was high quality utility grade power.

  6. A Design of Wireless Sensor Networks for a Power Quality Monitoring System

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yujin; Kim, Hak-Man; Kang, Sanggil

    2010-01-01

    Power grids deal with the business of generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. Recently, interest in power quality in electrical distribution systems has increased rapidly. In Korea, the communication network to deliver voltage, current, and temperature measurements gathered from pole transformers to remote monitoring centers employs cellular mobile technology. Due to high cost of the cellular mobile technology, power quality monitoring measurements are limited and data gathering intervals are large. This causes difficulties in providing the power quality monitoring service. To alleviate the problems, in this paper we present a communication infrastructure to provide low cost, reliable data delivery. The communication infrastructure consists of wired connections between substations and monitoring centers, and wireless connections between pole transformers and substations. For the wireless connection, we employ a wireless sensor network and design its corresponding data forwarding protocol to improve the quality of data delivery. For the design, we adopt a tree-based data forwarding protocol in order to customize the distribution pattern of the power quality information. We verify the performance of the proposed data forwarding protocol quantitatively using the NS-2 network simulator. PMID:22163436

  7. An Improved Power Quality Based Sheppard-Taylor Converter Fed BLDC Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhim; Bist, Vashist

    2015-12-01

    This paper deals with the design and analysis of a power factor correction based Sheppard-Taylor converter fed brushless dc motor (BLDCM) drive. The speed of the BLDCM is controlled by adjusting the dc link voltage of the voltage source inverter (VSI) feeding BLDCM. Moreover, a low frequency switching of the VSI is used for electronically commutating the BLDCM for reduced switching losses. The Sheppard-Taylor converter is designed to operate in continuous conduction mode to achieve an improved power quality at the ac mains for a wide range of speed control and supply voltage variation. The BLDCM drive is designed and its performance is simulated in a MATLAB/Simulink environment to achieve the power quality indices within the limits of the international power quality standard IEC-61000-3-2.

  8. Single-Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Onar, Omer C; Miller, John M; Tang, Lixin

    2013-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance. To understand the power flow through the system this paper presents a novel approach to the system model and the impact of different control parameters on the load power. The implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation is also discussed.

  9. The evolving role of physician organizations in quality related activities

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    As the fields of quality assessment and improvement become integral parts of medical practice, the roles of National Medical Associations, and other physician organizations in these endeavors have undergone major changes in scope and intensity as well. The survey based report in this journal by Levi et al. suggests some major overall trends but also notes wide variation from country to country. In this commentary, we touch on some likely reasons for the variation seen in the focus of physician organization participation in quality activities, and offer some suggestions for why expanded involvement by physician organizations may be critical to quality efforts going forward. PMID:24959345

  10. Flame-powered trigger device for activating explosion suppression barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Cortese, R.A.; Sapko, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reports that the U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a flame-radiation-powered trigger device to explosively activate suppression barriers to quench gas and coal dust explosions. The major component of the device is a silicon solar panel, which concerts radiation from the developing explosion into electrical energy to initiate an electric detonator, which releases an extinguishing agent into the advancing flame front. Solar panels that are rated to produce 20 W of electrical power when exposed to the sunlight are producing about 200 W when exposed to a full-scale dust explosion. The solar panel is electrically isolated from the detonator by a pressure-sensitive switch until the arrival of the precursor pressure pulse, which always precedes a deflagration. This combination of pressure arming and flame-powered photogenerator prevents false barrier activation and requires no external power supply.

  11. CMOS Amperometric ADC With High Sensitivity, Dynamic Range and Power Efficiency for Air Quality Monitoring.

    PubMed

    Li, Haitao; Boling, C Sam; Mason, Andrew J

    2016-08-01

    Airborne pollutants are a leading cause of illness and mortality globally. Electrochemical gas sensors show great promise for personal air quality monitoring to address this worldwide health crisis. However, implementing miniaturized arrays of such sensors demands high performance instrumentation circuits that simultaneously meet challenging power, area, sensitivity, noise and dynamic range goals. This paper presents a new multi-channel CMOS amperometric ADC featuring pixel-level architecture for gas sensor arrays. The circuit combines digital modulation of input currents and an incremental Σ∆ ADC to achieve wide dynamic range and high sensitivity with very high power efficiency and compact size. Fabricated in 0.5 [Formula: see text] CMOS, the circuit was measured to have 164 dB cross-scale dynamic range, 100 fA sensitivity while consuming only 241 [Formula: see text] and 0.157 [Formula: see text] active area per channel. Electrochemical experiments with liquid and gas targets demonstrate the circuit's real-time response to a wide range of analyte concentrations. PMID:27352395

  12. Control Quality of a Feedback Control System under Cyclostationary Noise in Power Line Communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carrizo, Cesar; Kobayashi, Kentaro; Okada, Hiraku; Katayama, Masaaki

    This paper discusses a control system that employs a power line to transfer signals to control the motion of a single machine, and explores the influence of packet losses on the quality of the control. As an example of a controlled system, a controller with a rotary inverted pendulum as a controlled object, is considered. The feedback loop in between is the power line. The control performance is evaluated in the power line cyclostationary noise environment and compared against the performance in a stationary noise environment. As a result, it is confirmed that the power line and its cyclostationary noise features present an advantage against transmission in a channel with stationary noise.

  13. Gamma power is phase-locked to posterior alpha activity.

    PubMed

    Osipova, Daria; Hermes, Dora; Jensen, Ole

    2008-01-01

    Neuronal oscillations in various frequency bands have been reported in numerous studies in both humans and animals. While it is obvious that these oscillations play an important role in cognitive processing, it remains unclear how oscillations in various frequency bands interact. In this study we have investigated phase to power locking in MEG activity of healthy human subjects at rest with their eyes closed. To examine cross-frequency coupling, we have computed coherence between the time course of the power in a given frequency band and the signal itself within every channel. The time-course of the power was calculated using a sliding tapered time window followed by a Fourier transform. Our findings show that high-frequency gamma power (30-70 Hz) is phase-locked to alpha oscillations (8-13 Hz) in the ongoing MEG signals. The topography of the coupling was similar to the topography of the alpha power and was strongest over occipital areas. Interestingly, gamma activity per se was not evident in the power spectra and only became detectable when studied in relation to the alpha phase. Intracranial data from an epileptic subject confirmed these findings albeit there was slowing in both the alpha and gamma band. A tentative explanation for this phenomenon is that the visual system is inhibited during most of the alpha cycle whereas a burst of gamma activity at a specific alpha phase (e.g. at troughs) reflects a window of excitability. PMID:19098986

  14. Temporal signatures of taste quality driven by active sensing.

    PubMed

    Graham, Dustin M; Sun, Chengsan; Hill, David L

    2014-05-28

    Animals actively acquire sensory information from the outside world, with rodents sniffing to smell and whisking to feel. Licking, a rapid motor sequence used for gustation, serves as the primary means of controlling stimulus access to taste receptors in the mouth. Using a novel taste-quality discrimination task in head-restrained mice, we measured and compared reaction times to four basic taste qualities (salt, sour, sweet, and bitter) and found that certain taste qualities are perceived inherently faster than others, driven by the precise biomechanics of licking and functional organization of the peripheral gustatory system. The minimum time required for accurate perception was strongly dependent on taste quality, ranging from the sensory-motor limits of a single lick (salt, ∼100 ms) to several sampling cycles (bitter, >500 ms). Further, disruption of sensory input from the anterior tongue significantly impaired the speed of perception of some taste qualities, with little effect on others. Overall, our results show that active sensing may play an important role in shaping the timing of taste-quality representations and perception in the gustatory system.

  15. Fuel cells provide a revenue-generating solution to power quality problems

    SciTech Connect

    King, J.M. Jr.

    1996-03-01

    Electric power quality and reliability are becoming increasingly important as computers and microprocessors assume a larger role in commercial, health care and industrial buildings and processes. At the same time, constraints on transmission and distribution of power from central stations are making local areas vulnerable to low voltage, load addition limitations, power quality and power reliability problems. Many customers currently utilize some form of premium power in the form of standby generators and/or UPS systems. These include customers where continuous power is required because of health and safety or security reasons (hospitals, nursing homes, places of public assembly, air traffic control, military installations, telecommunications, etc.) These also include customers with industrial or commercial processes which can`t tolerance an interruption of power because of product loss or equipment damage. The paper discusses the use of the PC25 fuel cell power plant for backup and parallel power supplies for critical industrial applications. Several PC25 installations are described: the use of propane in a PC25; the use by rural cooperatives; and a demonstration of PC25 technology using landfill gas.

  16. New hybrid active power filter for harmonic current suppression and reactive power compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biricik, Samet; Cemal Ozerdem, Ozgur; Redif, Soydan; Sezai Dincer, Mustafa

    2016-08-01

    In the case of undistorted and balanced grid voltages, low ratio shunt active power filters (APFs) can give unity power factors and achieve current harmonic cancellation. However, this is not possible when source voltages are distorted and unbalanced. In this study, the cost-effective hybrid active power filter (HAPF) topology for satisfying the requirements of harmonic current suppression and non-active power compensation for industry is presented. An effective strategy is developed to observe the effect of the placement of power capacitors and LC filters with the shunt APF. A new method for alleviating the negative effects of a nonideal grid voltage is proposed that uses a self-tuning filter algorithm with instantaneous reactive power theory. The real-time control of the studied system was achieved with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) architecture, which was developed using the OPAL-RT system. The performance result of the proposed HAPF system is tested and presented under nonideal supply voltage conditions.

  17. HOS network-based classification of power quality events via regression algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palomares Salas, José Carlos; González de la Rosa, Juan José; Sierra Fernández, José María; Pérez, Agustín Agüera

    2015-12-01

    This work compares seven regression algorithms implemented in artificial neural networks (ANNs) supported by 14 power-quality features, which are based in higher-order statistics. Combining time and frequency domain estimators to deal with non-stationary measurement sequences, the final goal of the system is the implementation in the future smart grid to guarantee compatibility between all equipment connected. The principal results are based in spectral kurtosis measurements, which easily adapt to the impulsive nature of the power quality events. These results verify that the proposed technique is capable of offering interesting results for power quality (PQ) disturbance classification. The best results are obtained using radial basis networks, generalized regression, and multilayer perceptron, mainly due to the non-linear nature of data.

  18. Simulation of the wavefront distortion and beam quality for a high-power zigzag slab laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Jae Sung; Cha, Yong-Ho; Cha, Byung Heon; Lee, Hyeon Cheor; Kim, Hyun Tae; Lee, Jung Hwan

    2016-12-01

    A simulation method of the beam quality for a high-power zigzag slab laser has been developed. This method can predict the wavefront distortion and beam quality for various optical arrangements and optimize the design effectively. A Nd:YAG zigzag slab laser amplifier was designed as an application. The optimized design shows a beam quality of 1.20 corresponding to the minimized wavefront distortion with a peak-to-valley of 0.568 μm and root mean square of 0.115 μm even under high-power operation with a total pump power of 14 kW. Although there are some effects other than the optical design error that incur wavefront distortions, this method can help to determine the first optical design of the zigzag slab laser without the need for many experimental studies.

  19. EMC and power quality standards for 20-kHz power distribution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hansen, Irving G.

    1987-01-01

    The Space Station Power Distribution System has been baselined as a sinusoidal single phase, 440 VRMS system. This system has certain unique characteristics directly affecting its application. In particular, existing systematic description and control documents were modified to reflect the high operating frequency. This paper will discuss amendments made on Mil STD 704 (Electrical Power Characteristics), and Mil STD 461-B (Electromagnetic Emission and Susceptibility Requirements for the Control of Electromagnetic Interference). In some cases these amendments reflect changes of several orders of magnitude. Implications and impacts of these changes are discussed.

  20. Shunt hybrid active power filter under nonideal voltage based on fuzzy logic controller

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dey, Papan; Mekhilef, Saad

    2016-09-01

    In this paper, a synchronous reference frame (SRF) method based on a modified phase lock loop (PLL) circuit is developed for a three-phase four-wire shunt hybrid active power filter (APF). Its performance is analysed under unbalanced grid conditions. The dominant lower order harmonics as well as reactive power can be compensated by the passive elements, whereas the active part mitigates the remaining distortions and improves the power quality. As different control methods show contradictory performance, fuzzy logic controller is considered here for DC-link voltage regulation of the inverter. Extensive simulations of the proposed technique are carried out in a MATLAB-SIMULINK environment. A laboratory prototype has been built on dSPACE1104 platform to verify the feasibility of the suggested SHAPF controller. The simulation and experimental results validate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  1. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy and expert systems for power quality analysis and prediction of abnormal operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ibrahim, Wael Refaat Anis

    The present research involves the development of several fuzzy expert systems for power quality analysis and diagnosis. Intelligent systems for the prediction of abnormal system operation were also developed. The performance of all intelligent modules developed was either enhanced or completely produced through adaptive fuzzy learning techniques. Neuro-fuzzy learning is the main adaptive technique utilized. The work presents a novel approach to the interpretation of power quality from the perspective of the continuous operation of a single system. The research includes an extensive literature review pertaining to the applications of intelligent systems to power quality analysis. Basic definitions and signature events related to power quality are introduced. In addition, detailed discussions of various artificial intelligence paradigms as well as wavelet theory are included. A fuzzy-based intelligent system capable of identifying normal from abnormal operation for a given system was developed. Adaptive neuro-fuzzy learning was applied to enhance its performance. A group of fuzzy expert systems that could perform full operational diagnosis were also developed successfully. The developed systems were applied to the operational diagnosis of 3-phase induction motors and rectifier bridges. A novel approach for learning power quality waveforms and trends was developed. The technique, which is adaptive neuro fuzzy-based, learned, compressed, and stored the waveform data. The new technique was successfully tested using a wide variety of power quality signature waveforms, and using real site data. The trend-learning technique was incorporated into a fuzzy expert system that was designed to predict abnormal operation of a monitored system. The intelligent system learns and stores, in compressed format, trends leading to abnormal operation. The system then compares incoming data to the retained trends continuously. If the incoming data matches any of the learned trends, an

  2. A Novel Multiobjective Control of DVR to Enhance Power Quality of Sensitive Load.

    PubMed

    Pandu, Sathish Babu; Nagappan, Kamaraj

    2015-01-01

    The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is one of the fast, flexible, and cost effective solutions available in compensating the voltage-related power quality problems in power distribution systems. In this paper is discussed how power quality enhancement of sensitive load is achieved by applying three versions of Autonomous Group Particle Swarm Optimization like AGPSO1, AGPSO2, and AGPSO3 for tuning the Proportional-Integral DVR controller under balanced and nonlinear load conditions. A novel multiobjective function is formulated to express the control performance of the system, which is quantified using three power quality indices such as Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), voltage sag index, and RMS voltage variation. The obtained results are compared with the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller tuned by Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) method and also by Simple Particle Swarm Optimization based PI controlled DVR. The proposed methodology has improved the performance in terms of the considered power quality indices and the simulation has been carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment. PMID:26613100

  3. A Novel Multiobjective Control of DVR to Enhance Power Quality of Sensitive Load

    PubMed Central

    Pandu, Sathish Babu; Nagappan, Kamaraj

    2015-01-01

    The Dynamic Voltage Restorer (DVR) is one of the fast, flexible, and cost effective solutions available in compensating the voltage-related power quality problems in power distribution systems. In this paper is discussed how power quality enhancement of sensitive load is achieved by applying three versions of Autonomous Group Particle Swarm Optimization like AGPSO1, AGPSO2, and AGPSO3 for tuning the Proportional-Integral DVR controller under balanced and nonlinear load conditions. A novel multiobjective function is formulated to express the control performance of the system, which is quantified using three power quality indices such as Total Harmonic Distortion (THD), voltage sag index, and RMS voltage variation. The obtained results are compared with the Proportional-Integral (PI) controller tuned by Ziegler-Nichols (ZN) method and also by Simple Particle Swarm Optimization based PI controlled DVR. The proposed methodology has improved the performance in terms of the considered power quality indices and the simulation has been carried out in MATLAB/Simulink environment. PMID:26613100

  4. Plasma Switch for High-Power Active Pulse Compressor

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-11-04

    Results are presented from experiments carried out at the Naval Research Laboratory X-band magnicon facility on a two-channel X-band active RF pulse compressor that employed plasma switches. Experimental evidence is shown to validate the basic goals of the project, which include: simultaneous firing of plasma switches in both channels of the RF circuit, operation of quasi-optical 3-dB hybrid directional coupler coherent superposition of RF compressed pulses from both channels, and operation of the X-band magnicon directly in the RF pulse compressor. For incident 1.2 ?s pulses in the range 0.63 ? 1.35 MW, compressed pulses of peak powers 5.7 ? 11.3 MW were obtained, corresponding to peak power gain ratios of 8.3 ? 9.3. Insufficient bakeout and conditioning of the high-power RF circuit prevented experiments from being conducted at higher RF input power levels.

  5. Quality-assurance and data-management plan for water-quality activities in the Kansas Water Science Center, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rasmussen, Teresa J.; Bennett, Trudy J.; Foster, Guy M.; Graham, Jennifer L.; Putnam, James E.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s largest water, earth, and biological science and civilian mapping information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey is relied on to collect high-quality data, and produce factual and impartial interpretive reports. This quality-assurance and data-management plan provides guidance for water-quality activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center. Policies and procedures are documented for activities related to planning, collecting, storing, documenting, tracking, verifying, approving, archiving, and disseminating water-quality data. The policies and procedures described in this plan complement quality-assurance plans for continuous water-quality monitoring, surface-water, and groundwater activities in Kansas.

  6. High-power terahertz lasers with excellent beam quality for local oscillator sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Benjamin

    to demonstrate a new concept for terahertz quantum-cascade (QC) lasers designed to deliver scalable continuous-wave output power in the range of 10 to 100 mW or more in a near-diffraction limited output beam: a chip-scale THz quantum-cascade vertical-external-cavity-surface-emitting-laser (QC-VECSEL). We focus here on the development of a chip-scale version of size < 1 cm3 that oscillates in a single mode and can readily fit on a cold stage. The enabling technology for this proposed laser is an active metasurface reflector, which is comprised of a sparse array of antenna-coupled THz QC-laser sub-cavities. The metasurface reflector is part of the laser cavity such that multiple THz QC-laser sub-cavities are locked to a high-quality-factor cavity mode, which allows for scalable power combining with a favorable geometry for thermal dissipation and continuous-wave operation. We propose an integrated design, modeling, and experimental approach to design, fabricate, and characterize amplifying reflective QC metasurfaces and QC-VECSEL lasers. Demonstration laser devices will be developed at 2.7 THz and 4.7 THz, near the important frequencies for HD at 2.675 THz (for measurements of the hydrogen deuterium ratio and probing past star formation), and OI at 4.745 THz (a major coolant for photo-dissociation regions in giant molecular clouds). High resolution frequency measurements will be performed on a demonstration device at 2.7 THz will using downconversion with a Schottky diode sub-harmonic mixer to characterize the spectral purity, linewidth, and fine frequency tuning of this new type of QC-laser. This proposed laser is supporting technology for next-generation terahertz detectors.

  7. Effects of Village Power Quality on Fuel Consumption and Operating Expenses

    SciTech Connect

    Richard Wies; Ron Johnson

    2008-12-31

    Alaska's rural village electric utilities are isolated from the Alaska railbelt electrical grid intertie and from each other. Different strategies have been developed for providing power to meet demand in each of these rural communities. Many of these communities rely on diesel electric generators (DEGs) for power. Some villages have also installed renewable power sources and automated generation systems for controlling the DEGs and other sources of power. For example, Lime Village has installed a diesel battery photovoltaic hybrid system, Kotzebue and Wales have wind-diesel hybrid systems, and McGrath has installed a highly automated system for controlling diesel generators. Poor power quality and diesel engine efficiency in village power systems increases the cost of meeting the load. Power quality problems may consist of poor power factor (PF) or waveform disturbances, while diesel engine efficiency depends primarily on loading, the fuel type, the engine temperature, and the use of waste heat for nearby buildings. These costs take the form of increased fuel use, increased generator maintenance, and decreased reliability. With the cost of bulk fuel in some villages approaching $1.32/liter ($5.00/gallon) a modest 5% decrease in fuel use can result in substantial savings with short payback periods depending on the village's load profile and the cost of corrective measures. This project over its five year history has investigated approaches to improving power quality and implementing fuel savings measures through the use of performance assessment software tools developed in MATLAB{reg_sign} Simulink{reg_sign} and the implementation of remote monitoring, automated generation control, and the addition of renewable energy sources in select villages. The results have shown how many of these communities would benefit from the use of automated generation control by implementing a simple economic dispatch scheme and the integration of renewable energy sources such as wind

  8. The air quality and regional climate effects of widespread solar power generation under a changing regulatory environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millstein, D.; Zhai, P.; Menon, S.

    2011-12-01

    Over the past decade significant reductions of NOx and SOx emissions from coal burning power plants in the U.S. have been achieved due to regulatory action and substitution of new generation towards natural gas and wind power. Low natural gas prices, ever decreasing solar generation costs, and proposed regulatory changes, such as to the Cross State Air Pollution Rule, promise further long-run coal power plant emission reductions. Reduced power plant emissions have the potential to affect ozone and particulate air quality and influence regional climate through aerosol cloud interactions and visibility effects. Here we investigate, on a national scale, the effects on future (~2030) air quality and regional climate of power plant emission regulations in contrast to and combination with policies designed to aggressively promote solar electricity generation. A sophisticated, economic and engineering based, hourly power generation dispatch model is developed to explore the integration of significant solar generation resources (>10% on an energy basis) at various regions across the county, providing detailed estimates of substitution of solar generation for fossil fuel generation resources. Future air pollutant emissions from all sectors of the economy are scaled based on the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's National Emission Inventory to account for activity changes based on population and economic projections derived from county level U.S. Census data and the Energy Information Administration's Annual Energy Outlook. Further adjustments are made for technological and regulatory changes applicable within various sectors, for example, emission intensity adjustments to on-road diesel trucking due to exhaust treatment and improved engine design. The future year 2030 is selected for the emissions scenarios to allow for the development of significant solar generation resources. A regional climate and air quality model (Weather Research and Forecasting, WRF model) is

  9. A reliable data delivery mechanism for grid power quality using neural networks in wireless sensor networks.

    PubMed

    Lim, Yujin; Kim, Hak-Man; Kang, Sanggil

    2010-01-01

    Power grids deal with the business of generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. Current systems monitor basic electrical quantities such as voltage and current from major pole transformers using their temperature. We improve the current systems in order to gather and deliver the information of power qualities such as harmonics, voltage sags, and voltage swells. In the system, data delivery is not guaranteed for the case that a node is lost or the network is congested, because the system has in-line and multi-hop architecture. In this paper, we propose a reliable data delivery mechanism by modeling an optimal data delivery function by employing the neural network concept.

  10. Cost and Quality Management: Making fossil power and plants more competitive: Phase 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, R.S.

    1992-05-01

    Cost and Quality Management theory is helping to make US corporations profitable again. Summarizing Phase 1 of a three-phase study, this report defines how Cost and Quality Management (also called Total Quality Management) relates to power production plants, the barriers standing in the way, and the concepts needed to overcome them. Major barriers include resistance to change, sparse efforts to grow employee initiative and self-esteem, a lack of understanding the importance of internal customers, and traditional management practices as represented by the top-to-bottom organization chart. Breakthrough concepts include a commitment to making and sustaining quality-based changes, realizing the potential of human assets, focusing on satisfying internal as well as external customers, and treating work as a process that crosses departments. The report ends by describing five other ongoing EPRI projects designed to help utility executives change from a traditional management style to Cost and Quality Management.

  11. Cost and Quality Management: Making fossil power and plants more competitive: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    McQueen, R.S. . Center for Productivity and Mfg. Engineering)

    1992-05-01

    Cost and Quality Management theory is helping to make US corporations profitable again. Summarizing Phase 1 of a three-phase study, this report defines how Cost and Quality Management (also called Total Quality Management) relates to power production plants, the barriers standing in the way, and the concepts needed to overcome them. Major barriers include resistance to change, sparse efforts to grow employee initiative and self-esteem, a lack of understanding the importance of internal customers, and traditional management practices as represented by the top-to-bottom organization chart. Breakthrough concepts include a commitment to making and sustaining quality-based changes, realizing the potential of human assets, focusing on satisfying internal as well as external customers, and treating work as a process that crosses departments. The report ends by describing five other ongoing EPRI projects designed to help utility executives change from a traditional management style to Cost and Quality Management.

  12. An Improved Power Quality BIBRED Converter-Based VSI-Fed BLDC Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhim; Bist, Vashist

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents an IHQRR (integrated high-quality rectifier regulator) BIBRED (boost integrated buck rectifier energy storage DC-DC) converter-based VSI (voltage source inverter)-fed BLDC (brushless DC) motor drive. The speed control of BLDC motor is achieved by controlling the DC link voltage of the VSI using a single voltage sensor. This allows VSI to operate in fundamental frequency switching mode for electronic commutation of BLDC motor which reduces the switching losses due to high-frequency switching used in conventional approach of PWM (pulse width modulation)-based VSI-fed BLDC motor drive. A BIBRED converter is operated in a dual-DCM (discontinuous conduction mode) thus using a voltage follower approach for PFC (power factor correction) and DC link voltage control. The performance of the proposed drive is evaluated for improved power quality over a wide range of speed control and supply voltage variation for demonstrating the behavior of proposed drive. The power quality indices thus obtained are within the recommended limits by international PQ (power quality) standards such as IEC 61000-3-2.

  13. Evaluation of conventional electric power generating industry quality assurance and reliability practices

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, R.T.; Lauffenburger, H.A.

    1981-03-01

    The techniques and practices utilized in an allied industry (electric power generation) that might serve as a baseline for formulating Quality Assurance and Reliability (QA and R) procedures for photovoltaic solar energy systems were studied. The study results provide direct near-term input for establishing validation methods as part of the SERI performance criteria and test standards development task.

  14. Total Quality Education: Profiles of Schools That Demonstrate the Power of Deming's Management Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmoker, Michael J.; Wilson, Richard B.

    This book presents profiles of schools that have demonstrated the power of Deming's Total Quality Management (TQM) principles. It describes schools that have successfully applied those strategies for change. The book explores what public education needs most--a compelling but flexible action plan for improvement. Chapter 1 offers a rationale for…

  15. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities in the U.S. Geological Survey Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wagner, Richard J.; Kimbrough, Robert A.; Turney, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), this quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the USGS Washington Water Science Center (WAWSC) in conducting water-quality activities. The plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the personnel of the WAWSC for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the WAWSC's quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and to supplement the WAWSC quality-assurance plan.

  16. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey in Miami, Florida

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lietz, A. C.

    2003-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey, a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in Miami to conduct water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the Miami USGS for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures that are documented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities are meant to complement the Miami USGS quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities.

  17. Quality-Assurance Plan for Water-Quality Activities of the U.S. Geological Survey Montana Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, John H.

    2006-01-01

    In accordance with guidelines set forth by the Office of Water Quality in the Water Resources Discipline of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), a quality-assurance plan has been created for use by the USGS Montana Water Science Center in conducting water-quality activities. This quality-assurance plan documents the standards, policies, and procedures used by the USGS Montana Water Science Center for activities related to the collection, processing, storage, analysis, and publication of water-quality data. The policies and procedures presented in this quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities complement the quality-assurance plans for surface-water and ground-water activities and suspended-sediment analysis.

  18. State Public Health Laboratory System Quality Improvement Activities

    PubMed Central

    Vagnone, Paula Snippes

    2013-01-01

    The Association of Public Health Laboratories (APHL) and the APHL Laboratory Systems and Standards Committee manage the Laboratory System Improvement Program (L-SIP). One component of L-SIP is an assessment that allows the members and stakeholders of a laboratory system to have an open and honest discussion about the laboratory system's strengths and weaknesses. From these facilitated discussions, gaps and opportunities for improvement are identified. In some cases, ideas for how to best address these gaps emerge, and workgroups are formed. Depending on resources, both monetary and personnel, laboratory staff will then prioritize the next component of L-SIP: which quality improvement activities to undertake. This article describes a sample of quality improvement activities initiated by several public health laboratories after they conducted L-SIP assessments. These projects can result in more robust linkages between system entities, which can translate into improvements in the way the system addresses the needs of stakeholders. PMID:23997301

  19. Impact of power ultrasound on chemical and physicochemical quality indicators of strawberries dried by convection.

    PubMed

    Gamboa-Santos, Juliana; Montilla, Antonia; Soria, Ana C; Cárcel, Juan A; García-Pérez, José V; Villamiel, Mar

    2014-10-15

    A study on the quality parameters of strawberries dehydrated by convection assisted by power ultrasound (US) at 40-70°C and 30 and 60W has been carried out for the first time. In general, the quality of US-treated samples was higher than that of commercial samples. Even under the most severe conditions used (US at 70°C and 60W), high values of vitamin C retention (>65%) and scarce advance of Maillard reaction (2-furoylmethyl derivatives of Lys and Arg<90mg 100g(-1) protein) were observed. Rehydration ratio was not affected by the power applied and the obtained values were similar to those of convectively-treated samples. According to the results here presented, US is a suitable example of an emerging and environmentally friendly technology that accelerates convective drying, allowing the obtainment of dried strawberries with premium quality.

  20. PI and fuzzy logic controllers for shunt Active Power Filter--a report.

    PubMed

    P, Karuppanan; Mahapatra, Kamala Kanta

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a shunt Active Power Filter (APF) for power quality improvements in terms of harmonics and reactive power compensation in the distribution network. The compensation process is based only on source current extraction that reduces the number of sensors as well as its complexity. A Proportional Integral (PI) or Fuzzy Logic Controller (FLC) is used to extract the required reference current from the distorted line-current, and this controls the DC-side capacitor voltage of the inverter. The shunt APF is implemented with PWM-current controlled Voltage Source Inverter (VSI) and the switching patterns are generated through a novel Adaptive-Fuzzy Hysteresis Current Controller (A-F-HCC). The proposed adaptive-fuzzy-HCC is compared with fixed-HCC and adaptive-HCC techniques and the superior features of this novel approach are established. The FLC based shunt APF system is validated through extensive simulation for diode-rectifier/R-L loads.

  1. Active and Passive RF Components for High-Power Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Nantista, Christopher D.

    2002-08-01

    In recent years, R&D for pulse compression and power distribution systems for the Next Linear Collider has led to the invention of many novel rf components, some of which must handle up to 600 MW of pulsed power at X-band. These include passive waveguide components, active switch designs, and non-reciprocal devices. Among the former is a class of multi-moded, highly efficient rf components based on planar geometries with overmoded rectangular ports. Multi-moding allows us, by means of input phasing, to direct power to different locations through the same waveguide. Planar symmetry allows the height to be increased to improve power handling capacity. Features that invite breakdown, such as coupling slots, irises and H-plane septa, are avoided. This class includes hybrids, directional couplers, an eight-port superhybrid/dual-mode launcher, a mode-selective extractor, mode-preserving bends, a rectangular mode converter, and mode-mixers. We are able to utilize such rectangular waveguide components in systems incorporating low-loss, circular waveguide delay lines by means of specially designed tapers that efficiently transform multiple rectangular waveguide modes into their corresponding circular waveguide modes, specifically TE10 and TE20 into circular TE11 and TE01. These extremely compact tapers can replace well-known mode converters such as the Marie type. Another component, a reflective TE01-TE02 mode converter in circular waveguide, allows us to double the delay in reflective or resonant delay lines. Ideas for multi-megawatt active components, such as switches, have also been pursued. Power-handling capacity for these is increased by making them also highly overmoded. We present a design methodology for active rf magnetic components which are suitable for pulse compression systems of future X-band linear colliders. We also present an active switch based on a PIN diode array. This component comprises an array of active elements arranged so that the electric fields

  2. Active dehydration impairs upper and lower body anaerobic muscular power.

    PubMed

    Jones, Leon C; Cleary, Michelle A; Lopez, Rebecca M; Zuri, Ron E; Lopez, Richard

    2008-03-01

    We examined the effects of active dehydration by exercise in a hot, humid environment on anaerobic muscular power using a test-retest (euhydrated and dehydrated) design. Seven subjects (age, 27.1 +/- 4.6 years; mass, 86.4 +/- 9.5 kg) performed upper and lower body Wingate anaerobic tests prior to and after a 1.5-hour recovery from a heat stress trial of treadmill exercise in a hot, humid environment (33.1 +/- 3.1C = 55.1 +/- 8.9% relative humidity) until a 3.1 +/- 0.3% body mass loss was achieved. Dehydration was confirmed by a significant body mass loss (P < 0.001), urine color increase (P = 0.004), and urine specific gravity increase (P = 0.041). Motivation ratings were not significantly different (P = 0.059), and fatigue severity was significantly (P = 0.009) increased 70% in the dehydrated compared to the euhydrated condition. Compared to the euhydrated condition, the dehydrated condition mean power was significantly (P = 0.014) decreased 7.17% in the upper body and 19.20% in the lower body. Compared to the euhydrated condition, the dehydrated condition peak power was significantly (P = 0.013) decreased 14.48% in the upper body and 18.36% in the lower body. No significant differences between the euhydrated and dehydrated conditions were found for decrease in power output (P = 0.219, power = 0.213). Our findings suggest that dehydration of 2.9% body mass decreases the ability to generate upper and lower body anaerobic power. Coaches and athletes must understand that sports performance requiring anaerobic strength and power can be impaired by inadequate hydration and may contribute to increased susceptibility to musculoskeletal injury.

  3. Quality of Life and Leisure Activities: How Do Leisure Activities Contribute to Subjective Well-Being?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brajsa-Zganec, Andreja; Merkas, Marina; Sverko, Iva

    2011-01-01

    The quality of life is determined with objective factors and also with subjective perception of factors which influence human life. Leisure activities play a very important role in subjective well-being because they provide opportunities to meet life values and needs. Through participation in leisure activities people build social relationships,…

  4. Improving Power Quality in Low-Voltage Networks Containing Distributed Energy Resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Sumit; Ghosh, Arindam; Zare, Firuz

    2013-05-01

    Severe power quality problems can arise when a large number of single-phase distributed energy resources (DERs) are connected to a low-voltage power distribution system. Due to the random location and size of DERs, it may so happen that a particular phase generates excess power than its load demand. In such an event, the excess power will be fed back to the distribution substation and will eventually find its way to the transmission network, causing undesirable voltage-current unbalance. As a solution to this problem, the article proposes the use of a distribution static compensator (DSTATCOM), which regulates voltage at the point of common coupling (PCC), thereby ensuring balanced current flow from and to the distribution substation. Additionally, this device can also support the distribution network in the absence of the utility connection, making the distribution system work as a microgrid. The proposals are validated through extensive digital computer simulation studies using PSCADTM.

  5. Tube focal spot size and power capability impact image quality in the evaluation of intracoronary stents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cesmeli, Erdogan; Berry, Joel L.; Carr, J. J.

    2005-04-01

    Proliferation of coronary stent deployment for treatment of coronary heart disease (CHD) creates a need for imaging-based follow-up examinations to assess patency. Technological improvements in multi-detector computer tomography (MDCT) make it a potential non-invasive alternative to coronary catheterization for evaluation of stent patency; however, image quality with MDCT varies based on the size and composition of the stent. We studied the role of tube focal spot size and power in the optimization of image quality in a stationary phantom. A standard uniform physical phantom with a tubular insert was used where coronary stents (4 mm in diameter) were deployed in a tube filled with contrast to simulate a typical imaging condition observed in clinical practice. We utilized different commercially available stents and scanned them with different tube voltage and current settings (LightSpeed Pro16, GE Healthcare Technologies, Waukesha, WI, USA). The scanner used different focal spot size depending on the power load and thus allowed us to assess the combined effect of the focal spot size and the power. A radiologist evaluated the resulting images in terms of image quality and artifacts. For all stents, we found that the small focal spot size yielded better image quality and reduced artifacts. In general, higher power capability for the given focal spot size improved the signal-to-noise ratio in the images allowing improved assessment. Our preliminary study in a non-moving phantom suggests that a CT scanner that can deliver the same power on a small focal spot size is better suited to have an optimized scan protocol for reliable stent assessment.

  6. Use of Pressure Activation in Food Quality Improvement.

    PubMed

    Shigematsu, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Beside intensive studies on inactivation microorganisms by high hydrostatic pressure (HP) for food storage, pressure effects on property of food materials have also been studied based on knowledge in pressure effect on biomolecules. Pressure effects on biological membranes and mass transfer in cellular biological materials and on enzyme activity would give an idea that HP treatment can introduce two types of activations into food materials: improved mass transfer and enzyme activity. Studies focusing on these pressure activations on food materials were then reviewed. Rice flour with an exclusively fine mean particle size and small starch damage was obtained due to improved water absorption properties and/or enzyme activity by HP. HP treatment increased of free amino acids and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rice and soybeans due to improved proteolysis and amino acid metabolism. Improvement of antioxidant activity and alteration of polyphenolic-compounds composition in food materials were also demonstrated by HP treatment. The HP-induced activations on food materials could contribute towards processing technologies for food quality improvement.

  7. Multifunctional voltage source inverter for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning.

    PubMed

    Dai, NingYi; Lam, Chi-Seng; Zhang, WenChen

    2014-01-01

    In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI) is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundamental frequency impedance of their coupling branch. The operation voltages of the two VSIs are compared when they are used for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning simultaneously. The operation voltage of the capacitive-coupling VSI can be set much lower than that of the inductive-coupling VSI when reactive power is for compensating inductive loads. Since a large portion of the loads in the distribution system are inductive, the capacitive-coupling VSI is further studied. The design and control method of the multifunctional capacitive-coupling VSI are proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show its validity.

  8. Multifunctional Voltage Source Inverter for Renewable Energy Integration and Power Quality Conditioning

    PubMed Central

    Dai, NingYi; Lam, Chi-Seng; Zhang, WenChen

    2014-01-01

    In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI) is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundamental frequency impedance of their coupling branch. The operation voltages of the two VSIs are compared when they are used for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning simultaneously. The operation voltage of the capacitive-coupling VSI can be set much lower than that of the inductive-coupling VSI when reactive power is for compensating inductive loads. Since a large portion of the loads in the distribution system are inductive, the capacitive-coupling VSI is further studied. The design and control method of the multifunctional capacitive-coupling VSI are proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show its validity. PMID:25177725

  9. Multifunctional voltage source inverter for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning.

    PubMed

    Dai, NingYi; Lam, Chi-Seng; Zhang, WenChen

    2014-01-01

    In order to utilize the energy from the renewable energy sources, power conversion system is necessary, in which the voltage source inverter (VSI) is usually the last stage for injecting power to the grid. It is an economical solution to add the function of power quality conditioning to the grid-connected VSI in the low-voltage distribution system. Two multifunctional VSIs are studied in this paper, that is, inductive-coupling VSI and capacitive-coupling VSI, which are named after the fundamental frequency impedance of their coupling branch. The operation voltages of the two VSIs are compared when they are used for renewable energy integration and power quality conditioning simultaneously. The operation voltage of the capacitive-coupling VSI can be set much lower than that of the inductive-coupling VSI when reactive power is for compensating inductive loads. Since a large portion of the loads in the distribution system are inductive, the capacitive-coupling VSI is further studied. The design and control method of the multifunctional capacitive-coupling VSI are proposed in this paper. Simulation and experimental results are provided to show its validity. PMID:25177725

  10. Enzyme activities by indicator of quality in organic soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raigon Jiménez, Mo; Fita, Ana Delores; Rodriguez Burruezo, Adrián

    2016-04-01

    The analytical determination of biochemical parameters, as soil enzyme activities and those related to the microbial biomass is growing importance by biological indicator in soil science studies. The metabolic activity in soil is responsible of important processes such as mineralization and humification of organic matter. These biological reactions will affect other key processes involved with elements like carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus , and all transformations related in soil microbial biomass. The determination of biochemical parameters is useful in studies carried out on organic soil where microbial processes that are key to their conservation can be analyzed through parameters of the metabolic activity of these soils. The main objective of this work is to apply analytical methodologies of enzyme activities in soil collections of different physicochemical characteristics. There have been selective sampling of natural soils, organic farming soils, conventional farming soils and urban soils. The soils have been properly identified conserved at 4 ° C until analysis. The enzyme activities determinations have been: catalase, urease, cellulase, dehydrogenase and alkaline phosphatase, which bring together a representative group of biological transformations that occur in the soil environment. The results indicate that for natural and agronomic soil collections, the values of the enzymatic activities are within the ranges established for forestry and agricultural soils. Organic soils are generally higher level of enzymatic, regardless activity of the enzyme involved. Soil near an urban area, levels of activities have been significantly reduced. The vegetation cover applied to organic soils, results in greater enzymatic activity. So the quality of these soils, defined as the ability to maintain their biological productivity is increased with the use of cover crops, whether or spontaneous species. The practice of cover based on legumes could be used as an ideal choice

  11. Daily activities and sleep quality in college students.

    PubMed

    Carney, Colleen E; Edinger, Jack D; Meyer, Björn; Lindman, Linda; Istre, Tai

    2006-01-01

    There is growing evidence that social rhythms (e.g., daily activities such as getting into or out of bed, eating, and adhering to a work schedule) have important implications for sleep. The present study used a prospective measure of daily activities to assess the relation between sleep and social rhythms. College students (n=243) 18 to 39 yrs of age, completed the Social Rhythm Metric (SRM) each day for 14 d and then completed the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI). The sample was divided into groups of good or poor sleepers, according to a PSQI cut-off score of 5 points and was compared on the regularity, frequency, timing, and extent of social engagement during activities. There was a lower frequency and less regularity of social rhythms in poor sleepers relative to good sleepers. Good sleepers engaged more regularly in activities with active social engagement. Earlier rise time, first consumption of a beverage, going outdoors for the first time, and bedtime were associated with better sleep. Greater variability in rise time, consuming a morning beverage, returning home for the last time, and bedtime were associated with more disturbed sleep. The results are consistent with previous findings of reduced regularity in bedtime and rise time schedules in undergraduates, other age groups, and in clinical populations. Results augment the current thought that regulating behavioral zeitgebers may be important in influencing bed and rise times, and suggest that engaging in activities with other people may increase regularity.

  12. High power, high beam quality solid state lasers for materials processing applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hackel, L.A.; Dane, C.B.; Hermann, M.R.

    1994-08-01

    The Laser Science and Technology Department at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory is developing solid state lasers with high average power and high beam quality. Specific systems include a laser to generate 10 to 14 {angstrom} x-rays for proximity print lithography, a 400 mJ, 500 Hz laser for 130 {angstrom} projection lithography and unique systems for speckle imaging, laser radars and medical treatments.

  13. Understanding coal quality and its relationship to power plant performance and costs

    SciTech Connect

    Jennison, K.D.; Stallard, G.S.

    1995-12-01

    The availability of reliable, reasonably priced energy is a necessary cornerstone for established and emerging economies. In addition to addressing coal quality issues strictly at a plant level, it is now prudent to consider long-term performance and economics of particular fuel sources to be selected in the light of system economics and reliability. In order to evaluate coal quality issues in a more comprehensive manner, it is important to develop both an approach and a set of tools which can support the various phases of the planning/analysis processes. The processes must consider the following: (1) Cost/availability of other potential coal supplies, including {open_quotes}raw{close_quotes} domestic sources, {open_quotes}cleaned {close_quotes} domestic sources, and other internationally marketed coals. (2) Power plant performance issues as function of plant design and fuel properties. (3) System expansion plans, candidate technologies, and associated capital and operating costs. (4) Projected load demand, for system and for individual units within the system. (5) Legislative issues such as environmental pressures, power purchase agreements, etc. which could alter the solution. (6) Economics of potential plans/strategies based on overall cost-effectiveness of the utility system, not just individual units. (7) Anticipated unit configuration, including addition of environmental control equipment or other repowering options. The Coal Quality Impact Model (CQIM{trademark}) is a PC-based computer program capable of predicting coal-related cost and performance impacts at electric power generating sites. The CQIM was developed for EPRI by Black & Veatch and represents over a decade of effort geared toward developing an extensible state-of-the-art coal quality assessment tool. This paper will introduce CQIM, its capabilities, and its application to Eastern European coal quality assessment needs.

  14. Beam-shaping technique for improving the beam quality of a high-power laser-diode stack.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xin; Ohashi, Hiroyuki; Okamoto, Hiroshi; Takasaka, Masaomi; Shinoda, Kazunori

    2006-06-01

    We report a beam-shaping technique that reconfigures the beams to improve the beam quality and enhance the power density for a ten-array high-power laser-diode stack by using two optical rectangular cubes and two stripe-mirror plates. The reshaped beam has threefold improvement in beam quality, and its power density is effectively enhanced. On the basis of this technique, we focus the beam of the high-power laser-diode stack to effectively end pump a high-power fiber laser.

  15. The terminal quality of life and passive or active euthanasia.

    PubMed

    Daikos, G K

    1990-01-01

    The problems presented by the different categories of dying people are briefly discussed from the point of view of terminal quality of life. Euthanasia is used in its broader meaning, including both passive and active aspects. Passive euthanasia (PE) is exercised by withholding advanced or basic life support measures, the commonest form being do not resuscitate orders (DNR). Some data on its application are presented. Active euthanasia (AE), which has been proposed and being applied to a limited extent lately, is criticized as leading the physician and the Society onto risky ground. A position is being taken against it. Decision making, examples of guidelines, legal, philosophical and spiritual considerations are discussed. Wisdom and loving care should be exercised by the physician to assist people in their terminal phases and to alleviate their suffering. That there is not a single answer to the problem is discussed.

  16. Distributed photovoltaic generation in residential distribution systems: Impacts on power quality and anti-islanding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitra, Parag

    The past few decades have seen a consistent growth of distributed PV sources. Distributed PV, like other DG sources, can be located at or near load centers and provide benefits which traditional generation may lack. However, distribution systems were not designed to accommodate such power generation sources as these sources might lead to operational as well as power quality issues. A high penetration of distributed PV resources may lead to bi-directional power flow resulting in voltage swells, increased losses and overloading of conductors. Voltage unbalance is a concern in distribution systems and the effect of single-phase residential PV systems on voltage unbalance needs to be explored. Furthermore, the islanding of DGs presents a technical hurdle towards the seamless integration of DG sources with the electricity grid. The work done in this thesis explores two important aspects of grid inte-gration of distributed PV generation, namely, the impact on power quality and anti-islanding. A test distribution system, representing a realistic distribution feeder in Arizona is modeled to study both the aforementioned aspects. The im-pact of distributed PV on voltage profile, voltage unbalance and distribution sys-tem primary losses are studied using CYMDIST. Furthermore, a PSCAD model of the inverter with anti-island controls is developed and the efficacy of the anti-islanding techniques is studied. Based on the simulations, generalized conclusions are drawn and the problems/benefits are elucidated.

  17. Simulation and study of power quality issues in a fixed speed wind farm substation.

    PubMed

    Magesh, T; Chellamuthu, C

    2015-01-01

    Power quality issues associated with the fixed speed wind farm substation located at Coimbatore district are investigated as the wind generators are tripping frequently. The investigations are carried out using two power quality analyzers, Fluke 435 and Dranetz PX5.8, with one of them connected at group control breaker of the 110 kV feeder and the other at the selected 0.69 kV generator busbar during the period of maximum power generation. From the analysis of the recorded data it is found that sag, swell, and transients are the major events which are responsible for the tripping of the generators. In the present study, simulation models for wind, turbine, shaft, pitch mechanism, induction generator, and grid are developed using DIgSILENT. Using the turbine characteristics, a two-dimensional lookup table is designed to generate a reference pitch angle necessary to simulate the power curve of the passive stall controlled wind turbine. Various scenarios and their effects on the performance of the wind farm are studied and validated with the recorded data and waveforms. The simulation model will be useful for the designers for planning and development of the wind farm before implementation.

  18. Simulation and study of power quality issues in a fixed speed wind farm substation.

    PubMed

    Magesh, T; Chellamuthu, C

    2015-01-01

    Power quality issues associated with the fixed speed wind farm substation located at Coimbatore district are investigated as the wind generators are tripping frequently. The investigations are carried out using two power quality analyzers, Fluke 435 and Dranetz PX5.8, with one of them connected at group control breaker of the 110 kV feeder and the other at the selected 0.69 kV generator busbar during the period of maximum power generation. From the analysis of the recorded data it is found that sag, swell, and transients are the major events which are responsible for the tripping of the generators. In the present study, simulation models for wind, turbine, shaft, pitch mechanism, induction generator, and grid are developed using DIgSILENT. Using the turbine characteristics, a two-dimensional lookup table is designed to generate a reference pitch angle necessary to simulate the power curve of the passive stall controlled wind turbine. Various scenarios and their effects on the performance of the wind farm are studied and validated with the recorded data and waveforms. The simulation model will be useful for the designers for planning and development of the wind farm before implementation. PMID:25950016

  19. Simulation and Study of Power Quality Issues in a Fixed Speed Wind Farm Substation

    PubMed Central

    Magesh, T.; Chellamuthu, C.

    2015-01-01

    Power quality issues associated with the fixed speed wind farm substation located at Coimbatore district are investigated as the wind generators are tripping frequently. The investigations are carried out using two power quality analyzers, Fluke 435 and Dranetz PX5.8, with one of them connected at group control breaker of the 110 kV feeder and the other at the selected 0.69 kV generator busbar during the period of maximum power generation. From the analysis of the recorded data it is found that sag, swell, and transients are the major events which are responsible for the tripping of the generators. In the present study, simulation models for wind, turbine, shaft, pitch mechanism, induction generator, and grid are developed using DIgSILENT. Using the turbine characteristics, a two-dimensional lookup table is designed to generate a reference pitch angle necessary to simulate the power curve of the passive stall controlled wind turbine. Various scenarios and their effects on the performance of the wind farm are studied and validated with the recorded data and waveforms. The simulation model will be useful for the designers for planning and development of the wind farm before implementation. PMID:25950016

  20. Mitigation of Power Quality Problems in Grid-Interactive Distributed Generation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhende, C. N.; Kalam, A.; Malla, S. G.

    2016-04-01

    Having an inter-tie between low/medium voltage grid and distributed generation (DG), both exposes to power quality (PQ) problems created by each other. This paper addresses various PQ problems arise due to integration of DG with grid. The major PQ problems are due to unbalanced and non-linear load connected at DG, unbalanced voltage variations on transmission line and unbalanced grid voltages which severely affect the performance of the system. To mitigate the above mentioned PQ problems, a novel integrated control of distribution static shunt compensator (DSTATCOM) is presented in this paper. DSTATCOM control helps in reducing the unbalance factor of PCC voltage. It also eliminates harmonics from line currents and makes them balanced. Moreover, DSTATCOM supplies the reactive power required by the load locally and hence, grid need not to supply the reactive power. To show the efficacy of the proposed controller, several operating conditions are considered and verified through simulation using MATLAB/SIMULINK.

  1. A Reliable Data Delivery Mechanism for Grid Power Quality Using Neural Networks in Wireless Sensor Networks

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Yujin; Kim, Hak-Man; Kang, Sanggil

    2010-01-01

    Power grids deal with the business of generation, transmission, and distribution of electric power. Current systems monitor basic electrical quantities such as voltage and current from major pole transformers using their temperature. We improve the current systems in order to gather and deliver the information of power qualities such as harmonics, voltage sags, and voltage swells. In the system, data delivery is not guaranteed for the case that a node is lost or the network is congested, because the system has in-line and multi-hop architecture. In this paper, we propose a reliable data delivery mechanism by modeling an optimal data delivery function by employing the neural network concept. PMID:22163411

  2. Immune Activation Reduces Sperm Quality in the Great Tit

    PubMed Central

    Losdat, Sylvain; Richner, Heinz; Blount, Jonathan D.; Helfenstein, Fabrice

    2011-01-01

    Mounting an immune response against pathogens incurs costs to organisms by its effects on important life-history traits, such as reproductive investment and survival. As shown recently, immune activation produces large amounts of reactive species and is suggested to induce oxidative stress. Sperm are highly susceptible to oxidative stress, which can negatively impact sperm function and ultimately male fertilizing efficiency. Here we address the question as to whether mounting an immune response affects sperm quality through the damaging effects of oxidative stress. It has been demonstrated recently in birds that carotenoid-based ornaments can be reliable signals of a male's ability to protect sperm from oxidative damage. In a full-factorial design, we immune-challenged great tit males while simultaneously increasing their vitamin E availability, and assessed the effect on sperm quality and oxidative damage. We conducted this experiment in a natural population and tested the males' response to the experimental treatment in relation to their carotenoid-based breast coloration, a condition-dependent trait. Immune activation induced a steeper decline in sperm swimming velocity, thus highlighting the potential costs of an induced immune response on sperm competitive ability and fertilizing efficiency. We found sperm oxidative damage to be negatively correlated with sperm swimming velocity. However, blood resistance to a free-radical attack (a measure of somatic antioxidant capacity) as well as plasma and sperm levels of oxidative damage (lipid peroxidation) remained unaffected, thus suggesting that the observed effect did not arise through oxidative stress. Towards the end of their breeding cycle, swimming velocity of sperm of more intensely colored males was higher, which has important implications for the evolution of mate choice and multiple mating in females because females may accrue both direct and indirect benefits by mating with males having better quality sperm

  3. High quality actively cooled plasma facing components for fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nygren, R.

    1993-12-31

    This paper interweaves some suggestions for developing actively-cooled PFCs (plasma facing components) for future fusion devices with supporting examples taken from the design, fabrication and operation of Tore Supra`s Phase III Outboard Pump Limiter (OPL). This actively-cooled midplane limiter, designed for heat and particle removal during long pulse operation, has been operated in essentially thermally steady state conditions. From experience with testing to identify braze flaws in the OPL, recommendations are made to analyze the impact of joining flaws on thermal-hydraulic performance of PFCs and to validate a method of inspection for such flaws early in the design development. Capability for extensive in-service monitoring of future PFCs is also recommended and the extensive calorimetry and IR thermography used to confirm and update safe operating limits for power handling of the OPL are reviewed.

  4. Active CPW-fed slot antennas for power combining applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kormanyos, Brian K.; Rebeiz, Gabriel M.

    1992-01-01

    We have combined integrated circuit antenna technology with microwave oscillator design to build an active slot-oscillator. The design is planar, does not require via holes and is compatible with monolithic transistor technology. The CPW-fed antenna impedance is calculated using a full-wave analysis technique. Slot-oscillators were built at 7, 13, and 22 GHz, and the predicted oscillation frequencies agree well with experiments. The design is easily scaled to millimeter-wave frequencies and can be extended to power combining arrays.

  5. Experimental results using active control of traveling wave power flow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, David W.; Hall, Steven R.

    1991-01-01

    Active structural control experiments conducted on a 24-ft pinned-free beam derived feedback compensators on the basis of a traveling-wave approach. A compensator is thus obtained which eliminates resonant behavior by absorbing all impinging power. A causal solution is derived for this noncausal compensator which mimics its behavior in a given frequency range, using the Wiener-Hopf. This optimal Wiener-Hopf compensator's structure-damping performance is found to exceed any obtainable by means of rate feedback. Performance limitations encompassed the discovery of frequencies above which the sensor and actuator were no longer dual and an inadvertent coupling of the control hardware to unmodeled structure torsion modes.

  6. A Wolf Pack Algorithm for Active and Reactive Power Coordinated Optimization in Active Distribution Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, H. M.; Jiang, X. J.

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents an active and reactive power dynamic optimization model for active distribution network (ADN), whose control variables include the output of distributed generations (DGs), charge or discharge power of energy storage system (ESS) and reactive power from capacitor banks. To solve the high-dimension nonlinear optimization model, a new heuristic swarm intelligent method, namely wolf pack algorithm (WPA) with better global convergence and computational robustness, is adapted so that the network loss minimization can be achieved. In this paper, the IEEE33-bus system is used to show the effectiveness of WPA technique compared with other techniques. Numerical tests on the modified IEEE 33-bus system show that WPA for active and reactive multi-period optimization of ADN is exact and effective.

  7. Effect of Partial Replacement of Wheat Flour with High Quality Cassava Flour on the Chemical Composition, Antioxidant Activity, Sensory Quality, and Microbial Quality of Bread

    PubMed Central

    Eleazu, Chinedum; Eleazu, Kate; Aniedu, Chinyere; Amajor, John; Ikpeama, Ahamefula; Ebenzer, Ike

    2014-01-01

    In the current study, wheat flour was mixed with high quality cassava flour (HQCF) in several ratios: 90:10, 80:20, 70:30, and 60:40, and used to prepare 10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% National Root Crops Research Institute (NRCRI) cassava bread, respectively. 100% wheat bread was prepared as a control (100% wheat bread). Five bread samples were prepared per group. Antioxidant assays [i.e., 2,2-diphenyl- 1-picrylhydrazyl radical (DPPH) scavenging assay, reducing power assay] revealed that the bread samples had considerable antioxidant capacities. Substitution of wheat flour with HQCF at various concentrations resulted in dose dependent decreases in the mineral and protein contents of the resulting bread samples. The crude fiber content of the bread samples was minimal, while the carbohydrate content of the bread samples ranged from 43.86% to 48.64%. A 20% substitution of wheat flour with HQCF yielded bread samples with a general acceptability that was comparable to that of 100% wheat bread. The mean bacteria counts of the bread samples ranged from 2.0×103 CFU/mL to 1.4×104 CFU/mL, while the fungal counts ranged from 0 CFU/mL to 3×103 CFU/mL. There was a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the reducing powers of the bread samples (R2=0.871) and a positive correlation between the DPPH antioxidant activities and the flavonoid contents of the bread samples (R2=0.487). The higher microbial load of the NRCRI cassava bread samples indicates that these bread samples may have a shorter shelf life than the 100% wheat bread. The significant positive correlation between total flavonoid content and reducing power (R2=0.750) suggests that the flavonoids present in the lipophilic fractions of the bread samples could be responsible for the reductive capacities of the bread samples. PMID:25054110

  8. Coping with coal quality impacts on power plant operation and maintenance

    SciTech Connect

    Hatt, R.

    1998-12-31

    The electric power industry is rapidly changing due to deregulation. The author was present one hot day in June of this year, when a southeastern utility company was selling electricity for $5,000.00 per megawatt with $85.00 cost. Typical power cost range from the mid teens at night to about $30.00 on a normal day. The free market place will challenge the power industry in many ways. Fuel is the major cost in electric power. In a regulated industry the cost of fuel was passed on to the customers. Fuels were chosen to minimize problems such as handling, combustion, ash deposits and other operational and maintenance concerns. Tight specifications were used to eliminate or minimize coals that caused problems. These tight specifications raised the price of fuel by minimizing competition. As the power stations become individual profit centers, plant management must take a more proactive role in fuel selection. Understanding how coal quality impacts plant performance and cost, allows better fuel selection decisions. How well plants take advantage of their knowledge may determine whether they will be able to compete in a free market place. The coal industry itself can provide many insights on how to survive in this type of market. Coal mines today must remain competitive or be shut down. The consolidation of the coal industry indicates the trends that can occur in a competitive market. These trends have already started, and will continue in the utility industry. This paper will discuss several common situations concerning coal quality and potential solutions for the plant to consider. All these examples have mill maintenance and performance issues in common. This is indicative of how important pulverizers are to the successful operation of a power plant.

  9. Metal clad active fibres for power scaling and thermal management at kW power levels.

    PubMed

    Daniel, Jae M O; Simakov, Nikita; Hemming, Alexander; Clarkson, W Andrew; Haub, John

    2016-08-01

    We present a new approach to high power fibre laser design, consisting of a polymer-free all-glass optical fibre waveguide directly overclad with a high thermal conductivity metal coating. This metal clad active fibre allows a significant reduction in thermal resistance between the active fibre and the laser heat-sink as well as a significant increase in the operating temperature range. In this paper we show the results of a detailed thermal analysis of both polymer and metal coated active fibres under thermal loads typical of kW fibre laser systems. Through several different experiments we present the first demonstration of a cladding pumped aluminium-coated fibre laser and the first demonstration of efficient operation of a cladding-pumped fibre laser at temperatures of greater than 400 °C. Finally, we highlight the versatility of this approach through operation of a passively (radiatively) cooled ytterbium fibre laser head at an output power of 405 W in a compact and ultralight package weighing less than 100 g. PMID:27505822

  10. Physical activity and quality of life: assessing the influence of activity frequency, intensity, volume, and motives.

    PubMed

    Lustyk, M Kathleen B; Widman, Laura; Paschane, Amy A E; Olson, Karen C

    2004-01-01

    In the present study, the authors investigated the impact of exercise frequency, intensity, and volume along with exercise motives on quality of life (QOL) reports. The authors assessed exercise habits with the Godin Leisure Time Activity Scale and measured exercise motives with the Reasons for Exercise Inventory. The Quality of Life Inventory assessed satisfaction in 16 domains including health, work, and recreation. High-frequency exercisers reported significantly higher health, helping, and community-related QOL than those who exercised less frequently. The authors noted significantly higher health-related QOL in the heavy volume group compared with the other volume groups. Multiple regression tests revealed that activity intensity and exercise motives significantly predicted QOL reports. The strongest bivariate correlations with QOL existed for mild activity and exercising for fitness and health reasons. Thus, high-frequency activity of mild intensity that produces high kcal utilization and is performed to improve health and fitness has the strongest influence on QOL reports.

  11. Prospective relationships of physical activity with quality of life among colorectal cancer survivors

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Physical activity can enhance quality of life for cancer survivors. However, few longitudinal studies have examined whether physical activity has a sustained effect on improvements in quality of life. The present study aims to examine the relationships between physical activity and quality of life o...

  12. Physical Activity and Quality of Life Experienced by Highly Active Individuals with Physical Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giacobbi, Peter R., Jr.; Stancil, Michael; Hardin, Brent; Bryant, Lance

    2008-01-01

    The present study examined links between physical activity and quality of life experienced by individuals with physical disabilities recruited from a wheelchair user's basketball tournament. The participants included 12 male and 14 female adults between the ages of 18-54 (M = 31.12, SD = 10.75) who all reported one or more condition(s) that…

  13. High power, high beam quality laser source with narrow, stable spectra based on truncated-tapered semiconductor amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X.; Erbert, G.; Wenzel, H.; Crump, P.; Eppich, B.; Knigge, S.; Ressel, P.; Ginolas, A.; Maaßdorf, A.; Tränkle, G.

    2013-02-01

    High power diode lasers are increasingly important in many industrial applications. However, an ongoing challenge is to simultaneously obtain high output power, diffraction-limited beam quality and narrow spectral width. One approach to fulfill these requirements is to use a "master oscillator - power amplifier (MOPA)" system. We present recent data on MOPAs using PA designs that have low confinement factor (1%), leading to low modal gain, and low optical loss (<0.5cm-1). Quantum barriers with low refractive index are used to reduce the optical waveguiding due to the active region, which should decrease susceptibility to filament formation. A truncated tapered lateral design was used. Conventional tapered designs have a ridge waveguide (RW) at the entrance of the devices with etched cavity- spoiling grooves at the transition to the tapered gain region. Our amplifier used a truncated tapered design with no RW entrance section. We show that for this approach cavity-spoiling grooves are not necessary, and achieve improved performance when they are omitted, which we attribute to the filament insensitivity of our structure. High beam quality was achieved from a 970nm amplifier with M2 (1/e2) = 1.9, with efficiency of <48% in QCW condition, and <17W diffraction-limited beam maintained in the central lobe. The impact of the in-plane geometrical design was assessed and we show that large surface area is advantageous for device performance. The spectral properties of the amplifier replicated that of the DBRtapered laser, which is used as the master oscillator, with a spectral width of <30pm (FWHM). Design options for further increases in power are presented.

  14. Physical activity and quality of life experienced by highly active individuals with physical disabilities.

    PubMed

    Giacobbi, Peter R; Stancil, Michael; Hardin, Brent; Bryant, Lance

    2008-07-01

    The present study examined links between physical activity and quality of life experienced by individuals with physical disabilities recruited from a wheelchair user's basketball tournament. The participants included 12 male and 14 female adults between the ages of 18-54 (M=31.12, SD=10.75) who all reported one or more condition(s) that impacted their daily living. They were administered the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities (Washburn, Weimo, McAuley, Frogley, & Figoni, 2002) and in-depth interviews focused on their physical activity experiences and evaluations about their quality of life. Grounded theory analyses (Charmaz, 2000, 2002) revealed that individuals who use wheelchairs perceived a number of psychological, social, and health benefits associated with physical activity involvement. The participants' evaluations and descriptions of their physical activity experiences appeared to support self-efficacy beliefs, feelings of empowerment, and motivation for continued involvement. First-person descriptions are presented to demonstrate how and why physical activity behaviors were perceived to enhance the quality of the participants' lives.

  15. Quantity, Quality, and Availability of Waste Heat from United States Thermal Power Generation.

    PubMed

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-07-21

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJ(th) of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040.

  16. Quantity, Quality, and Availability of Waste Heat from United States Thermal Power Generation.

    PubMed

    Gingerich, Daniel B; Mauter, Meagan S

    2015-07-21

    Secondary application of unconverted heat produced during electric power generation has the potential to improve the life-cycle fuel efficiency of the electric power industry and the sectors it serves. This work quantifies the residual heat (also known as waste heat) generated by U.S. thermal power plants and assesses the intermittency and transport issues that must be considered when planning to utilize this heat. Combining Energy Information Administration plant-level data with literature-reported process efficiency data, we develop estimates of the unconverted heat flux from individual U.S. thermal power plants in 2012. Together these power plants discharged an estimated 18.9 billion GJ(th) of residual heat in 2012, 4% of which was discharged at temperatures greater than 90 °C. We also characterize the temperature, spatial distribution, and temporal availability of this residual heat at the plant level and model the implications for the technical and economic feasibility of its end use. Increased implementation of flue gas desulfurization technologies at coal-fired facilities and the higher quality heat generated in the exhaust of natural gas fuel cycles are expected to increase the availability of residual heat generated by 10.6% in 2040. PMID:26061407

  17. Potential Impact of the National Plan for Future Electric Power Supply on Air Quality in Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shim, C.; Hong, J.

    2014-12-01

    Korean Ministry of Trade, Industry and Energy (MOTIE) announced the national plan for Korea's future electric power supply (2013 - 2027) in 2013. According to the plan, the national demand for electricity will be increased by 60% compared to that of 2010 and primary energy sources for electric generation will still lean on the fossil fuels such as petroleum, LNG, and coal, which would be a potential threat to air quality of Korea. This study focused on two subjects: (1) How the spatial distribution of the primary air pollutant's emissions (i.e., NOx, SOx, CO, PM) will be changed and (2) How the primary emission changes will influence on the national ambient air quality including ozone in 2027. We used GEOS-Chem model simulation with modification of Korean emissions inventory (Clean Air Policy Support System (CAPSS)) to simulate the current and future air quality in Korea. The national total emissions of CO, NOx, SOx, PM in year 2027 will be increased by 3%, 8%, 13%, 2%, respectively compared to 2010 and there are additional concern that the future location of the power plants will be closer to the Seoul Metropolitan Area (SMA), where there are approximately 20 million population vulnerable to the potentially worsened air quality. While there are slight increase of concentration of CO, NOx, SOx, and PM in 2027, the O3 concentration is expected to be similar to the level of 2010. Those results may imply the characteristics of air pollution in East Asia such as potentially severe O3 titration and poorer O3/CO or O3/NOx ratio. Furthermore, we will discuss on the impact of transboundary pollution transport from China in the future, which is one of the large factors to control the air quality of Korea.

  18. Identification af explosive power factors as predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players.

    PubMed

    Grgantov, Zoran; Milić, Mirjana; Katić, Ratko

    2013-05-01

    With the purpose of determining the factor structure of explosive power, as well as the influence of each factor on situational efficiency, 56 young female volleyball players were tested using 14 tests for assessing nonspecific and specific explosive power. By factor analysis, 4 significant factors were isolated which explained the total of over 80% of the common variability in young female volleyball players. The first factor was defined as volleyball-specific jumping, the second factor as nonspecific jumping and sprinting, the third factor as throwing explosive power, while the fourth factor was interpreted as volleyball-specific throwing and spiking speed from the ground. Results obtained by regression analysis in the latent space of explosive power indicate that the identified factors are good predictors of player quality in young female volleyball players. The fourth factor defined as throwing and spiking speed from the ground had the largest influence on player quality, followed by volleyball-specific jumping and nonspecific jumping and sprinting, and to a much lesser extent, by throwing explosive power The results obtained in this age group bring to the fore the ability of spiking and serving a ball of high speed, which hinders the opponents from playing those balls in serve reception and field defence. This ability, combined with a high standing vertical jump reach and spike approach vertical jump reach (which is the basis of the 1st varimax factor) enables successful performance of all volleyball elements by which points are won in complex 1 (spike) and complex 2 (serve and block). Even though the 2nd factor (nonspecific jumping and sprinting) has a slightly smaller impact on situational efficiency in young players, this ability provides preconditions i.e. preparation for successful realisation of all volleyball elements, so greater attention must be paid to perfecting it in young female volleyball players.

  19. Mathematical models for predicting indoor air quality from smoking activity.

    PubMed Central

    Ott, W R

    1999-01-01

    Much progress has been made over four decades in developing, testing, and evaluating the performance of mathematical models for predicting pollutant concentrations from smoking in indoor settings. Although largely overlooked by the regulatory community, these models provide regulators and risk assessors with practical tools for quantitatively estimating the exposure level that people receive indoors for a given level of smoking activity. This article reviews the development of the mass balance model and its application to predicting indoor pollutant concentrations from cigarette smoke and derives the time-averaged version of the model from the basic laws of conservation of mass. A simple table is provided of computed respirable particulate concentrations for any indoor location for which the active smoking count, volume, and concentration decay rate (deposition rate combined with air exchange rate) are known. Using the indoor ventilatory air exchange rate causes slightly higher indoor concentrations and therefore errs on the side of protecting health, since it excludes particle deposition effects, whereas using the observed particle decay rate gives a more accurate prediction of indoor concentrations. This table permits easy comparisons of indoor concentrations with air quality guidelines and indoor standards for different combinations of active smoking counts and air exchange rates. The published literature on mathematical models of environmental tobacco smoke also is reviewed and indicates that these models generally give good agreement between predicted concentrations and actual indoor measurements. PMID:10350523

  20. Asthma in the vicinity of power stations: II. Outdoor air quality and symptoms

    SciTech Connect

    Henry, R.L.; Bridgman, H.A.; Wlodarczyk, J.; Abramson, R.; Adler, J.A.; Hensley, M.J. )

    1991-01-01

    To assess longitudinally the effect of living in the vicinity of coal-fired power stations on children with asthma, 99 schoolchildren with a history of wheezing in the previous 12 months were studied for 1 year, using daily diaries and measurements of air quality. The children had been identified in a cross-sectional survey of two coastal areas: Lake Munmorah (LM), within 5 km of two power stations, and Nelson Bay (NB), free from major industry. Daily air quality (sulphur dioxide (SO2) and nitrogen oxides (NOx)), respiratory symptoms, and treatment for asthma were recorded throughout the year. Measurements of SO2 and NOx at LM were well within recommended guidelines although they were several times higher than at NB: maximum daily levels in SO2 (micrograms/m3) were 26 at LM, 11 at NB (standard, 365); yearly average SO2 was 2 at LM, 0.3 at NB (standard, 60); yearly average NOx (micrograms/m3) was 2 at LM, 0.4 at NB (standard, 94). Marked weekly fluctuations occurred in the prevalence of cough, wheezing, and breathlessness, without any substantial differences between LM and NB. Overall, the prevalence of symptoms was low (10% for wheezing, 20% for any symptom). Whether the daily SO2 and NOx levels affected the occurrence of respiratory symptoms was investigated in children at LM using a logistic regression (Korn and Whittemore technique). For these children as a group, air quality measurements were not associated with the occurrence of symptoms.

  1. Quality investigation of hydroxyprogesterone caproate active pharmaceutical ingredient and injection

    PubMed Central

    Chollet, John L.; Jozwiakowski, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the quality of hydroxyprogesterone caproate (HPC) active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) sources that may be used by compounding pharmacies, compared to the FDA-approved source of the API; and to investigate the quality of HPC injection samples obtained from compounding pharmacies in the US, compared to the FDA-approved product (Makena®). Samples of API were obtained from every source confirmed to be an original manufacturer of the drug for human use, which were all companies in China that were not registered with FDA. Eight of the ten API samples (80%) did not meet the impurity specifications required by FDA for the API used in the approved product. One API sample was found to not be HPC at all; additional laboratory testing showed that it was glucose. Thirty samples of HPC injection obtained from com pounding pharmacies throughout the US were also tested, and eight of these samples (27%) failed to meet the potency requirement listed in the USP monograph for HPC injection and/or the HPLC assay. Sixteen of the thirty injection samples (53%) exceeded the impurity limit setforthe FDA-approved drug product. These results confirm the inconsistency of compounded HPC Injections and suggest that the risk-benefit ratio of using an unapproved compounded preparation, when an FDA-approved drug product is available, is not favorable. PMID:22329865

  2. Power-Quality Improvement in PFC Bridgeless SEPIC-Fed BLDC Motor Drive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Bhim; Bist, Vashist

    2013-06-01

    This article presents a design of a power factor correction (PFC)-based brushless DC (BLDC) motor drive. The speed control of BLDC motor is achieved by controlling the DC link voltage of the voltage source inverter (VSI) feeding BLDC motor using a single voltage sensor. A front-end bridgeless single-ended primary inductance converter (SEPIC) is used for DC link voltage control and PFC operation. A bridgeless SEPIC is designed to operate in discontinuous inductor current mode (DICM) thus utilizing a simple control scheme of voltage follower. An electronic commutation of BLDC motor is used for VSI to operate in a low-frequency operation for reduced switching losses in the VSI. Moreover, a bridgeless topology offers less conduction losses due to absence of diode bridge rectifier for further increasing the efficiency. The proposed BLDC motor drive is designed to operate over a wide range of speed control with an improved power-quality at the AC mains under the recommended international power-quality standards such as IEC 61000-3-2.

  3. Low-Activity Waste Feed Data Quality Objectives

    SciTech Connect

    MJ Truex; KD Wiemers

    1998-12-11

    This document describes characterization requirements for the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Waste Disposal Program's privatization efforts in support of low-activity waste (LAW) treatment and immobilization, This revised Data Quality Objective (DQO) replaces earlier documents (PNNL 1997; DOE-W 1998zq Wiemers 1996). Revision O of this DQO was completed to meet Tri-Party Agreement (TPA) target milestone M-60-14-TO1. Revision 1 updates the data requirements based on the contract issued `August 1998 (DOE-RL 1998b). In addition, sections of Revision O pertaining to "environmental planning" were not acceptable to the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) and have been removed. Regulatory compliance for TWRS Privatization is being addressed in a separate DQO (Wiemers et al. 1998). The Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Contractors and the private contractor may elect to complete issue-specific DQOS to accommodate their individual work scope.

  4. A longitudinal examination of sleep quality and physical activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Holfeld, Brett; Ruthig, Joelle C

    2014-10-01

    The relationship between sleep quality and physical activity is bidirectional, yet prior research on older adults has mainly focused on investigating whether increasing levels of physical activity leads to improvements in sleep quality. The current longitudinal study examined both directional relationships by assessing sleep quality and physical activity twice over a two-year period among 426 community-dwelling older adults (ages 61-100). A cross-lagged panel analysis that included age, gender, perceived stress, functional ability, and severity of chronic health conditions as covariates, revealed that better initial sleep quality predicted higher levels of later physical activity beyond the effects of prior physical activity; whereas initial physical activity did not predict later sleep quality after accounting for prior sleep quality. These findings highlight sleep quality as an important contributor to a physically active lifestyle among older adults.

  5. Quantity and quality in nuclear engineering professional skills needed by the nuclear power industry

    SciTech Connect

    Slember, R.J.

    1990-01-01

    This paper examines the challenge of work force requirements in the context of the full range of issues facing the nuclear power industry. The supply of skilled managers and workers may be a more serious problem if nuclear power fades away than if it is reborn in a new generation. An even greater concern, however, is the quality of education that the industry needs in all its future professionals. Both government and industry should be helping universities adapt their curricula to the needs of the future. This means building a closer relationship with schools that educate nuclear professionals, that is, providing adequate scholarships and funding for research and development programs, offering in-kind services, and encouraging internships and other opportunities for hands-on experience. The goal should not be just state-of-the-art engineering practices, but the broad range of knowledge, issues, and skills that will be required of the nuclear leadership of the twenty-first century.

  6. Longitudinal handling qualities during approach and landing of a powered lift STOL aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franklin, J. A.; Innis, R. C.

    1972-01-01

    Longitudinal handling qualities evaluations were conducted on the Ames Research Center Flight Simulator for Advanced Aircraft (FSAA) for the approach and landing tasks of a powered lift STOL research aircraft. The test vehicle was a C-8A aircraft modified with a new wing incorporating internal blowing over an augmentor flap. The investigation included: (1) use of various flight path and airspeed control techniques for the basic vehicle; (2) assessment of stability and command augmentation schemes for pitch attitude and airspeed control; (3) determination of the influence of longitudinal and vertical force coupling for the power control; (4) determination of the influence of pitch axis coupling with the thrust vector control; and (5) evaluations of the contribution of stability and command augmentation to recovery from a single engine failure. Results are presented in the form of pilot ratings and commentary substantiated by landing approach time histories.

  7. Quality assurance program requirements for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1982-10-01

    This publication gives the general requirements for planning, managing, and evaluating quality assurance (QA) programs for Space and Terrestrial Nuclear Power Systems. These requirements are based on proven practices and provide direction to project management to aid in safe, reliable, and economical operation. The program's objective is to assure that systems, components, piece parts and materials (including those used for facilities and testing) are designed, developed, fabricated, installed, operated, and maintained in compliance with established engineering criteria. It is the intent of the Department of Energy (DOE) that QA standards be applied to hardware design and development programs from their inception to their completion.

  8. The suppression of star formation by powerful active galactic nuclei.

    PubMed

    Page, M J; Symeonidis, M; Vieira, J D; Altieri, B; Amblard, A; Arumugam, V; Aussel, H; Babbedge, T; Blain, A; Bock, J; Boselli, A; Buat, V; Castro-Rodríguez, N; Cava, A; Chanial, P; Clements, D L; Conley, A; Conversi, L; Cooray, A; Dowell, C D; Dubois, E N; Dunlop, J S; Dwek, E; Dye, S; Eales, S; Elbaz, D; Farrah, D; Fox, M; Franceschini, A; Gear, W; Glenn, J; Griffin, M; Halpern, M; Hatziminaoglou, E; Ibar, E; Isaak, K; Ivison, R J; Lagache, G; Levenson, L; Lu, N; Madden, S; Maffei, B; Mainetti, G; Marchetti, L; Nguyen, H T; O'Halloran, B; Oliver, S J; Omont, A; Panuzzo, P; Papageorgiou, A; Pearson, C P; Pérez-Fournon, I; Pohlen, M; Rawlings, J I; Rigopoulou, D; Riguccini, L; Rizzo, D; Rodighiero, G; Roseboom, I G; Rowan-Robinson, M; Sánchez Portal, M; Schulz, B; Scott, D; Seymour, N; Shupe, D L; Smith, A J; Stevens, J A; Trichas, M; Tugwell, K E; Vaccari, M; Valtchanov, I; Viero, M; Vigroux, L; Wang, L; Ward, R; Wright, G; Xu, C K; Zemcov, M

    2012-05-09

    The old, red stars that constitute the bulges of galaxies, and the massive black holes at their centres, are the relics of a period in cosmic history when galaxies formed stars at remarkable rates and active galactic nuclei (AGN) shone brightly as a result of accretion onto black holes. It is widely suspected, but unproved, that the tight correlation between the mass of the black hole and the mass of the stellar bulge results from the AGN quenching the surrounding star formation as it approaches its peak luminosity. X-rays trace emission from AGN unambiguously, whereas powerful star-forming galaxies are usually dust-obscured and are brightest at infrared and submillimetre wavelengths. Here we report submillimetre and X-ray observations that show that rapid star formation was common in the host galaxies of AGN when the Universe was 2-6 billion years old, but that the most vigorous star formation is not observed around black holes above an X-ray luminosity of 10(44) ergs per second. This suppression of star formation in the host galaxy of a powerful AGN is a key prediction of models in which the AGN drives an outflow, expelling the interstellar medium of its host and transforming the galaxy's properties in a brief period of cosmic time.

  9. Hydrogen as an activating fuel for a tidal power plant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorlov, A. M.

    Tidal projects, offering a clean, inexhaustible, and fairly predictable energy source, require a system for accumulating energy for off-peak periods. Hydrogen produced by electrolysis during off-peak power plant operation can be used as an activating fuel to furnish the plant during peak load demands. Tidal energy is converted into compressed air energy by special chambers on the ocean bed. This compressed air can be heated by combustion of the stored hydrogen and expanded through high speed gas turbine generators. For off-peak periods, the energy of non-heated compressed air is used for the production of hydrogen fuel. The amount of fuel produced at this time is enough for power plant operation during two peak hours, with three times greater plant capacity. The hydrogen fuel storage method does have energy losses and requires extra capital investment for electrolysis and hydrogen storage equipment. It does not, however, require a gas turbine oil fuel, as does the air compressed storage method, nor a low-speed heavy hydro-turbine, as does the hydro-pumped method. Moreover, the gas turbine can be used for both production and consumption of hydrogen fuel.

  10. The Suppression of Star Formation by Powerful Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dwek, E.

    2012-01-01

    The old, red stars that constitute the bulges of galaxies, and the massive black holes at their centres, are the relics of a period in cosmic history when galaxies formed stars at remarkable rates and active galactic nuclei (AGN) shone brightly as a result of accretion onto black holes. It is widely suspected, but unproved, that the tight corre1ation between the mass of the black hole and the mas. of the stellar bulge results from the AGN quenching the surrounding star formation as it approaches its peak luminosity. X-rays trace emission from AGN unambiguously, whereas powerful star-forming ga1axies are usually dust-obscured and are brightest at infrared and submillimeter wavelengths. Here we report submillimetre and X-ray observations that show that rapid star formation was common in the host galaxies of AGN when the Universe was 2-6 billion years old, but that the most vigorous star formation is not observed around black holes above an X-ray luminosity of 10(exp 44) ergs per second. This suppression of star formation in the host galaxy of a powerful AGN is a key prediction of models in which the AGN drives an outflow, expe11ing the interstellar medium of its host and transforming the galaxy's properties in a brief period of cosmic time.

  11. Improving healthcare quality through organisational peer-to-peer assessment: lessons from the nuclear power industry.

    PubMed

    Pronovost, Peter J; Hudson, Daniel W

    2012-10-01

    Healthcare has made great efforts to reduce preventable patient harm, from externally driven regulations to internally driven professionalism. Regulation has driven the majority of efforts to date, and has a necessary place in establishing accountability and minimum standards. Yet they need to be coupled with internally driven efforts. Among professional groups, internally-driven efforts that function as communities of learning and change social norms are highly effective tools to improve performance, yet these approaches are underdeveloped in healthcare. Healthcare can learn much from the nuclear power industry. The nuclear power industry formed the Institute of Nuclear Power Operators following the Three Mile Island accident to improve safety. That organization established a peer-to-peer assessment program to cross-share best practices, safety hazards, problems and actions that improved safety and operational performance. This commentary explores how a similar program could be expanded into healthcare. Healthcare needs a structured, clinician-led, industry-wide process to openly review, identify and mitigate hazards, and share best practices that ultimately improve patient safety. A healthcare version of the nuclear power program could supplement regulatory and other strategies currently used to improve quality and patient safety. PMID:22562877

  12. Remote Borehole Strainmeter Sites: Power system optimization improves data quality and increases equipment uptime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pyatt, C.; Van Boskirk, E.; Gallaher, W.; Hodgkinson, K. M.; Henderson, D. B.; Gottlieb, M. H.; Johnson, W.; Fox, O.; Mencin, D.; Mattioli, G.

    2012-12-01

    have been installed as a secondary power source. The fuel cells provide an alternative power source during the lower light winter conditions. The power system modifications have had an immediate and positive impact in data quality and instrument uptime. Inspection of strainmeter data in the frequency domain shows considerable improvement in noise levels. Most solar sites remained online throughout the winter months, ensuring a continuous data stream.

  13. Quality of Life Assessment for Physical Activity and Health Promotion: Further Psychometrics and Comparison of Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gill, Diane L.; Reifsteck, Erin J.; Adams, Melanie M.; Shang, Ya-Ting

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clear relationship between physical activity and quality of life, few sound, relevant quality of life measures exist. Gill and colleagues developed a 32-item quality of life survey, and provided initial psychometric evidence. This study further examined that quality of life survey in comparison with the widely used short form (SF-36)…

  14. Effect of salicylic acid treatment on postharvest quality, antioxidant activities, and free polyamines of asparagus.

    PubMed

    Wei, Yunxiao; Liu, Zhenfeng; Su, Yujing; Liu, Donghong; Ye, Xingqian

    2011-03-01

    The effects of salicylic acid (SA) on the quality and antioxidant activity of asparagus stored at 18 ± 2 °C were investigated by analyzing the color, chlorophyll, shear force, and the activity of antioxidant compounds such as ascorbic acid, phenolics, flavonoids, 1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), and polyamines (PAs). The results showed that SA improved the color and maintained the chlorophyll, phenolic, flavonoid, and ascorbic acid content of asparagus. High concentrations of SA caused a deterioration in asparagus would harm to color and had no effect on shear force within 6 d. SA induced the maximum concentration of phenolics in postharvest asparagus, promoted the increase in total flavonoids before 6 to 9 d, affected the antioxidant activity positively as indicated by the resultant increase in FRAP concentration; however, SA was only active with regard to DPPH scavenging activity within 6 d of treatment. Spermidine (Spd) is the most common form of PA in asparagus, and free putrescine (Put) contents increased over the first 3 d following harvest and then decreased. Spd and Spm concentrations evolved in a similar way and decreased during storage. Higher Spd and Spm contents in the SA pre-treatment Put was inhabited and its peaks appeared later.

  15. Slip-Sliding-Away: A Review of the Literature on the Constraining Qualities of PowerPoint

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kernbach, Sebastian; Bresciani, Sabrina; Eppler, Martin J.

    2015-01-01

    PowerPoint is a dominant communication tool in business and education. It allows for creating professional-looking presentations easily, but without understanding its constraining qualities it can be used inappropriately. Therefore we conducted a systematic literature review structuring the literature on PowerPoint in three chronological phases…

  16. Impact of Power Ultrasound on the Quality of Fruits and Vegetables During Dehydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Villamiel, Mar; Gamboa, Juliana; Soria, A. Cristina; Riera, Enrique; García-Pérez, José V.; Montilla, Antonia

    In the present work, the influence of power ultrasound (US) on the quality of fruits and vegetables during both the pre-treatment and drying has been evaluated. Chemical indicators such as pectinmethyl esterase and peroxidase enzymes, vitamin C, carbohydrates, proteins, polyphenols and 2-furoylmethylamino acids (indicators of the early stages of Maillard reaction) have been studied. In addition, rehydration capacity, leaching losses and shrinkage and organoleptic characteristics of the final product have also been assessed. During blanching, similar leaching losses and enzyme inactivation were found in low temperature and prolonged conventional treatments and in US processes, but with a significant reduction in the time for the latter. Finally, application of US in drying of carrots and strawberries originated significant reductions in processing time, while providing high quality end-products. The quality was higher as compared to marketed products and superior or equivalent to samples obtained under similar conditions in a prototype convective dryer, and, in the case of some indicators, similar to that of freeze-dried samples.

  17. Wind Turbine Generator System Power Quality Test Report for the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Curtis, A.; Gevorgian, V.

    2011-07-01

    This report details the power quality test on the Gaia Wind 11-kW Wind Turbine as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Independent Testing Project. In total five turbines are being tested as part of the project. Power quality testing is one of up to five test that may be performed on the turbines including power performance, safety and function, noise, and duration tests. The results of the testing provide manufacturers with reports that may be used for small wind turbine certification.

  18. High power broadband all fiber super-fluorescent source with linear polarization and near diffraction-limited beam quality.

    PubMed

    Ma, Pengfei; Huang, Long; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Liu, Zejin

    2016-01-25

    In this manuscript, a high power broadband superfluorescent source (SFS) with linear polarization and near-diffraction-limited beam quality is achieved based on an ytterbium-doped (Yb-doped), all fiberized and polarization-maintained master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration. The MOPA structure generates a linearly polarized output power of 1427 W with a slope efficiency of 80% and a full width at half maximum (FWHM) of 11 nm, which is power scaled by an order of magnitude compared with the previously reported SFSs with linear polarization. In the experiment, both the polarization extinction ratio (PER) and beam quality (M(2) factor) are degraded little during the power scaling process. At maximal output power, the PER and M(2) factor are measured to be 19.1dB and 1.14, respectively. The root-mean-square (RMS) and peak-vale (PV) values of the power fluctuation at maximal output power are just 0.48% and within 3%, respectively. Further power scaling of the whole system is limited by the available pump sources. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first demonstration of kilowatt level broadband SFS with linear polarization and near-diffraction-limited beam quality. PMID:26832492

  19. False alarm reduction in BSN-based cardiac monitoring using signal quality and activity type information.

    PubMed

    Tanantong, Tanatorn; Nantajeewarawat, Ekawit; Thiemjarus, Surapa

    2015-01-01

    False alarms in cardiac monitoring affect the quality of medical care, impacting on both patients and healthcare providers. In continuous cardiac monitoring using wireless Body Sensor Networks (BSNs), the quality of ECG signals can be deteriorated owing to several factors, e.g., noises, low battery power, and network transmission problems, often resulting in high false alarm rates. In addition, body movements occurring from activities of daily living (ADLs) can also create false alarms. This paper presents a two-phase framework for false arrhythmia alarm reduction in continuous cardiac monitoring, using signals from an ECG sensor and a 3D accelerometer. In the first phase, classification models constructed using machine learning algorithms are used for labeling input signals. ECG signals are labeled with heartbeat types and signal quality levels, while 3D acceleration signals are labeled with ADL types. In the second phase, a rule-based expert system is used for combining classification results in order to determine whether arrhythmia alarms should be accepted or suppressed. The proposed framework was validated on datasets acquired using BSNs and the MIT-BIH arrhythmia database. For the BSN dataset, acceleration and ECG signals were collected from 10 young and 10 elderly subjects while they were performing ADLs. The framework reduced the false alarm rate from 9.58% to 1.43% in our experimental study, showing that it can potentially assist physicians in diagnosing a vast amount of data acquired from wireless sensors and enhance the performance of continuous cardiac monitoring. PMID:25671512

  20. A Hilbert Transform-Based Smart Sensor for Detection, Classification, and Quantification of Power Quality Disturbances

    PubMed Central

    Granados-Lieberman, David; Valtierra-Rodriguez, Martin; Morales-Hernandez, Luis A.; Romero-Troncoso, Rene J.; Osornio-Rios, Roque A.

    2013-01-01

    Power quality disturbance (PQD) monitoring has become an important issue due to the growing number of disturbing loads connected to the power line and to the susceptibility of certain loads to their presence. In any real power system, there are multiple sources of several disturbances which can have different magnitudes and appear at different times. In order to avoid equipment damage and estimate the damage severity, they have to be detected, classified, and quantified. In this work, a smart sensor for detection, classification, and quantification of PQD is proposed. First, the Hilbert transform (HT) is used as detection technique; then, the classification of the envelope of a PQD obtained through HT is carried out by a feed forward neural network (FFNN). Finally, the root mean square voltage (Vrms), peak voltage (Vpeak), crest factor (CF), and total harmonic distortion (THD) indices calculated through HT and Parseval's theorem as well as an instantaneous exponential time constant quantify the PQD according to the disturbance presented. The aforementioned methodology is processed online using digital hardware signal processing based on field programmable gate array (FPGA). Besides, the proposed smart sensor performance is validated and tested through synthetic signals and under real operating conditions, respectively. PMID:23698264

  1. HUBBLE CAPTURES AN EXTRAORDINARY AND POWERFUL ACTIVE GALAXY

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    Resembling a swirling witch's cauldron of glowing vapors, the black hole-powered core of a nearby active galaxy appears in this colorful NASA Hubble Space Telescope image. The galaxy lies 13 million light-years away in the southern constellation Circinus. This galaxy is designated a type 2 Seyfert, a class of mostly spiral galaxies that have compact centers and are believed to contain massive black holes. Seyfert galaxies are themselves part of a larger class of objects called Active Galactic Nuclei or AGN. AGN have the ability to remove gas from the centers of their galaxies by blowing it out into space at phenomenal speeds. Astronomers studying the Circinus galaxy are seeing evidence of a powerful AGN at the center of this galaxy as well. Much of the gas in the disk of the Circinus spiral is concentrated in two specific rings -- a larger one of diameter 1,300 light-years, which has already been observed by ground-based telescopes, and a previously unseen ring of diameter 260 light-years. In the Hubble image, the smaller inner ring is located on the inside of the green disk. The larger outer ring extends off the image and is in the plane of the galaxy's disk. Both rings are home to large amounts of gas and dust as well as areas of major 'starburst' activity, where new stars are rapidly forming on timescales of 40 - 150 million years, much shorter than the age of the entire galaxy. At the center of the starburst rings is the Seyfert nucleus, the believed signature of a supermassive black hole that is accreting surrounding gas and dust. The black hole and its accretion disk are expelling gas out of the galaxy's disk and into its halo (the region above and below the disk). The detailed structure of this gas is seen as magenta-colored streamers extending towards the top of the image. In the center of the galaxy and within the inner starburst ring is a V-shaped structure of gas. The structure appears whitish-pink in this composite image, made up of four filters. Two

  2. 42 CFR 423.2430 - Activities that improve health care quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Information Technology (HIT) expenses, are required to accomplish the activities that improve health care... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Activities that improve health care quality. 423... Requirements for a Minimum Medical Loss Ratio § 423.2430 Activities that improve health care quality....

  3. 42 CFR 422.2430 - Activities that improve health care quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Information Technology (HIT) expenses, are required to accomplish the activities that improve health care... 42 Public Health 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Activities that improve health care quality. 422... Minimum Medical Loss Ratio § 422.2430 Activities that improve health care quality. (a)...

  4. Ultrasonication and the quality of human milk: variation of power and time of exposure.

    PubMed

    Christen, Lukas; Lai, Ching Tat; Hartmann, Peter E

    2012-08-01

    Donor human milk is pasteurized to prevent the potential risk of the transmission of pathogens to preterm infants. Currently, Holder pasteurization (human milk held at 62·5°C for 30 min) is used in most human milk banks, but has the disadvantage that it results in excessive inactivation of important bioactive components. Power-ultrasound (20-100 kHz) is an emerging technology for the preservation of foods and could be an alternative method for the treatment of human milk. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different ultrasound settings on the elimination of Escherichia coli and the retention of bile salt stimulated lipase (BSSL) activity. Ultrasonication with a constant power decreased Esch. coli viability exponentially over time until the processing temperature increased to sub-pasteurization level to between 51·4 and 58·5°C, then a log10 1·3 decrease was observed (P<0·05). BSSL activity decreased to 91% until a temperature of 51·4°C and then it decreased to 8% between 51·4 and 64·9°C. Ultrasonication with a constant energy and various power and exposure times showed the highest temperature (53·7°C) when treated with the longest exposure time and lowest ultrasound-power (276 s at 3·62 W) compared with 37·6°C for 39 s at 25·64 W. The findings predict that the viability of Esch. coli could be reduced by log10 5 with a minimal loss of activity of BSSL by applying 13·8 kJ of energy in 12 ml of human milk using high ultrasound power over a short exposure time to ensure that the temperature remains below the critical level for protein denaturation. Alternatively, the use of lower power settings such as the 26 W used in the present studies would require a cooling system to ensure the human milk BSSL was protected against temperature denaturation.

  5. A feasibility study on HTS SMES applications for power quality enhancement through both software simulations and hardware-based experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A. R.; Kim, J. G.; Kim, S.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.; Seong, K. C.; Watanabe, K.

    2011-11-01

    Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) which promises the efficiency of more than 95% and fast response becomes a competitive energy storage device. Because of its advantages, SMES can provide benefit as a power quality enhancement device to an utility especially in connection with renewable energy sources. In this paper, a software simulation and an experiment aiming for power quality enhancement are reported. The utility was referred to Ulleung Island in Korea which had one wind power generation system. The simulation was performed using power system computer aided design/electromagnetic transient including DC (PSCAD/EMTDC) and power-hardware-in-the-loop simulation (PHILS) was implemented to monitor the operational characteristics of SMES when it was connected to utility. This study provides a highly reliable simulation results, and the feasibility of a SMES application is discussed.

  6. The Tempo of Sexual Activity and Later Relationship Quality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sassler, Sharon; Addo, Fenaba R.; Lichter, Daniel T.

    2012-01-01

    Rapid sexual involvement may have adverse long-term implications for relationship quality. This study examined the tempo of sexual intimacy and subsequent relationship quality in a sample of married and cohabiting men and women. Data come from the Marital and Relationship Survey, which provides information on nearly 600 low- to moderate-income…

  7. Image simulation and a model of noise power spectra across a range of mammographic beam qualities

    SciTech Connect

    Mackenzie, Alistair Dance, David R.; Young, Kenneth C.; Diaz, Oliver

    2014-12-15

    Purpose: The aim of this work is to create a model to predict the noise power spectra (NPS) for a range of mammographic radiographic factors. The noise model was necessary to degrade images acquired on one system to match the image quality of different systems for a range of beam qualities. Methods: Five detectors and x-ray systems [Hologic Selenia (ASEh), Carestream computed radiography CR900 (CRc), GE Essential (CSI), Carestream NIP (NIPc), and Siemens Inspiration (ASEs)] were characterized for this study. The signal transfer property was measured as the pixel value against absorbed energy per unit area (E) at a reference beam quality of 28 kV, Mo/Mo or 29 kV, W/Rh with 45 mm polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) at the tube head. The contributions of the three noise sources (electronic, quantum, and structure) to the NPS were calculated by fitting a quadratic at each spatial frequency of the NPS against E. A quantum noise correction factor which was dependent on beam quality was quantified using a set of images acquired over a range of radiographic factors with different thicknesses of PMMA. The noise model was tested for images acquired at 26 kV, Mo/Mo with 20 mm PMMA and 34 kV, Mo/Rh with 70 mm PMMA for three detectors (ASEh, CRc, and CSI) over a range of exposures. The NPS were modeled with and without the noise correction factor and compared with the measured NPS. A previous method for adapting an image to appear as if acquired on a different system was modified to allow the reference beam quality to be different from the beam quality of the image. The method was validated by adapting the ASEh flat field images with two thicknesses of PMMA (20 and 70 mm) to appear with the imaging characteristics of the CSI and CRc systems. Results: The quantum noise correction factor rises with higher beam qualities, except for CR systems at high spatial frequencies, where a flat response was found against mean photon energy. This is due to the dominance of secondary quantum noise

  8. Compilation of Trade Studies for the Constellation Program Extravehicular Activity Spacesuit Power System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fincannon, James

    2009-01-01

    This compilation of trade studies performed from 2005 to 2006 addressed a number of power system design issues for the Constellation Program Extravehicular Activity Spacesuit. Spacesuits were required for spacewalks and in-space activities as well as lunar and Mars surface operations. The trades documented here considered whether solar power was feasible for spacesuits, whether spacesuit power generation should be a distributed or a centralized function, whether self-powered in-space spacesuits were better than umbilically powered ones, and whether the suit power system should be recharged in place or replaced.

  9. A Control Law Design Method Facilitating Control Power, Robustness, Agility, and Flying Qualities Tradeoffs: CRAFT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murphy, Patrick C.; Davidson, John B.

    1998-01-01

    A multi-input, multi-output control law design methodology, named "CRAFT", is presented. CRAFT stands for the design objectives addressed, namely, Control power, Robustness, Agility, and Flying Qualities Tradeoffs. The methodology makes use of control law design metrics from each of the four design objective areas. It combines eigenspace assignment, which allows for direct specification of eigenvalues and eigenvectors, with a graphical approach for representing the metrics that captures numerous design goals in one composite illustration. Sensitivity of the metrics to eigenspace choice is clearly displayed, enabling the designer to assess the cost of design tradeoffs. This approach enhances the designer's ability to make informed design tradeoffs and to reach effective final designs. An example of the CRAFT methodology applied to an advanced experimental fighter and discussion of associated design issues are provided.

  10. Effects of Active Sting Damping on Common Research Model Data Quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acheson, Michael J.; Balakrishna, S.

    2011-01-01

    Recent tests using the Common Research Model (CRM) at the Langley National Transonic Facility (NTF) and the Ames 11-foot Transonic Wind Tunnel (11' TWT) produced large sets of data that have been used to examine the effects of active damping on transonic tunnel aerodynamic data quality. In particular, large statistically significant sets of repeat data demonstrate that the active damping system had no apparent effect on drag, lift and pitching moment repeatability during warm testing conditions, while simultaneously enabling aerodynamic data to be obtained post stall. A small set of cryogenic (high Reynolds number) repeat data was obtained at the NTF and again showed a negligible effect on data repeatability. However, due to a degradation of control power in the active damping system cryogenically, the ability to obtain test data post-stall was not achieved during cryogenic testing. Additionally, comparisons of data repeatability between NTF and 11-ft TWT CRM data led to further (warm) testing at the NTF which demonstrated that for a modest increase in data sampling time, a 2-3 factor improvement in drag, and pitching moment repeatability was readily achieved not related with the active damping system.

  11. 45 CFR 2531.10 - What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Quality and Innovation activities? 2531.10 Section 2531.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... INVESTMENT FOR QUALITY AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES § 2531.10 What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities? Investment for Quality and Innovation activities are designed...

  12. 45 CFR 2531.10 - What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Quality and Innovation activities? 2531.10 Section 2531.10 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public... INVESTMENT FOR QUALITY AND INNOVATION ACTIVITIES § 2531.10 What are the purposes of the Investment for Quality and Innovation activities? Investment for Quality and Innovation activities are designed...

  13. Denervation-Induced Activation of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Reduces Skeletal Muscle Quantity Not Quality.

    PubMed

    Baumann, Cory W; Liu, Haiming M; Thompson, LaDora V

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is activated in response to skeletal muscle wasting and functions to degrade contractile proteins. The loss of these proteins inevitably reduces skeletal muscle size (i.e., quantity). However, it is currently unknown whether activation of this pathway also affects function by impairing the muscle's intrinsic ability to produce force (i.e., quality). Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold, (1) document how the ubiquitin-proteasome system responds to denervation and (2) identify the physiological consequences of these changes. To induce soleus muscle atrophy, C57BL6 mice underwent tibial nerve transection of the left hindlimb for 7 or 14 days (n = 6-8 per group). At these time points, content of several proteins within the ubiquitin-proteasome system were determined via Western blot, while ex vivo whole muscle contractility was specifically analyzed at day 14. Denervation temporarily increased several key proteins within the ubiquitin-proteasome system, including the E3 ligase MuRF1 and the proteasome subunits 19S, α7 and β5. These changes were accompanied by reductions in absolute peak force and power, which were offset when expressed relative to physiological cross-sectional area. Contrary to peak force, absolute and relative forces at submaximal stimulation frequencies were significantly greater following 14 days of denervation. Taken together, these data represent two keys findings. First, activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is associated with reductions in skeletal muscle quantity rather than quality. Second, shortly after denervation, it appears the muscle remodels to compensate for the loss of neural activity via changes in Ca2+ handling. PMID:27513942

  14. Denervation-Induced Activation of the Ubiquitin-Proteasome System Reduces Skeletal Muscle Quantity Not Quality

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Haiming M.; Thompson, LaDora V.

    2016-01-01

    It is well known that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is activated in response to skeletal muscle wasting and functions to degrade contractile proteins. The loss of these proteins inevitably reduces skeletal muscle size (i.e., quantity). However, it is currently unknown whether activation of this pathway also affects function by impairing the muscle’s intrinsic ability to produce force (i.e., quality). Therefore, the purpose of this study was twofold, (1) document how the ubiquitin-proteasome system responds to denervation and (2) identify the physiological consequences of these changes. To induce soleus muscle atrophy, C57BL6 mice underwent tibial nerve transection of the left hindlimb for 7 or 14 days (n = 6–8 per group). At these time points, content of several proteins within the ubiquitin-proteasome system were determined via Western blot, while ex vivo whole muscle contractility was specifically analyzed at day 14. Denervation temporarily increased several key proteins within the ubiquitin-proteasome system, including the E3 ligase MuRF1 and the proteasome subunits 19S, α7 and β5. These changes were accompanied by reductions in absolute peak force and power, which were offset when expressed relative to physiological cross-sectional area. Contrary to peak force, absolute and relative forces at submaximal stimulation frequencies were significantly greater following 14 days of denervation. Taken together, these data represent two keys findings. First, activation of the ubiquitin-proteasome system is associated with reductions in skeletal muscle quantity rather than quality. Second, shortly after denervation, it appears the muscle remodels to compensate for the loss of neural activity via changes in Ca2+ handling. PMID:27513942

  15. 76 FR 38384 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Water Quality...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-30

    ... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Water Quality... this action are all States and certain authorized Indian Tribes that adopt water quality standards...: Water Quality Standards Regulation (Renewal). ICR Number: EPA ICR No. 988.11, OMB Control No....

  16. Mechanical sampling systems for coal quality control in Romanian power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Matei, M.

    1998-12-31

    According to ISO 1988 samples must be taken from moving currents by using certain mechanical devices, and, only, exceptionally, by an understanding between party`s, by manually sampling. The principal requirements when designing and constructing a mechanical sampling system are that: it shall be capable of collecting and preparing increments or samples, as the case may be, that are free from relevant bias; it shall maintain this capability under all such conditions of sampling that are stipulated in the relevant specifications and without necessitating that sampling be interrupted for cleaning or maintenance. Actually, coal quality control in Romanian power plants are usually performed by a manual system. In order to meet ISO 1988 requirements, RENEL-GSCI (formerly ICEMENERG) has designed and achieved a falling stream sampler with cutter bucket in accordance with ISO 9411-1 (solid mineral fuels - Mechanical sampling from moving stream) provisions. This device has been installed in the Oradea 2 cogeneration power plant in the coal falling stream at the end of the belt conveyor. When the mechanical sampling installation was commissioned, experiments to check for precision and bias had been out for the installation as a whole. The method of checking for bias was by comparison with stopped-belt sampling. The mechanical sampling device is still under testing. The paper presents the result obtained during the preliminary test period in order to certify the mechanical sampler.

  17. Coal-fired power generaion, new air quality regulations, and future U.S. coal production

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Attanasi, E.D.; Root, D.H.

    1999-01-01

    Tighter new regulation of stack gas emissions and competition in power generation are driving electrical utilities to demand cleaner, lower sulfur coal. Historical data on sulfur content of produced coals shows little variability in coal quality for individual mines and individual coal-producing counties over relatively long periods of time. If coal-using power generators follow the compliance patterns established in Phase I of the 1990 Clean Air Act Amendments, then the industry's response to the tighter Phase II emissions standards will result in large amounts of coal production shifting from higher sulfur areas to areas with lower cost low sulfur coal. One reason this shift will likely occur is that currently only 30% of U.S. coal-fired electrical generating capacity is equipped with flue-gas scrubbers. In 1995, coal mines in the higher sulfur areas of the Illinois Basin and Northern and Central Appalachia employed 78% of all coal miners (>70,000 miners). A substantial geographical redistribution of the nation's coal supplies will likely lead to economic dislocations that will reach beyond local coal-producing areas.

  18. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  19. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  20. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  1. 42 CFR 460.140 - Additional quality assessment activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... SERVICES (CONTINUED) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) PROGRAMS OF ALL-INCLUSIVE CARE FOR THE ELDERLY (PACE) Quality Assessment and Performance Improvement § 460.140 Additional...

  2. Pilot evaluation of electricity-reliability and power-quality monitoring in California's Silicon Valley with the I-Grid(R) system

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, Joseph; Divan, Deepak; Brumsickle, William

    2004-02-01

    Power-quality events are of increasing concern for the economy because today's equipment, particularly computers and automated manufacturing devices, is susceptible to these imperceptible voltage changes. A small variation in voltage can cause this equipment to shut down for long periods, resulting in significant business losses. Tiny variations in power quality are difficult to detect except with expensive monitoring equipment used by trained technicians, so many electricity customers are unaware of the role of power-quality events in equipment malfunctioning. This report describes the findings from a pilot study coordinated through the Silicon Valley Manufacturers Group in California to explore the capabilities of I-Grid(R), a new power-quality monitoring system. This system is designed to improve the accessibility of power-quality in formation and to increase understanding of the growing importance of electricity reliability and power quality to the economy. The study used data collected by I-Grid sensors at seven Silicon Valley firms to investigate the impacts of power quality on individual study participants as well as to explore the capabilities of the I-Grid system to detect events on the larger electricity grid by means of correlation of data from the sensors at the different sites. In addition, study participants were interviewed about the value they place on power quality, and their efforts to address electricity-reliability and power-quality problems. Issues were identified that should be taken into consideration in developing a larger, potentially nationwide, network of power-quality sensors.

  3. Neural Network based Control of SG based Standalone Generating System with Energy Storage for Power Quality Enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayar, Priya; Singh, Bhim; Mishra, Sukumar

    2016-09-01

    An artificial intelligence based control algorithm is used in solving power quality problems of a diesel engine driven synchronous generator with automatic voltage regulator and governor based standalone system. A voltage source converter integrated with a battery energy storage system is employed to mitigate the power quality problems. An adaptive neural network based signed regressor control algorithm is used for the estimation of the fundamental component of load currents for control of a standalone system with load leveling as an integral feature. The developed model of the system performs accurately under varying load conditions and provides good dynamic response to the step changes in loads. The real time performance is achieved using MATLAB along with simulink/simpower system toolboxes and results adhere to an IEEE-519 standard for power quality enhancement.

  4. Physical activity and health related quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Research on the relationship between Health Related Quality of Life (HRQoL) and physical activity (PA), to date, have rarely investigated how this relationship differ across objective and subjective measures of PA. The aim of this paper is to explore the relationship between HRQoL and PA, and examine how this relationship differs across objective and subjective measures of PA, within the context of a large representative national survey from England. Methods Using a sample of 5,537 adults (40–60 years) from a representative national survey in England (Health Survey for England 2008), Tobit regressions with upper censoring was employed to model the association between HRQoL and objective, and subjective measures of PA controlling for potential confounders. We tested the robustness of this relationship across specific types of PA. HRQoL was assessed using the summary measure of health state utility value derived from the EuroQol-5 Dimensions (EQ-5D) whilst PA was assessed via subjective measure (questionnaire) and objective measure (accelerometer- actigraph model GT1M). The actigraph was worn (at the waist) for 7 days (during waking hours) by a randomly selected sub-sample of the HSE 2008 respondents (4,507 adults – 16 plus years), with a valid day constituting 10 hours. Analysis was conducted in 2010. Results Findings suggest that higher levels of PA are associated with better HRQoL (regression coefficient: 0.026 to 0.072). This relationship is consistent across different measures and types of PA although differences in the magnitude of HRQoL benefit associated with objective and subjective (regression coefficient: 0.047) measures of PA are noticeable, with the former measure being associated with a relatively better HRQoL (regression coefficient: 0.072). Conclusion Higher levels of PA are associated with better HRQoL. Using an objective measure of PA compared with subjective shows a relatively better HRQoL. PMID:22871153

  5. Active high-power RF switch and pulse compression system

    DOEpatents

    Tantawi, Sami G.; Ruth, Ronald D.; Zolotorev, Max

    1998-01-01

    A high-power RF switching device employs a semiconductor wafer positioned in the third port of a three-port RF device. A controllable source of directed energy, such as a suitable laser or electron beam, is aimed at the semiconductor material. When the source is turned on, the energy incident on the wafer induces an electron-hole plasma layer on the wafer, changing the wafer's dielectric constant, turning the third port into a termination for incident RF signals, and. causing all incident RF signals to be reflected from the surface of the wafer. The propagation constant of RF signals through port 3, therefore, can be changed by controlling the beam. By making the RF coupling to the third port as small as necessary, one can reduce the peak electric field on the unexcited silicon surface for any level of input power from port 1, thereby reducing risk of damaging the wafer by RF with high peak power. The switch is useful to the construction of an improved pulse compression system to boost the peak power of microwave tubes driving linear accelerators. In this application, the high-power RF switch is placed at the coupling iris between the charging waveguide and the resonant storage line of a pulse compression system. This optically controlled high power RF pulse compression system can handle hundreds of Megawatts of power at X-band.

  6. SiC MOSFET Based Single Phase Active Boost Rectifier with Power Factor Correction for Wireless Power Transfer Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Onar, Omer C; Tang, Lixin; Chinthavali, Madhu Sudhan; Campbell, Steven L; Miller , John M.

    2014-01-01

    Wireless Power Transfer (WPT) technology is a novel research area in the charging technology that bridges the utility and the automotive industries. There are various solutions that are currently being evaluated by several research teams to find the most efficient way to manage the power flow from the grid to the vehicle energy storage system. There are different control parameters that can be utilized to compensate for the change in the impedance due to variable parameters such as battery state-of-charge, coupling factor, and coil misalignment. This paper presents the implementation of an active front-end rectifier on the grid side for power factor control and voltage boost capability for load power regulation. The proposed SiC MOSFET based single phase active front end rectifier with PFC resulted in >97% efficiency at 137mm air-gap and >95% efficiency at 160mm air-gap.

  7. Testing Active Power Control from Wind Power at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.

    2011-05-01

    In order to keep the electricity grid stable and the lights on, the power system relies on certain responses from its generating fleet. This presentation evaluates the potential for wind turbines and wind power plants to provide these services and assist the grid during critical times.

  8. A new state-space model for three-phase systems for Kalman filtering with application to power quality estimation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phan, Anh Tuan; Ho, Duc Du; Hermann, Gilles; Wira, Patrice

    2015-12-01

    For power quality issues like reducing harmonic pollution, reactive power and load unbalance, the estimation of the fundamental frequency of a power lines in a fast and precise way is essential. This paper introduces a new state-space model to be used with an extended Kalman filter (EKF) for estimating the frequency of distorted power system signals in real-time. The proposed model takes into account all the characteristics of a general three-phase power system and mainly the unbalance. Therefore, the symmetrical components of the power system, i.e., their amplitude and phase angle values, can also be deduced at each iteration from the proposed state-space model. The effectiveness of the method has been evaluated. Results and comparisons of online frequency estimation and symmetrical components identification show the efficiency of the proposed method for disturbed and time-varying signals.

  9. Two-step activation of paper batteries for high power generation: design and fabrication of biofluid- and water-activated paper batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Ki Bang

    2006-11-01

    Two-step activation of paper batteries has been successfully demonstrated to provide quick activation and to supply high power to credit card-sized biosystems on a plastic chip. A stack of a magnesium layer (an anode), a fluid guide (absorbent paper), a highly doped filter paper with copper chloride (a cathode) and a copper layer as a current collector is laminated between two transparent plastic films into a high power biofluid- and water-activated battery. The battery is activated by two-step activation: (1) after placing a drop of biofluid/water-based solution on the fluid inlet, the surface tension first drives the fluid to soak the fluid guide; (2) the fluid in the fluid guide then penetrates into the heavily doped filter paper with copper chloride to start the battery reaction. The fabricated half credit card-sized battery was activated by saliva, urine and tap water and delivered a maximum voltage of 1.56 V within 10 s after activation and a maximum power of 15.6 mW. When 10 kΩ and 1 KΩ loads are used, the service time with water, urine and saliva is measured as more than 2 h. An in-series battery of 3 V has been successfully tested to power two LEDs (light emitting diodes) and an electric driving circuit. As such, this high power paper battery could be integrated with on-demand credit card-sized biosystems such as healthcare test kits, biochips, lab-on-a-chip, DNA chips, protein chips or even test chips for water quality checking or chemical checking.

  10. The impact of agricultural activities on water quality in oxbow lakes in the Mississippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the Mississippi Delta, agricultural activity is a major source of nonpoint source (NPS) pollutants. Sediment, nutrients and pesticides have been considered as priority NPS pollutants and greatly affect the water quality in this area. The impacts of agricultural activities on water quality in oxbo...

  11. Environmental Resource Guide: Air Quality. A Series of Classroom Activities for Grades 6-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Elizabeth W., Ed.

    Many different types of air quality can be studied in middle school science classes using available supplies. This grade 6-8 activity guide was developed to provide opportunities for children to learn about the issue of air quality. Sixteen hands-on activities integrate the issue into middle school science classes. A chart categorizes the…

  12. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  13. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  14. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  15. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  16. 45 CFR 98.51 - Activities to improve the quality of child care.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CHILD CARE AND DEVELOPMENT FUND Use of Child Care and Development Funds § 98.51 Activities to improve the quality of child care. (a) No less than four percent of the aggregate funds expended by the Lead... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Activities to improve the quality of child...

  17. The impact of hybrid energy storage on power quality, when high power pulsed DC loads are operated on a microgrid testbed

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kelley, Jay Paul

    . This enables the generator to maintain its operation at levels of high efficiency thereby increasing the power quality of the AC bus. The work discussed here is aimed at evaluating how the use of energy storage impacts the power quality on MicroGrid's AC bus when high rate DC and AC loads are sourced simultaneously. Also HESM has been developed and evaluated as a mean to optimizing both the power and energy density of the energy storage installed.

  18. Ranking online quality and reputation via the user activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Lu; Guo, Qiang; Hou, Lei; Cheng, Can; Liu, Jian-Guo

    2015-10-01

    How to design an accurate algorithm for ranking the object quality and user reputation is of importance for online rating systems. In this paper we present an improved iterative algorithm for online ranking object quality and user reputation in terms of the user degree (IRUA), where the user's reputation is measured by his/her rating vector, the corresponding objects' quality vector and the user degree. The experimental results for the empirical networks show that the AUC values of the IRUA algorithm can reach 0.9065 and 0.8705 in Movielens and Netflix data sets, respectively, which is better than the results generated by the traditional iterative ranking methods. Meanwhile, the results for the synthetic networks indicate that user degree should be considered in real rating systems due to users' rating behaviors. Moreover, we find that enhancing or reducing the influences of the large-degree users could produce more accurate reputation ranking lists.

  19. Impaired voluntary neuromuscular activation limits muscle power in mobility-limited older adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background. Age-related alterations of neuromuscular activation may contribute to deficits in muscle power and mobility function. This study assesses whether impaired activation of the agonist quadriceps and antagonist hamstrings, including amplitude- and velocity-dependent characteristics of activa...

  20. ERC product improvement activities for direct fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Bentley, C.; Carlson, G.; Doyon, J.

    1995-08-01

    This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current power plant demonstration status to the commercial design in an approximately five-year period. The specific objectives which will allow attainment of the overall program goal are: (1) Define market-responsive power plant requirements and specifications, (2) Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant, (3) Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial manufacturing facility, (4) Define the stack and BOP equipment packaging arrangement and define module designs, (5) Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and BOP equipment as required to prepare for commercial design, and (6) Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues and design, build, and field test a modular commercial prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry. A seven-task program, dedicated to attaining objective(s) in the areas noted above, was initiated in December 1994. Accomplishments of the first six months are discussed in this paper.

  1. ERC product improvement activities for direct fuel cell power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Maru, H.C.; Farooque, M.; Bentley, C.

    1995-12-01

    This program is designed to advance the carbonate fuel cell technology from the current power plant demonstration status to the commercial design in an approximately five-year period. The specific objectives which will allow attainment of the overall program goal are: (1) Define market-responsive power plant requirements and specifications, (2) Establish the design for a multifuel, low-cost, modular, market-responsive power plant, (3) Resolve power plant manufacturing issues and define the design for the commercial manufacturing facility, (4) Define the stack and BOP equipment packaging arrangement and define module designs, (5) Acquire capability to support developmental testing of stacks and BOP equipment as required to prepare for commercial design, and (6) Resolve stack and BOP equipment technology issues and design, build, and field test a modular commercial prototype power plant to demonstrate readiness for commercial entry. A seven-task program, dedicated to attaining objective(s) in the areas noted above, was initiated in December 1994. Accomplishments of the first six months are discussed in this paper.

  2. Sensory and Quality Evaluation of Traditional Compared with Power Ultrasound Processed Corn (Zea Mays) Tortilla Chips.

    PubMed

    Janve, Bhaskar; Yang, Wade; Sims, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Power ultrasound reduces the traditional corn steeping time from 18 to 1.5 h during tortilla chips dough (masa) processing. This study sought to examine consumer (n = 99) acceptability and quality of tortilla chips made from the masa by traditional compared with ultrasonic methods. Overall appearance, flavor, and texture acceptability scores were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The baked chips (process intermediate) before and after frying (finished product) were analyzed using a texture analyzer and machine vision. The texture values were determined using the 3-point bend test using breaking force gradient (BFG), peak breaking force (PBF), and breaking distance (BD). The fracturing properties determined by the crisp fracture support rig using fracture force gradient (FFG), peak fracture force (PFF), and fracture distance (FD). The machine vision evaluated the total surface area, lightness (L), color difference (ΔE), Hue (°h), and Chroma (C*). The results were evaluated by analysis of variance and means were separated using Tukey's test. Machine vision values of L, °h, were higher (P < 0.05) and ΔE was lower (P < 0.05) for fried and L, °h were significantly (P < 0.05) higher for baked chips produced from ultra-sonication as compare to traditional. Baked chips texture for ultra-sonication was significantly higher (P < 0.05) on BFG, BPD, PFF, and FD. Fried tortilla chips texture were higher significantly (P < 0.05) in BFG and PFF for ultra-sonication than traditional processing. However, the instrumental differences were not detected in sensory analysis, concluding possibility of power ultrasound as potential tortilla chips processing aid.

  3. Sensory and Quality Evaluation of Traditional Compared with Power Ultrasound Processed Corn (Zea Mays) Tortilla Chips.

    PubMed

    Janve, Bhaskar; Yang, Wade; Sims, Charles

    2015-06-01

    Power ultrasound reduces the traditional corn steeping time from 18 to 1.5 h during tortilla chips dough (masa) processing. This study sought to examine consumer (n = 99) acceptability and quality of tortilla chips made from the masa by traditional compared with ultrasonic methods. Overall appearance, flavor, and texture acceptability scores were evaluated using a 9-point hedonic scale. The baked chips (process intermediate) before and after frying (finished product) were analyzed using a texture analyzer and machine vision. The texture values were determined using the 3-point bend test using breaking force gradient (BFG), peak breaking force (PBF), and breaking distance (BD). The fracturing properties determined by the crisp fracture support rig using fracture force gradient (FFG), peak fracture force (PFF), and fracture distance (FD). The machine vision evaluated the total surface area, lightness (L), color difference (ΔE), Hue (°h), and Chroma (C*). The results were evaluated by analysis of variance and means were separated using Tukey's test. Machine vision values of L, °h, were higher (P < 0.05) and ΔE was lower (P < 0.05) for fried and L, °h were significantly (P < 0.05) higher for baked chips produced from ultra-sonication as compare to traditional. Baked chips texture for ultra-sonication was significantly higher (P < 0.05) on BFG, BPD, PFF, and FD. Fried tortilla chips texture were higher significantly (P < 0.05) in BFG and PFF for ultra-sonication than traditional processing. However, the instrumental differences were not detected in sensory analysis, concluding possibility of power ultrasound as potential tortilla chips processing aid. PMID:25939826

  4. Power quality control and design of power converter for variable-speed wind energy conversion system with permanent-magnet synchronous generator.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Yüksel; Güney, İrfan; Çalık, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    The control strategy and design of an AC/DC/AC IGBT-PMW power converter for PMSG-based variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (VSWECS) operation in grid/load-connected mode are presented. VSWECS consists of a PMSG connected to a AC-DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier and a DC/AC IGBT-based PWM inverter with LCL filter. In VSWECS, AC/DC/AC power converter is employed to convert the variable frequency variable speed generator output to the fixed frequency fixed voltage grid. The DC/AC power conversion has been managed out using adaptive neurofuzzy controlled inverter located at the output of controlled AC/DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier. In this study, the dynamic performance and power quality of the proposed power converter connected to the grid/load by output LCL filter is focused on. Dynamic modeling and control of the VSWECS with the proposed power converter is performed by using MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results show that the output voltage, power, and frequency of VSWECS reach to desirable operation values in a very short time. In addition, when PMSG based VSWECS works continuously with the 4.5 kHz switching frequency, the THD rate of voltage in the load terminal is 0.00672%.

  5. Power quality control and design of power converter for variable-speed wind energy conversion system with permanent-magnet synchronous generator.

    PubMed

    Oğuz, Yüksel; Güney, İrfan; Çalık, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    The control strategy and design of an AC/DC/AC IGBT-PMW power converter for PMSG-based variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (VSWECS) operation in grid/load-connected mode are presented. VSWECS consists of a PMSG connected to a AC-DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier and a DC/AC IGBT-based PWM inverter with LCL filter. In VSWECS, AC/DC/AC power converter is employed to convert the variable frequency variable speed generator output to the fixed frequency fixed voltage grid. The DC/AC power conversion has been managed out using adaptive neurofuzzy controlled inverter located at the output of controlled AC/DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier. In this study, the dynamic performance and power quality of the proposed power converter connected to the grid/load by output LCL filter is focused on. Dynamic modeling and control of the VSWECS with the proposed power converter is performed by using MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results show that the output voltage, power, and frequency of VSWECS reach to desirable operation values in a very short time. In addition, when PMSG based VSWECS works continuously with the 4.5 kHz switching frequency, the THD rate of voltage in the load terminal is 0.00672%. PMID:24453905

  6. Power Quality Control and Design of Power Converter for Variable-Speed Wind Energy Conversion System with Permanent-Magnet Synchronous Generator

    PubMed Central

    Oğuz, Yüksel; Güney, İrfan; Çalık, Hüseyin

    2013-01-01

    The control strategy and design of an AC/DC/AC IGBT-PMW power converter for PMSG-based variable-speed wind energy conversion systems (VSWECS) operation in grid/load-connected mode are presented. VSWECS consists of a PMSG connected to a AC-DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier and a DC/AC IGBT-based PWM inverter with LCL filter. In VSWECS, AC/DC/AC power converter is employed to convert the variable frequency variable speed generator output to the fixed frequency fixed voltage grid. The DC/AC power conversion has been managed out using adaptive neurofuzzy controlled inverter located at the output of controlled AC/DC IGBT-based PWM rectifier. In this study, the dynamic performance and power quality of the proposed power converter connected to the grid/load by output LCL filter is focused on. Dynamic modeling and control of the VSWECS with the proposed power converter is performed by using MATLAB/Simulink. Simulation results show that the output voltage, power, and frequency of VSWECS reach to desirable operation values in a very short time. In addition, when PMSG based VSWECS works continuously with the 4.5 kHz switching frequency, the THD rate of voltage in the load terminal is 0.00672%. PMID:24453905

  7. Effect of power distribution on the weld quality during hybrid laser welding of an Al-Mg alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leo, P.; Renna, G.; Casalino, G.; Olabi, A. G.

    2015-10-01

    This paper treats of the analysis of the effect of arc and laser powers on the quality of the arc assisted fiber laser welding of an Al-Mg alloy in the butt configuration. Grain size, weld geometry defects, porosity, and magnesium loss were measured. Magnesium content of the fused zone decreased as the laser power increased while the porosity increased with laser power. Microhardness profiles and tensile properties were explained on the basis of the joint microstructure and defects and related to the power distribution. The porosity level and Mg content in the fused zone affected both tensile strength and ductility. The power distribution that stabilized the welding process and minimize the weld porosity was defined.

  8. Extremal harmonic active control of power for a monocylinder hybrid powertrain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gauthier, Jean-Philippe; Micheau, Philippe; Cauet, Sébastien; Coirault, Patrick; Martin, Pascal

    2011-11-01

    This article presents a real-life application for the extremal harmonic active control of power [1] applied on a hybrid engine setup. The active control was adapted for a hybrid powertrain constituted of a one-cylinder diesel engine coupled with a permanent magnet synchronous machine. The problem was formulated in the harmonic domain and the control objective was to extremalize energetic criterions. Three criterions were considered: minimizing the speed ripple of the engine, maximizing the mechanical reactive power (mechanical impedance adaptation) and maximizing the active electric power for energy harvesting. The results show that, for the first and second orders of the ripple, speed oscillations can be completely cancelled and reactive power and active power can be optimized on-line. The implicit extremal controller converged rapidly, remaining stable even when the mean engine speed changed abruptly. These results confirm the robustness and the applicability of the extremal harmonic active control for industrial applications.

  9. Age associated declines in muscle mass, strength, power, and physical performance: impact on fear of falling and quality of life

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    SUMMARY: This 3 year longitudinal study among older adults showed that declining muscle mass, strength, power, and physical performance are independent contributing factors to increased fear of falling, while declines of muscle mass and physical performance contribute to deterioration of quality of ...

  10. Power analysis and trend detection for water quality monitoring data. An application for the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Irvine, Kathryn M.; Manlove, Kezia; Hollimon, Cynthia

    2012-01-01

    An important consideration for long term monitoring programs is determining the required sampling effort to detect trends in specific ecological indicators of interest. To enhance the Greater Yellowstone Inventory and Monitoring Network’s water resources protocol(s) (O’Ney 2006 and O’Ney et al. 2009 [under review]), we developed a set of tools to: (1) determine the statistical power for detecting trends of varying magnitude in a specified water quality parameter over different lengths of sampling (years) and different within-year collection frequencies (monthly or seasonal sampling) at particular locations using historical data, and (2) perform periodic trend analyses for water quality parameters while addressing seasonality and flow weighting. A power analysis for trend detection is a statistical procedure used to estimate the probability of rejecting the hypothesis of no trend when in fact there is a trend, within a specific modeling framework. In this report, we base our power estimates on using the seasonal Kendall test (Helsel and Hirsch 2002) for detecting trend in water quality parameters measured at fixed locations over multiple years. We also present procedures (R-scripts) for conducting a periodic trend analysis using the seasonal Kendall test with and without flow adjustment. This report provides the R-scripts developed for power and trend analysis, tutorials, and the associated tables and graphs. The purpose of this report is to provide practical information for monitoring network staff on how to use these statistical tools for water quality monitoring data sets.

  11. CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    2014-12-31

    This CALiPER report examines the characteristics of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retail Lamps Study 3 in more detail. Specifically, it focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers.

  12. On the nature of ULF wave power during nightside auroral activations and substorms: 2. Temporal evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rae, I. J.; Murphy, K. R.; Watt, C. E. J.; Mann, I. R.

    2011-01-01

    We present a statistical analysis of the time evolution of ground magnetic fluctuations in three (12-48 s, 24-96 s and 48-192 s) period bands during nightside auroral activations. We use an independently derived auroral activation list composed of both substorms and pseudo-breakups to provide an estimate of the activation times of nightside aurora during periods with comprehensive ground magnetometer coverage. One hundred eighty-one events in total are studied to demonstrate the statistical nature of the time evolution of magnetic wave power during the ˜30 min surrounding auroral activations. We find that the magnetic wave power is approximately constant before an auroral activation, starts to grow up to 90 s prior to the optical onset time, maximizes a few minutes after the auroral activation, then decays slightly to a new, and higher, constant level. Importantly, magnetic ULF wave power always remains elevated after an auroral activation, whether it is a substorm or a pseudo-breakup. We subsequently divide the auroral activation list into events that formed part of ongoing auroral activity and events that had little preceding geomagnetic activity. We find that the evolution of wave power in the ˜10-200 s period band essentially behaves in the same manner through auroral onset, regardless of event type. The absolute power across ULF wave bands, however, displays a power law-like dependency throughout a 30 min period centered on auroral onset time. We also find evidence of a secondary maximum in wave power at high latitudes ˜10 min following isolated substorm activations. Most significantly, we demonstrate that magnetic wave power levels persist after auroral activations for ˜10 min, which is consistent with recent findings of wave-driven auroral precipitation during substorms. This suggests that magnetic wave power and auroral particle precipitation are intimately linked and key components of the substorm onset process.

  13. Measurement of mechanical quality factors of polymers in flexural vibration for high-power ultrasonic application.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jiang; Mizuno, Yosuke; Tabaru, Marie; Nakamura, Kentaro

    2016-07-01

    A method for measuring the mechanical quality factor (Q factor) of materials in large-amplitude flexural vibrations was devised on the basis of the original definition of the Q factor. The Q factor, the ratio of the reactive energy to the dissipated energy, was calculated from the vibration velocity distribution. The bar thickness was selected considering the effect of the thickness on the estimation error. In the experimental setup, a 1-mm-thick polymer-based bar was used as a sample and fixed on the top of a longitudinal transducer. Using transducers of different lengths, flexural waves in the frequency range of 20-90kHz were generated on the bar. The vibration strain in the experiment reached 0.06%. According to the Bernoulli-Euler model, the reactive energy and dissipated energy were estimated from the vertical velocity distribution on the bar, and the Q factors were measured as the driving frequency and strain were varied. The experimental results showed that the Q factors decrease as the driving frequencies and strains increase. At a frequency of 28.30kHz, the Q factor of poly(phenylene sulfide) (PPS) reached approximately 460 when the strain was smaller than 0.005%. PPS exhibited a much higher Q factor than the other tested polymers, which implies that it is a potentially applicable material as the elastomer for high-power ultrasonic devices. PMID:27065470

  14. [The self healing power of cities--civil qualities of urban life].

    PubMed

    Akbar, O

    2005-12-01

    Health and hygiene are top issues from the early days down the history of a town or a city. Pestilence, epidemic plagues and infectious diseases are once in a while endangering the delicate equilibrium of a city as an organism. Many infra-structural measures are taken to ensure health in and of the city. What makes a healthy city is not just the absence of illness, a healthy city is inspired by the mentality of their citizens, it is a work of art and based on an consensus of what does mean quality of live for the city and its inhabitants. It is multifaceted and can develop the power to regenerate itself. In times of a demographic change with more elderly people in the future then ever and less money in public pursues we nevertheless have the civic duties and the obligation to look after health of our cities. Many faculties like science, visual art, engineering and design must cooperate and work together toward that goal.

  15. Intercomparison of methods for image quality characterization. II. Noise power spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Dobbins, James T. III; Samei, Ehsan; Ranger, Nicole T.; Chen Ying

    2006-05-15

    Second in a two-part series comparing measurement techniques for the assessment of basic image quality metrics in digital radiography, in this paper we focus on the measurement of the image noise power spectrum (NPS). Three methods were considered: (1) a method published by Dobbins et al. [Med. Phys. 22, 1581-1593 (1995)] (2) a method published by Samei et al. [Med. Phys. 30, 608-622 (2003)], and (3) a new method sanctioned by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC 62220-1, 2003), developed as part of an international standard for the measurement of detective quantum efficiency. In addition to an overall comparison of the estimated NPS between the three techniques, the following factors were also evaluated for their effect on the measured NPS: horizontal versus vertical directional dependence, the use of beam-limiting apertures, beam spectrum, and computational methods of NPS analysis, including the region-of-interest (ROI) size and the method of ROI normalization. Of these factors, none was found to demonstrate a substantial impact on the amplitude of the NPS estimates ({<=}3.1% relative difference in NPS averaged over frequency, for each factor considered separately). Overall, the three methods agreed to within 1.6%{+-}0.8% when averaged over frequencies >0.15 mm{sup -1}.

  16. Cooperative Control of Active Power Filters in Power Systems without Mutual Communication

    DOE PAGES

    Tlustý, Josef; Škramlík, Jiří; Švec, Jan; Valouch, Viktor

    2010-01-01

    The procedure for calculating controller parameters of the APFs implemented into a multibus industrial power system for harmonic voltage mitigation is presented. The node-voltage-detection control strategy is applied and the basic controller parameters are found under the condition that the demanded THD factors at the buses where the APFs are placed will be obtained. A cooperative control of several APFs without mutual communication is proposed, simulated, and experimentally verified. By tuning the controller gains without considering the power circuit parameters, all APFs used tend to share harmonic load currents approximately equally regardless of the operation modes of the nonlinear loadsmore » in different parts of the power system.« less

  17. Power Quality Improvement in Bridgeless Ac-Dc Converter Based Multi-output Switched Mode Power Supply

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Shihka; Singh, Bhim; Bhuvaneswari, G.; Bist, Vashist

    2014-12-01

    Computer power supplies are required to have multiple isolated regulated dc voltages with low ripple content and high input power factor at the utility interface. A dc-dc converter is used for obtaining these isolated multi-output dc voltages with excellent regulation. In this paper, a non-isolated ac-dc converter is proposed as the first stage converter to obtain a regulated dc output rather than using a simple uncontrolled diode bridge rectifier at the front end. A dc-dc converter is used at the second stage that has a high frequency transformer with multiple secondary windings to obtain different dc voltage levels at the output. The proposed bridgeless converter based power supply is designed using fundamental design equations, and different component values are calculated. Extensive simulations are carried out to demonstrate the improved performance of the proposed bridgeless converter based multi-output computer power supply at varying source voltages and load conditions. Experimental validation of the power supply is carried on a developed hardware prototype, and the test results are compared with the simulated performance for design verification.

  18. Large deflection angle, high-power adaptive fiber optics collimator with preserved near-diffraction-limited beam quality.

    PubMed

    Zhi, Dong; Ma, Yanxing; Chen, Zilun; Wang, Xiaolin; Zhou, Pu; Si, Lei

    2016-05-15

    We report on the development of a monolithic adaptive fiber optics collimator, with a large deflection angle and preserved near-diffraction-limited beam quality, that has been tested at a maximal output power at the 300 W level. Additionally, a new measurement method of beam quality (M2 factor) is developed. Experimental results show that the deflection angle of the collimated beam is in the range of 0-0.27 mrad in the X direction and 0-0.19 mrad in the Y direction. The effective working frequency of the device is about 710 Hz. By employing the new measurement method of the M2 factor, we calculate that the beam quality is Mx2=1.35 and My2=1.24, which is in agreement with the result from the beam propagation analyzer and is preserved well with the increasing output power.

  19. High-power and high-quality, green-beam generation by employing a thermally near-unstable resonator design.

    PubMed

    Bo, Yong; Geng, Aicong; Bi, Yong; Sun, Zhipei; Yang, Xiaodong; Peng, Qinjun; Li, Huiqing; Li, Ruining; Cui, Dafu; Xu, Zuyan

    2006-04-10

    We have obtained green-beam quality of M2 = 6.2 at an average output power of 120 W by intracavity frequency doubling of a diode-side-pumped, Q-switched Nd:YAG rod laser with a repetition rate of 10 kHz and an optical-to-optical conversion efficiency of 15.2%. To achieve high-beam quality at high average power, the laser employs a thermally near-unstable resonator design with two-rod birefringence compensation in an L-shaped flat-flat cavity. The output power fluctuation of the green laser remains less than 0.9% in 4 h. PMID:16623247

  20. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajan; Schürer, Stephan C; Muskal, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR) data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB), WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note. PMID:27429748

  1. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajan; Schürer, Stephan C.; Muskal, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR) data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB), WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note. PMID:27429748

  2. Retail Lamps Study 3.1: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED A Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    Royer, Michael P.; Poplawski, Michael E.; Brown, Charles C.

    2014-12-01

    To date, all three reports in the retail lamps series have focused on basic performance parameters, such as lumen output, efficacy, and color quality. This report goes a step further, examining the photoelectric characteristics (i.e., dimming and flicker) of a subset of lamps from CALiPER Retails Lamps Study 3. Specifically, this report focuses on the dimming, power quality, and flicker characteristics of 14 LED A lamps, as controlled by four different retail-available dimmers. The results demonstrate notable variation across the various lamps, but little variation between the four dimmers. Overall, the LED lamps: ~tended to have higher relative light output compared to the incandescent and halogen benchmark at the same dimmer output signal (RMS voltage). The lamps’ dimming curves (i.e., the relationship between control signal and relative light output) ranged from linear to very similar to the square-law curve typical of an incandescent lamp. ~generally exhibited symmetrical behavior—the same dimming curve—when measured proceeding from maximum to minimum or minimum to maximum control signal. ~mostly dimmed below 10% of full light output, with some exceptions for specific lamp and dimmer combinations ~exhibited a range of flicker characteristics, with many comparing favorably to the level typical of a magnetically-ballasted fluorescent lamp through at least a majority of the dimming range. ~ always exceeded the relative (normalized) efficacy over the dimming range of the benchmark lamps, which rapidly decline in efficacy when they are dimmed. This report generally does not attempt to rank the performance of one product compared to another, but instead focuses on the collective performance of the group versus conventional incandescent or halogen lamps, the performance of which is likely to be the baseline for a majority of consumers. Undoubtedly, some LED lamps perform better—or more similar to conventional lamps—than others. Some perform desirably for one

  3. Physical Activity and Aging: Implications for Health and Quality of Life in Older Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    1998-01-01

    This publication summarizes what is known about the influence of regular physical activity on the health and quality of life of older individuals, addressing both the acute effects of a single bout of physical activity and the more persistent, long-term effects of sustained participation in exercise and physical activity. Section 1 discusses the…

  4. Power-gated 32 bit microprocessor with a power controller circuit activated by deep-sleep-mode instruction achieving ultra-low power operation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Hiroki; Ohsawa, Takashi; Miura, Sadahiko; Honjo, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Shoji; Hanyu, Takahiro; Ohno, Hideo; Endoh, Tetsuo

    2015-04-01

    A spintronic-based power-gated micro-processing unit (MPU) is proposed. It includes a power control circuit activated by the newly supported power-off instruction for the deep-sleep mode. These means enable the power-off procedure for the MPU to be executed appropriately. A test chip was designed and fabricated using 90 nm CMOS and an additional 100 nm MTJ process; it was successfully operated. The guideline of the energy reduction effects for this MPU was presented, using the estimation based on the measurement results of the test chip. The result shows that a large operation energy reduction of 1/28 can be achieved when the operation duty is 10%, under the condition of a sufficient number of idle clock cycles.

  5. 'Active Surveillance' of Prostate Cancer Doesn't Dampen Quality of Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/news/fullstory_160131.html 'Active Surveillance' of Prostate Cancer Doesn't Dampen Quality of Life Choosing no ... 28, 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Men with low-risk prostate cancer report a good quality of life after choosing ...

  6. Students' Daily Physical Activity Behaviors: The Role of Quality Physical Education in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wiyun; Hypnar, Andrew J.; Mason, Steve A.; Zalmout, Sandy

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the contribution of quality physical education (QPET) in a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program (CSPAP) which is intended to promote physical activity (PA) behaviors in and outside of schools. Participants were nine elementary physical education teachers and their fourth- and fifth-grade students…

  7. Impacts of Photovoltaic Power Plant Sitings and Distributed Solar Panels on Meteorology and Air Quality in Central California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastien, L. A.; Jin, L.; Brown, N. J.

    2012-12-01

    California's electric utility companies are required to use renewable energy to produce 20% of their power by 2010 and 33% by 2020. A main source of the power will be solar energy because photovoltaic technologies have advanced so much that large scale installations are being built and will be built in the future with even greater capacity. Rather than being a large emission source, these plants affect the ambient environment through albedo changes and by emission reductions associated with not burning fossil fuels to generate the same amount of electricity. Like conventional power plants, their impact on local meteorology and air quality depends on the specific technology, ambient atmospheric conditions, and the spatial location of the plant. Also, as solar panels on commercial and residential rooftops become even more common, the effect of distributed photovoltaic panels on meteorology and air quality is likely to become significant. In this study, we use the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) model at high resolution of 4 km x 4 km over several 5-day high-ozone episodes of the summer 2000 to assess the impact of photovoltaic panels on meteorology and air quality in Central California. We investigate the effect of locating a 1.0 Giga watt solar plant in different locations and the effect of distributed rooftop photovoltaic panels in major Californian cities, with a focus on peak and 8-hour average ozone and 24-hour average PM2.5.

  8. Resolution-Enhanced Harmonic and Interharmonic Measurement for Power Quality Analysis in Cyber-Physical Energy System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanchi; Wang, Xue; Liu, Youda; Cui, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    Power quality analysis issues, especially the measurement of harmonic and interharmonic in cyber-physical energy systems, are addressed in this paper. As new situations are introduced to the power system, the impact of electric vehicles, distributed generation and renewable energy has introduced extra demands to distributed sensors, waveform-level information and power quality data analytics. Harmonics and interharmonics, as the most significant disturbances, require carefully designed detection methods for an accurate measurement of electric loads whose information is crucial to subsequent analyzing and control. This paper gives a detailed description of the power quality analysis framework in networked environment and presents a fast and resolution-enhanced method for harmonic and interharmonic measurement. The proposed method first extracts harmonic and interharmonic components efficiently using the single-channel version of Robust Independent Component Analysis (RobustICA), then estimates the high-resolution frequency from three discrete Fourier transform (DFT) samples with little additional computation, and finally computes the amplitudes and phases with the adaptive linear neuron network. The experiments show that the proposed method is time-efficient and leads to a better accuracy of the simulated and experimental signals in the presence of noise and fundamental frequency deviation, thus providing a deeper insight into the (inter)harmonic sources or even the whole system. PMID:27355946

  9. Resolution-Enhanced Harmonic and Interharmonic Measurement for Power Quality Analysis in Cyber-Physical Energy System.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yanchi; Wang, Xue; Liu, Youda; Cui, Sujin

    2016-06-27

    Power quality analysis issues, especially the measurement of harmonic and interharmonic in cyber-physical energy systems, are addressed in this paper. As new situations are introduced to the power system, the impact of electric vehicles, distributed generation and renewable energy has introduced extra demands to distributed sensors, waveform-level information and power quality data analytics. Harmonics and interharmonics, as the most significant disturbances, require carefully designed detection methods for an accurate measurement of electric loads whose information is crucial to subsequent analyzing and control. This paper gives a detailed description of the power quality analysis framework in networked environment and presents a fast and resolution-enhanced method for harmonic and interharmonic measurement. The proposed method first extracts harmonic and interharmonic components efficiently using the single-channel version of Robust Independent Component Analysis (RobustICA), then estimates the high-resolution frequency from three discrete Fourier transform (DFT) samples with little additional computation, and finally computes the amplitudes and phases with the adaptive linear neuron network. The experiments show that the proposed method is time-efficient and leads to a better accuracy of the simulated and experimental signals in the presence of noise and fundamental frequency deviation, thus providing a deeper insight into the (inter)harmonic sources or even the whole system.

  10. Pulse doubling in zigzag-connected autotransformer-based 12-pulse ac-dc converter for power quality improvement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdollahi, Rohollah

    2012-12-01

    This paper presents a pulse doubling technique in a 12-pulse ac-dc converter which supplies direct torque controlled motor drives (DTCIMDs) in order to have better power quality conditions at the point of common coupling. The proposed technique increases the number of rectification pulses without significant changes in the installations and yields in harmonic reduction in both ac and dc sides. The 12-pulse rectified output voltage is accomplished via two paralleled six-pulse acdc converters each of them consisting of three-phase diode bridge rectifiers. An autotransformer is designed to supply the rectifiers. The design procedure of magnetics is in a way such that makes it suitable for retrofit applications where a six-pulse diode bridge rectifier is being utilized. Independent operation of paralleled diode-bridge rectifiers, i.e. dc-ripple re-injection methodology, requires a Zero Sequence Blocking Transformer (ZSBT). Finally, a tapped interphase reactor is connected at the output of ZSBT to double the pulse numbers of output voltage up to 24 pulses. The aforementioned structure improves power quality criteria at ac mains and makes them consistent with the IEEE-519 standard requirements for varying loads. Furthermore, near unity power factor is obtained for a wide range of DTCIMD operation. A comparison is made between 6-pulse, 12-pulse, and proposed converters from view point of power quality indices. Results show that input current total harmonic distortion (THD) is less than 5% for the proposed topology at various loads.

  11. Resolution-Enhanced Harmonic and Interharmonic Measurement for Power Quality Analysis in Cyber-Physical Energy System

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yanchi; Wang, Xue; Liu, Youda; Cui, Sujin

    2016-01-01

    Power quality analysis issues, especially the measurement of harmonic and interharmonic in cyber-physical energy systems, are addressed in this paper. As new situations are introduced to the power system, the impact of electric vehicles, distributed generation and renewable energy has introduced extra demands to distributed sensors, waveform-level information and power quality data analytics. Harmonics and interharmonics, as the most significant disturbances, require carefully designed detection methods for an accurate measurement of electric loads whose information is crucial to subsequent analyzing and control. This paper gives a detailed description of the power quality analysis framework in networked environment and presents a fast and resolution-enhanced method for harmonic and interharmonic measurement. The proposed method first extracts harmonic and interharmonic components efficiently using the single-channel version of Robust Independent Component Analysis (RobustICA), then estimates the high-resolution frequency from three discrete Fourier transform (DFT) samples with little additional computation, and finally computes the amplitudes and phases with the adaptive linear neuron network. The experiments show that the proposed method is time-efficient and leads to a better accuracy of the simulated and experimental signals in the presence of noise and fundamental frequency deviation, thus providing a deeper insight into the (inter)harmonic sources or even the whole system. PMID:27355946

  12. Operation of the power information center: Performance of secretariat functions and information exchange activities in the advanced power field of the interagency advanced power group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    Highlights of activities conducted during the reporting period to facilitate the exchange of technical information among scientists and engineers both within the federal government and within industry are cited. Interagency Advanced Power Group meetings and special efforts, project briefs, and organization development are considered.

  13. Lithium-Ion Ultracapacitors integrated with Wind Turbines Power Conversion Systems to Extend Operating Life and Improve Output Power Quality

    SciTech Connect

    Nasiri, Adel

    2012-05-23

    In this project we designed and modeled a system for a full conversion wind turbine and built a scaled down model which utilizes Lithium-Ion Capacitors on the DC bus. One of the objectives is to reduce the mechanical stress on the gearbox and drivetrain of the wind turbine by adjusting the torque on generator side according to incoming wind power. Another objective is to provide short-term support for wind energy to be more grid friendly in order to ultimately increase wind energy penetration. These supports include power smoothing, power ramp rate limitation, low voltage ride through, and frequency (inertia) support. This research shows how energy storage in small scale and in an economical fashion can make a significant impact on performance of wind turbines. Gearbox and drivetrain premature failures are among high cost maintenance items for wind turbines. Since the capacitors are directly applied on the turbine DC bus and their integration does not require addition hardware, the cost of the additional system can be reasonable for the wind turbine manufacturers and utility companies.

  14. Women, Physical Activity, and Quality of Life: Self-concept as a Mediator.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo Silvestre, Tamara; Ubillos Landa, Silvia

    2016-02-22

    The objectives of this research are: (a) analyze the incremental validity of physical activity's (PA) influence on perceived quality of life (PQL); (b) determine if PA's predictive power is mediated by self-concept; and (c) study if results vary according to a unidimensional or multidimensional approach to self-concept measurement. The sample comprised 160 women from Burgos, Spain aged 18 to 45 years old. Non-probability sampling was used. Two three-step hierarchical regression analyses were applied to forecast PQL. The hedonic quality-of-life indicators, self-concept, self-esteem, and PA were included as independent variables. The first regression analysis included global self-concept as predictor variable, while the second included its five dimensions. Two mediation analyses were conducted to see if PA's ability to predict PQL was mediated by global and physical self-concept. Results from the first regression shows that self-concept, satisfaction with life, and PA were significant predictors. PA slightly but significantly increased explained variance in PQL (2.1%). In the second regression, substituting global self-concept with its five constituent factors, only the physical dimension and satisfaction with life predicted PQL, while PA ceased to be a significant predictor. Mediation analysis revealed that only physical self-concept mediates the relationship between PA and PQL (z = 1.97, p < .050), and not global self-concept. Physical self-concept was the strongest predictor and approximately 32.45 % of PA's effect on PQL was mediated by it. This study's findings support a multidimensional view of self-concept, and represent a more accurate image of the relationship between PQL, PA, and self-concept.

  15. Women, Physical Activity, and Quality of Life: Self-concept as a Mediator.

    PubMed

    Gonzalo Silvestre, Tamara; Ubillos Landa, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this research are: (a) analyze the incremental validity of physical activity's (PA) influence on perceived quality of life (PQL); (b) determine if PA's predictive power is mediated by self-concept; and (c) study if results vary according to a unidimensional or multidimensional approach to self-concept measurement. The sample comprised 160 women from Burgos, Spain aged 18 to 45 years old. Non-probability sampling was used. Two three-step hierarchical regression analyses were applied to forecast PQL. The hedonic quality-of-life indicators, self-concept, self-esteem, and PA were included as independent variables. The first regression analysis included global self-concept as predictor variable, while the second included its five dimensions. Two mediation analyses were conducted to see if PA's ability to predict PQL was mediated by global and physical self-concept. Results from the first regression shows that self-concept, satisfaction with life, and PA were significant predictors. PA slightly but significantly increased explained variance in PQL (2.1%). In the second regression, substituting global self-concept with its five constituent factors, only the physical dimension and satisfaction with life predicted PQL, while PA ceased to be a significant predictor. Mediation analysis revealed that only physical self-concept mediates the relationship between PA and PQL (z = 1.97, p < .050), and not global self-concept. Physical self-concept was the strongest predictor and approximately 32.45 % of PA's effect on PQL was mediated by it. This study's findings support a multidimensional view of self-concept, and represent a more accurate image of the relationship between PQL, PA, and self-concept. PMID:26898406

  16. Video-Quality Estimation Based on Reduced-Reference Model Employing Activity-Difference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamada, Toru; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro; Senda, Yuzo; Serizawa, Masahiro

    This paper presents a Reduced-reference based video-quality estimation method suitable for individual end-user quality monitoring of IPTV services. With the proposed method, the activity values for individual given-size pixel blocks of an original video are transmitted to end-user terminals. At the end-user terminals, the video quality of a received video is estimated on the basis of the activity-difference between the original video and the received video. Psychovisual weightings and video-quality score adjustments for fatal degradations are applied to improve estimation accuracy. In addition, low-bit-rate transmission is achieved by using temporal sub-sampling and by transmitting only the lower six bits of each activity value. The proposed method achieves accurate video quality estimation using only low-bit-rate original video information (15kbps for SDTV). The correlation coefficient between actual subjective video quality and estimated quality is 0.901 with 15kbps side information. The proposed method does not need computationally demanding spatial and gain-and-offset registrations. Therefore, it is suitable for real-time video-quality monitoring in IPTV services.

  17. System-in-package solution for a low-power active electrode module.

    PubMed

    Gaio, Nikolas; Gao, Linping; Cai, Jinhe; Zhang, Jinyong; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of system in package for a low-power active electrode module. The main aim of this research is to provide a low-cost, high-density, and high-quality module, exploiting the features of a System-in-Package (SiP) solution. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first time that SiP technology has been used in the development of a modular active electrode. Two SiPs have been designed and one of them has been fabricated and tested. The dimensions of the latter are 7×7×1 mm and it was designed taking in account the necessity of soldering it by hand. On the contrary, the other package dimensions are 4.5×4.5×1 mm and it was designed for fully exploiting the latest technologies available to authors. The SiPs have been designed to be reused in different electrocardiogram (ECG) systems and are easy to solder using ball grids arrays (BGA) and land grids arrays (LGA) as second level interconnection; both these features allow to reduce the time to market of the supra-system including the module. The active electrode presents a bandwidth which ranges from 7.9 mHz to 300 Hz and it has a mid-band gain which can be set to a maximum value of 40 dB. The fabricated SiP has been tested on a printed circuit board (PCB), with an input signal generated by a Dimetek iBUSS-P biomedical signal simulator showing a satisfying functioning of the SiP.

  18. System-in-package solution for a low-power active electrode module.

    PubMed

    Gaio, Nikolas; Gao, Linping; Cai, Jinhe; Zhang, Jinyong; Wang, Lei

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the design of system in package for a low-power active electrode module. The main aim of this research is to provide a low-cost, high-density, and high-quality module, exploiting the features of a System-in-Package (SiP) solution. To the best knowledge of the authors, this is the first time that SiP technology has been used in the development of a modular active electrode. Two SiPs have been designed and one of them has been fabricated and tested. The dimensions of the latter are 7×7×1 mm and it was designed taking in account the necessity of soldering it by hand. On the contrary, the other package dimensions are 4.5×4.5×1 mm and it was designed for fully exploiting the latest technologies available to authors. The SiPs have been designed to be reused in different electrocardiogram (ECG) systems and are easy to solder using ball grids arrays (BGA) and land grids arrays (LGA) as second level interconnection; both these features allow to reduce the time to market of the supra-system including the module. The active electrode presents a bandwidth which ranges from 7.9 mHz to 300 Hz and it has a mid-band gain which can be set to a maximum value of 40 dB. The fabricated SiP has been tested on a printed circuit board (PCB), with an input signal generated by a Dimetek iBUSS-P biomedical signal simulator showing a satisfying functioning of the SiP. PMID:25571119

  19. Smart Moves: Powering up the Brain with Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conyers, Marcus; Wilson, Donna

    2015-01-01

    The Common Core State Standards emphasize higher-order thinking, problem solving, and the creation, retention, and application of knowledge. Achieving these standards creates greater cognitive demands on students. Recent research suggests that active play and regular exercise have a positive effect on brain regions associated with executive…

  20. "Power, Regulation and Physically Active Identities": The Experiences of Rural and Regional Living Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, M.; Mooney, A.; Smyth, J.; Payne, W.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on interpretations of Foucault's techniques of power, we explored the discourses and power relations operative between groups of girls that appeared to influence their participation in Physical Education (PE) and outside of school in sport and physical activity (PA) in rural and regional communities. Interviews and focus groups were…

  1. Actively mode-locked Tm(3+)-doped silica fiber laser with wavelength-tunable, high average output power.

    PubMed

    Kneis, Christian; Donelan, Brenda; Berrou, Antoine; Manek-Hönninger, Inka; Robin, Thierry; Cadier, Benoît; Eichhorn, Marc; Kieleck, Christelle

    2015-04-01

    A diode-pumped, actively mode-locked high-power thulium (Tm3+)-doped double-clad silica fiber laser is demonstrated, providing an average output power in mode-locked (continuous wave) operation of 53 W (72 W) with a slope efficiency of 34% (38%). Mode-locking in the 6th-harmonic order was obtained by an acousto-optic modulator driven at 66 MHz without dispersion compensation. The shortest measured output pulse width was 200 ps. Owing to a diffraction grating as cavity end mirror, the central wavelength could be tuned from 1.95 to 2.13 μm. The measured beam quality in mode-locked and continuous wave operation has been close to the diffraction limit. PMID:25831360

  2. Actively mode-locked Tm(3+)-doped silica fiber laser with wavelength-tunable, high average output power.

    PubMed

    Kneis, Christian; Donelan, Brenda; Berrou, Antoine; Manek-Hönninger, Inka; Robin, Thierry; Cadier, Benoît; Eichhorn, Marc; Kieleck, Christelle

    2015-04-01

    A diode-pumped, actively mode-locked high-power thulium (Tm3+)-doped double-clad silica fiber laser is demonstrated, providing an average output power in mode-locked (continuous wave) operation of 53 W (72 W) with a slope efficiency of 34% (38%). Mode-locking in the 6th-harmonic order was obtained by an acousto-optic modulator driven at 66 MHz without dispersion compensation. The shortest measured output pulse width was 200 ps. Owing to a diffraction grating as cavity end mirror, the central wavelength could be tuned from 1.95 to 2.13 μm. The measured beam quality in mode-locked and continuous wave operation has been close to the diffraction limit.

  3. Harmonic-resonator-based triboelectric nanogenerator as a sustainable power source and a self-powered active vibration sensor.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun; Zhu, Guang; Yang, Weiqing; Jing, Qingshen; Bai, Peng; Yang, Ya; Hou, Te-Chien; Wang, Zhong Lin

    2013-11-13

    A harmonic-resonator-based triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) is presented as a sustainable power source and an active vibration sensor. It can effectively respond to vibration frequencies ranging from 2 to 200 Hz with a considerably wide working bandwidth of 13.4 Hz. This work not only presents a new principle in the field of vibration energy harvesting but also greatly expands the applicability of TENGs.

  4. Physical Activity and Quality of Life of Mothers of Preschool Children.

    PubMed

    Babić, Ana; Humer, Jasmina Tomašić; Sincek, Daniela

    2015-06-01

    The main aim of this study was to explore physical activity regarding mothers of preschool children and connections concerning different aspects of their physical activity (at work, during transport, in free time, while doing housework) with subjective quality of life. Another aim was to investigate factors that are obstacles of living a physically active life in this population. The participants of the study were 252 Croatian women, who have at least one preschool child older than three years. The World Health Organization Quality Of Life - BREF questionnaire and International Physical Activity Questionnaire were used. Participants also gave some personal demographic data, and answered to questions about obstacles for participation in organized physical activity. Results of this research showed that mothers of preschool children were more physically active than the population of adults in general, but their physical activity was mostly housework activity. Physical activity in their free time was the only aspect of physical activity that was significantly correlated with different aspects of mother's subjective quality of life. Employed mothers and those who live in the towns had more physical activities in their free time. Organizational factors and feeling that family suffers for their absence were the most frequently perceived barriers for organized physical activity participation. Results revealed that only the physical activity in their free time contributes to mother's quality of life. Mothers of preschool children mostly do housework physical activity, so support of the social community for physical activity in their free time in this population is recommended. Such activities should be especially directed to unemployed mothers and those who live in the villages. PMID:26753459

  5. Observation of power gain in an inductive pulsed power system with an optically activated semiconductor closing and opening switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Chun C.; Funk, Eric E.; Chauchard, Eve A.; Rhee, M. J.; Lee, Chi H.; Yan, Li

    1991-03-01

    Peak power gain greater than 15 was obtained with a current charged transmission line and an optically activated semiconductor opening switch. The optical pulse used for activating the switch is generated by a Nd:glass laser emitting at 1. 054 pm. It has a slow rise-time (''--''2OO uS) and a fast fall-time (s1O uS). In the experiment a 2 kV output voltage pulse was achieved with a 5 mm cube GaAs p-i-n diode sitch at 500 V charging voltage.

  6. Process optimization in high-average-power ultrashort pulse laser microfabrication: how laser process parameters influence efficiency, throughput and quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schille, Joerg; Schneider, Lutz; Loeschner, Udo

    2015-09-01

    In this paper, laser processing of technical grade stainless steel and copper using high-average-power ultrashort pulse lasers is studied in order to gain deeper insight into material removal for microfabrication. A high-pulse repetition frequency picosecond and femtosecond laser is used in conjunction with high-performance galvanometer scanners and an in-house developed two-axis polygon scanner system. By varying the processing parameters such as wavelength, pulse length, fluence and repetition rate, cavities of standardized geometry are fabricated and analyzed. From the depths of the cavities produced, the ablation rate and removal efficiency are estimated. In addition, the quality of the cavities is evaluated by means of scanning electron microscope micrographs or rather surface roughness measurements. From the results obtained, the influence of the machining parameters on material removal and machining quality is discussed. In addition, it is shown that both material removal rate and quality increase by using femtosecond compared to picosecond laser pulses. On stainless steel, a maximum throughput of 6.81 mm3/min is achieved with 32 W femtosecond laser powers; if using 187 W picosecond laser powers, the maximum is 15.04 mm3/min, respectively. On copper, the maximum throughputs are 6.1 mm3/min and 21.4 mm3/min, obtained with 32 W femtosecond and 187 W picosecond laser powers. The findings indicate that ultrashort pulses in the mid-fluence regime yield most efficient material removal. In conclusion, from the results of this analysis, a range of optimum processing parameters are derived feasible to enhance machining efficiency, throughput and quality in high-rate micromachining. The work carried out here clearly opens the way to significant industrial applications.

  7. Radio-frequency spectroscopy of the active fiber heating under condition of high-power lasing generation.

    PubMed

    Ryabushkin, O A; Shaidullin, R I; Zaytsev, I A

    2015-05-01

    A novel method for the precise temperature measurement of active fibers in high-power fiber lasers and amplifiers is introduced. This method allows the determination of active fiber longitudinal temperature distribution at different optical pump powers. PMID:25927761

  8. The effects of dose and radiation quality on the shape and power saturation of the EPR signal in alanine.

    PubMed

    Ciesielski, B; Wielopolski, L

    1994-10-01

    Variations in the shape and the power saturation of EPR spectra of L-alanine irradiated with photons, electrons, neutrons and protons are reported. It is shown that the ratio of the intensities of the satellite lines attributable to "spin flips" and the central line depend on the EPR microwave power, and it is proposed as a quantitative measure of the signal saturation effect. Dependence of this ratio on the microwave power is affected by the radiation quality and for doses in excess of 10 kGy by the absorbed dose. At high doses of low-LET radiation these changes are attributed to a high local density of free radicals, while for low doses of high-LET radiation these are due to changes induced in the crystal lattice. Consequently, the conventional peak-to-peak amplitude measurement of the EPR signal intensity is inaccurate when used for high doses and for comparison between radiations with different beam quality. The possibility to determine radiation quality from an EPR measurement is discussed. PMID:7938443

  9. Implementation of FFT Algorithm using DSP TMS320F28335 for Shunt Active Power Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patel, Pinkal Jashvantbhai; Patel, Rajesh M.; Patel, Vinod

    2016-07-01

    This work presents simulation, analysis and experimental verification of Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) algorithm for shunt active power filter based on three-level inverter. Different types of filters can be used for elimination of harmonics in the power system. In this work, FFT algorithm for reference current generation is discussed. FFT control algorithm is verified using PSIM simulation results with DLL block and C-code. Simulation results are compared with experimental results for FFT algorithm using DSP TMS320F28335 for shunt active power filter application.

  10. Environmental consequences of a power plant shut-down: a three-dimensional water quality model of Dublin Bay.

    PubMed

    Bedri, Zeinab; Bruen, Michael; Dowley, Aodh; Masterson, Bartholomew

    2013-06-15

    A hydro-environmental model is used to investigate the effect of cessation of thermal discharges from a power plant on the bathing water quality of Dublin Bay. Before closing down, cooling water from the plant was mixed with sewage effluent prior to its discharge, creating a warmer, less-saline buoyant pollutant plume that adversely affects the water quality of Dublin Bay. The model, calibrated to data from the period prior to the power-plant shut-down (Scenario1), assessed the water quality following its shut-down under two scenarios; (i) Scenario2: continued abstraction of water to dilute sewage effluents before discharge, and (ii) Scnenario3: sewage effluents are discharged directly into the Estuary. Comparison between scenarios was based on distribution of Escherichia coli (E. coli), a main bathing quality indicator. Scenarios1 and 2, showed almost similar E. coli distribution patterns while Scenario3 displayed significantly higher E. coli concentrations due to the increased stratification caused by the lack of prior dilution.

  11. Student and Teacher Ratings of Instructional Quality: Consistency of Ratings over Time, Agreement, and Predictive Power

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, Wolfgang; Göllner, Richard; Werth, Sarah; Voss, Thamar; Schmitz, Bernhard; Trautwein, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    Prior research has shown that the agreement between teacher and student ratings of instructional quality is, at best, moderate, and the associations between measures of instructional quality and outcomes such as standardized achievement are typically small and somewhat mixed across both perspectives. One explanation for these low-to-moderate…

  12. Role of external oversight in quality activities: accreditation, credentialing, licensure, and deemed status.

    PubMed

    Wish, J B

    1998-12-01

    There currently exist a number of organizations which provide quality oversight to the ESRD program in the United States. The state surveyors confirm that dialysis facilities comply with Medicare's conditions of coverage, but surveyor activities have traditionally followed a quality assurance rather than a continuous quality improvement (CQI) model. State surveyors focus primarily on nursing homes, so their content knowledge of ESRD quality issues may be limited. The ESRD Networks have CQI expertise on their staffs, and their quality agenda is driven by their medical review boards, whose members bring scientific and technical expertise from the provider community. The success of the Networks in achieving quality goals has been hampered by personnel and resource limitations and by inconsistent direction by the Health Care Financing Administration (HCFA). Texas has developed a dialysis facility licensure program that partners its ESRD Network and its Medicare state surveyors in quality oversight activities. This collaboration has led to improved patient outcomes and may prove to be a model for other states. Non-Medicare payers may contract with dialysis providers based on performance specifications that exceed those of Medicare's conditions of coverage. A private credentialing mechanism for dialysis facilities that satisfies the performance specifications of all payers has been proposed but, in the absence of deemed status for Medicare survey and certification activities, is unlikely to achieve widespread acceptance. PMID:9892388

  13. Quasi-optical solid-state power combining for millimeter-wave active seeker applications

    SciTech Connect

    Halladay, R.H.; Terrill, S.D.; Bowling, D.R.; Gagnon, D.R. U.S. Navy, Naval Air Warfare Center, China Lake, CA )

    1992-05-01

    Consideration is given to quasi-optical power combining techniques, state-of-the-art demonstrated performance, and system issues as they apply to endoatmospheric homing seeker insertion. Quasi-optical power combining is based on combining microwave and millimeter-wave solid-state device power in space through the use of antennas and lenses. It is concluded that quasi-optical power combining meets the severe electrical requirements and packaging constraints of active MMW seekers for endoatmospheric hit-to-kill missiles. The approach provides the possibility of wafer-scale integration of major components for low cost production and offers high reliability. Critical issues include thermal loading and system integration, which must be resolved before the quasi-optical power combining technology will be applied to an active MMW seeker. 18 refs.

  14. Simulation of Series Active and Passive Power Filter Combination System to Mitigate Current Source Harmonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yusof, Yushaizad; Rahim, Nasrudin Abd.

    2009-08-01

    This paper discusses a combination three phase system of series active power filter and passive power filter used to mitigate current source harmonics produced by a three phase diode rectifier with capacitive loads. A control method based on synchronous reference frame (SRF) is implemented to compensate for the current harmonics. Computer simulation and modelling of the combined filter system is carried out using Matlab/Simulink Power System Blockset (PSB) software. The single tuned passive power filters suppress 5th and 7th order current harmonics, while the series active power filter acts as a harmonic isolator between the source and load. Hence, the proposed system performs very well in mitigating source current harmonics to the level that comply the harmonic standard such as IEEE 519-1992.

  15. The Activity-Integrated Method for Quality Assessment of Reduning Injection by On-Line DPPH-CE-DAD

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Li, Jin; Liu, Er-wei; He, Jun; Jiao, Xiu-cheng; Wang, Zhen-zhong; Gao, Xiu-Mei; Zhang, Bo-li; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was developed and validated for both screening and determining the concentration of seven antioxidants of Reduning injection. The pH and concentrations of buffer solution, SDS, β-CD and organic modifier were studied for the detection of DPPH and seven antioxidants. By on-line mixing DPPH and sample solution, a DPPH-CE method for testing the antioxidant activity of the complex matrix was successfully established and used to screen the antioxidant components of Reduning injection. Then, antioxidant components including caffeic acid, isochlorogenic acid A, isochlorogenic acid B, isochlorogenic acid C, chlorogenic acid, neochlorogenic acid and cryptochlorogenic acid were quantified by the newly established CE–DAD method. Finally, the total antioxidant activity and the multiple active components were selected as markers to evaluate the quality of Reduning injection. The results demonstrated that the on-line DPPH-CE-DAD method was reagent-saving, rapid and feasible for on-line simultaneous determination of total pharmacological activity and contents of multi-components samples. It was also a powerful method for evaluating the quality control and mechanism of action of TCM injection. PMID:25181475

  16. Brief Report: Influence of Physical Activity on Sleep Quality in Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wachob, David; Lorenzi, David G.

    2015-01-01

    Sleep-related problems are often documented in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). This study examined physical activity as a variable that might influence sleep quality in children with ASD. Ten children, ages 9-16 years, were asked to wear accelerometer devices for 7 days in order to track objective measures of activity and sleep…

  17. Regional Quality Assurance Activity in Higher Education in Southeast Asia: Its Characteristics and Driving Forces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umemiya, Naoki

    2008-01-01

    This article analyses the characteristics and driving forces of regional quality assurance activity in Southeast Asia, which has been actively promoted in recent years by the ASEAN University Network, an organisation for higher education under the auspices of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). There are now more collaborative…

  18. Multi-Fresnel lenses pumping approach for improving high-power Nd:YAG solar laser beam quality.

    PubMed

    Liang, Dawei; Almeida, Joana

    2013-07-20

    To significantly improve the present-day high-power solar laser beam quality, a three-stage multi-Fresnel lenses approach is proposed for side-pumping either a Nd:YAG single-crystal or a core-doped Sm(3+)Nd:YAG ceramic rod. Optimum pumping and laser beam parameters are found through ZEMAX and LASCAD numerical analysis. The proposed scheme offers a uniform absorption profile along the rod. 167 W laser power can be achieved, corresponding to 29.3 W/m(2) collection efficiency. High brightness figure of merit of 8.34 W is expected for the core-doped rod within a convex-concave resonator, which is 1300 times higher than that of the most-recent high-power solar laser.

  19. Depression severity, diet quality, and physical activity in women with obesity and depression.

    PubMed

    Appelhans, Bradley M; Whited, Matthew C; Schneider, Kristin L; Ma, Yunsheng; Oleski, Jessica L; Merriam, Philip A; Waring, Molly E; Olendzki, Barbara C; Mann, Devin M; Ockene, Ira S; Pagoto, Sherry L

    2012-05-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is prevalent in clinical weight-loss settings and predicts poor weight-loss outcomes. It is unknown whether the severity of depressive symptoms among those with MDD is associated with diet quality or physical activity levels. This knowledge is important for improving weight-loss treatment for these patients. It was hypothesized that more severe depression is associated with poorer diet quality and lower physical activity levels among individuals with obesity and MDD. Participants were 161 women with current MDD and obesity enrolled in the baseline phase of a weight-loss trial between 2007 and 2010. Depression severity was measured with the Beck Depression Inventory II. The Alternate Healthy Eating Index was applied to data from three 24-hour diet recalls to capture overall diet quality. Daily metabolic equivalents expended per day were calculated from three 24-hour physical activity recalls. Greater depression severity was associated with poorer overall diet quality (estimate=-0.26, standard error 0.11; P=0.02), but not with physical activity (estimate=0.07, standard error 0.05; P=0.18), in linear regression models controlling for income, education, depression-related appetite change, binge eating disorder, and other potential confounds. Associations with diet quality were primarily driven by greater intake of sugar (r=0.20; P<0.01), saturated fat (r=0.21; P<0.01), and sodium (r=0.22; P<0.01). More severe depression was associated with poorer overall diet quality, but not physical activity, among treatment-seeking women with MDD and obesity. Future studies should identify mechanisms linking depression to diet quality and determine whether diet quality improves with depression treatment.

  20. Manufacture of magnetically active fiber-reinforced composites for use in power generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Etches, Julie; Bond, Ian; Mellor, Phil

    2004-07-01

    A major issue yet to be resolved for embedding sensors, actuators and microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) in 'smart' structures is that of providing power. Work is ongoing in the field with examples of micro battery technology, use of solar power and micro fuel cells. The work presented here considers a technology to enable the development of integrated power generation and actuation. Magnetic fibre reinforced composite material has been developed which utilises hollow glass fibres filled with active magnetic material. The resulting material maintains structural integrity as well as providing a possible means of electrical power generation from a dynamically loaded structure. The hollow glass fibres were manufactured in-house using a bespoke fibre drawing facility. Hard magnetic powder materials were introduced into the hollow fibre cores to provide an active electromagnetic function. This paper will discuss the manufacture, characterization and optimisation of active magnetic fibre reinforced composite materials.

  1. Impact of healthy eating practices and physical activity on quality of life among breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Shooka; Sulaiman, Suhaina; Koon, Poh Bee; Amani, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Following breast cancer diagnosis, women often attempt to modify their lifestyles to improve their health and prevent recurrence. These behavioral changes typically involve diet and physical activity modification. The aim of this study was to determine association between healthy eating habits and physical activity with quality of life among Iranian breast cancer survivors. A total of 100 Iranian women, aged between 32 to 61 years were recruited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Eating practices were evaluated by a validated questionnaire modified from the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) study. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). A standardized questionnaire by the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life and its breast cancer module (EORTC QLQ-C30/+BR-23) were applied to determine quality of life. Approximately 29% of the cancer survivors were categorized as having healthy eating practices, 34% had moderate eating practices and 37% had poor eating practices based on nutrition guidelines. The study found positive changes in the decreased intake of fast foods (90%), red meat (70%) and increased intake of fruits (85%) and vegetables (78%). Generally, breast cancer survivors with healthy eating practices had better global quality of life, social, emotional, cognitive and role functions. Result showed that only 12 women (12%) met the criteria for regular vigorous exercise, 22% had regular moderate-intensity exercise while the majority (65%) had low-intensity physical activity. Breast cancer survivors with higher level of physical activity had better emotional and cognitive functions. Healthy eating practices and physical activity can improve quality of life of cancer survivors. Health care professionals should promote good dietary habits and physical activity to improve survivors' health and quality of life. PMID:23534778

  2. Impact of healthy eating practices and physical activity on quality of life among breast cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Mohammadi, Shooka; Sulaiman, Suhaina; Koon, Poh Bee; Amani, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Mohammad

    2013-01-01

    Following breast cancer diagnosis, women often attempt to modify their lifestyles to improve their health and prevent recurrence. These behavioral changes typically involve diet and physical activity modification. The aim of this study was to determine association between healthy eating habits and physical activity with quality of life among Iranian breast cancer survivors. A total of 100 Iranian women, aged between 32 to 61 years were recruited to participate in this cross-sectional study. Eating practices were evaluated by a validated questionnaire modified from the Women's Healthy Eating and Living (WHEL) study. Physical activity was assessed using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ). A standardized questionnaire by the European Organization of Research and Treatment of Cancer Quality of Life and its breast cancer module (EORTC QLQ-C30/+BR-23) were applied to determine quality of life. Approximately 29% of the cancer survivors were categorized as having healthy eating practices, 34% had moderate eating practices and 37% had poor eating practices based on nutrition guidelines. The study found positive changes in the decreased intake of fast foods (90%), red meat (70%) and increased intake of fruits (85%) and vegetables (78%). Generally, breast cancer survivors with healthy eating practices had better global quality of life, social, emotional, cognitive and role functions. Result showed that only 12 women (12%) met the criteria for regular vigorous exercise, 22% had regular moderate-intensity exercise while the majority (65%) had low-intensity physical activity. Breast cancer survivors with higher level of physical activity had better emotional and cognitive functions. Healthy eating practices and physical activity can improve quality of life of cancer survivors. Health care professionals should promote good dietary habits and physical activity to improve survivors' health and quality of life.

  3. Quality-assurance plan and field methods for quality-of-water activities, U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Idaho

    SciTech Connect

    Mann, L.J.

    1996-10-01

    Water-quality activities at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) Project Office are part of the US Geological Survey`s (USGS) Water Resources Division (WRD) mission of appraising the quantity and quality of the Nation`s water resources. The purpose of the Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) for water-quality activities performed by the INEL Project Office is to maintain and improve the quality of technical products, and to provide a formal standardization, documentation, and review of the activities that lead to these products. The principles of this plan are as follows: (1) water-quality programs will be planned in a competent manner and activities will be monitored for compliance with stated objectives and approaches; (2) field, laboratory, and office activities will be performed in a conscientious and professional manner in accordance with specified WRD practices and procedures by qualified and experienced employees who are well trained and supervised, if or when, WRD practices and procedures are inadequate, data will be collected in a manner that its quality will be documented; (3) all water-quality activities will be reviewed for completeness, reliability, credibility, and conformance to specified standards and guidelines; (4) a record of actions will be kept to document the activity and the assigned responsibility; (5) remedial action will be taken to correct activities that are deficient.

  4. An embryonic myosin converter domain influences Drosophila indirect flight muscle stretch activation, power generation and flight.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qian; Newhard, Christopher S; Ramanath, Seemanti; Sheppard, Debra; Swank, Douglas M

    2014-01-15

    Stretch activation (SA) is critical to the flight ability of insects powered by asynchronous, indirect flight muscles (IFMs). An essential muscle protein component for SA and power generation is myosin. Which structural domains of myosin are significant for setting SA properties and power generation levels is poorly understood. We made use of the transgenic techniques and unique single muscle myosin heavy chain gene of Drosophila to test the influence of the myosin converter domain on IFM SA and power generation. Replacing the endogenous converter with an embryonic version decreased SA tension and the rate of SA tension generation. The alterations in SA properties and myosin kinetics from the converter exchange caused power generation to drop to 10% of control fiber power when the optimal conditions for control fibers - 1% muscle length (ML) amplitude and 150 Hz oscillation frequency - were applied to fibers expressing the embryonic converter (IFI-EC). Optimizing conditions for IFI-EC fiber power production, by doubling ML amplitude and decreasing oscillation frequency by 60%, improved power output to 60% of optimized control fiber power. IFI-EC flies altered their aerodynamic flight characteristics to better match optimal fiber power generation conditions as wing beat frequency decreased and wing stroke amplitude increased. This enabled flight in spite of the drastic changes to fiber mechanical performance.

  5. An embryonic myosin converter domain influences Drosophila indirect flight muscle stretch activation, power generation and flight

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Qian; Newhard, Christopher S.; Ramanath, Seemanti; Sheppard, Debra; Swank, Douglas M.

    2014-01-01

    Stretch activation (SA) is critical to the flight ability of insects powered by asynchronous, indirect flight muscles (IFMs). An essential muscle protein component for SA and power generation is myosin. Which structural domains of myosin are significant for setting SA properties and power generation levels is poorly understood. We made use of the transgenic techniques and unique single muscle myosin heavy chain gene of Drosophila to test the influence of the myosin converter domain on IFM SA and power generation. Replacing the endogenous converter with an embryonic version decreased SA tension and the rate of SA tension generation. The alterations in SA properties and myosin kinetics from the converter exchange caused power generation to drop to 10% of control fiber power when the optimal conditions for control fibers – 1% muscle length (ML) amplitude and 150 Hz oscillation frequency – were applied to fibers expressing the embryonic converter (IFI-EC). Optimizing conditions for IFI-EC fiber power production, by doubling ML amplitude and decreasing oscillation frequency by 60%, improved power output to 60% of optimized control fiber power. IFI-EC flies altered their aerodynamic flight characteristics to better match optimal fiber power generation conditions as wing beat frequency decreased and wing stroke amplitude increased. This enabled flight in spite of the drastic changes to fiber mechanical performance. PMID:24115062

  6. A new approach to power quality and electricity reliability monitoring-case study illustrations of the capabilities of the I-GridTM system

    SciTech Connect

    Divan, Deepak; Brumsickle, William; Eto, Joseph

    2003-04-01

    This report describes a new approach for collecting information on power quality and reliability and making it available in the public domain. Making this information readily available in a form that is meaningful to electricity consumers is necessary for enabling more informed private and public decisions regarding electricity reliability. The system dramatically reduces the cost (and expertise) needed for customers to obtain information on the most significant power quality events, called voltage sags and interruptions. The system also offers widespread access to information on power quality collected from multiple sites and the potential for capturing information on the impacts of power quality problems, together enabling a wide variety of analysis and benchmarking to improve system reliability. Six case studies demonstrate selected functionality and capabilities of the system, including: Linking measured power quality events to process interruption and downtime; Demonstrating the ability to correlate events recorded by multiple monitors to narrow and confirm the causes of power quality events; and Benchmarking power quality and reliability on a firm and regional basis.

  7. Preliminary examination of the impacts of repository site characterization activities and facility construction and operation activities on Hanford air quality

    SciTech Connect

    Glantz, C.S.; Ramsdell, J.V.

    1986-04-01

    Air quality impacts that would result from site characterization activities and from the construction and operation of a high-level nuclear wste repository at Hanford are estimated using two simple atmospheric dispersion models, HANCHI and CHISHORT. Model results indicate that pollutant concentrations would not exceed ambient air quality standards at any point outside the Hanford fenceline or at any publicly accessible location within the Hanford Site. The increase in pollutant concentrations in nearby communities due to site activities would be minimal. HANCHI and CHISHORT are documented in the appendices of this document. Further study of the repository's impact on air quality will be conducted when more detailed project plans and work schedules are available.

  8. Impact on quality activities of measurement systems meeting an L:1 rule

    DOE PAGES

    Hamada, M. S.; Burkhardt, J. H.

    2016-04-01

    This study considers the impact of a measurement system that meets an L:1 rule on various quality activities. These activities include inspection, acceptance sampling, and control charting. A measurement system that meets a 10:1 rule performs much better than one that meets a 4:1 rule. R code is provided so that the practitioner is able to evaluate these activities to his or her particular situation.

  9. Impact on quality activities of measurement systems meeting an L:1 rule

    SciTech Connect

    Hamada, M. S.; Burkhardt, J. H.

    2015-04-30

    This study considers the impact of a measurement system that meets an L:1 rule on various quality activities. These activities include inspection, acceptance sampling, and control charting. A measurement system that meets a 10:1 rule performs much better than one that meets a 4:1 rule. R code is provided so that the practitioner is able to evaluate these activities to his or her particular situation.

  10. Diode-pumped 1 kW Q-switched Nd:YAG rod laser with high peak power and high beam quality

    SciTech Connect

    Furuta, Keisuke; Kojima, Tetsuo; Fujikawa, Shuichi; Nishimae, Jun-ichi

    2005-07-01

    We have demonstrated high-peak-power generation at 1 kW average power by applying an acousto-optic Q switch to a quasi-cw diode-pumped Nd:YAG master oscillator power amplifier. We achieved a maximum peak power of 2.3 MW by driving the Q switch in burst mode. The average repetition rate was 6 kHz. The corresponding beam quality was M{sup 2}=9.

  11. Influence of emitter ring manufacturing tolerances on electron beam quality of high power gyrotrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagonakis, Ioannis Gr.; Illy, Stefan; Thumm, Manfred

    2016-08-01

    A sensitivity analysis of manufacturing imperfections and possible misalignments of the emitter ring in the gyrotron cathode structure on the electron beam quality has been performed. It has been shown that a possible radial displacement of the emitter ring of the order of few tens of microns can cause dramatic effects on the beam quality and therefore the gyrotron operation. Two different design approaches are proposed in order to achieve an electron beam which is less sensitive to manufacturing imperfections.

  12. Evaluation-of soil enzyme activities as soil quality indicators in sludge-amended soils.

    PubMed

    Dindar, Efsun; Şağban, Fatma Olcay Topaç; Başkaya, Hüseyin Savaş

    2015-07-01

    Soil enzymatic activities are commonly used as biomarkers of soil quality. Several organic and inorganic compounds found in municipal wastewater sludges can possibly be used as fertilizers. Monitoring and evaluating the quality of sludge amended soils with enzyme activities accepted as a beneficial practice with respect to sustainable soil management. In the present study, variation of some enzyme activities (Alkaline phosphatase, dehydrogenase, urease and beta-glucosidase activities) in soils amended with municipal wastewater sludge at different application rates (50, 100 and 200 t ha(-1) dry sludge) was evaluated. Air dried sludge samples were applied to soil pots and sludge-soil mixtures were incubated during a period of three months at 28 degrees C. The results of the study showed that municipal wastewater sludge amendment apparently increased urease, dehydrogenase, alkaline phosphatase and P-glucosidase activities in soil by 48-70%, 14-47%, 33-66% and 9-14%, respectively. The maximum activity was generally observed in sludge amended soil with dose of 200 t ha(-1). Urease activity appeared to be a better indicator of soil enhancement with wastewater sludge, as its activity was more strongly increased by sludge amendment. Accordingly, urease activity is suggested to be soil quality indicator best suited for measuring existing conditions and potential changes in sludge-amended soil.

  13. Associations among Physical Activity, Diet Quality, and Weight Status in U.S. Adults

    PubMed Central

    Pate, Russell R.; Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Liese, Angela D.; Dowda, Marsha

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Nearly 70% of adult Americans are overweight or obese, but the associations between physical activity, diet quality, and weight status have not been examined in a representative sample of U.S. adults. The purpose of this study was to examine the associations among moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA), diet quality, and weight status within and across age groups in U.S. adults. Methods Participants included 2,587 men and 2,412 women ages 20 to ≥70 years from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2003–2004 and 2005–2006. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry. Diet quality was assessed with overall Healthy Eating Index-2005 scores. Measures of weight status, BMI and waist circumference, were assessed using standard NHANES protocols. Results Across age groups, MVPA was lower in the older age groups for both men and women while diet quality was higher (P<.001). BMI and waist circumference were also higher in the older age groups (P<0.05). Within age groups, MVPA was inversely associated with BMI and waist circumference for men and women in nearly every age group (P<0.05). Diet quality was inversely associated with the weight status variables only in men ages 30–39, 40–49 (BMI only), and 50–59 years, and women ages 50–59 years (P<0.05). Conclusions We observed clear age-related trends for measures of weight status, physical activity, and diet quality in U.S. men and women. MVPA was very consistently related to weight status in both genders. The relationship between diet quality and weight status was less consistent. These findings provide support for public health efforts to prevent obesity by promoting increased physical activity in adult Americans. PMID:25058328

  14. Pleasant Prairie Power Plant air quality control upgrade project, Pleasant Praire, Wisconsin

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhart, S.; Pennline, D.; Brodsky, I.; Bichler, D.

    2007-10-15

    We Energies recently completed a multiyear project at its Pleasant Prairie Power Plant to add a selective catalytic reduction system to one of its two units and a scrubber to both. These projects are described. 7 figs., 1 tab.

  15. High-average-power and high-beam-quality Innoslab picosecond laser amplifier.

    PubMed

    Xu, Liu; Zhang, Hengli; Mao, Yefei; Yan, Ying; Fan, Zhongwei; Xin, Jianguo

    2012-09-20

    We demonstrated a laser-diode, end-pumped picosecond amplifier. With effective shaping of the seed laser, we achieved 73 W amplified laser output at the pump power of 255 W, and the optical-optical efficiency was about 28%. The beam propagation factors M(2) measured at the output power of 60 W in the horizontal direction and the vertical direction were 1.5 and 1.4, respectively.

  16. Monitoring of the quality of side-firing fibers using a special design power meter: Aquarius

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Swol, Christiaan F. P.; Verdaasdonck, Rudolf M.; Hermans, Fidel A.; van Vliet, Remco J.; Boon, Tom A.

    1995-05-01

    The treatment of Benign Prostatic Hyperplasia using the Nd:YAG laser is developing rapidly since the clinical introduction three years ago. In most cases a right angled fiber is used to deliver the laser light laterally towards the abundant prostatic tissue. The characteristics of these fibers differ, with regard to the angle at which the beam exits the fiber and the beam profile, resulting in a specific power density distribution on the tissue. During clinical use the characteristics of a fiber may change due to deterioration of the fiber tip. In this study the behavior of the various devices was monitored before and during clinical use with a special design power meter (Aquarius). The Aquarius measures the status of a right angled fiber in about fifteen seconds under clinical conditions, i.e., under water and at high input powers (40 - 80 Watt). In contrast with integrating sphere power meters specifically the primary beam is measured. The degree of deterioration of various fibers was quantified optically and thermally during clinical use. Devices using a metal mirror transmitted slightly less power than internal refraction based devices (80 versus 90 percent). The transmission of the various devices was not linear with the input power; at higher input powers (> 30 Watts) vapor bubbles, that developed at the tip of the device, decreased the transmission. During clinical use there was a large variation in decrease of transmission with regard to the total amount of energy transmitted through the fiber. However, at the end of a procedure the transmission had dropped to under 50%. The Aquarius is a powerful tool for evaluation and comparison of different laser prostatectomy devices both for clinical and experimental studies.

  17. Single Phase Passive Rectification Versus Active Rectification Applied to High Power Stirling Engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Santiago, Walter; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2006-01-01

    Stirling engine converters are being considered as potential candidates for high power energy conversion systems required by future NASA explorations missions. These types of engines typically contain two major moving parts, the displacer and the piston, in which a linear alternator is attached to the piston to produce a single phase sinusoidal waveform at a specific electric frequency. Since all Stirling engines perform at low electrical frequencies (less or equal to 100 Hz), space explorations missions that will employ these engines will be required to use DC power management and distribution (PMAD) system instead of an AC PMAD system to save on space and weight. Therefore, to supply such DC power an AC to DC converter is connected to the Stirling engine. There are two types of AC to DC converters that can be employed, a passive full bridge diode rectifier and an active switching full bridge rectifier. Due to the inherent line inductance of the Stirling Engine-Linear Alternator (SE-LA), their sinusoidal voltage and current will be phase shifted producing a power factor below 1. In order to keep power the factor close to unity, both AC to DC converters topologies will implement power factor correction. This paper discusses these power factor correction methods as well as their impact on overall mass for exploration applications. Simulation results on both AC to DC converters topologies with power factor correction as a function of output power and SE-LA line inductance impedance are presented and compared.

  18. Water quality degradation effects on freshwater availability: Impacts to human activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Peters, N.E.; Meybeck, Michel

    2000-01-01

    The quality of freshwater at any point on the landscape reflects the combined effects of many processes along water pathways. Human activities on all spatial scales affect both water quality and quantity. Alteration of the landscape and associated vegetation has not only changed the water balance, but typically has altered processes that control water quality. Effects of human activities on a small scale are relevant to an entire drainage basin. Furthermore, local, regional, and global differences in climate and water flow are considerable, causing varying effects of human activities on land and water quality and quantity, depending on location within a watershed, geology, biology, physiographic characteristics, and climate. These natural characteristics also greatly control human activities, which will, in turn, modify (or affect) the natural composition of water. One of the most important issues for effective resource management is recognition of cyclical and cascading effects of human activities on the water quality and quantity along hydrologic pathways. The degradation of water quality in one part of a watershed can have negative effects on users downstream. Everyone lives downstream of the effects of some human activity. An extremely important factor is that substances added to the atmosphere, land, and water generally have relatively long time scales for removal or clean up. The nature of the substance, including its affinity for adhering to soil and its ability to be transformed, affects the mobility and the time scale for removal of the substance. Policy alone will not solve many of the degradation issues, but a combination of policy, education, scientific knowledge, planning, and enforcement of applicable laws can provide mechanisms for slowing the rate of degradation and provide human and environmental protection. Such an integrated approach is needed to effectively manage land and water resources.

  19. Activity performance problems of patients with cardiac diseases and their impact on quality of life

    PubMed Central

    Duruturk, Neslihan; Tonga, Eda; Karatas, Metin; Doganozu, Ersin

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] To describe the functional consequences of patients with cardiac diseases and analyze associations between activity limitations and quality of life. [Subjects and Methods] Seventy subjects (mean age: 60.1±12.0 years) were being treated by Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation and Cardiology Departments were included in the study. Activity limitations and participation restrictions as perceived by the individual were measured by the Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM). The Nottingham Extended Activities of Daily Living (NEADL) Scale was used to describe limitations in daily living activities. To detect the impact of activity limitations on quality of life the Nottingham Health Profile (NHP) was used. [Results] The subjects described 46 different types of problematic activities. The five most identified problems were walking (45.7%), climbing up the stairs (41.4%), bathing (30%), dressing (28.6%) and outings (27.1%). The associations between COPM performance score with all subgroups of NEADL and NHP; total, energy, physical abilities subgroups, were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Our results showed that patients with cardiac diseases reported problems with a wide range of activities, and that also quality of life may be affected by activities of daily living. COPM can be provided as a patient-focused outcome measure, and it may be a useful tool for identifying those problems. PMID:26311919

  20. Tritium activities in Canada supporting CANDU{sup R} nuclear power reactors

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, J. M.

    2008-07-15

    An overview of the various Canadian tritium research and operational activities supporting the development, refurbishment and operation of CANDU{sup R} nuclear power reactors is presented. These activities encompass tritium health and safety, tritium in the environment, tritium interaction with materials, and tritium processing, and relate to both supporting R and D advances as well as operational best practices. The collective results of these activities contribute to our goals of improving worker and public safety, and operational efficiency. (authors)

  1. Flame-powered trigger device for activating explosion-suppression barrier. Rept. of Investigations/1991

    SciTech Connect

    Cortese, R.A.; Sapko, M.J.

    1991-01-01

    The U.S. Bureau of Mines has developed a flame-radiation-powered trigger device to explosively activate suppression barriers to quench gas and coal dust explosions. The major component of the device is a silicon solar panel, which converts radiation from the developing explosion into electrical energy to initiate an electric detonator, which releases an extinguishing agent into the advancing flame front. Solar panels that are rated to produce 20 W of electrical power when exposed to the sunlight are producing about 200 W when exposed to a full-scale dust explosion. The solar panel is electrically isolated from the detonator by a pressure-sensitive switch until the arrival of the precursor pressure pulse, which always precedes a deflagration. The combination of pressure arming and flame-powered photogenerator prevents false barrier activation and requires no external power supply.

  2. Active-medium inhomogeneities and optical quality of radiation of supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Boreysho, A S; Druzhinin, S L; Lobachev, V V; Savin, A V; Strakhov, S Yu; Trilis, A V

    2007-09-30

    Optical inhomogeneities of the active medium of a supersonic chemical oxygen-iodine laser (COIL) and their effect on the radiation parameters are studied in the case when an unstable resonator is used. Classification of optical inhomogeneities and the main factors affecting the quality of COIL radiation are considered. The results of numerical simulation of a three-dimensional gas-dynamic active medium and an unstable optical resonator in the diffraction approximation are presented. The constraints in the fabrication of large-scale COILs associated with a deterioration of the optical quality of radiation are determined. (lasers)

  3. Design of a multilevel Active Power Filter for More Electrical Airplane variable frequency systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guerreiro, Joel Filipe; Pomilio, Jose Antenor; Busarello, Tiago Davi Curi

    This paper presents the design and simulation of an Aeronautical Active Power Filter (AAPF) for a Variable Speed Variable Frequency (VSVF) advanced aircraft electric power system. The purposes of the AAPF are to mitigate current harmonics, to improve the source power factor and to mitigate the effects of unbalanced loads. Regarding the fact that the Aircraft Electrical Power System (AEPS) frequency may vary between 360 Hz and 900 Hz, and the load dynamics is often modified, an enhanced filtering technique is required. The designed AAPF topology is an asymmetrical multilevel inverter (AMI), which control strategy is based on the Conservative Power Theory (CPT) and synchronized by a Kalman Filter Phase-Locked Loop (KF-PLL). The above configuration renders the AAPF very robust and effective to its purpose. Accurate simulation results on Matlab/Simulink platform verify the feasibility of the proposed AAPF and the high performance of the control strategy during steady-state and dynamic operations.

  4. Activities in support of continuing the service of nuclear power plant concrete structures

    SciTech Connect

    Naus, Dan J

    2012-01-01

    In general, nuclear power plant concrete structure s performance has been very good; however, aging of concrete structures occurs with the passage of time that can potentially result in degradation if is effects are not controlled. Safety-related nuclear power plant concrete structures are described. In-service inspection and testing requirements in the U.S. are summarized. The interaction of the license renewal process and concrete structures is noted. A summary of operating experience related to aging of nuclear power plant concrete structures is provided. Several candidate areas are identified where additional research would be beneficial for aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures. Finally, an update on recent activities at Oak Ridge National Laboratory related to aging management of nuclear power plant concrete structures is provided.

  5. An energy harvesting system for passively generating power from human activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rao, Yuan; Cheng, Shuo; Arnold, David P.

    2013-11-01

    This paper presents a complete, self-contained energy harvesting system composed of a magnetic energy harvester, an input-powered interface circuit and a rechargeable battery. The system converts motion from daily human activities such as walking, jogging, and cycling into usable electrical energy. By using an input-powered interface circuit, the system requires no external power supplies and features zero standby power when the input motion is too small for successful energy reclamation. When attached to a person's ankle during walking, the 100 cm3 system prototype is shown to charge a 3.7 V, 65 mAh lithium-ion polymer battery at an average power of 300 µW. The design and testing of the system under other operating conditions are presented herein.

  6. Auditory Power-Law Activation Avalanches Exhibit a Fundamental Computational Ground State

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoop, Ruedi; Gomez, Florian

    2016-07-01

    The cochlea provides a biological information-processing paradigm that we are only beginning to understand in its full complexity. Our work reveals an interacting network of strongly nonlinear dynamical nodes, on which even a simple sound input triggers subnetworks of activated elements that follow power-law size statistics ("avalanches"). From dynamical systems theory, power-law size distributions relate to a fundamental ground state of biological information processing. Learning destroys these power laws. These results strongly modify the models of mammalian sound processing and provide a novel methodological perspective for understanding how the brain processes information.

  7. On the origin of power-law X-ray spectra of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlosman, I.; Shaham, J.; Shaviv, G.

    1984-01-01

    In the present analytical model for a power law X-ray continuum production in active galactic nuclei, the dissipation of turbulent energy flux above the accretion disk forms an optically thin transition layer with an inverted temperature gradient. The emitted thermal radiation has a power law spectrum in the 0.1-100 keV range, with a photon energy spectral index gamma of about 0.4-1.0. Thermal X-ray contribution from the layer is 5-10 percent of the total disk luminosity. The gamma value of 0.75 is suggested as a 'natural' power law index for Seyfert galaxies and QSOs.

  8. Auditory Power-Law Activation Avalanches Exhibit a Fundamental Computational Ground State.

    PubMed

    Stoop, Ruedi; Gomez, Florian

    2016-07-15

    The cochlea provides a biological information-processing paradigm that we are only beginning to understand in its full complexity. Our work reveals an interacting network of strongly nonlinear dynamical nodes, on which even a simple sound input triggers subnetworks of activated elements that follow power-law size statistics ("avalanches"). From dynamical systems theory, power-law size distributions relate to a fundamental ground state of biological information processing. Learning destroys these power laws. These results strongly modify the models of mammalian sound processing and provide a novel methodological perspective for understanding how the brain processes information.

  9. Auditory Power-Law Activation Avalanches Exhibit a Fundamental Computational Ground State.

    PubMed

    Stoop, Ruedi; Gomez, Florian

    2016-07-15

    The cochlea provides a biological information-processing paradigm that we are only beginning to understand in its full complexity. Our work reveals an interacting network of strongly nonlinear dynamical nodes, on which even a simple sound input triggers subnetworks of activated elements that follow power-law size statistics ("avalanches"). From dynamical systems theory, power-law size distributions relate to a fundamental ground state of biological information processing. Learning destroys these power laws. These results strongly modify the models of mammalian sound processing and provide a novel methodological perspective for understanding how the brain processes information. PMID:27472144

  10. Effectiveness of powered hospital bed movers for reducing physiological strain and back muscle activation.

    PubMed

    Daniell, Nathan; Merrett, Simon; Paul, Gunther

    2014-07-01

    Battery powered bed movers are becoming increasingly common within the hospital setting. The use of powered bed movers is believed to result in reduced physical efforts required by health care workers, which may be associated with a decreased risk of occupation related injuries. However, little work has been conducted assessing how powered bed movers impact on levels of physiological strain and muscle activation for the user. The muscular efforts associated with moving hospital beds using three different methods; powered StaminaLift Bed Mover (PBM1), powered Gzunda Bed Mover (PBM2) and manual pushing were measured on six male subjects. Fourteen muscles were assessed moving a weighted hospital bed along a standardized route in an Australian hospital environment. Trunk inclination and upper spine acceleration were also quantified. Powered bed movers exhibited significantly lower muscle activation levels than manual pushing for the majority of muscles. When using the PBM1, users adopted a more upright posture which was maintained while performing different tasks (e.g. turning a corner, entering a lift), while trunk inclination varied considerably for manual pushing and the PBM2. The reduction in lower back muscular activation levels may result in lower incidence of lower back injury.

  11. On measurements and their quality: Paper 2: Random measurement error and the power of statistical tests.

    PubMed

    Beckstead, Jason W

    2013-10-01

    This is the second in a short series of papers on measurement theory and practice with particular relevance to intervention research in nursing, midwifery, and healthcare. This paper begins with an illustration of how random measurement error decreases the power of statistical tests and a review of the roles of sample size and effect size in hypothesis testing. A simple formula is presented and discussed for calculating sample size during the planning stages of intervention studies. Finally, an approach for incorporating reliability estimates into a priori power analyses is introduced and illustrated with a practical example. The approach permits researchers to compare alternative study designs, in terms of their statistical power. An SPSS program is provided to facilitate this approach and to assist researchers in making optimal decisions when choosing among alternative study designs.

  12. An Integrated Power-Efficient Active Rectifier With Offset-Controlled High Speed Comparators for Inductively Powered Applications

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Hyung-Min; Ghovanloo, Maysam

    2011-01-01

    We present an active full-wave rectifier with offset-controlled high speed comparators in standard CMOS that provides high power conversion efficiency (PCE) in high frequency (HF) range for inductively powered devices. This rectifier provides much lower dropout voltage and far better PCE compared to the passive on-chip or off-chip rectifiers. The built-in offset-control functions in the comparators compensate for both turn-on and turn-off delays in the main rectifying switches, thus maximizing the forward current delivered to the load and minimizing the back current to improve the PCE. We have fabricated this active rectifier in a 0.5-μm 3M2P standard CMOS process, occupying 0.18 mm2 of chip area. With 3.8 V peak ac input at 13.56 MHz, the rectifier provides 3.12 V dc output to a 500 Ω load, resulting in the PCE of 80.2%, which is the highest measured at this frequency. In addition, overvoltage protection (OVP) as safety measure and built-in back telemetry capabilities have been incorporated in our design using detuning and load shift keying (LSK) techniques, respectively, and tested. PMID:22174666

  13. 78 FR 8493 - Foreign-Trade Zone 45-Portland, OR; Notification of Proposed Production Activity; SoloPower Inc...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Activity; SoloPower Inc. (Thin Film Photovoltaic Solar Panels); Portland, OR SoloPower Inc. (SoloPower) has... production of thin film photovoltaic solar panels. Pursuant to 15 CFR 400.14(b), FTZ activity would be... film solar panels (duty-free) for the foreign status inputs noted below. Customs duties also...

  14. Passion for an activity and quality of interpersonal relationships: the mediating role of emotions.

    PubMed

    Philippe, Frederick L; Vallerand, Robert J; Houlfort, Nathalie; Lavigne, Geneviève L; Donahue, Eric G

    2010-06-01

    Our purpose in this research was to investigate the role of passion (Vallerand et al., 2003) for a given activity in the quality of interpersonal relationships experienced within the context of that activity in 4 studies. Study 1 demonstrated that a harmonious passion was positively associated with the quality of interpersonal relationships within the context of the passionate activity, whereas an obsessive passion was unrelated to it. Furthermore, in line with the broaden-and-build theory (Fredrickson, 2001), results also showed that positive emotions experienced at work fully mediated the relation between harmonious passion and quality of interpersonal relationships. Obsessive passion was not associated with positive emotions. Study 2 replicated the results from Study 1 while controlling for trait extraversion. Also, in Study 2, we examined the negative mediating role of negative emotions between obsessive passion and quality of interpersonal relationships. Finally, Studies 3 and 4 replicated the results of Study 2 with prospective designs and with objective ratings of interpersonal relationships quality. Implications for the dualistic model of passion and the broaden-and-build theory are discussed.

  15. Relation between sleep quality and physical activity in chronic heart failure patients.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Kazuhiro P; Watanabe, Satoshi; Oka, Koichiro; Hiraki, Koji; Morio, Yuji; Kasahara, Yusuke; Takeichi, Naoya; Tsukamoto, Takae; Osada, Naohiko; Omiya, Kazuto; Makuuchi, Haruo

    2011-09-01

    To determine self-reported sleep quality-related differences in physical activity (PA) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and target values of PA for high-quality sleep in chronic heart failure (CHF) outpatients, 149 CHF outpatients (mean age 58 years) were divided into two groups by sleep-quality level determined via self-reported questionnaire: shallow sleep (SS) group (n = 77) and deep sleep (DS) group (n = 72). Steps were assessed by electronic pedometer, HRQOL was assessed with the Short Form 36 (SF-36) survey, and data were compared between groups. PA resulting in high-quality sleep was determined by receiver-operating characteristics curves. All SF-36 subscale scores except that of bodily pain were significantly decreased in the SS versus DS group. A cutoff value of 5723.6 steps/day and 156.4 Kcal/day for 1 week were determined as target values for PA. Sleep quality may affect PA and HRQOL, and attaining target values of PA may improve sleep quality and HRQOL of CHF outpatients. Patents relevant to heart failure are also discussed in this article.

  16. Ontario primary care reform and quality improvement activities: an environmental scan

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Quality improvement is attracting the attention of the primary health care system as a means by which to achieve higher quality patient care. Ontario, Canada has demonstrated leadership in terms of its improvement in healthcare, but the province lacks a structured framework by which it can consistently evaluate its quality improvement initiatives specific to the primary healthcare system. The intent of this research was to complete an environmental scan and capacity map of quality improvement activities being built in and by the primary healthcare sector (QI-PHC) in Ontario as a first step to developing a coordinated and sustainable framework of primary healthcare for the province. Methods Data were collected between January and July 2011 in collaboration with an advisory group of stakeholder representatives and quality improvement leaders in primary health care. Twenty participants were interviewed by telephone, followed by review of relevant websites and documents identified in the interviews. Data were systematically examined using Framework Analysis augmented by Prior’s approach to document analysis in an iterative process. Results The environmental scan identified many activities (n = 43) designed to strategically build QI-PHC capacity, identify promising QI-PHC practices and outcomes, scale up quality improvement-informed primary healthcare practice changes, and make quality improvement a core organizational strategy in health care delivery, which were grouped into clusters. Cluster 1 was composed of initiatives in the form of on-going programs that deliberately incorporated long-term quality improvement capacity building through province-wide reach. Cluster 2 represented activities that were time-limited (research, pilot, or demonstration projects) with the primary aim of research production. The activities of most primary health care practitioners, managers, stakeholder organizations and researchers involved in this scan demonstrated a

  17. Air quality implications associated with the selection of power plants in the Pacific Northwest

    SciTech Connect

    Baechler, M.C.; Glantz, C.S.; Edelmen, P.C.

    1993-11-01

    This assessment models emission inventories and pollutant emission rates for fossil fuel power plants. Ground-level air concentration of nitrogen oxides, sulfur dioxide and TSP are predicted. Pollutant deposition, non-acidic deposition, acidic deposition, ozone impacts, and visibility attenuation are considered. Human health effects, wildlife effects, effects on plants and crops, and residual environmental impacts are estimated from predicted emissions.

  18. 76 FR 45741 - Approval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Pennsylvania; Diesel-Powered Motor...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-01

    ...EPA proposes to approve the State Implementation Plan (SIP) revision submitted by the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania for the purpose of incorporating the Commonwealth's Diesel-Powered Motor Vehicle Idling Act (Act 124 of 2008, or simply Act 124) into the Pennsylvania SIP. Act 124, passed by the Pennsylvania General Assembly and signed into state law by Governor Rendell in October 2008 (and......

  19. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies. PMID:24239074

  20. Short communication: Effect of active food packaging materials on fluid milk quality and shelf life.

    PubMed

    Wong, Dana E; Goddard, Julie M

    2014-01-01

    Active packaging, in which active agents are embedded into or on the surface of food packaging materials, can enhance the nutritive value, economics, and stability of food, as well as enable in-package processing. In one embodiment of active food packaging, lactase was covalently immobilized onto packaging films for in-package lactose hydrolysis. In prior work, lactase was covalently bound to low-density polyethylene using polyethyleneimine and glutaraldehyde cross-linkers to form the packaging film. Because of the potential contaminants of proteases, lipases, and spoilage organisms in typical enzyme preparations, the goal of the current work was to determine the effect of immobilized-lactase active packaging technology on unanticipated side effects, such as shortened shelf-life and reduced product quality. Results suggested no evidence of lipase or protease activity on the active packaging films, indicating that such active packaging films could enable in-package lactose hydrolysis without adversely affecting product quality in terms of dairy protein or lipid stability. Storage stability studies indicated that lactase did not migrate from the film over a 49-d period, and that dry storage resulted in 13.41% retained activity, whereas wet storage conditions enabled retention of 62.52% activity. Results of a standard plate count indicated that the film modification reagents introduced minor microbial contamination; however, the microbial population remained under the 20,000 cfu/mL limit through the manufacturer's suggested 14-d storage period for all film samples. This suggests that commercially produced immobilized lactase active packaging should use purified cross-linkers and enzymes. Characterization of unanticipated effects of active packaging on food quality reported here is important in demonstrating the commercial potential of such technologies.

  1. Fatigue in repeated-sprint exercise is related to muscle power factors and reduced neuromuscular activity.

    PubMed

    Mendez-Villanueva, Alberto; Hamer, Peter; Bishop, David

    2008-07-01

    The purpose of this study was (1) to determine the relationship between each individual's anaerobic power reserve (APR) [i.e., the difference between the maximum anaerobic (Pana) and aerobic power (Paer)] and fatigability during repeated-sprint exercise and (2) to examine the acute effects of repeated sprints on neuromuscular activity, as evidenced by changes in the surface electromyogram (EMG) signals. Eight healthy males carried out tests to determine Pana (defined as the highest power output attained during a 6-s cycling sprint), Paer (defined as the highest power output achieved during a progressive, discontinuous cycling test to failure) and a repeated cycling sprint test (10 x 6-s max sprints with 30 s rest). Peak power output (PPO) and mean power output (MPO) were calculated for each maximal 6-s cycling bout. Root mean square (RMS) was utilized to quantify EMG activity from the vastus lateralis (VL) muscle of the right leg. Over the ten sprints, PPO and MPO decreased by 24.6 and 28.3% from the maximal value (i.e., sprint 1), respectively. Fatigue index during repeated sprints was significantly correlated with APR (R = 0.87; P < 0.05). RMS values decreased over the ten sprints by 14.6% (+/-6.3%). There was a strong linear relationship (R2 = 0.97; P < 0.05) between the changes in MPO and EMG RMS from the vastus lateralis muscle during the ten sprints. The individual advantage in fatigue-resistance when performing a repeated sprint task was related with a lower anaerobic power reserve. Additionally, a suboptimal net motor unit activity might also impair the ability to repeatedly generate maximum power outputs.

  2. Early-career registered nurses' participation in hospital quality improvement activities.

    PubMed

    Djukic, Maja; Kovner, Christine T; Brewer, Carol S; Fatehi, Farida K; Bernstein, Ilya

    2013-01-01

    We surveyed 2 cohorts of early-career registered nurses from 15 states in the US, 2 years apart, to compare their reported participation in hospital quality improvement (QI) activities. We anticipated differences between the 2 cohorts because of the growth of several initiatives for engaging nurses in QI. There were no differences between the 2 cohorts across 14 measured activities, except for their reported use of appropriate strategies to improve hand-washing compliance to reduce nosocomial infection rates. PMID:23192224

  3. Application considerations and compensation characteristics of shunt active and series active filters in power systems

    SciTech Connect

    Peng, Fang Zheng; Lai, Jih-Sheng

    1996-10-01

    This paper characterizes typical nonlinear loads into two types of harmonic sources -harmonic current source and harmonic voltage source, which produce highly distorted currents and voltages, respectively. The conventional approach of active harmonic compensation has been the parallel type or `shunt active filter.` It is shown in this paper that the shunt active filter is effective only to harmonic current sources but not to harmonic voltage sources. On the other hand, the active filter connected in series with the system or `series active filter` is very effective in suppression of the harmonic voltage sources. General compensation characteristics of shunt active filters and series active filters are given analytically. The features, required operation conditions, and application considerations of both filters are described analytically and demonstrated experimentally.

  4. Television watching, diet quality, and physical activity and diabetes among three ethnicities in the United States.

    PubMed

    Huffman, Fatma G; Vaccaro, Joan A; Exebio, Joel C; Zarini, Gustavo G; Katz, Timothy; Dixon, Zisca

    2012-01-01

    Diabetes is a world-wide epidemic associated with multiple environmental factors. Prolonged television viewing (TV) time has been related to increased risk of obesity and type 2 diabetes in several studies. TV viewing has been positively associated with cardiovascular disease risk factors, lower energy expenditure, over-eating high-calorie and high-fat foods. The objective of this study was to assess the associations of hours of TV viewing with dietary quality, obesity and physical activity for three ethnic minorities with and without type 2 diabetes. Diet quality and physical activity were inversely related to prolonged TV viewing. African Americans and participants with type 2 diabetes were more likely to watch more than 4 hours of TV per day as compared to their counterparts. Diet quality was inversely associated with physical activity level. Future studies are needed to establish the risk factors of prolonged TV watching in adult populations for the development of diabetes or diabetes-related complications. Although strategies to reduce TV watching have been proven effective among children, few trials have been conducted in adults. Intervention trials aimed at reducing TV viewing targeting people with type 2 diabetes may be beneficial to improve dietary quality and physical activity, which may reduce diabetes complications.

  5. Physical Activity, Physical Fitness, and Health-Related Quality of Life in School-Aged Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gu, Xiangli; Chang, Mei; Solmon, Melinda A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study examined the association between physical activity (PA), physical fitness, and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) among school-aged children. Methods: Participants were 201 children (91 boys, 110 girls; M[subscript age] = 9.82) enrolled in one school in the southern US. Students' PA (self-reported PA, pedometer-based PA)…

  6. Use of Web Technology and Active Learning Strategies in a Quality Assessment Methods Course.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirier, Therese I.; O'Neil, Christine K.

    2000-01-01

    The authors describe and evaluate quality assessment methods in a health care course that utilized web technology and various active learning strategies. The course was judged successful by student performance, evaluations and student assessments. The instructors were pleased with the outcomes achieved and the educational pedagogy used for this…

  7. Impact of Arts-Related Activities on the Perceived Quality of Life

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michalos, Alex C.; Kahlke, P. Maurine

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this investigation was to measure the impact of arts-related activities on the perceived or experienced quality of life. In the fall of 2006 a questionnaire was mailed out to a random selection of 2000 households in each of five British Columbia communities, and 1027 were returned completed. The total and individual community samples…

  8. Physical Activity, Body Composition, and Perceived Quality of Life of Adults with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holbrook, Elizabeth A.; Caputo, Jennifer L.; Perry, Tara L.; Fuller, Dana K.; Morgan, Don W.

    2009-01-01

    Relatively little is known about the health and fitness of adults with visual impairments. This article documents the physical activity levels and body-composition profiles of young and middle-aged adults with visual impairments and addresses the concomitant effects of these factors on perceived quality of life. (Contains 2 tables.)

  9. 45 CFR 158.150 - Activities that improve health care quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... compared to a baseline and reduce health disparities among specified populations. (A) Examples include the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Activities that improve health care quality. 158.150 Section 158.150 Public Welfare Department of Health and Human Services REQUIREMENTS RELATING...

  10. 45 CFR 158.150 - Activities that improve health care quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... compared to a baseline and reduce health disparities among specified populations. (A) Examples include the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Activities that improve health care quality. 158.150 Section 158.150 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING...

  11. 45 CFR 158.150 - Activities that improve health care quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... compared to a baseline and reduce health disparities among specified populations. (A) Examples include the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Activities that improve health care quality. 158.150 Section 158.150 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING...

  12. 45 CFR 158.150 - Activities that improve health care quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... compared to a baseline and reduce health disparities among specified populations. (A) Examples include the... 45 Public Welfare 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Activities that improve health care quality. 158.150 Section 158.150 Public Welfare DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES REQUIREMENTS RELATING...

  13. Isotopic power supplies for space and terrestrial systems: quality assurance by Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Hannigan, R.L.; Harnar, R.R.

    1981-09-01

    The Sandia National Laboratories participation in Quality Assurance (QA) programs for Radioisotopic Thermoelectric Generators which have been used in space and terrestrial systems over the past 15 years is summarized. Basic elements of the program are briefly described and recognition of assistance from other Sandia organizations is included. Descriptions of the various systems for which Sandia has had the QA responsibility are also presented. In addition, the outlook for Sandia participation in RTG programs for the next several years is noted.

  14. Energy recovery during expansion of compressed gas using power plant low-quality heat sources

    DOEpatents

    Ochs, Thomas L.; O'Connor, William K.

    2006-03-07

    A method of recovering energy from a cool compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid is disclosed which includes incrementally expanding the compressed gas, compressed liquid, vapor, or supercritical fluid through a plurality of expansion engines and heating the gas, vapor, compressed liquid, or supercritical fluid entering at least one of the expansion engines with a low quality heat source. Expansion engines such as turbines and multiple expansions with heating are disclosed.

  15. Establishment of quality, reliability and design standards for low, medium, and high power microwave hybrid microcircuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robinson, E. A.

    1973-01-01

    Quality, reliability, and design standards for microwave hybrid microcircuits were established. The MSFC Standard 85M03926 for hybrid microcircuits was reviewed and modifications were generated for use with microwave hybrid microcircuits. The results for reliability tests of microwave thin film capacitors, transistors, and microwave circuits are presented. Twenty-two microwave receivers were tested for 13,500 unit hours. The result of 111,121 module burn-in and operating hours for an integrated solid state transceiver module is reported.

  16. Interdisciplinary teamwork and the power of a quality improvement collaborative in tertiary neonatal intensive care units.

    PubMed

    Grover, Theresa R; Pallotto, Eugenia K; Brozanski, Beverly; Piazza, Anthony J; Chuo, John; Moran, Susan; McClead, Richard; Mingrone, Teresa; Morelli, Lorna; Smith, Joan R

    2015-01-01

    Significant gaps in healthcare quality and outcomes can be reduced via quality improvement collaboratives (QICs), which improve care by leveraging data and experience from multiple organizations.The Children's Hospital Neonatal Consortium Collaborative Initiatives for Quality Improvement team developed an infrastructure for neonatal QICs. We describe the structure and components of an effective multi-institutional neonatal QIC that implemented the "SLUG Bug" project designed to reduce central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs).The operational infrastructure of SLUG Bug involved 17 tertiary care neonatal intensive care units with a goal to reduce CLABSI in high-risk neonates. Clinical Practice Recommendations were produced, and the Institute of Healthcare Improvement Breakthrough Series provided the framework for the collaborative. Process measures studied the effectiveness of the collaborative structure.CLABSI rates decreased by 20% during a 12-month study period. Compliance bundle reporting exceeded 80%. A QIC score of 2.5 or more ("improvement") was achieved by 94% of centers and a score 4 or more ("significant improvement") was achieved by 35%.Frequent interactive project meetings, well-defined project metrics, continual shared learning opportunities, and individual team coaching were key QIC success components. Through a coordinated approach and committed leadership, QICs can effectively implement change and improve the care of neonates with complex diagnoses and rare diseases. PMID:25919608

  17. ARE RADIO ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI POWERED BY ACCRETION OR BLACK HOLE SPIN?

    SciTech Connect

    McNamara, B. R.; Rohanizadegan, Mina; Nulsen, P. E. J.

    2011-01-20

    We compare accretion and black hole spin as potential energy sources for outbursts from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in brightest cluster galaxies (BCGs). Based on our adopted spin model, we find that the distribution of AGN power estimated from X-ray cavities is consistent with a broad range of both spin parameters and accretion rates. Sufficient quantities of molecular gas are available in most BCGs to power their AGNs by accretion alone. However, we find no correlation between AGN power and molecular gas mass over the range of jet power considered here. For a given AGN power, the BCG's gas mass and accretion efficiency, defined as the fraction of the available cold molecular gas that is required to power the AGN, both vary by more than two orders of magnitude. Most of the molecular gas in BCGs is apparently consumed by star formation or is driven out of the nucleus by the AGN before it reaches the nuclear black hole. Bondi accretion from hot atmospheres is generally unable to fuel powerful AGNs, unless their black holes are more massive than their bulge luminosities imply. We identify several powerful AGNs that reside in relatively gas-poor galaxies, indicating an unusually efficient mode of accretion, or that their AGNs are powered by another mechanism. If these systems are powered primarily by black hole spin rather than by accretion, spin must also be tapped efficiently in some systems, i.e., P{sub jet}> M-dot c{sup 2}, or their black hole masses must be substantially larger than the values implied by their bulge luminosities. We constrain the (model-dependent) accretion rate at the transition from radiatively inefficient to radiatively efficient accretion flows to be a few percent of the Eddington rate, a value that is consistent with other estimates.

  18. The Impact Of Sports Activities On Quality Of Life Of Persons With A Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Eminović, Fadilj; Dopsaj, Milivoj; Pavlović, Dragan; Arsić, Sladjana; Otašević, Jadranka

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Objectives Studying the quality of life of people with a spinal cord injury is of great importance as it allows the monitoring of both functioning and adaptation to disability. The aim of this study was to determine the difference between persons with a spinal cord injury involved in sports activities and those not involved in sports activities in relation to their quality of life and the presence of secondary health conditions (pressure ulcers, urinary infections, muscle spasms, osteoporosis, pain, kidney problems-infections, calculosis and poor circulation). Methods The study included a total of 44 participants with spinal cord injury-paraplegia of both genders; 26 of them were athletes and 18 were not athletes. The athletes were training actively for the last two years, minimally 2-3 times per week. A specially designed questionnaire, medical documentation and the Spinal Cord Injury Quality of Life Questionnaire (SCI QL-23) were used for research purposes. Chi-square test was used to analyze the differences between the groups, while multiple analysis of variance (MANOVA) was used to determine the differences between the sets of variables. Results Among the participants, the athletes perceived higher quality of life than the non-athletes (male gender p<0.001 and female gender p<0.05). Regarding secondary health conditions, the athletes reported the presence of less pain (p=0.034) and a subjective feeling of better circulation (p=0.023). Conclusion The implementation of sports activities significantly improves quality of life in the population of people with spinal cord injury-paraplegia. However, sports activities only partially affect secondary health conditions. PMID:27284378

  19. CALiPER Report 20.2: Dimming, Flicker, and Power Quality Characteristics of LED PAR38 Lamps

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    2014-03-31

    This report focuses on the flicker and power quality performance of the Series 20 lamps at full output and various dimmed levels. All of the Series 20 PAR38 lamps that manufacturers claimed to be dimmable (including all halogen lamps) were evaluated individually (one lamp at a time) both on a switch and under the control of a phase-cut dimmer designed for use with "all classes of bulbs." Measurements of luminous flux, flicker, and power quality were taken at 10 target dimmed settings and compared with operation on a switch. Because only a single unit of each product was evaluated on a single dimmer that may or may not have been recommended by its manufacturer, this report focuses on the performance of the products relative to each other, rather than the best-case performance of each lamp or variation in performance delivered from each lamp. Despite these limitations, the results suggest that LED performance is improving, and performance trends are beginning to emerge, perhaps due in part to the identification of preferred LED driver strategies for lamp products.

  20. Fast Power Line Detection and Localization Using Steerable Filter for Active Uav Guidance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Y.; Mejias, L.; Li, Z.

    2012-08-01

    In this paper we present a fast power line detection and localisation algorithm as well as propose a high-level guidance architecture for active vision-based Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) guidance. The detection stage is based on steerable filters for edge ridge detection, followed by a line fitting algorithm to refine candidate power lines in images. The guidance architecture assumes an UAV with an onboard Gimbal camera. We first control the position of the Gimbal such that the power line is in the field of view of the camera. Then its pose is used to generate the appropriate control commands such that the aircraft moves and flies above the lines. We present initial experimental results for the detection stage which shows that the proposed algorithm outperforms two state-of-the-art line detection algorithms for power line detection from aerial imagery.

  1. A new dynamic voltage restorer with separating active and reactive power circuit design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pai, Fu-Sheng

    2015-05-01

    Conventional dynamic voltage restorers (DVRs) install parallel battery and capacitor sets at the DC bus to supply the required power for voltage sag compensation. However, the reactive power output of a DVR may increase the ripple voltage at the inner DC bus, possibly resulting in a higher operating temperature of the battery and thus decreased battery life. This paper proposes a DVR system that uses a cascade power module to effectively compensate voltage sag. By separating the active and reactive compensation powers, the proposed DVR provides a lower ripple DC link for extending battery life and offers a flexible way to design the capacitor bank. To confirm the effectiveness of the proposed design, theoretical analysis and experimental validation were conducted under various scenarios. Test results confirm the feasibility and practicality of the proposed method.

  2. [Influence of physical activity on quality of life in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis].

    PubMed

    Caputo, Eduardo Lucia; Costa, Marcelo Zanusso

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to conduct a review on the association between exercise and quality of life in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis. A search was performed in PubMed, SciELO, SpringerLink and Sport Discus databases to identify relevant articles that addressed this association. We used the following descriptors in the English and Portuguese languages: osteoporosis, exercise, menopause, women, physical activity, quality of life/osteoporose, exercício físico, menopausa, mulheres, atividade física, qualidade de vida. Regarding quality of life and physical aspects like muscle strength and balance, with the exception of two studies, all others have reported improvement in quality of life and in physical domain of participants. Intervention with exercise has proved essential to improving the quality of life of women with postmenopausal osteoporosis. Activities that aim at the improvement of muscle strength and balance are essential to prevent falls, and consequently to reduce the incidence of fractures in this population.

  3. Low-power laser irradiation enhance macrophage phagocytic capacity through Src activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Shengnan; Zhou, Feifan; Xing, Da

    2012-03-01

    Phagocytosis and subsequent degradation of pathogens by macrophages play a pivotal role in host innate immunity in mammals. Laser irradiation has been found to produce photobiological effects with evidence of interference with organic functions. In this study, we focused our attention on the effects of He-Ne laser on the phagocytic activity of macrophages, the regulation mechanism of phagocytosis was also discussed. Our results indicated that Low-power laser irradiation can enhance the phagocytosis of macrophage through activation of Src.

  4. Underground Test Area Activity Quality Assurance Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Farnham, Irene; Krenzien, Susan

    2012-10-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Site Office (NNSA/NSO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) activities. The requirements in this QAP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1C, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2005); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). NNSA/NSO, or designee, must review this QAP every two years. Changes that do not affect the overall scope or requirements will not require an immediate QAP revision but will be incorporated into the next revision cycle after identification. Section 1.0 describes UGTA objectives, participant responsibilities, and administrative and management quality requirements (i.e., training, records, procurement). Section 1.0 also details data management and computer software requirements. Section 2.0 establishes the requirements to ensure newly collected data are valid, existing data uses are appropriate, and environmental-modeling methods are reliable. Section 3.0 provides feedback loops through assessments and reports to management. Section 4.0 provides the framework for corrective actions. Section 5.0 provides references for this document.

  5. Assessment of groundwater quality in Puri City, India: an impact of anthropogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Khobragade, Puja; Mohapatra, P K

    2011-06-01

    Puri City is situated on the east coast of India and receives water supply only from the groundwater sources demarcated as water fields. The objective of this paper is to assess and evaluate the groundwater quality due to impact of anthropogenic activities in the city. Groundwater samples were collected from the water fields, hand pumps, open wells, and open water bodies during post-monsoon 2006 and summer 2007. Groundwater quality was evaluated with drinking water standards as prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards and Environmental Protection Agency to assess the suitability. The study indicated seasonal variation of water-quality parameters within the water fields and city area. Groundwater in the water fields was found to be suitable for drinking after disinfection. While in city area, groundwater quality was impacted by onsite sanitary conditions. The study revealed that groundwater quality was deteriorated due to the discharge of effluent from septic tanks, soak pits, pit latrines, discharges of domestic wastewater in leaky drains, and leachate from solid waste dumpsite. Based on observed groundwater quality, various mitigation measures were suggested to protect the water fields and further groundwater contamination in the city. PMID:20714928

  6. Assessment of groundwater quality in Puri City, India: an impact of anthropogenic activities.

    PubMed

    Vijay, Ritesh; Khobragade, Puja; Mohapatra, P K

    2011-06-01

    Puri City is situated on the east coast of India and receives water supply only from the groundwater sources demarcated as water fields. The objective of this paper is to assess and evaluate the groundwater quality due to impact of anthropogenic activities in the city. Groundwater samples were collected from the water fields, hand pumps, open wells, and open water bodies during post-monsoon 2006 and summer 2007. Groundwater quality was evaluated with drinking water standards as prescribed by Bureau of Indian Standards and Environmental Protection Agency to assess the suitability. The study indicated seasonal variation of water-quality parameters within the water fields and city area. Groundwater in the water fields was found to be suitable for drinking after disinfection. While in city area, groundwater quality was impacted by onsite sanitary conditions. The study revealed that groundwater quality was deteriorated due to the discharge of effluent from septic tanks, soak pits, pit latrines, discharges of domestic wastewater in leaky drains, and leachate from solid waste dumpsite. Based on observed groundwater quality, various mitigation measures were suggested to protect the water fields and further groundwater contamination in the city.

  7. Underground Test Area Activity Quality Assurance Plan Nevada National Security Site, Nevada. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Krenzien, Susan; Farnham, Irene

    2015-06-01

    This Quality Assurance Plan (QAP) provides the overall quality assurance (QA) requirements and general quality practices to be applied to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office (NNSA/NFO) Underground Test Area (UGTA) activities. The requirements in this QAP are consistent with DOE Order 414.1D, Change 1, Quality Assurance (DOE, 2013a); U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Guidance for Quality Assurance Project Plans for Modeling (EPA, 2002); and EPA Guidance on the Development, Evaluation, and Application of Environmental Models (EPA, 2009). If a participant’s requirement document differs from this QAP, the stricter requirement will take precedence. NNSA/NFO, or designee, must review this QAP every two years. Changes that do not affect the overall scope or requirements will not require an immediate QAP revision but will be incorporated into the next revision cycle after identification. Section 1.0 describes UGTA objectives, participant responsibilities, and administrative and management quality requirements (i.e., training, records, procurement). Section 1.0 also details data management and computer software requirements. Section 2.0 establishes the requirements to ensure newly collected data are valid, existing data uses are appropriate, and environmental-modeling methods are reliable. Section 3.0 provides feedback loops through assessments and reports to management. Section 4.0 provides the framework for corrective actions. Section 5.0 provides references for this document.

  8. The quality of dyadic relationships, leisure activities and health among older women.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Tanya R

    2009-12-01

    We examined the combined influence of dyadic relationships and leisure activities on health. We used self-administered survey to collect data at senior centers from French and English older women (N = 257) in Montreal, Quebec. Multiple regression analyses (OLS) were used to examine the main effects of dyadic quality and leisure activities on physical and mental health. Despite controlling for specific dyadic groups, meals, and bingo, we find that the quality of dyadic relationships has a strong influence on mental health measured by spirit, happiness, and an interesting life. Leisure activities are also a significant predictor and appear to improve physical health measured by self-reported health and the number of chronic conditions. Implications for gerontology practitioners in the United States, Canada, and other Western cultures, along with research strategies, are discussed.

  9. T & I, Power Mechanics. Kit No. 35. Instructor's Manual [and] Student Learning Activity Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Underwood, Earl

    An instructor's manual and student activity guide on power mechanics are provided in this set of prevocational education materials which focuses on the vocational area of trade and industry. (This set of materials is one of ninety-two prevocational education sets arranged around a cluster of seven vocational offerings: agriculture, home economics,…

  10. Power Perceptions and Negotiations in a Cross-National Email Writing Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Yichun

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigates EFL students' perceptions of power differentials and their negotiation strategies when communicating with native English-speaking students via emails. The study involved 28 Taiwanese and American undergraduates who participated in a semester-long cross-national email writing activity. Findings show that students in…

  11. Star Power: Providing for the Gifted & Talented. Module 5. Enrichment Activities for the Gifted/Talented.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mallis, Jackie; Gilman, Sharlene

    The document presents Module 5, enrichment activities for the gifted/talented, of the Star Power modules developed for school personnel who have an interest in or a need to explore the area of gifted and talented education. It is explained in an introductory section that the modules can be used for independent study, for small group interaction,…

  12. Power spectral analysis of autonomic nervous activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ju, K; Kubo, T

    1997-01-01

    We studied power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) in control spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and tourmaline hydroxyl negative ion-treated SHR groups. The power spectrum of HRV in SHR groups was composed of two frequency components; low frequency (LF, 0.005 approximately 1.0 Hz) and high frequency (HF, 1.0 approximately 2.0 Hz) components. The low frequency power (LFP) of HRV spectrum, which indicates sympathetic nervous activity, in negative air ion-treated SHR group was significantly (p < 0.01) smaller than in control SHR group. And also we obtained that the high frequency power (HFP) showing parasympathetic nervous activity in negative air ion-treated SHR group was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than in control SHR group. It could be concluded that hydroxyl negative air ions generated by tourmaline ionizer system decreased the elevated blood pressure, and control the sympathetic nervous activity and the parasympathetic nervous activity in SHR having the elevated blood pressure. PMID:9731382

  13. Power spectral analysis of autonomic nervous activity in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Ju, K; Kubo, T

    1997-01-01

    We studied power spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV) in control spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and tourmaline hydroxyl negative ion-treated SHR groups. The power spectrum of HRV in SHR groups was composed of two frequency components; low frequency (LF, 0.005 approximately 1.0 Hz) and high frequency (HF, 1.0 approximately 2.0 Hz) components. The low frequency power (LFP) of HRV spectrum, which indicates sympathetic nervous activity, in negative air ion-treated SHR group was significantly (p < 0.01) smaller than in control SHR group. And also we obtained that the high frequency power (HFP) showing parasympathetic nervous activity in negative air ion-treated SHR group was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than in control SHR group. It could be concluded that hydroxyl negative air ions generated by tourmaline ionizer system decreased the elevated blood pressure, and control the sympathetic nervous activity and the parasympathetic nervous activity in SHR having the elevated blood pressure.

  14. [Effects of exogenous tetracycline on rape soil enzyme activity and rape quality].

    PubMed

    Liu, Ji-Qiang; Zhuge, Yu-Ping; Cui, Li-Na

    2009-04-01

    This paper studied the effects of applying different concentration (0, 0.30, 0.60, and 0.90 mg x kg(-1)) tetracycline on the soil enzyme activities and rape quality. The results showed that soil urease activity after applied 0.30, 0.60, and 0.90 mg x kg(-1) of tetracycline and soil suerase activity after applied 0.90 mg x kg(-1) of tetracycline were inhibited in the whole cultivating period, while the soil sucrase activity after applied 0.30 and 0.60 mg x kg(-1) of tetracycline showed a trend of activation-inhibition-activation. Soil proteinase activity showed a trend of inhibition-activation, and the extent and duration of the inhibition and activation had significant positive correlations with tetracycline concentration (r = 0.950 * *). Soil catalase activity showed activation first and turned to irregular then. The action duration of tetracycline on the activities of soil urease, catalase, sucrase and proteinase were 7 weeks, 6-8 weeks, 7 weeks, and 6-7 weeks, respectively. At harvest time, the soluble sugar contents in rape leaves after applying 0.30, 0.60, and 0.90 mg x kg(-1) of tetracycline decreased dramatically by 91.99%, 87.92%, 90.12%, while the soluble protein content increased by 26.47%, 28.13%, and 23.22%, respectively, compared to the control.

  15. Physical activity, health-related quality of life and depression during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Tendais, Iva; Figueiredo, Bárbara; Mota, Jorge; Conde, Ana

    2011-02-01

    This study examines physical activity patterns among women, from pre-pregnancy to the second trimester of pregnancy, and the relationship between physical activity status based on physical activity guidelines and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) and depression over pregnancy. 56 healthy pregnant women self-reported physical activity, HRQoL and depression at 10-15 and 19-24 weeks of pregnancy and physical activity before pregnancy. Whereas vigorous leisure physical activity decreased after conception, moderate leisure physical activity and work related physical activity remained stable over time. The prevalence of recommended physical activity was 39.3% and 12.5% in the 1st and 2nd trimesters of pregnancy respectively, and 14.3% pre-pregnancy. From the 1st to the 2nd pregnancy trimester, most physical HRQoL dimensions scores decreased and only mental component increased, independently of physical activity status. No changes in mean depression scores were observed. These data suggest that physical activity patterns change with pregnancy and that physical and mental components are differentially affected by pregnancy course, independently of physical activity status.

  16. Effects of geomagnetic activity and atmospheric power variations on quantitative measures of brain activity: Replication of the Azerbaijani studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Bryce P.; Hunter, Mathew D.; Persinger, Michael A.

    2010-04-01

    This study replicates and extends the observations by Babayev and Allahveriyeva that changes in right hemispheric electroencephalographic activity are correlated with increases in geomagnetic activity. During the geomagnetically quiet interface between solar cycle 23 and 24 quantitative electroencephalographic (QEEG) measurements were completed for normal young adults in three separate experiments involving about 120 samples over 1.5 years. The most consistent, moderate strength correlations occurred for the changes in power within the gamma and theta ranges over the right frontal lobe. Real-time measures of atmospheric power obtained from polar orbiting satellites showed similar effects. The preferential involvement of the right frontal lobe and the regions subject to its inhibition with environmental energetic changes are consistent with the behavioural correlations historically associated with these conditions. They include increased incidence of emotional lability, erroneous reconstruction of experiences, social confrontations, and unusual perceptions.

  17. Interactive effects of temperature, ultraviolet radiation and food quality on zooplankton alkaline phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Wolinski, Laura; Modenutti, Beatriz; Souza, Maria Sol; Balseiro, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) is a stressor for aquatic organisms affecting enzyme activities in planktonic populations because of the increase in reactive oxygen species. In addition, UVR exposure combined with other environmental factors (i.e. temperature and food quality) could have even higher detrimental effects. In this work, we aimed to determine the effect of UVR on somatic Alkaline Phosphatase Activity (APA) and Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity on the cladoceran Daphnia commutata under two different temperatures (10 °C and 20 °C) and under three food qualities (carbon:phosphorus ratios: 1150, 850 and 550). APA is a biomarker that is considered as a P deficiency indicator in zooplankton. Since recovery from UVR damage under dark conditions is an ATP depending reaction we also measured APA during recovery phases. We carried out a laboratory experiment combining different temperatures and food qualities with exposition to UVR followed by luminic and dark phases for recovery. In addition, we exposed organisms to H2O2, to establish if the response on APA to UVR was a consequence of the reactive oxygen species produced these short wavelengths. Our results showed that somatic APA was negatively affected by UVR exposure and this effect was enhanced under high temperature and low food quality. Consistently, GST activity was higher when exposed to UVR under both temperatures. The H2O2 experiments showed the same trend as UVR exposure, indicating that APA is affected mainly by oxidative stress than by direct effect of UVR on the enzyme. Finally, APA was affected in the dark phase of recovery confirming the P demands. These results enlighten the importance of food quality in the interacting effect of UVR and temperature, showing that C:P food ratio could determine the success or failure of zooplanktonic populations in a context of global change. PMID:26895537

  18. Interactive effects of temperature, ultraviolet radiation and food quality on zooplankton alkaline phosphatase activity.

    PubMed

    Wolinski, Laura; Modenutti, Beatriz; Souza, Maria Sol; Balseiro, Esteban

    2016-06-01

    Ultraviolet Radiation (UVR) is a stressor for aquatic organisms affecting enzyme activities in planktonic populations because of the increase in reactive oxygen species. In addition, UVR exposure combined with other environmental factors (i.e. temperature and food quality) could have even higher detrimental effects. In this work, we aimed to determine the effect of UVR on somatic Alkaline Phosphatase Activity (APA) and Glutathione S-Transferase (GST) activity on the cladoceran Daphnia commutata under two different temperatures (10 °C and 20 °C) and under three food qualities (carbon:phosphorus ratios: 1150, 850 and 550). APA is a biomarker that is considered as a P deficiency indicator in zooplankton. Since recovery from UVR damage under dark conditions is an ATP depending reaction we also measured APA during recovery phases. We carried out a laboratory experiment combining different temperatures and food qualities with exposition to UVR followed by luminic and dark phases for recovery. In addition, we exposed organisms to H2O2, to establish if the response on APA to UVR was a consequence of the reactive oxygen species produced these short wavelengths. Our results showed that somatic APA was negatively affected by UVR exposure and this effect was enhanced under high temperature and low food quality. Consistently, GST activity was higher when exposed to UVR under both temperatures. The H2O2 experiments showed the same trend as UVR exposure, indicating that APA is affected mainly by oxidative stress than by direct effect of UVR on the enzyme. Finally, APA was affected in the dark phase of recovery confirming the P demands. These results enlighten the importance of food quality in the interacting effect of UVR and temperature, showing that C:P food ratio could determine the success or failure of zooplanktonic populations in a context of global change.

  19. The power of cross-functional teams in driving total quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McClung, Tim M.; McMaster, Tom J.

    Garrett Canada, a Division of Allied-Signal Aerospace Canada, has been a member of the Canadian aerospace industry for 40 years. Although Garrett Canada has always been a profitable division with a solid market share, the changing and turbulent business environment and globalization of the aerospace industry has created new demands and challenges. The marketplace is demanding faster introduction of new products, as well as shorter leadtimes for repairs and spares. It was recognized that reducing cycle times for new products and for ongoing production would not only satisfy our customers, it would also enhance our business performance through reduced inventories, lower past due, and more responsiveness to change. It was evident that drastic function changes were required if we were to maintain our position as a premier aerospace supplier. The challenge was to convert a stable, somewhat slow-paced work environment with strong functional boundaries into a boundaryless world class team functioning in a total quality environment and focused on customer satisfaction. Complete and uncompromised customer satisfaction has become our driving force, with Total Quality being our engine to continuously improve our processes and increase our speed. The way in which this transition has been brought about is the subject of this presentation.

  20. The power of cross-functional teams in driving total quality

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcclung, Tim M.; Mcmaster, Tom J.

    1992-01-01

    Garrett Canada, a Division of Allied-Signal Aerospace Canada, has been a member of the Canadian aerospace industry for 40 years. Although Garrett Canada has always been a profitable division with a solid market share, the changing and turbulent business environment and globalization of the aerospace industry has created new demands and challenges. The marketplace is demanding faster introduction of new products, as well as shorter leadtimes for repairs and spares. It was recognized that reducing cycle times for new products and for ongoing production would not only satisfy our customers, it would also enhance our business performance through reduced inventories, lower past due, and more responsiveness to change. It was evident that drastic function changes were required if we were to maintain our position as a premier aerospace supplier. The challenge was to convert a stable, somewhat slow-paced work environment with strong functional boundaries into a boundaryless world class team functioning in a total quality environment and focused on customer satisfaction. Complete and uncompromised customer satisfaction has become our driving force, with Total Quality being our engine to continuously improve our processes and increase our speed. The way in which this transition has been brought about is the subject of this presentation.

  1. Effect of AC target power on AlN film quality

    SciTech Connect

    Knisely, Katherine Grosh, Karl

    2014-09-01

    The influence of alternating current (AC) target power on film stress, roughness, and x-ray diffraction rocking curve full width half maximum (FWHM) was examined for AlN films deposited using S-gun magnetron sputtering on insulative substrates consisting of Si wafers with 575 nm thermal oxide. As the AC target power was increased from 5 to 8 kW, the deposition rate increased from 9.3 to 15.9 A/s, film stress decreased from 81 to −170 MPa, and the rocking curve FWHM increased from 0.98 to 1.03°. AlN film behavior is observed to change with target life; films deposited at 200 kWh target life were approximately 40 MPa more compressive and had 0.02° degree higher rocking curve FWHM values than films deposited at 130 kWh. AlN films deposited in two depositions were compared with films deposited in a single deposition, in order to better characterize the growth behavior and properties of AlN films deposited on an existing AlN film, which is not well understood. Two deposition films, when compared with single deposition films, showed no variation in residual stress trends or grain size behavior, but the average film roughness increased from 0.7 to 1.4 nm and rocking curve FWHM values increased by more than 0.25°.

  2. High beam quality and high power CO II lasers for technologies and medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasiltsov, V. V.; Berishvili, I. I.; Galushkin, M. G.; Golubev, V. S.; Panchenko, V. Ya.; Ulyanov, V. A.; Zinina, N. N.; Vakhromeeva, M. N.; Vakhrameeva, A. Y.

    2007-06-01

    The technical characteristics of the new three models of diffusion-cooled multichannel waveguide industrial CO II lasers excited with acoustic-frequency ac discharge are presented. The industrial lasers of this type have been developed for years at ILIT RAS. Generation of low (to 400 W) average power proved to be technically realizable through air cooling of the oscillator, which makes the laser performance even more attractive. The above lasers can be used to advantage in the laser processing systems intended for precision cutting of metallic (thickness to 10 mm) and non-metallic (thickness to 40 mm) materials; welding; surfacing and fabrication of parts from composite and metallic powder materials. The paper also provides the description and the technical characteristics of intellectual medical cardio-surgery laser systems of "Perfocor" family, developed at ILIT RAS for the transmyocardial laser revascularization (TMLR) which presents a promising method to cure the ischemic disease of heart. The clinical results (more than 800 operations) are presented. Owing to application of the TMLR technique the death rate at the A.N. Bakoulev Center is the lowest in the world. The project of a new CO II laser surgery plant "Khirurg" is discussed that would deliver up to 200 W power and is based on the model TL-300 with a system of biotissue diagnostics.

  3. Field Methods and Quality-Assurance Plan for Quality-of-Water Activities, U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Knobel, LeRoy L.; Tucker, Betty J.; Rousseau, Joseph P.

    2008-01-01

    Water-quality activities conducted by the staff of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project Office coincide with the USGS mission of appraising the quantity and quality of the Nation's water resources. The activities are conducted in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Idaho Operations Office. Results of the water-quality investigations are presented in various USGS publications or in refereed scientific journals. The results of the studies are highly regarded, and they are used with confidence by researchers, regulatory and managerial agencies, and interested civic groups. In its broadest sense, quality assurance refers to doing the job right the first time. It includes the functions of planning for products, review and acceptance of the products, and an audit designed to evaluate the system that produces the products. Quality control and quality assurance differ in that quality control ensures that things are done correctly given the 'state-of-the-art' technology, and quality assurance ensures that quality control is maintained within specified limits.

  4. Field methods and quality-assurance plan for water-quality activities and water-level measurements, U.S. Geological Survey, Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bartholomay, Roy C.; Maimer, Neil V.; Wehnke, Amy J.

    2014-01-01

    Water-quality activities and water-level measurements by the personnel of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Project Office coincide with the USGS mission of appraising the quantity and quality of the Nation’s water resources. The activities are carried out in cooperation with the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Idaho Operations Office. Results of the water-quality and hydraulic head investigations are presented in various USGS publications or in refereed scientific journals and the data are stored in the National Water Information System (NWIS) database. The results of the studies are used by researchers, regulatory and managerial agencies, and interested civic groups. In the broadest sense, quality assurance refers to doing the job right the first time. It includes the functions of planning for products, review and acceptance of the products, and an audit designed to evaluate the system that produces the products. Quality control and quality assurance differ in that quality control ensures that things are done correctly given the “state-of-the-art” technology, and quality assurance ensures that quality control is maintained within specified limits.

  5. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Active Substance Production and Antioxidant Activity in Potentilla fruticosa L. and Its Quality Assessment.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Dongxue; Li, Na; Hou, Xiaogai; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Dengwu; Liu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors may influence types and contents of active substances. This study investigated the influence of environmental factors on the active substance contents and antioxidant activity of Potentilla fruticosa L. from different regions of China. Also, HPLC fingerprint similarity analysis (SA) coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were further introduced for the accurate classification and quality assessment of P. fruticosa. The results showed that altitude was significantly and negatively correlated to the content of tannin (P < 0.05). Annual sunshine duration and altitude were significantly and positively correlated to the flavonoids content, rutin content and antioxidant activity (P < 0.05). Annual mean temperature was significantly and negatively correlated to the content of total phenolics, while altitude was significantly and positively correlated to the content of total phenolics (P < 0.05). Eight samples were unambiguously separated into three groups. Two types of discriminant functions with a 100% discrimination ratio were constructed. All data consistently supported the conclusion that P. fruticosa produced from Kangding, Sichuan Province had high quality among all samples, therefore, Kangding in Sichuan Province with favorable environmental conditions is recommended as a preferable production location. PMID:27373366

  6. Influence of Environmental Factors on the Active Substance Production and Antioxidant Activity in Potentilla fruticosa L. and Its Quality Assessment

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Wei; Yin, Dongxue; Li, Na; Hou, Xiaogai; Wang, Dongmei; Li, Dengwu; Liu, Jianjun

    2016-01-01

    Environmental factors may influence types and contents of active substances. This study investigated the influence of environmental factors on the active substance contents and antioxidant activity of Potentilla fruticosa L. from different regions of China. Also, HPLC fingerprint similarity analysis (SA) coupled with hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) and discriminant analysis (DA) were further introduced for the accurate classification and quality assessment of P. fruticosa. The results showed that altitude was significantly and negatively correlated to the content of tannin (P < 0.05). Annual sunshine duration and altitude were significantly and positively correlated to the flavonoids content, rutin content and antioxidant activity (P < 0.05). Annual mean temperature was significantly and negatively correlated to the content of total phenolics, while altitude was significantly and positively correlated to the content of total phenolics (P < 0.05). Eight samples were unambiguously separated into three groups. Two types of discriminant functions with a 100% discrimination ratio were constructed. All data consistently supported the conclusion that P. fruticosa produced from Kangding, Sichuan Province had high quality among all samples, therefore, Kangding in Sichuan Province with favorable environmental conditions is recommended as a preferable production location. PMID:27373366

  7. Active energy harvesting from microbial fuel cells at the maximum power point without using resistors.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heming; Park, Jae-Do; Ren, Zhiyong

    2012-05-01

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC) technology offers a sustainable approach to harvest electricity from biodegradable materials. Energy production from MFCs has been demonstrated using external resistors or charge pumps, but such methods can only dissipate energy through heat or receive electrons passively from the MFC without any controllability. This study developed a new approach and system that can actively extract energy from MFC reactors at any operating point without using any resistors, especially at the peak power point to maximize energy production. Results show that power harvesting from a recirculating-flow MFC can be well maintained by the maximum power point circuit (MPPC) at its peak power point, while a charge pump was not able to change operating point due to current limitation. Within 18-h test, the energy gained from the MPPC was 76.8 J, 76 times higher than the charge pump (1.0 J) that was commonly used in MFC studies. Both conditions resulted in similar organic removal, but the Coulombic efficiency obtained from the MPPC was 21 times higher than that of the charge pump. Different numbers of capacitors could be used in the MPPC for various energy storage requirements and power supply, and the energy conversion efficiency of the MPPC was further characterized to identify key factors for system improvement. This active energy harvesting approach provides a new perspective for energy harvesting that can maximize MFC energy generation and system controllability.

  8. Effect of water quality and confounding factors on digestive enzyme activities in Gammarus fossarum.

    PubMed

    Charron, L; Geffard, O; Chaumot, A; Coulaud, R; Queau, H; Geffard, A; Dedourge-Geffard, O

    2013-12-01

    The feeding activity and subsequent assimilation of the products resulting from food digestion allow organisms to obtain energy for growth, maintenance and reproduction. Among these biological parameters, we studied digestive enzymes (amylase, cellulase and trypsin) in Gammarus fossarum to assess the impact of contaminants on their access to energy resources. However, to enable objective assessment of a toxic effect of decreased water quality on an organisms' digestive capacity, it is necessary to establish reference values based on its natural variability as a function of changing biotic and abiotic factors. To limit the confounding influence of biotic factors, a caging approach with calibrated male organisms from the same population was used. This study applied an in situ deployment at 23 sites of the Rhone basin rivers, complemented by a laboratory experiment assessing the influence of two abiotic factors (temperature and conductivity). The results showed a small effect of conductivity on cellulase activity and a significant effect of temperature on digestive enzyme activity but only at the lowest temperature (7 °C). The experimental conditions allowed us to define an environmental reference value for digestive enzyme activities to select sites where the quality of the water impacted the digestive capacity of the organisms. In addition to the feeding rate, this study showed the relevance of digestive enzymes as biomarkers to be used as an early warning tool to reflect organisms' health and the chemical quality of aquatic ecosystems.

  9. Water-quality data-collection activities in Colorado and Ohio; Phase II, Evaluation of 1984 field and laboratory quality-assurance practices

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Childress, C.J.; Chaney, T.M.; Myers, Donna; Norris, J.M.; Hren, Janet

    1987-01-01

    Serious questions have been raised by Congress about the usefulness of water quality data for addressing issues of regional and national scope and, especially, for characterizing the current quality of the Nation 's streams and groundwater. In response, the U.S. Geological Survey conducted a pilot study in Colorado and Ohio to: (1) determine the characteristics of current (1984) water quality data collection activities of Federal, regional, State, and local agencies, and academic institutions; and (2) determine how well the data from these activities, collected for various purposes and using different procedures, can be used to improve the ability to answer major broad scope questions, such as: what are (or were) natural or near-natural water quality conditions; what are existing water quality conditions; and, how water quality has changed and how the changes relate to human activities. Colorado and Ohio were chosen for the pilot study largely because they represent regions with different types of water quality concerns and programs. The study has been divided into three phases, the objectives of which are: Phase I - Inventory water quality data collection programs, including costs, and identify those programs that met a set of broad criteria for producing data that are potentially appropriate for water quality assessments of regional and national scope. Phase II - Evaluate the quality assurance of field and laboratory procedures used in producing the data from programs that met the broad criteria of Phase I. Phase III - Compile the qualifying data and evaluate the adequacy of this data base for addressing selected water quality questions of regional and national scope. (Author 's abstract)

  10. High power density aqueous hybrid supercapacitor combining activated carbon and highly conductive spinel cobalt oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godillot, G.; Taberna, P.-L.; Daffos, B.; Simon, P.; Delmas, C.; Guerlou-Demourgues, L.

    2016-11-01

    The remarkable electrochemical behavior of complete activated carbon/cobalt oxide cells is reported in the present work. Among the various weight ratios between the positive and negative electrodes evaluated, the best features are obtained with an overcapacitive cobalt oxide electrode. The energy densities obtained by this system (20 Wh kg-1 for a power density of 209 W kg-1) are twice higher than those measured for a activated carbon/activated carbon symmetric cell, in the same operating conditions. With discharge capacities around 62 F g-1, this system is among the best ones reported in the literature for this category.

  11. Activity cost analysis: a tool to cost medical services and improve quality of care.

    PubMed

    Udpa, S

    2001-01-01

    This paper suggests an activity-based cost (ABC) system as the appropriate cost accounting system to measure and control costs under the microstatistical episode of care (EOC) paradigm suggested by D. W. Emery (1999). ABC systems work well in such an environment because they focus on activities performed to provide services in the delivery of care. Thus, under an ABC system it is not only possible to accurately cost episodes of care but also to more effectively monitor and improve the quality of care. Under the ABC system, costs are first traced to activities and then traced from the activities to units of episodic care using cost drivers based on the consumption of activity resources.

  12. Activity cost analysis: a tool to cost medical services and improve quality of care.

    PubMed

    Udpa, S

    2001-01-01

    This paper suggests an activity-based cost (ABC) system as the appropriate cost accounting system to measure and control costs under the microstatistical episode of care (EOC) paradigm suggested by D. W. Emery (1999). ABC systems work well in such an environment because they focus on activities performed to provide services in the delivery of care. Thus, under an ABC system it is not only possible to accurately cost episodes of care but also to more effectively monitor and improve the quality of care. Under the ABC system, costs are first traced to activities and then traced from the activities to units of episodic care using cost drivers based on the consumption of activity resources. PMID:11556054

  13. Building an index of activity of inhabitants from their activity on the residential electrical power line.

    PubMed

    Noury, Norbert; Berenguer, Marc; Teyssier, Henri; Bouzid, Marie-Jeanne; Giordani, Michel

    2011-09-01

    In the framework of context awareness within the home, our team is currently assessing the unobtrusive detection of inhabitants' activity through the monitoring of their use and consumption of electricity. The objective is to develop a system for the remote monitoring of large populations of elderly people living independently at home. To be readily deployable on the field, such a system must be minimally intrusive both for the home environment and for the field professionals (paramedics and social workers) visiting the patients at home. We carried out two successive field experiments to evaluate and to improve our system designed to deliver a single index of daily activity. The first experiment involved 13 elderly persons over a nine-month period (84,240 h data recorded) and the second one 12 elderly over six months (51,840 h). We evaluated both the relevance of the index and the acceptability of the system as a whole. We discovered that electrical activity is a kind of unique "signature" of each person's activity. Moreover, this profile provides unexpected information on the health status of the subject. We confirmed that the system was unobtrusive and well accepted both by the subjects and by the professionals involved. Our unique index of activity, and its trend over time, can provide timely information to the professionals on the patient.

  14. LANDSAT-4 image data quality analysis for energy related applications. [nuclear power plant sites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wukelic, G. E. (Principal Investigator)

    1983-01-01

    No useable LANDSAT 4 TM data were obtained for the Hanford site in the Columbia Plateau region, but TM simulator data for a Virginia Electric Company nuclear power plant was used to test image processing algorithms. Principal component analyses of this data set clearly indicated that thermal plumes in surface waters used for reactor cooling would be discrenible. Image processing and analysis programs were successfully testing using the 7 band Arkansas test scene and preliminary analysis of TM data for the Savanah River Plant shows that current interactive, image enhancement, analysis and integration techniques can be effectively used for LANDSAT 4 data. Thermal band data appear adequate for gross estimates of thermal changes occurring near operating nuclear facilities especially in surface water bodies being used for reactor cooling purposes. Additional image processing software was written and tested which provides for more rapid and effective analysis of the 7 band TM data.

  15. The feasibility of recycling and clearance of active materials from fusion power plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zucchetti, M.; El-Guebaly, L. A.; Forrest, R. A.; Marshall, T. D.; Taylor, N. P.; Tobita, K.

    2007-08-01

    In order to minimize the quantity of active materials that require long-term storage, arising during operation and after fusion power plant decommissioning, maximum use should be made of both recycling within the nuclear industry and clearance. For the latter, revised limits have been recently issued at the international level and in the US and Europe. In this paper the implications for fusion materials of these new levels are considered. Concerning recycling, power plant studies have employed criteria based solely on radiological parameters. Reviews of remote procedures currently used within the nuclear industry suggest that these criteria have been unduly conservative and should be revised.

  16. Dynamical Signatures of Collective Quality Grading in a Social Activity: Attendance to Motion Pictures

    PubMed Central

    Escobar, Juan V.; Sornette, Didier

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the laws governing people’s decisions and interactions by studying the collective dynamics of a well-documented social activity for which there exist ample records of the perceived quality: the attendance to movie theaters in the US. We picture the flows of attendance as impulses or “shocks” driven by external factors that in turn can create new cascades of attendances through direct recommendations whose effectiveness depends on the perceived quality of the movies. This corresponds to an epidemic branching model comprised of a decaying exponential function determining the time between cause and action, and a cascade of actions triggered by previous ones. We find that the vast majority of the ~3,500 movies studied fit our model remarkably well. From our results, we are able to translate a subjective concept such as movie quality into a probability of the deriving individual activity, and from it we build concrete quantitative predictions. Our analysis opens up the possibility of understanding other collective dynamics for which the perceived quality or appeal of an action is also known. PMID:25612292

  17. Dynamical signatures of collective quality grading in a social activity: attendance to motion pictures.

    PubMed

    Escobar, Juan V; Sornette, Didier

    2015-01-01

    We investigate the laws governing people's decisions and interactions by studying the collective dynamics of a well-documented social activity for which there exist ample records of the perceived quality: the attendance to movie theaters in the US. We picture the flows of attendance as impulses or "shocks" driven by external factors that in turn can create new cascades of attendances through direct recommendations whose effectiveness depends on the perceived quality of the movies. This corresponds to an epidemic branching model comprised of a decaying exponential function determining the time between cause and action, and a cascade of actions triggered by previous ones. We find that the vast majority of the ~3,500 movies studied fit our model remarkably well. From our results, we are able to translate a subjective concept such as movie quality into a probability of the deriving individual activity, and from it we build concrete quantitative predictions. Our analysis opens up the possibility of understanding other collective dynamics for which the perceived quality or appeal of an action is also known.

  18. Active photonic sensor communication cable for field application of optical data and power transmission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suthau, Eike; Rieske, Ralf; Zerna, Thomas

    2014-10-01

    Omitting electrically conducting wires for sensor communication and power supply promises protection for sensor systems and monitored structures against lightning or high voltages, prevention of explosion hazards, and reduction of susceptibility to tampering. The ability to photonically power remote systems opens up the full range of electrical sensors. Power-over-fiber is an attractive option in electromagnetically sensitive environments, particularly for longterm, maintenance-free applications. It can deliver uninterrupted power sufficient for elaborate sensors, data processing or even actuators alongside continuous high speed data communication for remote sensor application. This paper proposes an active photonic sensor communication system, which combines the advantages of optical data links in terms of immunity to electromagnetic interference (EMI), high bandwidth, hardiness against tampering or eavesdropping, and low cable weight with the robustness one has come to expect from industrial or military electrical connectors. An application specific integrated circuit (ASIC) is presented that implements a closed-loop regulation of the sensor power supply to guarantee continuous, reliable data communications while maintaining a highly efficient, adaptive sensor supply scheme. It is demonstrated that the resulting novel photonic sensor communication cable can handle sensors and actuators differing orders of magnitude with respect to power consumption. The miniaturization of the electro-optical converters and driving electronics is as important to the presented development as the energy efficiency of the detached, optically powered sensor node. For this reason, a novel photonic packaging technology based on wafer-level assembly of the laser power converters by means of passive alignment will be disclosed in this paper.

  19. Estimating nonnegative matrix model activations with deep neural networks to increase perceptual speech quality.

    PubMed

    Williamson, Donald S; Wang, Yuxuan; Wang, DeLiang

    2015-09-01

    As a means of speech separation, time-frequency masking applies a gain function to the time-frequency representation of noisy speech. On the other hand, nonnegative matrix factorization (NMF) addresses separation by linearly combining basis vectors from speech and noise models to approximate noisy speech. This paper presents an approach for improving the perceptual quality of speech separated from background noise at low signal-to-noise ratios. An ideal ratio mask is estimated, which separates speech from noise with reasonable sound quality. A deep neural network then approximates clean speech by estimating activation weights from the ratio-masked speech, where the weights linearly combine elements from a NMF speech model. Systematic comparisons using objective metrics, including the perceptual evaluation of speech quality, show that the proposed algorithm achieves higher speech quality than related masking and NMF methods. In addition, a listening test was performed and its results show that the output of the proposed algorithm is preferred over the comparison systems in terms of speech quality. PMID:26428778

  20. Effects of declared levels of physical activity on quality of life of individuals with intellectual disabilities.

    PubMed

    Blick, Rachel N; Saad, Adam E; Goreczny, Anthony J; Roman, KatieLynn; Sorensen, Cambria Hunter

    2015-02-01

    Routine physical fitness improves health and psychosocial well-being of individuals with intellectual and developmental disabilities. The current study investigated impact of physical fitness on quality of life by comparing individuals who maintain a physically active lifestyle with those who do not report exercising. We assessed several indicators of quality of life, including inclusion and community participation; satisfaction with professional services, home life, and day activities; dignity, rights, and respect received from others; fear; choice and control; and family satisfaction. Our data suggested that individuals who regularly exercise reported having more frequent outings into the community than did their peers who reported exercising infrequently; regular exercisers were also more likely to live in intermediate care facilities (ICF) as opposed to living independently or with family members. We discuss possible reasons for this as well as ideas for future research needed to expand on this area. PMID:25528082

  1. 77 FR 24950 - Meeting Related to the Transmission Planning Activities of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc.; Notice...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... Power Pool, Inc.; Notice of Commission Staff Attendance The Federal Energy Regulatory Commission hereby... transmission planning activities of the Southwest Power Pool, Inc. (SPP): Strategic Planning Committee Task... Plains, LLC. Docket No. ER11-4105-000, Southwest Power Pool, Inc. Docket No. EL11-34-001,...

  2. Quality-assurance and data management plan for groundwater activities by the U.S. Geological Survey in Kansas, 2014

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Putnam, James E.; Hansen, Cristi V.

    2014-01-01

    As the Nation’s principle earth-science information agency, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) is depended on to collect data of the highest quality. This document is a quality-assurance plan for groundwater activities (GWQAP) of the Kansas Water Science Center. The purpose of this GWQAP is to establish a minimum set of guidelines and practices to be used by the Kansas Water Science Center to ensure quality in groundwater activities. Included within these practices are the assignment of responsibilities for implementing quality-assurance activities in the Kansas Water Science Center and establishment of review procedures needed to ensure the technical quality and reliability of the groundwater products. In addition, this GWQAP is intended to complement quality-assurance plans for surface-water and water-quality activities and similar plans for the Kansas Water Science Center and general project activities throughout the USGS. This document provides the framework for collecting, analyzing, and reporting groundwater data that are quality assured and quality controlled. This GWQAP presents policies directing the collection, processing, analysis, storage, review, and publication of groundwater data. In addition, policies related to organizational responsibilities, training, project planning, and safety are presented. These policies and practices pertain to all groundwater activities conducted by the Kansas Water Science Center, including data-collection programs, interpretive and research projects. This report also includes the data management plan that describes the progression of data management from data collection to archiving and publication.

  3. Operational characteristic analysis of conduction cooling HTS SMES for Real Time Digital Simulator based power quality enhancement simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, A. R.; Kim, G. H.; Kim, K. M.; Kim, D. W.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.; Kim, S. H.; Sim, K.; Sohn, M. H.; Seong, K. C.

    2010-11-01

    This paper analyzes the operational characteristics of conduction cooling Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) through a real hardware based simulation. To analyze the operational characteristics, the authors manufactured a small-scale toroidal-type SMES and implemented a Real Time Digital Simulator (RTDS) based power quality enhancement simulation. The method can consider not only electrical characteristics such as inductance and current but also temperature characteristic by using the real SMES system. In order to prove the effectiveness of the proposed method, a voltage sag compensation simulation has been implemented using the RTDS connected with the High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) model coil and DC/DC converter system, and the simulation results are discussed in detail.

  4. Instantaneous quantification of skeletal muscle activation, power production, and fatigue during cycle ergometry.

    PubMed

    Coelho, A C; Cannon, D T; Cao, R; Porszasz, J; Casaburi, R; Knorst, M M; Rossiter, H B

    2015-03-01

    A rapid switch from hyperbolic to isokinetic cycling allows the velocity-specific decline in maximal power to be measured, i.e., fatigue. We reasoned that, should the baseline relationship between isokinetic power (Piso) and electromyography (EMG) be reproducible, then contributions to fatigue may be isolated from 1) the decline in muscle activation (muscle activation fatigue); and 2) the decline in Piso at a given activation (muscle fatigue). We hypothesized that the EMG-Piso relationship is linear, velocity dependent, and reliable for instantaneous fatigue assessment at intolerance during and following whole body exercise. Healthy participants (n = 13) completed short (5 s) variable-effort isokinetic bouts at 50, 70, and 100 rpm to characterize baseline EMG-Piso. Repeated ramp incremental exercise tests were terminated with maximal isokinetic cycling (5 s) at 70 rpm. Individual baseline EMG-Piso relationships were linear (r(2) = 0.95 ± 0.04) and velocity dependent (analysis of covariance). Piso at intolerance (two legs, 335 ± 88 W) was ∼45% less than baseline [630 ± 156 W, confidence interval of the difference (CIDifference) 211, 380 W, P < 0.05]. Following intolerance, Piso recovered rapidly (F = 44.1; P < 0.05; η(2) = 0.79): power was reduced (P < 0.05) vs. baseline only at 0-min (CIDifference 80, 201 W) and 1-min recovery (CIDifference 13, 80 W). Activation fatigue and muscle fatigue (one leg) were 97 ± 55 and 60 ± 50 W, respectively. Mean bias ± limits of agreement for reproducibility were as follows: baseline Piso 1 ± 30 W; Piso at 0-min recovery 3 ± 35 W; and EMG at Piso 3 ± 14%. EMG power is linear, velocity dependent, and reproducible. Deviation from this relationship at the limit of tolerance can quantify the "activation" and "muscle" related components of fatigue during cycling.

  5. Neutron activation analysis of thermal power plant ash and surrounding area soils.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Haddad, Kh; Alsomel, N; Sarhil, A

    2015-08-01

    Elemental concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, and Zn have been determined in fly and bottom ash collected from Syrian power plants fired by heavy oil and natural gas using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results showed that all elements were more concentrated in fly ash than in the fly ash; there was a clear increasing trend of the elemental concentrations in the fly ash along the flue gas pathway. The annual emission of elements was estimated. Elemental concentrations were higher inside the campus area than in surrounding areas, and the lowest values were found in natural-gas-fired power plant. In addition, the levels have decreased as the distance from power plant campus increases. However, the levels in the surrounding villages were within the Syrian standard for agriculture soil.

  6. Neutron activation analysis of thermal power plant ash and surrounding area soils.

    PubMed

    Al-Masri, M S; Haddad, Kh; Alsomel, N; Sarhil, A

    2015-08-01

    Elemental concentrations of As, Cd, Co, Cr, Fe, Hg, Mo, Ni, Se, and Zn have been determined in fly and bottom ash collected from Syrian power plants fired by heavy oil and natural gas using instrumental neutron activation analysis. The results showed that all elements were more concentrated in fly ash than in the fly ash; there was a clear increasing trend of the elemental concentrations in the fly ash along the flue gas pathway. The annual emission of elements was estimated. Elemental concentrations were higher inside the campus area than in surrounding areas, and the lowest values were found in natural-gas-fired power plant. In addition, the levels have decreased as the distance from power plant campus increases. However, the levels in the surrounding villages were within the Syrian standard for agriculture soil. PMID:26220782

  7. Inspection of surveillance activities and administrative leave policy at Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-04-01

    The authors conducted an inspection of surveillance activities and administrative leave policy at the Bonneville Power Administration, Portland, Oregon. The purpose of their inspection was to determine if a covert video surveillance operation conducted at Bonneville Power Administration was consistent with Department of Energy policies and procedures and other applicable regulations and procedures, and to determine if administrative leave policies and procedures used at Bonneville Power Administration in a specific instance were consistent with Department of Energy requirements and the Code of Federal Regulations. This inspection focused on a specific incident that occurred in 1989 on the 5th floor of the BPA Headquarters Building located in Portland, Oregon. The incident involved the soiling of an employee`s personal property with what appeared to be urine.

  8. Computed tomography: a powerful imaging technique in the fields of dimensional metrology and quality control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Probst, Gabriel; Boeckmans, Bart; Dewulf, Wim; Kruth, Jean-Pierre

    2016-05-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) is slowly conquering its space in the manufacturing industry for dimensional metrology and quality control purposes. The main advantage is its non-invasive and non-destructive character. Currently, CT is the only measurement technique that allows full 3D visualization of both inner and outer features of an object through a contactless probing system. Using hundreds of radiographs, acquired while rotating the object, a 3D representation is generated and dimensions can be verified. In this research, this non-contact technique was used for the inspection of assembled components. A dental cast model with 8 implants, connected by a screwed retained bar made of titanium. The retained bar includes a mating interface connection that should ensure a perfect fitting without residual stresses when the connection is fixed with screws. CT was used to inspect the mating interfaces between these two components. Gaps at the connections can lead to bacterial growth and potential inconvenience for the patient who would have to face a new surgery to replace his/hers prosthesis. With the aid of CT, flaws in the design or manufacturing process that could lead to gaps at the connections could be assessed.

  9. Ground-water quality in Bannock, Bear Lake, Caribou, and part of Power counties, southeastern Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Seitz, H.R.; Norvitch, R.F.

    1979-01-01

    The 103 wells sampled during the study establish a quasi-network that could be resampled in the future to document and analyze changes in ground-water quality in the southeastern Idaho study area. The main aquifers are categorized as alluvium of Quaternary age, basalt of Quaternary and (or) Tertiary age, rocks of the Salt Lake Formation of Tertiary age, and undifferentiated bedrock of pre-Tertiary age. Dissolved solids, hardness, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and chloride concentrations in the ground waters ranged from 165 to 1,690; 78 to 1,700; 0 to 29; and 1.9 to 360 milligrams per liter, respectively. The areal distributions of these constituents are shown on maps. The range and median values of these same constituents are tabulated by aquifer occurrence. Some of the most mineralized and hardest waters occur in the basalt aquifer near travertine deposits (or terraces), which are composed of calcium carbonate precipitates from mineral springs. For irrigation purposes, all the waters are classified as having low-sodium hazard. Most have medium- to high-salinity hazard. (Woodard-USGS)

  10. Anticipated Effectiveness of Active Noise Control in Propeller Aircraft Interiors as Determined by Sound Quality Tests

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Powell, Clemans A.; Sullivan, Brenda M.

    2004-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted, using sound quality engineering practices, to determine the subjective effectiveness of hypothetical active noise control systems in a range of propeller aircraft. The two tests differed by the type of judgments made by the subjects: pair comparisons in the first test and numerical category scaling in the second. Although the results of the two tests were in general agreement that the hypothetical active control measures improved the interior noise environments, the pair comparison method appears to be more sensitive to subtle changes in the characteristics of the sounds which are related to passenger preference.

  11. Development of a coal quality analyzer for application to power plants based on laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lei; Gong, Yao; Li, Yufang; Wang, Xin; Fan, Juanjuan; Dong, Lei; Ma, Weiguang; Yin, Wangbao; Jia, Suotang

    2015-11-01

    It is vitally important for a power plant to determine the coal property rapidly to optimize the combustion process. In this work, a fully software-controlled laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) based coal quality analyzer comprising a LIBS apparatus, a sampling equipment, and a control module, has been designed for possible application to power plants for offering rapid and precise coal quality analysis results. A closed-loop feedback pulsed laser energy stabilization technology is proposed to stabilize the Nd: YAG laser output energy to a preset interval by using the detected laser energy signal so as to enhance the measurement stability and applied in a month-long monitoring experiment. The results show that the laser energy stability has been greatly reduced from ± 5.2% to ± 1.3%. In order to indicate the complex relationship between the concentrations of the analyte of interest and the corresponding plasma spectra, the support vector regression (SVR) is employed as a non-linear regression method. It is shown that this SVR method combined with principal component analysis (PCA) enables a significant improvement in cross-validation accuracy by using the calibration set of coal samples. The root mean square error for prediction of ash content, volatile matter content, and calorific value decreases from 2.74% to 1.82%, 1.69% to 1.22%, and 1.23 MJ/kg to 0.85 MJ/kg, respectively. Meanwhile, the corresponding average relative error of the predicted samples is reduced from 8.3% to 5.48%, 5.83% to 4.42%, and 5.4% to 3.68%, respectively. The enhanced levels of accuracy obtained with the SVR combined with PCA based calibration models open up avenues for prospective prediction in coal properties.

  12. Reproductive success in the Lusitanian toadfish: Influence of calling activity, male quality and experimental design.

    PubMed

    Amorim, M Clara P; Conti, Carlotta; Sousa-Santos, Carla; Novais, Bruno; Gouveia, Maria D; Vicente, Joana R; Modesto, Teresa; Gonçalves, Amparo; Fonseca, Paulo J

    2016-03-01

    Acoustic signals are sexual ornaments with an established role on mate choice in several taxa, but not in fish. Recent studies have suggested that fish vocal activity may signal male quality and influence male's reproductive success but experimental evidence is lacking. Here we made two experiments to test the hypothesis that vocal activity is essential for male breeding success in a highly vocal fish, the Lusitanian toadfish. We first compared the reproduction success between muted and vocal males. In a second experiment we related male reproduction success with acoustic activity and male quality, including biometric, condition and physiological features. As a proxy for reproductive success we tallied both total number and number of sired eggs, which were correlated. Muting experiments showed that successful mating was dependent on vocalizing. In addition, the number of eggs was positively associated with the male's maximum calling rate. In the second experiment male's reproductive success was positively associated with male condition and negatively related with circulating androgen levels and relative gonad mass, but was not associated with vocal activity. Differences in results may be related with nest design which could have influenced mate choice costs and intra-sexual competition. In the muting experiment nests had a small opening that restrained the large nest-holder but allowed smaller fish, such as females, to pass while in the second experiment fish could move freely. These experiments suggest that a combination of factors, including vocal activity, influence reproductive success in this highly vocal species.

  13. Examining the quality of the 'Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in Schools' (HEPS) quality checklist: German results on usability and reliability.

    PubMed

    Dadaczynski, Kevin; Boye, Jutta

    2015-12-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine the usability and reliability of the HEPS quality checklist (Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in Schools), an instrument developed to assess the quality of school-based programmes on healthy eating and physical activity. With regard to usability, health promotion experts (n = 15) were asked to apply the HEPS quality checklist and to fill out a questionnaire about its comprehensibility and usability. To examine inter-rater reliability (IRR) a criteria-based selection of German school programmes on healthy eating and physical activity (n = 14) was randomly allocated to two programme pools and assessed independently by the authors. Results of the pilot testing revealed a high overall satisfaction with the HEPS quality checklist and a high willingness to use it or to recommend it to others. Furthermore, the checklist was perceived to be comprehensive and clearly structured. The assessment results of programme pool 1 revealed unsatisfactory Cohen's Kappa coefficients (IRR) and moderate intra-class correlations (ICC). After the HEPS manual guide had been amended with regard to its anchoring, the results of programme pool 2 showed substantial improvements with regard to IRR and ICC. In summary, the adapted HEPS quality checklist is a usable and reliable instrument for the quality assessment of school-based programmes on healthy eating and physical activity. The findings suggest that the HEPS checklist should be applied by two sufficiently trained raters.

  14. Alpha Power, Alpha Asymmetry and Anterior Cingulate Cortex Activity in Depressed Males and Females

    PubMed Central

    Jaworska, Natalia; Blier, Pierre; Fusee, Wendy; Knott, Verner

    2012-01-01

    Left fronto-cortical hypoactivity, thought to reflect reduced activity in approach-related systems, and right parietal hypoactivity, associated with emotional under-arousal, have been noted in major depressive disorder (MDD). Altered theta activity in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has also been associated with the disorder. We assessed resting frontal and parietal alpha asymmetry and power in non-medicated MDD (N=53; 29 females) and control (N=43; 23 females) individuals. Theta activity was examined using standardized low-resolution electromagnetic tomography (sLORETA) in the ACC [BA24ab and BA32 comprising the rostral ACC and BA25/subgenual (sg) ACC]. The MDD group, and particularly depressed males, displayed increased overall frontal and parietal alpha power and left midfrontal hypoactivity (alpha2-indexed). They also exhibited increased sgACC theta2 activity. MDD females had increased right parietal activity, suggesting increased emotive arousal. Thus, unmedicated depressed adults were characterized by lower activity in regions implicated in approach/positive affective tendencies as well as diffuse cortical hypoarousal, though sex specific modulations emerged. Altered theta in the sgACC may reflect emotion regulation abnormalities in MDD. PMID:22939462

  15. Performance Prediction of Active Piezo Fiber Rackets in Terms of Tennis Power

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawazoe, Yoshihiko; Takeda, Yukihiro; Nakagawa, Masamichi

    Several former top players sent a letter to the International Tennis Federation (ITF) encouraging the governing body to revisit the question of rackets. In the letter, the players wrote that racket technology has led to major changes in how the game is played at the top level. This paper investigated the physical properties of a new type of racket with active piezoelectric fibers appeared recently in the market, and predicted the various factors associated with the frontal impact, such as impact force, contact time, deformation of ball and strings, and also estimated the racket performance such as the coefficient of restitution, the rebound power coefficient, the post-impact ball velocity and the sweet areas relevant to the power in tennis. It is based on the experimental identification of the dynamics of the ball-racket-arm system and the approximate nonlinear impact analysis with a simple swing model. The predicted results with forehand stroke model can explain the difference in mechanism of performance between the new type racket with active piezoelectric fibers and the conventional passive representative rackets. It showed that this new type racket provides higher coefficient of restitution on the whole area of string face and also gives larger rebound power coefficients particularly at the topside and bigger powers on the whole area of string face but the difference was not so large. It seems that the racket-related improvements in play are relatively small and the players themselves continue to improve, accordingly there is a gap between a perception and reality.

  16. High-temperature optically activated GaAs power switching for aircraft digital electronic control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Berak, J. M.; Grantham, D. H.; Swindal, J. L.; Black, J. F.; Allen, L. B.

    1983-01-01

    Gallium arsenide high-temperature devices were fabricated and assembled into an optically activated pulse-width-modulated power control for a torque motor typical of the kinds used in jet engine actuators. A bipolar heterojunction phototransistor with gallium aluminum arsenide emitter/window, a gallium arsenide junction field-effect power transistor and a gallium arsenide transient protection diode were designed and fabricated. A high-temperature fiber optic/phototransistor coupling scheme was implemented. The devices assembled into the demonstrator were successfully tested at 250 C, proving the feasibility of actuator-located switching of control power using optical signals transmitted by fibers. Assessments of the efficiency and technical merits were made for extension of this high-temperature technology to local conversion of optical power to electrical power and its control at levels useful for driving actuators. Optical power sources included in the comparisons were an infrared light-emitting diode, an injection laser diode, tungsten-halogen lamps and arc lamps. Optical-to-electrical power conversion was limited to photovoltaics located at the actuator. Impedance matching of the photovoltaic array to the load was considered over the full temperature range, -55 C to 260 C. Loss of photovoltaic efficiency at higher temperatures was taken into account. Serious losses in efficiency are: (1) in the optical source and the cooling which they may require in the assumed 125 C ambient, (2) in the decreased conversion efficiency of the gallium arsenide photovoltaic at 260 C, and (3) in impedance matching. Practical systems require improvements in these areas.

  17. Impact of Inertial Training on Strength and Power Performance in Young Active Men.

    PubMed

    Naczk, Mariusz; Naczk, Alicja; Brzenczek-Owczarzak, Wioletta; Arlet, Jarosław; Adach, Zdzisław

    2016-08-01

    Naczk, M, Naczk, A, Brzenczek-Owczarzak, W, Arlet, J, and Adach, Z. Impact of inertial training on strength and power performance in young active men. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2107-2113, 2016-This study evaluated how 5 weeks of inertial training using 2 different loads influenced strength and power performance. Fifty-eight male physical education students were randomly divided into training and control groups. The 2 training groups (T0 and T10) performed inertial training 3 times per week for 5 weeks using the new Inertial Training and Measurement System (ITMS). Each training session included 3 exercise sets involving the knee extensors muscles. The T0 group used only the mass of the ITMS flywheel (19.4 kg), whereas the T10 group had an additional 10 kg on the flywheel. Before and after training, we evaluated maximum force and power of knee extensors muscles, countermovement jump (CMJ), squat jump (SJ), maximal power output achieved during ergometer test PVT, electromyography of quadriceps, and muscle mass. In T0 and T10, respectively, ITMS training induced significant increases in muscle force (25.2 and 23.3%), muscle power (33.2 and 27%), CMJ (3.8 and 6.7%), SJ (2.2 and 6.1%), PVT (8 and 7.4%), and muscle mass (9.8 and 15%). The changes did not significantly differ between T0 and T10. A 16% significant increase of electromyography amplitude (quadriceps muscle) was noted only in T0. The novel ITMS training method is effective for improving muscular strength and power. Improvements in PVT, CMJ, and SJ indicate that the increased strength and power elicited by ITMS training can translate to improvements in sport performance. The ITMS training can also be useful for building muscle mass. PMID:27457914

  18. Combining Droop Curve Concepts with Control Systems for Wind Turbine Active Power Control: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Buckspan, A.; Aho, J.; Pao, L.; Fleming, P.; Jeong, Y.

    2012-06-01

    Wind energy is becoming a larger portion of the global energy portfolio and wind penetration has increased dramatically in certain regions of the world. This increasing wind penetration has driven the need for wind turbines to provide active power control (APC) services to the local utility grid, as wind turbines do not intrinsically provide frequency regulation services that are common with traditional generators. It is common for large scale wind turbines to be decoupled from the utility grid via power electronics, which allows the turbine to synthesize APC commands via control of the generator torque and blade pitch commands. Consequently, the APC services provided by a wind turbine can be more flexible than those provided by conventional generators. This paper focuses on the development and implementation of both static and dynamic droop curves to measure grid frequency and output delta power reference signals to a novel power set point tracking control system. The combined droop curve and power tracking controller is simulated and comparisons are made between simulations using various droop curve parameters and stochastic wind conditions. The tradeoffs involved with aggressive response to frequency events are analyzed. At the turbine level, simulations are performed to analyze induced structural loads. At the grid level, simulations test a wind plant's response to a dip in grid frequency.

  19. SIMULATIONS OF THE SUNYAEV-ZEL'DOVICH POWER SPECTRUM WITH ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEUS FEEDBACK

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, N.; Bond, J. R.; Pfrommer, C.; Sievers, J. L.; Sijacki, D.

    2010-12-10

    We explore how radiative cooling, supernova feedback, cosmic rays, and a new model of the energetic feedback from active galactic nuclei (AGNs) affect the thermal and kinetic Sunyaev-Zel'dovich (SZ) power spectra. To do this, we use a suite of hydrodynamical TreePM-SPH simulations of the cosmic web in large periodic boxes and tailored higher resolution simulations of individual galaxy clusters. Our AGN feedback simulations match the recent universal pressure profile and cluster mass scaling relations of the REXCESS X-ray cluster sample better than previous analytical or numerical approaches. For multipoles l {approx}< 2000, our power spectra with and without enhanced feedback are similar, suggesting that theoretical uncertainties over that range are relatively small, although current analytic and semi-analytic approaches overestimate this SZ power. We find the power at high 2000-10, 000 multipoles in which the Atacama Cosmology Telescope (ACT) and South Pole Telescope (SPT) probe is sensitive to the feedback prescription, and hence can constrain the theory of intracluster gas, in particular for the highly uncertain redshifts >0.8. The apparent tension between {sigma}{sub 8} from primary cosmic microwave background power and from analytic SZ spectra inferred using ACT and SPT data is lessened with our AGN feedback spectra.

  20. Active Vibration Control for Helicopter Interior Noise Reduction Using Power Minimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mendoza, J.; Chevva, K.; Sun, F.; Blanc, A.; Kim, S. B.

    2014-01-01

    This report describes work performed by United Technologies Research Center (UTRC) for NASA Langley Research Center (LaRC) under Contract NNL11AA06C. The objective of this program is to develop technology to reduce helicopter interior noise resulting from multiple gear meshing frequencies. A novel active vibration control approach called Minimum Actuation Power (MAP) is developed. MAP is an optimal control strategy that minimizes the total input power into a structure by monitoring and varying the input power of controlling sources. MAP control was implemented without explicit knowledge of the phasing and magnitude of the excitation sources by driving the real part of the input power from the controlling sources to zero. It is shown that this occurs when the total mechanical input power from the excitation and controlling sources is a minimum. MAP theory is developed for multiple excitation sources with arbitrary relative phasing for single or multiple discrete frequencies and controlled by a single or multiple controlling sources. Simulations and experimental results demonstrate the feasibility of MAP for structural vibration reduction of a realistic rotorcraft interior structure. MAP control resulted in significant average global vibration reduction of a single frequency and multiple frequency excitations with one controlling actuator. Simulations also demonstrate the potential effectiveness of the observed vibration reductions on interior radiated noise.

  1. Status of R&D activities on materials for fusion power reactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baluc, N.; Abe, K.; Boutard, J. L.; Chernov, V. M.; Diegele, E.; Jitsukawa, S.; Kimura, A.; Klueh, R. L.; Kohyama, A.; Kurtz, R. J.; Lässer, R.; Matsui, H.; Möslang, A.; Muroga, T.; Odette, G. R.; Tran, M. Q.; van der Schaaf, B.; Wu, Y.; Yu, J.; Zinkle, S. J.

    2007-10-01

    Current R&D activities on materials for fusion power reactors are mainly focused on plasma facing, structural and tritium breeding materials for plasma facing (first wall, divertor) and breeding blanket components. Most of these activities are being performed in Europe, Japan, the People's Republic of China, Russia and the USA. They relate to the development of new high temperature, radiation resistant materials, the development of coatings that will act as erosion, corrosion, permeation and/or electrical/MHD barriers, characterization of candidate materials in terms of mechanical and physical properties, assessment of irradiation effects, compatibility experiments, development of reliable joints, and development and/or validation of design rules. Priorities defined worldwide in the field of materials for fusion power reactors are summarized, as well as the main achievements obtained during the last few years and the near-term perspectives in the different investigation areas.

  2. DOE FUEL CELL R&D ACTIVITIES: TRANSPORTATION, STATIONARY, AND PORTABLE POWER APPLICATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Payne, Terry L; Garland, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    Fuel Cell R&D Activities: Transportation, Stationary, and Portable Power Applications Terry Payne, PhD, PE, Technology development Manager; and Nancy Garland, PhD, Acting Fuel Cell Team Leader, Office of Hydrogen, Fuel Cells and Infrastructure Technologies, U.S. Department of Energy* In 2007, the Department of Energy s Hydrogen Program initiated new research and development projects aimed at reducing component cost and increasing stack durability and performance of transportation and stationary fuel cells. Updated progress in the Program including highlights from the new projects includes operation of a membrane electrode assembly over 7300 with voltage cycling. Market transformation activities in the Program such as forklifts for distribution centers and fuel cells for backup power will be discussed.

  3. Quality-assurance plan for groundwater activities, U.S. Geological Survey, Washington Water Science Center

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kozar, Mark D.; Kahle, Sue C.

    2013-01-01

    This report documents the standard procedures, policies, and field methods used by the U.S. Geological Survey’s (USGS) Washington Water Science Center staff for activities related to the collection, processing, analysis, storage, and publication of groundwater data. This groundwater quality-assurance plan changes through time to accommodate new methods and requirements developed by the Washington Water Science Center and the USGS Office of Groundwater. The plan is based largely on requirements and guidelines provided by the USGS Office of Groundwater, or the USGS Water Mission Area. Regular updates to this plan represent an integral part of the quality-assurance process. Because numerous policy memoranda have been issued by the Office of Groundwater since the previous groundwater quality assurance plan was written, this report is a substantial revision of the previous report, supplants it, and contains significant additional policies not covered in the previous report. This updated plan includes information related to the organization and responsibilities of USGS Washington Water Science Center staff, training, safety, project proposal development, project review procedures, data collection activities, data processing activities, report review procedures, and archiving of field data and interpretative information pertaining to groundwater flow models, borehole aquifer tests, and aquifer tests. Important updates from the previous groundwater quality assurance plan include: (1) procedures for documenting and archiving of groundwater flow models; (2) revisions to procedures and policies for the creation of sites in the Groundwater Site Inventory database; (3) adoption of new water-level forms to be used within the USGS Washington Water Science Center; (4) procedures for future creation of borehole geophysics, surface geophysics, and aquifer-test archives; and (5) use of the USGS Multi Optional Network Key Entry System software for entry of routine water-level data

  4. Annual Review of Editorial Committee Activities in Power and Energy Society, IEE of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Editorial Committee Of Power; Energy Society

    The Editorial Committee is working in planning and editing of the publication of Power and Energy Society. In this article, activities of the committee of the last term are reported, and recent trend and future problems are also discussed. The process of planning and editing of the publication, and the challenges to reduce the necessary months for reviewing papers and to increase the number of submitted papers are shown.

  5. Contribution of Neighborhood Income and Access to Quality Physical Activity Resources to Physical Activity in Ethnic Minority Women Over Time

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Rebecca E.; Mama, Scherezade K.; Adamus-Leach, Heather J.; Soltero, Erica G.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose To create and test an index to indicate both availability and quality of physical activity (PA) resources (PARs), to examine associations between access to quality PARs and changes in PA, and to determine whether this association differed in lower- and higher-income neighborhoods. Design Longitudinal, 6-month intervention. Setting. Houston and Austin, Texas. Subjects African-American and Hispanic or Latina women. Measures Women (N = 410) completed a questionnaire and accelerometry to measure PA. Neighborhoods (N = 163) were classified as lower- or higher-income by median household income at the census-tract level. PARs were audited using the PARA (physical activity resource assessment). Access to quality PARs was determined by a composite index (QPAR) of features, amenities, and incivilities. Analysis Repeated measures analyses of variance were used to examine changes in PA by (1) neighborhood income (lower/higher) and QPAR (lower/higher) groups, and (2) neighborhood income (lower/higher) and number of PARs (lower/higher) groups, adjusting for ethnicity, household income, and body mass index. Results Women in neighborhoods with lower QPAR scores had small increases in self-reported vigorous PA (M Δ = 327.8 metabolic equivalent of task [MET]-min/wk) and decreases in accelerometer PA (M = −3.4 min/d), compared to those with higher QPAR scores who had larger increases in self-reported vigorous PA (M Δ = 709.8 MET-min/wk) and increased accelerometer PA (M = 3.9 min/d). There was a significant interaction between changes in leisure-time PA, QPAR score, and number of PARs (p =.049). Women with both more PARs and higher QPAR scores reported greater increases in leisure-time PA than women with fewer PARs and lower QPAR scores. Conclusion Access to higher-quality PARs can help increase or maintain PA over time regardless of neighborhood income. PAR quality is a separate and distinct, important determinant of PA in ethnic minority women. PMID:24524382

  6. SU-C-304-05: Use of Local Noise Power Spectrum and Wavelets in Comprehensive EPID Quality Assurance

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, S; Gopal, A; Yan, G; Bassett, P; Park, C; Samant, S

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: As EPIDs are increasingly used for IMRT QA and real-time treatment verification, comprehensive quality assurance (QA) of EPIDs becomes critical. Current QA with phantoms such as the Las Vegas and PIPSpro™ can fail in the early detection of EPID artifacts. Beyond image quality assessment, we propose a quantitative methodology using local noise power spectrum (NPS) to characterize image noise and wavelet transform to identify bad pixels and inter-subpanel flat-fielding artifacts. Methods: A total of 93 image sets including bar-pattern images and open exposure images were collected from four iViewGT a-Si EPID systems over three years. Quantitative metrics such as modulation transform function (MTF), NPS and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) were computed for each image set. Local 2D NPS was calculated for each subpanel. A 1D NPS was obtained by radial averaging the 2D NPS and fitted to a power-law function. R-square and slope of the linear regression analysis were used for panel performance assessment. Haar wavelet transformation was employed to identify pixel defects and non-uniform gain correction across subpanels. Results: Overall image quality was assessed with DQE based on empirically derived area under curve (AUC) thresholds. Using linear regression analysis of 1D NPS, panels with acceptable flat fielding were indicated by r-square between 0.8 and 1, and slopes of −0.4 to −0.7. However, for panels requiring flat fielding recalibration, r-square values less than 0.8 and slopes from +0.2 to −0.4 were observed. The wavelet transform successfully identified pixel defects and inter-subpanel flat fielding artifacts. Standard QA with the Las Vegas and PIPSpro phantoms failed to detect these artifacts. Conclusion: The proposed QA methodology is promising for the early detection of imaging and dosimetric artifacts of EPIDs. Local NPS can accurately characterize the noise level within each subpanel, while the wavelet transforms can detect bad pixels and

  7. The Role of Power Doppler Ultrasonography as Disease Activity Marker in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bhasin, Shaloo; Cheung, Peter P.

    2015-01-01

    Structural damage in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) occurs early if inflammation is not treated promptly. Treatment targeted to reduce inflammation, in particular, that of synovial inflammation in the joints (synovitis), has been recommended as standard treat-to-target recommendations by rheumatologists. The goal is to achieve disease remission (i.e., no disease activity). Several accepted remission criteria have not always equated to the complete absence of true inflammation. Over the last decade, musculoskeletal ultrasonography has been demonstrated to detect subclinical synovitis not appreciated by routine clinical or laboratory assessments, with the Power Doppler modality allowing clinicians to more readily appreciate true inflammation. Thus, targeting therapy to Power Doppler activity may provide superior outcomes compared with treating to clinical targets alone, making it an attractive marker of disease activity in RA. However, more validation on its true benefits such as its benefits to patients in regard to patient related outcomes and issues with standardized training in acquisition and interpretation of power Doppler findings are required. PMID:26063952

  8. Effects of logging activities on ecological water quality indicators in the Berasau River, Johor, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Nor Zaiha, A; Mohd Ismid, M S; Salmiati; Shahrul Azri, M S

    2015-08-01

    Influence of deforestation on biodiversity of aquatic organisms was investigated in a stream in the Ulu Sedili Forest Reserve. The stream was monitored five (5) times from December 2011 until December 2012 with 2-month intervals. Sampling of benthic communities was carried out using rectangular dip net while water quality study using a YSI ProPlus meter and the rest were done in the laboratory. Physicochemical parameters and water quality index (WQI) calculation showed no significant difference among the investigated events. WQI classified the Berasau River between Class II (good) to III (moderate) of river water quality. In total, 603 individuals representing 25 taxa that were recorded with Decapods from genus Macrobrabchium were widely distributed. Several intolerant taxa, especially Ephemeroptera and Odonata, were also observed in this river. According to Pearson's correlation analysis, the richness and diversity indices were generally influenced by water quality parameters represented by WQI (P < 0.01). In conclusion, logging activities have strong attributes for variation in benthic macroinvertebrate assemblage.

  9. Passive and Active Protective Clothing against High-Power Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennigs, C.; Hustedt, M.; Kaierle, S.; Wenzel, D.; Markstein, S.; Hutter, A.

    The main objective of the work described in this paper was the development of passive and active protective clothing for the protection of the human skin against accidental laser irradiation and of active protective curtains. Here, the passive systems consist of functional multi-layer textiles, providing a high level of passive laser resistance. In addition, the active functional multi-layer textiles incorporate sensors that detect laser exposure and are, by means of a safety control, able to deactivate the laser beam automatically.Due to the lack of regulations for testing and qualifying textiles to be used as laser PPE, test methods were defined and validated. Additionally, corresponding testing set-ups were developed.Finally, the gap with respect to standardization was bridged by the definition of a test procedure and the requirements with respect to laser PPE.The developments were demonstrated by a set of tailored functional passive and active laser-protective clothing prototypes (gloves, jackets, aprons, trousers) and active curtains as well as by a prototype testing rig, providing the possibility to perform the specified low-power and high-power textile test procedure.

  10. Role of invertase activity in processing quality of potatoes: Effect of storage temperature and duration.

    PubMed

    Bandana; Sharma, Vineet; Singh, Brajesh; Raigond, Pinky; Kaushik, S K

    2016-03-01

    Invertase activity and processing attributes of three potato cultivars were studied to find the reason for deterioration of processing quality during their prolonged storage in commercial cold stores (4°C) as compared to elevated temperature storage (12 ± 0.5°C), with CIPC {Isopropyl-N-(3-Cholorophenyl) carbamate}. Lower storage temperature (4°C) tended to be more effective in increasing invertase activity of potato tubers than elevated temperature. Non-processing cultivar viz., Kufri Pukhraj resulted in accumulation of more invertase activity than relatively two processing cultivars. Kufri Chipsona-1 and Kufri Chipsona-3 at 12 ± 0.5°C possessed basal invertase activity ranging from 39.3 to 79.8 and 54.1 to 93.8 (pmoles hexose h⁻¹ g⁻¹ f.wt.) respectively, during two years. Total invertase activity at 4°C increased abruptly and remained high from 30 to 60 days of storage. The activity progressively reached 90.6 to 106.6 and 81.4 to 101.3 during both the years respectively, after 60 days of storage to that observed initially. Reducing sugar content increased from 23.3 to 105.7 and 389.0 to 1138.2 (mg 100g⁻¹ f.wt.) after 90 days of storage at 12 ± 0.5°C and 4°C, respectively. Studies concluded that basal and total invertase, were responsible for cold-induced sweetening and resulted in deterioration of processing quality of potatoes during storage at 4°C. Since this activity is low at 12 ± 0.5°C, the processing traits remained acceptable to industry and consumers. PMID:27097443

  11. Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) attenuates microglial cytotoxicity through the activation of Src pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Song, Sheng; Zhou, Feifan; Chen, Wei R.

    2014-02-01

    It has been known for a long time that microglial activation plays an important role in the pathology of neurodegenerative diseases. Once activated, they have macrophage-like capabilities, which can be detrimental by producing proinflammatory and neurotoxic factors including cytokines, reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide that directly or indirectly cause neurodegeneration. Therefore, the regulation of microglial-induced neuroinflammation is considered a useful strategy in searching for neuroprotective treatments. In this study, our results showed that low power laser irradiation (LPLI) (20 J/cm2) could suppress microglial-induced neuroinflammation in LPS-activated microglia. We found that LPLI-mediated neuroprotection was achieved by activating tyrosine kinases Src, which led to MyD88 tyrosine phosphorylation, thus impairing MyD88-dependent proinflammatory signaling cascade. Our research may provide a feasible therapeutic approach to control the progression of neurodegenerative diseases.

  12. Atmospheric Chemistry Measurements in Schools and Outreach Activities with Low-cost Air Quality Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleming, Z.; Monks, P. S.; McKenzie, K.

    2014-12-01

    The increasing range of low cost air quality sensors entering the market-place or being developed in-house in the last couple of years has led to many possibilities for using these instruments for public outreach activities or citizen science projects. A range of instruments sent out into local schools for the children to interpret and analyse the data and put the air quality in their area into context. A teaching package with tutorials has been developed to bring the data to life and link in with curriculum.The instruments have also been positioned around the city of Leicester in the UK to help understand the spatial variations in air quality and to assess the impact of retro-fitting buses on a busy bus route. The data is easily accessible online on a near real time basis and the various instruments can be compared with others around the country or the world from classrooms around the world.We will give an overview of the instrumentation with a comparison with commercial and cutting edge research instrumentation, the type of activities that were carried out and the public outreach forums where the data can be used.

  13. [Water quality safety of ozonation and biologically activated carbon process in application].

    PubMed

    Qiao, Tie-Jun; Zhang, Xi-Hui

    2009-11-01

    Ozonation and biologically activated carbon process, one of advanced treatment technologies, has been applied in many places at home and abroad. However, some emerging water quality problems appeared in operation. Drinking water treatment plant (6 x 10(5) m3/d) with ozonation and biologically activated carbon process (O3-BAC process) was investigated systematically, including microbial safety, the excessive growth of aquatic microorganism and chemical stability of water quality. And some experiments were done in the pilot plant (10 m3/h) at the same time. O3-BAC process is reliable in microbial safety, but operation management should be enhanced. A good number of aquatic microorganisms grow immoderately during operation of O3-BAC process, which is more serious especially in place with high temperature and humidity. With prolong of runtime, the growth of aquatic microorganisms varies regularly. That is hazardous to water quality safety. When raw water is low with alkalinity, decrease of pH in O3-BAC process is obvious. That will seriously affect on chemical stability. PMID:20063746

  14. The Impact of Human Activities on Microbial Quality of Rivers in the Vhembe District, South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Traoré, Afsatou N.; Mulaudzi, Khodani; Chari, Gamuchirai J.E.; Foord, Stefan H.; Mudau, Lutendo S.; Barnard, Tobias G.; Potgieter, Natasha

    2016-01-01

    Background: Water quality testing is dictated by microbial agents found at the time of sampling in reference to their acceptable risk levels. Human activities might contaminate valuable water resources and add to the microbial load present in water bodies. Therefore, the effects of human activities on the microbial quality of rivers collected from twelve catchments in the Vhembe District in South Africa were investigated, with samples analyzed for total coliform (TC) and Eschericha coli (E. coli) contents. Methods: Physical parameters and various human activities were recorded for each sampling site. The Quanti-Tray® method was adopted for the assessment of TC and E. coli contents in the rivers over a two-year period. A multiplex polymerase chain (PCR) method was used to characterize the strains of E. coli found. Results: The microbial quality of the rivers was poor with both TC and E. coli contents found to be over acceptable limits set by the South African Department of Water and Sanitation (DWS). No significant difference (p > 0.05) was detected between TC and E. coli risks in dry and wet seasons. All six pathogenic E. coli strains were identified and Enteroaggregative E. coli (EAEC), atypical Enteropathogenic E. coli (a-EPEC) and Enterotoxigenic E. coli (ETEC) were the most prevalent E. coli strains detected (respectively, 87%, 86% and 83%). Conclusions: The study indicated that contamination in the majority of sampling sites, due to human activities such as car wash, animal grazing and farming, poses health risks to communities using the rivers for various domestic chores. It is therefore recommended that more education by the respective departments is done to avert pollution of rivers and prevent health risks to the communities in the Vhembe District. PMID:27529265

  15. From field barley to malt: detection and specification of microbial activity for quality aspects.

    PubMed

    Noots, I; Delcour, J A; Michiels, C W

    1999-01-01

    Barley grain carries a numerous, variable, and complex microbial population that mainly consists of bacteria, yeasts, and filamentous fungi and that can partly be detected and quantified using plating methods and microscopic and molecular techniques. The extent and the activity of this microflora are determined by the altering state of the grain and the environmental conditions in the malt production chain. Three ecological systems can be distinguished: the growing cereal in the field, the dry barley grain under storage, and the germinating barley kernel during actual malting. Microorganisms interact with the malting process both by their presence and by their metabolic activity. In this respect, interference with the oxygen uptake by the barley grain and secretion of enzymes, hormones, toxins, and acids that may affect the plant physiological processes have been studied. As a result of the interaction, microorganisms can cause important losses and influence malt quality as measured by brewhouse performance and beer quality. Of particular concern is the occurrence of mycotoxins that may affect the safety of malt. The development of the microflora during malt production can to a certain extent be controlled by the selection of appropriate process conditions. Physical and chemical treatments to inactivate the microbial population on the barley grain are suggested. Recent developments, however, aim to control the microbial activity during malt production by promoting the growth of desirable microbial cultures, selected either as biocontrol agents inhibiting mycotoxin-producing molds or as starter cultures actively contributing to malt modification. Such techniques may offer natural opportunities to improve the quality and safety of malt.

  16. Sound quality of low-frequency and car engine noises after active noise control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonzalez, A.; Ferrer, M.; de Diego, M.; Piñero, G.; Garcia-Bonito, J. J.

    2003-08-01

    The ability of active noise control (ANC) systems to achieve a more pleasant sound has been evaluated by means of sound quality analysis of a real multi-channel active noise controller. Recordings of real car engine noises had been carried out using a Head acoustics TM binaural head simulator seated in a typical car seat, and these signals together with synthesized noise have been actively controlled in an enclosed room. The sound quality study has focused on the estimation of noise quality changes through the evaluation of the sense of comfort. Two methods have been developed: firstly, a predictive method based on psychoacoustic parameters (loudness, roughness, tonality and sharpness); and secondly, a subjective method using a jury test. Both results have been related to the spectral characteristics of the sounds before and after active control. It can be concluded from both analyses that ANC positively affects acoustic comfort. The engine noise mathematical comfort predictor is based on loudness and roughness (two psychoacoustic parameters directly influenced by ANC), and has satisfactorily predicted the improvements in the pleasantness of the sounds. As far as the subjective evaluation method is concerned, the jury test has showed that acoustic comfort is, in most cases, directly related to the sense of quietness. However, ANC has also been assessed negatively by the jury in the cases that it was unable to reduce the loudness, perhaps because of the low amplitudes of the original sounds. Finally, from what has been shown, it can be said that the subjective improvements strongly depends on the attenuation level achieved by the ANC system operation, as well as the spectral characteristics of the sounds before and after control.

  17. Disease activity, quality of life and indirect costs of psoriatic arthritis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kawalec, Paweł; Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the indirect costs, health-related quality of life and clinical characteristics of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), measured using a PsA disease activity index in Poland. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the association between the activity, utility of PsA-affected patients and productivity loss in a Polish setting. A questionnaire survey was conducted to assess disease activity, as well as productivity loss, and a paper version of the EuroQoly-5D-3L questionnaire was used to assess productivity loss and the quality of life. Indirect costs were assessed with the human capital approach employing the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, gross value added (GVA) and gross income (GI) per worker in 2014 in Poland and were expressed in Polish zlotys (PLN) as well as in euros. The correlation was presented using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Our analysis was performed on the basis of 50 full questionnaires collected. We observed a mean utility value of 0.6567. The mean number of days off work was 2.88 days per month, and mean on-the-job productivity loss was 24.1 %. Average monthly indirect costs per patient were €206.7 (864.01 PLN) calculated using the GDP; €484.56 (2025.46 PLN) calculated using the GVA; and €209.70 (876.56 PLN) calculated using the GI. PsA reduces the patients' quality of life as well as their productivity loss associated with both absenteeism and presenteeism. Total indirect costs were negatively correlated with utility. The greater the disease activity, the lower the utility and the greater the indirect costs. PMID:27339273

  18. Disease activity, quality of life and indirect costs of psoriatic arthritis in Poland.

    PubMed

    Kawalec, Paweł; Malinowski, Krzysztof Piotr; Pilc, Andrzej

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the study was to assess the indirect costs, health-related quality of life and clinical characteristics of patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA), measured using a PsA disease activity index in Poland. Additionally, we aimed to investigate the association between the activity, utility of PsA-affected patients and productivity loss in a Polish setting. A questionnaire survey was conducted to assess disease activity, as well as productivity loss, and a paper version of the EuroQoly-5D-3L questionnaire was used to assess productivity loss and the quality of life. Indirect costs were assessed with the human capital approach employing the gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, gross value added (GVA) and gross income (GI) per worker in 2014 in Poland and were expressed in Polish zlotys (PLN) as well as in euros. The correlation was presented using the Spearman correlation coefficient. Our analysis was performed on the basis of 50 full questionnaires collected. We observed a mean utility value of 0.6567. The mean number of days off work was 2.88 days per month, and mean on-the-job productivity loss was 24.1 %. Average monthly indirect costs per patient were €206.7 (864.01 PLN) calculated using the GDP; €484.56 (2025.46 PLN) calculated using the GVA; and €209.70 (876.56 PLN) calculated using the GI. PsA reduces the patients' quality of life as well as their productivity loss associated with both absenteeism and presenteeism. Total indirect costs were negatively correlated with utility. The greater the disease activity, the lower the utility and the greater the indirect costs.

  19. Effects of submaximal activation on the determinants of power of chemically skinned rat soleus fibres.

    PubMed

    Gilliver, S F; Degens, H; Rittweger, J; Jones, D A

    2011-02-01

    Reducing the activating calcium concentration with skinned fibres is known to decrease isometric force and maximal shortening velocity, both of which will reduce the peak power. However, power is also a function of the curvature of the force-velocity relationship, and there is limited information on how changes in activating calcium affect this important property of muscle fibres. Force-velocity relationships of permeabilized single type I fibres from rat soleus muscle were determined using isotonic contractions at 15°C with both maximal (pCa 4.5) and submaximal activation (pCa 5.6). The rate of tension redevelopment (k(tr)), which provides a measure of sum of the apparent rate constants for cross-bridge attachment and detachment (f(app) + g(app)) following a rapid release and restretch, was also measured. Compared with pCa 4.5, specific tension (P(o)) at pCa 5.6 declined by 22 ± 8% (mean ± s.d.) and the maximal velocity of shortening (V(max)) fell by 44 ± 7%, but curvature of the force-velocity relationship (a/P(o)) rose by 47 ± 31%, indicating a less concave relationship. The value of k(tr) declined by 23 ± 7%. The change in a/P(o) reduced the impact of changes in P(o) and V(max) on peak power by approximately 25%. Fitting the data to Huxley's model of cross-bridge action suggests that lower activating calcium decreased both the rate constant for cross-bridge attachment (f) and that for detachment of negatively strained cross-bridges (g(2)). The fact that V(max) (and thus g(2)) changed to a greater extent than k(tr) (f(app) + g(app)) is the reason that reduced activation results in a reduction in curvature of the force-velocity relationship. PMID:20889604

  20. The Association Between Physical Activity and Quality of Life Domains Among Older Women.

    PubMed

    Vagetti, Gislaine Cristina; Barbosa Filho, Valter Cordeiro; Moreira, Natália Boneti; de Oliveira, Valdomiro; Mazzardo, Oldemar; de Campos, Wagner

    2015-10-01

    This study examined whether the weekly volume and frequency of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and light walking (LW) were associated with quality of life (QOL) domains of 1,806 older women from Brazil. The WHOQOL-BREF and WHOQOL-OLD instruments were used to measure QOL, while the weekly volume and frequency of MVPA and LW were assessed by IPAQ. An ordinal logistic regression was used as a measure of association. The weekly volumes of MVPA and LW were associated with several domains of QOL. Higher frequency of MVPA was associated with better scores in 10 QOL domains. The weekly frequency of LW, in turn, was associated with all QOL domains. In conclusion, promoting active transport and encouraging physical activity in older adults, for at least 150 min and distributed several days per week, help to increase QOL.

  1. Human-robot interaction: kinematics and muscle activity inside a powered compliant knee exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Knaepen, Kristel; Beyl, Pieter; Duerinck, Saartje; Hagman, Friso; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    Until today it is not entirely clear how humans interact with automated gait rehabilitation devices and how we can, based on that interaction, maximize the effectiveness of these exoskeletons. The goal of this study was to gain knowledge on the human-robot interaction, in terms of kinematics and muscle activity, between a healthy human motor system and a powered knee exoskeleton (i.e., KNEXO). Therefore, temporal and spatial gait parameters, human joint kinematics, exoskeleton kinetics and muscle activity during four different walking trials in 10 healthy male subjects were studied. Healthy subjects can walk with KNEXO in patient-in-charge mode with some slight constraints in kinematics and muscle activity primarily due to inertia of the device. Yet, during robot-in-charge walking the muscular constraints are reversed by adding positive power to the leg swing, compensating in part this inertia. Next to that, KNEXO accurately records and replays the right knee kinematics meaning that subject-specific trajectories can be implemented as a target trajectory during assisted walking. No significant differences in the human response to the interaction with KNEXO in low and high compliant assistance could be pointed out. This is in contradiction with our hypothesis that muscle activity would decrease with increasing assistance. It seems that the differences between the parameter settings of low and high compliant control might not be sufficient to observe clear effects in healthy subjects. Moreover, we should take into account that KNEXO is a unilateral, 1 degree-of-freedom device. PMID:24846650

  2. Human-robot interaction: kinematics and muscle activity inside a powered compliant knee exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Knaepen, Kristel; Beyl, Pieter; Duerinck, Saartje; Hagman, Friso; Lefeber, Dirk; Meeusen, Romain

    2014-11-01

    Until today it is not entirely clear how humans interact with automated gait rehabilitation devices and how we can, based on that interaction, maximize the effectiveness of these exoskeletons. The goal of this study was to gain knowledge on the human-robot interaction, in terms of kinematics and muscle activity, between a healthy human motor system and a powered knee exoskeleton (i.e., KNEXO). Therefore, temporal and spatial gait parameters, human joint kinematics, exoskeleton kinetics and muscle activity during four different walking trials in 10 healthy male subjects were studied. Healthy subjects can walk with KNEXO in patient-in-charge mode with some slight constraints in kinematics and muscle activity primarily due to inertia of the device. Yet, during robot-in-charge walking the muscular constraints are reversed by adding positive power to the leg swing, compensating in part this inertia. Next to that, KNEXO accurately records and replays the right knee kinematics meaning that subject-specific trajectories can be implemented as a target trajectory during assisted walking. No significant differences in the human response to the interaction with KNEXO in low and high compliant assistance could be pointed out. This is in contradiction with our hypothesis that muscle activity would decrease with increasing assistance. It seems that the differences between the parameter settings of low and high compliant control might not be sufficient to observe clear effects in healthy subjects. Moreover, we should take into account that KNEXO is a unilateral, 1 degree-of-freedom device.

  3. Transparent Stretchable Self-Powered Patchable Sensor Platform with Ultrasensitive Recognition of Human Activities.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Byeong-Ung; Lee, Ju-Hyuck; Trung, Tran Quang; Roh, Eun; Kim, Do-Il; Kim, Sang-Woo; Lee, Nae-Eung

    2015-09-22

    Monitoring of human activities can provide clinically relevant information pertaining to disease diagnostics, preventive medicine, care for patients with chronic diseases, rehabilitation, and prosthetics. The recognition of strains on human skin, induced by subtle movements of muscles in the internal organs, such as the esophagus and trachea, and the motion of joints, was demonstrated using a self-powered patchable strain sensor platform, composed on multifunctional nanocomposites of low-density silver nanowires with a conductive elastomer of poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene):polystyrenesulfonate/polyurethane, with high sensitivity, stretchability, and optical transparency. The ultra-low-power consumption of the sensor, integrated with both a supercapacitor and a triboelectric nanogenerator into a single transparent stretchable platform based on the same nanocomposites, results in a self-powered monitoring system for skin strain. The capability of the sensor to recognize a wide range of strain on skin has the potential for use in new areas of invisible stretchable electronics for human monitoring. A new type of transparent, stretchable, and ultrasensitive strain sensor based on a AgNW/PEDOT:PSS/PU nanocomposite was developed. The concept of a self-powered patchable sensor system integrated with a supercapacitor and a triboelectric nanogenerator that can be used universally as an autonomous invisible sensor system was used to detect the wide range of strain on human skin. PMID:26277994

  4. Occupational exposures during routine activities in coal-fueled power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Mona J. Bird; David L. MacIntosh; Phillip L. Williams

    2004-06-15

    Limited information is available on occupational exposures during routine, nonoutage work activities in coal-fueled power plants. This study evaluated occupational exposures to the principal contaminants in the facilities, including respirable dust (coal dust), arsenic, noise, asbestos, and heat stress. The data were collected over a 3-month period, during the summer of 2001, in 5 representative power plants of a large southeastern power-generating company. From 4 of the 5 facilities, 392 air samples and 302 noise samples were collected with approximately 50 respirable coal dust, 32 arsenic, 15 asbestos, and 70 noise samples from each of the 4 plants. One of the previously surveyed facilities was also evaluated for heat stress, and 1 additional coal-fueled power plant was surveyed for a total of 20 personal heat stress samples. Of the nearly 400 air samples collected, only 1 exceeded the allowable occupational exposure value. For the noise samples, 55 were equal to or greater than the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) 8-hour hearing conservation program level of 85 dBA, and 12 were equal to or greater than the OSHA 8-hour permissible exposure level of 90 dBA. The data concluded that some work sites were above the heat stress ceiling values recommended by the National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH). Four of the 20 employees personally monitored exceeded the recommended limits for heart rate or body core temperature.

  5. High-average-power actively-mode-locked Tm3+ fiber lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eckerle, Michael; Kieleck, Christelle; Hübner, Philipp; Świderski, Jacek; Jackson, Stuart D.; Mazé, Gwenael; Eichhorn, Marc

    2012-02-01

    Fiber lasers emitting in the 2 μm wavelength range doped with thulium ions can be used as highly efficient pump sources for nonlinear converters to generate mid-infrared radiation. For spectroscopic purposes, illumination and countermeasures, a broad mid-infrared emission spectrum is advantageous. This can be reached by supercontinuum generation in fibers, e.g. fluoride fibers, which up to now has, however, only been presented with either low average power, complex Raman-shifted 1.55 μm pump sources or multi-stage amplifier pump schemes. Here we present recent results of a new actively-mode-locked single-oscillator scheme that can provide the high-repetition rate sub-ns pump pulses needed for pumping supercontinuum generators. A thulium-doped silica fiber laser is presented that provides > 11 W of average power CW-mode-locked pulses at 38 MHz repetition rate at ~ 38 ps pulse width. Upgrading the setup to allow Q-switched mode-locked operation yields mode-locked 40 MHz pulses arranged in 60 kHz bunched Q-switch envelopes and thus increases further the available peak power. In this Q-switched mode-locked regime over 5 W of average power has been achieved.

  6. [Preparing ourselves for cholera: a rapid evaluation of the quality of oral rehydration activities in Guatemala].

    PubMed

    Hermida, J

    1993-01-01

    The directorate of the North Health Area of Guatemala along with the National Nutrition Institute of Centroamérica and Panama in 1991 carried out a rapid evaluation of the quality of care provided to the population for oral rehydration, acute diarrhea and cholera. The purpose was to collect data to facilitate the implementation of efficacious activities to improve quality and optimize the use of resources. The current article contains the results of the evaluation of twenty health centers of the North Health Area of Guatemala, and the consequent activities to improve the process of care. The main failures in performance where: deficient distribution of inputs; errors in the performance of physical exams of the children in the determination of the severity of dehydration; poor use of antibiotics and in the treatment of those with severe dehydration; and specially the failure to educate the mother about the proper feeding for a sick child. The delivery of inputs improved as a outcome of the actions product of the evaluation. Another activity was a workshop, combining theory and practice, of the treatment of cholera. Currently, local authorities prepare and carry out longer term interventions taking into account the results of the evaluation.

  7. Motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life in long-term lung cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Clark, Matthew M; Novotny, Paul J; Patten, Christi A; Rausch, Sarah M; Garces, Yolanda I; Jatoi, Aminah; Sloan, Jeff A; Yang, Ping

    2008-07-01

    Little is known about the relationship between motivational readiness for physical activity and quality of life (QOL) in long-term lung cancer survivors. Long-term survivors are considered those who are living 5 years or more following a cancer diagnosis. This project examined the relationship between a self-report measure of motivational readiness for physical activity and QOL in a sample of 272 long-term lung cancer survivors. Participants (54% male, average age 70 years old) completed the mailed survey an average of 6 years after being diagnosed with lung cancer. Survey measures included the stage of change for physical activity and a set of single item QOL and symptom scales. Thirty-seven percent of respondents reported they currently engaged in regular physical activity (a total of 30 min or more per day, at least 5 days per week). Kruskal-Wallis tests revealed that those who reported engaging in regular physical activity reported a better overall QOL, better QOL on all five domains of QOL functioning (mental, physical, social, emotional, and spiritual), and fewer symptoms compared to those with a sedentary lifestyle. Physical activity level may have important QOL and symptom management benefits for long-term lung cancer survivors.

  8. Prospective active marker motion correction improves statistical power in BOLD fMRI.

    PubMed

    Muraskin, Jordan; Ooi, Melvyn B; Goldman, Robin I; Krueger, Sascha; Thomas, William J; Sajda, Paul; Brown, Truman R

    2013-03-01

    Group level statistical maps of blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) signals acquired using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) have become a basic measurement for much of systems, cognitive and social neuroscience. A challenge in making inferences from these statistical maps is the noise and potential confounds that arise from the head motion that occurs within and between acquisition volumes. This motion results in the scan plane being misaligned during acquisition, ultimately leading to reduced statistical power when maps are constructed at the group level. In most cases, an attempt is made to correct for this motion through the use of retrospective analysis methods. In this paper, we use a prospective active marker motion correction (PRAMMO) system that uses radio frequency markers for real-time tracking of motion, enabling on-line slice plane correction. We show that the statistical power of the activation maps is substantially increased using PRAMMO compared to conventional retrospective correction. Analysis of our results indicates that the PRAMMO acquisition reduces the variance without decreasing the signal component of the BOLD (beta). Using PRAMMO could thus improve the overall statistical power of fMRI based BOLD measurements, leading to stronger inferences of the nature of processing in the human brain.

  9. FERROELECTRIC SWITCH FOR A HIGH-POWER Ka-BAND ACTIVE PULSE COMPRESSOR

    SciTech Connect

    Hirshfield, Jay L.

    2013-12-18

    Results are presented for design of a high-power microwave switch for operation at 34.3 GHz, intended for use in an active RF pulse compressor. The active element in the switch is a ring of ferroelectric material, whose dielectric constant can be rapidly changed by application of a high-voltage pulse. As envisioned, two of these switches would be built into a pair of delay lines, as in SLED-II at SLAC, so as to allow 30-MW μs-length Ka-band pulses to be compressed in time by a factor-of-9 and multiplied in amplitude to generate 200 MW peak power pulses. Such high-power pulses could be used for testing and evaluation of high-gradient mm-wave accelerator structures, for example. Evaluation of the switch design was carried out with an X-band (11.43 GHz) prototype, built to incorporate all the features required for the Ka-band version.

  10. Aircraft panel with sensorless active sound power reduction capabilities through virtual mechanical impedances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boulandet, R.; Michau, M.; Micheau, P.; Berry, A.

    2016-01-01

    This paper deals with an active structural acoustic control approach to reduce the transmission of tonal noise in aircraft cabins. The focus is on the practical implementation of the virtual mechanical impedances method by using sensoriactuators instead of conventional control units composed of separate sensors and actuators. The experimental setup includes two sensoriactuators developed from the electrodynamic inertial exciter and distributed over an aircraft trim panel which is subject to a time-harmonic diffuse sound field. The target mechanical impedances are first defined by solving a linear optimization problem from sound power measurements before being applied to the test panel using a complex envelope controller. Measured data are compared to results obtained with sensor-actuator pairs consisting of an accelerometer and an inertial exciter, particularly as regards sound power reduction. It is shown that the two types of control unit provide similar performance, and that here virtual impedance control stands apart from conventional active damping. In particular, it is clear from this study that extra vibrational energy must be provided by the actuators for optimal sound power reduction, mainly due to the high structural damping in the aircraft trim panel. Concluding remarks on the benefits of using these electrodynamic sensoriactuators to control tonal disturbances are also provided.

  11. High-power continuous-wave interband cascade lasers with 10 active stages.

    PubMed

    Kim, Mijin; Bewley, William W; Canedy, Chadwick L; Kim, Chul Soo; Merritt, Charles D; Abell, Joshua; Vurgaftman, Igor; Meyer, Jerry R

    2015-04-20

    We report the pulsed and continuous wave (cw) performance of 10-stage interband cascade lasers (ICLs) emitting at both λ ≈3.2 μm and λ ≈3.45 μm. The slope efficiency is higher while the external differential quantum efficiency per stage remains about the same when comparison is made to earlier results for 7-stage ICLs with similar carrier-rebalanced designs. At T = 25°C, an 18-μm-wide ridge with 4.5 mm cavity length and high-reflection/anti-reflection coatings emits up to 464 mW of cw output power with beam quality factor M(2) = 1.9, for higher brightness than has ever been reported previously for an ICL. When the cavity length is reduced to 1 mm, both the 10-stage and 7-stage devices reach 18% cw wallplug efficiency at T = 25°C.

  12. Geeks, meta-Geeks, and gender trouble: activism, identity, and low-power FM radio.

    PubMed

    Dunbar-Hester, Christina

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, I consider the activities of a group of individuals who tinker with and build radio hardware in an informal setting called 'Geek Group'. They conceive of Geek Group as a radical pedagogical activity, which constitutes an aspect of activism surrounding citizen access to low-power FM radio. They are also concerned with combating the gendered nature of hardware skills, yet in spite of their efforts men tend to have more skill and familiarity with radio hardware than women. Radio tinkering has a long history as a masculine undertaking and a site of masculine identity construction. I argue that this case represents an interplay between geek, activist, and gendered identities, all of which are salient for this group, but which do not occur together without some tension.

  13. A PLL Scheme for Synchronization with Grid Voltage Phasor in Active Power Filter Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krievs, Oskars; Steiks, Ingars; Ribickis, Leonids

    2010-01-01

    Voltage source inverters connected to the grid in applications such as active power filters require synchronization with the grid voltage. Since in practice the grid voltage can be unbalanced and distorted, but the operation of the whole active filter control system is strongly dependant on precise estimation of grid voltage phase, the fundamental positive sequence phasor of the grid voltage has to be extracted. In this paper a system for smooth estimation of the position of the voltage phasor at the point of common coupling of a parallel active filter system is presented using a sinusoidal signal integrator and a simple software PLL. The performance of the proposed system is verified by simulation and experimental results. The proposed PLL scheme can also be used in other vector oriented control systems.

  14. Performance Evaluation of RTLS Based on Active RFID Power Measurement for Dense Moving Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Taekyu; Lee, Jin; Lee, Seungbeom; Park, Sin-Chong

    Tracking a large quantity of moving target tags simultaneously is essential for the localization and guidance of people in welfare facilities like hospitals and sanatoriums for the aged. The locating system using active RFID technology consists of a number of fixed RFID readers and tags carried by the target objects, or senior people. We compare the performances of several determination algorithms which use the power measurement of received signals emitted by the moving active RFID tags. This letter presents a study on the effect of collision in tracking large quantities of objects based on active RFID real time location system (RTLS). Traditional trilateration, fingerprinting, and well-known LANDMARC algorithm are evaluated and compared with varying number of moving tags through the SystemC-based computer simulation. From the simulation, we show the tradeoff relationship between the number of moving tags and estimation accuracy.

  15. Geeks, meta-Geeks, and gender trouble: activism, identity, and low-power FM radio.

    PubMed

    Dunbar-Hester, Christina

    2008-04-01

    In this paper, I consider the activities of a group of individuals who tinker with and build radio hardware in an informal setting called 'Geek Group'. They conceive of Geek Group as a radical pedagogical activity, which constitutes an aspect of activism surrounding citizen access to low-power FM radio. They are also concerned with combating the gendered nature of hardware skills, yet in spite of their efforts men tend to have more skill and familiarity with radio hardware than women. Radio tinkering has a long history as a masculine undertaking and a site of masculine identity construction. I argue that this case represents an interplay between geek, activist, and gendered identities, all of which are salient for this group, but which do not occur together without some tension. PMID:18831131

  16. Quantity, Quality, and Variety of Pupil Responses during an Open-Communication Structured Group Directed Reading-Thinking Activity and a Closed Communication Structured Group Directed Reading Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petre, Richard M.

    The quality, quantity, and variety of pupil responses while using two different group directed reading activities, the Directed Reading Activity (DRA), and the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA) were investigated in this study. The subjects, all fourth graders in two nearby communities, were grouped into above-grade-level, at-grade-level,…

  17. Physical activity and diet behaviour in colorectal cancer patients receiving chemotherapy: associations with quality of life

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background The relationship between colorectal cancer (CRC) risk and physical activity and dietary habits has been well-established, but less is known about the relationship between these behaviours and quality of life (QOL) post-diagnosis. Moreover, it is unknown whether this relationship is consistent across cancer stage or treatment setting. Thus, the purpose of this study was to assess current diet and physical activity behaviour in CRC survivors receiving systemic chemotherapy, and to examine potential associations between these behaviours and quality of life. A secondary purpose was to examine the association between social support, diet, and physical activity behaviour in this population. Methods Using a cross-sectional survey, 67 CRC survivors currently receiving chemotherapy in Calgary, Alberta completed the survey package. Measures included demographic and medical data, physical activity levels, diet behaviour, QOL, and social support. Results In a largely metastatic sample (63%), approximately half were meeting national dietary guidelines (58%), less were meeting national physical activity guidelines (26%), and a small number were meeting both (17%). However, only 12.3% (n = 8) reported completely sedentary behaviour, and 7 of these 8 participants were receiving metastatic treatment. Neither behaviour was significantly associated with QOL or perceived social support. Furthermore, there were no significant QOL differences between those treated with palliative intent or adjuvant therapy. Important group differences emerged between those meeting and not meeting the guidelines, and associations between QOL, age, BMI, and provisions of social support. Conclusion These findings provide insight into lifestyle behaviours of CRC survivors currently receiving systemic chemotherapy, and the differences in perceived QOL as affected by severity of disease and treatment setting. Prospective studies in a larger sample of CRC survivors on chemotherapy are needed to

  18. Psychosocial rehabilitation activities, empowerment, and quality of community-based life for people with schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Chou, Kuei-Ru; Shih, Ya-Wen; Chang, Chueh; Chou, Yi-Ying; Hu, Wei-Herng; Cheng, Josephjror-Serk; Yang, Chiu-Yueh; Hsieh, Chia-Jung

    2012-08-01

    Many variables influencing quality of life (QOL) for outpatients with schizophrenia have been identified from prior studies. Symptom severity, psychosocial rehabilitation activities, and empowerment have all been clearly identified as key variables. However, which variables are the most influential and important factors remains unknown; factors influencing QOL, either directly or indirectly and to what degree, need to be examined. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that empowerment is a possible mediator of how (a) psychiatric symptoms and (b) psychosocial rehabilitation activities affect QOL for outpatients with schizophrenia in the community. We used the probability proportional to size random sampling for 190 outpatients with schizophrenia at 10 community rehabilitation centers in Taipei, such that samples consisted of adults who fulfilled the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition criteria. The instruments included the questionnaire to gather demographic and disease information, the Empowerment Scale, the Psychiatric Symptoms Scale, the psychosocial rehabilitation activity (PRA), and the Quality of Life Scale for Psychiatric Patients. Beyond descriptive statistics, correlation and structural equation models were computed. Findings showed that empowerment in outpatients with schizophrenia mediates QOL, whereas psychosocial rehabilitation activities seem to increase empowerment, which may in turn increase QOL. Psychotic symptoms seem to have a direct effect of decreasing QOL that could not be mediated by empowerment. Empowerment had a significant effect on QOL for outpatients with schizophrenia. The findings of this study support the importance of empowerment and rehabilitation activities for promoting QOL among community outpatients. We suggest that various rehabilitation programs and empowerment health education are needed to enhance QOL for schizophrenia outpatients in the community.

  19. Neuropathic pain in neuromyelitis optica affects activities of daily living and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Sizheng; Mutch, Kerry; Elsone, Liene; Nurmikko, Turo; Jacob, Anu

    2014-10-01

    Though pain in neuromyelitis optica (NMO) has been described in two recent reports, the proportion with true neuropathic pain (NP), its features, impact on activities of daily living (ADL) and quality of life has not been well characterised. A cross-sectional study of 50 NMO patients with transverse myelitis was performed using Douleur Neuropathique 4, Brief Pain Inventory, Extended Disability Status Scale and Short Form 36. NP was identified in 62% of patients. Pain was constant in 68% affecting most ADL. Pain was associated with significant reduction of the SF36 Mental Composite Score. The high prevalence of NP and associated disability necessitates an in-depth enquiry in patients with NMO.

  20. Analytical laboratory quality assurance guidance in support of EM environmental sampling and analysis activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    This document introduces QA guidance pertaining to design and implementation of laboratory procedures and processes for collecting DOE Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) ESAA (environmental sampling and analysis activities) data. It addresses several goals: identifying key laboratory issues and program elements to EM HQ and field office managers; providing non-prescriptive guidance; and introducing environmental data collection program elements for EM-263 assessment documents and programs. The guidance describes the implementation of laboratory QA elements within a functional QA program (development of the QA program and data quality objectives are not covered here).

  1. Requirements for independent community-based quality assessment and accountability practices in humanitarian assistance and disaster relief activities.

    PubMed

    Kirsch, Thomas D; Perrin, Paul; Burkle, Frederick M; Canny, William; Purdin, Susan; Lin, William; Sauer, Lauren

    2012-06-01

    During responses to disasters, the credibility of humanitarian agencies can be threatened by perceptions of poor quality of the responses. Many initiatives have been introduced over the last two decades to help address these issues and enhance the overall quality of humanitarian response, often with limited success. There remain important gaps and deficiencies in quality assurance efforts, including potential conflicts of interest. While many definitions for quality exist, a common component is that meeting the needs of the "beneficiary" or "client" is the ultimate determinant of quality. This paper examines the current status of assessment and accountability practices in the humanitarian response community, identifies gaps, and recommends timely, concise, and population-based assessments to elicit the perspective of quality performance and accountability to the affected populations. Direct and independent surveys of the disaster-affected population will help to redirect ongoing aid efforts, and generate more effective and comparable methods for assessing the quality of humanitarian practices and assistance activities.

  2. Amendments and mulches improve the biological quality of soils degraded by mining activities in SE Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna Ramos, Lourdes; Miralles Mellado, Isabel; Hernández Fernández, María Teresa; García Izquierdo, Carlos; Solé Benet, Albert

    2014-05-01

    Mining and quarrying activities generate negative visual impacts in the landscape and a loss of environmental quality. Substrate properties at the end of mining are in general not suitable for plant growth, even native ones. In an experimental soil restoration in limestone quarries from Sierra de Gádor (Almería), SE Spain, the effect of organic amendment (sewage sludge, compost from the organic fraction of domestic waste or non-amendment) combined or not with two different kind of mulches (fine gravel, chopped forest residue) was tested by triplicate in 5 x 5 m plots with the aim to improve soil/substrate properties and to reduce evaporation and erosion. In each experimental plot 75 native plants (Stipa tenacissima, Anthyllis terniflora and Anthyllis cytisoides) were planted. Effects of adding organic amendments and mulches on some soil microbiological and biochemical parameters (microbial biomass carbon, basal respiration and different enzymatic activities, such as dehydrogenase, phosphatase, β-glucosidase and urease) were analyzed 5 years after the start of the experiment. Vegetation growth was also monitored. The two-way ANOVA, using as factors amendment and mulch, showed a significant positive influence of organic amendments on microbial biomass (Cmic), basal respiration and some enzymatic activities related to the cycles of C and N. The highest values of these parameters were obtained with compost. The influence of the mulch factor and its interactions with the amendment factor on the measured variables did not follow a clear trend with respect the measured parameters. Mulching did not improved significantly (p<0.05) the positive effect of organic amendments on Cmic although Cmic values increased with the incorporation of "forest chopped residue" and decreased with gravel incorporation. In general, both type of mulch decreased or have no effect on the microbial activity detected in the amended soils, with the only exception of the forest chopped residue

  3. Timing Behavior of the Magnetically Active Rotation-Powered Pulsar in the Supernova Remnant Kesteven 75

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Livingstone, Margaret A.; Gavriil, Fotis P.; Kaspi, Victoria M.

    2009-01-01

    We report a large spin-up glitch in PSR J1846-0258 which coincided with the onset of magnetar-like behavior on 2006 May 31. We show that the pulsar experienced an unusually large glitch recovery, with a recovery fraction of Q = 5.9+/-0.3, resulting in a net decrease of the pulse frequency. Such a glitch recovery has never before been observed in a rotation-powered pulsar, however, similar but smaller glitch over-recovery has been recently reported in the magnetar AXP 4U 0142+61 and may have occurred in the SGR 1900+14. We discuss the implications of the unusual timing behavior in PSR J1846-0258 on its status as the first identified magnetically active rotation-powered pulsar.

  4. A High Power Density Single-Phase PWM Rectifier With Active Ripple Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Ruxi; Wang, Fei; Boroyevich, Dushan; Burgos, Rolando; Lai, Rixin; Ning, Puqi; Rajashekara, Kaushik

    2011-01-01

    It is well known that single-phase pulse width modulation rectifiers have second-order harmonic currents and corresponding ripple voltages on the dc bus. The low-frequency harmonic current is normally filtered using a bulk capacitor in the bus, which results in low power density. However, pursuing high power density in converter design is a very important goal in the aerospace applications. This paper studies methods for reducing the energy storage capacitor for single-phase rectifiers. The minimum ripple energy storage requirement is derived independently of a specific topology. Based on theminimum ripple energy requirement, the feasibility of the active capacitor s reduction schemes is verified. Then, we propose a bidirectional buck boost converter as the ripple energy storage circuit, which can effectively reduce the energy storage capacitance. The analysis and design are validated by simulation and experimental results.

  5. Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography in Combination with Chemometric Methods to Evaluate the Holistic Quality Consistency and Predict the Antioxidant Activity of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injection

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Lanping; Xie, Xiuman; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) fingerprints combined with quantification were successfully developed to monitor the holistic quality consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injection (ISHI). ISHI is a Chinese traditional patent medicine used for its anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effects. The effects of five crucial experimental variables on MEEKC were optimized by the central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, the MEEKC fingerprints of 28 ISHIs were developed. Quantitative determination of seven marker compounds was employed simultaneously, then 28 batches of samples from two manufacturers were clearly divided into two clusters by the principal component analysis. In fingerprint assessments, a systematic quantitative fingerprint method was established for the holistic quality consistency evaluation of ISHI from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the qualities of 28 samples were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint—efficacy relationship between the fingerprints and the antioxidant activities was established utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered a powerful and holistic approach to evaluating the quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations. PMID:27336298

  6. Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography in Combination with Chemometric Methods to Evaluate the Holistic Quality Consistency and Predict the Antioxidant Activity of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lanping; Xie, Xiuman; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) fingerprints combined with quantification were successfully developed to monitor the holistic quality consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injection (ISHI). ISHI is a Chinese traditional patent medicine used for its anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effects. The effects of five crucial experimental variables on MEEKC were optimized by the central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, the MEEKC fingerprints of 28 ISHIs were developed. Quantitative determination of seven marker compounds was employed simultaneously, then 28 batches of samples from two manufacturers were clearly divided into two clusters by the principal component analysis. In fingerprint assessments, a systematic quantitative fingerprint method was established for the holistic quality consistency evaluation of ISHI from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the qualities of 28 samples were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between the fingerprints and the antioxidant activities was established utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered a powerful and holistic approach to evaluating the quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations.

  7. Microemulsion Electrokinetic Chromatography in Combination with Chemometric Methods to Evaluate the Holistic Quality Consistency and Predict the Antioxidant Activity of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bunge) Hance Injection.

    PubMed

    Yang, Lanping; Xie, Xiuman; Zhang, Jing; Sun, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, microemulsion electrokinetic chromatography (MEEKC) fingerprints combined with quantification were successfully developed to monitor the holistic quality consistency of Ixeris sonchifolia (Bge.) Hance Injection (ISHI). ISHI is a Chinese traditional patent medicine used for its anti-inflammatory and hemostatic effects. The effects of five crucial experimental variables on MEEKC were optimized by the central composite design. Under the optimized conditions, the MEEKC fingerprints of 28 ISHIs were developed. Quantitative determination of seven marker compounds was employed simultaneously, then 28 batches of samples from two manufacturers were clearly divided into two clusters by the principal component analysis. In fingerprint assessments, a systematic quantitative fingerprint method was established for the holistic quality consistency evaluation of ISHI from qualitative and quantitative perspectives, by which the qualities of 28 samples were well differentiated. In addition, the fingerprint-efficacy relationship between the fingerprints and the antioxidant activities was established utilizing orthogonal projection to latent structures, which provided important medicinal efficacy information for quality control. The present study offered a powerful and holistic approach to evaluating the quality consistency of herbal medicines and their preparations. PMID:27336298

  8. Department of Energy Support for Operations of the WMO/GAW Quality Control/Science Activity Center for the Americas

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, B. B.

    2003-11-13

    As a formal activity of the World Meteorological Organization's Global Atmosphere Watch, to provide, through agency collaboration, a center of excellence in the United States that would impose quality assurance techniques on data collected by national air and precipitation quality networks operating in the Americas (north, south, and central).

  9. Improved Satellite-based Photosysnthetically Active Radiation (PAR) for Air Quality Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pour Biazar, A.; McNider, R. T.; Cohan, D. S.; White, A.; Zhang, R.; Dornblaser, B.; Doty, K.; Wu, Y.; Estes, M. J.

    2015-12-01

    One of the challenges in understanding the air quality over forested regions has been the uncertainties in estimating the biogenic hydrocarbon emissions. Biogenic volatile organic compounds, BVOCs, play a critical role in atmospheric chemistry, particularly in ozone and particulate matter (PM) formation. In southeastern United States, BVOCs (mostly as isoprene) are the dominant summertime source of reactive hydrocarbon. Despite significant efforts in improving BVOC estimates, the errors in emission inventories remain a concern. Since BVOC emissions are particularly sensitive to the available photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), model errors in PAR result in large errors in emission estimates. Thus, utilization of satellite observations to estimate PAR can help in reducing emission uncertainties. Satellite-based PAR estimates rely on the technique used to derive insolation from satellite visible brightness measurements. In this study we evaluate several insolation products against surface pyranometer observations and offer a bias correction to generate a more accurate PAR product. The improved PAR product is then used in biogenic emission estimates. The improved biogenic emission estimates are compared to the emission inventories over Texas and used in air quality simulation over the period of August-September 2013 (NASA's Discover-AQ field campaign). A series of sensitivity simulations will be performed and evaluated against Discover-AQ observations to test the impact of satellite-derived PAR on air quality simulations.

  10. [Influence of voice and hearing changes in the quality of life of active elderly individuals].

    PubMed

    Chiossi, Julia Santos Costa; Roque, Francelise Pivetta; Goulart, Bárbara Niegia Garcia de; Chiari, Brasilia Maria

    2014-08-01

    This article seeks to verify the self-rated impact of voice and hearing changes of active elderly individuals in their daily lives, and the influence of this self-rating on quality of life. A cross-sectional study was conducted with 72 elderly individuals of an Open University for Senior Citizens in the state of São Paulo. The questionnaires applied were HHIE-S; VHI and WHOQoL-Old. The Pearson correlation coefficient was used adopting a p-level significance value of < 0.05. The impact of hearing difficulties on daily life was perceived by 45.8%, and moderate or severe voice handicap by 9.7% of the elderly individuals. The self-rating of hearing impact on daily life was correlated with the voice handicap index. Quality of life was negatively affected by the increase in self-rating of hearing and voice difficulties in daily life. The sample profile is typical of successful aging with the acceptance of aging changes and consequently less impact on daily lives than expected. The findings suggest that there is an impact of voice and hearing handicap on quality of life, although it has revealed high indices, bolstering the characteristic of adaptation of the sample to aging. The results justify the need for improving actions of self-care and empowerment for the elderly. PMID:25119073

  11. Noise power associated with decreased task-induced variability of brain electrical activity in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Molina, Vicente; Bachiller, Alejandro; Suazo, Vanessa; Lubeiro, Alba; Poza, Jesús; Hornero, Roberto

    2016-02-01

    In schizophrenia, both increased baseline metabolic and electroencephalographic (EEG) activities as well as decreased task-related modulation of neural dynamics have been reported. Noise power (NP) can measure the background EEG activity during task performance, and Shannon entropy (SE) is useful for quantifying the global modulation of EEG activity with a high temporal resolution. In this study, we have assessed the possible relationship between increased NP in theta and gamma bands and decreased SE modulation in 24 patients with schizophrenia and 26 controls over the parietal and central regions during a P300 task. SE modulation was calculated as the change from baseline to the active epoch (i.e., 150-550 ms following the target stimulus onset). Patients with schizophrenia displayed statistically significant higher NP values and lower SE modulation than healthy controls. We found a significant association between gamma NP and SE in all of the participants. Specifically, a NP increase in the gamma band was followed by a decrease in SE change. These results support the notion that an excess of gamma activity, unlocked to the task being performed, is accompanied by a decreased modulation of EEG activity in schizophrenia.

  12. Low-power laser irradiation inhibits Aβ25-35-induced cell apoptosis through Akt activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zhigang; Tang, Yonghong

    2009-08-01

    Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) can modulate various cellular processes such as proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis. Recently, LPLI has been applied to moderate Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the underlying mechanism remains unknown. The protective role of LPLI against the amyloid beta peptide (Aβ), a major constituent of AD plaques, has not been studied. PI3K/Akt pathway is extremely important in protecting cells from apoptosis caused by diverse stress stimuli. However, whether LPLI can inhibit Aβ-induced apoptosis through Akt activation is still unclear. In current study, using FRET (fluorescence resonance energy transfer) technique, we investigated the activity of Akt in response to LPLI treatment. B kinase activity reporter (BKAR), a recombinant FRET probe of Akt, was utilized to dynamically detect the activation of Akt after LPLI treatment. The results show that LPLI promoted the activation of Akt. Moreover, LPLI inhibits apoptosis induced by Aβ25-35 and the apoptosis inhibition can be abolished by wortmannin, a specific inhibitor of PI3K/Akt. Taken together, these results suggest that LPLI can inhibit Aβ25-35-induced cell apoptosis through Akt activation.

  13. Collaborative activities for improving the quality of science teaching and learning and learning to teach science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobin, Kenneth

    2012-03-01

    I have been involved in research on collaborative activities for improving the quality of teaching and learning high school science. Initially the collaborative activities we researched involved the uses of coteaching and cogenerative dialogue in urban middle and high schools in Philadelphia and New York (currently I have active research sites in New York and Brisbane, Australia). The research not only transformed practices but also produced theories that informed the development of additional collaborative activities and served as interventions for research and creation of heuristics for professional development programs and teacher certification courses. The presentation describes a collage of collaborative approaches to teaching and learning science, including coteaching, cogenerative dialogue, radical listening, critical reflection, and mindful action. For each activity in the collage I provide theoretical frameworks and empirical support, ongoing research, and priorities for the road ahead. I also address methodologies used in the research, illustrating how teachers and students collaborated as researchers in multilevel investigations of teaching and learning and learning to teach that included ethnography, video analysis, and sophisticated analyses of the voice, facial expression of emotion, eye gaze, and movement of the body during classroom interactions. I trace the evolution of studies of face-to-face interactions in science classes to the current focus on emotions and physiological aspects of teaching and learning (e.g., pulse rate, pulse strength, breathing patterns) that relate to science participation and achievement.

  14. High-power fiber optic cable with integrated active sensors for live process monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blomster, Ola; Blomqvist, Mats; Bergstrand, Hans; Pålsson, Magnus

    2012-03-01

    In industrial applications using high-brilliance lasers at power levels up to and exceeding 20 kW and similarly direct diode lasers of 10 kW, there is an increasing demand to continuously monitor component status even in passive components such as fiber-optic cables. With fiber-optic cables designed according to the European Automotive Industry fiber standard interface there is room for integrating active sensors inside the connectors. In this paper we present the integrated active sensors in the new Optoskand QD fiber-optic cable designed to handle extreme levels of power losses, and how these sensors can be employed in industrial manufacturing. The sensors include photo diodes for detection of scattered light inside the fiber connector, absolute temperature of the fiber connector, difference in temperature of incoming and outgoing cooling water, and humidity measurement inside the fiber connector. All these sensors are connected to the fiber interlock system, where interlock break enable functions can be activated when measured signals are higher than threshold levels. It is a very fast interlock break system as the control of the signals is integrated in the electronics inside the fiber connector. Also, since all signals can be logged it is possible to evaluate what happened inside the connector before the interlock break instance. The communication to the fiber-optic connectors is via a CAN interface. Thus it is straightforward to develop the existing laser host control to also control the CAN-messages from the QD sensors.

  15. Deposition of fission and activation products after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Shozugawa, Katsumi; Nogawa, Norio; Matsuo, Motoyuki

    2012-04-01

    The Great Eastern Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, damaged reactor cooling systems at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The subsequent venting operation and hydrogen explosion resulted in a large radioactive nuclide emission from reactor containers into the environment. Here, we collected environmental samples such as soil, plant species, and water on April 10, 2011, in front of the power plant main gate as well as 35 km away in Iitate village, and observed gamma-rays with a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector. We observed activation products ((239)Np and (59)Fe) and fission products ((131)I, (134)Cs ((133)Cs), (137)Cs, (110m)Ag ((109)Ag), (132)Te, (132)I, (140)Ba, (140)La, (91)Sr, (91)Y, (95)Zr, and (95)Nb). (239)Np is the parent nuclide of (239)Pu; (59)Fe are presumably activation products of (58)Fe obtained by corrosion of cooling pipes. The results show that these activation and fission products, diffused within a month of the accident.

  16. Decoupling catalytic activity from biological function of the ATPase that powers lipopolysaccharide transport.

    PubMed

    Sherman, David J; Lazarus, Michael B; Murphy, Lea; Liu, Charles; Walker, Suzanne; Ruiz, Natividad; Kahne, Daniel

    2014-04-01

    The cell surface of Gram-negative bacteria contains lipopolysaccharides (LPS), which provide a barrier against the entry of many antibiotics. LPS assembly involves a multiprotein LPS transport (Lpt) complex that spans from the cytoplasm to the outer membrane. In this complex, an unusual ATP-binding cassette transporter is thought to power the extraction of LPS from the outer leaflet of the cytoplasmic membrane and its transport across the cell envelope. We introduce changes into the nucleotide-binding domain, LptB, that inactivate transporter function in vivo. We characterize these residues using biochemical experiments combined with high-resolution crystal structures of LptB pre- and post-ATP hydrolysis and suggest a role for an active site residue in phosphate exit. We also identify a conserved residue that is not required for ATPase activity but is essential for interaction with the transmembrane components. Our studies establish the essentiality of ATP hydrolysis by LptB to power LPS transport in cells and suggest strategies to inhibit transporter function away from the LptB active site.

  17. Deposition of fission and activation products after the Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant accident.

    PubMed

    Shozugawa, Katsumi; Nogawa, Norio; Matsuo, Motoyuki

    2012-04-01

    The Great Eastern Japan Earthquake on March 11, 2011, damaged reactor cooling systems at Fukushima Dai-ichi nuclear power plant. The subsequent venting operation and hydrogen explosion resulted in a large radioactive nuclide emission from reactor containers into the environment. Here, we collected environmental samples such as soil, plant species, and water on April 10, 2011, in front of the power plant main gate as well as 35 km away in Iitate village, and observed gamma-rays with a Ge(Li) semiconductor detector. We observed activation products ((239)Np and (59)Fe) and fission products ((131)I, (134)Cs ((133)Cs), (137)Cs, (110m)Ag ((109)Ag), (132)Te, (132)I, (140)Ba, (140)La, (91)Sr, (91)Y, (95)Zr, and (95)Nb). (239)Np is the parent nuclide of (239)Pu; (59)Fe are presumably activation products of (58)Fe obtained by corrosion of cooling pipes. The results show that these activation and fission products, diffused within a month of the accident. PMID:22266366

  18. Applications of MODIS Fluorescent Line Height Measurements to Monitor Water Quality Trends and Algal Bloom Activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fischer, Andrew; Moreno-Mardinan, Max; Ryan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in satellite and airborne remote sensing, such as improvements in sensor and algorithm calibrations, processing techniques and atmospheric correction procedures have provided for increased coverage of remote-sensing, ocean-color products for coastal regions. In particular, for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensor calibration updates, improved aerosol retrievals and new aerosol models has led to improved atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters and have improved the retrieval of ocean color in coastal waters. This has opened the way for studying ocean phenomena and processes at finer spatial scales, such as the interactions at the land-sea interface, trends in coastal water quality and algal blooms. Human population growth and changes in coastal management practices have brought about significant changes in the concentrations of organic and inorganic, particulate and dissolved substances entering the coastal ocean. There is increasing concern that these inputs have led to declines in water quality and have increase local concentrations of phytoplankton, which cause harmful algal blooms. In two case studies we present MODIS observations of fluorescence line height (FLH) to 1) assess trends in water quality for Tampa Bay, Florida and 2) illustrate seasonal and annual variability of algal bloom activity in Monterey Bay, California as well as document estuarine/riverine plume induced red tide events. In a comprehensive analysis of long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data and satellite imagery from Tampa Bay we assess the validity of the MODIS FLH product against chlorophyll-a and a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout a large optically complex estuarine system. A systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay is undertaken to understand how the relationship between FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a responds to varying conditions and to develop a near decadal trend in

  19. Effect of different packaging films on postharvest quality and selected enzyme activities of Hypsizygus marmoreus mushrooms.

    PubMed

    Xing, Zengtao; Wang, Yaosong; Feng, Zhiyong; Tan, Qi

    2008-12-24

    Freshly harvested Hypsizygus marmoreus mushrooms were packaged using different packaging films, and physiological changes associated with postharvest deterioration, together with the activities of selected enzymes thought to play a role in senescence, were monitored during subsequent storage for 16-24 days at 4 degrees C and 65-70% relative humidity. A biaxially oriented polypropylene film (BOPP) maintained the postharvest appearance of the mushrooms most effectively by significantly reducing the incidence of unsightly aerial hyphae on the pileal surface and restricting mushroom softening. These samples also exhibited smaller initial decreases in soluble protein, smaller increases in reducing sugar content, and lower levels of malondialdehyde accumulation during early storage. Smallest increases in proteinase activity were recorded in samples wrapped with BOPP and polyoletin packaging, and superoxide dismutase and polyphenol oxidase levels were significantly higher and lower, respectively, in the former. Choice of packaging can significantly affect postharvest quality loss in H. marmoreus and improve mushroom shelf life.

  20. Sleep Quality and Recommended Levels of Physical Activity in Older People.

    PubMed

    Hartescu, Iuliana; Morgan, Kevin; Stevinson, Clare D

    2016-04-01

    A minimum level of activity likely to improve sleep outcomes among older people has not previously been explored. In a representative UK sample aged 65+ (n = 926), cross-sectional regressions controlling for appropriate confounders showed that walking at or above the internationally recommended threshold of ≥ 150 min per week was significantly associated with a lower likelihood of reporting insomnia symptoms (OR = 0.67, 95% CI = 0.45-0.91, p < .05). At a 4-year follow-up (n = 577), higher walking levels at baseline significantly predicted a lower likelihood of reporting sleep onset (OR = 0.64, 95% CI = 0.42-0.97, p < .05) or sleep maintenance (OR = 0.63, 95% CI = 0.41-0.95, p < .05) problems. These results are consistent with the conclusion that current physical activity guidelines can support sleep quality in older adults. PMID:26291553

  1. Reconstruction of 137Cs activity in the ocean following the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant Accident

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsumune, Daisuke; Aoyama, Michio; Tsubono, Takaki; Tateda, Yutaka; Misumi, Kazuhiro; Hayami, Hiroshi; Toyoda, Yasuhiro; Maeda, Yoshiaki; Yoshida, Yoshikatsu; Uematsu, Mitsuo

    2014-05-01

    A series of accidents at the Fukushima Dai-ichi Nuclear Power Plant following the earthquake and tsunami of 11 March 2011 resulted in the release of radioactive materials to the ocean by two major pathways, direct release from the accident site and atmospheric deposition. We reconstructed spatiotemporal variability of 137Cs activity in the ocean by the comparison model simulations and observed data. We employed a regional scale and the North Pacific scale oceanic dispersion models, an atmospheric transport model, a sediment transport model, a dynamic biological compartment model for marine biota and river runoff model to investigate the oceanic contamination. Direct releases of 137Cs were estimated for more than 2 years after the accident by comparing simulated results and observed activities very close to the site. The estimated total amounts of directly released 137Cs was 3.6±0.7 PBq. Directly release rate of 137Cs decreased exponentially with time by the end of December 2012 and then, was almost constant. The daily release rate of 137Cs was estimated to be 3.0 x 1010 Bq day-1 by the end of September 2013. The activity of directly released 137Cs was detectable only in the coastal zone after December 2012. Simulated 137Cs activities attributable to direct release were in good agreement with observed activities, a result that implies the estimated direct release rate was reasonable, while simulated 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition were low compared to measured activities. The rate of atmospheric deposition onto the ocean was underestimated because of a lack of measurements of dose rate and air activity of 137Cs over the ocean when atmospheric deposition rates were being estimated. Observed 137Cs activities attributable to atmospheric deposition in the ocean helped to improve the accuracy of simulated atmospheric deposition rates. Although there is no observed data of 137Cs activity in the ocean from 11 to 21 March 2011, observed data of

  2. Exploring the motivational brain: effects of implicit power motivation on brain activation in response to facial expressions of emotion.

    PubMed

    Schultheiss, Oliver C; Wirth, Michelle M; Waugh, Christian E; Stanton, Steven J; Meier, Elizabeth A; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia

    2008-12-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that implicit power motivation (nPower), in interaction with power incentives, influences activation of brain systems mediating motivation. Twelve individuals low (lowest quartile) and 12 individuals high (highest quartile) in nPower, as assessed per content coding of picture stories, were selected from a larger initial participant pool and participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study during which they viewed high-dominance (angry faces), low-dominance (surprised faces) and control stimuli (neutral faces, gray squares) under oddball-task conditions. Consistent with hypotheses, high-power participants showed stronger activation in response to emotional faces in brain structures involved in emotion and motivation (insula, dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex) than low-power participants.

  3. Exploring the motivational brain: effects of implicit power motivation on brain activation in response to facial expressions of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Wirth, Michelle M.; Waugh, Christian E.; Stanton, Steven J.; Meier, Elizabeth A.; Reuter-Lorenz, Patricia

    2008-01-01

    This study tested the hypothesis that implicit power motivation (nPower), in interaction with power incentives, influences activation of brain systems mediating motivation. Twelve individuals low (lowest quartile) and 12 individuals high (highest quartile) in nPower, as assessed per content coding of picture stories, were selected from a larger initial participant pool and participated in a functional magnetic resonance imaging study during which they viewed high-dominance (angry faces), low-dominance (surprised faces) and control stimuli (neutral faces, gray squares) under oddball-task conditions. Consistent with hypotheses, high-power participants showed stronger activation in response to emotional faces in brain structures involved in emotion and motivation (insula, dorsal striatum, orbitofrontal cortex) than low-power participants. PMID:19015083

  4. Long distance active hyperspectral sensing using high-power near-infrared supercontinuum light source.

    PubMed

    Manninen, Albert; Kääriäinen, Teemu; Parviainen, Tomi; Buchter, Scott; Heiliö, Miika; Laurila, Toni

    2014-03-24

    A hyperspectral remote sensing instrument employing a novel near-infrared supercontinuum light source has been developed for active illumination and identification of targets. The supercontinuum is generated in a standard normal dispersion multi-mode fiber and has 16 W total optical output power covering 1000 nm to 2300 nm spectral range. A commercial 256-channel infrared spectrometer was used for broadband infrared detection. The feasibility of the presented hyperspectral measurement approach was investigated both indoors and in the field. Reflection spectra from several diffusive targets were successfully measured and a measurement range of 1.5 km was demonstrated.

  5. An inductively powered telemetry system for temperature, EKG, and activity monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Lund, G. F.; Williams, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    An implant telemetry system for the simultaneous monitoring of temperature, activity, and EKG from small animals, such as rats, was designed with the feature that instead of a battery the system is energized by an inductive field. A 250 kHz resonant coil surrounds the cage (30 x 30 x 20 cm) and provides the approximately 100 microns of power required to operate the implant transmitter while allowing the animal unrestrained movement in the cage. The implant can also be battery operated if desired. RF transmission is in the 8-10 MHz band, which allows the use of a simple, essentially single IC chip, receiver.

  6. An inductively powered telemetry system for temperature, EKG, and activity monitoring

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fryer, T. B.; Lund, G. F.; Williams, B. A.

    1978-01-01

    An implant telemetry system for the simultaneous monitoring of temperature, activity, and EKG from small animals, such as rats, has recently been designed with the novel feature that instead of a battery the system is energized by an inductive field. A 250 kHz resonant coil surrounds the cage (30 x 30 x 20 cm) and provides the approximately 100 microwatt of power required to operate the implant transmitter while allowing the animal unrestrained movement in the cage. The implant can also be battery operated if desired. RF transmission is in the 8-10 MHz band, which allows the use of a simple, essentially single IC chip, receiver.

  7. Improved Power Conversion Efficiency of Inverted Organic Solar Cells by Incorporating Au Nanorods into Active Layer.

    PubMed

    He, Yeyuan; Liu, Chunyu; Li, Jinfeng; Zhang, Xinyuan; Li, Zhiqi; Shen, Liang; Guo, Wenbin; Ruan, Shengping

    2015-07-29

    This Research Article describes a cooperative plasmonic effect on improving the performance of organic solar cells. When Au nanorods(NRs) are incorporated into the active layers, the designed project shows superior enhanced light absorption behavior comparing with control devices, which leads to the realization of organic solar cell with power conversion efficiency of 6.83%, accounting for 18.9% improvement. Further investigations unravel the influence of plasmonic nanostructures on light trapping, exciton generation, dissociation, and charge recombination and transport inside the thin films devices. Moreover, the introduction of high-conductivity Au NRs improves electrical conductivity of the whole device, which contributes to the enhanced fill factor.

  8. Highly reliable high-power superluminescent diodes with three single-mode active channels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andreeva, E. V.; Il'chenko, S. N.; Kurnyavko, Yu V.; Luk'yanov, V. N.; Shidlovskii, V. R.; Yakubovich, S. D.

    2016-07-01

    We report superluminescent diodes (SLDs) with three ridged active channels, each having a width of 3.5 μm, based on one 'bulk' and two quantum-well heterostructures. At a cw output power greater than 100 mW, the emission spectra of these SLDs possess a quasi-Gaussian shape with centre wavelengths near 840, 860 and 1060 nm and widths about 15, 25 and 40 nm, respectively. In the above operating conditions, the median service life of the SLDs amounted to approximately 50000, 25000 and more than 60000 h, respectively.

  9. Improvement of IVF results and optimisation of quality control by using intermittent activity.

    PubMed

    Frydman, Nelly; Fanchin, Rénato; Le Dû, Anne; Bourrier, Marie Catherine; Tachdjian, Gérard; Frydman, René

    2004-11-01

    For several years the present authors' team had not been satisfied with the pregnancy rate achieved by their unit, especially in comparison with the results achieved by other teams with a similar population. A quality programme was established, and it was decided to switch from non-stop to intermittent activity. It was envisaged that this programme would provide a more realistic view of the team's activity and could also, as a secondary effect, improve its results. The team's experience of an in-series organization was presented for the management of 408 consecutive infertile couples, during 2002. The results obtained during 2002 were compared with those for two previous years. There was a significant increase (P < 0.01) in the clinical pregnancy rate per oocyte retrieval from 28.9% (2000) and 25.2% (2001) to 41% (2002) in IVF and from 23% (2000) and 26% (2001) to 38.5% (2002) in intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI). A significant increase (P < 0.01) was also observed in the implantation rate, from 14.8% and 13.4% to 20% in IVF and from 12.1% and 12.9% to 23.5% in ICSI. The higher pregnancy rate was achieved without an increase in the multiple pregnancy rate. In conclusion, recent data support the hypothesis that the use of a quality management system, can, as in this case, have positive repercussions on pregnancy rates.

  10. Water and sediment quality in a tropical swamp used for agricultural and oil refining activities.

    PubMed

    Norville, Wendy; Banjoo, Darryl

    2011-01-01

    The Godineau Swamp in Trinidad receives anthropogenic input from agricultural and oil refining activities, sewage and domestic waste. This study was conducted in order to provide a comprehensive baseline dataset for the swamp, to assess water and sediment quality in the swamp, and to identify hotspots and possible sources of pollutants to the swamp. Ten sampling stations were established in the swamp during April/May and July 2002. Water quality parameters monitored included physicochemical measurements (pH, temperature, dissolved oxygen and salinity), total suspended solids, and nutrients (ammonia, nitrites, nitrates and total phosphorus). Sediments were analyzed for hydrocarbons, heavy metals and total organic carbon. Temperatures and pH of water in the swamp were ambient; dissolved oxygen was low in many instances (<3 mg/L). In the dry season, there was saltwater intrusion along the Oropuche River up to the most easterly station. Levels of ammonia and phosphorus concentrations were suggestive of periodic inputs of agricultural and domestic wastes. Hydrocarbons concentrations in sediment were above ambient levels and suggestive of contamination from industrial activities. Sediments from the Godineau River contained elevated nutrients, hydrocarbons, metals and TOC compared with other stations. The results of this study indicate some degree of pollution of the Godineau swamp, which prompts the need for the implementation of measures beneficial for wise use of the swamp.

  11. A Geostationary Satellite Constellation for Observing Global Air Quality: Status of the CEOS Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Saadi, J. A.; Zehner, C.

    2011-12-01

    Several countries and space agencies are currently planning to launch geostationary satellites in the 2017-2022 time frame to obtain atmospheric composition measurements for characterizing anthropogenic and natural distributions of tropospheric ozone, aerosols, and their precursors, which are important factors in understanding air quality and climate change. While a single geostationary satellite can view only a portion of the globe, it is possible for a minimum of three geostationary satellites, positioned to view Europe/Middle East/Africa, Asia/Australasia, and the Americas, to collectively provide near-global coverage. Harmonizing the planned geostationary missions to be contemporaneous and have common observing capabilities and data distribution protocols would synergistically enable critically needed understanding of the interactions between regional and global atmospheric composition and of the implications for air quality and climate. Such activities would directly address societal benefit areas of the Global Earth Observation System of Systems (GEOSS), including Health, Energy, Climate, Disasters, and Ecosystems, and are responsive to the requirements of each mission to provide advanced user services and societal benefits. Over the past 2 years, the Atmospheric Composition Constellation (ACC) of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) has developed a white paper describing such collaboration and the benefits to be derived from it. The resulting ACC recommendations were endorsed by CEOS in May 2011. Here we will present an update on collaborative activities and next steps. This presentation is envisioned to serve as an introduction to the oral sessions associated with Session A.25.

  12. Influence of watershed activities on the water quality and fish assemblages of a tropical African reservoir.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Moshood K

    2009-09-01

    Agricultural and fisheries activities around the watershed of an African tropical reservoir (Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria) were found to contribute significantly to water quality deterioration of the dam axis of the reservoir, leading to eutrophication of that part of the reservoir. This is evident from the high amount of nitrate (6.4 mg/l), phosphate (2.2 mg/l) and sulphate (16.9 mg/l) in the water body which was higher than most other reservoirs in Nigeria. These nutrients originate in fertilizer run-offs from nearby farmlands and were found in higher concentrations in the rainy season which is usually the peak of agricultural activities in the locality. The eutrophication was more pronounced on the dam axis because it is the point of greatest human contact where pressure and run-off of sediments were high. The eutrophication altered the food web cycle which consequently affected the fish species composition and abundance with the dominance of cichlids (planktivorous group) and decline of some species in the fish population. Best management practices (BMP) to control and reduce the eutrophication and improve water quality and fish assemblages should be adopted and adapted to suit the situation in the reservoir. PMID:19928465

  13. Influence of watershed activities on the water quality and fish assemblages of a tropical African reservoir.

    PubMed

    Mustapha, Moshood K

    2009-09-01

    Agricultural and fisheries activities around the watershed of an African tropical reservoir (Oyun reservoir, Offa, Nigeria) were found to contribute significantly to water quality deterioration of the dam axis of the reservoir, leading to eutrophication of that part of the reservoir. This is evident from the high amount of nitrate (6.4 mg/l), phosphate (2.2 mg/l) and sulphate (16.9 mg/l) in the water body which was higher than most other reservoirs in Nigeria. These nutrients originate in fertilizer run-offs from nearby farmlands and were found in higher concentrations in the rainy season which is usually the peak of agricultural activities in the locality. The eutrophication was more pronounced on the dam axis because it is the point of greatest human contact where pressure and run-off of sediments were high. The eutrophication altered the food web cycle which consequently affected the fish species composition and abundance with the dominance of cichlids (planktivorous group) and decline of some species in the fish population. Best management practices (BMP) to control and reduce the eutrophication and improve water quality and fish assemblages should be adopted and adapted to suit the situation in the reservoir.

  14. Self-reported extracurricular activity, academic success, and quality of life in UK medical students

    PubMed Central

    Lumley, Sophie; Ward, Peter; Roberts, Lesley

    2015-01-01

    Objectives To explore the relationship between academic performance, extracurricular activity, and quality of life at medical school in the UK to aid our understanding of students’ work-life balance. Methods A cross-sectional study, using an electronic questionnaire distributed to UK final year medical students across 20 medical schools (4478 students). Participants reported the hours of self-regulated learning and extracurricular activities undertaken each year at medical school; along with their academic decile (1 = highest, 10 = lowest). Self-reported quality of life (QoL) was assessed using an established screening tool (7 = highest, 1 = lowest). Results Seven hundred responses were obtained, across 20 participating medical schools, response rate 16% (700/4478). Factors associated with higher academic achievement were: graduate entry course students (2 deciles higher, p< 0.0001), more hours academic study during term and revision periods (rho=-0.1, p< 0.01), and involvement in teaching or research. Increased hours of study was associated with lower QoL (rho = -0.13, p<0.01). Conclusions Study skills may be more important than duration spent studying, for academic achievement and QoL. Graduate-entry students attain higher decile scores despite similar self-reported duration of study. PMID:26385285

  15. The Impact of Myeloperoxidase and Activated Macrophages on Metaphase II Mouse Oocyte Quality

    PubMed Central

    Shaeib, Faten; Khan, Sana N.; Thakur, Mili; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Drewlo, Sascha; Saed, Ghassan M.; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M.

    2016-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an abundant heme-containing enzyme present in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, is produced in high levels during inflammation, and associated with poor reproductive outcomes. MPO is known to generate hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) utilizing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chloride (Cl-). Here we investigate the effect of activated immune cells and MPO on oocyte quality. Mouse metaphase II oocytes were divided into the following groups: 1) Incubation with a catalytic amount of MPO (40 nM) for different incubation periods in the presence of 100 mM Cl- with and without H2O2 and with and without melatonin (100 μM), at 37°C (n = 648/648 total number of oocytes in each group for oocytes with and without cumulus cells); 2) Co-cultured with activated mouse peritoneal macrophage and neutrophils cells (1.0 x 106 cells/ml) in the absence and presence of melatonin (200 μM), an MPO inhibitor/ROS scavenger, for different incubation periods in HTF media, at 37°C (n = 200/200); 3) Untreated oocytes incubated for 4 hrs as controls (n = 73/64). Oocytes were then fixed, stained and scored based on the microtubule morphology and chromosomal alignment. All treatments were found to negatively affect oocyte quality in a time dependent fashion as compared to controls. In all cases the presence of cumulus cells offered no protection; however significant protection was offered by melatonin. Similar results were obtained with oocytes treated with neutrophils. This work provides a direct link between MPO and decreased oocyte quality. Therefore, strategies to decrease MPO mediated inflammation may influence reproductive outcomes. PMID:26982351

  16. The Impact of Myeloperoxidase and Activated Macrophages on Metaphase II Mouse Oocyte Quality.

    PubMed

    Shaeib, Faten; Khan, Sana N; Thakur, Mili; Kohan-Ghadr, Hamid-Reza; Drewlo, Sascha; Saed, Ghassan M; Pennathur, Subramaniam; Abu-Soud, Husam M

    2016-01-01

    Myeloperoxidase (MPO), an abundant heme-containing enzyme present in neutrophils, monocytes, and macrophages, is produced in high levels during inflammation, and associated with poor reproductive outcomes. MPO is known to generate hypochlorous acid (HOCl), a damaging reactive oxygen species (ROS) utilizing hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and chloride (Cl-). Here we investigate the effect of activated immune cells and MPO on oocyte quality. Mouse metaphase II oocytes were divided into the following groups: 1) Incubation with a catalytic amount of MPO (40 nM) for different incubation periods in the presence of 100 mM Cl- with and without H2O2 and with and without melatonin (100 μM), at 37°C (n = 648/648 total number of oocytes in each group for oocytes with and without cumulus cells); 2) Co-cultured with activated mouse peritoneal macrophage and neutrophils cells (1.0 x 106 cells/ml) in the absence and presence of melatonin (200 μM), an MPO inhibitor/ROS scavenger, for different incubation periods in HTF media, at 37°C (n = 200/200); 3) Untreated oocytes incubated for 4 hrs as controls (n = 73/64). Oocytes were then fixed, stained and scored based on the microtubule morphology and chromosomal alignment. All treatments were found to negatively affect oocyte quality in a time dependent fashion as compared to controls. In all cases the presence of cumulus cells offered no protection; however significant protection was offered by melatonin. Similar results were obtained with oocytes treated with neutrophils. This work provides a direct link between MPO and decreased oocyte quality. Therefore, strategies to decrease MPO mediated inflammation may influence reproductive outcomes. PMID:26982351

  17. Physical Activity and Quality of Life among Adults with Paraplegia in Odisha, India

    PubMed Central

    Ganesh, Shankar; Mishra, Chittaranjan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: The complete rehabilitation of patients with spinal cord injuries (SCI) comprises both physical and psychosocial factors. This study therefore aimed to assess physical activity and quality of life (QOL) among paraplegic patients with SCI in Odisha, India. Methods: This cross-sectional prospective study was conducted between March 2010 and December 2013. All paraplegic patients treated at the Swami Vivekanand National Institute of Rehabilitation Training & Research in Odisha, India, during the study period who met the inclusion criteria were invited to participate in the study (n = 364). Structured face-to-face interviews were held with participants and QOL and physical activity were assessed using the abbreviated World Health Organization QOL instrument and the Physical Activity Scale for Individuals with Physical Disabilities, respectively. Results: A total of 84 people participated in the study (response rate: 23.1%). The mean age was 32.54 ± 10.75 years and 90.5% of the participants were male. Participants had a low mean metabolic equivalent score (18.18 ± 10.68 hours/day). Additionally, low mean scores were noted for the physical health, psychological well-being, social relationships and environment QOL domains (49.76 ± 18.74, 48.57 ± 17.04, 57.88 ± 17.04 and 49.85 ± 17.77, respectively). There was a strong positive association between levels of physical activity and all QOL domains (P <0.050). Physical activity and employment status were significant predictors of all QOL domains (P <0.001). Conclusion: Low physical activity levels and QOL were noted among the paraplegic subjects. Interventions promoting physical activity and employment may help to improve QOL among this patient group. PMID:26909214

  18. Experimental study on active cooling systems used for thermal management of high-power multichip light-emitting diodes.

    PubMed

    Kaya, Mehmet

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to develop suitable cooling systems for high-power multichip LEDs. To this end, three different active cooling systems were investigated to control the heat generated by the powering of high-power multichip LEDs in two different configurations (30 and 2 × 15 W). The following cooling systems were used in the study: an integrated multi-fin heat sink design with a fan, a cooling system with a thermoelectric cooler (TEC), and a heat pipe cooling device. According to the results, all three systems were observed to be sufficient for cooling high-power LEDs. Furthermore, it was observed that the integrated multifin heat sink design with a fan was the most efficient cooling system for a 30 W high-power multichip LED. The cooling system with a TEC and 46 W input power was the most efficient cooling system for 2 × 15 W high-power multichip LEDs.

  19. Effect of Lead stress on phosphatase activity and reducing power assay of Triticum aestivum.

    PubMed

    Gubrelay, U; Agnihotri, R K; Shrotriya, S; Sharma, R

    2015-01-01

    Lead (Pb) is a highly toxic heavy metal for both plants and animals; the environment is increasingly polluted with heavy metals and reduces crop productivity. Plants possess homeostatic mechanisms that allow them to keep correct concentrations of essential metal ions in cellular compartments and to minimize the damaging effects of an excess of nonessential ones. One of their adverse effects on plants are the generation of harmful active oxygen species, leading to oxidative stress and the antioxidative activity seems to be of fundamental importance for adaptive response of plant against environmental stress. The present study explores the effects of lead (soil treated twice/ week) with (10, 30 and 60 mM) on the specific activities of phosphatases which might lead to reducing power assay in (Triticum aestivum PBW344) seedling. A significant decrease in the redox potential of shoot compared to root was observed at the similar concentration of lead. A similar trend on leaves was also noted. Acid and alkaline phosphatase activities were significantly higher in roots than in shoot at all the three concentration of lead i.e. 10, 30 and 60 mM, compared to controls. The above mentioned changes were more pronounced at 60 mM concentration of lead than two other concentrations. These results lead us to suggest that increased lead concentration in soil might lead to adverse effects on plant growth and phosphatase activities. PMID:26107501

  20. Low-power sensor module for long-term activity monitoring.

    PubMed

    Leuenberger, Kaspar; Gassert, Roger

    2011-01-01

    Wearable sensor modules are a promising approach to collecting data on functional motor activities, both for repeated and long-term assessments, as well as to investigate the transfer of therapy to activities of daily living at home, but have so far either had limited sensing capabilities, or were not laid out for long-term monitoring. This paper presents ReSense, a miniature sensor unit optimized for long-term monitoring of functional activity. Inertial MEMS sensors capture accelerations along six degrees of freedom and a barometric pressure sensor serves as a precise altimeter. Data is written to an integrated memory card. The realized module measures Ø25 × 10 mm, weighs 10 g and can record continuously for 27 h at 25 Hz and over 22 h at 100 Hz. The integrated power-management system detects inactivity and extends the operating time by about a factor of two, as shown by initial 24 h recordings on five energetic healthy adults. The integrated barometric pressure sensor allowed to identify activities incorporating a change in altitude, such as going up/down stairs or riding an elevator. By taking into account data from the inertial sensors during the altitude changes, it becomes possible to distinguish between these two activities. PMID:22254785