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Sample records for active principles present

  1. Adult Learning Principles and Presentation Pearls

    PubMed Central

    Palis, Ana G.; Quiros, Peter A.

    2014-01-01

    Although lectures are one of the most common methods of knowledge transfer in medicine, their effectiveness has been questioned. Passive formats, lack of relevance and disconnection from the student's needs are some of the arguments supporting this apparent lack of efficacy. However, many authors have suggested that applying adult learning principles (i.e., relevance, congruence with student's needs, interactivity, connection to student's previous knowledge and experience) to this method increases learning by lectures and the effectiveness of lectures. This paper presents recommendations for applying adult learning principles during planning, creation and development of lectures to make them more effective. PMID:24791101

  2. Principles of Technology. Workshop Presenter's Handbook for Pennsylvania Educators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wichowski, Chester P.

    This workshop presenter's handbook was developed to provide assistance to those who will serve as Principles of Technology trainers of science, industrial arts/technology education, and mathematics teachers throughout Pennsylvania. The handbook provides trainers with presentation materials, transparency masters, suggested activities, and selected…

  3. Computer Technology Can Enhance Presentation of Pharmacological Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riffee, William H.

    1991-01-01

    The use of liquid crystal display (LCD) techniques for projection of computer monitor images onto a large screen for classroom viewing is discussed and illustrated with a pharmacology class presentation on drug/neurotransmitter-receptor interactions. The method is seen as a way of bringing a new dynamic to visual instruction. (MSE)

  4. Simple Activity Demonstrates Wind Energy Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2012-01-01

    Wind energy is an exciting and clean energy option often described as the fastest-growing energy system on the planet. With some simple materials, teachers can easily demonstrate its key principles in their classroom. (Contains 1 figure and 2 tables.)

  5. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames.

    PubMed

    Straker, Leon M; Fenner, Ashley A; Howie, Erin K; Feltz, Deborah L; Gray, Cindy M; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian Floyd; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M

    2015-02-01

    Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human-computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity.

  6. Efficient and Effective Change Principles in Active Videogames

    PubMed Central

    Fenner, Ashley A.; Howie, Erin K.; Feltz, Deborah L.; Gray, Cindy M.; Lu, Amy Shirong; Mueller, Florian “Floyd”; Simons, Monique; Barnett, Lisa M.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Active videogames have the potential to enhance population levels of physical activity but have not been successful in achieving this aim to date. This article considers a range of principles that may be important to the design of effective and efficient active videogames from diverse discipline areas, including behavioral sciences (health behavior change, motor learning, and serious games), business production (marketing and sales), and technology engineering and design (human–computer interaction/ergonomics and flow). Both direct and indirect pathways to impact on population levels of habitual physical activity are proposed, along with the concept of a game use lifecycle. Examples of current active and sedentary electronic games are used to understand how such principles may be applied. Furthermore, limitations of the current usage of theoretical principles are discussed. A suggested list of principles for best practice in active videogame design is proposed along with suggested research ideas to inform practice to enhance physical activity. PMID:26181680

  7. First principles calculation of the activity of cytochrome P450

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Segall, M. D.; Payne, M. C.; Ellis, S. W.; Tucker, G. T.; Boyes, R. N.

    1998-04-01

    The cytochrome P450 superfamily of enzymes is of enormous interest in the biological sciences due to the wide range of endogenous and xenobiotic compounds which it metabolises, including many drugs. We describe the use of first principles quantum mechanical modeling techniques, based on density functional theory, to determine the outcome of interactions between an enzyme and a number of compounds. Specifically, we calculate the spin state of an Fe3+ ion present in a haem moiety at the active site of these enzymes. The spin state of this ion indicates if the catalytic reaction will proceed. The computational results obtained compare favorably with experimental data. Only the principle components of the active site of the enzyme are included in the computational models, demonstrating that only a small fragment of the protein needs to be included in the models in order to accurately reproduce this aspect of the enzymes' function. These results open the way for further investigation of this superfamily of enzymes using the methods detailed in this paper.

  8. Active nondestructive assay of nuclear materials: principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Gozani, Tsahi

    1981-01-01

    The purpose of this book is to present, coherently and comprehensively, the wealth of available but scattered information on the principles and applications of active nondestructive analysis (ANDA). Chapters are devoted to the following: background and overview; interactions of neutrons with matter; interactions of ..gamma..-rays with matter; neutron production and sources; ..gamma..-ray production and sources; effects of neutron and ..gamma..-ray transport in bulk media; signatures of neutron- and photon-induced fissions; neutron and photon detection systems and electronics; representative ANDA systems; and instrument analysis, calibration, and measurement control for ANDA. Each chapter has an introductory section describing the relationship of the topic of that chapter to ANDA. Each chapter ends with a section that summarizes the main results and conclusions of the chapter, and a reference list.

  9. Local Activity Principle:. the Cause of Complexity and Symmetry Breaking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mainzer, Klaus

    2013-01-01

    The principle of local activity is precisely the missing concept to explain the emergence of complex patterns in a homogeneous medium. Leon O. Chua discovered and defined this principle in the theory of nonlinear electronic circuits in a mathematically rigorous way. The local principle can be generalized and proven at least for the class of nonlinear reaction-diffusion systems in physics, chemistry, biology and brain research. Recently, it was realized by memristors for nanoelectronic device applications in technical brains. In general, the emergence of complex patterns and structures is explained by symmetry breaking in homogeneous media. The principle of local activity is the cause of symmetry breaking in homogeneous media. We argue that the principle of local activity is really fundamental in science and can even be identified in quantum cosmology as symmetry breaking of local gauge symmetries generating the complexity of matter and forces in our universe. Finally, we consider applications in economic, financial, and social systems with the emergence of equilibrium states, symmetry breaking at critical points of phase transitions and risky acting at the edge of chaos. In any case, the driving causes of symmetry breaking and the emergence of complexity are locally active elements, cells, units, or agents.

  10. Active principle of swine prostate extract: I. Isolation of active principle activating prostatic acid phosphatase and its effect on testosterone uptake of the prostate in castrated rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Y; Mori, H; Inami, K; Koda, A

    1991-07-01

    There have been several reports concerning the therapeutic effect of an extract from animal prostates on benign prostatic hypertrophy. Previously, we reported that the swine prostate extract (PE) had the activity to enhance human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAPase) activity in vitro, and to increase the muscular tonicity of the urinary bladder by directly acting upon vesical muscles, suggesting that PE have an activity to elevate the intravesical voiding pressure in vivo. In the present study, it was attempted to isolate such an active principle of PE as activates human prostatic acid phosphatase (PAPase). The finally purified PE (PPE) was assessed as to some physico-chemical and pharmacological properties. 1) PPE was found to be a peptide with a molecular weight of about 8,800, composed largely of neutral amino acids (approximately 70%) and few of aromatic amino acids. 2) PPE activated PAPase in a dose-dependent fashion, resulting in an increase of the enzyme activity approximately twice in a dose of 2 X 10(-5) g/ml of PPE. Furthermore, PPE recovered PAPase activity dose-dependently from the 50% inhibition by 2 X 10(-3) M L-tartaric acid. 3) In castrated rats, the 3H-testosterone uptake of the prostate was significantly suppressed by the oral administration of PPE. PPE might be one of active principles of PE for the therapeutic effect on prostatic hypertrophy.

  11. Adult Learning Principles in Designing Learning Activities for Teacher Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gravani, Maria N.

    2012-01-01

    The research reported in this paper is an investigation of the application of adult learning principles in designing learning activities for teachers' life-long development. The exploration is illustrated by qualitative data from a case study of adult educators' and adult learners' insights and experiences of a teacher development course organised…

  12. The Aether and Heinrich Hertz's The Principles of Mechanics Presented in a New Form

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulligan, Joseph F.

    The luminiferous aether played an important role in the careers of one of the greatest of nineteenth-century physicists, Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894). This paper demonstrates from Hertz's own writings the maturing of his interest in the aether during the years 1885-1894 until he finally considered the nature of the aether the most important problem remaining to be solved by physicists. This conviction, joined to his desire to reduce all physics to mechanics, eventually led Hertz to devote the last three years of his life (1891-1894) to his The Principles of Mechanics Presented in a New Form, a work he intended as preparatory to an all-out attack on the nature and functions of an aether. The reason why, after Hertz's premature death in 1894, physicists gradually lost interest in both his Mechanics and in the aether are discussed.

  13. Topical delivery of active principles: the field of dermatological research.

    PubMed

    Nino, Massimiliano; Calabrò, Gabriella; Santoianni, Pietro

    2010-01-15

    To be effective an active drug or principle must cross the stratum corneum barrier; this process can be influenced to obtain better functional and therapeutical effects. In spite of the wide variety of the methods studied in order to improve the transdermal transfer to obtain systemic effects, the applicability is limited in this field. Attention to the epidermal barrier and penetration of active principles has been reported mostly in studies concerning dermocosmetics. Studies regarding methods of penetration are gaining experimental and clinical interest. Cutaneous bioavailability of most commercially available dermatological formulations is low. Increase of intradermal delivery can relate to chemical, biochemical, or physical manipulations. Chemical enhancers have been adopted to: (a) increase the diffusibility of the substance across the barrier; (b) increase product solubility in the vehicle; (c) improve the partition coefficient. Moreover methods of interference with the biosynthesis of some lipids allow the modification of the structure of the barrier to increase the penetration. The main physical techniques that increase cutaneous penetration of substances are: iontophoresis (that increases the penetration of ionized substances), electroporation (that electrically induces penetration through the barrier), and sonophoresis, based on 20 to 25 KHz ultrasound that induces alterations of the horny barrier, allowing penetration of active principles. Recent development of these methods are here reported and underline the importance and role of vehicles and other factors that determine effects of partition and diffusion, crucial to absorption.

  14. Auxin Activity: Past, present, and Future1

    PubMed Central

    Enders, Tara A.; Strader, Lucia C.

    2016-01-01

    Long before its chemical identity was known, the phytohormone auxin was postulated to regulate plant growth. In the late 1800s, Sachs hypothesized that plant growth regulators, present in small amounts, move differentially throughout the plant to regulate growth. Concurrently, Charles Darwin and Francis Darwin were discovering that light and gravity were perceived by the tips of shoots and roots and that the stimulus was transmitted to other tissues, which underwent a growth response. These ideas were improved upon by Boysen-Jensen and Paál and were later developed into the Cholodny–Went hypothesis that tropisms were caused by the asymmetric distribution of a growth-promoting substance. These observations led to many efforts to identify this elusive growth-promoting substance, which we now know as auxin. In this review of auxin field advances over the past century, we start with a seminal paper by Kenneth Thimann and Charles Schneider titled “The relative activities of different auxins” from the American Journal of Botany, in which they compare the growth altering properties of several auxinic compounds. From this point, we explore the modern molecular understanding of auxin—including its biosynthesis, transport, and perception. Finally, we end this review with a discussion of outstanding questions and future directions in the auxin field. Over the past 100 yr, much of our progress in understanding auxin biology has relied on the steady and collective advance of the field of auxin researchers; we expect that the next 100 yr of auxin research will likewise make many exciting advances. PMID:25667071

  15. Auxin activity: Past, present, and future.

    PubMed

    Enders, Tara A; Strader, Lucia C

    2015-02-01

    Long before its chemical identity was known, the phytohormone auxin was postulated to regulate plant growth. In the late 1800s, Sachs hypothesized that plant growth regulators, present in small amounts, move differentially throughout the plant to regulate growth. Concurrently, Charles Darwin and Francis Darwin were discovering that light and gravity were perceived by the tips of shoots and roots and that the stimulus was transmitted to other tissues, which underwent a growth response. These ideas were improved upon by Boysen-Jensen and Paál and were later developed into the Cholodny-Went hypothesis that tropisms were caused by the asymmetric distribution of a growth-promoting substance. These observations led to many efforts to identify this elusive growth-promoting substance, which we now know as auxin. In this review of auxin field advances over the past century, we start with a seminal paper by Kenneth Thimann and Charles Schneider titled "The relative activities of different auxins" from the American Journal of Botany, in which they compare the growth altering properties of several auxinic compounds. From this point, we explore the modern molecular understanding of auxin-including its biosynthesis, transport, and perception. Finally, we end this review with a discussion of outstanding questions and future directions in the auxin field. Over the past 100 yr, much of our progress in understanding auxin biology has relied on the steady and collective advance of the field of auxin researchers; we expect that the next 100 yr of auxin research will likewise make many exciting advances.

  16. Re-Presenting the Library Collections: A Story of Principles, Pathways and Partnerships

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kattau, Maureen

    2012-01-01

    Macquarie University Library's planning for a new library coincided with a major renewal of the university's curriculum and research activity. This provided a significant opportunity to re-think the presentation of the library collections in the new environment. This article describes how strategic alignment with university goals and the framework…

  17. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  18. Carotid Baroreflex Activation: Past, Present, and Future

    PubMed Central

    Scheffers, Ingrid J. M.; Kroon, Abraham A.

    2010-01-01

    Electrical activation of the carotid baroreceptor system is an attractive therapy for the treatment of resistant hypertension. In the past, several attempts were made to directly activate the baroreceptor system in humans, but the method had to be restricted to a few selected patients. Adverse effects, the need for better electrical devices and better surgical techniques, and the lack of knowledge about long-term effects has greatly hampered developments in this area for many years. Recently, a new and promising device was evaluated in a multicenter feasibility trial, which showed a clinically and statistically significant reduction in office systolic blood pressure (>20 mm Hg). This reduction could be sustained for at least 2 years with an acceptable safety profile. In the future, this new device may stimulate further application of electrical activation of the carotid baroreflex in treatment-resistant hypertension. PMID:20424959

  19. Perspectives of activated carbonpast, present and future

    SciTech Connect

    Carrubba, R.V.; Urbanic, J.E.; Wagner, N.J.; Zanitsch, R.H.

    1984-01-01

    Granular activated carbon has evolved a unique role as a broad spectrum solid adsorbent in its 75 years of commercial utilization. Creative applications development has established it as technology of choice for critical water purification, sweetener decolorization, air purification and solvent recovery applications, among others. New innovations in pressure swing adsorption and new vapor phase adsorbents promise equally significant future applications.

  20. The present status of stellar activity theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belvedere, G.

    Features, predictions available from, and problems facing mean field electrodynamic (MFE) models of solar and stellar dynamo activities are outlined. The linear, kinetic dynamo (LKD) approach describes the interaction between a turbulent velocity field and a magnetic field in terms of an MFE induction equation. LKD permits the reciprocal generation of poloidal and toroidal fields through rotational and cyclonic, turbulent forces. Nonlinear hydromagnetic theory considers magnetic field back reaction effects on the kinematic field by the Lorentz EM body force. All forces in the LKD model increase in impact with advancing spectral evolution. Differential rotation and dynamo action become particularly important. Further research is needed to account for the gap in the F-G region of the evolutionary continuum, the occurrence of multimodal dynamo features, and the presence of cyclic and noncyclic dynamo activity, depending on the star.

  1. Physics Textbooks Presentation of the Energy-Conservation Principle in Hydrodynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibanez, M.; Ramos, M. C.

    2004-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine how energy-conservation principle is exposed in hydrodynamics chapters of university physics textbooks. Ten physics textbooks analyzed show considerable deficiencies in the use of energy concepts related to uncompressible fluid dynamics. The following problems have been extensively found: The pressure…

  2. An active principle of Nigella sativa L., thymoquinone, showing significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Randhawa, Mohammad Akram; Alenazy, Awwad Khalaf; Alrowaili, Majed Gorayan; Basha, Jamith

    2017-01-01

    Aim/Background: Thymoquinone (TQ) is the major active principle of Nigella sativa seed (black seed) and is known to control many fungi, bacteria, and some viruses. However, the activity of TQ against anaerobic bacteria is not well demonstrated. Anaerobic bacteria can cause severe infections, including diarrhea, aspiration pneumonia, and brain abscess, particularly in immunodeficient individuals. The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro antimicrobial activity of TQ against some anaerobic pathogens in comparison to metronidazole. Methods: Standard, ATCC, strains of four anaerobic bacteria (Clostridium difficile, Clostridium perfringens, Bacteroides fragilis, and Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron), were initially isolated on special Brucella agar base (with hemin and vitamin K). Then, minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of TQ and metronidazole were determined against these anaerobes when grown in Brucella agar, using serial agar dilution method according to the recommended guidelines for anaerobic organisms instructed by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. Results: TQ showed a significant antimicrobial activity against anaerobic bacteria although much weaker than metronidazole. MICs of TQ and metronidazole against various anaerobic human pathogens tested were found to be between 10-160 mg/L and 0.19-6.25 mg/L, respectively. Conclusions: TQ controlled the anaerobic human pathogenic bacteria, which supports the use of N. sativa in the treatment of diarrhea in folk medicine. Further investigations are in need for determination of the synergistic effect of TQ in combination with metronidazole and the activity of derivatives of TQ against anaerobic infections. PMID:28163966

  3. New Design of MHC Class II Tetramers to Accommodate Fundamental Principles of Antigen Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Landais, Elise; Romagnoli, Pablo A.; Corper, Adam L.; Shires, John; Altman, John D.; Wilson, Ian A.; Garcia, K. Christopher; Teyton, Luc

    2009-01-01

    Direct identification and isolation of antigen-specific T cells became possible with the development of “MHC tetramers”, based on fluorescent avidins displaying biotinylated peptide-MHC (pMHC) complexes. This approach, extensively used for MHC class I–restricted T cells, has met very limited success with MHC class II tetramers (pMHCT-2) for the detection of CD4+ specific T cells. In addition, a very large number of these reagents while capable of specifically activating T cells after being coated on solid support, are still unable to stain. In order to try to understand this puzzle and design usable tetramers, we examined each parameter critical for the production of pMHCT-2 using the I-Ad-OVA system as a model. Through this process the geometry of pMHC display by avidin tetramers was examined, as well as the stability of recombinant MHC molecules. However, we discovered that the most important factor limiting the reactivity of pMHCT-2 was the display of peptides. Indeed, long peptides, as presented by MHC class II molecules, can be bound to I-A/HLA-DQ molecules in more than one register as suggested by structural studies. This mode of anchorless peptide binding allows the selection of a broader repertoire on single peptides and should favor anti-infectious immune responses. Thus, beyond the technical improvements that we propose, the redesign of pMHCT-2 will give us the tools to evaluate the real size of the CD4 repertoire and help us in the production and testing of new vaccines. PMID:19923463

  4. A New "Principal Principle" (#14) of Physical Activity Education Is Emerging

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeigler, Earle F.

    2011-01-01

    There is every reason to believe that a new "principal principle" of physical activity education is emerging. In this article, the author talks about the new "principal principle"(#14) of physical education. Revisiting a historical milestone in the field's history to explain the origin of the term "principal principle," Dr. Arthur H. Steinhaus,…

  5. First principle active neutron coincidence counting measurements of uranium oxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William; Peerani, Paolo

    2014-03-01

    Uranium is present in most nuclear fuel cycle facilities ranging from uranium mines, enrichment plants, fuel fabrication facilities, nuclear reactors, and reprocessing plants. The isotopic, chemical, and geometric composition of uranium can vary significantly between these facilities, depending on the application and type of facility. Examples of this variation are: enrichments varying from depleted (~0.2 wt% 235U) to high enriched (>20 wt% 235U); compositions consisting of U3O8, UO2, UF6, metallic, and ceramic forms; geometries ranging from plates, cans, and rods; and masses which can range from a 500 kg fuel assembly down to a few grams fuel pellet. Since 235U is a fissile material, it is routinely safeguarded in these facilities. Current techniques for quantifying the 235U mass in a sample include neutron coincidence counting. One of the main disadvantages of this technique is that it requires a known standard of representative geometry and composition for calibration, which opens up a pathway for potential erroneous declarations by the State and reduces the effectiveness of safeguards. In order to address this weakness, the authors have developed a neutron coincidence counting technique which uses the first principle point-model developed by Boehnel instead of the "known standard" method. This technique was primarily tested through simulations of 1000 g U3O8 samples using the Monte Carlo N-Particle eXtended (MCNPX) code. The results of these simulations showed good agreement between the simulated and exact 235U sample masses.

  6. The Medical Interaction Laboratory--Multidiscipline Approach for Presentation of Principles of Physiology and Pharmacology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oliver, Jack W.; Sims, Michael H.

    1979-01-01

    An interdisciplinary physiology and pharmacology course presented by the Medical Interaction Laboratory at the University of Tennessee College of Veterinary Medicine provides interaction among faculty, conserves faculty time and animal expense, and presents a coordinated laboratory experience. (BH)

  7. Evaluation of Antileishmanial Activity of Selected Brazilian Plants and Identification of the Active Principles

    PubMed Central

    Filho, Valdir Cechinel; Meyre-Silva, Christiane; Niero, Rivaldo; Bolda Mariano, Luisa Nathália; Gomes do Nascimento, Fabiana; Vicente Farias, Ingrid; Gazoni, Vanessa Fátima; dos Santos Silva, Bruna; Giménez, Alberto; Gutierrez-Yapu, David; Salamanca, Efrain; Malheiros, Angela

    2013-01-01

    This study evaluated extracts, fractions, and isolated compounds from some selected Brazilian medicinal plants against strains of promastigotes of Leishmania amazonensis and L. brasiliensis in vitro. The cell viability was determined, comparing the results with reference standards. The dichloromethane fractions of the roots, stems, and leaves of Allamanda schottii showed IC50 values between 14.0 and 2.0 μg/mL. Plumericin was the main active compound, with IC50 of 0.3 and 0.04 μg/mL against the two species of Leishmania analyzed. The hexane extract of Eugenia umbelliflora fruits showed IC50 of 14.3 and 5.7 μg/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. The methanolic extracts of the seeds of Garcinia achachairu and guttiferone A presented IC50 values of 35.9 and 10.4 μg/mL, against L. amazonensis, respectively. The ethanolic extracts of the stem barks of Rapanea ferruginea and the isolated compound, myrsinoic acid B, presented activity against L. brasiliensis with IC50 of 24.1 and 6.1 μg/mL. Chloroform fraction of Solanum sisymbriifolium exhibited IC50 of 33.8 and 20.5 μg/mL, and cilistol A was the main active principle, with IC50 of 6.6 and 3.1 μg/mL against L. amazonensis and L. brasiliensis, respectively. It is concluded that the analyzed plants are promising as new and effective antiparasitic agents. PMID:23840252

  8. Nanoscale Properties and Stability Simulations of Alkali Activated Cement Phases from First Principle Calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozcelik, Ongun; White, Claire

    Using first principle density functional calculations, we present the nanoscale properties of interactions, local bonds, charge distributions, mechanical properties and strength of alkali activated cement phases which are the most promising alternative to the ordinary Portland cement with a much lower cost to the environment. We present results on the stability and long term durability of various alkali activated cement structures, effects of external alkali agents on their properties and ways of utilizing them for further applications. We compare the calculated properties of alkali activated cement with those of ordinary Portland cement and contribute to the formation of long term durability data of these phases. Comparison with X-ray and neutron scattering experiment results are also provided via pair distribution functions extracted from simulation results.

  9. The Operating Principle of a Fully Solid State Active Magnetic Regenerator

    SciTech Connect

    Abdelaziz, Omar

    2016-01-01

    As an alternative refrigeration technology, magnetocaloric refrigeration has the potential to be safer, quieter, more efficient, and more environmentally friendly than the conventional vapor compression refrigeration technology. Most of the reported active magnetic regenerator (AMR) systems that operate based on the magnetocaloric effect use heat transfer fluid to exchange heat, which results in complicated mechanical subsystems and components such as rotating valves and hydraulic pumps. This paper presents an operating principle of a fully solid state AMR, in which an alternative mechanism for heat transfer between the AMR and the heat source/sink is proposed. The operating principle of the fully solid state AMR is based on moving rods/sheets (e.g. copper, brass, iron or aluminum), which are employed to replace the heat transfer fluid. Such fully solid state AMR would provide a significantly higher heat transfer rate than a conventional AMR because the conductivity of moving solid rods/plates is high and it enables the increase in the machine operating frequency hence the cooling capacity. The details of operating principle are presented and discussed here. One of the key enabling features for this technology is the contact between the moving rods/sheets and magnetocaloric material, and heat exchange mechanism at the heat source/sink. This paper provides an overview of the design for a fully solid state magnetocaloric refrigeration system along with guidelines for their optimal design.

  10. Salvia officinalis for hot flushes: towards determination of mechanism of activity and active principles.

    PubMed

    Rahte, Sinikka; Evans, Richard; Eugster, Philippe J; Marcourt, Laurence; Wolfender, Jean-Luc; Kortenkamp, Andreas; Tasdemir, Deniz

    2013-06-01

    Herbal medicinal products are commonly used in alternative treatment of menopausal hot flushes. In a recent clinical study, Salvia officinalis tincture was found to reduce hot flush frequency and intensity. The aim of the current study was the investigation of the mechanism(s) responsible for the anti-hot flush activity of S. officinalis and determination of its active principle(s). The 66% ethanolic tincture, as well as the n-hexane, CHCl₃, and aqueous ethanolic subextracts obtained from the tincture were studied in vitro for two of the most relevant activities, estrogenicity and selective serotonin reuptake inhibition. Because of an increased risk of menopausal women to suffer from Alzheimer's disease, an in vitro acetylcholinesterase inhibition assay was also employed. No activity was observed in the selective serotonin reuptake inhibition or the acetylcholinesterase inhibition assays at the highest test concentrations. The tincture showed no estrogenic effects whereas the aqueous ethanolic subextract exhibited estrogenicity in the ERLUX assay with an EC₅₀ value of 64 µg/mL. Estrogenic activity-guided fractionation of the aqueous ethanolic subextract by a combination of reverse-phase vacuum liquid chromatography and gel chromatography identified luteolin-7-O-glucuronide (EC₅₀ 129 µg/mL) as the active component of the vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 4 (EC₅₀ 69 µg/mL). Luteolin-7-O-glucoside was identified as the putative estrogenic principle of the most potent minor fraction (7.6.7.6, EC₅₀ 0.7 µg/mL) obtained from the initial vacuum liquid chromatography fraction 7 (EC₅₀ 3 µg/mL). This study suggests the involvement of common and ubiquitous estrogenic flavonoids in the anti-hot flush effect of Salvia officinalis, a safe and commonly used herbal medicinal product during the menopause.

  11. Using active learning strategies to present bloodborne pathogen programs.

    PubMed

    Weaver, Mary G

    2003-06-01

    Every year, school nurses have the responsibility for developing and presenting a bloodborne pathogen presentation to the education and clerical staff of their buildings. Although the information is similar from year to year, the manner in which the information is presented can be altered. Teachers are using active learning strategies in a variety of learning environments, engaging students in the learning process by having them play an active role. With some planning, preparation, and imagination, active learning strategies can be incorporated into bloodborne pathogen presentations. The purpose of this article is to define active learning, describe how to develop a program using active learning strategies, and provide some examples of bloodborne pathogen presentations that have already been developed. Several sources are identified that can provide the school nurse with information regarding bloodborne pathogens. Information about how computers can be integrated into the bloodborne pathogen presentation is also presented.

  12. In-vivo neutron activation analysis: principles and clinical applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cohn, S.H.

    1982-01-01

    In vivo neutron activation has opened a new era of both clinical diagnosis and therapy evaluation, and investigation into and modelling of body composition. The techniques are new, but it is already clear that considerable strides can be made in increasing accuracy and precision, increasing the number of elements susceptible to measurement, enhancing uniformity, and reducing the dose required for the measurement. The work presently underway will yield significant data on a variety of environmental contaminants such as Cd. Compositional studies are determining the level of vital constituents such as nitrogen and potassium in both normal subjects and in patients with a variety of metabolic disorders. Therapeutic programs can be assessed while in progress. It seems likely that by the end of this century there will have been significant progress with this research tool, and exciting insights obtained into the nature and dynamics of human body composition.

  13. First Principles Computational Study of the Active Site of Arginase

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Ivaylo; Klien, Micheal

    2004-01-14

    Ab initio density functional theory (DFT) methods were used to investigate the structural features of the active site of the binuclear enzyme rat liver arginase. Special emphasis was placed on the crucial role of the second shell ligand interactions. These interactions were systematically studied by performing calculations on models of varying size. It was determined that a water molecule, and not hydroxide, is the bridging exogenous ligand. The carboxylate ligands facilitate the close approach of the Mn (II) ions by attenuating the metal-metal electrostatic repulsion. Of the two metals, MnA was shown to carry a larger positive charge. Analysis of the electronic properties of the active site revealed that orbitals involving the terminal Asp234 residue, as well as the flexible -1,1 bridging Asp232, lie at high energies, suggesting weaker coordination. This is reflected in certain structural variability present in our models and is also consistent with recent experimental findings. Finally, implications of our findings for the biological function of the enzyme are delineated.

  14. Antiinflammatory effect of mace, aril of Myristica fragrans Houtt., and its active principles.

    PubMed

    Ozaki, Y; Soedigdo, S; Wattimena, Y R; Suganda, A G

    1989-02-01

    Mace which is the aril of the fruit of Myristica fragrans HOUTT, has been used in Indonesian folk medicine as aromatic stomachics, analgesics, a medicine for rheumatism, etc. The present study was carried out to elucidate the antiinflammatory effect of methanol extract obtained from Mace and its active principles. The methanol extract was extracted with ether, and then the ether soluble fraction was extracted with n-hexane. The n-hexane soluble fraction was fractionated by silica gel column chromatography (Fr-l-Fr-V), and the active principle was isolated from Fr-II by thin layer chromatography (Fr-VI-Fr-VII). The antiinflammatory activity of these fractions was investigated on carrageenin-induced edema in rats and acetic acid-induced vascular permeability in mice. All fractions and indomethacin were suspended in 2% C.M.C. solution and administered p.o. The methanol extract (1.5 g/kg), ether fraction (0.9 g/kg), n-hexane fraction (0.5 g/kg), Fr-II (0.19 g/kg) and Fr-VI (0.17 g/kg) showed a lasting antiinflammatory activity, and the potencies of these fractions were approximately the same as that of indomethacin (10 mg/kg). Fr-VI was determined to be myristicin. These results suggest that the antiinflammatory action of Mace is due to the myristicin that it contains.

  15. Using Activity Theory and its Principle of Contradictions to Guide Research in Educational Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Elizabeth; Rodriguez-Manzanares, Maria A.

    2008-01-01

    This paper describes how activity theory (AT) and its principle of contradictions may be relied on to guide research in educational technology. The paper begins with a theoretical overview of AT and of its principle of contradictions. It follows with a synthesis of studies that have used AT as a lens to study information and communication…

  16. Using Active Learning Strategies to Present Bloodborne Pathogen Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooper, Leslie; Weaver, Mary G.

    2003-01-01

    Every year, school nurses have the responsibility for developing and presenting a bloodborne pathogen presentation to the education and clerical staff of their buildings. Although the information is similar from year to year, the manner in which the information is presented can be altered. Teachers are using active learning strategies in a variety…

  17. Activation energetics of actinide diffusion in UO2 from first-principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jianwei; Becker, Udo

    2013-02-01

    Diffusion of actinides in uranium dioxide plays an important role in determining thermodynamic and mechanic properties of the material. Activation energies of Th, U, Np, and Pu diffusion in uranium dioxide were systematically studied using first-principles calculations. The generalized gradient approximation and projector-augmented wave methods with on-site Coulomb repulsive interaction were applied within Density Functional Theory and Plane Wave framework. Two diffusion paths, one along the lattice <1 1 0> direction and the other along the lattice <1 0 0> direction, were examined in the face-centered cubic UO2 structure. The results show that the <1 1 0> path has lower migration energy than the <1 0 0> path. Under the assumption of a vacancy-assisted jump diffusion mechanism, the major contribution to the activation energy is the migration energy, followed by the vacancy formation energy and vacancy binding energy, where the last has the lowest contribution. However, differences in the activation energies among different actinides stem from both the migration and vacancy binding energies, both of which decrease with atomic number. While discrepancies between the absolute values of the calculated and experimentally observed activation energies remain, this study shows a correlation between activation energy and atomic number and an asymptotic relation between activation energy and ionic radius of the actinides. The present study suggests that the migration of the actinides through the uranium dioxide lattice is closely correlated to the number of 5f electrons and the size of the diffusing atoms.

  18. Spice active principles as the inhibitors of human platelet aggregation and thromboxane biosynthesis.

    PubMed

    Raghavendra, R H; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2009-07-01

    Spice active principles are reported to have anti-diabetic, anti-hypercholesterolemic, antilithogenic, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial and anti-cancer properties. In our previous report we have shown that spices and their active principles inhibit 5-lipoxygenase and also formation of leukotriene C4. In this study, we report the modulatory effect of spice active principles viz., eugenol, capsaicin, piperine, quercetin, curcumin, cinnamaldehyde and allyl sulphide on in vitro human platelet aggregation. We have demonstrated that spice active principles inhibit platelet aggregation induced by different agonists, namely ADP (50microM), collagen (500microg/ml), arachidonic acid (AA) (1.0mM) and calcium ionophore A-23187 (20microM). Spice active principles showed preferential inhibition of arachidonic acid-induced platelet aggregation compared to other agonists. Among the spice active principles tested, eugenol and capsaicin are found to be most potent inhibitors of AA-induced platelet aggregation with IC50 values of 0.5 and 14.6microM, respectively. The order of potency of spice principles in inhibiting AA-induced platelet aggregation is eugenol>capsaicin>curcumin>cinnamaldehyde>piperine>allyl sulphide>quercetin. Eugenol is found to be 29-fold more potent than aspirin in inhibiting AA-induced human platelet aggregation. Eugenol and capsaicin inhibited thromboxane B2 (TXB2) formation in platelets in a dose-dependent manner challenged with AA apparently by the inhibition of the cyclooxygenase (COX-1). Eugenol-mediated inhibition of platelet aggregation is further confirmed by dose-dependent decrease in malondialdehyde (MDA) in platelets. Further, eugenol and capsaicin inhibited platelet aggregation induced by agonists-collagen, ADP and calcium ionophore but to a lesser degree compared to AA. These results clearly suggest that spice principles have beneficial effects in modulating human platelet aggregation.

  19. Major Pesticides Are More Toxic to Human Cells Than Their Declared Active Principles

    PubMed Central

    Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone. We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines (HepG2, HEK293, and JEG3). Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prochloraz constitute, respectively, the active principles of 3 major herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 3 fungicides. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. Fungicides were the most toxic from concentrations 300–600 times lower than agricultural dilutions, followed by herbicides and then insecticides, with very similar profiles in all cell types. Despite its relatively benign reputation, Roundup was among the most toxic herbicides and insecticides tested. Most importantly, 8 formulations out of 9 were up to one thousand times more toxic than their active principles. Our results challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake for pesticides because this norm is calculated from the toxicity of the active principle alone. Chronic tests on pesticides may not reflect relevant environmental exposures if only one ingredient of these mixtures is tested alone. PMID:24719846

  20. Major pesticides are more toxic to human cells than their declared active principles.

    PubMed

    Mesnage, Robin; Defarge, Nicolas; Spiroux de Vendômois, Joël; Séralini, Gilles-Eric

    2014-01-01

    Pesticides are used throughout the world as mixtures called formulations. They contain adjuvants, which are often kept confidential and are called inerts by the manufacturing companies, plus a declared active principle, which is usually tested alone. We tested the toxicity of 9 pesticides, comparing active principles and their formulations, on three human cell lines (HepG2, HEK293, and JEG3). Glyphosate, isoproturon, fluroxypyr, pirimicarb, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, tebuconazole, epoxiconazole, and prochloraz constitute, respectively, the active principles of 3 major herbicides, 3 insecticides, and 3 fungicides. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. Fungicides were the most toxic from concentrations 300-600 times lower than agricultural dilutions, followed by herbicides and then insecticides, with very similar profiles in all cell types. Despite its relatively benign reputation, Roundup was among the most toxic herbicides and insecticides tested. Most importantly, 8 formulations out of 9 were up to one thousand times more toxic than their active principles. Our results challenge the relevance of the acceptable daily intake for pesticides because this norm is calculated from the toxicity of the active principle alone. Chronic tests on pesticides may not reflect relevant environmental exposures if only one ingredient of these mixtures is tested alone.

  1. Engineering principles and concepts for active solar systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hunn, B. D.; Carlisle, N.; Franta, G.; Kolar, W.

    1987-07-01

    This publication is a much refined and updated version of a solar design handbook originally prepared in 1978 to accompany a series of week-long courses conducted in support of the Solar Federal Buildings Program. The 1978 material was published in 1981 as the Solar Design Workbook (SERI/SP-62-308). This current document represents the culmination of an eight-year effort to compile a comprehensive state-of-the-art reference and instructional tool for practicing design professionals, architects, and engineers. It is intended to cover all phases of the design and installation of active solar energy systems for buildings. Although it contains many design guidelines, the emphasis is on providing sufficient knowledge of how these systems work to allow an engineer or architect to make well-informed decisions. It is aimed primarily at commercial building applications, but most of the material is also applicable to residential buildings.

  2. 17 CFR 229.1206 - (Item 1206) Present activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT OF 1975-REGULATION S-K Disclosure by Registrants Engaged in Oil and..., the registrant's present activities, such as the number of wells in the process of being drilled (including wells temporarily suspended), waterfloods in process of being installed, pressure...

  3. Presentations, Signs of Activity, and Differential Diagnosis of Vitiligo.

    PubMed

    Goh, Boon-Kee; Pandya, Amit G

    2017-04-01

    Vitiligo has a variety of presentations, including focal, acrofacial, segmental, and generalized forms. Thorough knowledge of these presentations is important to make the correct diagnosis. Signs of activity are important to recognize so that treatment is optimized. Clinical findings of confettilike depigmentation, trichrome and inflammatory vitiligo, and the Koebner phenomenon should alert the clinician that a patient's disease is likely to worsen. These patients may require systemic treatment to stabilize their disease. Many other skin disorders present with hypopigmentation or depigmentation and must be distinguished to determine the right diagnosis, advise the patient on prognosis, and prescribe the correct treatment.

  4. Biological activities of phenolic compounds present in virgin olive oil.

    PubMed

    Cicerale, Sara; Lucas, Lisa; Keast, Russell

    2010-02-02

    The Mediterranean diet is associated with a lower incidence of atherosclerosis, cardiovascular disease, neurodegenerative diseases and certain types of cancer. The apparent health benefits have been partially ascribed to the dietary consumption of virgin olive oil by Mediterranean populations. Much research has focused on the biologically active phenolic compounds naturally present in virgin olive oils to aid in explaining reduced mortality and morbidity experienced by people consuming a traditional Mediterranean diet. Studies (human, animal, in vivo and in vitro) have demonstrated that olive oil phenolic compounds have positive effects on certain physiological parameters, such as plasma lipoproteins, oxidative damage, inflammatory markers, platelet and cellular function, antimicrobial activity and bone health. This paper summarizes current knowledge on the bioavailability and biological activities of olive oil phenolic compounds.

  5. 78 FR 64064 - Agency Information Collection (Principles of Excellence Complaint System Intake) Activity Under...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-25

    ... AFFAIRS Agency Information Collection (Principles of Excellence Complaint System Intake) Activity Under... collection of information abstracted below to the Office of Management and Budget (OMB) for review and....Regulations.gov , or to Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, Office of Management and Budget,...

  6. Principles and Implementation of Reading Activities in Primary School English Class

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jinxiu, Jing; Zhengping, Zeng

    2016-01-01

    Reading is an important skill in learning English. However, reading class is not emphasized in some primary schools in China, and there are various problems with the reading activities, which inadequately just focus on teaching of words, sentences separately from texts. This paper aims to bring out a whole system of principles in designing…

  7. Geothermal activity in Italy: present status and future prospects

    SciTech Connect

    Carella, R.; Palmerini, C.G.; Stefani, G.C.; Verdiani, G.

    1985-01-01

    In the Italian Peninsula the Apennines separate a relatively cold Po-Adriatic-Ionian ''foredeep'' external belt from a warmer Tyrrhenian ''back-arc'' internal tensional belt. The latter i characterized by high geothermal heat flow together with conspicuous recent or present-day volcani phenomena. In this area, extending from Tuscany to Campania, lie the known steam- and waterdominated fields. Other ''warm'' areas are located on some Tyrrhenian islands. Within the ''cold'' external belt, interesting locations for low enthalpy utilizations can be found in the Po river valley, particularly in the eastern part near Ferrara and Abano. Since 1977 ENEL (National Electri Energy Agency) and AGIP (State Oil Company) have been jointly conducting geothermal activities in Italy, with the exception of the Tuscan geothermal area where ENEL operates on an exclusive basis. At present the areas surveyed cover about 8250 kmS. As of December 1983 the geothermal installed capacity was 456.2 MW (net capacity 340 MW) and low-temperature geothermal resources equivalent to 100,000 OET /yr were being used. The National Energy Plant (PEN), issued on 4 December 1981, forecast for the year 1990 a geothermal power increment of 200 MW /SUB e/ above the 449.1 MW /SUB e/ already installed. The target in the low enthalpy non-electric sector is to save 300,000 OET/yr by 1990. This paper describes the activities carried out from March 1975 to December 1983 and the main projects in progress.

  8. Ethoxylated adjuvants of glyphosate-based herbicides are active principles of human cell toxicity.

    PubMed

    Mesnage, R; Bernay, B; Séralini, G-E

    2013-11-16

    Pesticides are always used in formulations as mixtures of an active principle with adjuvants. Glyphosate, the active ingredient of the major pesticide in the world, is an herbicide supposed to be specific on plant metabolism. Its adjuvants are generally considered as inert diluents. Since side effects for all these compounds have been claimed, we studied potential active principles for toxicity on human cells for 9 glyphosate-based formulations. For this we detailed their compositions and toxicities, and as controls we used a major adjuvant (the polyethoxylated tallowamine POE-15), glyphosate alone, and a total formulation without glyphosate. This was performed after 24h exposures on hepatic (HepG2), embryonic (HEK293) and placental (JEG3) cell lines. We measured mitochondrial activities, membrane degradations, and caspases 3/7 activities. The compositions in adjuvants were analyzed by mass spectrometry. Here we demonstrate that all formulations are more toxic than glyphosate, and we separated experimentally three groups of formulations differentially toxic according to their concentrations in ethoxylated adjuvants. Among them, POE-15 clearly appears to be the most toxic principle against human cells, even if others are not excluded. It begins to be active with negative dose-dependent effects on cellular respiration and membrane integrity between 1 and 3ppm, at environmental/occupational doses. We demonstrate in addition that POE-15 induces necrosis when its first micellization process occurs, by contrast to glyphosate which is known to promote endocrine disrupting effects after entering cells. Altogether, these results challenge the establishment of guidance values such as the acceptable daily intake of glyphosate, when these are mostly based on a long term in vivo test of glyphosate alone. Since pesticides are always used with adjuvants that could change their toxicity, the necessity to assess their whole formulations as mixtures becomes obvious. This challenges

  9. Educational activities of remote sensing archaeology (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hadjimitsis, Diofantos G.; Agapiou, Athos; Lysandrou, Vasilki; Themistocleous, Kyriacos; Cuca, Branka; Nisantzi, Argyro; Lasaponara, Rosa; Masini, Nicola; Krauss, Thomas; Cerra, Daniele; Gessner, Ursula; Schreier, Gunter

    2016-10-01

    Remote sensing science is increasingly being used to support archaeological and cultural heritage research in various ways. Satellite sensors either passive or active are currently used in a systematic basis to detect buried archaeological remains and to systematic monitor tangible heritage. In addition, airborne and low altitude systems are being used for documentation purposes. Ground surveys using remote sensing tools such as spectroradiometers and ground penetrating radars can detect variations of vegetation and soil respectively, which are linked to the presence of underground archaeological features. Education activities and training of remote sensing archaeology to young people is characterized of highly importance. Specific remote sensing tools relevant for archaeological research can be developed including web tools, small libraries, interactive learning games etc. These tools can be then combined and aligned with archaeology and cultural heritage. This can be achieved by presenting historical and pre-historical records, excavated sites or even artifacts under a "remote sensing" approach. Using such non-form educational approach, the students can be involved, ask, read, and seek to learn more about remote sensing and of course to learn about history. The paper aims to present a modern didactical concept and some examples of practical implementation of remote sensing archaeology in secondary schools in Cyprus. The idea was built upon an ongoing project (ATHENA) focused on the sue of remote sensing for archaeological research in Cyprus. Through H2020 ATHENA project, the Remote Sensing Science and Geo-Environment Research Laboratory at the Cyprus University of Technology (CUT), with the support of the National Research Council of Italy (CNR) and the German Aerospace Centre (DLR) aims to enhance its performance in all these new technologies.

  10. Activation of cells using femtosecond laser beam (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Batabyal, Subrata; Satpathy, Sarmishtha; Kim, Young-tae; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2016-03-01

    Study of communication in cellular systems requires precise activation of targeted cell(s) in the network. In contrast to chemical, electrical, thermal, mechanical stimulation, optical stimulation is non-invasive and is better suited for stimulation of targeted cells. As compared to visible lasers, the near infrared (NIR) microsecond/nanosecond pulsed laser beams are being used as preferred stimulation tool as they provide higher penetration depth in tissues. Femotosecond (FS) laser beams in NIR are also being used for direct and indirect (i.e. via two-photon optogenetics) stimulation of cells. Here, we present a comparative evaluation of efficacy of NIR FS laser beam for direct (no optogenetic sensitization) and 2ph optogenetic stimulation of cells. Further, for the first time, we demonstrate the use of blue (~450 nm, obtained by second harmonic generation) FS laser beam for stimulation of cells with and without Channelrhodopisn-2 (ChR2) expression. Comparative analysis of photocurrent generated by blue FS laser beam and continuous wave blue light for optogenetics stimulation of ChR2 transfected HEK cells will be presented. The use of ultrafast laser micro-beam for focal, non-contact, and repeated stimulation of single cells in a cellular circuitry allowed us to study the communication between different cell types.

  11. Present Day Activity of South Polar Gullies on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raack, J.; Reiss, D.; Ruesch, O.; Hiesinger, H.

    2012-04-01

    Here we report on clearly identified seasonal changes of gullies observed within the last two martian years (MY) on slopes of a south polar pit, which is located in a filled crater (diameter ~54 km) north of Sisyphi Cavi at ~68.5°S and ~1.5°E. Using new high-resolution imaging (High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment, HiRISE), temperature (Thermal Emission Spectrometer, TES) and spectral data (Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars, CRISM; Observatoire pour la Minéralogie, l'Eau, les Glaces et l'Activité, OMEGA), we analyzed the exact timing of changes of gullies and detect the possible medium (CO2, H2O or dry) and mechanism which initiate present day gully activity. Two locations in the study region with clear modifications of gullies were identified in MY 29 between LS 226° and LS 247° and between LS 209° and LS 247°. In MY 30 changes occur in both locations between LS 218° and LS 249°. Modifications are the formation of a new small apron and new deposits within the channel, both associated with the deposition of dark material. Erosion in gully alcoves or channels was not observed. TES data show temperatures between ~180 and ~240 K within the period of gully modifications. Maximum temperatures in the region rise up to ~285 K between LS ~270° and ~310°. Spectral data show a CO2-cover of the study region until LS 227°. CO2-ice free surface are spectrally observed for the first time at LS 249°. H2O was not spectrally detected in the study region and a mixture of CO2 and H2O as presented in [1] cannot be clearly detected. Unfortunately, there are no spectral data available between LS 227° and 249°. Modifications of gullies imply seasonal volatile activity. The activity can be narrowed down to occur between LS 226° and 247° at mean temperatures between ~180 and ~240 K. This is in the range of temperatures where CO2 sublimates back into the atmosphere. Based on the temperature range, the most likely candidate for the observed new

  12. Peaceful Use of Outer Space: principles of Japanese Policies on Utilization and Activities in Outer space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosuge, Toshio

    2002-01-01

    " P e aceful use of outer space of outer space.....Principles of exploitation of outer space was passed in the Japanese Diet. It clearly mentioned that any activity of launching space object into outer space and developing launching rocket should be exclusively for peaceful purpose. NASDA was also established based upon the same principles of the public law. Japanese interpretation of Space Treaty and other related international agreements has been more strict on peaceful use of outer space, like non-military use rather than non-aggressive, because of influence of Japanese Constitution. Treaty and other agreements is analyzed through rapid development of its space activities, technologies and international cooperation with other space powers. Through more than thirty years experiences in space activities in public and private sectors, Japanese domestic laws and policies have not been changed in relation with basic principles. and laws relating to space activities in order to develop new space law and more international cooperation for space utilization rather than military use in new century.

  13. Photovoltaic Reliability Group activities in USA and Brazil (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Cruz, Leila R. O.

    2015-09-01

    Recently prices of photovoltaic (PV) systems have been reduced considerably and may continue to be reduced making them attractive. If these systems provide electricity over the stipulated warranty period, it would be possible attain socket parity within the next few years. Current photovoltaic module qualifications tests help in minimizing infant mortality but do not guarantee useful lifetime over the warranty period. The PV Module Quality Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) is trying to formulate accelerated tests that will be useful towards achieving the ultimate goal of assuring useful lifetime over the warranty period as well as to assure manufacturing quality. Unfortunately, assuring the manufacturing quality may require 24/7 presence. Alternatively, collecting data on the performance of fielded systems would assist in assuring manufacturing quality. Here PV systems installed by home-owners and small businesses can constitute as an important untapped source of data. The volunteer group, PV - Reliable, Safe and Sustainable Quality! (PVRessQ!) is providing valuable service to small PV system owners. Photovoltaic Reliability Group (PVRG) is initiating activities in USA and Brazil to assist home owners and small businesses in monitoring photovoltaic (PV) module performance and enforcing warranty. It will work in collaboration with small PV system owners, consumer protection agencies. Brazil is endowed with excellent solar irradiance making it attractive for installation of PV systems. Participating owners of small PV systems would instruct inverter manufacturers to copy the daily e-mails to PVRG and as necessary, will authorize the PVRG to carry out review of PV systems. The presentation will consist of overall activities of PVRG in USA and Brazil.

  14. Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity of Extracts and Active Principles of Commonly Consumed Indian Spices.

    PubMed

    Patra, Kartick; Jana, Samarjit; Mandal, Deba Prasad; Bhattacharjee, Shamee

    2016-01-01

    Accumulating evidence suggests that free radical reactions play a key part in the development of degenerative diseases and that an antioxidant-rich diet is a major defense against these free radical reactions. In this study, we explore comparative antioxidant capacities of extracts of some commonly used in Indian spices (anise, cardamom, Ceylon cinnamon, and clove) along with their purified components (anethole, eucalyptol, cinnamaldehyde, and eugenol, respectively). Eugenol shows the highest 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, hydroxyl, and superoxide scavenging and reducing power activity in terms of weight; however, this was not found when compared in terms of equivalence. Extracts of the other three spices were found to be more potent antioxidants than their corresponding active components. Interestingly, clove extract, despite possessing the highest phenol and flavonoid content, is not the most potent radical scavenger. At low concentrations, both the crude extracts and their purified components (except for anethole and eugenol) have low hemolytic activity, but at higher concentrations purified components are more toxic than their respective crude extract. This study suggests that spices as a whole are more potent antioxidants than their purified active components, perhaps reflecting the synergism among different phytochemicals present in spice extracts.

  15. Search for related substances in market products containing enalapril maleate as the active principle.

    PubMed

    Pilatti, C; Ercolano, I; Torre, M C; Chiale, C; Spinetto, M

    1999-06-01

    This study's main object was the determination of substances, by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), that are related to enalapril maleate in medicinal tablets. The research was on products containing a 20 mg active principle with a 12-month delta t and on those batches near their expiration date with an enalapril maleate concentration of 10, 5, and 2.5 mg.

  16. A. A. Ukhtomskii`s dominance principle of brain activity in the perception of electromagnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Kholodov, Yu.A.

    1994-07-01

    Preliminary instruction of the subject plays an important role in the perception of weak electromagnetic fields acting on the hand. Active attention to a potential effect amplifies a brain state that can be called caution dominance and arises spontaneously with a {open_quotes}placebo{close_quotes} or an electromagnetic field. The radar principle of brain operation is discussed among the physiological mechanisms through which electromagnetic fields act on an organism.

  17. A. A. Ukhtomskii's dominance principle of brain activity in the perception of electromagnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kholodov, Yu. A.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary instruction of the subject plays an important role in the perception of weak electromagnetic fields acting on the hand. Active attention to a potential effect amplifies a brain state that can be called caution dominance and arises spontaneously with a “placebo” or an electromagnetic field. The radar principle of brain operation is discussed among the physiological mechanisms through which electromagnetic fields act on an organism.

  18. Proof of Principle for Active Detection of Fissionable Material Using Intense, Pulsed-Bremsstrahlung-Induced Photofission

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-10-07

    Naval Research Laboratory Washington, DC 20375-5320 NRL/MR/6770--14-9554 Proof of Principle for Active Detection of Fissionable Material Using...of Fissionable Material Using Intense, Pulsed-Bremsstrahlung-Induced Photofission R.J. Commisso, J.W. Schumer, R.J. Allen, D.D. Hinshelwood, S.L...induce photofission in fissile material . We are investigating the applicability of this mechanism, using photons from bremsstrahlung, for long-range

  19. In vivo anthelmintic activity of Carex baccans and its active principle resveratrol against Hymenolepis diminuta.

    PubMed

    Giri, Bikash Ranjan; Bharti, Ravi Rao; Roy, Bishnupada

    2015-02-01

    Anthelmintic resistance against most of the commercial drugs is a great threat to humans as well as the veterinary live stocks. Hence, new treatment strategies to control helminth infections are essential at this hour. Carex baccans Nees has been traditionally used by Jaintia tribes in Northeast India to get rid of intestinal worm infections. Therefore, the present study was conducted to evaluate in vivo cestocidal activity of root tuber extract of C. baccans and its active component resveratrol against the zoonotic cestode Hymenolepis diminuta in the experimental model rat. The cestocidal activity was determined by monitoring the eggs per gram (EPG) counts in faeces of different treated groups. The result showed that the highest dose of the plant extract (50 mg/kg) and resveratrol (4.564 mg/kg body weight) has significant anthelmintic efficacy against H. diminuta. Crude extract of the plant as well as resveratrol reduced EPG count (56.012 and 46.049 %) and also resulted in decreased worm burden by 44.287 and 31.034 %, respectively. The efficacy of the crude extract and resveratrol can be compared to the reference drug praziquantel. The results exhibits considerable cestocidal potential of root tuber crude extract of C. baccans and resveratrol and justify its folklore use.

  20. Nelumal A, the active principle of Ligularia nelumbifolia, is a novel aromatase inhibitor.

    PubMed

    Epifano, Francesco; Genovese, Salvatore; Fiorito, Serena; Nde, Chantal Magne; Clyne, Colin

    2014-06-01

    Nelumal A, the active principle of Ligularia nelumbifolia was preliminarily tested as an aromatase inhibitors in HEK293 cells transfected with aromatase cDNA and using anastrazole as the reference drug. This screening revealed that it showed an appreciable level of inhibition. Subsequent experiments aimed to evaluate the aromatase activity and expression in KGN cells confirmed that the title natural product, after an incubation of 48 h, compared favourably with anastrazole (1 microM) in the concentration range 10-30 microM. Moreover, nelumal A (30 microM) abolished the aromatase mRNA expression in the same cell line.

  1. Scale-free brain activity: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    He, Biyu J.

    2014-01-01

    Brain activity observed at many spatiotemporal scales exhibits a 1/f-like power spectrum, including neuronal membrane potentials, neural field potentials, noninvasive electroencephalography, magnetoencephalography and functional magnetic resonance imaging signals. A 1/f-like power spectrum is indicative of arrhythmic brain activity that does not contain a predominant temporal scale (hence, “scale-free”). This characteristic of scale-free brain activity distinguishes it from brain oscillations. While scale-free brain activity and brain oscillations coexist, our understanding of the former remains very limited. Recent research has shed light on the spatiotemporal organization, functional significance and potential generative mechanisms of scale-free brain activity, as well as its developmental and clinical relevance. A deeper understanding of this prevalent brain signal should provide new insights and analytical tools for cognitive neuroscience. PMID:24788139

  2. Sangay volcano, Ecuador: structural development, present activity and petrology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monzier, Michel; Robin, Claude; Samaniego, Pablo; Hall, Minard L.; Cotten, Jo; Mothes, Patricia; Arnaud, Nicolas

    1999-05-01

    Sangay (5230 m), the southernmost active volcano of the Andean Northern Volcanic Zone (NVZ), sits ˜130 km above a >32-Ma-old slab, close to a major tear that separates two distinct subducting oceanic crusts. Southwards, Quaternary volcanism is absent along a 1600-km-long segment of the Andes. Three successive edifices of decreasing volume have formed the Sangay volcanic complex during the last 500 ka. Two former cones (Sangay I and II) have been largely destroyed by sector collapses that resulted in large debris avalanches that flowed out upon the Amazon plain. Sangay III, being constructed within the last avalanche amphitheater, has been active at least since 14 ka BP. Only the largest eruptions with unusually high Plinian columns are likely to represent a major hazard for the inhabited areas located 30 to 100 km west of the volcano. However, given the volcano's relief and unbuttressed eastern side, a future collapse must be considered, that would seriously affect an area of present-day colonization in the Amazon plain, ˜30 km east of the summit. Andesites greatly predominate at Sangay, there being few dacites and basalts. In order to explain the unusual characteristics of the Sangay suite—highest content of incompatible elements (except Y and HREE) of any NVZ suite, low Y and HREE values in the andesites and dacites, and high Nb/La of the only basalt found—a preliminary five-step model is proposed: (1) an enriched mantle (in comparison with an MORB source), or maybe a variably enriched mantle, at the site of the Sangay, prior to Quaternary volcanism; (2) metasomatism of this mantle by important volumes of slab-derived fluids enriched in soluble incompatible elements, due to the subduction of major oceanic fracture zones; (3) partial melting of this metasomatized mantle and generation of primitive basaltic melts with Nb/La values typical of the NVZ, which are parental to the entire Sangay suite but apparently never reach the surface and subordinate

  3. Reverse engineering and verification of gene networks: principles, assumptions, and limitations of present methods and future perspectives.

    PubMed

    He, Feng; Balling, Rudi; Zeng, An-Ping

    2009-11-01

    Reverse engineering of gene networks aims at revealing the structure of the gene regulation network in a biological system by reasoning backward directly from experimental data. Many methods have recently been proposed for reverse engineering of gene networks by using gene transcript expression data measured by microarray. Whereas the potentials of the methods have been well demonstrated, the assumptions and limitations behind them are often not clearly stated or not well understood. In this review, we first briefly explain the principles of the major methods, identify the assumptions behind them and pinpoint the limitations and possible pitfalls in applying them to real biological questions. With regard to applications, we then discuss challenges in the experimental verification of gene networks generated from reverse engineering methods. We further propose an optimal experimental design for allocating sampling schedule and possible strategies for reducing the limitations of some of the current reverse engineering methods. Finally, we examine the perspectives for the development of reverse engineering and urge the need to move from revealing network structure to the dynamics of biological systems.

  4. Fractions of aqueous and methanolic extracts from tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.) present platelet antiaggregant activity.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduado J; Astudillo, Luis A; Gutiérrez, Margarita I; Contreras, Samuel O; Bustamante, Luis O; Rubio, Pia I; Moore-Carrasco, Rodrigo; Alarcón, Marcelo A; Fuentes, Jaime A; González, Daniel E; Palomo, Iván F

    2012-03-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Its prevention emphasizes three aspects: not smoking, physical activity and a healthy diet. Recently, we screened the antithrombotic activity of a selected group of fruits and vegetables. Among them, tomato showed an important effect. The aim of this study was to evaluate and characterize the platelet antiaggregatory activity of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L.). For this, we obtained aqueous and methanolic tomato extracts and evaluated the effect of pH (2 and 10) and temperature (22, 60 and 100°C) on this activity. Furthermore, in order to isolate the antiaggregant principle, we separated tomato extracts into several fractions (A-D) by size exclusion chromatography. In addition, we evaluated the platelet antiaggregating activity ex vivo in Wistar rats. Aqueous and methanolic extracts of tomato treated at 22, 60 and 100°C and pH 2 and 10 still inhibited platelet aggregation (in vitro). Moreover, it was noted that one of the fractions (fraction C), from both aqueous and methanolic extracts, presented the highest activity (∼70% inhibition of platelet aggregation) and concentration dependently inhibited platelet aggregation significantly compared with control (P < 0.05). These fractions did not contain lycopene but presented two peaks of absorption, at 210 and 261 nm, compatible with the presence of nucleosides. In rats treated with tomato macerates, a mild platelet antiaggregating effect ex vivo was observed. Further studies are required to identify the molecules with platelet antiaggregating activity and antiplatelet mechanisms of action.

  5. Active 2D and carbon-based materials: physics and devices (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sorger, Volker J.

    2016-09-01

    In nanophotonics we create material-systems, which are structured at length scales smaller than the wavelength of light. When light propagates inside such effective materials numerous novel physics phenomena emerge including thresholdless lasing, atto-joule per bit efficient modulators, and exciton-polariton effects. However, in order to make use of these opportunities, synergistic device designs have to be applied to include materials, electric and photonic constrains - all at the nanoscale. In this talk, I present our recent progress in exploring 2D and TCO materials for active optoelectronics. I highlight nanoscale device demonstrations including their physical operation principle and performance benchmarks. Details include epsilon-bear-zero tuning of thin-film ITO, Graphene electro-static gating via Pauli-blocking, plasmonic electro-optic modulation, and hetero-integrated III-V and carbon-based plasmon lasers on Silicon photonics.

  6. Proof-of-principle test of coherent-state continuous variable quantum key distribution through turbulent atmosphere (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derkach, Ivan D.; Peuntinger, Christian; Ruppert, László; Heim, Bettina; Gunthner, Kevin; Usenko, Vladyslav C.; Elser, Dominique; Marquardt, Christoph; Filip, Radim; Leuchs, Gerd

    2016-10-01

    Continuous-variable quantum key distribution is a practical application of quantum information theory that is aimed at generation of secret cryptographic key between two remote trusted parties and that uses multi-photon quantum states as carriers of key bits. Remote parties share the secret key via a quantum channel, that presumably is under control of of an eavesdropper, and which properties must be taken into account in the security analysis. Well-studied fiber-optical quantum channels commonly possess stable transmittance and low noise levels, while free-space channels represent a simpler, less demanding and more flexible alternative, but suffer from atmospheric effects such as turbulence that in particular causes a non-uniform transmittance distribution referred to as fading. Nonetheless free-space channels, providing an unobstructed line-of-sight, are more apt for short, mid-range and potentially long-range (using satellites) communication and will play an important role in the future development and implementation of QKD networks. It was previously theoretically shown that coherent-state CV QKD should be in principle possible to implement over a free-space fading channel, but strong transmittance fluctuations result in the significant modulation-dependent channel excess noise. In this regime the post-selection of highly transmitting sub-channels may be needed, which can even restore the security of the protocol in the strongly turbulent channels. We now report the first proof-of-principle experimental test of coherent state CV QKD protocol using different levels Gaussian modulation over a mid-range (1.6-kilometer long) free-space atmospheric quantum channel. The transmittance of the link was characterized using intensity measurements for the reference but channel estimation using the modulated coherent states was also studied. We consider security against Gaussian collective attacks, that were shown to be optimal against CV QKD protocols . We assumed a

  7. A Cu-amyloid β complex activating Fenton chemistry in Alzheimer's disease: Learning with multiple first-principles simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Penna, Giovanni; Hureau, Christelle; Faller, Peter

    2014-10-01

    Amyloid β peptides form complexes with copper, both in vitro and in vivo, relatively soluble in water as oligomers and active as catalysts for oxidation of organic substrates by hydrogen peroxide, a species always present in cells and in their aerobic environment. All these species are present in the synapse, thus making a connection between the amyloid cascade hypothesis and the oxidative damages by reactive oxygen species in neurons, when pathological dishomeostasis of amyloid peptides and metal ions occur. In order to understand the structural features of these toxic complexes, we built several models of Cu-Aβ peptides in monomeric and dimeric forms and we found, performing multiple first-principles molecular dynamics simulations, that Cu-induced dimers are more active than monomers in converting hydrogen peroxide into aggressive hydroxyl radicals.

  8. Multisensory interactions in early evoked brain activity follow the principle of inverse effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Senkowski, Daniel; Saint-Amour, Dave; Höfle, Marion; Foxe, John J

    2011-06-15

    A major determinant of multisensory integration, derived from single-neuron studies in animals, is the principle of inverse effectiveness (IE), which describes the phenomenon whereby maximal multisensory response enhancements occur when the constituent unisensory stimuli are minimally effective in evoking responses. Human behavioral studies, which have shown that multisensory interactions are strongest when stimuli are low in intensity are in agreement with the IE principle, but the neurophysiologic basis for this finding is unknown. In this high-density electroencephalography (EEG) study, we examined effects of stimulus intensity on multisensory audiovisual processing in event-related potentials (ERPs) and response time (RT) facilitation in the bisensory redundant target effect (RTE). The RTE describes that RTs are faster for bisensory redundant targets than for the respective unisensory targets. Participants were presented with semantically meaningless unisensory auditory, unisensory visual and bisensory audiovisual stimuli of low, middle and high intensity, while they were instructed to make a speeded button response when a stimulus in either modality was presented. Behavioral data showed that the RTE exceeded predictions on the basis of probability summations of unisensory RTs, indicative of integrative multisensory processing, but only for low intensity stimuli. Paralleling this finding, multisensory interactions in short latency (40-60ms) ERPs with a left posterior and right anterior topography were found particularly for stimuli with low intensity. Our findings demonstrate that the IE principle is applicable to early multisensory processing in humans.

  9. Supporting Teachers in Designing CSCL Activities: A Case Study of Principle-Based Pedagogical Patterns in Networked Second Language Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wen, Yun; Looi, Chee-Kit; Chen, Wenli

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes the identification and use of principle-based pedagogical patterns to help teachers to translate design principles into actionable teaching activities, and to scaffold student learning with sufficient flexibility and creativity. A set of pedagogical patterns for networked Second language (L2) learning, categorized and…

  10. Activated Brain Endothelial Cells Cross-Present Malaria Antigen.

    PubMed

    Howland, Shanshan W; Poh, Chek Meng; Rénia, Laurent

    2015-06-01

    In the murine model of cerebral malaria caused by P. berghei ANKA (PbA), parasite-specific CD8+ T cells directly induce pathology and have long been hypothesized to kill brain endothelial cells that have internalized PbA antigen. We previously reported that brain microvessel fragments from infected mice cross-present PbA epitopes, using reporter cells transduced with epitope-specific T cell receptors. Here, we confirm that endothelial cells are the population responsible for cross-presentation in vivo, not pericytes or microglia. PbA antigen cross-presentation by primary brain endothelial cells in vitro confers susceptibility to killing by CD8+ T cells from infected mice. IFNγ stimulation is required for brain endothelial cross-presentation in vivo and in vitro, which occurs by a proteasome- and TAP-dependent mechanism. Parasite strains that do not induce cerebral malaria were phagocytosed and cross-presented less efficiently than PbA in vitro. The main source of antigen appears to be free merozoites, which were avidly phagocytosed. A human brain endothelial cell line also phagocytosed P. falciparum merozoites. Besides being the first demonstration of cross-presentation by brain endothelial cells, our results suggest that interfering with merozoite phagocytosis or antigen processing may be effective strategies for cerebral malaria intervention.

  11. Quantitative phase imaging technologies to assess neuronal activity (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouvenin, Olivier; Fink, Mathias; Boccara, Claude

    2016-03-01

    Active neurons tends to have a different dynamical behavior compared to resting ones. Non-exhaustively, vesicular transport towards the synapses is increased, since axonal growth becomes slower. Previous studies also reported small phase variations occurring simultaneously with the action potential. Such changes exhibit times scales ranging from milliseconds to several seconds on spatial scales smaller than the optical diffraction limit. Therefore, QPI systems are of particular interest to measure neuronal activity without labels. Here, we report the development of two new QPI systems that should enable the detection of such activity. Both systems can acquire full field phase images with a sub nanometer sensitivity at a few hundreds of frames per second. The first setup is a synchronous combination of Full Field Optical Coherence Tomography (FF-OCT) and Fluorescence wide field imaging. The latter modality enables the measurement of neurons electrical activity using calcium indicators. In cultures, FF-OCT exhibits similar features to Digital Holographic Microscopy (DHM), except from complex computational reconstruction. However, FF-OCT is of particular interest in order to measure phase variations in tissues. The second setup is based on a Quantitative Differential Interference Contrast setup mounted in an epi-illumination configuration with a spectrally incoherent illumination. Such a common path interferometer exhibits a very good mechanical stability, and thus enables the measurement of phase images during hours. Additionally, such setup can not only measure a height change, but also an optical index change for both polarization. Hence, one can measure simultaneously a phase change and a birefringence change.

  12. Mycelial forms of Pseudallescheria boydii present ectophosphatase activities.

    PubMed

    Kiffer-Moreira, Tina; Pinheiro, Ana Acacia S; Pinto, Márcia R; Esteves, Fabiano F; Souto-Padrón, Thais; Barreto-Bergter, Eliana; Meyer-Fernandes, José R

    2007-08-01

    Phosphatase activities were characterized in intact mycelial forms of Pseudallescheria boydii, which are able to hydrolyze the artificial substrate p-nitrophenylphosphate (p-NPP) to p-nitrophenol (p-NP) at a rate of 41.41+/-2.33 nmol p-NP per h per mg dry weight, linearly with increasing time and with increasing cell density. MgCl2, MnCl2 and ZnCl2 were able to increase the (p-NPP) hydrolysis while CdCl2 and CuCl2 inhibited it. The (p-NPP) hydrolysis was enhanced by increasing pH values (2.5-8.5) over an approximately 5-fold range. High sensitivity to specific inhibitors of alkaline and acid phosphatases suggests the presence of both acid and alkaline phosphatase activities on P. boydii mycelia surface. Cytochemical localization of the acid and alkaline phosphatase showed electron-dense cerium phosphate deposits on the cell wall, as visualized by electron microscopy. The product of p-NPP hydrolysis, inorganic phosphate (Pi), and different inhibitors for phosphatase activities inhibited p-NPP hydrolysis in a dose-dependent manner, but only the inhibition promoted by sodium orthovanadate and ammonium molybdate is irreversible. Intact mycelial forms of P. boydii are also able to hydrolyze phosphoaminoacids with different specificity.

  13. Characterization of the AMPA-activated receptors present on motoneurons.

    PubMed

    Greig, A; Donevan, S D; Mujtaba, T J; Parks, T N; Rao, M S

    2000-01-01

    Motoneurons have been shown to be particularly sensitive to Ca2+-dependent glutamate excitotoxicity, mediated via AMPA receptors (AMPARs). To determine the molecular basis for this susceptibility we have used immunocytochemistry, RT-PCR, and electrophysiology to profile AMPARs on embryonic day 14.5 rat motoneurons. Motoneurons show detectable AMPAR-mediated calcium permeability in vitro and in vivo as determined by cobalt uptake and electrophysiology. Motoneurons express all four AMPAR subunit mRNAs, with glutamate receptor (GluR) 2 being the most abundant (63.9+/-4.8%). GluR2 is present almost exclusively in the edited form, and electrophysiology confirms that most AMPARs present are calcium-impermeant. However, the kainate current in motoneurons was blocked an average of 32.0% by Joro spider toxin, indicating that a subset of the AM PARs is Ca2+-permeable. Therefore, heterogeneity of AMPARs, rather than the absence of GluR2 or the presence of unedited GluR2, explains AMPAR-mediated Ca2+ permeability. The relative levels of flip/flop isoforms of each subunit were also examined by semiquantitative PCR. Both isoforms were present, but the relative proportion varied for each subunit, and the flip isoform predominated. Thus, our data show that despite high levels of edited GluR2 mRNA, some AMPARs are Ca2+-permeable, and this subset of AMPARs can account for the AMPAR-mediated Ca2+ inflow inferred from cobalt uptake and electrophysiology studies.

  14. Present and Future Activities on Neutron Imaging in Argentina

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tartaglione, Aureliano; Blostein, Jerónimo; Cantargi, Florencia; Marín, Julio; Baruj, Alberto; Meyer, Gabriel; Santisteban, Javier; Sánchez, Fernando

    We present here a short review of the main work which has been done in the latest years in neutron imaging in Argentina, and the future plans for the development of this technique in the country, mainly focused in the design of a new neutron imaging instrument to be installed in the future research reactor RA10. We present here the results of the implementation of the technique in samples belonging to the Argentinean cultural heritage and experiments related with hydrogen storage. At the same time, the Argentinean RA10 project for the design and construction of a 30 MW multipurpose research reactor is rapidly progressing. It started to be designed by the National Atomic Energy Commission (CNEA) and the technology company INVAP SE, both from Argentina, in June 2010. The construction will start in the beginning of 2015 in the Ezeiza Atomic Center, at 36 km from Buenos Aires City, and is expected to be finished by 2020. One of the main aims of the project is to offer to the Argentinean scientific and technology system new capabilities based on neutron techniques. We present here the conceptual design of a neutron imaging facility which will use one of the cold neutron beams, and will be installed in the reactor hall. Preliminary simulation results show that at the farthest detection position, at about 17 m from the cold source, a uniform neutron beam on a detection screen with an intensity of about 108 n/cm2/s is expected.

  15. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM.

  16. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Dwight J.; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues such as stimulus similarity lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA) is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual’s VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that, when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM. PMID:26018644

  17. Interfering with mineralocorticoid receptor activation: the past, present, and future

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Aldosterone is a potent mineralocorticoid produced by the adrenal gland. Aldosterone binds to and activates the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in a plethora of tissues, but the cardiovascular actions of aldosterone are of primary interest clinically. Although MR antagonists were developed as antihypertensive agents, they are now considered to be important therapeutic options for patients with heart failure. Specifically, blocking only the MR has proven to be a difficult task because of its similarity to other steroid receptors, including the androgen and progesterone receptors. This lack of specificity caused the use of the first-generation mineralocorticoid receptor antagonists to be fraught with difficulty because of the side effects produced by drug administration. However, in recent years, several advances have been made that could potentially increase the clinical use of agents that inhibit the actions of aldosterone. These will be discussed here along with some examples of the beneficial effects of these new therapeutic agents. PMID:25165560

  18. Linking Aerosol Source Activities to Present and Future Climate Effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, D.; Bond, T. C.; Streets, D.; Menon, S.; Unger, N.

    2007-05-01

    Aerosol source sectors (transport, power, industry, residential, biomass burning) generate distinct mixtures of aerosol species. These mixtures in turn have different effects on climate. As sectoral emissions change in coming decades, whether by regulation or not, it is helpful to link pollution from source types to climate consequences. We do so, using our global (GISS GCM) aerosol model for present and future IPCC SRES scenarios. According to our model, residential and transport sectors have net positive 1995 aerosol forcings (0.04 and 0.03 W m-2) due to their large black carbon contents. However, the sulfate-dominated power and industry sectors have net negative 1995 forcings (-0.10 and -0.09 W m-2). Due to the near-balance of absorbing and scattering components, biomass burning forcing is small. For the 2050 SRES A1B scenario, the net (negative) aerosol forcing is double 1995 due primarily to increased sulfur emissions in the industry and power sectors. For 2050 B1 the net (negative) forcing decreases relative to 1995, as sulfur emissions are reduced. Both future scenarios project decreasing residential emissions. Yet transport emissions are expected to remain significant and thus become the dominant source of warming aerosols in the future. Aerosol pollution is projected to shift southward relative to the present, as the current industrialized regions generally reduce emissions and tropical and southern hemispheric regions continue to develop. Similar to these SRES scenarios, IIASA scenarios project a decline in residential emissions; however IIASA is more optimistic about transport sector emissions reductions. We will conduct present-day climate experiments, including aerosol direct and indirect effects, to study impacts of power and transport sectors on climate features such as air temperature and hydrologic cycle.

  19. Forecasting the Peak of the Present Solar Activity Cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamid, Rabab; Marzouk, Beshir

    2016-07-01

    Solar forecasting of the level of sun Activity is very important subject for all space programs. Most predictions are based on the physical conditions prevailing at or before the solar cycle minimum preceding the maximum in question. Our aim is to predict the maximum peak of cycle 24 using precursor techniques in particular those using spotless event, geomagnetic aa min. index and solar flux F10.7. Also prediction of exact date of the maximum (Tr) is taken in consideration. A study of variation over previous spotless event for cycles 7-23 and that for even cycles (8-22) are carried out for the prediction. Linear correlation between RM and spotless event around the preceding minimum gives RM24t = 101.9with rise time Tr = 4.5 Y. For the even cycles RM24e = 108.3 with rise time Tr = 3.9 Y. Based on the average aa min. index for the year of sunspot minimum cycles (13 - 23), we estimate the expected amplitude for cycle 24 to be RMaa = 116.5 for both the total and even cycles. Application of the data of solar flux F10.7 which cover only cycles (19-23) was taken in consideration and gives predicted maximum amplitude R24 10.7 = 146, which are over estimation. Our result indicating a somewhat weaker cycle 24 as compared to cycles 21-23.

  20. Present status of some technological activities supporting the MOLCARE project

    SciTech Connect

    Torazza, A.; Rocchini, G.; Scagliotti, M.

    1996-12-31

    The development of MCFC stack technology is carried out at Ansaldo Ricerche in the framework of the MOLCARE project, a cooperation with Spanish companies under a partial UE funding, while a specific research program concerning the physico-chemical characterization of materials is performed jointly by CISE and ENEL. The project includes the development, the construction and the testing of a full scale 100 kW prototype, the assessment of stack technology on subscale stacks, the mathematical modelling of the MCFC based plants and the basic researches. The aim of the basic researches, carried out on single cells, is to improve the effectiveness and durability of both the active and the hardware materials. The Ansaldo stack technology is based on external manifolding. The full scale 100 kW prototype will be integrated with the sensible heat reformer and other ancillary equipments according to the {open_quote}Compact Unit (CU){close_quotes} concept. These technical choices stress requirements for manifold gasket configuration. electrolyte migration control, {Delta}p management and porous component compaction.

  1. Principled Narrative

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacBeath, John; Swaffield, Sue; Frost, David

    2009-01-01

    This article provides an overview of the "Carpe Vitam: Leadership for Learning" project, accounting for its provenance and purposes, before focusing on the principles for practice that constitute an important part of the project's legacy. These principles framed the dialogic process that was a dominant feature of the project and are presented,…

  2. Diterpene resin acids: Major active principles in tall oil against Variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).

    PubMed

    Xie, Y; Isman, M B; Feng, Y; Wong, A

    1993-06-01

    Tall oil, a by-product of the kraft process for pulping softwood, has been shown to have insecticidal properties. In the present study, the active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm,Peridroma saucia Hübner, were investigated. GC-MS analysis showed that abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids were major resin acid components of crude tall oil and depitched tall oil. When crude tall oil samples of differing resin acid composition were incorporated into artificial diet at a concentration of 2.0% fresh weight, they suppressed larval growth by 45-60% compared to controls. This suppression was significantly (P≤0.05) correlated with the equivalent contents of abietic, dehydroabietic, isopimaric, and total resin acids. These results were also evident from a diet choice test, showing that the second-instar larvae obviously selected diets with low levels of resin acids when different diets were randomly arranged in a Petri dish. Bioassays with pure resin acids (abietic, dehydroabietic, and isopimaric acids) demonstrated that all individual chemicals have similar bioactivity against this insect. Comparison of the bioactivities of depitched tall oil and an equivalent mixture of pure resin acids in thePeridroma chronic growth bioassay indicated that pure resin acids and depitched tall oil share a common mode of action to this insect. This study confirms that resin acids are major active principles in tall oil against the variegated cutworm, but other chemicals likely also contribute to the bioactivity of tall oil.

  3. [Ethical and legal principles for the activities of bioprospection in relation to human beings and the human genome].

    PubMed

    Romeo Casabona, Carlos María

    2012-01-01

    During recent decades, bioprospecting has become an important field of research, which looks for development alternatives, entry into global (environmental) markets, and the subsequent obtention of benefits under sustainable development principles. However, there is still so much to discuss regarding the social and environmental impacts produced by this activity, as well as its main limitations. To this end, the Forum/round-table discussion, entitled "Bioprospección, Etica y Sociedad" was organised to take place on 28 March 2012 at the National University of Colombia. Its main objective was to enrich our knowledge on bioprospecting considering the ethical considerations that involve society. The presentation given by Professor ROMEO CASABONA, regarding the connection between bioprospecting and the human genome deserves special attention and is presented below.

  4. Principle Component Analysis of Birkeland Currents Determined by the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milan, S. E.; Carter, J. A.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.

    2015-12-01

    Principle Component Analysis is performed on northern and southern hemisphere Birkeland or field-aligned current (FAC) measurements from the Active Magnetosphere and Planetary Electrodynamics Response Experiment (AMPERE). PCA identifies the patterns in the FACs that respond coherently to different aspects of geomagnetic activity. The region 1 and 2 current system is shown to be the most reproducible feature of the currents, followed by cusp currents associated with magnetic tension forces on newly-reconnected field lines. The cusp currents are strongly modulated by season, indicating that their strength is regulated by the ionospheric conductance at the foot of the field lines. PCA does not identify a pattern that is clearly characteristic of a substorm current wedge. Rather, a superposed epoch analysis of the currents associated with substorms demonstrates that there is not a single mode of response, but a complicated and subtle mixture of different patterns. Other interhemispheric differences are discussed.

  5. [Kinetics of in vitro bactericidal activity of the antiseptic biseptine combining 3 active principles].

    PubMed

    Reverdy, M E; Rougier, M; Fleurette, J

    1996-09-01

    Biseptine, is an association of chlorhexidine digluconate, benzalkonium chloride and benzylic alcohol. Little is known, in literature, on this antiseptic, used for cutaneous antisepsis. We studied killing kinetic of Biseptine, at different concentrations, on 4 AFNOR bacterial strains. Killing curves were studied at antiseptic concentration of 90 to 0.1% in 10 ml of distilled water. Bacterial counts were determined after neutralization in liquid medium. Synergy of chlorhexidine and benzalkonium chloride in Biseptine, allowed to obtain similar bactericidal activity than Hibitane champ with chlorhexidine concentrations 2 fold less. At 90, 50, 25, 10 and 5% concentrations, bactericidal activity (5 log10 reduction of the initial bacterial count) was effective in one minute. After 5 to 15 minutes, activity persisted at 1 and 0.5% concentrations. The 0.1% solution was inefficacious. This report disclosed an important security margin in antiseptic activity.

  6. Determination of antioxidant activity of spices and their active principles by differential pulse voltammetry.

    PubMed

    Palma, Alberto; Ruiz Montoya, Mercedes; Arteaga, Jesús F; Rodríguez Mellado, Jose M

    2014-01-22

    The anodic oxidation of mercury in the presence of hydrogen peroxide in differential pulse voltammetry (DPV) was used to determine the antioxidant (AO) character of radical scavengers. Hydroperoxide radical is formed at the potentials of the oxidation peak on mercury electrodes, such radical reacting with the antioxidants in different extension. The parameter C10 (antioxidant concentration at which the peak area decreases by 10%) is used to measure the scavenging activity of the individual antioxidants. To establish the scavenging activity of antioxidant mixtures as a whole, the parameter, μ10 as the reverse of V10, V10 being the volume necessary to decrease the peak area in DPV by 10%, was selected. Higher μ10 values correspond to higher scavenging activity. The studies have been extended to aqueous extracts of some species. The results may be useful in explaining the effect of spices in vitro and in vivo studies.

  7. Activation of Graphenic Carbon Due to Substitutional Doping by Nitrogen: Mechanistic Understanding from First Principles.

    PubMed

    Bhattacharjee, Joydeep

    2015-05-07

    Nitrogen-doped graphene and carbon nanotubes are popularly in focus as metal-free electrocatalysts for oxygen reduction reactions (ORR) central to fuel cells. N-doped CNTs have been also reported to chemisorb mutually, promising a route to their robust predetermined assembly into devices and mechanical reinforcements. We propose from first principles a common mechanistic understanding of these two aspects pointing further to a generic chemical activation of carbon atoms due to substitution by nitrogen in experimentally observed configurations. Wannier-function based orbital resolved study of mechanisms suggests increase in C-N bond-orders in attempt to retain π-conjugation among carbon atoms, causing mechanical stress and loss of charge neutrality of nitrogen and carbon atoms, which remedially facilitate chemical activation of N-coordinated C atoms, enhancing sharply with increasing coordination to N and proximity to zigzag edges. Activated C atoms facilitate covalent adsorption of radicals in general, diradicals like O2 relevant to ORR, and also other similarly activated C atoms, leading to self-assembly of graphenic nanostructures while remaining inert to ordinary graphenic C atoms.

  8. Enhanced photoelectrochemical activity for Cu and Ti doped hematite: The first principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, X. Y.; Qin, G. W.; Li, S.; Ren, Y. P.; Pei, W. L.; Zuo, L.; Wen, X. H.

    2011-03-14

    To improve photoelectrochemical (PEC) activity of hematite, the modification of energy band by doping 3d transition metal ions Cu and Ti into {alpha}-Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3} were studied via the first-principles calculations with density function theory (DFT)+U method. The results show that the band gap of hematite is {approx}2.1 eV and n-type dopant Ti improves the electric conductivity, confirmed by recent experiments. The p-type dopant Cu enhances the utilization ratio of solar energy, shifts both valance, and conduction band edges to a higher energy level, satisfying hydrogen production in the visible light driven PEC water splitting without voltage bias.

  9. Retrospect and prospect of active principles from Chinese herbs in the treatment of dementia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Ying; Huang, Lu-qi; Tang, Xi-can; Zhang, Hai-yan

    2010-01-01

    With an ageing population, dementia has become one of the world's primary health challenges. However, existing remedies offer limited benefits with certain side effects, which has prompted researchers to seek complementary and alternative therapies. China has long been known for abundant usage of various herbs. Some of these herbal decoctions are effective in stimulating blood circulation, supplementing vital energy and resisting aging, the lack of which are believed to underlie dementia. These herbs are regarded as new and promising sources of potential anti-dementia drugs. With the rapid evolution of life science and technology, numerous active components have been identified that are highly potent and multi-targeted with low toxicity, and therefore meet the requirements for dementia therapy. This review updates the research progress of Chinese herbs in the treatment of dementia, focusing on their effective principles. PMID:20523337

  10. The effect of antigen encapsulation in chitosan particles on uptake, activation and presentation by antigen presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Koppolu, Bhanuprasanth; Zaharoff, David A

    2013-03-01

    Particle-based vaccine delivery systems are under exploration to enhance antigen-specific immunity against safe but poorly immunogenic polypeptide antigens. Chitosan is a promising biomaterial for antigen encapsulation and delivery due to its ability to form nano- and microparticles in mild aqueous conditions thus preserving the antigenicity of loaded polypeptides. In this study, the influence of chitosan encapsulation on antigen uptake, activation and presentation by antigen presenting cells (APCs) is explored. Fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled bovine serum albumin (FITC-BSA) and ovalbumin (OVA) were used as model protein antigens and encapsulated in chitosan particles via precipitation-coacervation at loading efficiencies >89%. Formulation conditions were manipulated to create antigen-encapsulated chitosan particles (AgCPs) with discrete nominal sizes (300 nm, 1 μm, and 3 μm). Uptake of AgCPs by dendritic cells and macrophages was found to be dependent on particle size, antigen concentration and exposure time. Flow cytometry analysis revealed that uptake of AgCPs enhanced upregulation of surface activation markers on APCs and increased the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Lastly, antigen-specific T cells exhibited higher proliferative responses when stimulated with APCs activated with AgCPs versus soluble antigen. These data suggest that encapsulation of antigens in chitosan particles enhances uptake, activation and presentation by APCs.

  11. Exploring the time-scale of photo-initiated interfacial electron transfer through first-principles interpretation of ultrafast X-ray spectroscopy (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prendergast, David; Pemmaraju, Sri Chaitanya Das

    2015-09-01

    With the advent of X-ray free electron lasers and table-top high-harmonic-generation X-ray sources, we can now explore changes in electronic structure on ultrafast time scales -- at or less than 1ps. Transient X-ray spectroscopy of this kind provides a direct probe of relevant electronic levels related to photoinitiated processes and associated interfacial electron transfer as the initial step in solar energy conversion. However, the interpretation of such spectra is typically fraught with difficulty, especially since we rarely have access to spectral standards for nonequilibrium states. To this end, direct first-principles simulations of X-ray absorption spectra can provide the necessary connection between measurements and reliable models of the atomic and electronic structure. We present examples of modeling excited states of materials interfaces relevant to solar harvesting and their corresponding X-ray spectra in either photoemission or absorption modalities. In this way, we can establish particular electron transfer mechanisms to reveal detailed working principles of materials systems in solar applications and provide insight for improved efficiency.

  12. An Analysis Technique for Active Neutron Multiplicity Measurements Based on First Principles

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, Louise G; Goddard, Braden; Charlton, William S; Peerani, Paolo

    2012-08-13

    Passive neutron multiplicity counting is commonly used to quantify the total mass of plutonium in a sample, without prior knowledge of the sample geometry. However, passive neutron counting is less applicable to uranium measurements due to the low spontaneous fission rates of uranium. Active neutron multiplicity measurements are therefore used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in a sample. Unfortunately, there are still additional challenges to overcome for uranium measurements, such as the coupling of the active source and the uranium sample. Techniques, such as the coupling method, have been developed to help reduce the dependence of calibration curves for active measurements on uranium samples; although, they still require similar geometry known standards. An advanced active neutron multiplicity measurement method is being developed by Texas A&M University, in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) in an attempt to overcome the calibration curve requirements. This method can be used to quantify the {sup 235}U mass in a sample containing uranium without using calibration curves. Furthermore, this method is based on existing detectors and nondestructive assay (NDA) systems, such as the LANL Epithermal Neutron Multiplicity Counter (ENMC). This method uses an inexpensive boron carbide liner to shield the uranium sample from thermal and epithermal neutrons while allowing fast neutrons to reach the sample. Due to the relatively low and constant fission and absorption energy dependent cross-sections at high neutron energies for uranium isotopes, fast neutrons can penetrate the sample without significant attenuation. Fast neutron interrogation therefore creates a homogeneous fission rate in the sample, allowing for first principle methods to be used to determine the {sup 235}U mass in the sample. This paper discusses the measurement method concept and development, including measurements and simulations performed to date, as well as the potential

  13. P2X7 Receptor Activation Impairs Exogenous MHC Class I Oligopeptides Presentation in Antigen Presenting Cells

    PubMed Central

    Baroja-Mazo, Alberto; Barberà-Cremades, Maria; Pelegrín, Pablo

    2013-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex class I (MHC I) on antigen presenting cells (APCs) is a potent molecule to activate CD8+ T cells and initiate immunity. P2X7 receptors (P2X7Rs) are present on the plasma membrane of APCs to sense the extracellular danger signal adenosine-5′-triphosphate (ATP). P2X7R activates the inflammasome and the release of IL-1β in macrophages and other immune cells to initiate the inflammatory response. Here we show that P2X7R stimulation by ATP in APCs decreased the amount of MHC I at the plasma membrane. Specific antagonism or genetic ablation of P2X7R inhibited the effects of ATP on levels of cellular MHC I. Furthermore, P2X7R stimulation was able to inhibit activation of CD8+ T cells via specific MHC I-oligopeptide complexes. Our study suggests that P2X7R activation on APCs is a novel inhibitor of adaptive CD8+ T cell immunity. PMID:23940597

  14. Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor for proton radiography

    SciTech Connect

    Seco, Joao; Depauw, Nicolas

    2011-02-15

    Purpose: Proof of principle study of the use of a CMOS active pixel sensor (APS) in producing proton radiographic images using the proton beam at the Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH). Methods: A CMOS APS, previously tested for use in s-ray radiation therapy applications, was used for proton beam radiographic imaging at the MGH. Two different setups were used as a proof of principle that CMOS can be used as proton imaging device: (i) a pen with two metal screws to assess spatial resolution of the CMOS and (ii) a phantom with lung tissue, bone tissue, and water to assess tissue contrast of the CMOS. The sensor was then traversed by a double scattered monoenergetic proton beam at 117 MeV, and the energy deposition inside the detector was recorded to assess its energy response. Conventional x-ray images with similar setup at voltages of 70 kVp and proton images using commercial Gafchromic EBT 2 and Kodak X-Omat V films were also taken for comparison purposes. Results: Images were successfully acquired and compared to x-ray kVp and proton EBT2/X-Omat film images. The spatial resolution of the CMOS detector image is subjectively comparable to the EBT2 and Kodak X-Omat V film images obtained at the same object-detector distance. X-rays have apparent higher spatial resolution than the CMOS. However, further studies with different commercial films using proton beam irradiation demonstrate that the distance of the detector to the object is important to the amount of proton scatter contributing to the proton image. Proton images obtained with films at different distances from the source indicate that proton scatter significantly affects the CMOS image quality. Conclusion: Proton radiographic images were successfully acquired at MGH using a CMOS active pixel sensor detector. The CMOS demonstrated spatial resolution subjectively comparable to films at the same object-detector distance. Further work will be done in order to establish the spatial and energy resolution of the

  15. Overview of non-pharmacological intervention for dementia and principles of brain-activating rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Haruyasu; Maki, Yohko; Yamagami, Tetsuya

    2010-12-01

    Non-pharmacological interventions for dementia are likely to have an important role in delaying disease progression and functional decline. Research into non-pharmacological interventions has focused on the differentiation of each approach and a comparison of their effects. However, Cochrane Reviews on non-pharmacological interventions have noted the paucity of evidence regarding the effects of these interventions. The essence of non-pharmacological intervention is dependent of the patients, families, and therapists involved, with each situation inevitably being different. To obtain good results with non-pharmacological therapy, the core is not 'what' approach is taken but 'how' the therapists communicate with their patients. Here, we propose a new type of rehabilitation for dementia, namely brain-activating rehabilitation, that consists of five principles: (i) enjoyable and comfortable activities in an accepting atmosphere; (ii) activities associated with empathetic two-way communication between the therapist and patient, as well as between patients; (iii) therapists should praise patients to enhance motivation; (iv) therapists should try to offer each patient some social role that takes advantage of his/her remaining abilities; and (v) the activities should be based on errorless learning to ensure a pleasant atmosphere and to maintain a patient's dignity. The behavioral and cognitive status is not necessarily a reflection of pathological lesions in the brain; there is cognitive reserve for improvement. The aim of brain-activating rehabilitation is to enhance patients' motivation and maximize the use of their remaining function, recruiting a compensatory network, and preventing the disuse of brain function. The primary expected effect is that patients recover a desire for life, as well as their self-respect. Enhanced motivation can lead to improvements in cognitive function. Amelioration of the behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia and improvements in

  16. Active Pharmaceutical Ingredients: Prediction of Physical-Chemical Properties from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valenzano, Loredana

    2013-03-01

    Polymorphism in active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) plays a crucial role both for medical and intellectual property concerns but despite ongoing efforts, experimental and computational investigations of the existence and the physical-chemical properties of the same compound in different forms is still an open question.While comparison between computed and experimental values for properties derived from differences between states is often promising (such as bulk modulus), results are disappointing for absolute values (such as density). Quantum mechanical computational methods describe the systems at 0K, experimentally properties are often evaluated at room temperature. Therefore it is not surprising that results determined from first principles dramatically differ from those obtained experimentally. By applying a quantum mechanical periodic approach that takes into account long range London dispersion forces fitted for solid materials, and by imposing different cell volumes corresponding to different thermodynamic conditions, we show how results from calculations at 0K (structures, vibrational spectra, elastic constants) may be compared to experimental values at higher temperatures, helping to foster a stronger linkage between computational and experimental work on systems such as APIs. Where experimental results are not available, our work represents an innovative approach in addressing the properties of APIs. Our results can also serve as foundation for the developing of new force fields to be adopted within a multi-scale computational approach.

  17. Electrostatic Positioning System for a free fall test at drop tower Bremen and an overview of tests for the Weak Equivalence Principle in past, present and future

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sondag, Andrea; Dittus, Hansjörg

    2016-08-01

    The Weak Equivalence Principle (WEP) is at the basis of General Relativity - the best theory for gravitation today. It has been and still is tested with different methods and accuracies. In this paper an overview of tests of the Weak Equivalence Principle done in the past, developed in the present and planned for the future is given. The best result up to now is derived from the data of torsion balance experiments by Schlamminger et al. (2008). An intuitive test of the WEP consists of the comparison of the accelerations of two free falling test masses of different composition. This has been carried through by Kuroda & Mio (1989, 1990) with the up to date most precise result for this setup. There is still more potential in this method, especially with a longer free fall time and sensors with a higher resolution. Providing a free fall time of 4.74 s (9.3 s using the catapult) the drop tower of the Center of Applied Space Technology and Microgravity (ZARM) at the University of Bremen is a perfect facility for further improvements. In 2001 a free fall experiment with high sensitive SQUID (Superconductive QUantum Interference Device) sensors tested the WEP with an accuracy of 10-7 (Nietzsche, 2001). For optimal conditions one could reach an accuracy of 10-13 with this setup (Vodel et al., 2001). A description of this experiment and its results is given in the next part of this paper. For the free fall of macroscopic test masses it is important to start with precisely defined starting conditions concerning the positions and velocities of the test masses. An Electrostatic Positioning System (EPS) has been developed to this purpose. It is described in the last part of this paper.

  18. Counting Attribute Blocks: Constructing Meaning for the Multiplication Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Elliott

    2000-01-01

    Presents an activity in which attribute blocks help middle school students understand the fundamental counting principle and the multiplication rule. Demonstrates how these materials can aid students in building a conceptual understanding of multiplication and the counting principle. (ASK)

  19. [Civil responsibility of medical care activities in regard to the precautionary principle].

    PubMed

    Le Foyer de Costil, H

    2000-01-01

    In the absence of a legal body regulating the precaution, do we have to confine the principle to public health? A negative answer is required at a time the medical liability is increasing more and more and the obligation to take all means is slipping toward to a strict obligation as to the result. The respect of the principle of precaution can be found in the obligation for the doctor to prove that he has fully informed the patient, but the medicine specificity requires delimitation of this obligation outlines.

  20. Quantification of active principles and pigments in leaf extracts of Isatis tinctoria by HPLC/UV/MS.

    PubMed

    Mohn, Tobias; Potterat, Olivier; Hamburger, Matthias

    2007-02-01

    An HPLC method has been developed and validated for the quantification of the pharmacologically active principles tryptanthrin (1), 1,3-dihydro-3-[(4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxyphenyl)methylene]-2 H-indol-2-one (indolinone) (3), indirubin (4), alpha-linolenic acid (2), and indigo (5), an isomer of indirubin, in extracts from the traditional anti-inflammatory plant Isatis tinctoria (woad). The chromatographic separation was performed on a C-18 column with a linear gradient of acetonitrile in water containing 0.1% formic acid. The method combines UV and electrospray MS detection in the positive ion mode for the detection of the alkaloids, with a switch to the negative mode for the analysis of alpha-linolenic acid. The method was applied to the analysis of woad extracts obtained by supercritical fluid (SFE) CO2 extraction, and by pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) with dichloromethane and methanol, respectively. While the highest concentration of alpha-linolenic acid was found in the SFE extract (7.43%), the concentrations of tryptanthrin , indolinone, indirubin and indigo were the highest in the dichloromethane extract (0.30, 0.035, 2.48 and 0.84%, respectively). Compound 3 was not detected in the methanolic extract and only traces of compounds 1, 4 and 5 and low amount of alpha-linolenic acid (0.39%) were present in this extract.

  1. Release of acetylcholine by syringin, an active principle of Eleutherococcus senticosus, to raise insulin secretion in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ko Yu; Wu, Yang-Chang; Liu, I-Min; Yu, Wen Chen; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2008-03-28

    The present study is designed to screen the effect of syringin, an active principle purified from the rhizome and root parts of Eleutherococcus senticosus (Araliaceae), on the plasma glucose and investigate the possible mechanisms. Plasma glucose decreased in a dose-dependent manner 60 min after intravenous injection of syringin into fasting Wistar rats. In parallel to the decrease of plasma glucose, increases of plasma insulin level as well as the plasma C-peptide was also observed in rats receiving same treatment. Both the plasma glucose lowering action and the raised plasma levels of insulin and C-peptide induced by syringin were also inhibited by 4-diphenylacetoxy-N-methylpiperdine methiodide (4-DAMP), the antagonist of the muscarinic M3 receptors, but not affected by the ganglionic nicotinic antagonist, pentolinium or hexamethonium. Moreover, disruption of synaptic available acetylcholine (ACh) using an inhibitor of choline uptake, hemicholinium-3, or vesicular acetylcholine transport, vesamicol, abolished these actions of syringin. Also, physostigmine at concentration sufficient to inhibit acetylcholinesterase enhanced the actions of syringin. Mediation of ACh release from the nerve terminals to enhance insulin secretion by syringin can thus be considered. The results suggest that syringin has an ability to raise the release of ACh from nerve terminals, which in turn to stimulate muscarinic M3 receptors in pancreatic cells and augment the insulin release to result in plasma glucose lowering action.

  2. Physical Activity and Pregnancy: Past and Present Evidence and Future Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Symons Downs, Danielle; Chasan-Taber, Lisa; Evenson, Kelly R.; Leiferman, Jenn; Yeo, SeonAe

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: In this review, we provide researchers and practitioners with an overview of the physical activity and pregnancy literature to promote prenatal physical activity, improve measurement, further elucidate the role of activity in reducing maternal health complications, and inform future research. Method: We examined past and present physical…

  3. Bioassay-Guided Fractionation of a Leaf Extract from Combretum mucronatum with Anthelmintic Activity: Oligomeric Procyanidins as the Active Principle.

    PubMed

    Spiegler, Verena; Sendker, Jandirk; Petereit, Frank; Liebau, Eva; Hensel, Andreas

    2015-08-14

    Combretum mucronatum Schumach. & Thonn. is a medicinal plant widely used in West African traditional medicine for wound healing and the treatment of helminth infections. The present study aimed at a phytochemical characterization of a hydroalcoholic leaf extract of this plant and the identification of the anthelmintic compounds by bioassay-guided fractionation. An EtOH-H2O (1:1) extract from defatted leaves was partitioned between EtOAc and H2O. Further fractionation was performed by fast centrifugal partition chromatography, RP18-MPLC and HPLC. Epicatechin (1), oligomeric proanthocyanidins (OPC) 2 to 10 (mainly procyanidins) and flavonoids 11 to 13 were identified as main components of the extract. The hydroalcoholic extract, fractions and purified compounds were tested in vitro for their anthelmintic activity using the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The bioassay-guided fractionation led to the identification of OPCs as the active compounds with a dose-dependent anthelmintic activity ranging from 1 to 1000 μM. Using OPC-clusters with a defined degree of polymerization (DP) revealed that a DP ≥ 3 is necessary for an anthelmintic activity, whereas a DP > 4 does not lead to a further increased inhibitory effect against the helminths. In summary, the findings rationalize the traditional use of C. mucronatum and provide further insight into the anthelmintic activity of condensed tannins.

  4. Design principles for oxygen-reduction activity on perovskite oxide catalysts for fuel cells and metal-air batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suntivich, Jin; Gasteiger, Hubert A.; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Nakanishi, Haruyuki; Goodenough, John B.; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2011-07-01

    The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to σ*-orbital (eg) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the σ* orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O22-/OH- displacement and OH- regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

  5. Design principles for oxygen-reduction activity on perovskite oxide catalysts for fuel cells and metal-air batteries.

    PubMed

    Suntivich, Jin; Gasteiger, Hubert A; Yabuuchi, Naoaki; Nakanishi, Haruyuki; Goodenough, John B; Shao-Horn, Yang

    2011-06-12

    The prohibitive cost and scarcity of the noble-metal catalysts needed for catalysing the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) in fuel cells and metal-air batteries limit the commercialization of these clean-energy technologies. Identifying a catalyst design principle that links material properties to the catalytic activity can accelerate the search for highly active and abundant transition-metal-oxide catalysts to replace platinum. Here, we demonstrate that the ORR activity for oxide catalysts primarily correlates to σ-orbital (e(g)) occupation and the extent of B-site transition-metal-oxygen covalency, which serves as a secondary activity descriptor. Our findings reflect the critical influences of the σ orbital and metal-oxygen covalency on the competition between O(2)(2-)/OH(-) displacement and OH(-) regeneration on surface transition-metal ions as the rate-limiting steps of the ORR, and thus highlight the importance of electronic structure in controlling oxide catalytic activity.

  6. Investigation into the antioxidant and antidiabetic potential of Moringa stenopetala: identification of the active principles.

    PubMed

    Habtemariam, Solomon

    2015-03-01

    The fresh leaves of Moringa stenopetala (family, Moringaceae) are commonly eaten as cabbage while dried leaves are used as nutritional supplement and for treating a variety of disease conditions including diabetes. The present investigation into the therapeutic potential of the leaves and seeds of the plant revealed no inhibitory effect against α-glucosidase enzyme up to the concentration of 200 μg/mL but the leaves extract displayed potent DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2- picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging effect (IC50, 59.5 ± 4.1 μg/mL). An activity directed fractionation and isolation procedure resulted in the identification of the major antioxidant compound as rutin and minor active component, neochlorogenic acid. Both the crude extract (0.8-200 μg/mL) and rutin (0.8-200 μM) but not neochlorogenic acid displayed a concentration-dependent protection of human pancreatic β-cells (1.4E7 cells) from oxidant-induced cell death. The identification of these compounds along with their potential role in the nutritional and medicinal significance of the plant is discussed.

  7. Principles of project management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1982-01-01

    The basic principles of project management as practiced by NASA management personnel are presented. These principles are given as ground rules and guidelines to be used in the performance of research, development, construction or operational assignments.

  8. Application of the Principle of Linked Functions to ATP-Driven Ion Pumps: Kinetics of Activation by ATP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reynolds, Jacqueline A.; Johnson, Edward A.; Tanford, Charles

    1985-06-01

    If a ligand binds with unequal affinity to two distinct states of a protein, then the equilibrium between the two states becomes a function of the concentration of the ligand. A necessary consequence is that the ligand must also affect the forward and/or reverse rate constants for transition between the two states. For an enzyme or transport protein with such a transition as a slow step in the catalytic cycle, the overall rate also becomes a function of ligand concentration. These conclusions are independent of whether or not the ligand is a direct participant in the reaction. If it is a direct partitipant, then the kinetic effect arising from the principle of linked functions is distinct from the direct catalytic effect. These principles suffice to account for the biphasic response of the hydrolytic activity of ATP-driven ion pumps to the concentration of ATP, without the need to invoke more than one ATP binding site per catalytic center.

  9. Four Practical Principles for Enhancing Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manyak, Patrick C.; Von Gunten, Heather; Autenrieth, David; Gillis, Carolyn; Mastre-O'Farrell, Julie; Irvine-McDermott, Elizabeth; Baumann, James F.; Blachowicz, Camille L. Z.

    2014-01-01

    This article presents four practical principles that lead to enhanced word-meaning instruction in the elementary grades. The authors, a collaborative team of researchers and classroom teachers, identified and developed these principles and related instructional activities during a three-year vocabulary instruction research project. The principles…

  10. Alloantigen presentation by B cells: analysis of the requirement for B-cell activation.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, J L; Cunningham, A C; Kirby, J A

    1995-01-01

    This paper describes a model for investigation of the functional implications of B-cell activation for antigen presentation. Mixed lymphocyte cultures were used to assess the ability of freshly isolated B cells, mitogen-activated B cells and Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-transformed B-cell lines to stimulate the activation and proliferation of allogeneic T cells under a variety of experimental conditions. It was found that resting B cells presented antigen poorly, while activated cells were highly immunogenic. Paraformaldehyde fixation completely eliminated antigen presentation by resting B cells, despite constitutive expression of class II MHC antigens. However, fixation had little effect on antigen presentation by activated B cells that expressed B7-1 and B7-2 in addition to class II major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. Arrest of B-cell activation by serial fixation after treatment with F(ab')2 fragments of goat anti-human IgM produced cells with variable antigen-presenting capacity. Optimal antigen presentation was observed for cells fixed 72 hr after the initiation of B-cell activation. Although both B7-1 and B7-2 antigen expression increased after B-cell activation, it was found that the rate of T-cell proliferation correlated most closely with B7-2 expression. Stimulation of T cells by fixed activated B lymphocytes could be blocked by antibodies directed at class II MHC molecules, indicating involvement of the T-cell antigen receptor. In addition, T-cell proliferation was inhibited by antibodies specific for B7-1 and B7-2 and by the fusion protein CTLA4-Ig, demonstrating a requirement for CD28 signal transduction. The sole requirement of B7 family expression for antigen presentation by B lymphocytes was shown by demonstration of T-cell stimulation by fixed resting B cells in the presence of CD28 antibody as a source of artificial costimulation. PMID:8550066

  11. Re-Mediating Classroom Activity with a Non-Linear, Multi-Display Presentation Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bligh, Brett; Coyle, Do

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses an Activity Theory framework to evaluate the use of a novel, multi-screen, non-linear presentation tool. The Thunder tool allows presenters to manipulate and annotate multiple digital slides and to concurrently display a selection of juxtaposed resources across a wall-sized projection area. Conventional, single screen presentation…

  12. The Self-Presentation Motives for Physical Activity Questionnaire: Instrument Development and Preliminary Construct Validity Evidence.

    PubMed

    Howle, Timothy C; Dimmock, James A; Whipp, Peter R; Jackson, Ben

    2015-06-01

    With the aim of advancing the literature on impression management in physical activity settings, we developed a theoretically derived 2 by 2 instrument that was designed to measure different types of context-specific self-presentation motives. Following item generation and expert review (Study 1), the instrument was completed by 206 group exercise class attendees (Study 2) and 463 high school physical education students (Study 3). Our analyses supported the intended factor structure (i.e., reflecting acquisitive-agentic, acquisitive-communal, protective-agentic, and protective-communal motives). We found some support for construct validity, and the self-presentation motives were associated with variables of theoretical and applied interest (e.g., impression motivation and construction, social anxiety, social and achievement goals, efficacy beliefs, engagement). Taken together, the results indicate that the Self-presentation Motives for Physical Activity Questionnaire (SMPAQ) may be useful for measuring various types of self-presentation motives in physical activity settings.

  13. A postmenopause-like model of ovariectomized Wistar rats to identify active principles of Erythrina lysistemon (Fabaceae).

    PubMed

    Mvondo, M A; Njamen, D; Fomum, S Tanee; Wandji, J; Vollmer, Günter

    2011-10-01

    To determine whether the two major compounds of Erythrina lysistemon are active principles accounting for Erythrina estrogenic effects, we used a postmenopause-like model of ovariectomized Wistar rats to evaluate their effects on some menopausal problems. Ovariectomized rats were orally treated either with compound 1 or compound 2 at 1 and 10 mg/kg BW for 28 days. Estradiol valerate served as the reference substance. As results, compounds 1 and 2 displayed estrogen-like effects on the uterus and the vagina, and reduced atherogenic risks by decreasing the two assessed atherogenic parameters, the total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol ratio and the atherogenic index of plasma.

  14. Anti-hyperglycaemic and antioxidant effects of Bidens tripartita and quantitative analysis on its active principles

    PubMed Central

    Orhan, Nilüfer; İçöz, Ülkü Gökçen; Altun, Levent; Aslan, Mustafa

    2016-01-01

    Objective(s): Bidens species are used for their antidiabetic properties traditionally in many countries. Aim of this study is to evaluate hypoglycaemic and antidiabetic activity of Bidens tripartita extract and to identify its active compounds through bioactivity guided isolation technique. Materials and Methods: Hypoglycaemic effects of B. tripartita extract and its sub-extracts were investigated in normal and glucose-hyperglycaemic rats. Streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were used to examine antidiabetic activity of the extract and its sub-extracts after acute and sub-acute administration. Additionally, in vitro enzyme inhibitory and antioxidant activities were evaluated. HPLC analyses were carried out to determine the active constituents of the extract and its sub-extracts. Results: Through in vivo bioactivity-guided fractionation process, ethyl acetate and n-buthanol sub-extracts were found to have potent antidiabetic activity. In vitro enzyme inhibitory activities of the same sub-extracts were found to be potent. The highest total phenol, flavonoid contents and radical scavenging activity was determined in ethyl acetate sub-extract. According to LC-MS analyses, chlorogenic acid, luteolin and 7-O-glucoside of luteolin (cynaroside) were determined as the main components of the active sub-extracts. Conclusion: According to our results, B. tripartita has potent antidiabetic activity and its active constituents might be beneficial for diabetes and its complications. PMID:27872708

  15. Bernoulli's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hewitt, Paul G.

    2004-01-01

    Some teachers have difficulty understanding Bernoulli's principle particularly when the principle is applied to the aerodynamic lift. Some teachers favor using Newton's laws instead of Bernoulli's principle to explain the physics behind lift. Some also consider Bernoulli's principle too difficult to explain to students and avoid teaching it…

  16. Framework for the design and delivery of organized physical activity sessions for children and adolescents: rationale and description of the 'SAAFE' teaching principles.

    PubMed

    Lubans, David R; Lonsdale, Chris; Cohen, Kristen; Eather, Narelle; Beauchamp, Mark R; Morgan, Philip J; Sylvester, Benjamin D; Smith, Jordan J

    2017-02-23

    The economic burden of inactivity is substantial, with conservative estimates suggesting the global cost to health care systems is more than US$50 billion. School-based programs, including physical education and school sport, have been recommended as important components of a multi-sector, multi-system approach to address physical inactivity. Additionally, community sporting clubs and after-school programs (ASPs) offer further opportunities for young people to be physically active outside of school. Despite demonstrating promise, current evidence suggests school-based physical activity programs, community sporting clubs and ASPs are not achieving their full potential. For example, physical activity levels in physical education (PE) and ASP sessions are typically much lower than recommended. For these sessions to have the strongest effects on young people's physical activity levels and their on-going physical literacy, they need to improve in quality and should be highly active and engaging. This paper presents the Supportive, Active, Autonomous, Fair, Enjoyable (SAAFE) principles, which represent an evidence-based framework designed to guide the planning, delivery and evaluation of organized physical activity sessions in school, community sport and ASPs. In this paper we provide a narrative and integrative review of the conceptual and empirical bases that underpin this framework and highlight implications for knowledge translation and application.

  17. "JCE" Classroom Activity #108. Using Archimedes' Principle to Explain Floating and Sinking Cans

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sanger, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    In this activity, students (working alone or in groups) measure the mass of several soda cans (diet and regular soda) along with the mass of water that each can displaces. The students are then asked to compare these two mass values for the sinking cans and for the floating cans. The purpose of this activity is for students to determine that the…

  18. Pulseless electrical activity in cardiac arrest: electrocardiographic presentations and management considerations based on the electrocardiogram.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Chris; Brady, William

    2012-01-01

    Pulseless electrical activity (PEA), a cardiac arrest rhythm scenario with an associated poor prognosis, is defined as cardiac electrical activity without a palpable pulse. Considering both outpatient and inpatient cardiac arrest presentations, PEA as a rhythm group has been increasing over the past 10 to 20 years with a corresponding decrease in the "shockable" rhythms, such as pulseless ventricular tachycardia and ventricular fibrillation. This review focuses on electrocardiographic findings encountered in PEA cardiac arrest presentations with an emphasis on recognition of patients with a potential opportunity for successful resuscitation.

  19. Anticonvulsant activity of essential oils and active principles from chemotypes of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E. Brown.

    PubMed

    Viana, G S; do Vale, T G; Silva, C M; Matos, F J

    2000-11-01

    In the present work we studied the anticonvulsive effects of the essential oils (EOs) from three chemotypes of Lippia alba (Mill.) N.E.Brown (Verbenaceae). Animals (female Swiss mice, 25 g) were treated with the EO and, 30 or 60 min after intraperitoneal (i.p.) or oral (p.o.) administration, respectively, injected with pentylenetetrazole (80 mg/kg, i.p.) and observed for 30 min. The results showed that EO I (200 and 400 mg/kg), EO II (100, 200 and 400 mg/kg), and EO III (400 mg/kg), i.p., produced an increased latency time for the first convulsion as related to controls. Death latency was greater in the groups receiving EO I (50 and 100 mg/kg), EO II (100 and 200 mg/kg), and EO III (200 mg/kg), i.p. Orally, while no effect was demonstrated with EOs at doses of 200 or 400 mg/kg, significant increases in the latency of convulsion and latency of death were observed with EO I at the highest dose (800 mg/kg). Similarly, EO III at this dose was also effective as far as latency of convulsion is concerned. Animals treated with citral (100 mg/kg, i.p.), beta-myrcene or limonene (200 mg/kg, i.p.), EOs chemical constituents, presented significant increases in the latency of convulsion and percentage of survival as compared to controls. After oral administration these effects were observed only with a higher dose (400 mg/kg). The association of EOs with diazepam significantly potentiated their effects, suggesting a similar mechanism of action and indicating that citral, beta-myrcene, and limonene are probably the EOs active compounds.

  20. The Ferguson principle and an analysis of biological activity of gases and vapors.

    PubMed

    Abraham, M H; Nielsen, G D; Alarie, Y

    1994-05-01

    The Ferguson principle, that Pnar/PO (Pnar is the partial pressure of a series of compounds giving rise to a particular effect on a given system by a physical mechanism, and PO is the saturated vapor pressure of the liquid narcotic) is constant for a series of nonreactive narcotics or toxicants in a given system, is examined and shown to have no thermodynamic basis, contrary to the position of Brink and Posternak. Conditions under which Pnar/PO might be expected to be roughly constant, as an empirical observation, are set out and it is shown that such an observation is consistent with a receptor area in which the liquid narcotic solubilities are roughly constant. An interpretation of relationships between agonist descriptors and biological effects is carried out with three simple biological models. It is shown that the biological potency of nonreactive gases and vapors can be controlled either by an equilibrium between the agonist in the gas phase and the agonist in a receptor or by an equilibrium between the agonist in the gas phase and the agonist in a receptor phase. It is further shown that with the solvation equation of Abraham, solvents can be chosen that mimic the chemical properties of the receptor or receptor phase. For the example of upper respiratory tract irritation of male Swiss OF1 mice, such solvents include N-formylmorpholine, a trialkylphosphate, and wet octanol, but not water itself.

  1. Association of serotonin transporter promoter regulatory region polymorphism and cerebral activity to visual presentation of food.

    PubMed

    Kaurijoki, Salla; Kuikka, Jyrki T; Niskanen, Eini; Carlson, Synnöve; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H; Pesonen, Ullamari; Kaprio, Jaakko M; Rissanen, Aila; Tiihonen, Jari; Karhunen, Leila

    2008-07-01

    Recent functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies have revealed links between genetic polymorphisms and cognitive and behavioural processes. Serotonin is a classical neurotransmitter of central nervous system, and it is connected to the control of appetite and satiety. In this study, the relationship between the functional variation in the serotonin transporter gene and the activity in the left posterior cingulate cortex (PCC), a brain area activated by visual food stimuli was explored. Thirty subjects underwent serial fMRI studies and provided DNA for genetic analyses. Subjects homozygous for the long allele exhibited greater left PCC activity in the comparison food > non-food compared with individuals heterozygous or homozygous for the short allele. The association between genotype and activation was linear, the subjects with two copies of the long allele variant having the strongest activation. These results demonstrate the possible genetically driven variation in the response of the left PCC to visual presentation of food in humans.

  2. Development of coherent neuronal activity patterns in mammalian cortical networks: common principles and local hetereogeneity.

    PubMed

    Egorov, Alexei V; Draguhn, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    Many mammals are born in a very immature state and develop their rich repertoire of behavioral and cognitive functions postnatally. This development goes in parallel with changes in the anatomical and functional organization of cortical structures which are involved in most complex activities. The emerging spatiotemporal activity patterns in multi-neuronal cortical networks may indeed form a direct neuronal correlate of systemic functions like perception, sensorimotor integration, decision making or memory formation. During recent years, several studies--mostly in rodents--have shed light on the ontogenesis of such highly organized patterns of network activity. While each local network has its own peculiar properties, some general rules can be derived. We therefore review and compare data from the developing hippocampus, neocortex and--as an intermediate region--entorhinal cortex. All cortices seem to follow a characteristic sequence starting with uncorrelated activity in uncoupled single neurons where transient activity seems to have mostly trophic effects. In rodents, before and shortly after birth, cortical networks develop weakly coordinated multineuronal discharges which have been termed synchronous plateau assemblies (SPAs). While these patterns rely mostly on electrical coupling by gap junctions, the subsequent increase in number and maturation of chemical synapses leads to the generation of large-scale coherent discharges. These patterns have been termed giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) for predominantly GABA-induced events or early network oscillations (ENOs) for mostly glutamatergic bursts, respectively. During the third to fourth postnatal week, cortical areas reach their final activity patterns with distinct network oscillations and highly specific neuronal discharge sequences which support adult behavior. While some of the mechanisms underlying maturation of network activity have been elucidated much work remains to be done in order to fully

  3. The hexane extract of Saussurea lappa and its active principle, dehydrocostus lactone, inhibit prostate cancer cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun Ji; Hong, Ji Eun; Lim, Soon Sung; Kwon, Gyoo Taik; Kim, Jongdai; Kim, Jong-Sang; Lee, Ki Won; Park, Jung Han Yoon

    2012-01-01

    Saussurea lappa has been used in Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of abdominal pain, tenesmus, nausea, and cancer; previous studies have shown that S. lappa also induces G(2) growth arrest and apoptosis in gastric cancer cells. In this study, we investigated the effects of hexane extracts of S. lappa (HESLs) on the migration of DU145 and TRAMP-C2 prostate cancer cells. DU145 and TRAMP-C2 cells were cultured in the presence of 0-4 μg/mL HESL with or without 10 ng/mL epidermal growth factor (EGF). HESL inhibited the basal and EGF-induced migration of prostate cancer cells in a dose-dependent manner, whereas HESL did not influence the viability of these cancer cells under the conditions used in this study. Active fractions of HESL were separated via column chromatography, and the structure of the active principle was determined using (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The active compound, dehydrocostus lactone (DHCL), in fraction 7 dose-dependently inhibited the basal and EGF-induced migration of prostate cancer cells. HESL and DHCL reduced matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-1 secretion but increased TIMP-2 levels in both the absence and presence of EGF. Our results demonstrate that the inhibition of MMP-9 secretion and the stimulation of TIMP-2 secretion contribute to reduced migration of DU145 cells treated with HESL and DHCL. These results indicate that HESL containing its active principle, DHCL, has potential as an antimetastatic agent for the treatment of prostate cancer.

  4. Who Will Present It during the Broadcast? A Case Study at a Daily Activity Centre

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reichenberg, Monica

    2016-01-01

    The present study is an investigation of a daily activity centre (DA). The overall aim was to build a grounded theory that could explain why this particular DA deviated from the norms of Swedish group homes and DAs described in previous studies. These studies have suggested that the staff stuck to old routines, such as letting the participants…

  5. Active Learning to Improve Presentation Skills: The Use of Pecha Kucha in Undergraduate Sales Management Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDonald, Robert E.; Derby, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Recruiters seek candidates with certain business skills that are not developed in the typical lecture-based classroom. Instead, active-learning techniques have been shown to be effective in honing these skills. One skill that is particularly important in sales careers is the ability to make a powerful and effective presentation. To help students…

  6. Bubble Festival: Presenting Bubble Activities in a Learning Station Format. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Jacqueline; Willard, Carolyn

    This learning station guide adapts the Bubble Festival, an all-school event, for individual classrooms. It presents students with a variety of different challenges at learning stations set up around the classroom. The activities are student-centered and involve open-ended investigations. Also included are ways to extend students' experiences at…

  7. Cellular Telephones Measure Activity and Lifespace in Community-Dwelling Adults: Proof of Principle

    PubMed Central

    Schenk, Ana Katrin; Witbrodt, Bradley C.; Hoarty, Carrie A.; Carlson, Richard H.; Goulding, Evan H.; Potter, Jane F.; Bonasera, Stephen J.

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVES To describe a system that uses off-the-shelf sensor and telecommunication technologies to continuously measure individual lifespace and activity levels in a novel way. DESIGN Proof of concept involving three field trials of 30, 30, and 21 days. SETTING Omaha, Nebraska, metropolitan and surrounding rural region. PARTICIPANTS Three participants (48-year-old man, 33-year-old woman, and 27-year-old male), none with any functional limitations. MEASUREMENTS Cellular telephones were used to detect in-home position and in-community location and to measure physical activity. Within the home, cellular telephones and Bluetooth transmitters (beacons) were used to locate participants at room-level resolution. Outside the home, the same cellular telephones and global positioning system (GPS) technology were used to locate participants at a community-level resolution. Physical activity was simultaneously measured using the cellular telephone accelerometer. RESULTS This approach had face validity to measure activity and lifespace. More importantly, this system could measure the spatial and temporal organization of these metrics. For example, an individual’s lifespace was automatically calculated across multiple time intervals. Behavioral time budgets showing how people allocate time to specific regions within the home were also automatically generated. CONCLUSION Mobile monitoring shows much promise as an easily deployed system to quantify activity and lifespace, important indicators of function, in community-dwelling adults. PMID:21288235

  8. Pomegranate juice and prostate cancer: importance of the characterisation of the active principle.

    PubMed

    Chrubasik-Hausmann, Sigrun; Vlachojannis, Christian; Zimmermann, Benno

    2014-11-01

    Two exploratory clinical studies investigating proprietary pomegranate products showed a trend of effectiveness in increasing prostate-specific antigen doubling time in patients with prostate cancer. A recent clinical study did not support these results. We therefore analysed a lot of the marketed pomegranate blend for co-active pomegranate compounds. The high-performance liquid chromatography method was used to detect punicalagin, ellagic acid and anthocyanins. Total polyphenoles were determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method using gallic acid as reference. The results show that the co-active compounds in the daily dose of the pomegranate blend were far below those previously tested and that the photometric assessment is not reliable for the standardisation of study medications. Not pomegranate but the low amount of co-active compounds in the proprietary pomegranate blend was responsible for its clinical ineffectiveness.

  9. Evaluation of hepatoprotective effect of Gentiana olivieri herbs on subacute administration and isolation of active principle.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Didem Deliorman; Aslan, Mustafa; Aktay, Göknur; Ergun, Ender; Yesilada, Erdem; Ergun, Fatma

    2003-04-04

    Hepatoprotective effect of Gentiana olivieri Griseb. (Gentianaceae) flowering herbs on subacute administration were studied using in vivo models in rats. For the activity assessment on carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage following biochemical parameters were evaluated; plasma and hepatic tissue malondialdehyde formation, and liver tissue glutathione level, as well as plasma transaminase enzyme levels (aspartate transferase and alanine transferase). Results of biochemical tests were also confirmed by histopathological examination. Through bioassay-guided fractionation procedures isoorientin, a known C-glycosylflavone, was isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction as the active antihepatotoxic constituent by silica gel column chromatography. Isoorientin exhibited significant hepatoprotective effect at 15 mg/kg b.w. dose.

  10. Behavior Change Techniques Present in Wearable Activity Trackers: A Critical Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Mercer, Kathryn; Li, Melissa; Giangregorio, Lora; Burns, Catherine

    2016-01-01

    Background Wearable activity trackers are promising as interventions that offer guidance and support for increasing physical activity and health-focused tracking. Most adults do not meet their recommended daily activity guidelines, and wearable fitness trackers are increasingly cited as having great potential to improve the physical activity levels of adults. Objective The objective of this study was to use the Coventry, Aberdeen, and London-Refined (CALO-RE) taxonomy to examine if the design of wearable activity trackers incorporates behavior change techniques (BCTs). A secondary objective was to critically analyze whether the BCTs present relate to known drivers of behavior change, such as self-efficacy, with the intention of extending applicability to older adults in addition to the overall population. Methods Wearing each device for a period of 1 week, two independent raters used CALO-RE taxonomy to code the BCTs of the seven wearable activity trackers available in Canada as of March 2014. These included Fitbit Flex, Misfit Shine, Withings Pulse, Jawbone UP24, Spark Activity Tracker by SparkPeople, Nike+ FuelBand SE, and Polar Loop. We calculated interrater reliability using Cohen's kappa. Results The average number of BCTs identified was 16.3/40. Withings Pulse had the highest number of BCTs and Misfit Shine had the lowest. Most techniques centered around self-monitoring and self-regulation, all of which have been associated with improved physical activity in older adults. Techniques related to planning and providing instructions were scarce. Conclusions Overall, wearable activity trackers contain several BCTs that have been shown to increase physical activity in older adults. Although more research and development must be done to fully understand the potential of wearables as health interventions, the current wearable trackers offer significant potential with regard to BCTs relevant to uptake by all populations, including older adults. PMID:27122452

  11. Transforming Principles into Practice: Using Cognitive Active Learning Strategies in the High School Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiderski, Suzanne M.

    2011-01-01

    High school teachers who engage students through active learning in their classrooms can more fully understand this instructional practice by examining the theories and strategies underlying the cognitive perspective of educational psychology, which addresses the development of knowledge in the individual mind. Two theoretical explanations,…

  12. Using an FPLC to Promote Active Learning of the Principles of Protein Structure and Purification

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Rebekah L.; Neely, Amy E.; Mojadedi, Wais; Threatt, Katie N.; Davis, Nicole Y.; Weiland, Mitch H.

    2017-01-01

    The concepts of protein purification are often taught in undergraduate biology and biochemistry lectures and reinforced during laboratory exercises; however, very few reported activities allow students to directly gain experience using modern protein purification instruments, such as Fast Protein Liquid Chromatography (FPLC). This laboratory…

  13. Emerging principles and neural substrates underlying tonic sleep-state-dependent influences on respiratory motor activity.

    PubMed

    Horner, Richard L

    2009-09-12

    Respiratory muscles with dual respiratory and non-respiratory functions (e.g. the pharyngeal and intercostal muscles) show greater suppression of activity in sleep than the diaphragm, a muscle almost entirely devoted to respiratory function. This sleep-related suppression of activity is most apparent in the tonic component of motor activity, which has functional implications of a more collapsible upper airspace in the case of pharyngeal muscles, and decreased functional residual capacity in the case of intercostal muscles. A major source of tonic drive to respiratory motoneurons originates from neurons intimately involved in states of brain arousal, i.e. neurons not classically involved in generating respiratory rhythm and pattern per se. The tonic drive to hypoglossal motoneurons, a respiratory motor pool with both respiratory and non-respiratory functions, is mediated principally by noradrenergic and glutamatergic inputs, these constituting the essential components of the wakefulness stimulus. These tonic excitatory drives are opposed by tonic inhibitory glycinergic and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA) inputs that constrain the level of respiratory-related motor activity, with the balance determining net motor tone. In sleep, the excitatory inputs are withdrawn and GABA release into the brainstem is increased, thus decreasing respiratory motor tone and predisposing susceptible individuals to hypoventilation and obstructive sleep apnoea.

  14. Activity origin and catalyst design principles for electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution on heteroatom-doped graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiao, Yan; Zheng, Yao; Davey, Kenneth; Qiao, Shi-Zhang

    2016-10-01

    The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a fundamental process in electrocatalysis and plays an important role in energy conversion through water splitting to produce hydrogen. Effective candidates for HER are often based on noble metals or transition metal dichalcogenides, while carbon-based metal-free electrocatalysts generally demonstrate poorer activity. Here we report evaluation of a series of heteroatom-doped graphene materials as efficient HER electrocatalysts by combining spectroscopic characterization, electrochemical measurements, and density functional theory calculations. Results of theoretical computations are shown to be in good agreement with experimental observations regarding the intrinsic electrocatalytic activity and the HER reaction mechanism. As a result, we establish a HER activity trend for graphene-based materials, and explore their reactivity origin to guide the design of more efficient electrocatalysts. We predict that by rationally modifying particular experimentally achievable physicochemical characteristics, a practically realizable graphene-based material will have the potential to exceed the performance of the metal-based benchmark for HER.

  15. Driving Toward Guiding Principles

    PubMed Central

    Buckovich, Suzy A.; Rippen, Helga E.; Rozen, Michael J.

    1999-01-01

    As health care moves from paper to electronic data collection, providing easier access and dissemination of health information, the development of guiding privacy, confidentiality, and security principles is necessary to help balance the protection of patients' privacy interests against appropriate information access. A comparative review and analysis was done, based on a compilation of privacy, confidentiality, and security principles from many sources. Principles derived from ten identified sources were compared with each of the compiled principles to assess support level, uniformity, and inconsistencies. Of 28 compiled principles, 23 were supported by at least 50 percent of the sources. Technology could address at least 12 of the principles. Notable consistencies among the principles could provide a basis for consensus for further legislative and organizational work. It is imperative that all participants in our health care system work actively toward a viable resolution of this information privacy debate. PMID:10094065

  16. Label free detection of optogenetically stimulated cellular activity by low coherence interferometry (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Satpathy, Sarmishtha; Batabyal, Subrata; Dave, Digant P.; Mohanty, Samarendra K.

    2016-03-01

    Detecting cellular activity in sub-millisecond timescale and micrometer resolution without using invasive means has been a long standing goal in the study of cellular networks. Here, we have employed phase sensitive low coherence interferometry for detecting optogenetically stimulated activity of cells. Nanoscale changes in optical path length (due to change in refractive index and changes in cell thickness) occur when cells are activated, which we aim to detect by phase sensitive low coherence interferometry. A low coherence interferometry and patch-clamp electrophysiology systems were integrated with an inverted fluorescence microscope. Blue laser beam was coupled to the electrophysiology-interferometric detection system for optogenetic stimulation. The phase-sensitive measurements were carried out on Channelrhodopsin-2 sensitized cells (identified by YFP fluorescence) as well as control cells in reflection mode for different intensities and exposures of optogenetic stimulation beam. This method offers good temporal and spatial resolution without using exogenous labeling. Results of studies on all optical stimulation and detection of cellular activity will be presented. Interpretation of the optical activity signals will be discussed in context with changes in cell physiology during stimulation. We will also discuss the potential sources of various artifacts in optical/electrical detection of cellular activity during optical stimulation.

  17. Tales from the Dark Side: Teacher Professional Development , Support , Activities, Student Research & Presentations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walker, C. E.; Pompea, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    In a partnership last Spring with Arizona Public Service, the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO) created the 'Dark-Skies Energy Education Program: Energy Awareness for a Sustainable Future'. In this program, experienced science and technology education specialists from NOAO led 2 one-day professional development workshops for thirteen 6th grade teachers on dark skies and energy education. The workshops focused on three foundational, scaffolding activities and a final student research project. This in turn culminated in a Family Science Night where students presented their projects. In between these events, our NOAO team provided support for teachers through real-time video conferencing using FaceTime. In addition to the professional development, each teacher received a kit full of resource materials to perform the activities and research project. The kit was at no cost to the teacher, school, or district. Each kit contained the latest version of a tablet, which was used to facilitate communication and support for the teachers, as well as provide all the program's written teaching materials. The activities are in accordance with state, Common Core and Next Generation Science Standards. Our NOAO instructors gave firsthand experiences on how best to use these materials in a classroom or public setting. They also discussed opportunities on how they can incorporate, adapt and expand upon the activities and research projects in the classroom. Evaluation reports from the program's independent evaluator showed that the students enjoyed learning from the three foundational activities and research projects. The project presentations by the Yuma students were outstanding in their creativity, level of effort, and scientific accuracy. To summarize the evaluations, significant changes in knowledge and attitude were made with the teachers and students (from one-on-one interviews and surveys), but behavioral changes (albeit only over a semester) seemed minimal. The AGU

  18. Achievements of the Armenian Astronomy and the Present Activities of the Armenian Astronomical Society

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A. M.

    2014-10-01

    A report is given on the achievements of the Armenian astronomy during the last years and on the present activities of the Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS). ArAS membership, ArAS electronic newsletters (ArASNews), ArAS webpage, international collaboration, Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO), membership in international organizations, grants, prizes, meetings, summer schools, astronomical Olympiads, other matters related to astronomical education, archaeoastronomy, astronomy outreach and ArAS further projects are discussed.

  19. A Principle for Describing and Verifying Brain Mechanisms Using Ongoing Activity

    PubMed Central

    Eriksson, David

    2017-01-01

    Not even the most informed scientist can setup a theory that takes all brain signals into account. A neuron not only receives neuronal short range and long range input from all over the brain but a neuron also receives input from the extracellular space, astrocytes and vasculature. Given this complexity, how does one describe and verify a typical brain mechanism in vivo? Common to most described mechanisms is that one focuses on how one specific input signal gives rise to the activity in a population of neurons. This can be an input from a brain area, a population of neurons or a specific cell type. All remaining inputs originating from all over the brain are lumped together into one background input. The division into two inputs is attractive since it can be used to quantify the relative importance of either input. Here we have chosen to extract the specific and the background input by means of recording and inhibiting the specific input. We summarize what it takes to estimate the two inputs on a single trial level. The inhibition should not only be strong but also fast and the specific input measurement has to be tailor-made to the inhibition. In essence, we suggest ways to control electrophysiological experiments in vivo. By applying those controls it may become possible to describe and verify many brain mechanisms, and it may also allow the study of the integration of spontaneous and ongoing activity, which in turn governs cognition and behavior. PMID:28174523

  20. Quantum dot based enzyme activity sensors present deviations from Michaelis-Menten kinetic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz, Sebastián. A.; Brown, Carl W.; Malanoski, Anthony P.; Oh, Eunkeu; Susumu, Kimihiro; Medintz, Igor L.

    2016-03-01

    Nanosensors employing quantum dots (QDs) and enzyme substrates with fluorescent moieties offer tremendous promise for disease surveillance/diagnostics and as high-throughput co-factor assays. Advantages of QDs over other nanoscaffolds include their small size and inherent photochemical properties such as size tunable fluorescence, ease in attaching functional moieties, and resistance to photobleaching. These properties make QDs excellent Förster Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) donors; well-suited for rapid, optical measurement applications. We report enzyme sensors designed with a single FRET donor, the QD donor acting as a scaffold to multiple substrates or acceptors. The QD-sensor follows the concrete activity of the enzyme, as compared to the most common methodologies that quantify the enzyme amount or its mRNA precursor. As the sensor reports on the enzyme activity in real-time we can actively follow the kinetics of the enzyme. Though classic Michaelis-Menten (MM) parameters can be obtained to describe the activity. In the course of these experiments deviations, both decreasing and increasing the kinetics, from the common MM model were observed upon close examinations. From these observations additional experiments were undertaken to understand the varying mechanisms. Different enzymes can present different deviations depending on the chosen target, e.g. trypsin appears to present a positive hopping mechanism while collagenase demonstrates a QD caused reversible inhibition.

  1. Go-activation endures following the presentation of a stop-signal: evidence from startle.

    PubMed

    Drummond, Neil M; Cressman, Erin K; Carlsen, Anthony N

    2017-01-01

    It has been proposed that, in a stop-signal task (SST), independent go- and stop-processes "race" to control behavior. If the go-process wins, an overt response is produced, whereas, if the stop-process wins, the response is withheld. One prediction that follows from this proposal is that, if the activation associated with one process is enhanced, it is more likely to win the race. We looked to determine whether these initiation and inhibition processes (and thus response outcomes) could be manipulated by using a startling acoustic stimulus (SAS), which has been shown to provide additional response activation. In the present study, participants were to respond to a visual go-stimulus; however, if a subsequent stop-signal appeared, they were to inhibit the response. The stop-signal was presented at a delay corresponding to a probability of responding of 0.4 (determined from a baseline block of trials). On stop-trials, a SAS was presented either simultaneously with the go-signal or stop-signal or 100, 150, or 200 ms following the stop-signal. Results showed that presenting a SAS during stop-trials led to an increase in probability of responding when presented with or following the stop-signal. The latency of SAS responses at the stop-signal + 150 ms and stop-signal + 200 ms probe times suggests that they would have been voluntarily inhibited but instead were involuntarily initiated by the SAS. Thus results demonstrate that go-activation endures even 200 ms following a stop-signal and remains accessible well after the response has been inhibited, providing evidence against a winner-take-all race between independent go- and stop-processes.

  2. Extracellular assembly and activation principles of oncogenic class III receptor tyrosine kinases.

    PubMed

    Verstraete, Kenneth; Savvides, Savvas N

    2012-11-01

    Intracellular signalling cascades initiated by class III receptor tyrosine kinases (RTK-IIIs) and their cytokine ligands contribute to haematopoiesis and mesenchymal tissue development. They are also implicated in a wide range of inflammatory disorders and cancers. Recent snapshots of RTK-III ectodomains in complex with cognate cytokines have revealed timely insights into the structural determinants of RTK-III activation, evolution and pathology. Importantly, candidate 'driver' and 'passenger' mutations that have been identified in RTK-IIIs can now be collectively mapped for the first time to structural scaffolds of the corresponding RTK-III ectodomains. Such insights will generate a renewed interest in dissecting the mechanistic effects of such mutations and their therapeutic relevance.

  3. Inhibition of the active principle of the weak opioid tilidine by the triazole antifungal voriconazole

    PubMed Central

    Grün, Barbara; Krautter, Stefanie; Riedel, Klaus-Dieter; Mikus, Gerd

    2009-01-01

    AIMS To investigate in vivo the influence of the potent CYP2C19 and CYP3A4 inhibitor voriconazole on the pharmacokinetics and analgesic effects of tilidine. METHODS Sixteen healthy volunteers received voriconazole (400 mg) or placebo together with a single oral dose of tilidine (100 mg). Blood samples and urine were collected for 24 h and experimental pain was determined by using the cold pressor test. Noncompartimental analysis was performed to determine pharmacokinetic parameters of tilidine, nortilidine and voriconazole, whereas pharmacodynamic parameters were analysed by nonparametric repeated measures anova (Friedman). RESULTS Voriconazole caused a 20-fold increase in exposition of tilidine in serum [AUC 1250.8 h*ng ml−1, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1076.8, 1424.9 vs. 61 h*ng ml−1, 95% CI 42.6, 80.9; P < 0.0001], whereas the AUC of nortilidine also increased 2.5-fold. After voriconazole much lower serum concentrations of bisnortilidine were observed. The onset of analgesic activity occurred later with voriconazole, which is in agreement with the prolonged tmax of nortilidine (0.78 h, 95% CI 0.63, 0.93 vs. 2.5 h, 95% CI 1.85, 3.18; P < 0.0001) due to the additional inhibition of nortilidine metabolism to bisnortilidine. After voriconazole the AUC under the pain withdrawal–time curve was reduced compared with placebo (149 s h−1, 95% CI 112, 185 vs. 175 s h−1, 95% CI 138, 213; P < 0.016), mainly due to the shorter withdrawal time 0.75 h after tilidine administration. CONCLUSIONS Voriconazole significantly inhibited the sequential metabolism of tilidine with increased exposure of the active nortilidine. Furthermore, the incidence of adverse events was almost doubled after voriconazole and tilidine. PMID:19916995

  4. QSAR prediction of estrogen activity for a large set of diverse chemicals under the guidance of OECD principles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Huanxiang; Papa, Ester; Gramatica, Paola

    2006-11-01

    A large number of environmental chemicals, known as endocrine-disrupting chemicals, are suspected of disrupting endocrine functions by mimicking or antagonizing natural hormones, and such chemicals may pose a serious threat to the health of humans and wildlife. They are thought to act through a variety of mechanisms, mainly estrogen-receptor-mediated mechanisms of toxicity. However, it is practically impossible to perform thorough toxicological tests on all potential xenoestrogens, and thus, the quantitative structure--activity relationship (QSAR) provides a promising method for the estimation of a compound's estrogenic activity. Here, QSAR models of the estrogen receptor binding affinity of a large data set of heterogeneous chemicals have been built using theoretical molecular descriptors, giving full consideration to the new OECD principles in regulation for QSAR acceptability, during model construction and assessment. An unambiguous multiple linear regression (MLR) algorithm was used to build the models, and model predictive ability was validated by both internal and external validation. The applicability domain was checked by the leverage approach to verify prediction reliability. The results obtained using several validation paths indicate that the proposed QSAR model is robust and satisfactory, and can provide a feasible and practical tool for the rapid screening of the estrogen activity of organic compounds.

  5. Paralysis as a Presenting Symptom of Hyperthyroidism in an Active Duty Soldier.

    PubMed

    Jennette, John; Tauferner, Dustin

    2015-01-01

    Thyrotoxic periodic paralysis (TPP) is an endocrine disorder presenting with proximal motor weakness, typically greatest in the lower extremities, hypokalemia, and signs or laboratory findings consistent with hyperthyroidism. The incidence of TPP is highest in Asian males. This is a case report of a 30-year-old male active duty Soldier who presented to the emergency department complaining of several recent episodes of lower extremity paralysis. The patient underwent a workup which included serum and cerebrospinal fluid studies, and was found to be hypokalemic and hyperthyroid. Following consultation with neurology, the patient was admitted to the medicine service and treated for thyrotoxic periodic paralysis with potassium replacement and treatment of his hyperthyroidism. Since achieving a euthyroid state, he has had no recurrences of TPP. This disease should be considered in patients presenting with symmetric motor weakness and hypokalemia, whether or not symptoms of hyperthyroidism are elicited during the review of systems.

  6. Active principles of Grindelia robusta exert antiinflammatory properties in a macrophage model.

    PubMed

    La, Vu Dang; Lazzarin, Francesco; Ricci, Donata; Fraternale, Daniele; Genovese, Salvatore; Epifano, Francesco; Grenier, Daniel

    2010-11-01

    Plant extracts and/or secondary metabolites are receiving considerable attention as therapeutic agents for treating inflammatory diseases such as periodontitis, which affects the tooth supporting tissues. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of a Grindelia robusta extract enriched in saponins and polyphenols on Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammatory mediator (IL-6, TNF-a, RANTES, MCP-1, PGE(2) ) and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1, -3, -7, -8, -9, -13) secretion by macrophages. LPS induced a marked increase in the secretion of all inflammatory mediators and MMPs tested by macrophages, as determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. At non-cytotoxic concentrations, the G. robusta extract inhibited dose-dependently the secretion of IL-6, RANTES, MCP-1 and, to a lesser extent, PGE(2) and TNF-a. Such inhibition was also observed for MMP-1, -3, -7, -8, -9 and -13 secretion. This ability of G. robusta extract to reduce the LPS-induced secretion of inflammatory mediators and MMPs was associated with a reduction of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kB) p65 activation. The results suggest that G. robusta extract possesses an antiinflammatory therapeutic potential through its capacity to reduce the accumulation of inflammatory mediators and MMPs.

  7. Identification and compatibility of the major active principles in some new natural origin antiseptics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, G. S.; Zlatković, S.; Nikolić, N.

    2009-09-01

    The newly established instrumentation of HPLC/DAD, FTIR, and NMR techniques have been applied for simultaneous identification and physicochemical compatibility determination of the potential major antiseptic constituents ( Hypericum perforatum L. and Usnea barbata extracts) which can be present in some new origin pharmaceutical preparation. Based on the obtained results the conclusion is that a simultaneous use of the analyzed constituents in production of some new preparations with antiseptic properties is possible. The chromatographic separation of antiseptic mixture was performed on a RP-HPLC C18 column. For the NMR detection, the analytes eluted from LC column were trapped and hereafter transported into the NMR flow-cell. The NMR and FTIR techniques allowed the characterization of the major constituent of Hypericum perforatum L., mainly hypericin, as well as of Usnea barbata, mainly usnic acid.

  8. Dried extracts of Encholirium spectabile (Bromeliaceae) present antioxidant and photoprotective activities in vitro

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Raimundo Gonçalves; Souza, Grasielly Rocha; Guimarães, Amanda Leite; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Silva Morais, Amanda Caroline; da Cruz Araújo, Edigênia Cavalcante; Nunes, Xirley Pereira; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva

    2013-01-01

    The antioxidant and photoprotective activities of dried extracts from the leaves of Encholirium spectabile were investigated. It was also evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents by the Folin–Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene–linoleic acid bleaching and compared with ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) used as reference compounds. The photoprotective effect was evaluated by the spectrophotometric method. The most significant total phenolic and flavonoid contents was of 188.50 ± 27.50 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g and 129.70 ± 4.59 mg of catechin equivalent/g, respectively, for chloroform fraction (Es-CHCl3). The Es-CHCl3 also presented the best antioxidant activity (IC50 25.35 ± 4.35 μg/ml) for DPPH scavenging. The ethanol extract (Es-EtOH), Es-CHCl3 and the fraction ethyl acetate (Es-AcOEt) showed characteristic absorption bands in regions UVB and UVA in a concentration-dependent manner. Es-CHCl3 presented the highest sun protection factor SPF (8.89 ± 2.11). It shows the possibility to use this extract as sunscreen in pharmaceutical preparations. PMID:24396251

  9. Dried extracts of Encholirium spectabile (Bromeliaceae) present antioxidant and photoprotective activities in vitro.

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, Raimundo Gonçalves; Souza, Grasielly Rocha; Guimarães, Amanda Leite; de Oliveira, Ana Paula; Silva Morais, Amanda Caroline; da Cruz Araújo, Edigênia Cavalcante; Nunes, Xirley Pereira; Almeida, Jackson Roberto Guedes da Silva

    2013-09-01

    The antioxidant and photoprotective activities of dried extracts from the leaves of Encholirium spectabile were investigated. It was also evaluated the total phenolic and flavonoid contents by the Folin-Ciocalteu and aluminum chloride methods, respectively. Antioxidant activities of the extracts were evaluated by using of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazil (DPPH) radical scavenging and β-carotene-linoleic acid bleaching and compared with ascorbic acid, butylated hydroxyanisole (BHA) and butylated hydroxytoluene (BHT) used as reference compounds. The photoprotective effect was evaluated by the spectrophotometric method. The most significant total phenolic and flavonoid contents was of 188.50 ± 27.50 mg of gallic acid equivalent/g and 129.70 ± 4.59 mg of catechin equivalent/g, respectively, for chloroform fraction (Es-CHCl3). The Es-CHCl3 also presented the best antioxidant activity (IC50 25.35 ± 4.35 μg/ml) for DPPH scavenging. The ethanol extract (Es-EtOH), Es-CHCl3 and the fraction ethyl acetate (Es-AcOEt) showed characteristic absorption bands in regions UVB and UVA in a concentration-dependent manner. Es-CHCl3 presented the highest sun protection factor SPF (8.89 ± 2.11). It shows the possibility to use this extract as sunscreen in pharmaceutical preparations.

  10. UDP-Glucuronosyltransferase 1a Enzymes Are Present and Active in the Mouse Blastocyst

    PubMed Central

    Yamauchi, Yasuhiro; Sato, Brittany L.M.; Rougée, Luc R.A.; Ward, Monika A.

    2014-01-01

    The UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) enzymes are critical for regulating nutrients, hormones, and endobiotics, as well as for detoxifying xenobiotics. Human and murine fetuses are known to express glucuronidation enzymes, but there are currently no data prior to implantation. Here we addressed this gap in knowledge and tested whether Ugt enzymes are already present in preimplantation-stage embryos. Blastocysts were obtained after in vitro fertilization with gametes from B6D2F1 hybrid mice and from embryo culture. Protein expression and localization were determined using pan-specific UGT1A and UGT2B, as well as anti-human isoform-specific antibodies. Immunofluorescence analysis showed that blastocysts expressed Ugt1a globally, in the cytoplasm and nuclei of all of the cells. Western blots demonstrated the presence of Ugt1a6 but not Ugt1a1, Ugt1a3, Ugt1a4, or Ugt1a9. The Ugt2b proteins were not detected by either assay. The level of Ugt activity in murine blastocysts was comparable with that of the adult human liver (per milligram of protein), but the activity of β-glucuronidase, an Ugt-partnering enzyme responsible for substrate regeneration, was lower. Altogether, these data confirm that Ugt1a proteins are present and active in preimplantation murine embryos and point to a potential role for these proteins in implantation and early embryonic and fetal development. PMID:25200869

  11. Anti-diabetic activity present in the fruit body of Grifola frondosa (Maitake). I.

    PubMed

    Kubo, K; Aoki, H; Nanba, H

    1994-08-01

    The fruit body of Grifola frondosa (maitake), Basidiomycetes was confirmed to contain substances with anti-diabetic activity. When 1 g/d of powdered fruit body of maitake was given orally to a genetically diabetic mouse (KK-Ay), blood glucose reduction was observed, in contrast to the control group in which the blood glucose increased with ageing. Moreover, levels of insulin and triglyceride in plasma demonstrated a change similar to blood glucose with feeding of maitake. Ether-ethanol-soluble (ES) and hot water-soluble (WS) fractions were prepared from the fruit body and their hypoglycemic activity was examined. Blood glucose-lowering activity was found when ES-fraction or WS-50% ethanol float (X) fraction was administered orally, but other WS-fractions were inactive. These results suggest that the anti-diabetic activity was present not only in the ES-fraction consisting of lipid but also in the X-fraction of peptidoglycan (sugar:protein = 65:35).

  12. The Presentation of Proper Indicators for Evaluation of WHO Collaboration Centres’ Activities in Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ardakani, S Motevallizadeh; Zakiani, SH

    2012-01-01

    Background There are thirteen WHO collaborating centres in Iran which no mechanism or model has ever been foreseen for the evaluation of them. This original research is innovative in Iran, which has been offered by the researcher through a joint research project with WHO. Methods: The aforesaid model has been approved by the International Relation Department of Ministry of Health& education. This was done to develop model and indicators for evaluation of WHOCC’s activities in Iran, which includes online survey, reports, literature reviews and website searches, published literature in another country, documents in Undersecretary for Research and Technology of Iranian Ministry of Health and Medical Education. Results: We studied collaboration centres in other countries and then compared these indicators together and presented a proper indicators for evaluation of WHOCC’ activities in Iran. Conclusion: Evaluation of WHOCC’s activities could be used as a mean for implementing policies and promoting knowledge production. Evaluation of WHOCC’ activities is country’s requirements. PMID:23113197

  13. Mammalian peptide isomerase: platypus-type activity is present in mouse heart.

    PubMed

    Koh, Jennifer M S; Chow, Stephanie J P; Crossett, Ben; Kuchel, Philip W

    2010-06-01

    Male platypus (Ornithorhynchus anatinus) venom has a peptidyl aminoacyl L/D-isomerase (hereafter called peptide isomerase) that converts the second amino acid residue in from the N-terminus from the L- to the D-form, and vice versa. A reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) assay has been developed to monitor the interconversion using synthetic hexapeptides derived from defensin-like peptide-2 (DLP-2) and DLP-4 as substrates. It was hypothesised that animals other than the platypus would have peptide isomerase with the same substrate specificity. Accordingly, eight mouse tissues were tested and heart was shown to have the activity. This is notable for being the first evidence of a peptide isomerase being present in a higher mammal and heralds finding the activity in man.

  14. Present-day biogeochemical activities of anaerobic bacteria and their relevance to future exobiological investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Oremland, R.S.

    1989-01-01

    If the primordial atmosphere was reducing, then the first microbial ecosystem was probably composed of anaerobic bacteria. However, despite the presence of an oxygen-rich atmosphere, anaerobic habitats are important, commonplace components of the Earth's present biosphere. The geochemical activities displayed by these anaerobes impact the global cycling of certain elements (e.g., C, N, S, Fe, Mn, etc.). Methane provides an obvious example of how human-enhanced activities on a global scale can influence the content of a "radiative" (i.e., infrared absorbing) trace gas in the atmosphere. Methane can be oxidized by anaerobic bacteria, but this does not appear to support their growth. Acetylene, however, does support such growth. This may form the basis for future exobiological investigations of the atmospheres of anoxic, hydrocarbon-rich planets like Jupiter and Saturn, as well as the latter's satellite Titan. ?? 1989.

  15. [Plasmapheresis for macrophage activation syndrome and multiorgan failure as first presentation of juvenile dermatomyositis].

    PubMed

    Bustos B, R; Carrasco A, C; Toledo R, C

    2012-07-01

    The use of extracorporeal techniques for the treatment of paediatric diseases has expanded dramatically in the past decade. Plasmapheresis, a technique for exchanging plasma components with albumin or plasma, has been used in some rheumatologic conditions. We report the clinical course of a 7 years old boy with clinical and biological features of macrophage activation syndrome and multiorgan failure, at the time of presentation of severe juvenile dermatomyositis, and non responsive to corticosteroids, cyclosporine and immunoglobulin. After 4 days in the paediatric intensive care unit, plasmapheresis was used as rescue therapy. Repeated therapeutic plasmapheresis was effective for improving the multiorgan failure and laboratory abnormalities. The patient was discharged on the 21st hospital day with good functional condition. Plasmapheresis should be considered as rescue treatment in patients with life threatening macrophage activation syndrome and systemic onset of juvenile dermatomyositis.

  16. Impaired antigen presentation and potent phagocytic activity identifying tumor-tolerant human monocytes.

    PubMed

    Soares-Schanoski, Alessandra; Jurado, Teresa; Córdoba, Raúl; Siliceo, María; Fresno, Carlos Del; Gómez-Piña, Vanesa; Toledano, Victor; Vallejo-Cremades, Maria T; Alfonso-Iñiguez, Sergio; Carballo-Palos, Arkaitz; Fernández-Ruiz, Irene; Cubillas-Zapata, Carolina; Biswas, Subhra K; Arnalich, Francisco; García-Río, Francisco; López-Collazo, Eduardo

    2012-06-29

    Monocyte exposure to tumor cells induces a transient state in which these cells are refractory to further exposure to cancer. This phenomenon, termed "tumor tolerance", is characterized by a decreased production of proinflammatory cytokines in response to tumors. In the past, we found that this effect comprises IRAK-M up regulation and TLR4 and CD44 activation. Herein we have established a human model of tumor tolerance and have observed a marked down-regulation of MHCII molecules as well as the MHCII master regulator, CIITA, in monocytes/macrophages. These cells combine an impaired capability for antigen presentation with potent phagocytic activity and exhibit an M2-like phenotype. In addition circulating monocytes isolated from Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia patients exhibited the same profile as tumor tolerant cells after tumor ex vivo exposition.

  17. Video and film analysis with correlation tracking and active result presentation (Abstract Only)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rowa, Per

    1990-08-01

    Experience with a turnkey analysis system featuring high resolution video input and display, a modular video disc system and a 16 mm cine film scanner with 2600-point resolution, is presented. Tracking is performed with a high-speed correlation process, requiring no special markers. Software packages for evaluating two and three-dimensional results are interactively accessible. Combining the original image sequence with real-time graphic overlays and active drawing of graphic diagrams, provides for an excellent understanding and documentation of the motion sequences.

  18. Development history of real-time imaging active gated TV: 1970 to present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimer, Steven E.; Baker, Bob; Torgerson, John

    1999-07-01

    This paper discusses the development history of real-time imaging active gated TV sensors from 1970 to present at Ball Aerospace and Technologies Corp. A number of AGTV systems are covered including: Video Imaging Detection and Ranging which was developed for hydrofoils in Southeast Asia, AC- 130U gunship, Airborne Laser-Based Enhanced Detection and Observation System search and rescue system for the Canadian Government, and several long-range surveillance systems. Technology developments related to sensor and illuminator over the past 3 decades are also discussed.

  19. Deciphering the Long-Term Trend of Atlantic Basin Intense Hurricanes: More Active Versus Less Active During the Present Epoch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Robert M.

    1998-01-01

    During the interval of 1944-1997, 120 intense hurricanes (i.e., those of category 3 or higher on the Saffir-Simpson hurricane damage potential scale) were observed in the Atlantic basin, having an annual frequency of 0-7 events per year, being more active prior to the mid 1960's than thereafter (hence a possible two-state division: more active versus less active), and being preferentially lower during El Nino years as compared to non-El Nino years. Because decadal averages of the frequency of intense hurricanes closely resemble those of average temperature anomalies for northern hemispheric and global standards and of the average temperature at the Armagh Observatory (Northern Ireland), a proxy for climatic change, it is inferred that the long-term trends of the annual frequency of intense hurricanes and temperature may be statistically related. Indeed, on the basis of 4- and 10-yr moving averages, one finds that there exists strong linear associations between the annual frequency of intense hurricanes in the Atlantic basin and temperature (specially, when temperature slightly leads). Because the long-term leading trends of temperature are now decidedly upward, beginning about the mid 1980's, it is inferred that the long-term consequential trends of the annual frequency of intense hurricanes should now also be upward, having begun near 1990, suggesting that a return to the more active state probably has already occurred. However, because of the anomalous El Nino activity of the early to mid 1990's, the switch from the less active to the more active state essentially went unnoticed (a marked increase in the number of intense hurricanes was not observed until the 1995 and 1996 hurricane seasons, following the end of the anomalous El Nino activity). Presuming that a return to the more active state has, indeed, occurred, one expects the number of seasonal intense hurricanes during the present epoch (continuing through about 2012) to usually be higher than average (i

  20. First-Principles Quantum Dynamics of Singlet Fission: Coherent versus Thermally Activated Mechanisms Governed by Molecular π Stacking.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Hiroyuki; Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Burghardt, Irene; Olivier, Yoann; Beljonne, David

    2015-09-04

    Singlet excitons in π-stacked molecular crystals can split into two triplet excitons in a process called singlet fission that opens a route to carrier multiplication in photovoltaics. To resolve controversies about the mechanism of singlet fission, we have developed a first principles nonadiabatic quantum dynamical model that reveals the critical role of molecular stacking symmetry and provides a unified picture of coherent versus thermally activated singlet fission mechanisms in different acenes. The slip-stacked equilibrium packing structure of pentacene derivatives is found to enhance ultrafast singlet fission mediated by a coherent superexchange mechanism via higher-lying charge transfer states. By contrast, the electronic couplings for singlet fission strictly vanish at the C(2h) symmetric equilibrium π stacking of rubrene. In this case, singlet fission is driven by excitations of symmetry-breaking intermolecular vibrations, rationalizing the experimentally observed temperature dependence. Design rules for optimal singlet fission materials therefore need to account for the interplay of molecular π-stacking symmetry and phonon-induced coherent or thermally activated mechanisms.

  1. In Vitro Inhibitory Effect of Clove Essential Oil and Its Two Active Principles on Tooth Decalcification by Apple Juice

    PubMed Central

    Marya, Charu M.; Satija, Gunjan; J., Avinash; Nagpal, Ruchi; Kapoor, Rohtash; Ahmad, Aijaz

    2012-01-01

    The dental erosion or decalcification of enamel is a significant clinical problem. Apple acidic beverages are thought to increase the potential for dental erosion. The purpose of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of clove essential oil (CEO) and its active principles on tooth decalcification of apple juices. On GC-MS analysis, CEO showed a high content of eugenol (58.29%) and eugenyl acetate (19.10%). Teeth specimens were randomly divided into 5 treatment groups: control, CEO, eugenol, eugenyl-acetate, and fluoride. The specimens were exposed for 24 h and were analyzed for calcium contents using Inductively Coupled Plasma with Optical Emission Spectroscopy (ICP-OES). Data were analyzed using student t-test (P < 0.05). CEO, eugenol, and eugenyl-acetate significantly decreased the decalcification of tooth by the apple juice to only 17, 24, and 21 mgL−1, respectively. Hemolytic activity on human erythrocytes was studied to exclude the possibility of further associated cytotoxicity. It was observed that the CEO and its two lead molecules inhibit the decalcification and/or promote the remineralization caused by the apple juices. The effect of the test compounds appears to be distinct like that of fluoride treatment. CEO may, therefore, serve to be a promising adjunct to fluoride in the treatment of root caries during minimally invasive therapy. PMID:22997520

  2. First-Principles Quantum Dynamics of Singlet Fission: Coherent versus Thermally Activated Mechanisms Governed by Molecular π Stacking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Hiroyuki; Huix-Rotllant, Miquel; Burghardt, Irene; Olivier, Yoann; Beljonne, David

    2015-09-01

    Singlet excitons in π -stacked molecular crystals can split into two triplet excitons in a process called singlet fission that opens a route to carrier multiplication in photovoltaics. To resolve controversies about the mechanism of singlet fission, we have developed a first principles nonadiabatic quantum dynamical model that reveals the critical role of molecular stacking symmetry and provides a unified picture of coherent versus thermally activated singlet fission mechanisms in different acenes. The slip-stacked equilibrium packing structure of pentacene derivatives is found to enhance ultrafast singlet fission mediated by a coherent superexchange mechanism via higher-lying charge transfer states. By contrast, the electronic couplings for singlet fission strictly vanish at the C2 h symmetric equilibrium π stacking of rubrene. In this case, singlet fission is driven by excitations of symmetry-breaking intermolecular vibrations, rationalizing the experimentally observed temperature dependence. Design rules for optimal singlet fission materials therefore need to account for the interplay of molecular π -stacking symmetry and phonon-induced coherent or thermally activated mechanisms.

  3. Systemic activation of antigen-presenting cells via RNA-loaded nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Sayour, Elias J.; Pham, Christina; Grippin, Adam; Kemeny, Hanna; Chua, Joshua; Sampson, John H.; Sanchez-Perez, Luis; Flores, Catherine; Mitchell, Duane A.

    2017-01-01

    ABSTRACT While RNA-pulsed dendritic cell (DC) vaccines have shown promise, the advancement of cellular therapeutics is fraught with developmental challenges. To circumvent the challenges of cellular immunotherapeutics, we developed clinically translatable nanoliposomes that can be combined with tumor-derived RNA to generate personalized tumor RNA-nanoparticles (NPs) with considerable scale-up capacity. RNA-NPs bypass MHC restriction, are amenable to central distribution, and can provide near immediate immune induction. We screened commercially available nanoliposomal preparations and identified the cationic lipid 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium-propane (DOTAP) as an efficient mRNA courier to antigen-presenting cells (APCs). When administered intravenously, RNA-NPs mediate systemic activation of APCs in reticuloendothelial organs such as the spleen, liver, and bone marrow. RNA-NPs increase percent expression of MHC class I/II, B7 co-stimulatory molecules, and maturation markers on APCs (all vital for T-cell activation). RNA-NPs also increase activation markers on tumor APCs and elicit potent expansion of antigen-specific T-cells superior to peptide vaccines formulated in complete Freund's adjuvant. We demonstrate that both model antigen-encoding and physiologically-relevant tumor-derived RNA-NPs expand potent antitumor T-cell immunity. RNA-NPs were shown to induce antitumor efficacy in a vaccine model and functioned as a suitable alternative to DCs in a stringent cellular immunotherapy model for a radiation/temozolomide resistant invasive murine high-grade glioma. Although cancer vaccines have suffered from weak immunogenicity, we have advanced a RNA-NP formulation that systemically activates host APCs precipitating activated T-cell frequencies necessary to engender antitumor efficacy. RNA-NPs can thus be harnessed as a more feasible and effective immunotherapy to re-program host-immunity. PMID:28197373

  4. Interview: glycolipid antigen presentation by CD1d and the therapeutic potential of NKT cell activation.

    PubMed

    Kronenberg, Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    Natural Killer T cells (NKT) are critical determinants of the immune response to cancer, regulation of autioimmune disease, clearance of infectious agents, and the development of artheriosclerotic plaques. In this interview, Mitch Kronenberg discusses his laboratory's efforts to understand the mechanism through which NKT cells are activated by glycolipid antigens. Central to these studies is CD1d--the antigen presenting molecule that presents glycolipids to NKT cells. The advent of CD1d tetramer technology, a technique developed by the Kronenberg lab, is critical for the sorting and identification of subsets of specific glycolipid-reactive T cells. Mitch explains how glycolipid agonists are being used as therapeutic agents to activate NKT cells in cancer patients and how CD1d tetramers can be used to assess the state of the NKT cell population in vivo following glycolipid agonist therapy. Current status of ongoing clinical trials using these agonists are discussed as well as Mitch's prediction for areas in the field of immunology that will have emerging importance in the near future.

  5. Mauritia flexuosa Presents In Vitro and In Vivo Antiplatelet and Antithrombotic Activities.

    PubMed

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Pérez, Wilson; Guzmán, Luis; Alarcón, Marcelo; Navarrete, Simón; Forero-Doria, Oscar; Palomo, Iván

    2013-01-01

    Fruit from the palm Mauritia flexuosa is one of the most important species in Peru, Venezuela, Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, and Guyana. The present study aimed to investigate the antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities of oil extracted from Mauritia flexuosa. The fatty acid contents were determined by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Oil extract of peel of Mauritia flexuosa was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The oil extract inhibited platelet secretion and aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, and TRAP-6 by a concentration-dependent way (0.1 to 1 mg/mL) without the participation of the adenylyl cyclase pathway and diminished platelet rolling and firm adhesion under flow conditions. Furthermore, the oil extract induced a marked increase in the rolling speed of leukocytes retained on the platelet surface, reflecting a reduction of rolling and less adhesion. At the concentrations used, the oil extract significantly decreased platelet release of sP-selectin, an atherosclerotic-related inflammatory mediator. Oil extract inhibited thrombus growth at the same concentration as that of aspirin, a classical reference drug. Finally, the data presented herein also demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge the protective effect of oil extracted from Mauritia flexuosa on platelet activation and thrombosis formation.

  6. Mauritia flexuosa Presents In Vitro and In Vivo Antiplatelet and Antithrombotic Activities

    PubMed Central

    Fuentes, Eduardo; Rodríguez-Pérez, Wilson; Guzmán, Luis; Alarcón, Marcelo; Navarrete, Simón; Forero-Doria, Oscar; Palomo, Iván

    2013-01-01

    Fruit from the palm Mauritia flexuosa is one of the most important species in Peru, Venezuela, Brazil, Colombia, Bolivia, and Guyana. The present study aimed to investigate the antiplatelet and antithrombotic activities of oil extracted from Mauritia flexuosa. The fatty acid contents were determined by gas chromatography—mass spectrometry. Oil extract of peel of Mauritia flexuosa was extracted by soxhlet extraction. The oil extract inhibited platelet secretion and aggregation induced by ADP, collagen, and TRAP-6 by a concentration-dependent way (0.1 to 1 mg/mL) without the participation of the adenylyl cyclase pathway and diminished platelet rolling and firm adhesion under flow conditions. Furthermore, the oil extract induced a marked increase in the rolling speed of leukocytes retained on the platelet surface, reflecting a reduction of rolling and less adhesion. At the concentrations used, the oil extract significantly decreased platelet release of sP-selectin, an atherosclerotic-related inflammatory mediator. Oil extract inhibited thrombus growth at the same concentration as that of aspirin, a classical reference drug. Finally, the data presented herein also demonstrate for the first time to our knowledge the protective effect of oil extracted from Mauritia flexuosa on platelet activation and thrombosis formation. PMID:24454503

  7. The proteasome activator 11 S REG (PA28) and class I antigen presentation.

    PubMed Central

    Rechsteiner, M; Realini, C; Ustrell, V

    2000-01-01

    There are two immune responses in vertebrates: humoral immunity is mediated by circulating antibodies, whereas cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL) confer cellular immunity. CTL lyse infected cells upon recognition of cell-surface MHC Class I molecules complexed with foreign peptides. The displayed peptides are produced in the cytosol by degradation of host proteins or proteins from intracellular pathogens that might be present. Proteasomes are cylindrical multisubunit proteases that generate many of the peptides eventually transferred to the cell surface for immune surveillance. In mammalian proteasomes, six active sites face a central chamber. As this chamber is sealed off from the enzyme's surface, there must be mechanisms to promote entry of substrates. Two protein complexes have been found to bind the ends of the proteasome and activate it. One of the activators is the 19 S regulatory complex of the 26 S proteasome; the other activator is '11 S REG' [Dubiel, Pratt, Ferrell and Rechsteiner (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 22369-22377] or 'PA28' [Ma, Slaughter and DeMartino (1992) J. Biol. Chem. 267, 10515-10523]. During the past 7 years, our understanding of the structure of REG molecules has increased significantly, but much less is known about their biological functions. There are three REG subunits, namely alpha, beta and gamma. Recombinant REGalpha forms a ring-shaped heptamer of known crystal structure. 11 S REG is a heteroheptamer of alpha and beta subunits. REGgamma is also presumably a heptameric ring, and it is found in the nuclei of the nematode work Caenorhabditis elegans and higher organisms, where it may couple proteasomes to other nuclear components. REGalpha and REGbeta, which are abundant in vertebrate immune tissues, are located mostly in the cytoplasm. Synthesis of REG alpha and beta subunits is induced by interferon-gamma, and this has led to the prevalent hypothesis that REG alpha/beta hetero-oligomers play an important role in Class I antigen

  8. Monocyte activation and cytokine production in Malawian children presenting with P. falciparum malaria.

    PubMed

    Mandala, W L; Msefula, C L; Gondwe, E N; Drayson, M T; Molyneux, M E; MacLennan, C A

    2016-05-01

    Malaria in malaria-naïve adults is associated with an inflammatory response characterized by expression of specific activation markers on innate immune cells. Here, we investigate activation and adhesion marker expression, and cytokine production in monocytes from children presenting with cerebral malaria (CM, n = 36), severe malarial anaemia (SMA, n = 42) or uncomplicated malaria (UM, n = 66), and healthy aparasitemic children (n = 52) in Blantyre, Malawi. In all malaria groups, but particularly in the two severe malaria groups, monocyte expression of CD11b, CD11c, CD18, HLA-DR and CD86, and percentages of TNF-α- and IL-6-producing monocytes were lower than in healthy controls, while expression of CD11a, TLR2 and TLR4 was lower in children with severe malaria compared with controls. These levels mostly normalized during convalescence, but percentages of cytokine-producing monocytes remained suppressed in children with SMA. In all malaria groups, especially the SMA group, a greater proportion of monocytes were loaded with haemozoin than among controls. In a P. falciparum hyperendemic area, monocytes in children with acute symptomatic malaria have reduced expression of adhesion molecules and activation markers and reduced inflammatory cytokine production. This immune suppression could be due to accumulation of haemozoin and/or previous exposure to P. falciparum.

  9. Disaster planning: the past, present, and future concepts and principles of managing a surge of burn injured patients for those involved in hospital facility planning and preparedness.

    PubMed

    Kearns, Randy D; Holmes, James H; Alson, Roy L; Cairns, Bruce A

    2014-01-01

    The 9/11 attacks reframed the narrative regarding disaster medicine. Bypass strategies have been replaced with absorption strategies and are more specifically described as "surge capacity." In the succeeding years, a consensus has coalesced around stratifying the surge capacity into three distinct tiers: conventional, contingency, and crisis surge capacities. For the purpose of this work, these three distinct tiers were adapted specifically to burn surge for disaster planning activities at hospitals where burn centers are not located. A review was conducted involving published plans, other related academic works, and findings from actual disasters as well as modeling. The aim was to create burn-specific definitions for surge capacity for hospitals where a burn center is not located. The three-tier consensus description of surge capacity is delineated in their respective stratifications by what will hereinafter be referred to as the three "S's"; staff, space, and supplies (also referred to as supplies, pharmaceuticals, and equipment). This effort also included the creation of a checklist for nonburn center hospitals to assist in their development of a burn surge plan. Patients with serious burn injuries should always be moved to and managed at burn centers, but during a medical disaster with significant numbers of burn injured patients, there may be impediments to meeting this goal. It may be necessary for burn injured patients to remain for hours in an outlying hospital until being moved to a burn center. This work was aimed at aiding local and regional hospitals in developing an extemporizing measure until their burn injured patients can be moved to and managed at a burn center(s).

  10. Xenohormetic and anti-aging activity of secoiridoid polyphenols present in extra virgin olive oil

    PubMed Central

    Menendez, Javier A.; Joven, Jorge; Aragonès, Gerard; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Camps, Jordi; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cufí, Sílvia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Garcia-Heredia, Anabel; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Herranz-López, María; Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Luciano-Mateo, Fedra; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Riera-Borrull, Marta; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Rull, Anna; Tomás-Menor, Laura; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2013-01-01

    Aging can be viewed as a quasi-programmed phenomenon driven by the overactivation of the nutrient-sensing mTOR gerogene. mTOR-driven aging can be triggered or accelerated by a decline or loss of responsiveness to activation of the energy-sensing protein AMPK, a critical gerosuppressor of mTOR. The occurrence of age-related diseases, therefore, reflects the synergistic interaction between our evolutionary path to sedentarism, which chronically increases a number of mTOR activating gero-promoters (e.g., food, growth factors, cytokines and insulin) and the “defective design” of central metabolic integrators such as mTOR and AMPK. Our laboratories at the Bioactive Food Component Platform in Spain have initiated a systematic approach to molecularly elucidate and clinically explore whether the “xenohormesis hypothesis,” which states that stress-induced synthesis of plant polyphenols and many other phytochemicals provides an environmental chemical signature that upregulates stress-resistance pathways in plant consumers, can be explained in terms of the reactivity of the AMPK/mTOR-axis to so-called xenohormetins. Here, we explore the AMPK/mTOR-xenohormetic nature of complex polyphenols naturally present in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), a pivotal component of the Mediterranean style diet that has been repeatedly associated with a reduction in age-related morbid conditions and longer life expectancy. Using crude EVOO phenolic extracts highly enriched in the secoiridoids oleuropein aglycon and decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycon, we show for the first time that (1) the anticancer activity of EVOO secoiridoids is related to the activation of anti-aging/cellular stress-like gene signatures, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response, spermidine and polyamine metabolism, sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and NRF2 signaling; (2) EVOO secoiridoids activate AMPK and suppress crucial genes involved in the Warburg effect and the self-renewal capacity of

  11. Effective Presentation of Metabolic Rate Information for Lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mackin, Michael A.; Gonia, Philip; Lombay-Gonzalez, Jose

    2010-01-01

    During human exploration of the lunar surface, a suited crewmember needs effective and accurate information about consumable levels remaining in their life support system. The information must be presented in a manner that supports real-time consumable monitoring and route planning. Since consumable usage is closely tied to metabolic rate, the lunar suit must estimate metabolic rate from life support sensors, such as oxygen tank pressures, carbon dioxide partial pressure, and cooling water inlet and outlet temperatures. To provide adequate warnings that account for traverse time for a crewmember to return to a safe haven, accurate forecasts of consumable depletion rates are required. The forecasts must be presented to the crewmember in a straightforward, effective manner. In order to evaluate methods for displaying consumable forecasts, a desktop-based simulation of a lunar Extravehicular Activity (EVA) has been developed for the Constellation lunar suite s life-support system. The program was used to compare the effectiveness of several different data presentation methods.

  12. Dynamic sealing principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zuk, J.

    1976-01-01

    The fundamental principles governing dynamic sealing operation are discussed. Different seals are described in terms of these principles. Despite the large variety of detailed construction, there appear to be some basic principles, or combinations of basic principles, by which all seals function, these are presented and discussed. Theoretical and practical considerations in the application of these principles are discussed. Advantages, disadvantages, limitations, and application examples of various conventional and special seals are presented. Fundamental equations governing liquid and gas flows in thin film seals, which enable leakage calculations to be made, are also presented. Concept of flow functions, application of Reynolds lubrication equation, and nonlubrication equation flow, friction and wear; and seal lubrication regimes are explained.

  13. Screening of promising chemotherapeutic candidates against human adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma from plants: active principles from Physalis pruinosa and structure-activity relationships with withanolides.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Daisuke; Ishitsuka, Kenji; Hatsuse, Takahiro; Tsuchihashi, Ryota; Okawa, Masafumi; Okabe, Hikaru; Tamura, Kazuo; Kinjo, Junei

    2011-07-01

    Adult T-cell leukemia/lymphoma (ATL) is a peripheral T-cell malignancy caused by human T-cell lymphotropic virus type I (HTLV-1). Clinical manifestations of ATL range from smoldering to chronic, lymphoma and acute subtypes. Patients with acute and lymphoma-type ATL require therapeutic intervention. Conventional chemotherapeutic regimens used against other malignant lymphoma have been administered to ATL patients, but the therapeutic outcomes of acute and lymphoma-type ATL remain very poor. In this study, 214 extracts from 162 plants belonging to 65 families were screened for the purpose of elucidating the anti-proliferative effect against HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines. Extracts from aerial parts of Physalis pruinosa showed potent inhibitory effect. We isolated five withanolides from the extracts by activity-guided fractionation and examined the structure-activity relationships. The presence of a 5β,6β-epoxy function is suggested to be essential for the activity, and the most active principle showed selective toxicity to HTLV-1-infected T-cell lines.

  14. Buridan's Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamport, Leslie

    2012-08-01

    Buridan's principle asserts that a discrete decision based upon input having a continuous range of values cannot be made within a bounded length of time. It appears to be a fundamental law of nature. Engineers aware of it can design devices so they have an infinitessimal probability of not making a decision quickly enough. Ignorance of the principle could have serious consequences.

  15. Availability of surface boron species in improved oxygen reduction activity of Pt catalysts: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Libo; Zhou, Gang

    2016-04-01

    The oxidation process of boron (B) species on the Pt(111) surface and the beneficial effects of boron oxides on the oxygen reduction activity are investigated by first-principles calculations. The single-atom B anchored on the Pt surface has a great attraction for the oxygen species in the immediate environment. With the dissociation of molecular oxygen, a series of boron oxides is formed in succession, both indicating exothermic oxidation reactions. After BO2 is formed, the subsequent O atom immediately participates in the oxygen reduction reaction. The calculated O adsorption energy is appreciably decreased as compared to Pt catalysts, and more approximate to the optimal value of the volcano plot, from which is clear that O hydrogenation kinetics is improved. The modulation mechanism is mainly based on the electron-deficient nature of stable boron oxides, which normally reduces available electronic states of surface Pt atoms that bind the O by facilitating more electron transfer. This modification strategy from the exterior opens the new way, different from the alloying, to efficient electrocatalyst design for PEMFCs.

  16. Catalytic activity of Pd ensembles over Au(111) surface for CO oxidation: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, D. W.; Liu, Z. R.; Chen, J. H.

    2011-02-01

    Employing the first-principles pseudopotential plane-wave methods and nudged-elastic-band simulations, we studied the reaction of CO oxidation on Pd-decorated Au(111) surface. We found that the contiguous Pd ensembles are required for the CO + O2 reaction. Interestingly, Pd dimer is an active site for the two-step reaction of CO+O_{2 longrArr OOCO longrArr CO2+O}, and a low energy barrier (0.29 eV) is found for the formation of the intermediate metastable state (OOCO) compared to the barrier of 0.69 eV on Pd trimer. Furthermore, the residual atomic O in the CO + O2 reaction can be removed by another CO on Pd dimer with the barrier of 0.56 eV close to the value of 0.52 eV on Pd monomer via Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism. The higher energy barriers (0.96 and 0.64 eV) are also found for the CO + O reaction on Pd trimers. The calculated results indicate Pd dimer is highly reactive for CO oxidation by O2 via association mechanism on Pd-decorated Au(111) surface.

  17. Modelling the optimal timing in metabolic pathway activation-use of Pontryagin's Maximum Principle and role of the Golden section.

    PubMed

    Bartl, Martin; Li, Pu; Schuster, Stefan

    2010-07-01

    The time course of enzyme concentrations in metabolic pathways can be predicted on the basis of the optimality criterion of minimizing the time period in which an essential product is generated. This criterion is in line with the widely accepted view that high fitness requires high pathway flux. Here, based on Pontryagin's Maximum Principle, a method is developed to solve the corresponding constrained optimal control problem in an almost exclusively analytical way and, thus, to calculate optimal enzyme profiles, when linear, irreversible rate laws are assumed. Three different problem formulations are considered and the corresponding optimization results are derived. Besides the minimization of transition time, we consider an operation time in which 90% of the substrate has been converted into product. In that case, only the enzyme at the lower end of the pathway rather than all enzymes are active in the last phase. In all cases, biphasic or multiphasic time courses are obtained. The biological meaning of the results in terms of a consecutive just-in-time expression of metabolic genes is discussed. For the special case of two-enzyme systems, the role of the Golden section in the solution is outlined.

  18. [Accreditation in pathology. Systematic presentation and documentation of activities in pathology].

    PubMed

    Röcken, C; Manke, H

    2010-07-01

    In the last ten years, almost 60 departments of surgical pathology were accredited in Germany according to DIN EN ISO/IEC 17020. Accreditation in pathology was accompanied by the adoption of a highly dynamic process, which requires staff to be more aware of quality and to introduce a quality-oriented system. The accreditation body in turn needed to consider all the duties, responsibilities and processes in surgical pathology and was supported in this regard by the Sector Committee of Pathology and Neuropathology of the DGA German Association for Accreditation. In this review we illustrate the various problems associated with accreditation in surgical pathology by answering eight questions that have arisen over many years of activity. These include the registration and appropriate presentation of the scope of accreditation, the terminology, as well as the extent and depth of documentation. A department of pathology applying for accreditation is required to document the entire step-wise process leading to a surgical pathological diagnosis.

  19. Fighting the stigma caused by mental disorders: past perspectives, present activities, and future directions

    PubMed Central

    STUART, HEATHER

    2008-01-01

    People who live with mental illnesses are among the most stigmatized groups in society. In 1996, in recognition of the particularly harsh burden caused by the stigma associated with schizophrenia, the WPA initiated a global anti-stigma program, Open-the-Doors. In 2005, a WPA Section on Stigma and Mental Health was created, with a broader mandate to reduce stigma and discrimination caused by mental disabilities in general. In light of these impor-tant developments, and the growing public health interest in stigma reduction, this paper reflects on the past perspectives that have led us to our current position, reviews present activities and accomplishments, and identifies challenges that the Section members will face in their future efforts to reduce the stigma caused by mental disorders. PMID:18836546

  20. Spatiotemporally synchronized cancer combination therapy using photo-activated nanoparticle drug delivery systems (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasan, Tayyaba

    2016-03-01

    This talk will introduce a new nanotechnology platform for cancer combination therapy that utilizes near infrared light activation not only for photodynamic damage but also as an extrinsic mechanism to initiate release of complimentary drugs to suppress dynamic bursts in molecular signaling networks that promote tumor cell survival and treatment escape. The goal is to achieve co-delivery with concomitant activity of photodynamic, molecular inhibitor and chemotherapeutic agents, selectively within the tumor. This approach overcomes challenges in achieving synergistic interactions using sequential drug delivery. Conventional drug delivery is compromised by the differential pharmacokinetics of individual agents and potentially antagonistic effects—such as vascular shutdown by one agent that limits delivery of the second. Here, photodynamic damage—which efficiently kills drug-resistant cells via damage of common proteins involved in drug-resistance (such as anti-apoptosis factors and drug-efflux transporters)—is synchronized spatially and temporally with the photo-initiated release of complimentary agents—to enable full interaction amongst the individual therapies. This spatiotemporal synchronization offers new prospects for exploiting time-sensitive synergistic interactions. Specific implementations of these concepts will be presented in preclinical models of cancer. Strategies to enable molecular-targeting of cancer cells via site-specific attachment of targeting moieties to the outer lipid shell of these nanovehicles will also be discussed. If successful in humans, this new paradigm for synchronized, tumor-focused combination therapy will ultimately supersede the present use of chronic drug injection by increasing efficacy per cycle whilst reducing systemic exposure to toxic drugs.

  1. 21st Century extravehicular activities: Synergizing past and present training methods for future spacewalking success

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moore, Sandra K.; Gast, Matthew A.

    2010-10-01

    Neil Armstrong's understated words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind" were spoken from Tranquility Base forty years ago. Even today, those words resonate in the ears of millions, including many who had yet to be born when man first landed on the surface of the moon. By their very nature, and in the true spirit of exploration, extravehicular activities (EVAs) have generated much excitement throughout the history of manned spaceflight. From Ed White's first spacewalk in the June of 1965, to the first steps on the moon in 1969, to the expected completion of the International Space Station (ISS), the ability to exist, live and work in the vacuum of space has stood as a beacon of what is possible. It was NASA's first spacewalk that taught engineers on the ground the valuable lesson that successful spacewalking requires a unique set of learned skills. That lesson sparked extensive efforts to develop and define the training requirements necessary to ensure success. As focus shifted from orbital activities to lunar surface activities, the required skill set and subsequently the training methods changed. The requirements duly changed again when NASA left the moon for the last time in 1972 and have continued to evolve through the SkyLab, Space Shuttle, and ISS eras. Yet because the visits to the moon were so long ago, NASA's expertise in the realm of extra-terrestrial EVAs has diminished. As manned spaceflight again shifts its focus beyond low earth orbit, EVA's success will depend on the ability to synergize the knowledge gained over 40+ years of spacewalking to create a training method that allows a single crewmember to perform equally well, whether performing an EVA on the surface of the Moon, while in the vacuum of space, or heading for a rendezvous with Mars. This paper reviews NASA's past and present EVA training methods and extrapolates techniques from both to construct the basis for future EVA astronaut training.

  2. 21st Century Extravehicular Activities: Synergizing Past and Present Training Methods for Future Spacewalking Success

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Sandra K.; Gast, Matthew A.

    2009-01-01

    Neil Armstrong's understated words, "That's one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind." were spoken from Tranquility Base forty years ago. Even today, those words resonate in the ears of millions, including many who had yet to be born when man first landed on the surface of the moon. By their very nature, and in the the spirit of exploration, extravehicular activities (EVAs) have generated much excitement throughout the history of manned spaceflight. From Ed White's first space walk in June of 1965, to the first steps on the moon in 1969, to the expected completion of the International Space Station (ISS), the ability to exist, live and work in the vacuum of space has stood as a beacon of what is possible. It was NASA's first spacewalk that taught engineers on the ground the valuable lesson that successful spacewalking requires a unique set of learned skills. That lesson sparked extensive efforts to develop and define the training requirements necessary to ensure success. As focus shifted from orbital activities to lunar surface activities, the required skill-set and subsequently the training methods, changed. The requirements duly changed again when NASA left the moon for the last time in 1972 and have continued to evolve through the Skylab, Space Shuttle; and ISS eras. Yet because the visits to the moon were so long ago, NASA's expertise in the realm of extra-terrestrial EVAs has diminished. As manned spaceflight again shifts its focus beyond low earth orbit, EVA success will depend on the ability to synergize the knowledge gained over 40+ years of spacewalking to create a training method that allows a single crewmember to perform equally well, whether performing an EVA on the surface of the Moon, while in the vacuum of space, or heading for a rendezvous with Mars. This paper reviews NASA's past and present EVA training methods and extrapolates techniques from both to construct the basis for future EVA astronaut training.

  3. Inflammatory cytokines presented from polymer matrices differentially generate and activate DCs in situ

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Omar A.; Tayalia, Prakriti; Shvartsman, Dmitry; Lewin, Sarah; Mooney, David J.

    2014-01-01

    During infection, inflammatory cytokines mobilize and activate dendritic cells (DCs), which are essential for efficacious T cell priming and immune responses that clear the infection. Here we designed macroporous poly(lactide-co-glycolide) (PLG) matrices to release the inflammatory cytokines GM-CSF, Flt3L and CCL20, in order to mimic infection-induced DC recruitment. We then tested the ability of these infection mimics to function as cancer vaccines via induction of specific, anti-tumor T cell responses. All vaccine systems tested were able to confer specific anti-tumor T cell responses and longterm survival in a therapeutic, B16-F10 melanoma model. However, GM-CSF and Flt3L vaccines resulted in similar survival rates, and outperformed CCL20 loaded scaffolds, even though they had differential effects on DC recruitment and generation. GM-CSF signaling was identified as the most potent chemotactic factor for conventional DCs and significantly enhanced surface expression of MHC(II) and CD86(+), which are utilized for priming T cell immunity. In contrast, Flt3L vaccines led to greater numbers of plasmacytoid DCs (pDCs), correlating with increased levels of T cell priming cytokines that amplify T cell responses. These results demonstrate that 3D polymer matrices modified to present inflammatory cytokines may be utilized to effectively mobilize and activate different DC subsets in vivo for immunotherapy. PMID:24688455

  4. A new parameter to simultaneously assess antioxidant activity for multiple phenolic compounds present in food products.

    PubMed

    Yang, Hong; Xue, Xuejia; Li, Huan; Tay-Chan, Su Chin; Ong, Seng Poon; Tian, Edmund Feng

    2017-08-15

    In this work, we established a new methodology to simultaneously assess the relative reaction rates of multiple antioxidant compounds in one experimental set-up. This new methodology hypothesizes that the competition among antioxidant compounds towards limiting amount of free radical (in this article, DPPH) would reflect their relative reaction rates. In contrast with the conventional detection of DPPH decrease at 515nm on a spectrophotometer, depletion of antioxidant compounds treated by a series of DPPH concentrations was monitored instead using liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight (LC-QTOF). A new parameter, namely relative antioxidant activity (RAA), has been proposed to rank these antioxidants according to their reaction rate constants. We have investigated the applicability of RAA using pre-mixed standard phenolic compounds, and also extended this application to two food products, i.e. red wine and green tea. It has been found that RAA correlates well with the reported k values. This new parameter, RAA, provides a new perspective in evaluating antioxidant compounds present in food and herbal matrices. It not only realistically reflects the antioxidant activity of compounds when co-existing with competitive constituents; and it could also quicken up the discovery process in the search for potent yet rare antioxidants from many herbs of food/medicinal origins.

  5. A summary of present-day gully formation and activity on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniega, Serina; Hansen, Candice; McEwen, Alfred; Dundas, Colin; Byrne, Shane

    2016-07-01

    trends and variations in gully size, morphology, orientation, and location are additionally examined as indications of a seasonal (or other) control, as well as variations with latitude, dune type/size/orientation, or Mars year. This presentation will summarize the results of our monitoring campaigns, and will compare the data that are available about gullies of different morphologies and locations. Our aim is to identify possible similarities (and differences) in gully activity processes across Mars, and to estimate the rates of gully formation and modification processes (as has been done for gullies in the southern mid-latitudes [3]). Such estimates would aid interpretation of the likely ages of observed gullies, which have implications for whether records of past (and potential aqueous) gully formation processes are still observable. [1] Diniega et al. (2010) Geology, 38, 1047-1050. [2] Dundas et al. (2012) Icarus, 220, 124-143. [3] Dundas et al. (2015) Icarus, 251, 244-263. [4] Dundas et al. (2010) GRL, 37, L07202. [5] Vincendon (2015) JGR, 120, 1859-1879. [6] Harrison et al. (2015) Icarus, 252, 236-254. [7] Pilorget & Forget (2016) Nature Geosci. 9, 65-69. [8] Vincendon et al. (2010) JGR, 115, E10001. [9] Horgan & Bell (2012) Geophys. Res. Lett. 39, L09201. [10] Hansen et al., (2011) Science 331, 575-578. [11] Hansen et al. (2015) Icarus 251, 264-267.

  6. The Principles of Phototransferred Thermoluminescence

    SciTech Connect

    Moscovitch, Marko

    2011-05-05

    The principles of phototransferred thermoluminescence (PTTL) are described, and some of the basic theoretical ideas underlying this technique are presented. It is demonstrated that the PTTL efficiency is dependent on the photon energy as well as on the activation energies of the various traps involved in the process. A simple two-traps-one-recombination-center model is capable of predicting a variety of different PTTL behaviors, some already were observed experimentally.

  7. Light-activated nanoheaters with programmable time-dependent response (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Povinelli, Michelle L.; Biswas, Roshni; Morsy, Ahmed

    2016-09-01

    We design nanopatterned, all-dielectric structures that heat up suddenly when illuminated by a laser. The delay time for heating can be programmed into the structure by adjusting the spacing and size of holes in the pattern. The key operating principle is excitation of an absorptive, electromagnetic resonance in the structure by laser light, combined with a thermooptic response. Shifting of the resonance in time leads to a sudden increase in absorptive heating when the resonance aligns with the laser wavelength. We use optical transmission measurements to characterize the heating behavior in both air and water and demonstrate controlled microbubble formation.

  8. A novel synthetic quinolinone inhibitor presents proteolytic and hemorrhagic inhibitory activities against snake venom metalloproteases.

    PubMed

    Baraldi, Patrícia T; Magro, Angelo J; Matioli, Fábio F; Marcussi, Silvana; Lemke, Ney; Calderon, Leonardo A; Stábeli, Rodrigo G; Soares, Andreimar M; Correa, Arlene G; Fontes, Marcos R M

    2016-02-01

    Metalloproteases play a fundamental role in snake venom envenomation inducing hemorrhagic, fibrigen(ogen)olytic and myotoxic effects in their victims. Several snake venoms, such as those from the Bothrops genus, present important local effects which are not efficiently neutralized by conventional serum therapy. Consequently, these accidents may result in permanent sequelae and disability, creating economic and social problems, especially in developing countries, leading the attention of the World Health Organization that considered ophidic envenomations a neglected tropical disease. Aiming to produce an efficient inhibitor against bothropic venoms, we synthesized different molecules classified as quinolinones - a group of low-toxic chemical compounds widely used as antibacterial and antimycobacterial drugs - and tested their inhibitory properties against hemorrhage caused by bothropic venoms. The results from this initial screening indicated the molecule 2-hydroxymethyl-6-methoxy-1,4-dihydro-4-quinolinone (Q8) was the most effective antihemorrhagic compound among all of the assayed synthetic quinolinones. Other in vitro and in vivo experiments showed this novel compound was able to inhibit significantly the hemorrhagic and/or proteolytic activities of bothropic crude venoms and isolated snake venom metalloproteases (SVMPs) even at lower concentrations. Docking and molecular dynamic simulations were also performed to get insights into the structural basis of Q8 inhibitory mechanism against proteolytic and hemorrhagic SVMPs. These structural studies demonstrated that Q8 may form a stable complex with SVMPs, impairing the access of substrates to the active sites of these toxins. Therefore, both experimental and structural data indicate that Q8 compound is an interesting candidate for antiophidic therapy, particularly for the treatment of the hemorrhagic and necrotic effects induced by bothropic venoms.

  9. Selective monoamine oxidase B inhibition by an Aphanizomenon flos-aquae extract and by its constitutive active principles phycocyanin and mycosporine-like amino acids.

    PubMed

    Scoglio, Stefano; Benedetti, Yanina; Benvenuti, Francesca; Battistelli, Serafina; Canestrari, Franco; Benedetti, Serena

    2014-06-15

    Aphanizomenon flos-aquae (AFA) is a fresh water unicellular blue-green alga that has been traditionally used for over 25 years for its health-enhancing properties. Recent studies have shown the ability of a proprietary AFA extract (Klamin(®)) to improve mood, counteract anxiety, and enhance attention and learning. Aim of this study was to test the monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibition activity of the same AFA extract and of its constituents phycocyanin (AFA-PC) and mycosporine-like aminoacids (AFA-MAAs). All compounds showed a dose-dependent selective inhibition of MAO-B activity as compared to MAO-A. The IC50 values of the AFA extract (concentration 10 mg/ml), AFA-PC and AFA-MAAs were 6.4 μl/ml, 1.33 μM and 1.98 μM, respectively, evidencing a mixed-type of inhibition for the AFA extract (Ki 0.99 μl/ml), a non-competitive inhibition for AFA-PC (Ki 1.06 μM) and a competitive inhibition for AFA-MAAs (Ki 0.585 μM). These results are important to explain the neuromodulating properties of the AFA extract Klamin(®), which is rich in phenylethylamine, a general neuromodulator, that would nevertheless rapidly destroyed by MAO-B enzymes without the inhibitory activity of the synergic active principles AFA-PC and AFA-MAAs. The present investigation thus proposes the extract as potentially relevant in clinical areas such as mood disorders and neurodegenerative diseases.

  10. Losses, gain, and lasing in organic and perovskite active materials (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourdavoud, Neda; Riedl, Thomas J.

    2016-09-01

    Organic solid state lasers (OSLs) based on semiconducting polymers or small molecules have seen some significant progress over the past decade. Highly efficient organic gain materials combined with high-Q resonator geometries (distributed feedback (DFB), VCSEL, etc.) have enabled OSLs, optically pumped by simple inorganic laser diodes or even LEDs. However, some fundamental goals remain to be reached, like continuous wave (cw) operation and injection lasing. I will address various loss mechanisms related to accumulated triplet excitons or long-lived polarons that in combination with the particular photo-physics of organic gain media state the dominant road-blocks on the way to reach these goals. I will discuss the recent progress in fundamental understanding of these loss processes, which now provides a solid basis for modelling, e.g. of laser dynamics. Avenues to mitigate these fundamental loss mechanisms, e.g. by alternative materials will be presented. In this regard, a class of gain materials based on organo-lead halide perovskites re-entered the scene as light emitters, recently. Enjoying a tremendous lot of attention as active material for solution processed solar cells with a 20+% efficiency, they have recently unveiled their exciting photo-physics for lasing applications. Optically pumped lasing in these materials has been achieved. I will discuss some of the unique properties that render this class of materials a promising candidate to overcome some of the limitations of "classical" organic gain media.

  11. An overview of active flow control actuators and applications (presentation video)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brzozowski, Daniel; Whalen, Edward A.

    2014-04-01

    Active Flow Control (AFC) is an emerging technology which promises performance enhancements to both military and civilian aircraft. A technique which uses energy input at discrete locations to manipulate the flow over an aerodynamic surface, AFC may be used to reduce drag, prevent flow separation, and enable otherwise-infeasible aerodynamic designs. Additional applications include shear layer and turbulence control for aero-optics applications and mixing enhancement for thermal applications. Many AFC applications call for a high frequency fluidic perturbation provided by an electrically-powered actuator. In these instances, piezoelectric (PZT) materials have served as the workhorse for flow control actuators, such as the widely-studied synthetic jet. Because the PZT materials form the critical component of the actuator, the maximum performance of the synthetic jet (velocity and momentum output) is limited by the physical limitations of the PZT material. The purpose of this presentation is to provide a high level overview of AFC actuators and applications in an attempt to engage the smart materials community and encourage advanced material development in support of these crucial applications.

  12. Three Activities To Assist Biology Teachers in Presenting Conceptually Difficult Topics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Neil; Tulip, David

    1997-01-01

    Outlines three activities for different areas of biology that can serve as motivators for students or as demonstrations. Each activity is easy to organize and uses available materials. Topics include evolution, anaerobic respiration, and heat loss. (DDR)

  13. Suggested Activities to Use With Children Who Present Symptoms of Visual Perception Problems, Elementary Level.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington County Public Schools, Washington, PA.

    Symptoms displayed by primary age children with learning disabilities are listed; perceptual handicaps are explained. Activities are suggested for developing visual perception and perception involving motor activities. Also suggested are activities to develop body concept, visual discrimination and attentiveness, visual memory, and figure ground…

  14. Smart Novel Semi-Active Tuned Mass Damper for Fixed-Bottom and Floating Offshore Wind (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Rodriguez Tsouroukdissian, Arturo

    2016-05-02

    The intention of this paper is to present the results of a novel smart semi-active tuned mass damper (SA-TMD), which mitigates unwanted loads for both fixed-bottom and floating offshore wind systems. (Presentation Format).

  15. Activated satellite cells are present in uninjured extraocular muscles of mature mice.

    PubMed Central

    McLoon, Linda K; Wirtschafter, Jonathan

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: We recently demonstrated that there is a continuous process of myonuclear addition into normal, uninjured adult myofibers in rabbit extraocular muscles (EOM). This phenomenon is not seen in skeletal muscles from normal, adult limbs. These features may explain the selective involvement of the EOM in progressive external ophthalmoplegia and oculopharyngeal muscular dystrophy due to an accumulation of damaged DNA in mitochondria and nuclei within the EOM as a result of repeated cycling of the muscle satellite cells. Many testable hypotheses flow from these observations. We investigated whether continuous myonuclear addition is present in normal mouse EOM so that mouse models of genetic disorders can be used to study the pathogenic mechanisms and to test potential therapies for human muscle disorders. METHODS: Bromodeoxyuridine (brdU) was injected intraperitoneally into C57 adult mice every 2 hours for 12 hours. Twenty-four hours later the animals were sacrificed, and the globes with the muscles attached were prepared for immunohistochemical localization of brdU-positive nuclei within the EOM. All cross sections were immunostained for both brdU and either dystrophin or laminin. RESULTS: All the rectus muscles from the mouse EOM examined contained both satellite cells and myonuclei that were positive for brdU. This demonstrates the division of satellite cells and the fusion of their daughter cells with existing adult EOM myofibers in mice. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that the process of continuous myonuclear addition is also active in mouse EOM. These findings will allow various mutant mouse models to be used to study the pathogenesis and treatment of various muscle disorders. The existence of continuous myonuclear addition in adult, uninjured EOM fundamentally changes the accepted notion that EOM myofibers are postmitotic. PMID:12545684

  16. Investigating the present and past glacial and frost activity on Pluto with a volatile transport model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bertrand, Tanguy; Forget, Francois

    2016-10-01

    The high obliquity and eccentricity of the orbit of Pluto induce seasonal cycles of condensation and sublimation of the main volatile ices: N2, CH4, and CO. The New Horizons spacecraft, which flew by Pluto in July 2015, revealed a complex surface composition including a thousand-kilometre nitrogen glacier in the "Sputnik Planum" plain near the Anti-Charon longitude, extensive methane frosts at mid and high latitudes, and equatorial ice-free regions. We present numerical simulations designed to model the evolution of Pluto's volatiles over thousands of years on the basis of straightforward universal physical equations.Our results explain the observed distribution of ices on the surface and the quantities of volatiles in the atmosphere. In particular the model predicts the N2 ice accumulation in the deepest low-latitude basin and the 3-fold increase of pressure observed to occur since 1988. This points to atmospheric-topographic processes at the origin of the Sputnik Planum's nitrogen glacier. The same simulations also show frosts of methane, and sometimes nitrogen, that seasonally cover the mid and high latitudes, explaining the bright northern polar cap reported in the 1990s and the observed ice distribution in 2015. The model also predicts that most of these seasonal frosts should disappear in the next decade, and thus could be tested observationally in the near future.Using prior orbital parameters of Pluto and a realistic glacial flow parametrization, we also simulate past climates of Pluto. The results show that Pluto undergoes cycles of glacial activity (over timescales of few million years) that may explain the rugged eroded-mountain landscapes surrounding Sputnik Planum and the "bladed" methane terrains east of "Tombaugh Regio".

  17. Present-Day Seasonal Gully Activity in a South Polar Pit (Sisyphi Cavi) on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raack, Jan; Reiss, Dennis; Appéré, Thomas; Vincendon, Mathieu; Ruesch, Ottaviano; Hiesinger, Harald

    2014-05-01

    Seasonal activity of gullies under current climatic conditions on Mars was observed by [1-7]. Dundas et al. [2] reviewed the present-day activity of classical gullies (including the gully presented in this work), dune gullies, and other mass wasting processes in the southern hemisphere on Mars. Recent polar gullies in Sisyphi Cavi were also analyzed by [8], who estimated ages of about 20 ka to 20 Ma for the gullies. In this study we focus on a single gully in Sisyphi Cavi, located in the south polar region at 1.44° E and 68.54° S. The gully occurs on the gullied equator-facing slope of an isolated polar pit within an infilled impact crater. Multi-temporal high-resolution image data analyses show new deposits at the terminus of the gully channel and on the gully apron within spring (after solar longitudes of 236°) of martian years (MY) 29 and 31. In MY 29 deposition of material shortens the channel by about 40 m; in MY 31 a new deposit at the western flank of the gully apron with approximately 300-600 m3 of material is visible [3]. Our morphological investigations show that the identified new deposits were formed by dark flows through the entire gully deposited on top of the apron between LS ~218° and ~226°. Thermal data show a temperature increase between solar longitudes (LS) ~218° and ~226°. Near-infrared spectral data show relatively constant band strengths of CO2 ice and H2O ice in this time range. After the formation of the dark flows (after LS ~226°), temperatures increase rapidly from ~180 K to >~270 K at LS ~250°. At this time, spectral data indicate that all volatiles on the surface sublimated. However, an earlier beginning of sublimation when the dark flows were observed (between LS ~218° and ~226°) is likely, due to the fact that the instruments can only show the last phase of sublimation (decrease of volatile band strengths) [3]. Spectral modeling shows that from winter to mid-spring, the surface of the studied area is covered by CO2 slab

  18. An enzyme activity capable of endotransglycosylation of heteroxylan polysaccharides is present in plant primary cell walls.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Sarah L; Prakash, Roneel; Chen, Nancy J; Kumagai, Monto H; Turano, Helen M; Cooney, Janine M; Atkinson, Ross G; Paull, Robert E; Cheetamun, Roshan; Bacic, Antony; Brummell, David A; Schröder, Roswitha

    2013-01-01

    Heteroxylans in the plant cell wall have been proposed to have a role analogous to that of xyloglucans or heteromannans, forming growth-restraining networks by interlocking cellulose microfibrils. A xylan endotransglycosylase has been identified that can transglycosylate heteroxylan polysaccharides in the presence of xylan-derived oligosaccharides. High activity was detected in ripe fruit of papaya (Carica papaya), but activity was also found in a range of other fruits, imbibed seeds and rapidly growing seedlings of cereals. Xylan endotransglycosylase from ripe papaya fruit used a range of heteroxylans, such as wheat arabinoxylan, birchwood glucuronoxylan and various heteroxylans from dicotyledonous primary cell walls purified from tomato and papaya fruit, as donor molecules. As acceptor molecules, the enzyme preferentially used xylopentaitol over xylohexaitol or shorter-length acceptors. Xylan endotransglycosylase was active over a broad pH range and could perform transglycosylation reactions up to 55 °C. Xylan endotransglycosylase activity was purified from ripe papaya fruit by ultrafiltration and cation exchange chromatography. Highest endotransglycosylase activity was identified in fractions that also contained high xylan hydrolase activity and correlated with the presence of the endoxylanase CpaEXY1. Recombinant CpaEXY1 protein transiently over-expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana leaves showed both endoxylanase and xylan endotransglycosylase activities in vitro, suggesting that CpaEXY1 is a single enzyme with dual activity in planta. Purified native CpaEXY1 showed two- to fourfold higher endoxylanase than endotransglycosylase activity, suggesting that CpaEXY1 may act primarily as a hydrolase. We propose that xylan endotransglycosylase activity (like xyloglucan and mannan endotransglycosylase activities) could be involved in remodelling or re-arrangement of heteroxylans of the cellulose-non-cellulosic cell wall framework.

  19. Development of a NIR-based blend uniformity method for a drug product containing multiple structurally similar actives by using the quality by design principles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yiqing; Li, Weiyong; Xu, Jin; Boulas, Pierre

    2015-07-05

    The aim of this study is to develop an at-line near infrared (NIR) method for the rapid and simultaneous determination of four structurally similar active pharmaceutical ingredients (APIs) in powder blends intended for the manufacturing of tablets. Two of the four APIs in the formula are present in relatively small amounts, one at 0.95% and the other at 0.57%. Such small amounts in addition to the similarity in structures add significant complexity to the blend uniformity analysis. The NIR method is developed using spectra from six laboratory-created calibration samples augmented by a small set of spectra from a large-scale blending sample. Applying the quality by design (QbD) principles, the calibration design included concentration variations of the four APIs and a main excipient, microcrystalline cellulose. A bench-top FT-NIR instrument was used to acquire the spectra. The obtained NIR spectra were analyzed by applying principal component analysis (PCA) before calibration model development. Score patterns from the PCA were analyzed to reveal relationship between latent variables and concentration variations of the APIs. In calibration model development, both PLS-1 and PLS-2 models were created and evaluated for their effectiveness in predicting API concentrations in the blending samples. The final NIR method shows satisfactory specificity and accuracy.

  20. Geothermal activity at continental rift Citala, Western Mexico, where Lake Chapala is emplaced: past and present

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zárate-del Valle, P. F.

    2003-04-01

    Lake Chapala is a tectonic lake developed on a continental rift named Citala (CRC) which belongs to a tectonically active zone in Western Mexico: the so-called Jalisco continental triple junction. Fossil sinter deposit, thermal spring, hydrothermal (hy) petroleum manifestation and hy alteration halo characterized the Lake Chapala basin. On the SE shore, outcrops a carbonate deposit named ``La Calera" (LC) which consists of a carbonate fossil sinter that measures 2 km in E-W direction and 600 m in N-S direction and overlays andesitic rock. With a thickness of approximately 5 m and a roughly horizontal attitude, the LC is characterized by a two-fold structure: when massive, it is colored in yellow brownish and grey and elsewhere it shows a pseudo-brecciated structure and when banded, yellow and dark millimetre alternated bands can be seen. The LC is marked by vuggy porosity and silica (quartz and chalcedony) vein lets. Under microscope a pseudo-micritic texture is observed; vugs coated by iron oxides, are filled with calcite, and/or quartz, chalcedony and clay minerals. Six samples of LC were analysed (LODC-UParis VI) for their stable isotopes (δ18O and δ13C): From δ13C{PDB} values we have two sets of data: -8.03 to -8.69 ppm that means a no contribution of organic carbon (oc) and -0.35 to -0.75 ppm meaning an important contribution of oc; from δ18O{PDB} values: -8.5 to -10.27 ppm we deduced a deposit in meteoric water with a temperature deposition higher than the surface. The CRC is characterized also by the presence of hydrothermal petroleum (hp): Inside the Chapala and ˜2 km from SE shore (Los Arcos) there are some small spots made of hp which look like islands (<3-4 m^2) linked to the bottom of the lake which consist of solid bitumen. Thermal springs (ths) occur both inside and outside the lake Chapala: the water in out-shore ths is of carbonate type (69^oC; ˜ 240 mg L-1 [HCO_3]^-; with one exception: the ths at the San Juan Cosalá spa (N shore), which is

  1. Healthy Kids Out of School: Using Mixed Methods to Develop Principles for Promoting Healthy Eating and Physical Activity in Out-of-School Settings in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Shanti; Dietz, William H.; Dolan, Peter R.; Nelson, Miriam E.; Newman, Molly B.; Rockeymoore, Maya; Economos, Christina D.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Widespread practices supporting availability of healthful foods, beverages, and physical activity in out-of-school-time (OST) settings would further obesity prevention efforts. The objective of this article was to describe principles to guide policy development in support of healthy eating and physical activity practices in out-of-school settings to promote obesity prevention. Methods The Institute of Medicine’s L.E.A.D. framework (Locate Evidence, Evaluate it, Assemble it, and Inform Decisions) was used to identify practices relevant to children’s healthful eating in most OST settings: 1) locate and evaluate information from a national survey of children’s perceptions of healthful-food access; published research, reports, policies and guidelines; and roundtables with OST organizations’ administrators; 2) assemble information to prioritize actionable practices; and 3) inform programmatic direction. Results Three evidence-informed guiding principles for short-duration OST resulted: 1) drink right: choose water instead of sugar-sweetened beverages; 2) move more: boost movement and physical activity in all programs; and 3) snack smart: fuel up on fruits and vegetables. Conclusion Healthy Kids Out of School was launched to support the dissemination and implementation of these guiding principles in short-duration OST settings, complementing efforts in other OST settings to shift norms around eating and physical activity. PMID:25551182

  2. Pattern formation for active particles on optically created ordered and disordered substrates (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Charles M.; Ray, Dipanjan; Reichhardt, Cynthia J.

    2015-08-01

    There has been tremendous growth in the field of active matter, where the individual particles that comprise the system are self-driven. Examples of this class of system include biological systems such as swimming bacteria and crawling cells. More recently, non-biological swimmers have been created using colloidal Janus particles that undergo chemical reactions on one side to produce self-propulsion. These active matter systems exhibit a wide variety of behaviors that are absent in systems undergoing purely thermal fluctuations, such as transitions from uniform liquids to clusters or living crystals, pushing objects around, ratchet effects, and phase separation in mixtures of active and passive particles. Here we examine the collective effects of active matter disks in the presence of static or dynamic substrates. For colloids, such substrates could be created optically in the form of periodic, random, or quasiperiodic patterns. For thermal particles, increasing the temperature generally increases the diffusion or mobility of the particles when they move over a random or periodic substrates. We find that when the particles are active, increasing the activity can increase the mobility for smaller run lengths but decrease the mobility at large run lengths. Additionally we find that at large run lengths on a structured substrate, a variety of novel active crystalline states can form such as stripes, squares and triangular patterns.

  3. Principles for School Drug Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Lois

    2004-01-01

    This document presents a revised set of principles for school drug education. The principles for drug education in schools comprise an evolving framework that has proved useful over a number of decades in guiding the development of effective drug education. The first edition of "Principles for Drug Education in Schools" (Ballard et al.…

  4. Effects of L-carnitine administration on mitochondrial electron transport activity present in human muscle during circulatory shock.

    PubMed

    Corbucci, G G; Gasparetto, A; Antonelli, M; Bufi, M; Crimi, G; Conti, G; De Blasi, R A; Candiani, A; Cooper, M B; Jones, D A

    1985-01-01

    Carnitine was administered to a group of patients in shock, and the activities of cytochrome oxidase and succinate cytochrome c reductase in muscle needle biopsies from these patients were compared to those activities present in a non-carnitine treated control group of patients. Carnitine seemingly exerted a significant protective action on cytochrome oxidase activity during the initial phases of shock, but not to such an extent on succinate cytochrome c reductase activities.

  5. Voluntary activation deficits of the infraspinatus present as a consequence of pitching-induced fatigue

    PubMed Central

    Gandhi, Jaipal; ElAttrache, Neal S.; Kaufman, Kenton R.; Hurd, Wendy J.

    2014-01-01

    Hypothesis Neuromuscular inhibition of the infraspinatus would be greater and external rotation muscle force would be lower after a simulated game compared with pregame values. Materials and methods The sample included 21 uninjured, asymptomatic high school–aged baseball pitchers. Maximum volitional shoulder external rotation strength was assessed before and after a simulated game with a clinical dynamometer. Voluntary activation of the infraspinatus was assessed during strength testing by a modified burst superimposition technique. Performance-related fatigue was assessed by monitoring pitch velocity, and global fatigue was assessed by subject self-report before and after the game. Statistical testing included paired and independent t tests, with α ≤ 05. Results There was no difference between throwing and non-throwing shoulder external rotation strength (P = .12) or voluntary infraspinatus activation (P = .27) before the game. After the game, voluntary activation was significantly lower in the throwing limb compared with pregame activation levels (P = .01). Lower external rotation strength after the game approached statistical significance (P =.06). Pitch velocity was lower in the final inning compared with first-inning velocity (P = .01), and fatigue was significantly greater after the game (P = .01). Conclusions Voluntary infraspinatus muscle activation is a mechanism contributing to external rotation muscle weakness in the fatigued pitcher. Understanding mechanisms contributing to muscle weakness is necessary to develop effective injury prevention and rehabilitation programs. Treatment techniques that enhance neuromuscular activation may be a useful strategy for enhancing strength in this population. Level of evidence Basic Science Study, Kinesiology Study. PMID:21831667

  6. The dynamics of active matter on ordered and disordered substrates (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Charles M.; Reichhardt, Cynthia J.; McDermott, Danielle

    2016-09-01

    Active matter or self-propelled systems have been attracting growing attention in biological systems such as swimming bacteria as well as artificial swimmers such as self-driven colloids. These systems exhibit interesting effects including an activity-induced self clustering that occurs even when all pairwise particle-particle interactions are repulsive. Due to the size scale of the active particles, tailored landscapes can be created for the particles by means of optical trapping. Using large scale simulations we examine an active matter system of self-propelled disks moving in confined geometries and in quasi-1D periodic and asymmetric saw-tooth landscapes. The system forms a dense cluster when the trapping sites are large, but still exhibits modes of motion along the edges of the clusters. We discuss how these effects could be related to a mechanical version of topological protection. For periodic quasi-1D traps we find that there can be a 1D ordering of the disks with motion occurring along only one dimension. For asymmetric substrates we find an active matter ratchet effect similar that observed previously; however, when strong interactions between the particles are introduced, we find that it is possible to obtain a reversal of the ratchet effect in which the net flow is in the direction opposite to the easy-flow direction of the substrate asymmetry. The ability to produce a reversal of the active ratchet effect suggests that it may be possible to set up a landscape in which different species of active matter particles move in opposite directions.

  7. Activation of photodynamic therapy in vitro with Cerenkov luminescence generated from Yttrium-90 (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartl, Brad A.; Hirschberg, Henry; Marcu, Laura; Cherry, Simon R.

    2016-03-01

    Translation of photodynamic therapy to the clinical setting has primarily been limited to easily accessible and/or superficial diseases where traditional light delivery can be performed noninvasively. Cerenkov luminescence, as generated from medically relevant radionuclides, has been suggested as a means to deliver light to deeper tissues noninvasively in order to overcome this depth limitation. We report on the use of Cerenkov luminescence generated from Yttrium-90 as a means to active the photodynamic therapy process in monolayer tumor cell cultures. The current study investigates the utility of Cerenkov luminescence for activating both the clinically relevant aminolevulinic acid at 1.0 mM and also the more efficient photosensitizer TPPS2a at 1.2 µM. Cells were incubated with aminolevulinic acid for 6 hours prior to radionuclide addition, as well as additional daily treatments for three days. TPPS2a was delivered as a single treatment with an 18 hour incubation time before radionuclide addition. Experiments were completed for both C6 glioma cells and MDA-MB-231 breast tumor cells. Although aminolevulinic acid proved ineffective for generating a therapeutic effect at any activity for either cell line, TPPS2a produced at least a 20% therapeutic effect at activities ranging from 6 to 60 µCi/well for the C6 cell line. Current results demonstrate that it may be possible to generate a therapeutic effect in vivo using Cerenkov luminescence to activate the photodynamic therapy process with clinically relevant photosensitizers.

  8. Antibacterial activity of Pinus elliottii against anaerobic bacteria present in primary endodontic infections.

    PubMed

    Caetano da Silva, Sandro Donizete; Mendes de Souza, Maria Gorete; Oliveira Cardoso, Miguel Jorge; da Silva Moraes, Thais; Ambrósio, Sérgio Ricardo; Sola Veneziani, Rodrigo Cássio; Martins, Carlos Henrique G

    2014-12-01

    Endodontic infections have a polymicrobial nature, but anaerobic bacteria prevail among the infectious microbes. Considering that it is easy to eliminate planktonic bacteria, biofilm-forming bacteria still challenge clinicians during the fight against endodontic diseases. The chemical constituents of the oleoresin of Pinus elliottii, a plant belonging to the family Pinaceae, stand out in the search for biologically active compounds based on natural products with potential application in the treatment of endodontic infections. Indeed, plant oleoresins are an abundant natural source of diterpenes that display significant and well-defined biological activities as well as potential antimicrobial action. In this context, this study aimed to (1) evaluate the in vitro antibacterial activity of the oleoresin, fractions, and subfractions of P. elliottii as well as the action of dehydroabietic acid against 11 anaerobic bacteria that cause endodontic infection in both their planktonic and biofilm forms and (2) assess the in vitro antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the same group of bacteria. The broth microdilution technique helped to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of the oleoresin and fractions. This same technique aided determination of the MIC values of nine subfractions of Fraction 1, the most active fraction. The MIC, minimum bactericidal concentration, and antibiofilm activity of dehydroabietic acid against the tested anaerobic bacteria were also examined. The oleoresin and fractions, especially fraction PE1, afforded promising MIC values, which ranged from 0.4 to 50 μg/mL. Concerning the nine evaluated subfractions, PE1.3 and PE1.4 furnished the most noteworthy MIC values, between 6.2 and 100 μg/mL. Dehydroabietic acid displayed antibacterial activity, with MIC values lying from 6.2 to 50 μg/mL, as well as bactericidal effect for all the investigated bacteria, except for Prevotella nigrescens. Assessment of the antibiofilm

  9. Production, characterization, and application of an organic solvent-tolerant lipase present in active inclusion bodies.

    PubMed

    Li, Suxia; Lin, Kang; Pang, Huaiyu; Wu, Yixin; Xu, Jianhe

    2013-01-01

    An organic solvent-tolerant lipase from Serratia marcescens ECU1010 (rSML) was overproduced in Escherichia coli in an insoluble form. High concentrations of both biomass (50 g cell wet weight/L culture broth) and inclusion bodies (10.5 g/L) were obtained by applying a high-cell-density cultivation procedure. Activity assays indicated that the enzymatic activity of rSML reached 600 U/L. After treatment with isopropyl ether for 12 h, the maximum lipase activity reached 6,000 U/L. Scanning electron microscopy and Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy revealed the activation mechanism of rSML in the presence of organic solvents. rSML was stable in broad ranges of temperatures and pH values, as well as in a series of organic solvents. Besides, rSML showed the best enantioselectivity for the kinetic resolution of (±)-trans-3-(4-methoxyphenyl)glycidic acid methyl ester. These features render the S. marcescens ECU1010 lipase attractive for biotechnological applications in the field of organic synthesis and pharmaceutical industry.

  10. A STUDY OF PRESENT AND NEEDED BOOK ACTIVITIES IN NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT--PERU.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SPAULDING, SETH

    THROUGH FIELD WORK, A FOUR MEMBER RESEARCH TEAM STUDIED PERU'S TOTAL DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATIONAL EFFORTS IN ORDER TO EVALUATE ITS BOOK ACTIVITY. SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES WERE--TO DISCOVER WHO IS CREATING, PRODUCING, AND USING BOOKS, TO EVALUATE PAST ATTEMPTS TO UPGRADE THIS AREA, TO ASSESS CURRENT AND FUTURE PRIORITIES, AND TO DEVELOP RECOMMENDATIONS…

  11. Presenting Theoretical Ideas Prior to Inquiry Activities Fosters Theory-Level Knowledge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wecker, Christof; Rachel, Alexander; Heran-Dörr, Eva; Waltner, Christine; Wiesner, Hartmut; Fischer, Frank

    2013-01-01

    In the course of inquiry activities similar to those of real scientists, learners are supposed to develop knowledge both on the level of observable phenomena and on the level of explanatory theories. However, some theories involve theoretical entities (e.g., "Weiss domains") that cannot be observed directly and therefore may be hard to…

  12. Images of Germany, Past and Present: A Film Collection. Series I, Instructional Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goethe House, New York, NY.

    This set of lessons accompanies a series of 30-minute films for teaching about Germany. Available to educators throughout the United States upon request, the 17 films and accompanying instructional activities focus on culture, politics, economics, society, and sports and are appropriate for middle and high school students. Permission is granted to…

  13. Images of Germany: Past and Present. A Film Collection, Series II Instructional Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blankenship, Glen; Hutcheson, Gwen

    This booklet offers classroom activities for use with 15 social studies-related films for teaching about Germany. The series of 25-minute films are made available by Deutsche Welle Television and Goethe House New York. Lessons in the booklet include: (1) "Germany Since 1945: A Focus on Berlin"; (2) "'I'll Get You All Out of Here!' A…

  14. Questions and Answers for Ken Thomas' "Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian and Gemini Spacesuits" Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thomas, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Kenneth Thomas will discuss the Intra-Extra Vehicular Activity Russian & Gemini spacesuits. While the United States and Russia adapted to existing launch- and reentry-type suits to allow the first human ventures into the vacuum of space, there were differences in execution and capabilities. Mr. Thomas will discuss the advantages and disadvantages of this approach compared to exclusively intravehicular or extra-vehicular suit systems.

  15. Triterpenic Acids Present in Hawthorn Lower Plasma Cholesterol by Inhibiting Intestinal ACAT Activity in Hamsters.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuguang; Vermeer, Mario A; Trautwein, Elke A

    2011-01-01

    Hawthorn (Crataegus pinnatifida) is an edible fruit used in traditional Chinese medicine to lower plasma lipids. This study explored lipid-lowering compounds and underlying mechanisms of action of hawthorn. Hawthorn powder extracts inhibited acylCoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in Caco-2 cells. The inhibitory activity was positively associated with triterpenic acid (i.e., oleanolic acid (OA) and ursolic acid (UA)) contents in the extracts. Cholesterol lowering effects of hawthorn and its potential additive effect in combination with plant sterol esters (PSE) were further studied in hamsters. Animals were fed a semi-synthetic diet containing 0.08% (w/w) cholesterol (control) or the same diet supplemented with (i) 0.37% hawthorn dichloromethane extract, (ii) 0.24% PSE, (iii) hawthorn dichloromethane extract (0.37%) plus PSE (0.24%) or (iv) OA/UA mixture (0.01%) for 4 weeks. Compared to the control diet, hawthorn, PSE, hawthorn plus PSE and OA/UA significantly lowered plasma non-HDL (VLDL + LDL) cholesterol concentrations by 8%, 9%, 21% and 6% and decreased hepatic cholesterol ester content by 9%, 23%, 46% and 22%, respectively. The cholesterol lowering effects of these ingredients were conversely associated with their capacities in increasing fecal neutral sterol excretion. In conclusion, OA and UA are responsible for the cholesterol lowering effect of hawthorn by inhibiting intestinal ACAT activity. In addition, hawthorn and particularly its bioactive compounds (OA and UA) enhanced the cholesterol lowering effect of plant sterols.

  16. Reduction of hexavalent chromium by Sphaerotilus natans a filamentous micro-organism present in activated sludges.

    PubMed

    Caravelli, Alejandro H; Giannuzzi, Leda; Zaritzky, Noemí E

    2008-08-15

    Wastewaters produced by various industries may contain undesirable amounts of hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)), as chromate and dichromate, a hazardous metal affecting flora and animals of aquatic ecosystems as well as human health. One removal strategy comprises the microbial reduction of Cr(VI) to Cr(III), a less soluble chemical species that is less toxic than Cr(VI). In this work, the ability to reduce Cr(VI) of Sphaerotilus natans, a filamentous bacterium usually found in activated sludge systems, was evaluated. In aerobic conditions, S. natans was able to efficiently reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) from dichromate solutions ranging between 4.5 and 80 mg Cr(VI)l(-1) in the presence of a carbonaceous source. A simultaneous evaluation of the microbial respiratory activity inhibition was also carried out to analyze the toxic effect of Cr(VI). Cr(VI) reduction by S. natans was mathematically modeled; chromium(VI) reduction rate depended on both Cr(VI) concentration and active biomass concentration. Although it is known that S. natans removes heavy metal cations such as Cr(III) by biosorption, the ability of this micro-organism to reduce Cr(VI), which behaves as an oxyanion in aqueous solutions, is a novel finding. The distinctive capacity to reduce Cr(VI) to Cr(III) than remain soluble or precipitated becomes S. natans a potential micro-organism to decontaminate wastewaters.

  17. A macromolecular crowding study of RNA folding and activity: polymer pore size matters! (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börner, Richard; Fiorini, Erica; Paudel, Bishnu; Rueda, David; Sigel, Roland K. O.

    2016-03-01

    Catalytic RNAs, like the group IIB intron ribozyme of S. cerevesiae, require a high magnesium(II) concentration to show folding and function in vitro [1]. In contrast, in vivo conditions are characterized by a highly crowded cellular environment and much lower ion concentration. Molecular crowding agents are a widespread tool to mimic cellular crowding [2]. However, particular physical/chemical properties explaining the crowders influence are mostly not understood. In this study, we gain new insights on how polymer properties like viscosity, pore size etc. influence the activity and folding of a large RNA. We combined bulk activity assays and single-molecule Förster Resonance Energy Transfer experiments, screening the PEG volume fraction (%) and molecular weight (MW). Our results revealed that upon the influence of crowding agents, a compaction of the underlying structure depends on the PEG % and the presence of different PEG MW and % unveiled an optimal pore size in terms of catalytic activity. In summary, an increasing density of the crowding environment shifts the RNA towards the most compact state, but the ribozyme is only active if the crowders network matches its size [4]. We interpret the most compact state as necessary, but not sufficient, to keep the ribozyme active. Financial support from the European Research Council (MIRNA N° 259092, to RKOS), the Swiss National Fund (SNF), and the Forschungskredit Grant of the University of Zürich (FK-14-096 and 15-092 to RB) are gratefully acknowledged. [1] Swisher J.F., Su L.J., Brenowitz M., Anderson V.E., Pyle A.M., J. Mol. Bio., 315, 297-310 (2002). [2] Kilburn D., Roh J.H., Guo L., Briber R.M., Woodson S.A., JACS, 132, 8690-6 (2010). [3] Steiner M., Karunatilaka K.S., Sigel R.K.O., Rueda D., Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.,105, 13853-8 (2008). [4] aBörner R, Fiorini E, Sigel R.K.O., Chimia, 69, 207-212 (2015).; bFiorini E., Paudel B., Börner R., Rueda D., Sigel R.K.O., submitted. [5] König S.L.B., Hadzic M

  18. Modeling the Activities of Scientists: Prospective Science Teachers' Poster Presentations in An STS Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogan, Alev; Kaya, Osman Nafiz; Kilic, Ziya; Kilic, Esma; Aydogdu, Mustafa

    2004-01-01

    In this study, prospective science teachers' (PSTs) views about their poster presentations were investigated. These posters were developed through PSTs' online and library research and scientific mini-symposiums in chemistry related topics in the framework of science, technology and society course (STS). During the first four weeks of STS course,…

  19. Speaking off the Cuff: Strategies and Activities for Developing Presentation Confidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaszczynski, Carol; Green, Diana J.

    2010-01-01

    Presentation mastery is a skill of paramount importance in the business world. The Partnership for 21st Century Skills has delineated the ability to "articulate thoughts and ideas effectively using oral, written and nonverbal skills in a variety of forms and contexts" as a student outcome under learning and innovation skills. Ability to think on…

  20. Antibacterial, antifungal and antiprotozoal activities of fungal communities present in different substrates from Antarctica

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Antarctica is a pristine and extreme environment that represents a unique opportunity for taxonomic, ecological and biotechnological studies of the microorganisms. In the present work, the fungal communities of rhizosphere soil of Deschampsia antarctica, soil, ornithogenic soil, marine and lake sedi...

  1. Learning to Be Present: How "Hevruta" Learning Can Activate Teachers' Relationships to Self, Other and Text

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raider-Roth, Miriam; Holzer, Elie

    2009-01-01

    This article focuses on the ways "hevruta" learning can contribute to teachers' capacity to be present to self, other, subject matter and the cultural context in which the learning occurred. "Hevruta" learning, when conceptualized for the purposes of teachers' professional development, brings to the fore both the interpretive and relational…

  2. Active Power Control Testing at the U.S. National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Ela, E.

    2011-01-01

    In order to keep the electricity grid stable and the lights on, the power system relies on certain responses from its generating fleet. This presentation evaluates the potential for wind turbines and wind power plants to provide these services and assist the grid during critical times.

  3. Amygdala Activation during Masked Presentation of Emotional Faces Predicts Conscious Detection of Threat-Related Faces

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Suslow, Thomas; Ohrmann, Patricia; Bauer, Jochen; Rauch, Astrid Veronika; Schwindt, Wolfram; Arolt, Volker; Heindel, Walter; Kugel, Harald

    2006-01-01

    It has been argued that critical functions of the human amygdala are to modulate the moment-to-moment vigilance level and to enhance the processing and the consolidation of memories of emotionally arousing material. In this functional magnetic resonance study, pictures of human faces bearing fearful, angry, and happy expressions were presented to…

  4. Radar principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sato, Toru

    1989-01-01

    Discussed here is a kind of radar called atmospheric radar, which has as its target clear air echoes from the earth's atmosphere produced by fluctuations of the atmospheric index of refraction. Topics reviewed include the vertical structure of the atmosphere, the radio refractive index and its fluctuations, the radar equation (a relation between transmitted and received power), radar equations for distributed targets and spectral echoes, near field correction, pulsed waveforms, the Doppler principle, and velocity field measurements.

  5. Present status of plasma-wall interactions research and materials development activities in the US

    SciTech Connect

    Hirooka, Y.; Conn, R.W.

    1989-08-01

    It is well known in the fusion engineering community that the plasma confinement performance in magnetic fusion devices is strongly affected by edge-plasma interactions with surface components. These plasma-material interactions (PMI) include fuel particle recycling and impurity generation both during normal and off-normal operation. To understand and then to control PMI effects, considerable effort has been made, particularly over the last decade in US, supported by Department of Energy, Division of Development and Technology. Also, because plasma-facing components are generally expected to receive significant amount of heat due to plasma bombardment and run-away electrons, materials must tolerate high-heat fluxes (HHF). The HHF-component research has been conducted in parallel with PMI research. One strong motivation for these research activities is that DT-burning experiments are currently planned in the Tokamak Test Fusion Reactor (TFTR) in early 1990s. Several different but mutually complementary approaches have been taken in the PMI+HHF research. The first approach is to conduct PMI experiments using toroidal fusion devices such as TFTR. The second one is to simulate elemental processes involved in PMI using ion beams and electron beams, etc. The last one but not least is to use non-tokamak plasma facilities. Along with these laboratory activities, new materials have been developed and evaluated from the PMI+HHF point of view. In this paper, several major PMI+HHF research facilities in US and their activities are briefly reviewed. 21 refs., 10 figs., 2 tabs.

  6. TLR signaling in human antigen‐presenting cells regulates MR1‐dependent activation of MAIT cells

    PubMed Central

    van Wilgenburg, Bonnie; Hannaway, Rachel F.; Ruustal, Kerstin; Phalora, Prabhjeet; Kurioka, Ayako; Hansen, Ted H.; Willberg, Christian B.; Phillips, Rodney E.; Klenerman, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Mucosal‐associated invariant T (MAIT) cells are an abundant innate‐like T lymphocyte population that are enriched in liver and mucosal tissues. They are restricted by MR1, which presents antigens derived from a metabolic precursor of riboflavin synthesis, a pathway present in many microbial species, including commensals. Therefore, MR1‐mediated MAIT cell activation must be tightly regulated to prevent inappropriate activation and immunopathology. Using an in vitro model of MR1‐mediated activation of primary human MAIT cells, we investigated the mechanisms by which it is regulated. Uptake of intact bacteria by antigen presenting cells (APCs) into acidified endolysosomal compartments was required for efficient MR1‐mediated MAIT cell activation, while stimulation with soluble ligand was inefficient. Consistent with this, little MR1 was seen at the surface of human monocytic (THP1) and B‐cell lines. Activation with a TLR ligand increased the amount of MR1 at the surface of THP1 but not B‐cell lines, suggesting differential regulation in different cell types. APC activation and NF‐κB signaling were critical for MR1‐mediated MAIT cell activation. In primary cells, however, prolonged TLR signaling led to downregulation of MR1‐mediated MAIT cell activation. Overall, MR1‐mediated MAIT cell activation is a tightly regulated process, dependent on integration of innate signals by APCs. PMID:27105778

  7. US space flight experience. Physical exertion and metabolic demand of extravehicular activity: Past, present, and future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Thomas P.

    1989-01-01

    A review of physical exertion and metabolic demands of extravehicular activity (EVA) on U.S. astronauts is given. Information is given on EVA during Gemini, Apollo and Skylab missions. It is noted that nominal EVA's should not be overstressful from a cardiovascular standpoint; that manual-intensive EVA's such as are planned for the construction phase of the Space Station can and will be demanding from a muscular standpoint, primarily for the upper extremities; that off-nominal unplanned EVA's can be physically demanding both from an endurance and from a muscular standpoint; and that crewmembers should be physically prepared and capable of performing these EVA's at any time during the mission.

  8. Dissecting the Tumor Myeloid Compartment Reveals Rare Activating Antigen Presenting Cells, Critical for T cell Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Broz, Miranda; Binnewies, Mikhail; Boldajipour, Bijan; Nelson, Amanda; Pollock, Joshua; Erle, David; Barczak, Andrea; Rosenblum, Michael; Daud, Adil; Barber, Diane; Amigorena, Sebastian; van’t Veer, Laura J.; Sperling, Anne; Wolf, Denise; Krummel, Matthew F.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY It is well understood that antigen-presenting cells (APC) within tumors typically do not maintain cytotoxic T cell (CTL) function, despite engaging them. Across multiple mouse tumor models and human tumor biopsies, we have delineated the intratumoral dendritic-cell (DC) populations as distinct from macrophage populations. Within these, CD103+ DCs are extremely sparse and yet remarkably capable CTL stimulators. These are uniquely dependent upon IRF8, Zbtb46 and Batf3 transcription factors and generated by GM-CSF and Flt3L cytokines. Regressing tumors have higher proportions of these cells, T-cell dependent immune clearance relies upon them, and abundance of their transcripts in human tumors correlates with clinical outcome. This cell type presents opportunities for prognostic and therapeutic approaches across multiple cancer types. PMID:25446897

  9. Phospholipase D (PLD) is present in Leishmania donovani and its activity increases in response to acute osmotic stress.

    PubMed

    Blum, J J; Lehman, J A; Horn, J M; Gomez-Cambronero, J

    2001-01-01

    We report here that the signaling molecule phospholipase D (PLD) is present in the parasitic protozoan Leishmania donovani. In vitro enzymatic activity is dependent on Ca2+ and Mg2+ ions, its basal activity is stimulated by phosphatidyl-inositol-4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) and its pH optima are pH 8.0 and pH 6.0. PLD activity increases 3-fold about 5 min after an abrupt decrease in osmolality from 317 mOsm (isosmotic) to 155 mOsm and increases 1.5-fold in response to an abrupt increase in osmolality to 617 mOsM. Cells grown for > 24 h under the anisosmotic conditions showed only marginal changes in activity compared to the controls grown under isosmotic conditions, indicating an adaptation to long-term exposure to hypo- or hyper-osmolarity. Immunologically, two isoforms, PLD1 and PLD2, are present. An analysis of in vitro PLD activity in anti-PLD immunocomplexes revealed that either hypotonic (cell swelling) or hypertonic stress (cell shrinking) causes an increase in PLD1 activation but a reduction in PLD2 activity. The interplay between these two isoforms results in a predominance for PLD1 in the observed increase when measuring total PLD activity. Finally, the increase in enzymatic activity in acute hyposmotic shock is accompanied by tyrosyl phosphorylation of the PLD1 isoform, suggesting a role for protein tyrosine kinase in the control of PLD activity in response to osmotic stress.

  10. Nature of Catalytic Active Sites Present on the Surface of Advanced Bulk Tantalum Mixed Oxide Photocatalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Phivilay, Somphonh; Puretzky, Alexander A; Domen, Kazunari Domen; Wachs, Israel

    2013-01-01

    The most active photocatalyst system for water splitting under UV irradiation (270 nm) is the promoted 0.2%NiO/NaTaO3:2%La photocatalyst with optimized photonic efficiency (P.E.) of 56%, but fundamental issues about the nature of the surface catalytic active sites and their involvement in the photocatalytic process still need to be clarified. This is the first study to apply cutting edge surface spectroscopic analyses to determine the surface nature of tantalum mixed oxide photocatalysts. Surface analysis with HR-XPS (1-3nm) and HS-LEIS (0.3nm) spectroscopy indicates that the NiO and La2O3 promoters are concentrated in the surface region of the bulk NaTaO3 phase. The La2O3 is concentrated on the NaTaO3 outermost surface layers while NiO is distributed throughout the NaTaO3 surface region (1-3nm). Raman and UV-vis spectroscopy revealed that the bulk molecular and electronic structures, respectively, of NaTaO3 were not modified by the addition of the La2O3 and NiO promoters, with La2O3 resulting in a slightly more ordered structure. Photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy reveals that the addition of La2O3 and NiO produces a greater number of electron traps resulting in the suppression of the recombination of excited electrons/holes. In contrast to earlier reports, the La2O3 is only a textural promoter (increasing the BET surface area ~7x by stabilizing smaller NaTaO3 particles), but causes a ~3x decrease in the specific photocatalytic TORs ( mol H2/m2/h) rate because surface La2O3 blocks exposed catalytic active NaTaO3 sites. The NiO promoter was found to be a potent electronic promoter that enhances the NaTaO3 surface normalized TORs by a factor of ~10-50 and TOF by a factor of ~10. The level of NiO promotion is the same in the absence and presence of La2O3 demonstrating that there is no promotional synergistic interaction between the NiO and La2O3 promoters. This study demonstrates the important contributions of the photocatalyst surface properties to the fundamental

  11. Marathon runners presented lower serum cholesteryl ester transfer activity than sedentary subjects.

    PubMed

    Serrat-Serrat, J; Ordóñez-Llanos, J; Serra-Grima, R; Gómez-Gerique, J A; Pellicer-Thoma, E; Payés-Romero, A; González-Sastre, F

    1993-06-01

    Acute exercise promotes raised HDL cholesterol concentrations by lipolysis stimulation, but this effect is insufficient to explain the more permanent HDL increases seen during regular exercise. During training periods in a group of marathon runners, we measured lipid transfer protein I (LTP-I)-mediated cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) and its relationship to their HDL concentrations. Runners of both sexes showed significantly lower CETA values than those of sedentary controls. Male runners also had significantly lower serum concentrations of triglyceride, VLDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein B, and significantly higher concentrations of HDL cholesterol and apolipoprotein A-I than male controls. Results indicate that regular practice of aerobic exercise promotes modifications of lipoprotein metabolism related not only to lipolysis, but also to lower CETA. Such modifications are associated with reduced risk of atherosclerosis.

  12. The interpretation of mu suppression as an index of mirror neuron activity: past, present and future

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Mu suppression studies have been widely used to infer the activity of the human mirror neuron system (MNS) in a number of processes, ranging from action understanding, language, empathy and the development of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). Although mu suppression is enjoying a resurgence of interest, it has a long history. This review aimed to revisit mu's past, and examine its recent use to investigate MNS involvement in language, social processes and ASDs. Mu suppression studies have largely failed to produce robust evidence for the role of the MNS in these domains. Several key potential shortcomings with the use and interpretation of mu suppression, documented in the older literature and highlighted by more recent reports, are explored here.

  13. The National Center on Secondary Education and Transition: Its Mission, Structure, and Activities. Transcript of NCSET Conference Call Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, David R.; Jones, Bonnie

    2001-01-01

    This paper presents a transcript of a National Center on Secondary Education and Transition (NCSET) teleconference call held on February 27, 2001. David R. Johnson and Bonnie Jones talked about the mission, structure, and activities of NCSET. The presenters also provided an overview of OSEP (Office of Special Education Programs) perspective about…

  14. Activity-guided identification of acetogenins as novel lipophilic antioxidants present in avocado pulp (Persea americana).

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Sánchez, Dariana; Silva-Platas, Christian; Rojo, Rocío P; García, Noemí; Cisneros-Zevallos, Luis; García-Rivas, Gerardo; Hernández-Brenes, Carmen

    2013-12-30

    Avocado fruit is a rich source of health-related lipophilic phytochemicals such as monounsaturated fatty acids, tocopherols, carotenes, acetogenins and sterols. However, limited information is available on the contribution of specific phytochemicals to the overall antioxidant capacity (AOC) of the fruit. Centrifugal partition chromatography was used as fractionation tool, guided by an in vitro chemical assay of oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC). Subsequent experiments focused on isolation and characterization of the chemical nature of the main contributors to lipophilic AOC of avocado pulp. ORAC values obtained for acetogenins were contrasted with results from an isolated kidney mitochondria membrane lipid peroxidation bioassay. The present study established that lipophilic AOC of the pulp was significantly higher than its hydrophilic AOC. Our results confirmed the presence of acetogenins in the fractions with highest lipophilic AOC, and for the first time linked them as contributors to lipophilic-ORAC values. Further HPLC-PDA/MS-TOF analysis led to structural elucidation of two novel acetogenins, not previously reported as present in avocado pulp, along with five already known related-compounds. Antioxidant properties observed for avocado pulp acetogenins by the ORAC assay suggested that, in the presence of an emulsifying agent, acetogenins could serve as novel lipophilic antioxidants in a food matrix. Results from isolated mitochondria lipid peroxidation bioassay, indicated that L-ORAC values which may have relevance for food matrix applications, should not be interpreted to have a direct relevance in health-related claims, compounds need to be evaluated considering the complexity of biological systems.

  15. Present status of research activities relating global warming problems in Japan (mainly MITI and relating organizations)

    SciTech Connect

    Yokoyama, O.

    1993-12-31

    Japanese government has issued action program so called {open_quotes}Action Program to Arrest Global Warming{close_quotes} for preventing global warming at Oct., 1990. According to the program, CO{sub 2} emission should be stabilized on a per capita basis in the year 2000 and beyond at about same level as in 2000 by introducing several methods such as energy conservation, improvement of energy using efficiency, expanding use of renewable energy and so on. The basic concept, target and methods are summarized. At the same time, MITI published so called {open_quotes}New Earth 21{close_quotes} project which aims remedying the earth environment modified by human activities since industrial innovation began at about 200 years ago in coming 100 years. This plan proposed yearly step of research development of technology for mitigating CO{sub 2} emission. According to the MITI`s plan, 15 institutions belonging to AIST have carrying research for developing technology of reducing emission of CO{sub 2} and other greenhouse gases, with cooperation of other research organizations such as RITE (research Institute of Innovative Technology for Earth) and NEDO (New Energy and Industrial Technology Developing Organization). Time schedule of the research development by The New Earth 21 project is summarized in Table 2. Now, in Japan, many national institutions and universities, research works relating reduction and mitigation of GHG are carried out according to this guideline.

  16. Magnetic recovery of modified activated carbon powder used for removal of endocrine disruptors present in water.

    PubMed

    Borghi, Chiara Caterina; Fabbri, Massimo

    2014-01-01

    This paper was aimed at studying sustainable solutions for the treatment of water polluted by octylphenols and nonylphenols that are xenoextrogen compounds affecting human health and dangerous for the aquatic environment. We studied the removal of 4-octylphenol and 4-n-nonylphenol with concentrations of the order of 5-10 mg/l on a laboratory scale. A mixing time of 10 min with 0.1 g/l of magnetic-activated carbons (MACs) was enough to obtain 95 +/- 5% adsorption of both 4-octylphenol and 4-n-nonylphenol. The adsorption of the surfactants IGEPAL CO-630 and TRITON X-100, which are precursors of branched 4-nonylphenol and the carcinogenic 4-tert-octylphenol, respectively, was also studied using the same technique. For concentrations between 2 and 10mg/l of these alkylphenols ethoxylated, after 10min mixing with 0.5 g/l of MACs, a 95 +/- 5% adsorption was obtained. A 97 +/- 1% removal of MACs was achieved after 10min of continuous-flow magnetic filtration (14.5 l/min). The filter used was made of SUS440C magnetic steel spheres. Srm-Co permanent magnets provided a uniform flux density field of about 500 mT.

  17. Gender difference in electrical brain activity during presentation of various film excerpts with different emotional content.

    PubMed

    Dimpfel, W; Wedekind, W; Keplinger, I

    2003-05-30

    Electrical activity of the human brain has been monitored using socalled charge mode (Laplacian estimates) during the exposure with short video film excerpts of 7 min duration. Eighty subjects (50% male and female) watched 5 different film excerpts (disney, animal, comedy, erotic and sex scenes) separated by 3 min pause. Comparison to a reference period of 7 min without video exposure revealed strong decreases in alpha and beta power starting from the electrode position T6 (right temporal) and spread to other brain areas with stronger attentional stimuli e.g. during the erotic and sex films. Highly statistically significant differences were observed between male and female in temporal areas, who in general developed stronger decreases than males. Females on the other hand produced significant increases in fronto-central delta and theta power which could be interpreted as expression of higher appreciation, whereas the decreases in alpha power in general are understood as signs of higher attention. The data are further proof that recording the computer aided quantitative EEG is a very fruitful and promising approach in psychophysiology.

  18. Evidence that ribonuclease activity present in beetle regurgitant is found to stimulate virus resistance in plants.

    PubMed

    Musser, Richard O; Hum-Musser, Sue M; Slaten-Bickford, Shannon E; Felton, Gary W; Gergerich, Rose C

    2002-08-01

    Phaseolus vulgaris L. cv. 'Pinto' bean is a local lesion host for the plant pathogen Southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) and its vector is the Mexican bean beetle, Epilachna varivestis Mulsant. The objective of this study was to determine if prior feeding by the beetle would affect 'Pinto' bean's resistance to SBMV and determine if ribonuclease (RNase), a major constituent of beetle regurgitant, mediated the plant's response to the virus. 'Pinto' bean plants fed upon by beetles had increased resistance to plant viruses compared to non-wounded or mechanically wounded and buffer-treated plants. Plants that were mechanically wounded and treated with RNase had increased resistance to plant viruses that was equal to plants fed upon by adult beetles. The induction of plant pathogen defenses could be a good adaptation for the plant in the presence of a beetle and pathogen threat. This evidence suggests that RNase activity in the beetle regurgitant could function as an insect-derived elicitor of plant resistance to viruses.

  19. Present-day impact cratering rate and contemporary gully activity on Mars.

    PubMed

    Malin, Michael C; Edgett, Kenneth S; Posiolova, Liliya V; McColley, Shawn M; Dobrea, Eldar Z Noe

    2006-12-08

    The Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera has acquired data that establish the present-day impact cratering rate and document new deposits formed by downslope movement of material in mid-latitude gullies on Mars. Twenty impacts created craters 2 to 150 meters in diameter within an area of 21.5 x 10(6) square kilometers between May 1999 and March 2006. The values predicted by models that scale the lunar cratering rate to Mars are close to the observed rate, implying that surfaces devoid of craters are truly young and that as yet unrecognized processes of denudation must be operating. The new gully deposits, formed since August 1999, are light toned and exhibit attributes expected from emplacement aided by a fluid with the properties of liquid water: relatively long, extended, digitate distal and marginal branches, diversion around obstacles, and low relief. The observations suggest that liquid water flowed on the surface of Mars during the past decade.

  20. Activities of the task group 8 on thin film PV module reliability (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2016-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules and systems are being used increasingly to provide renewable energy to schools, residences, small businesses and utilities. At this time, the home owners and small businesses have considerable difficulty in detecting module and/or system degradation and especially enforcing warranty. It needs to be noted that IEC 61215-1 (test req.), -2 (test proc.) and -1-1 (c-Si) are forecasted to be circulated end of Feb 2016 and only editorial changes would be possible. 61215 series does include thin film technologies and would be replacing 61646. Moreover, IEC 61215-1, section 7.2 power output and electric circuitry does contain significant changes to acceptance criteria regarding rated label values, particularly rated power. Even though it is believed that consensus could be achieved within IEC TC82 WG2, some of the smaller players that do not participate actively in IEC TC82 - may not be surprised and must be informed. The other tech specific parts 61215-1-2 (CdTe), -1-3 (a-Si, µc-Si) and -1-4 (CIS, CIGS) are out for comments. The IEC closing date was January 29, 2016. The additions alternative damp heat (DH) test proposed Solar Frontier is being reviewed. In the past, only 600 V systems were permitted in the grid-connected residential and commercial systems in the US. The US commercial systems can now use higher voltage (1,000-1500V) in order to reduce BOS component costs. It is believed that there would not be any problems. The Task Group 8 is collecting data on higher voltage systems.

  1. Analysis on sports and recreation activity-related eye injuries presenting to the Emergency Department

    PubMed Central

    Moon, Sungbae; Ryoo, Hyun Wook; Ahn, Jae Yun; Park, Jung Bae; Seo, Kang Suk; Shin, Sang Do; Song, Kyoung Jun; Lee, Kang Hyun; Yoo, In Sool; Cho, Jin Seong; Ryu, Hyun Ho; Jeong, Tae Oh; Yeom, Seok Ran; Kim, Young Taek; Hong, Sung Ok

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the incidence and general characteristics of sports-related eye injuries in patients visiting the Emergency Department. METHODS A cross-sectional, multi-center, observational study. Patients with an injured eye who visited the Emergency Department at one of nine hospitals in Korea were enrolled. All data were prospectively collected between March and September 2010 using a questionnaire. Eye injuries that occurred during risky sports were examined by gender and age. Additionally, the rate of open globe injuries that occurred with and without protective eyewear was examined for each activity. Continuous variables were compared using Student's t-test and categorical variables were compared using Chi-square test. RESULTS A total of 446 patients had sports-related eye injuries. Teenagers (10-19 years old) and young adults (20-29 years old) had the most eye injuries. Eye injuries accounted for 0.2% of Emergency Department patients. Baseball was the most common cause of sports-related eye injuries, followed by soccer and hiking. Protective gear was worn by 9.4% of all patients. Patients that were 30-39 years of age had the highest rate of protective gear use, followed by patients that were 40-49 years of age. The proportion of sports-related eye injuries that were open-globe injuries was highest for soccer and hiking. CONCLUSION Although injuries were most common in patients below the age of 10 years, these patients had the lowest rate of protective eyewear use. Injuries in adults over 40 years of age most commonly occurred during hiking, but the rate of protective eyewear use was low. Young athletes should be educated on and provided with protective eyewear and policies protective gear use should be established. For older adults, eye protection should be encouraged, especially during hiking. PMID:27803871

  2. A review of ligament augmentation with the InternalBrace™: the surgical principle is described for the lateral ankle ligament and ACL repair in particular, and a comprehensive review of other surgical applications and techniques is presented.

    PubMed

    Mackay, Gordon M; Blyth, Mark J G; Anthony, Iain; Hopper, Graeme P; Ribbans, William J

    2015-05-01

    This article reviews the surgical decision-making considerations when preparing to undertake an anatomic ligament repair with augmentation using the InternalBrace™. Lateral ankle ligament stabilization of the Broström variety and ACL repair in particular are used to illustrate its application. The InternalBrace™ supports early mobilization of the repaired ligament and allows the natural tissues to progressively strengthen. The principle established by this experience has resulted in its successful application to other distal extremity ligaments including the deltoid, spring, and syndesmosis complex. Knee ligament augmentation with the InternalBrace™ has been successfully applied to all knee ligaments including anterior cruciate ligament (ACL), posterior cruciate ligament (PCL), medial collateral ligament (MCL), lateral collateral ligament (LCL), anterolateral ligament (ALL), and patellofemoral ligament (PFL). The surgical technique and early results will be reviewed including multi-ligament presentations. Upper limb experience with acromioclavicular (AC) joint augmentation and ulnar collateral ligament (UCL) repair of the elbow with the InternalBrace™ will also be discussed. This article points to a change in orthopaedic practice positioning reconstruction as a salvage procedure that has additional surgical morbidity and should be indicated only if the tissues fail to heal adequately after augmentation and repair.

  3. The Human Performance Envelope: Past Research, Present Activities and Future Directions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edwards, Tamsyn

    2017-01-01

    Air traffic controllers (ATCOs) must maintain a consistently high level of human performance in order to maintain flight safety and efficiency. In current control environments, performance-influencing factors such as workload, fatigue and situation awareness can co-occur, and interact, to effect performance. However, multifactor influences and the association with performance are under-researched. This study utilized a high fidelity human in the loop enroute air traffic control simulation to investigate the relationship between workload, situation awareness and ATCO performance. The study aimed to replicate and extend Edwards, Sharples, Wilson and Kirwans (2012) previous study and confirm multifactor interactions with a participant sample of ex-controllers. The study also aimed to extend Edwards et als previous research by comparing multifactor relationships across 4 automation conditions. Results suggest that workload and SA may interact to produce a cumulative impact on controller performance, although the effect of the interaction on performance may be dependent on the context and amount of automation present. Findings have implications for human-automation teaming in air traffic control, and the potential prediction and support of ATCO performance.

  4. Estrogenic activity of polychlorinated biphenyls present in human tissue and the environment.

    PubMed

    DeCastro, B Rey; Korrick, Susan A; Spengler, John D; Soto, Ana M

    2006-04-15

    This study evaluated the estrogenicity of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) present in environmental media and human tissue and assessed exposure pathways for PCB-derived estrogenic potency in air, soil, and dust from New Bedford, MA, an area with a PCB-contaminated Superfund site. Thirty-four PCB congeners were assayed for estrogenic potency using E-SCREEN, an assay based on the estrogen-dependent proliferation of MCF-7 cells in vitro. Childhood exposure to estradiol-equivalents via PCBs in environmental media was estimated byweighting previously reported New Bedford congener-specific concentrations by their relative estrogenic potency and published inhalation and soil ingestion rates. Thirteen congeners were weakly estrogenic in E-SCREEN: PCBs 17, 18, 30, 44, 49, 66, 74, 82, 99, 103, 110, 128, and 179. These PCBs were typically 6 orders of magnitude less potent than 17beta-estradiol, with proliferative potencies ranging from 0.0007% to 0.0040%. Of the environmental media assessed, air (inhalation) had the highest PCB-derived estradiol-equivalent exposure. PCB estrogenic potency information from this study provides an important resource both for preliminary estimation of routes of human exposure to xenoestrogens and for application to human health studies focused on estrogen-responsive health outcomes, such as reproductive development and related malignancies.

  5. CD169+ MACROPHAGES PRESENT LIPID ANTIGENS TO MEDIATE EARLY ACTIVATION OF INVARIANT NKT CELLS IN LYMPH NODES

    PubMed Central

    Barral, Patricia; Polzella, Paolo; Bruckbauer, Andreas; van Rooijen, Nico; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Batista, Facundo D.

    2010-01-01

    Invariant NKT (iNKT) cells are involved in host defence against microbial infections. While it is known that iNKT cells recognize glycolipids presented by CD1d, how and where they encounter antigen in vivo remains unclear. We used multi-photon microscopy to visualize the dynamics and activation of iNKT cells in lymph nodes. Following antigen administration, iNKT cells become confined in a CD1d-dependent manner in close proximity to subcapsular sinus CD169+ macrophages. These macrophages retain, internalize and present lipid antigen, and are required for iNKT cell activation, cytokine production and expansion. Thus, CD169+ macrophages can act as bona fide antigen presenting cells controlling early iNKT cell activation and favouring fast initiation of immune responses. PMID:20228797

  6. CD169(+) macrophages present lipid antigens to mediate early activation of iNKT cells in lymph nodes.

    PubMed

    Barral, Patricia; Polzella, Paolo; Bruckbauer, Andreas; van Rooijen, Nico; Besra, Gurdyal S; Cerundolo, Vincenzo; Batista, Facundo D

    2010-04-01

    Invariant natural killer T cells (iNKT cells) are involved in the host defense against microbial infection. Although it is known that iNKT cells recognize glycolipids presented by CD1d, how and where they encounter antigen in vivo remains unclear. Here we used multiphoton microscopy to visualize the dynamics and activation of iNKT cells in lymph nodes. After antigen administration, iNKT cells became confined in a CD1d-dependent manner in close proximity to subcapsular sinus CD169(+) macrophages. These macrophages retained, internalized and presented lipid antigen and were required for iNKT cell activation, cytokine production and population expansion. Thus, CD169(+) macrophages can act as true antigen-presenting cells controlling early iNKT cell activation and favoring the fast initiation of immune responses.

  7. APT drug R&D: the right active ingredient in the right presentation for the right therapeutic use.

    PubMed

    Cavalla, David

    2009-11-01

    Drug repurposing, in which an established active pharmaceutical ingredient is applied in a new way - for example, for a new indication, and often combined with an alternative method of presentation, such as a novel delivery route - is an evolving strategy for pharmaceutical R&D. This article discusses examples of the success of this strategy, and presents an analysis of sales of US pharmaceutical products that suggests that this low-risk approach to new product development retains substantial commercial value.

  8. Fermat's Principle Revisited.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamat, R. V.

    1991-01-01

    A principle is presented to show that, if the time of passage of light is expressible as a function of discrete variables, one may dispense with the more general method of the calculus of variations. The calculus of variations and the alternative are described. The phenomenon of mirage is discussed. (Author/KR)

  9. Basic Comfort Heating Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dempster, Chalmer T.

    The material in this beginning book for vocational students presents fundamental principles needed to understand the heating aspect of the sheet metal trade and supplies practical experience to the student so that he may become familiar with the process of determining heat loss for average structures. Six areas covered are: (1) Background…

  10. Principles of Cancer Screening.

    PubMed

    Pinsky, Paul F

    2015-10-01

    Cancer screening has long been an important component of the struggle to reduce the burden of morbidity and mortality from cancer. Notwithstanding this history, many aspects of cancer screening remain poorly understood. This article presents a summary of basic principles of cancer screening that are relevant for researchers, clinicians, and public health officials alike.

  11. Principles of Biomedical Ethics

    PubMed Central

    Athar, Shahid

    2012-01-01

    In this presentation, I will discuss the principles of biomedical and Islamic medical ethics and an interfaith perspective on end-of-life issues. I will also discuss three cases to exemplify some of the conflicts in ethical decision-making. PMID:23610498

  12. Engaging Stakeholders From Volunteer-Led Out-of-School Time Programs in the Dissemination of Guiding Principles for Healthy Snacking and Physical Activity

    PubMed Central

    Koomas, Alyssa; Metayer, Nesly; Fullerton, Karen J.; Hubbard, Kristie L.; Anzman-Frasca, Stephanie; Hofer, Teresa; Nelson, Miriam; Newman, Molly; Sacheck, Jennifer; Economos, Christina

    2015-01-01

    Background Little effort has focused on the role of volunteer-led out-of-school time (OST) programs (ie, enrichment and sports programs) as key environments for the promotion of healthy eating and physical activity habits among school-aged children. The Healthy Kids Out of School (HKOS) initiative developed evidence-based, practical guiding principles for healthy snacks, beverages, and physical activity. The goal of this case study was to describe the methods used to engage regional partners to understand how successful implementation and dissemination of these principles could be accomplished. Community Context HKOS partnered with volunteer-led programs from 5 OST organizations in Maine, Massachusetts, and New Hampshire to create a regional “learning laboratory.” Methods We engaged partners in phases. In the first phase, we conducted focus groups with local volunteer program leaders; during the second phase, we held roundtable meetings with regional and state program administrators; and in the final phase, we conducted additional outreach to refine and finalize implementation strategies. Outcomes Implementation strategies were developed based on themes and information that emerged. For enrichment programs, strategies included new patch and pin programs that were consistent with the organizations’ infrastructure and usual practices. For sports programs, the main strategy was integration with online trainings for coaches. Interpretation Through the engagement process, we learned that dissemination of the guiding principles in these large and complex OST organizations was best accomplished by using implementation strategies that were customized, integrated, and aligned with goals and usual practices. The lessons learned can benefit future efforts to prevent obesity in complex environments. PMID:26704443

  13. International Perspectives on Adapted Physical Activity. Selected Papers Presented at the International Symposium on Adapted Physical Activity (5th, Toronto, Canada, October 1-4, 1985).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berridge, Mavis E., Ed.; Ward, Graham R., Ed.

    The 36 papers in this book were presented at the Fifth International Symposium on Adapted Physical Activity. Presentations document some of the research findings and new ideas in physical education and recreation programs designed to improve the quality of life for special populations. The collection represents the breadth of the field, from the…

  14. Direct activation of antigen-presenting cells is required for CD8+ T-cell priming and tumor vaccination

    PubMed Central

    Kratky, Wolfgang; Reis e Sousa, Caetano; Oxenius, Annette; Spörri, Roman

    2011-01-01

    Successful priming of adaptive immune responses is crucially dependent on innate activation signals that convert resting antigen-presenting cells (APCs) into immunogenic ones. APCs expressing the relevant innate pattern recognition receptors can be directly activated by pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) to become competent to prime T-cell responses. Alternatively, it has been suggested that APCs could be activated indirectly by proinflammatory mediators synthesized by PAMP-exposed cells. However, data obtained with CD4+ T cells suggest that inflammatory signals often cannot substitute for direct pattern recognition in APC activation for the priming of T helper responses. To test whether the same is true for CD8+ T cells, we studied cytotoxic T lymphocyte development in vitro and in mixed chimeric mice in which coexisting APCs can either present a preprocessed model antigen or directly recognize a given PAMP, but not both. We show that indirectly activated APCs promote antigen-specific proliferation of naïve CD8+ T cells but fail to support their survival and cytotoxic T lymphocyte differentiation. Furthermore, CD8+ T cells primed by indirectly activated APCs are unable to reject tumors. Thus, inflammation cannot substitute for direct recognition of single PAMPs in CD8+ T-cell priming. These findings have important practical implications for vaccine design, indicating that adjuvants must be judiciously chosen to trigger the relevant pattern recognition receptors in APCs. PMID:21987815

  15. Principles of multisensory behavior.

    PubMed

    Otto, Thomas U; Dassy, Brice; Mamassian, Pascal

    2013-04-24

    The combined use of multisensory signals is often beneficial. Based on neuronal recordings in the superior colliculus of cats, three basic rules were formulated to describe the effectiveness of multisensory signals: the enhancement of neuronal responses to multisensory compared with unisensory signals is largest when signals occur at the same location ("spatial rule"), when signals are presented at the same time ("temporal rule"), and when signals are rather weak ("principle of inverse effectiveness"). These rules are also considered with respect to multisensory benefits as observed with behavioral measures, but do they capture these benefits best? To uncover the principles that rule benefits in multisensory behavior, we here investigated the classical redundant signal effect (RSE; i.e., the speedup of response times in multisensory compared with unisensory conditions) in humans. Based on theoretical considerations using probability summation, we derived two alternative principles to explain the effect. First, the "principle of congruent effectiveness" states that the benefit in multisensory behavior (here the speedup of response times) is largest when behavioral performance in corresponding unisensory conditions is similar. Second, the "variability rule" states that the benefit is largest when performance in corresponding unisensory conditions is unreliable. We then tested these predictions in two experiments, in which we manipulated the relative onset and the physical strength of distinct audiovisual signals. Our results, which are based on a systematic analysis of response time distributions, show that the RSE follows these principles very well, thereby providing compelling evidence in favor of probability summation as the underlying combination rule.

  16. In vitro influence of spices and spice-active principles on digestive enzymes of rat pancreas and small intestine.

    PubMed

    Ramakrishna Rao, R; Platel, Kalpana; Srinivasan, K

    2003-12-01

    In vitro influence of 14 individual spices (curcumin, capsaicin, piperine, garlic, onion, ginger, mint, coriander, cumin, ajowan, fennel, fenugreek, mustard, and asafoetida) on the activities of digestive enzymes of rat pancreas and small intestine was examined by including them in the reaction mixture at two different concentrations. A majority of spices enhanced the activity of pancreatic lipase and amylase when they are directly in contact with the enzyme. It is inferred that this positive influence on the activity of enzymes may have a supplementary role in the overall digestive stimulant action of spices, besides causing an enhancement of the titres of digestive enzymes in pancreatic tissue.

  17. Cooperative activation in ring-opening hydrolysis of epoxides by Co-salen complexes: A first principle study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Keju; Li, Wei-Xue; Feng, Zhaochi; Li, Can

    2009-03-01

    Density functional theory calculations were used to study the cooperative activations of the epoxide ring-opening hydrolysis catalyzed by the Co-salen complexes. We find that the activation energies of the reactions with two Co-salen catalysts are significantly lower than that of single catalyst. The cooperation effect comes not only from the simultaneous activation of both reactants but also from the cooperative charge transfer during the reactions. The transition states analysis indicates that the preferential reaction pathway is a SN 2 reaction, which explains the second order kinetic dependence on the concentration of the catalysts found in the experiments.

  18. Recent advances in biologically active compounds in herbs and spices: a review of the most effective antioxidant and anti-inflammatory active principles.

    PubMed

    Rubió, Laura; Motilva, Maria-José; Romero, Maria-Paz

    2013-01-01

    Spices, like vegetables, fruit, and medicinal herbs, are known to possess a variety of antioxidant effects and other biological activities. Phenolic compounds in these plant materials are closely associated with their antioxidant activity, which is mainly due to their redox properties and their capacity to block the production of reactive oxygen species. More recently, their ability to interfere with signal transduction pathways involving various transcription factors, protein kinases, phosphatases, and other metabolic enzymes has also been demonstrated. Many of the spice-derived compounds which are potent antioxidants are of great interest to biologists and clinicians because they may help protect the human body against oxidative stress and inflammatory processes. It is important to study the bioactive compounds that can modulate target functions related to defence against oxidative stress, and that might be used to achieve health benefits individually. In the present review, an attempt has been made to summarize the most current scientific evidence about the in vitro and in vivo effects of the bioactive compounds derived from herbs and spices, focused on anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, in order to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals.

  19. Vedic principles of therapy.

    PubMed

    Boyer, R W

    2012-01-01

    This paper introduces Vedic principles of therapy as a holistic integration of healing and human development. The most integrative aspect is a "consciousness-based" approach in which the bottom line of the mind is consciousness itself, accessed by transcending mental activity to its simplest ground state. This directly contrasts with "unconscious-based" approaches that hold the basis of conscious mind is the unconscious, such as analytic, humanistic, and cognitive-behavioral approaches. Although not presented as a specific therapeutic approach, interventions associated with this Vedic approach have extensive support in the applied research literature. A brief review of experimental research toward a general model of mind-and cutting-edge developments in quantum physics toward nonlocal mind-shows a convergence on the ancient Vedic model of mind. Comparisons with contemporary therapies further show that the simplicity, subtlety, and holistic nature of the Vedic approach represent a significant advance over approaches which have overlooked the fundamental ground state of the mind.

  20. Processing and presentation of an antigen of Mycobacterium avium require access to an acidified compartment with active proteases.

    PubMed Central

    Holsti, M A; Allen, P M

    1996-01-01

    We have generated a murine T-cell hybridoma, 1C9, which recognizes an antigen expressed by a virulent clinical isolate of Mycobacterium avium. Both peritoneal exudate macrophages and bone marrow-derived macrophages infected in vitro with M. avium process and present the antigen to the T-cell hybridoma. Gel filtration chromatography of a sonicate of M. avium followed by T-cell Western blotting (immunoblotting) demonstrated that the antigen recognized by hybridoma 1C9 is approximately 50 kDa. In addition, treatment of macrophages with the lysosomotropic agent chloroquine or with inhibitors of acid proteases inhibits processing and presentation of the antigen. These results indicate that the antigen must encounter an acidic compartment with active proteases for processing and presentation to occur. Our results are discussed in the context of our current understanding of how mycobacterial antigens are processed and presented by infected macrophages to T cells. PMID:8926074

  1. Extraction and chromatography-mass spectrometric analysis of the active principles from selected Chinese herbs and other medicinal plants.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaosuo; Kapoor, Vimal; Smythe, George A

    2003-01-01

    Medicinal herbs have a long history of use in the practice of traditional Chinese medicine and a substantial body of evidence has, over recent decades, demonstrated a range of important pharmacological properties. Western biomedical researchers are examining not only the efficacy of the traditional herbal products but, through the use of a range of bioassays and analytical techniques, are developing improved methods to isolate and characterize active components. This review briefly describes the different extraction methodologies used in the preparation of herbal extracts and reviews the utility of chromatography-mass spectrometry for the analysis of their active components. In particular, applications of gas or liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry for the isolation and characterization of active components of ginseng are critically assessed. The analysis of toxic substances from herb extracts with mass spectrometric techniques is also discussed along with the potential for mass spectrometric methods to investigate the proteomics of herbal extracts.

  2. Elements and Principles of Design Posters. Teacher's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    1996

    This book accompanies a poster series and allows the teacher to pre-plan a lesson or activity for students with the objectives shown for each element or principle of design to be presented. Along with a black-and-white reproduction of each poster, major concepts are discussed. Suggested student activities relating to a particular element or…

  3. Evidence that PrfA, the pleiotropic activator of virulence genes in Listeria monocytogenes, can be present but inactive.

    PubMed Central

    Renzoni, A; Klarsfeld, A; Dramsi, S; Cossart, P

    1997-01-01

    All virulence genes of Listeria monocytogenes identified to date are positively regulated by PrfA, a transcriptional activator belonging to the Crp-Fnr family. Low temperature and cellobiose are two environmental signals known to repress expression of virulence genes in L. monocytogenes. In the present work, we analyzed the effect of temperature and cellobiose on the expression of the PrfA protein. At low temperature, PrfA was undetected, although prfA monocistronic transcripts are present. In contrast, PrfA was fully expressed in the presence of cellobiose. These results strongly suggest that virulence gene activation depends on both the presence of PrfA and additional regulatory pathways that either modify PrfA or act synergistically with PrfA. PMID:9119495

  4. Stat3 signaling is present and active during development of the central nervous system and eye of vertebrates.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ye; Bian, Wei; Xie, Zhiqin; Cao, Xinmin; Le Roux, Isabelle; Guillemot, Francois; Jing, Naihe

    2004-10-01

    Stat3, a member of the signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) family, plays a central role in mediating cell growth, differentiation, and survival signals. In this report, we show that Stat3 immunoreactivity was localized to specific regions in the developing mouse brain, neural tube, and eye from embryonic day 10.5 to postnatal day 0. The active form of Stat3 protein, which is phosphorylated on tyrosine 705 (pYStat3), was also found in the developing neural tube with more restricted distribution. An in ovo chick embryo electroporation assay showed that the endogenous chick Stat3 could drive consensus sis-inducible element-directed reporter gene expression. These results demonstrate that the active Stat3 protein is present and might play a role during the development of the central nervous system and eye.

  5. Tuberculosis of the manubriosternal joint and concurrent asymptomatic active pulmonary tuberculosis in a patient presenting with a chest wall mass.

    PubMed

    Gorospe, Luis; Ayala-Carbonero, Ana María; Rodríguez-Díaz, Ricardo; García Latorre, Raquel; Muñoz-Molina, Gemma María; Cabañero-Sánchez, Alberto

    2015-01-01

    A 62-year-old woman presented to our hospital with an anterior chest wall swelling. Computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging showed findings consistent with an infectious arthritis of the manubriosternal joint, and CT images also demonstrated multiple centrilobular nodules in both lungs, suggesting an infectious bronchiolitis. A CT-guided fine needle aspiration of a presternal mass yielded growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Bronchoalveolar lavage confirmed an active pulmonary tuberculosis. Septic arthritis of the manubriosternal joint is exceedingly rare.

  6. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of Flavone di-C-Glycosides as Active Principles of Camellia Mistletoe, Korthalsella japonica

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Kyoung; Yun, Kwang Jun; Lim, Da Hae; Kim, Jinju; Jang, Young Pyo

    2016-01-01

    The chemical components and biological activity of Camellia mistletoe, Korthalsella japonica (Loranthaceae) are relatively unknown compared to other mistletoe species. Therefore, we investigated the phytochemical properties and biological activity of this parasitic plant to provide essential preliminary scientific evidence to support and encourage its further pharmaceutical research and development. The major plant components were chromatographically isolated using high-performance liquid chromatography and their structures were elucidated using tandem mass spectrometry and nuclear magnetic resonance anlysis. Furthermore, the anti-inflammatory activity of the 70% ethanol extract of K. japonica (KJ) and its isolated components was evaluated using a nitric oxide (NO) assay and western blot analysis for inducible NO synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2. Three flavone di-C-glycosides, lucenin-2, vicenin-2, and stellarin-2 were identified as major components of KJ, for the first time. KJ significantly inhibited NO production and reduced iNOS and COX-2 expression in lipopolysaccharide-stimulated RAW 264.7 cells at 100 μg/mL while similar activity were observed with isolated flavone C-glycosides. In conclusion, KJ has a simple secondary metabolite profiles including flavone di-C-glycosides as major components and has a strong potential for further research and development as a source of therapeutic anti-inflammatory agents. PMID:27302962

  7. Hands-on Activities versus Worksheets in Reinforcing Physical Science Principles: Effects on Student Achievement and Attitude.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Donald M.; Wardlow, George W.; Franklin, Timothy D.

    1997-01-01

    A group of 132 agricultural science students were divided into an experimental group who completed hands-on activities on Ohm's Law and incline plane and a control group who completed worksheets. There were no significant differences in immediate or follow-up measures of achievement. Hands-on students had significantly more positive attitudes. (SK)

  8. Loss of proliferation and antigen presentation activity following internalization of polydispersed carbon nanotubes by primary lung epithelial cells.

    PubMed

    Kumari, Mandavi; Sachar, Sumedha; Saxena, Rajiv K

    2012-01-01

    Interactions between poly-dispersed acid functionalized single walled carbon nanotubes (AF-SWCNTs) and primary lung epithelial (PLE) cells were studied. Peritoneal macrophages (PMs, known phagocytic cells) were used as positive controls in this study. Recovery of live cells from cultures of PLE cells and PMs was significantly reduced in the presence of AF-SWCNTs, in a time and dose dependent manner. Both PLE cells as well as PMs could take up fluorescence tagged AF-SWCNTs in a time dependent manner and this uptake was significantly blocked by cytochalasin D, an agent that blocks the activity of acto-myosin fibers and therefore the phagocytic activity of cells. Confocal microscopic studies confirmed that AF-SWCNTs were internalized by both PLE cells and PMs. Intra-trachially instilled AF-SWCNTs could also be taken up by lung epithelial cells as well as alveolar macrophages. Freshly isolated PLE cells had significant cell division activity and cell cycling studies indicated that treatment with AF-SWCNTs resulted in a marked reduction in S-phase of the cell cycle. In a previously standardized system to study BCG antigen presentation by PLE cells and PMs to sensitized T helper cells, AF-SWCNTs could significantly lower the antigen presentation ability of both cell types. These results show that mouse primary lung epithelial cells can efficiently internalize AF-SWCNTs and the uptake of nanotubes interfered with biological functions of PLE cells including their ability to present BCG antigens to sensitized T helper cells.

  9. Different Citrus rootstocks present high dissimilarities in their antioxidant activity and vitamins content according to the ripening stage.

    PubMed

    Cardeñosa, Vanessa; Barros, Lillian; Barreira, João C M; Arenas, Francisco; Moreno-Rojas, José M; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2015-02-01

    "Lane Late" sweet orange grafted on six different citrus rootstocks and grown in the Guadalquivir valley (Seville, Spain) were picked at different ripening stages in two consecutive seasons to characterize their antioxidant activity (free radicals scavenging activity, reducing power and lipid peroxidation inhibition) and quantify their main antioxidant compounds (vitamin E and vitamin C). Linear discriminant analysis and 2-way ANOVA were applied to compare the effects induced by citrus rootstock and ripening stage. The results showed that differences in antioxidant activity and related compounds are mainly dependent on the citrus rootstock, despite ripening stage had also some particular effects. Changes observed in 2012 showed less marked differences among the citrus rootstock. Nevertheless, Cleopatra rootstock showed the highest antioxidant activity in both years, indicating that an increase in its cultivation might be a good solution to sweet orange farmers. Concerning the ripening stage, samples collected in January presented higher vitamin contents, while those collected in April showed higher antioxidant activity. This result allows deciding the harvesting period according to the desired effect.

  10. A Crystallin Fold in the Interleukin-4-inducing Principle of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs (IPSE/α-1) Mediates IgE Binding for Antigen-independent Basophil Activation*

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, N. Helge; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Blindow, Silke; Barths, Daniela; Mewes, Astrid; Weimar, Thomas; Köhli, Thies; Bade, Steffen; Madl, Tobias; Frey, Andreas; Haas, Helmut; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Sattler, Michael; Schramm, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    The IL-4-inducing principle from Schistosoma mansoni eggs (IPSE/α-1), the major secretory product of eggs from the parasitic worm S. mansoni, efficiently triggers basophils to release the immunomodulatory key cytokine interleukin-4. Activation by IPSE/α-1 requires the presence of IgE on the basophils, but the detailed molecular mechanism underlying activation is unknown. NMR and crystallographic analysis of IPSEΔNLS, a monomeric IPSE/α-1 mutant, revealed that IPSE/α-1 is a new member of the βγ-crystallin superfamily. We demonstrate that this molecule is a general immunoglobulin-binding factor with highest affinity for IgE. NMR binding studies of IPSEΔNLS with the 180-kDa molecule IgE identified a large positively charged binding surface that includes a flexible loop, which is unique to the IPSE/α-1 crystallin fold. Mutational analysis of amino acids in the binding interface showed that residues contributing to IgE binding are important for IgE-dependent activation of basophils. As IPSE/α-1 is unable to cross-link IgE, we propose that this molecule, by taking advantage of its unique IgE-binding crystallin fold, activates basophils by a novel, cross-linking-independent mechanism. PMID:26163514

  11. A Crystallin Fold in the Interleukin-4-inducing Principle of Schistosoma mansoni Eggs (IPSE/α-1) Mediates IgE Binding for Antigen-independent Basophil Activation.

    PubMed

    Meyer, N Helge; Mayerhofer, Hubert; Tripsianes, Konstantinos; Blindow, Silke; Barths, Daniela; Mewes, Astrid; Weimar, Thomas; Köhli, Thies; Bade, Steffen; Madl, Tobias; Frey, Andreas; Haas, Helmut; Mueller-Dieckmann, Jochen; Sattler, Michael; Schramm, Gabriele

    2015-09-04

    The IL-4-inducing principle from Schistosoma mansoni eggs (IPSE/α-1), the major secretory product of eggs from the parasitic worm S. mansoni, efficiently triggers basophils to release the immunomodulatory key cytokine interleukin-4. Activation by IPSE/α-1 requires the presence of IgE on the basophils, but the detailed molecular mechanism underlying activation is unknown. NMR and crystallographic analysis of IPSEΔNLS, a monomeric IPSE/α-1 mutant, revealed that IPSE/α-1 is a new member of the βγ-crystallin superfamily. We demonstrate that this molecule is a general immunoglobulin-binding factor with highest affinity for IgE. NMR binding studies of IPSEΔNLS with the 180-kDa molecule IgE identified a large positively charged binding surface that includes a flexible loop, which is unique to the IPSE/α-1 crystallin fold. Mutational analysis of amino acids in the binding interface showed that residues contributing to IgE binding are important for IgE-dependent activation of basophils. As IPSE/α-1 is unable to cross-link IgE, we propose that this molecule, by taking advantage of its unique IgE-binding crystallin fold, activates basophils by a novel, cross-linking-independent mechanism.

  12. Impact of the Yakutat indentor corner on present-day tectonics and fault activity in SE Alaska - SW Yukon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzotti, S.; Marechal, A.; Ritz, J. F.; Ferry, M. A.

    2015-12-01

    We present an active tectonic model of the SE Alaska - SW Yukon region based principally on the integration of recent GPS velocity data and new fault-slip rates derived from geomorphology. In this region, the Yakutat collision results in complex tectonics with patterns of strain localization and strain partitioning that strongly vary across the various mountain ranges and active faults. We propose that deformation and fault activity in the St. Elias and Chugach Mountains are primarily controlled by the eastern syntaxis of the Yakutat collision, which produces a semi-radial tectonic pattern: Velocities, principal horizontal shortening rates, and maximum horizontal stress orientations rotate by 60 - 80 ° around the syntaxis, from roughly parallel to the relative Pacific - North America motion at the front of the collision to roughly orthogonal southeast of the syntaxis. The interaction between this strain pattern and major inherited tectonic structures inland of the collision zone (i.e., Denali and Duke River Faults) results in various reactivation modes of these structures. Specifically, the Denali Fault shows a very pronounced lateral variations of activity from ~12 mm/a of dextral slip rate in its central section to ~1 mm/a of mostly shortening slip rate along its southern section. This marked change of activity is associated with a possible relay system where the Duke River and Totschunda Faults accommodate a major part (8 - 12 mm/a) of the inland strain transfer directly in front of the syntaxis. This new tectonic model retains some questions, in particular regarding the mechanisms of deformation and strain transfer (1) from the syntaxis to the Duke River - Totschunda system and (2) at the junction between Totschunda and Denali Faults. Numerical models of present-day deformation may help address these issues and provide information about relative strength of the various crustal and inherited fault elements of this system.

  13. Understanding the light-emitting mechanism of an X-shape organic thermally activated delayed fluorescence molecule: First-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Jianzhong; Cai, Lei; Lin, Lili; Wang, Chuankui

    2016-11-01

    The light-emitting mechanism of an X-shape organic thermally activated delayed fluorescent molecule is investigated based on first-principles calculations. It is found that there are two stable configurations for the ACRSA molecule, and that the molecule with conformer A is nonluminous. Further, the excited states dynamics of conformer B is studied. The normal modes analysis of the reorganization energy indicates that the non-radiation process of the first singlet excited state (S1) mainly comes from the out-of-plane vibration with low frequencies. Besides, calculations of energy levels of excited states demonstrate that the up-conversion happens between the S1 and T1 states.

  14. Shh pathway activation is present and required within the vertebrate limb bud apical ectodermal ridge for normal autopod patterning.

    PubMed

    Bouldin, Cortney M; Gritli-Linde, Amel; Ahn, Sohyun; Harfe, Brian D

    2010-03-23

    Expression of Sonic Hedgehog (Shh) in the posterior mesenchyme of the developing limb bud regulates patterning and growth of the developing limb by activation of the Hedgehog (Hh) signaling pathway. Through the analysis of Shh and Hh signaling target genes, it has been shown that activation in the limb bud mesoderm is required for normal limb development to occur. In contrast, it has been stated that Hh signaling in the limb bud ectoderm cannot occur because components of the Hh signaling pathway and Hh target genes have not been found in this tissue. However, recent array-based data identified both the components necessary to activate the Hh signaling pathway and targets of this pathway in the limb bud ectoderm. Using immunohistochemistry and various methods of detection for targets of Hh signaling, we found that SHH protein and targets of Hh signaling are present in the limb bud ectoderm including the apex of the bud. To directly test whether ectodermal Hh signaling was required for normal limb patterning, we removed Smo, an essential component of the Hh signaling pathway, from the apical ectodermal ridge (AER). Loss of functional Hh signaling in the AER resulted in disruption of the normal digit pattern and formation of additional postaxial cartilaginous condensations. These data indicate that contrary to previous accounts, the Hh signaling pathway is present and required in the developing limb AER for normal autopod development.

  15. The Novel Toll-Like Receptor 2 Agonist SUP3 Enhances Antigen Presentation and T Cell Activation by Dendritic Cells

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Xueheng; Wu, Ning; Shang, Yingli; Liu, Xin; Wu, Tao; Zhou, Yifan; Liu, Xin; Huang, Jiaoyan; Liao, Xuebin; Wu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are highly specialized antigen-presenting cells that play crucial roles in innate and adaptive immunity. Previous studies suggested that Toll-like receptor (TLR) agonists could be used as potential adjuvants, as activation of TLRs can boost DC-induced immune responses. TLR2 agonists have been shown to enhance DC-mediated immune responses. However, classical TLR2 agonists such as Pam3CSK4 are not stable enough in vivo, which limits their clinical applications. In this study, a novel structurally stable TLR2 agonist named SUP3 was designed. Functional analysis showed that SUP3 induced much stronger antitumor response than Pam3CSK4 by promoting cytotoxic T lymphocytes activation in vivo. This effect was achieved through the following mechanisms: SUP3 strongly enhanced the ability of antigen cross-presentation by DCs and subsequent T cell activation. SUP3 upregulated the expression of costimulatory molecules on DCs and increased antigen deposition in draining lymph nodes. More interestingly, SUP3 induced less amount of pro-inflammatory cytokine production in vivo compared to other TLR agonists such as lipopolysaccharide. Taken together, SUP3 could serve as a novel promising immune adjuvant in vaccine development and immune modulations. PMID:28270814

  16. Deletion of Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome protein triggers Rac2 activity and increased cross-presentation by dendritic cells

    PubMed Central

    Baptista, Marisa A. P.; Keszei, Marton; Oliveira, Mariana; Sunahara, Karen K. S.; Andersson, John; Dahlberg, Carin I. M.; Worth, Austen J.; Liedén, Agne; Kuo, I-Chun; Wallin, Robert P. A.; Snapper, Scott B.; Eidsmo, Liv; Scheynius, Annika; Karlsson, Mikael C. I.; Bouma, Gerben; Burns, Siobhan O.; Forsell, Mattias N. E.; Thrasher, Adrian J.; Nylén, Susanne; Westerberg, Lisa S.

    2016-01-01

    Wiskott–Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is caused by loss-of-function mutations in the WASp gene. Decreased cellular responses in WASp-deficient cells have been interpreted to mean that WASp directly regulates these responses in WASp-sufficient cells. Here, we identify an exception to this concept and show that WASp-deficient dendritic cells have increased activation of Rac2 that support cross-presentation to CD8+ T cells. Using two different skin pathology models, WASp-deficient mice show an accumulation of dendritic cells in the skin and increased expansion of IFNγ-producing CD8+ T cells in the draining lymph node and spleen. Specific deletion of WASp in dendritic cells leads to marked expansion of CD8+ T cells at the expense of CD4+ T cells. WASp-deficient dendritic cells induce increased cross-presentation to CD8+ T cells by activating Rac2 that maintains a near neutral pH of phagosomes. Our data reveals an intricate balance between activation of WASp and Rac2 signalling pathways in dendritic cells. PMID:27425374

  17. Principles of sound ecotoxicology.

    PubMed

    Harris, Catherine A; Scott, Alexander P; Johnson, Andrew C; Panter, Grace H; Sheahan, Dave; Roberts, Mike; Sumpter, John P

    2014-03-18

    We have become progressively more concerned about the quality of some published ecotoxicology research. Others have also expressed concern. It is not uncommon for basic, but extremely important, factors to apparently be ignored. For example, exposure concentrations in laboratory experiments are sometimes not measured, and hence there is no evidence that the test organisms were actually exposed to the test substance, let alone at the stated concentrations. To try to improve the quality of ecotoxicology research, we suggest 12 basic principles that should be considered, not at the point of publication of the results, but during the experimental design. These principles range from carefully considering essential aspects of experimental design through to accurately defining the exposure, as well as unbiased analysis and reporting of the results. Although not all principles will apply to all studies, we offer these principles in the hope that they will improve the quality of the science that is available to regulators. Science is an evidence-based discipline and it is important that we and the regulators can trust the evidence presented to us. Significant resources often have to be devoted to refuting the results of poor research when those resources could be utilized more effectively.

  18. Software for Fermat's Principle and Lenses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mihas, Pavlos

    2012-01-01

    Fermat's principle is considered as a unifying concept. It is usually presented erroneously as a "least time principle". In this paper we present some software that shows cases of maxima and minima and the application of Fermat's principle to the problem of focusing in lenses. (Contains 12 figures.)

  19. Ulcerative Colitis Activity Presenting as Fever of Unknown Origin, in a Patient with Longstanding Disease under Continuous Treatment with Mesalazine

    PubMed Central

    Sfendouraki, Elissavet; Karianos, Theodoros; Saranti, Sofia; Tsitsimelis, Dimitrios; Vrettos, Ioannis; Kalliakmanis, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Background. The presence of ulcerative colitis (UC) with no bowel symptoms, as fever of unknown origin (FUO), is uncommon. Objective. To describe the case of an 80-year-old woman who presented with fever, with a history of UC under treatment with mesalazine. Case Presentation. She was admitted due to fever lasting for 12 days with no associated symptoms. Seven years earlier, she was diagnosed with UC. After an extended workup for FUO that failed to reach the diagnosis, she underwent a gallium-67 scintigraphy. This revealed a persistent diffuse concentration of gallium-67 in the ascending colon at 24-hour imaging that remained stable at 48- and 72-hour imaging without any topographic change after the use of laxatives. Considering the results and in the absence of another diagnosis, the patient was treated with 30 mg prednisone daily and mesalazine, as treatment of active UC. Subsequently, the patient's condition improved markedly and the fever retreated. One month later, she was reevaluated with a gallium-67 scintigraphy with total absence of gallium-67 concentration in the ascending colon. Conclusion. UC activity must be included in the differential diagnosis of FUO in patients with longstanding disease, since fever may present alone, with no other manifestations. PMID:27504121

  20. Self-presentation and physical activity in breast cancer survivors: the moderating effect of social cognitive constructs.

    PubMed

    Brunet, Jennifer; Sabiston, Catherine M

    2011-12-01

    This study examined (1) the relationships between self-presentation processes (i.e., impression motivation and impression construction) and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) among breast cancer survivors, and (2) whether social cognitive constructs (i.e., self-presentational efficacy expectancy [SPEE]; self-presentational outcome expectancy [SPOE]; self-presentational outcome value [SPOV]) moderate these relationships. Breast cancer survivors (N = 169; Mage = 55.06, SD = 10.67 years) completed self-report measures. Hierarchical regression analysis, controlling for age and body mass index, indicated that impression motivation was a significant correlate of MVPA (β = .25). Furthermore, SPEE (β = .21) and SPOV (β = .27) were moderators of this relationship. The final models accounted for 12-24% of the variance in MVPA. The findings of this study suggest that self-presentation processes (i.e., impression motivation) may indeed relate to breast cancer survivors' MVPA. In addition, social cognitive constructs (i.e., SPEE, SPOV) moderated the relationship between impression motivation and MVPA. It may be effective to target impression motivation, SPEE, and SPOV in interventions aimed at increasing MVPA among breast cancer survivors.

  1. A possible highly active supported Ni dimer catalyst for O2 dissociation: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Shan; Zhang, Yanxing; Zhang, Xilin; Mao, Jianjun; Yang, Zongxian

    2017-04-01

    The adsorption and dissociation of O2 on the supported small nickel clusters with one-, two-, three-Ni atoms on yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) (111) surfaces, as well as those on the bare YSZ(111) and Ni(111) surfaces are comparatively studied using ab initio density functional theory calculations. It is found that the dissociation of O2 on the YSZ(111) surface is largely enhanced by the supported Ni dimer, which is predicted to be the smallest Ni cluster needed for efficient O2 dissociation. The results would provide an important reference to improve the activity and efficiency of the Ni/YSZ(111) nanocomposite catalysts in cost-effective materials.

  2. First-principles investigation of Cu-doped ZnS with enhanced photocatalytic hydrogen production activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Ming; Zhou, Peng; Jiang, Chuanjia; Cheng, Bei; Yu, Jiaguo

    2017-01-01

    The band structure and electronic properties of Cu-doped wurtzite ZnS were investigated by density functional theory calculations. According to the formation energies, the substitutional Cu and S vacancy defects are stable among the examined doping species. Particularly, the hybridization of substitutional Cu 3d and S 3p orbitals narrows the band gap of substitutional Cu-doped ZnS (CuZn-ZnS), while the high effective mass ratio of photogenerated holes and electrons (mh∗/me∗) in the CuZn-ZnS is beneficial for the separation and migration of the photogenerated charge carriers. Lab-synthesized CuZn-ZnS sample exhibited enhanced visible-light absorption and photocatalytic hydrogen production activity compared to pure ZnS.

  3. In vitro pharmacological activity of the tetrahydroisoquinoline salsolinol present in products from Theobroma cacao L. like cocoa and chocolate.

    PubMed

    Melzig, M F; Putscher, I; Henklein, P; Haber, H

    2000-11-01

    Cocoa and chocolate contain the tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid salsolinol up to a concentration of 25 microg/g. Salsolinol is a dopaminergic active compound which binds to the D(2) receptor family, especially to the D(3) receptor with a K(i) of 0.48+/-0.021 micromol/l. It inhibits the formation of cyclic AMP and the release of beta-endorphin and ACTH in a pituitary cell system. Taking the detected concentration and the pharmacological properties into account, salsolinol seems to be one of the main psychoactive compounds present in cocoa and chocolate and might be included in chocolate addiction.

  4. Direct evidence for interaction between human erythroid progenitor cells and a hemoglobin switching activity present in fetal sheep serum.

    PubMed Central

    Stamatoyannopoulos, G; Nakamoto, B; Kurachi, S; Papayannopoulou, T

    1983-01-01

    An activity that induces Hb F to Hb A switching in human cells is present in fetal sheep serum. To test directly the role of cell-to-environment interactions in hemoglobin switching and to define the level of erythroid cell differentiation at which this activity operates, colony transfer experiments were done. Clones grown in the presence of switching activity-containing medium (fetal sheep serum) or control medium (fetal calf serum) were transferred, at the 16- to 30-cell stage, to either fetal sheep serum or fetal calf serum plates and Hb F synthesis was determined in the fully mature erythroid bursts. Fetal calf serum-to-fetal calf serum transfers produced colonies with the high Hb F levels characteristic of undisturbed fetal calf serum-grown clones. Fetal sheep serum-to-fetal calf serum transfers resulted in significant decrease in Hb F synthesis, revealing an interaction between hemoglobin switching activity and cells at an early stage of progenitor cell development. The reduction of Hb F synthesis in fetal calf serum-to-fetal sheep serum transfers indicated that hemoglobin switching activity interacts with cells at later stages of progenitor cell development. Maximal decrease in Hb F synthesis was observed in fetal sheep serum-to-fetal sheep serum transfers, indicating that optimal effects on Hb switching are obtained when the environment that induces Hb switching is present throughout the development of progenitor cells. By splitting single early clones into two parts and transferring them to either a fetal sheep serum or a fetal calf serum environment, these interactions were further demonstrated in the progeny of a single erythroid burst-forming unit. Since all clone transfers were done on cell-free plates, the results of fetal calf serum-to-fetal sheep serum and of fetal sheep serum-to-fetal sheep serum transfers indicated that the switching activity does not require helper cells for its action. These studies show directly that (i) Hb F synthesis is

  5. Equivalence principles and electromagnetism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ni, W.-T.

    1977-01-01

    The implications of the weak equivalence principles are investigated in detail for electromagnetic systems in a general framework. In particular, it is shown that the universality of free-fall trajectories (Galileo weak equivalence principle) does not imply the validity of the Einstein equivalence principle. However, the Galileo principle plus the universality of free-fall rotation states does imply the Einstein principle.

  6. A Technique of Teaching the Principle of Equivalence at Ground Level

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubrica, Joel V.

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents one way of demonstrating the Principle of Equivalence in the classroom. Teaching the Principle of Equivalence involves someone experiencing acceleration through empty space, juxtaposed with the daily encounter with gravity. This classroom activity is demonstrated with a water-filled bottle containing glass marbles and…

  7. First-principles study on codoping effect to enhance photocatalytic activity of anatase TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bai, Yujie; Zhang, Qinfang; Zheng, Fubao; Yang, Yun; Meng, Qiangqiang; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Baolin

    2017-03-01

    Codopant is an effective approach to modify the bandgap and band edge positions of transition metal oxide. Here, the electronic structures as well as the optical properties of pristine, mono-doped (N/P/Sb) and codoped (Sb, N/P) anatase TiO2 have been systematically investigated based on density functional theory calculations. It is found that mono-doped TiO2 exhibits either unoccupied or partially occupied intermediate state within the energy gap, which promotes the recombination of electron-hole pairs. However, the presence of (Sb, N/P) codopant not only effectively reduces the width of bandgap by introducing delocalized occupied intermediate states, but also adjusts the band edge alignment to enhance the hydrogen evolution activity of TiO2. Moreover, the optical absorption spectrum for (Sb, N/P) codoped TiO2, which is favored under oxygen-rich condition, demonstrates the improvement of its visible light absorption. These findings will promote the potential application of (Sb, N/P) codoped TiO2 photocatalysis for water splitting under visible light irradiation.

  8. Transtheoretical Principles and Processes for Adopting Physical Activity: A Longitudinal 24-Month Comparison of Maintainers, Relapsers, and Nonchangers.

    PubMed

    Lipschitz, Jessica M; Yusufov, Miryam; Paiva, Andrea; Redding, Colleen A; Rossi, Joseph S; Johnson, Sara; Blissmer, Bryan; Gokbayrak, N Simay; Velicer, Wayne F; Prochaska, James O

    2015-12-01

    This study examined longitudinal differences in use of transtheoretical model (TTM) behavior change constructs in maintainers (who reached and maintained exercise guidelines), relapsers (who reached guidelines, then regressed), and nonchangers (who did not reach guidelines). Data from two population-based TTM-tailored randomized trial intervention groups targeting exercise behavior (N = 1050) were pooled, and analyses assessed differences in TTM constructs between the three groups at baseline, 12 months, and 24 months. Findings indicated that relapsers tended to use TTM variables similarly to maintainers with the exception of self-efficacy, consciousness raising, and most behavioral processes of change, at 24 months. Nonchangers, however, used all TTM variables less than maintainers at nearly every time point. Findings suggest that relapsers remain more active than nonchangers in terms of use of change processes. Poor response to interventions (nonchangers) may be predicted by low baseline engagement in change processes. Although relapsers reverted to physical inactivity, their overall greater use of TTM constructs suggests that their efforts to change remain better than those of the stable nonchanger group. Future research can focus on treatment engagement strategies to help the stable nonchangers initiate change and to help relapsers to maintain treatment gains.

  9. Activation of CO and CO2 on homonuclear boron bonds of fullerene-like BN cages: first principles study

    PubMed Central

    Sinthika, S.; Kumar, E. Mathan; Surya, V. J.; Kawazoe, Y.; Park, Noejung; Iyakutti, K.; Thapa, Ranjit

    2015-01-01

    Using density functional theory we investigate the electronic and atomic structure of fullerene-like boron nitride cage structures. The pentagonal ring leads to the formation of homonuclear bonds. The homonuclear bonds are also found in other BN structures having pentagon line defect. The calculated thermodynamics and vibrational spectra indicated that, among various stable configurations of BN-60 cages, the higher number of homonuclear N-N bonds and lower B:N ratio can result in the more stable structure. The homonuclear bonds bestow the system with salient catalytic properties that can be tuned by modifying the B atom bonding environment. We show that homonuclear B-B (B2) bonds can anchor both oxygen and CO molecules making the cage to be potential candidates as catalyst for CO oxidation via Langmuir–Hinshelwood (LH) mechanism. Moreover, the B-B-B (B3) bonds are reactive enough to capture, activate and hydrogenate CO2 molecules to formic acid. The observed trend in reactivity, viz B3 > B2 > B1 is explained in terms of the position of the boron defect state relative to the Fermi level. PMID:26626147

  10. The doping effect on the catalytic activity of graphene for oxygen evolution reaction in a lithium-air battery: a first-principles study.

    PubMed

    Ren, Xiaodong; Wang, Beizhou; Zhu, Jinzhen; Liu, Jianjun; Zhang, Wenqing; Wen, Zhaoyin

    2015-06-14

    A lithium-air battery as an energy storage technology can be used in electric vehicles due to its large energy density. However, its poor rate capability, low power density and large overpotential problems limit its practical usage. In this paper, the first-principles thermodynamic calculations were performed to study the catalytic activity of X-doped graphene (X = B, N, Al, Si, and P) materials as potential cathodes to enhance charge reactions in a lithium-air battery. Among these materials, P-doped graphene exhibits the highest catalytic activity in reducing the charge voltage by 0.25 V, while B-doped graphene has the highest catalytic activity in decreasing the oxygen evolution barrier by 0.12 eV. By combining these two catalytic effects, B,P-codoped graphene was demonstrated to have an enhanced catalytic activity in reducing the O2 evolution barrier by 0.70 eV and the charge voltage by 0.13 V. B-doped graphene interacts with Li2O2 by Li-sited adsorption in which the electron-withdrawing center can enhance charge transfer from Li2O2 to the substrate, facilitating reduction of O2 evolution barrier. In contrast, X-doped graphene (X = N, Al, Si, and P) prefers O-sited adsorption toward Li2O2, forming a X-O2(2-)···Li(+) interface structure between X-O2(2-) and the rich Li(+) layer. The active structure of X-O2(2-) can weaken the surrounding Li-O2 bonds and significantly reduce Li(+) desorption energy at the interface. Our investigation is helpful in developing a novel catalyst to enhance oxygen evolution reaction (OER) in Li-air batteries.

  11. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S. G.; McCann, R. S.; Kaiser, M. K.; Begault, D. R.; Adelstein, B. D.; Beutter, B. R.; Stone, L. S.

    2008-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew on flight vehicles, surface landers and habitats, and during extra-vehicular activities (EVA). Designers of displays and controls for exploration missions must be prepared to select the text formats, label styles, alarms, electronic procedure designs, and cursor control devices that provide for optimal crew performance on exploration tasks. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP are: 1) Controls, 2) Displays, 3) Procedures, and 4) EVA Operations.

  12. Trypanocidal activity of the compounds present in Aniba canelilla oil against Trypanosoma evansi and its effects on viability of lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Giongo, Janice L; Vaucher, Rodrigo A; Da Silva, Aleksandro S; Oliveira, Camila B; de Mattos, Cristiane B; Baldissera, Matheus D; Sagrillo, Michele R; Monteiro, Silvia G; Custódio, Dayana L; Souza de Matos, Marcielly; Sampaio, Paulo T; Teixeira, Helder F; Koester, Letícia S; da Veiga Junior, Valdir F

    2017-02-01

    Aniba canelilla (H.B.K.) Mez, popularly known as "casca-preciosa" (precious bark), is a plant of the Lauraceae family, widely distributed in the Amazon region. Its major constituent is 1-nitro-2-phenylethane, a rare molecule in plants which is responsible for this plant's cinnamon scent. The present study aimed to report the chemical characterization of the oil extracted from Aniba canelilla using gas-chromatography/mass spectrometry and to assess its in vitro trypanocidal activity against Trypanosoma evansi, a prevalent haemoflagellate parasite that affects a broad range of mammal species in Africa, Asia and South America. The oil presented 1-nitro-2-phenylethane (83.68%) and methyleugenol (14.83%) as the two major components. The essential oil as well as both major compounds were shown to exert trypanocidal effect. Methyleugenol was slightly more active than 1-nitro-2-phenylethane. In vitro studies showed that the oil extracted from the stems of A. canelilla may be regarded as a potential natural treatment for trypanosomosis, once proven their in vivo action, may be an interesting alternative in the treatment of infected animals with T. evansi.

  13. An initiation site of DNA replication with transcriptional enhancer activity present upstream of the c-myc gene.

    PubMed Central

    Iguchi-Ariga, S M; Okazaki, T; Itani, T; Ogata, M; Sato, Y; Ariga, H

    1988-01-01

    We have previously reported that c-myc protein may promote cellular DNA replication by binding to initiation sites of replication. Here we report that a putative origin of human cellular DNA replication (ori) is present at approximately 2 kb upstream of the coding region of the c-myc gene itself. The c-myc protein, or protein(s) complexed with c-myc protein, bind to the upstream region (approximately 200 bp in length) which has transcriptional enhancer activity as well as autonomously replicating activity in human cells, suggesting that the c-myc protein may be an enhancer binding protein as well as a DNA replication protein. Results with deletion mutants suggest that the sequence essential to the origin of DNA replication may be adjacent to, but cannot be clearly separated from, the sequence responsible for enhancer activity. Furthermore, when cloned DNA containing putative c-myc protein binding sequences was transfected as competitor into HL-60 cells, expression of c-myc was inhibited, suggesting that c-myc protein itself may be necessary for c-myc expression. Images PMID:3053161

  14. Modulation of human natural killer T cell ligands on TLR-mediated antigen-presenting cell activation.

    PubMed

    Salio, Mariolina; Speak, Anneliese O; Shepherd, Dawn; Polzella, Paolo; Illarionov, Petr A; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal S; Platt, Frances M; Cerundolo, Vincenzo

    2007-12-18

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a subset of nonconventional T cells recognizing endogenous and/or exogenous glycolipid antigens in the context of CD1d molecules. It remains unclear whether innate stimuli can modify the profile of endogenous lipids recognized by iNKT cells on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). We report that activation of human APCs by Toll-like receptor ligands (TLR-L) modulates the lipid biosynthetic pathway, resulting in enhanced recognition of CD1d-associated lipids by iNKT cells, as defined by IFN-gamma secretion. APC-derived soluble factors further increase CD1d-restricted iNKT cell activation. Finally, using soluble tetrameric iNKT T cell receptors (TCR) as a staining reagent, we demonstrate specific up-regulation of CD1d-bound ligand(s) on TLR-mediated APC maturation. The ability of innate stimuli to modulate the lipid profile of APCs resulting in iNKT cell activation and APC maturation underscores the role of iNKT cells in assisting priming of antigen-specific immune responses.

  15. Modulation of human natural killer T cell ligands on TLR-mediated antigen-presenting cell activation

    PubMed Central

    Salio, Mariolina; Speak, Anneliese O.; Shepherd, Dawn; Polzella, Paolo; Illarionov, Petr A.; Veerapen, Natacha; Besra, Gurdyal S.; Platt, Frances M.; Cerundolo, Vincenzo

    2007-01-01

    Invariant natural killer T (iNKT) cells are a subset of nonconventional T cells recognizing endogenous and/or exogenous glycolipid antigens in the context of CD1d molecules. It remains unclear whether innate stimuli can modify the profile of endogenous lipids recognized by iNKT cells on the surface of antigen-presenting cells (APCs). We report that activation of human APCs by Toll-like receptor ligands (TLR-L) modulates the lipid biosynthetic pathway, resulting in enhanced recognition of CD1d-associated lipids by iNKT cells, as defined by IFN-γ secretion. APC-derived soluble factors further increase CD1d-restricted iNKT cell activation. Finally, using soluble tetrameric iNKT T cell receptors (TCR) as a staining reagent, we demonstrate specific up-regulation of CD1d-bound ligand(s) on TLR-mediated APC maturation. The ability of innate stimuli to modulate the lipid profile of APCs resulting in iNKT cell activation and APC maturation underscores the role of iNKT cells in assisting priming of antigen-specific immune responses. PMID:18077358

  16. Hydrotectonics; principles and relevance

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kopf, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    Hydrotectonics combines the principles of hydraulics and rock mechanics. The hypothesis assumes that: (1) no faults are truly planar, (2) opposing noncongruent wavy wallrock surfaces form chambers and bottlenecks along the fault, and (3) most thrusting occurs beneath the water table. These physical constraints permit the following dynamics. Shear displacement accompanying faulting must constantly change the volume of each chamber. Addition of ground water liquefies dry fault breccia to a heavy incompressible viscous muddy breccia I call fault slurry. When the volume of a chamber along a thrust fault decreases faster than its fault slurry can escape laterally, overpressurized slurry is hydraulically injected into the base of near-vertical fractures in the otherwise impervious overriding plate. Breccia pipes commonly form where such fissures intersect. Alternating decrease and increase in volume of the chamber subjects this injection slurry to reversible surges that not only raft and abrade huge clasts sporadically spalled from the walls of the conduit but also act as a forceful hydraulic ram which periodically widens the conduit and extends its top. If the pipe perforates a petroleum reservoir, leaking hydrocarbons float to its top. Sudden faulting may generate a powerful water hammer that can be amplified at some distal narrow ends of the anastomosing plumbing system, where the shock may produce shatter cones. If vented on the Earth's surface, the muddy breccia, now called extrusion slurry, forms a mud volcano. This hypothesis suggests that many highly disturbed features presently attributed to such catastrophic processes as subsurface explosions or meteorite impacts are due to the rheology of tectonic slurry in an intermittently reactivated pressure-relief tube rooted in a powerful reciprocating hydrotectonic pump activated by a long-lived deep-seated thrust fault.

  17. Principles of Vaccination.

    PubMed

    Zepp, Fred

    2016-01-01

    While many of the currently available vaccines have been developed empirically, with limited understanding on how they activate the immune system and elicit protective immunity, the recent progress in basic sciences like immunology, microbiology, genetics, and molecular biology has fostered our understanding on the interaction of microorganisms with the human immune system. In consequence, modern vaccine development strongly builds on the precise knowledge of the biology of microbial pathogens, their interaction with the human immune system, as well as their capacity to counteract and evade innate and adaptive immune mechanisms. Strategies engaged by pathogens strongly determine how a vaccine should be formulated to evoke potent and efficient protective immune responses. The improved knowledge of immune response mechanisms has facilitated the development of new vaccines with the capacity to defend against challenging pathogens and can help to protect individuals particular at risk like immunocompromised and elderly populations. Modern vaccine development technologies include the production of highly purified antigens that provide a lower reactogenicity and higher safety profile than the traditional empirically developed vaccines. Attempts to improve vaccine antigen purity, however, may result in impaired vaccine immunogenicity. Some of such disadvantages related to highly purified and/or genetically engineered vaccines yet can be overcome by innovative technologies, such as live vector vaccines, and DNA or RNA vaccines. Moreover, recent years have witnessed the development of novel adjuvant formulations that specifically focus on the augmentation and/or control of the interplay between innate and adaptive immune systems as well as the function of antigen-presenting cells. Finally, vaccine design has become more tailored, and in turn has opened up the potential of extending its application to hitherto not accessible complex microbial pathogens plus providing new

  18. PD-1 on Immature and PD-1 Ligands on Migratory Human Langerhans Cells Regulate Antigen-Presenting Cell Activity

    PubMed Central

    Peña-Cruz, Victor; McDonough, Sean M.; Diaz-Griffero, Felipe; Crum, Christopher P.; Carrasco, Ruben D.; Freeman, Gordon J.

    2010-01-01

    Langerhans cells (LCs) are known as “sentinels” of the immune system that function as professional antigen-presenting cells (APCs) after migration to draining lymph node. LCs are proposed to have a role in tolerance and the resolution of cutaneous immune responses. The Programmed Death-1 (PD-1) receptor and its ligands, PD-L1 and PD-L2, are a co-inhibitory pathway that contributes to the negative regulation of T-lymphocyte activation and peripheral tolerance. Surprisingly, we found PD-1 to be expressed on immature LCs (iLCs) in situ. PD-1 engagement on iLCs reduced IL-6 and macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP)-1α cytokine production in response to TLR2 signals but had no effect on LC maturation. PD-L1 and PD-L2 were expressed at very low levels on iLCs. Maturation of LCs upon migration from epidermis led to loss of PD-l expression and gain of high expression of PD-L1 and PD-L2 as well as co-stimulatory molecules. Blockade of PD-L1 and/or PD-L2 on migratory LCs (mLCs) and DDCs enhanced T-cell activation, as has been reported for other APCs. Thus the PD-1 pathway is active in iLCs and inhibits iLC activities, but expression of receptor and ligands reverses upon maturation and PD-L1 and PD-L2 on mLC function to inhibit T-cell responses. PMID:20445553

  19. Presentation of untreated systemic mastocytosis as recurrent, pulseless-electrical-activity cardiac arrests resistant to cardiac pacemaker.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, Joseph H; Weiler, Catherine R

    2014-01-01

    Recurrent, pulseless-electrical-activity (PEA) cardiac arrests were the novel presentation of untreated systemic mastocytosis in an 85-year-old woman who lacked cutaneous findings of mastocytosis. Despite prior implantation of a dual-chamber cardiac pacemaker 3 weeks previously for similar spells, she experienced a PEA arrest accompanied by flushing, increased urinary N-methylhistamine excretion and serum tryptase values on the day of presentation to our clinic. Bone marrow biopsy findings conducted to rule out breast cancer metastases showed 30% mast cell infiltration, aberrant expression of CD25 and a positive c-kit Asp816Val mutation. Treatment with a combination of H1 and H2 receptor blockers reduced flushing and eliminated hypotension. Maintenance medication included aspirin, cetirizine, ranitidine, montelukast, oral cromolyn sodium and an epinephrine autoinjector (as needed). At 6-month follow-up, the patient remained free of PEA arrests, flushing, or any clinical signs of mastocytosis or mast cell degranulation. PEA cardiac arrests may therefore be a presenting sign of untreated systemic mastocytosis.

  20. Increase of beta-endorphin secretion by syringin, an active principle of Eleutherococcus senticosus, to produce antihyperglycemic action in type 1-like diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Niu, H-S; Hsu, F-L; Liu, I-M; Cheng, J-T

    2007-12-01

    We employed streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ-diabetic rats) as type 1 diabetes-like animal models to investigate the mechanism(s) of antihyperglycemic action produced by syringin, an active principle purified from the rhizome and root part S of ELEUTHEROCOCCUS SENTICOSUS (Araliaceae). Bolus intravenous (i. v.) injection of syringin dose-dependently decreased the plasma glucose of STZ-diabetic rats in 30 minutes in a way parallel to the increase of plasma beta-endorphin-like immunoreactivity (BER). Syringin enhanced BER release from the isolated adrenal medulla of STZ-diabetic rats in a concentration-dependent manner from 0.001 to 10 micromol/l. Bilateral adrenalectomy in STZ-diabetic rats eliminated the activities of syringin (1 mg/kg, i. v.) including the plasma glucose-lowering effect and the plasma BER-elevating effect. Also, syringin failed to lower plasma glucose in the presence of micro-opioid receptor antagonists and/or in the micro-opioid receptor knockout diabetic mice. In conclusion, the obtained results suggest that syringin can enhance the secretion of beta-endorphin from adrenal medulla to stimulate peripheral micro-opioid receptors resulting in a decrease of plasma glucose in diabetic rats lacking insulin.

  1. Principles Guiding Vocabulary Learning through Extensive Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nation, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Extensive reading is one of a range of activities that can be used in a language learning course. Ideally, the choice of activities to go into a course should be guided by principles which are well supported by research. Similarly, the way each of those activities is used should be guided by well-justified principles. In this article, we look at…

  2. Antimicrobial surfaces containing cationic nanoparticles: how immobilized, clustered, and protruding cationic charge presentation affects killing activity and kinetics.

    PubMed

    Fang, Bing; Jiang, Ying; Nüsslein, Klaus; Rotello, Vincent M; Santore, Maria M

    2015-01-01

    This work examines how the antimicrobial (killing) activity of net-negative surfaces depends on the presentation of antimicrobial cationic functionality: distributed versus clustered, and flat clusters versus raised clusters. Specifically, the ability to kill Staphylococcus aureus by sparsely distributed 10 nm cationic nanoparticles, immobilized on a negative surface and backfilled with a PEG (polyethylene glycol) brush, was compared with that for a dense layer of the same immobilized nanoparticles. Additionally, sparsely distributed 10 nm poly-L-lysine (PLL) coils, adsorbed to a surface to produce flat cationic "patches" and backfilled with a PEG brush were compared to a saturated adsorbed layer of PLL. The latter resembled classical uniformly cationic antimicrobial surfaces. The protrusion of the cationic clusters substantially influenced killing but the surface concentration of the clusters had minor impact, as long as bacteria adhered. When surfaces were functionalized at the minimum nanoparticle and patch densities needed for bacterial adhesion, killing activity was substantial within 30 min and nearly complete within 2 h. Essentially identical killing was observed on more densely functionalized surfaces. Surfaces containing protruding (by about 8 nm) nanoparticles accomplished rapid killing (at 30 min) compared with surfaces containing similarly cationic but flat features (PLL patches). Importantly, the overall surface density of cationic functionality within the clusters was lower than reported thresholds for antimicrobial action. Also surprising, the nanoparticles were far more deadly when surface-immobilized compared with free in solution. These findings support a killing mechanism involving interfacial stress.

  3. In vivo administration of artificial antigen-presenting cells activates low-avidity T cells for treatment of cancer.

    PubMed

    Ugel, Stefano; Zoso, Alessia; De Santo, Carmela; Li, Yu; Marigo, Ilaria; Zanovello, Paola; Scarselli, Elisa; Cipriani, Barbara; Oelke, Mathias; Schneck, Jonathan P; Bronte, Vincenzo

    2009-12-15

    The development of effective antitumor immune responses is normally constrained by low-avidity, tumor-specific CTLs that are unable to eradicate the tumor. Strategies to rescue antitumor activity of low-avidity melanoma-specific CTLs in vivo may improve immunotherapy efficacy. To boost the in vivo effectiveness of low-avidity CTLs, we immunized mice bearing lung melanoma metastases with artificial antigen-presenting cells (aAPC), made by covalently coupling (pep)MHC-Ig dimers and B7.1-Ig molecules to magnetic beads. aAPC treatment induced significant tumor reduction in a mouse telomerase antigen system, and complete tumor eradication in a mouse TRP-2 antigen system, when low-avidity CTLs specific for these antigens were adoptively transferred. In addition, in an in vivo treatment model of subcutaneous melanoma, aAPC injection also augmented the activity of adoptively transferred CTLs and significantly delayed tumor growth. In vivo tumor clearance due to aAPC administration correlated with in situ proliferation of the transferred CTL. In vitro studies showed that aAPC effectively stimulated cytokine release, enhanced CTL-mediated lysis, and TCR downregulation in low-avidity CTLs. Therefore, in vivo aAPC administration represents a potentially novel approach to improve cancer immunotherapy.

  4. Principles of liquids working in heat engines

    PubMed Central

    Allen, P. C.; Knight, W. R.; Paulson, D. N.; Wheatley, J. C.

    1980-01-01

    The thermodynamic and thermophysical properties of liquids suggest that they should be powerful working fluids in heat engines. Their use requires heat engines based conceptually on the Stirling and Malone principles. The principles are explained, and then experiments on propylene are presented that demonstrate the principles and confirm the thermodynamic analysis. PMID:16592756

  5. Principles of Environmental Chemistry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hathaway, Ruth A.

    2007-07-01

    Roy M. Harrison, Editor RSC Publishing; ISBN 0854043713; × + 363 pp.; 2006; $69.95 Environmental chemistry is an interdisciplinary science that includes chemistry of the air, water, and soil. Although it may be confused with green chemistry, which deals with potential pollution reduction, environmental chemistry is the scientific study of the chemical and biochemical principles that occur in nature. Therefore, it is the study of the sources, reactions, transport, effects, and fates of chemical species in the air, water, and soil environments, and the effect of human activity on them. Environmental chemistry not only explores each of these environments, but also closely examines the interfaces and boundaries where the environments intersect.

  6. Identification of subjects for social responsibility education at universities and the present activity at the university of Tokyo.

    PubMed

    Karima, Risuke; Oshima, Yoshito; Yamamoto, Kazuo

    2006-01-01

    The management of corporate social responsibility (CSR) has recently become a critical concern for companies in advanced countries. For universities, there is a requirement to contribute to the promotion of CSR, resulting in graduates who have sufficient cognition of and a good attitude towards CSR. In addition, universities have social responsibilities, which can be called "University Social Responsibility (USR)." On the basis of the concepts of the guidelines for CSR in the "Green Paper," which was presented by the European Committee (EC) in 2001, we provide a perspective here on what factors dictate the establishment of education programs for social responsibilities at universities. These factors include an outline of the concepts and the significance of CSR, social ethics and the morals of higher education and research, compliances, human resource management, human rights, safety and health in academic settings, and various concerns regarding environmental safety and preservation. Additionally, through the concept postulated here for social responsible education, in this paper, we introduce the present activity at the University of Tokyo (UT) in terms of the education program for CSR and USR, proposing that the future establishment of university-wide education programs based on the concept of CSR and the value of sustainability is required at UT.

  7. Recombinase Activating Gene 1 Deficiencies Without Omenn Syndrome May Also Present With Eosinophilia and Bone Marrow Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Ulusoy, Ezgi; Karaca, Neslihan Edeer; Azarsiz, Elif; Berdeli, Afig; Aksu, Guzide; Kutukculer, Necil

    2016-01-01

    Background Severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) syndromes are a heterogenous group of diseases characterized by impairment in both cellular and humoral immunity with a range of genetic disorders. Complete recombinase activating gene (RAG) deficiency is associated with classical T-B-NK+ SCID which is the most common phenotype of Turkish SCID patients. There is a broad spectrum of hypomorfic RAG mutations including Omenn syndrome, leaky or atypical SCID with expansion of γδ T cells, autoimmunity and cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. Methods Twenty-one (44%) patients had RAG1 deficiency of all 44 SCID patients followed up by pediatric immunology department. A retrospective analysis was conducted on the medical records of all SCID patients with RAG1 deficiency. Results Eight patients were classified as T-B-NK+ SCID, five patients as T+B-NK+ SCID (three of these were Omenn phenotype), and eight patients as T+B+NK+ SCID phenotype. Mean age of the whole study group, mean age at onset of symptoms and mean age at diagnosis were 87.7 ± 73.8 (12 - 256), 4.4 ± 8.2 (1 - 36) and 29.1 ± 56.8 (1 - 244) months, respectively. Consanguinity was present in 11 (52%) of 21 patients. Autoimmunity was found in six patients (28%). Ten patients (47%) had CMV infection, four (19%) had Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) infections and three (14%) had Bacillus Calmette-Guerin (BCG) infections. Seven patients who had refractory cytopenia (two pancytopenia and five bicytopenia) underwent bone marrow biopsy, three of whom had bone marrow fibrosis. Future evaluations must be considered about bone marrow fibrosis in RAG1 deficiency patients. Eosinophilia was observed in 10 patients, seven of whom did not have Omenn phenotype. Conclusion Non-Omenn phenotype RAG1 deficiencies can also present with eosinophilia. This report is presented to emphasize that RAG1 mutations may lead to diverse clinical phenotypes. PMID:27081423

  8. Transformational Teaching: Theoretical Underpinnings, Basic Principles, and Core Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slavich, George M.; Zimbardo, Philip G.

    2012-01-01

    Approaches to classroom instruction have evolved considerably over the past 50 years. This progress has been spurred by the development of several learning principles and methods of instruction, including active learning, student-centered learning, collaborative learning, experiential learning, and problem-based learning. In the present paper, we…

  9. Flavonoids eupatorin and sinensetin present in Orthosiphon stamineus leaves inhibit inflammatory gene expression and STAT1 activation.

    PubMed

    Laavola, Mirka; Nieminen, Riina; Yam, Mun Fei; Sadikun, Amirin; Asmawi, Mohd Zaini; Basir, Rusliza; Welling, Jukka; Vapaatalo, Heikki; Korhonen, Riku; Moilanen, Eeva

    2012-05-01

    Cytokines and other inflammatory mediators, such as prostaglandin E₂ (PGE₂) and nitric oxide (NO) produced by cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), respectively, activate and drive inflammation and therefore serve as targets for anti-inflammatory drug development. Orthosiphon stamineus is an indigenous medicinal plant of Southeast Asia that has been traditionally used in the treatment of rheumatoid arthritis, gout, and other inflammatory disorders. The present study investigated the anti-inflammatory properties of Orthosiphon stamineus leaf chloroform extract (CE), its flavonoid-containing CE fraction 2 (CF2), and the flavonoids eupatorin, eupatorin-5-methyl ether (TMF), and sinensetin, identified from the CF2. It was found that CE (20 and 50 µg/mL) and CF2 (20 and 50 µg/mL) inhibited iNOS expression and NO production, as well as PGE₂ production. Eupatorin and sinensetin inhibited iNOS and COX-2 expression and the production of NO (IC₅₀ 5.2 µM and 9.2 µM for eupatorin and sinensetin, respectively) and PGE₂ (IC₅₀ 5.0 µM and 2.7 µM for eupatorin and sinensetin, respectively) in a dose-dependent manner. The extracts and the compounds also inhibited tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production (IC₅₀ 5.0 µM and 2.7 µM for eupatorin and sinensetin, respectively). Eupatorin and sinensetin inhibited lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced activation of transcription factor signal transducers and activators of transcription 1α (STAT1α). Furthermore, eupatorin (50 mg/kg i. p.) and sinensetin (50 mg/kg i. p.) inhibited carrageenan-induced paw inflammation in mice. The results suggest that CE and CF2, as well as the known constituents of CF2, i.e., eupatorin and sinensetin, have meaningful anti-inflammatory properties which may be utilized in the development of novel anti-inflammatory treatments.

  10. [Catastrophe medicine. General principles].

    PubMed

    Linde, H

    1980-10-17

    Catastrophe medicine is the organization of masses under difficult conditions. The present article is concerned with the competence and organization in the event of a catastrophe and describes the phasic course of a catastrophe situation. The most important element of effective first aid measures, screening for shock and pain treatment, and first surgical treatment and the principles of ballistic factors are dealt with. Particular attention is given to the evacuation of emergency patients from the scene of the catastrophe. A request is made for " Catastrophe medicine" to be included by the medical faculties and educational institutes in their course of study for paramedical personnel.

  11. Principles of electromagnetic theory

    SciTech Connect

    Kovetz, A.H. )

    1990-01-01

    This book emphasizes the fundamental understanding of the laws governing the behavior of charge and current carrying bodies. Electromagnetism is presented as a classical theory, based-like mechanics-on principles that are independent of the atomic constitution of matter. This book is unique among electromagnetic texts in its treatment of the precise manner in which electromagnetism is linked to mechanics and thermodynamics. Applications include electrostriction, piezoelectricity, ferromagnetism, superconductivity, thermoelectricity, magnetohydrodynamics, radiation from charged particles, electromagnetic wave propagation and guided waves. There are many worked examples of dynamical and thermal effects of electromagnetic fields, and of effects resulting from the motion of bodies.

  12. Quercetin as the active principle of Hypericum hircinum exerts a selective inhibitory activity against MAO-A: extraction, biological analysis, and computational study.

    PubMed

    Chimenti, Franco; Cottiglia, Filippo; Bonsignore, Leonardo; Casu, Laura; Casu, Mariano; Floris, Costantino; Secci, Daniela; Bolasco, Adriana; Chimenti, Paola; Granese, Arianna; Befani, Olivia; Turini, Paola; Alcaro, Stefano; Ortuso, Francesco; Trombetta, Giuseppe; Loizzo, Alberto; Guarino, Irene

    2006-06-01

    The methanol extract from Hypericum hircinum leaves exhibited in vitro inhibition of monoamine oxidases (MAO). Bioassay-guided fractionation led to the isolation of quercetin and five compounds identified for the first time from H. hircinum. Quercetin was the only compound with a selective inhibitory activity against MAO-A, with an IC50 value of 0.010 microM. To explain MAO selective inhibition at the molecular level, a computational study was carried out by conformational search and docking techniques using recently determined crystallographic models of both enzymatic isoforms. An in vivo study in mice was carried out using the forced swimming test in order to elucidate the behavioral effects of quercetin.

  13. Recommendations and the state of the evidence for physical activity interventions for adults with rheumatoid arthritis: 2007 to present

    PubMed Central

    Iversen, Maura D; Brawerman, Marisa; Iversen, Christina N

    2013-01-01

    Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) are twice as likely as their healthy peers to suffer from cardiovascular disease. RA is also a major cause of disability and reduced quality of life. Clinical trials of exercise and physical activity interventions demonstrate positive effects on muscle strength, function, aerobic capacity, mood and disability. While RA management guidelines emphasize the role of exercise and physical activity in the management of RA, the description of physical activity and exercise is vague and patients with RA remain less physically active than their healthy counterparts. This review discusses the benefits of physical activity and current physical activity recommendations in RA, describes measurement techniques to assess physical activity, and synthesizes the data from interventions to promote physical activity and improve health outcomes in adults with RA. PMID:23538738

  14. Soft X-ray variability over the present minimum of solar activity as observed by SphinX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gburek, S.; Siarkowski, M.; Kepa, A.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Bakala, J.; Podgorski, P.; Kordylewski, Z.; Plocieniak, S.; Sylwester, B.; Trzebinski, W.; Kuzin, S.

    2011-04-01

    Solar Photometer in X-rays (SphinX) is an instrument designed to observe the Sun in X-rays in the energy range 0.85-15.00 keV. SphinX is incorporated within the Russian TESIS X and EUV telescope complex aboard the CORONAS-Photon satellite which was launched on January 30, 2009 at 13:30 UT from the Plesetsk Cosmodrome, northern Russia. Since February, 2009 SphinX has been measuring solar X-ray radiation nearly continuously. The principle of SphinX operation and the content of the instrument data archives is studied. Issues related to dissemination of SphinX calibration, data, repository mirrors locations, types of data and metadata are discussed. Variability of soft X-ray solar flux is studied using data collected by SphinX over entire mission duration.

  15. Intuitions, principles and consequences

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, A

    2001-01-01

    Some approaches to the assessment of moral intuitions are discussed. The controlled ethical trial isolates a moral issue from confounding factors and thereby clarifies what a person's intuition actually is. Casuistic reasoning from situations, where intuitions are clear, suggests or modifies principles, which can then help to make decisions in situations where intuitions are unclear. When intuitions are defended by a supporting principle, that principle can be tested by finding extreme cases, in which it is counterintuitive to follow the principle. An approach to the resolution of conflict between valid moral principles, specifically the utilitarian and justice principles, is considered. It is argued that even those who justify intuitions by a priori principles are often obliged to modify or support their principles by resort to the consideration of consequences. Key Words: Intuitions • principles • consequences • utilitarianism PMID:11233371

  16. Last Glacial - Present Glacial Activity in East Greenland Fjords Inferred from Swath Bathymetry and High-Resolution Seismic Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forwick, M.; Laberg, J. S.; Husum, K.; Olsen, I. L.

    2014-12-01

    Swath bathymetry and high-resolution penetration echo sounder (chirp) data from fjords and sounds between Kong Oscars Fjord and Bredefjord, East Greenland, reveal glacial landforms and sedimentary processes that can be used to infer glacial activity from the last glacial to the present. Relatively straight, linear features oriented parallel to the fjord axes, as well as beyond the mouths of some fjords, are interpreted to be glacial lineations providing evidence of fast-flowing grounded ice draining the eastern parts of the Greenland Ice Sheet during the last glacial. In some areas, the glacial lineations are the only preserved glacigenic landfjorms (e.g. beyond the mouth of Bredefjord). However, in other areas, they are covered with multiple transverse ridges interpreted to be small terminal moraines (e.g. in Youngsund). Whereas the absence of such moraines is suggested to represent a rapid ice retreat due to lift-up and disintegration during parts of the deglaciation, their presence reflects that multiple halts and/or re-advances interrupted the retreat. Acoustically stratified sediment sequences dominate the fjord-fill stratigraphies (up to 180 ms two-way travel time). These deposits are suggested to reflect repeatedly changing lithological compositions in a glacimarine environment where deposition mainly occurred from suspension fall-out, in addition to ice rafting from icebergs calving off from tidewater glaciers, and sea ice. The stratified deposits form often relatively uniform drapes indicating that the tidewater glaciers were mainly located near the fjord heads since the last deglaciation. However, acoustically transparent bodies with irregular geometries, intercalated within the stratified deposits, occur in some of the inner fjords. These are suggested to be glacigenic sediment wedges (debris-flow lobes) that formed during relatively recent advances of tidewater glaciers (e.g. in Nordfjord and Moskusoksefjord).

  17. SIEST-A-RT: a study of vacancy diffusion in crystalline silicon using a local-basis first-principle (SIESTA) activation technique (ART).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El Mellouhi, Fedwa; Mousseau, Normand; Ordejón, Pablo

    2003-03-01

    We report on a first-principle study of vacancy-induced self-diffusion in crystalline silicon. Our simulations are performed on supercells containing 63 and 215 atoms. We generate the diffusion paths using the activation-relaxation technique (ART) [1], which can sample efficiently the energy landscape of complex systems. The forces and energy are evaluated using SIESTA [2], a selfconsistent density functional method using standard norm-conserving pseudopotentials and a flexible numerical linear combination of atomic orbitals basis set. Combining these two methods allows us to identify diffusion paths that would not be reachable with this degree of accuracy, using other methods. After a full relaxation of the neutral vacancy, we proceed to search for local diffusion paths. We identify various mechanisms like the formation of the four fold coordinated defect, and the recombination of dangling bonds by WWW process. The diffusion of the vacancy proceeds by hops to first nearest neighbor with an energy barrier of 0.69 eV. This work is funded in part by NSERC and NATEQ. NM is a Cottrell Scholar of the Research Corporation. [1] G. T. Barkema and N. Mousseau, Event-based relaxation of continuous disordered systems, Phys. Rev. Lett. 77, 4358 (1996); N. Mousseau and G. T. Barkema, Traveling through potential energy landscapes of disordered materials: ART, Phys. Rev. E 57, 2419 (1998). [2] Density functional method for very large systems with LCAO basis sets D. Sánchez-Portal, P. Ordejón, E. Artacho and J. M. Soler, Int. J. Quant. Chem. 65, 453 (1997).

  18. [Principles of callus distraction].

    PubMed

    Hankemeier, S; Bastian, L; Gosling, T; Krettek, C

    2004-10-01

    Callus distraction is based on the principle of regenerating bone by continuous distraction of proliferating callus tissue. It has become the standard treatment of significant leg shortening and large bone defects. Due to many problems and complications, exact preoperative planning, operative technique and careful postoperative follow-up are essential. External fixators can be used for all indications of callus distraction. However, due to pin tract infections, pain and loss of mobility caused by soft tissue transfixation, fixators are applied in patients with open growth plates, simultaneous lengthening with continuous deformity corrections, and increased risk of infection. Distraction over an intramedullary nail allows removal of the external fixator at the end of distraction before callus consolidation (monorail method). The intramedullary nail protects newly formed callus tissue and reduces the risk of axial deviation and refractures. Recently developed, fully intramedullary lengthening devices eliminate fixator-associated complications and accelerate return to normal daily activities. This review describes principles of callus distraction, potential complications and their management.

  19. Principles of safety pharmacology.

    PubMed

    Pugsley, M K; Authier, S; Curtis, M J

    2008-08-01

    Safety Pharmacology is a rapidly developing discipline that uses the basic principles of pharmacology in a regulatory-driven process to generate data to inform risk/benefit assessment. The aim of Safety Pharmacology is to characterize the pharmacodynamic/pharmacokinetic (PK/PD) relationship of a drug's adverse effects using continuously evolving methodology. Unlike toxicology, Safety Pharmacology includes within its remit a regulatory requirement to predict the risk of rare lethal events. This gives Safety Pharmacology its unique character. The key issues for Safety Pharmacology are detection of an adverse effect liability, projection of the data into safety margin calculation and finally clinical safety monitoring. This article sets out to explain the drivers for Safety Pharmacology so that the wider pharmacology community is better placed to understand the discipline. It concludes with a summary of principles that may help inform future resolution of unmet needs (especially establishing model validation for accurate risk assessment). Subsequent articles in this issue of the journal address specific aspects of Safety Pharmacology to explore the issues of model choice, the burden of proof and to highlight areas of intensive activity (such as testing for drug-induced rare event liability, and the challenge of testing the safety of so-called biologics (antibodies, gene therapy and so on.).

  20. Student Perceptions of Value Added in an Active Learning Experience: Producing, Reviewing and Evaluating a Sales Team Video Presentation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corbett, James J.; Kezim, Boualem; Stewart, James

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the effectiveness of a video team-based activity as a learning experience in a sales management course. Students perceived this learning activity approach as a beneficial and effective instructional technique. The benefits of making a video in a marketing course reinforce the understanding and the use of the sales process…

  1. Neohesperidin dihydrochalcone: presentation of a small molecule activator of mammalian alpha-amylase as an allosteric effector.

    PubMed

    Kashani-Amin, Elaheh; Larijani, Bagher; Ebrahim-Habibi, Azadeh

    2013-03-18

    Flavonoids and their precursor trans-chalcone have been reported as inhibitors of mammalian alpha-amylase. With regard to this background, neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) effect was investigated toward porcine pancreatic alpha-amylase (PPA), and found to be an activator of the enzyme. The maximal activation (up to threefold) was found to occur at 4.8mM of NHDC, which could be considered to have a high activation profile, with regard to the alpha and beta parameters (alpha<1activator of the enzyme and based on the results obtained from modeling tools, it is suggested to interact with PPA at a hydrophilic site located at the N-terminal, far from the active site of the enzyme.

  2. Chemical Principls Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1973-01-01

    Two topics are discussed: (1) Stomach Upset Caused by Aspirin, illustrating principles of acid-base equilibrium and solubility; (2) Physical Chemistry of the Drinking Duck, illustrating principles of phase equilibria and thermodynamics. (DF)

  3. Principles of Induction Accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Briggs*, Richard J.

    The basic concepts involved in induction accelerators are introduced in this chapter. The objective is to provide a foundation for the more detailed coverage of key technology elements and specific applications in the following chapters. A wide variety of induction accelerators are discussed in the following chapters, from the high current linear electron accelerator configurations that have been the main focus of the original developments, to circular configurations like the ion synchrotrons that are the subject of more recent research. The main focus in the present chapter is on the induction module containing the magnetic core that plays the role of a transformer in coupling the pulsed power from the modulator to the charged particle beam. This is the essential common element in all these induction accelerators, and an understanding of the basic processes involved in its operation is the main objective of this chapter. (See [1] for a useful and complementary presentation of the basic principles in induction linacs.)

  4. Characterization and photocatalytic activity of Fe- and N-co-deposited TiO{sub 2} and first-principles study for electronic structure

    SciTech Connect

    Yen, Chung-Chih; Wang, Da-Yung; Chang, Li-Shin; Shih, Han C.

    2011-08-15

    Titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}), co-deposited with Fe and N, is first implanted with Fe by a metal plasma ion implantation (MPII) process and then annealed in N{sub 2} atmosphere at a temperature regime of 400-600 deg. C. First-principle calculations show that the (Fe, N) co-deposited TiO{sub 2} films produced additional band gap levels at the bottom of the conduction band (CB) and on the top of the valence band (VB). The (Fe, N) co-deposited TiO{sub 2} films were effective in both prohibiting electron-hole recombination and generating additional Fe-O and N-Ti-O impurity levels for the TiO{sub 2} band gap. The (Fe, N) co-deposited TiO{sub 2} has a narrower band gap of 1.97 eV than Fe-implanted TiO{sub 2} (3.14 eV) and N-doped TiO{sub 2} (2.16 eV). A significant reduction of TiO{sub 2} band gap energy from 3.22 to 1.97 eV was achieved, which resulted in the extension of photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} from UV to Vis regime. The photocatalytic activity and removal rate were approximately two-fold higher than that of the Fe-implanted TiO{sub 2} under visible light irradiation. - Graphical abstract: The electronic properties of (Fe, N) co-deposited TiO{sub 2} films determined by theoretical calculations is graphically shown; Fe and N preferentially substitute the Ti and O site, to form impurity level. Highlights: > The MPII produces a simple and low cost process for the fabrication of visible light photocatalysts. > Both theoretical and experimental approaches are used to discuss the relationship between band structure and photocatalysis. > The Fe and N preferentially substitute the Ti and O site, which generate additional Fe-O and N-Ti-O impurity levels for the TiO{sub 2} band gap. > A significant reduction of TiO{sub 2} band gap energy from 3.22 to 1.97 eV was achieved.

  5. The neural circuits for arithmetic principles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Zhang, Han; Chen, Chuansheng; Chen, Hui; Cui, Jiaxin; Zhou, Xinlin

    2017-02-15

    Arithmetic principles are the regularities underlying arithmetic computation. Little is known about how the brain supports the processing of arithmetic principles. The current fMRI study examined neural activation and functional connectivity during the processing of verbalized arithmetic principles, as compared to numerical computation and general language processing. As expected, arithmetic principles elicited stronger activation in bilateral horizontal intraparietal sulcus and right supramarginal gyrus than did language processing, and stronger activation in left middle temporal lobe and left orbital part of inferior frontal gyrus than did computation. In contrast, computation elicited greater activation in bilateral horizontal intraparietal sulcus (extending to posterior superior parietal lobule) than did either arithmetic principles or language processing. Functional connectivity analysis with the psychophysiological interaction approach (PPI) showed that left temporal-parietal (MTG-HIPS) connectivity was stronger during the processing of arithmetic principle and language than during computation, whereas parietal-occipital connectivities were stronger during computation than during the processing of arithmetic principles and language. Additionally, the left fronto-parietal (orbital IFG-HIPS) connectivity was stronger during the processing of arithmetic principles than during computation. The results suggest that verbalized arithmetic principles engage a neural network that overlaps but is distinct from the networks for computation and language processing.

  6. Basic Scientific Principles of Diving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacLean, Don

    1976-01-01

    Described are some of the physical and physiological scientific principles related to diving. The article is written as supplementary information for a teacher and includes suggested activities, a keyed test, and a bibliography. This article complements one on Sea Lab II in the same issue. (MA)

  7. Chemical Principles Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1970-01-01

    This is the first of a new series of brief ancedotes about materials and phenomena which exemplify chemical principles. Examples include (1) the sea-lab experiment illustrating principles of the kinetic theory of gases, (2) snow-making machines illustrating principles of thermodynamics in gas expansions and phase changes, and (3) sunglasses that…

  8. Activities for an Interactive Classroom.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Golub, Jeffrey N.

    Focusing particularly on student writing, this book describes the principles of an interactive classroom and presents specific activities which adhere to those principles. Acknowledging that such classrooms require that the students feel comfortable with each other, the book details several activities that help to build a positive classroom…

  9. An examination of eating attitudes and physical activity levels of Turkish university students with regard to self-presentational concern.

    PubMed

    Aşçi, F Hülya; Tüzün, Macide; Koca, Canan

    2006-11-01

    This study aimed to examine eating attitudes and physical activity level of young women and men university students with regard to social physique anxiety level. 482 university students participated in this study voluntarily. "Eating Attitude Test (EAT-40)", "Social Physique Anxiety Scale" and "Physical Activity Assessment Questionnaire" were used to assess the eating attitude, social physique anxiety and physical activity level of participants, respectively. Women and men participants in this study were assigned to high (HSPA) and low (LSPA) social physique anxiety groups with respect to their median scores. Men had favorable eating attitudes and higher physical activity level than women. In addition, participants in the HSPA group had unfavorable eating attitudes and higher physical activity MET values than participants in the LSPA group. On the other hand, groupxgender interaction was only significant for the eating attitudes scores but, not for physical activity level. Women in the HSPA group scored higher on the EAT-40 than men in HSPA and women and men in the LSPA groups.

  10. System level electrochemical principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.

    1985-01-01

    The traditional electrochemical storage concepts are difficult to translate into high power, high voltage multikilowatt storage systems. The increased use of electronics, and the use of electrochemical couples that minimize the difficulties associated with the corrective measures to reduce the cell to cell capacity dispersion were adopted by battery technology. Actively cooled bipolar concepts are described which represent some attractive alternative system concepts. They are projected to have higher energy densities lower volumes than current concepts. They should be easier to scale from one capacity to another and have a closer cell to cell capacity balance. These newer storage system concepts are easier to manage since they are designed to be a fully integrated battery. These ideas are referred to as system level electrochemistry. The hydrogen-oxygen regenerative fuel cells (RFC) is probably the best example of the integrated use of these principles.

  11. Revisiting Tversky's diagnosticity principle

    PubMed Central

    Evers, Ellen R. K.; Lakens, Daniël

    2013-01-01

    Similarity is a fundamental concept in cognition. In 1977, Amos Tversky published a highly influential feature-based model of how people judge the similarity between objects. The model highlights the context-dependence of similarity judgments, and challenged geometric models of similarity. One of the context-dependent effects Tversky describes is the diagnosticity principle. The diagnosticity principle determines which features are used to cluster multiple objects into subgroups. Perceived similarity between items within clusters is expected to increase, while similarity between items in different clusters decreases. Here, we present two pre-registered replications of the studies on the diagnosticity effect reported in Tversky (1977). Additionally, one alternative mechanism that has been proposed to play a role in the original studies, an increase in the choice for distractor items (a substitution effect, see Medin et al., 1995), is examined. Our results replicate those found by Tversky (1977), revealing an average diagnosticity-effect of 4.75%. However, when we eliminate the possibility of substitution effects confounding the results, a meta-analysis of the data provides no indication of any remaining effect of diagnosticity. PMID:25161638

  12. Principlism and communitarianism.

    PubMed

    Callahan, D

    2003-10-01

    The decline in the interest in ethical theory is first outlined, as a background to the author's discussion of principlism. The author's own stance, that of a communitarian philosopher, is then described, before the subject of principlism itself is addressed. Two problems stand in the way of the author's embracing principlism: its individualistic bias and its capacity to block substantive ethical inquiry. The more serious problem the author finds to be its blocking function. Discussing the four scenarios the author finds that the utility of principlism is shown in the two scenarios about Jehovah's Witnesses but that when it comes to selling kidneys for transplantation and germline enhancement, principlism is of little help.

  13. Present-day submarine hydrothermal activity in the Taupo-Rotorua Zone (Bay of Plenty, New Zealand)

    SciTech Connect

    Osipenko, A.B.; Egorov, Yu.O.; Fazlullin, S.M.; Gavrilenko, G.M.; Shul`kin, V.I.; Chertkova, L.V.

    1994-09-01

    We made detailed descriptions of the structure and material composition of sedimentary and water columns in the vicinity of active submarine hydrothermal activity in the southern part of the Bay of Plenty (North Island, New Zealand). Geophysical methods revealed that the hydrothermal system is confined to a tectonically distinct zone with a sedimentary cover characterized by complex structure. Chemical and mineralogical investigations confirmed that the activity of underwater vents exerts no substantial regional influence on the composition and features of ore mineralization in these formations. It is shown that essentially hydrothermal formations distinguishable within areas of otherwise monotypic sediments directly coincide with zones of hydrothermal discharge in the ocean floor. The absence of pronounced hydrothermal anomalies, together with the presence of {open_quotes}tongues{close_quotes} of anomalous concentrations of water-soluble gases suggests that the discharges are primarily hydrothermal in character.

  14. Increased Interest in Physiology and Science among Adolescents after Presentations and Activities Administered by Undergraduate Physiology Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    da Silva de Vargas, Liane; Rosa de Menezes, Jefferson; Billig Mello-Carpes, Pâmela

    2016-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a set of activities performed in south Brazil that are aligned with the objectives of PhUn Week and promote the integration between universities and public schools and the dissemination of knowledge of physiology. To achieve this goal, the authors adopted a program in which undergraduate physiology students…

  15. Effect of acetic acid present in bagasse hydrolysate on the activities of xylose reductase and xylitol dehydrogenase in Candida guilliermondii.

    PubMed

    Lima, Luanne Helena Augusto; das Graças de Almeida Felipe, Maria; Vitolo, Michele; Torres, Fernando Araripe Gonçalves

    2004-11-01

    The first two steps in xylose metabolism are catalyzed by NAD(P)H-dependent xylose reductase (XR) (EC 1.1.1.21) and NAD(P)-dependent xylitol dehydrogenase (XDH) (EC 1.1.1.9), which lead to xylose-->xylitol-->xylulose conversion. Xylitol has high commercial value, due to its sweetening and anticariogenic properties, as well as several clinical applications. The acid hydrolysis of sugarcane bagasse allows the separation of a xylose-rich hemicellulosic fraction that can be used as a substrate for Candida guilliermondii to produce xylitol. However, the hydrolysate contains acetic acid, an inhibitor of microbial metabolism. In this study, the effect of acetic acid on the activities of XR and XDH and on xylitol formation by C. guilliermondii were studied. For this purpose, fermentations were carried out in bagasse hydrolysate and in synthetic medium. The activities of XR and XDH were higher in the medium containing acetic acid than in control medium. Moreover, none of the fermentative parameters were significantly altered during cell culture. It was concluded that acetic acid does not interfere with xylitol formation since the increase in XR activity is proportional to XDH activity, leading to a greater production of xylitol and its subsequent conversion to xylulose.

  16. Current limitations and a path forward to improve testing for the environmental assessment of endocrine active substances-presentation

    EPA Science Inventory

    To assess the hazards and risks of possible endocrine active chemicals (EACs), there is a need for robust, validated test methods that detect perturbations of endocrine pathways and provide reliable information for evaluating potential adverse effects on apical endpoints. One iss...

  17. Effects of Different Multimedia Presentations on Viewers' Information-Processing Activities Measured by Eye-Tracking Technology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chuang, Hsueh-Hua; Liu, Han-Chin

    2012-01-01

    This study implemented eye-tracking technology to understand the impact of different multimedia instructional materials, i.e., five successive pages versus a single page with the same amount of information, on information-processing activities in 21 non-science-major college students. The findings showed that students demonstrated the same number…

  18. PREDICTING THE ADSORPTION CAPACITY OF ACTIVATED CARBON FOR EMERGING ORGANIC CONTAMINANTS FROM FUNDAMENTAL ADSORBENT AND ADSORBATE PROPERTIES - PRESENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    A quantitative structure-property relationship (QSPR) was developed and combined with the Polanyi-Dubinin-Manes model to predict adsorption isotherms of emerging contaminants on activated carbons with a wide range of physico-chemical properties. Affinity coefficients (βl

  19. Chaperone-rich tumor cell lysate-mediated activation of antigen-presenting cells resists regulatory T cell suppression.

    PubMed

    Larmonier, Nicolas; Cantrell, Jessica; Lacasse, Collin; Li, Gang; Janikashvili, Nona; Situ, Elaine; Sepassi, Marjan; Andreansky, Samita; Katsanis, Emmanuel

    2008-04-01

    CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T lymphocytes (Tregs) critically contribute to the mechanisms of cancer-induced tolerance. These cells suppress anti-tumoral CD8(+) and CD4(+) T lymphocytes and can also restrain the function of APCs. We have previously documented the immunostimulatory effects of a chaperone-rich cell lysate (CRCL) anti-cancer vaccine. Tumor-derived CRCL induces tumor immunity in vivo, partly by promoting dendritic cell (DC) and macrophage activation. In the current study, we evaluated the effects of CD4(+)CD25(+)forkhead box P3(+) Tregs isolated from mice bearing 12B1 bcr-abl(+) leukemia on DC and macrophages that had been activated by 12B1-derived CRCL. CRCL-activated DC and macrophages resisted Treg suppression, as the production of proinflammatory cytokines, the activation of transcription factor NF-kappaB, and their immunostimulatory potential was unaffected by Tregs. Our results thus highlight CRCL as a powerful adjuvant endowed with the capacity to overcome tumor-induced Treg-inhibitory effects on APCs.

  20. Trace Hydrophobic Organic Chemicals Present in Pennsylvania Groundwater are Correlated with Geogenic Brines rather than Hydraulic Fracturing Active Zones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drollette, B.; Shregglman, K.; D'Ambro, E.; Elsner, M.; Warner, N. R.; O'Connor, M.; Karatum, O.; Vengosh, A.; Jackson, R. B.; Darrah, T.; Plata, D.

    2014-12-01

    Recent studies demonstrated that deep Marcellus shale brines migrate into shallow groundwater aquifers, presumably via fractures in the subsurface that exist independent of any gas extraction activities. However, whereas many inorganic species are conservative tracers, hydrophobic organic compounds are both sorptive and reactive, and geogenic organic chemicals may not survive transport from deep shales to the subsurface. Here, 40 shallow groundwater samples from private wells in Northeastern Pennsylvania were analyzed for volatile organic compounds (VOCs) and gasoline range organic compounds (GRO), and 17 were analyzed for VOCs, GRO, and diesel range organic compounds (DRO). BTEX compounds (i.e., benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, and xylenes) were detected in 6 of 40 samples at concentrations orders of magnitude below EPA maximum contaminant levels (e.g., << 5 ppb) and did not spatially correlate with distance to the nearest active hydraulic fracturing well. GRO was detected in 10 of 40 samples at concentrations as high as 8.8 ± 0.4 ppb and did not correlate with distance to the nearest hydraulic fracturing well (p = 0.24) nor in active fracturing zones, which we defined as sample locations less than 1 km from a well (p = 0.60). However, GRO was strongly correlated (p = 0.004) with shallow groundwater with Marcellus Shale inorganic chemical character, as delineated by inorganic chemical analysis. DRO was detected in all 17 samples up to 158 ± 4 ppb and did not spatially correlate with distance to the nearest hydraulic fracturing well (p = 0.74), nor active zones (p = 0.61). Similar to GRO, DRO did correlate with shallow groundwater containing Marcellus Shale character with moderate significance (p = 0.08). These results indicate that: (a) hydrophobic organic chemicals can survive transport from the deep subsurface to shallow groundwaters, and (b) transport of these compounds is not detectably enhanced by hydraulic fracturing activities in Northeastern PA as of the

  1. Physalins with anti-inflammatory activity are present in Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii and can function as Michael reaction acceptors.

    PubMed

    Ji, Long; Yuan, Yonglei; Luo, Liping; Chen, Zhe; Ma, Xiaoqiong; Ma, Zhongjun; Cheng, Lin

    2012-04-01

    Michael reaction acceptors (MRAs) are a class of active molecules that are directly or indirectly involved in various cellular processes, including the regulation of many signaling pathways. In this study, the inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) assay was used to demonstrate that the dichloromethane extract of Physalis alkekengi var. franchetii (DCEP) possesses anti-inflammatory activity that might be attributed to the modification of key cysteine residues in IKKβ by the MRAs in DCEP. To isolate these MRAs, glutathione (GSH) was employed, and a simple ultra-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) screening method was developed to investigate the GSH conjugates with potential MRAs. Five physalins, including one new compound isophysalin A (2), together with four known steroidal compounds, physalin A (1), physalin O (3), physalin L (4) and physalin G (5), were isolated to evaluate the GSH conjugating abilities, and it was indicated that compounds 1, 2 and 3, which had a common α,β-unsaturated ketone moiety, exhibited conjugating abilities with GSH and also showed significant nitric oxide (NO) production inhibiting activities. The anti-inflammatory activities of compounds 1, 2 and 3 might be attributed to their targeting multiple cysteine residues on IKKβ; therefore, the alkylation of IKKβ by compound 1 was further studied by micrOTOF-MS. The result showed that six cysteine residues (C(59), C(179), C(299), C(370), C(412), and C(618)) were alkylated, which indicated that IKKβ is a potential target for the anti-inflammatory activity of physalin A.

  2. Identification and characterization of a DNA primase activity present in herpes simplex virus type 1-infected HeLa cells

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, A.M.; Wietstock, S.M.; Ruyechan, W.T. )

    1988-03-01

    A novel DNA primase activity has been identified in HeLa cells infected with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Such an activity has not been detected in mock-infected cells. The primase activity coeluted with a portion of HSV-1 DNA polymerase from single-stranded DNA agarose columns loaded with high-salt extracts derived from infected cells. This DNA primase activity could be distinguished from host HeLa cell DNA primase by several criteria. First, the pH optimum of the HSV primase was relatively broad and peaked at 8.2 to 8.7 pH units. Second, freshly isolated HSV DNA primase was less salt sensitive than the HeLa primase. Third, antibodies raised against individual peptides of the calf thymus DNA polymerase:primase complex cross-reacted with the HeLa primase but did not react with the HSV DNA primase. Fourth, freshly prepared HSV DNA primase appeared to be associated with the HSV polymerase, but after storage at 4{degree}C for several weeks, the DNA primase separated from the viral DNA polymerase. This free DNA primase had an apparent molecular size of approximately 40 kilodaltons, whereas free HeLa DNA primase had an apparent molecular size of approximately 110 kilodaltons. On the basis of these data, the authors believe that the novel DNA primase activity in HSV-infected cells may be virus coded and that this enzyme represents a new and important function involved in the replication of HSV DNA.

  3. Mentoring: Contemporary Principles and Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bey, Theresa M., Ed.; Holmes, C. Thomas, Ed.

    In the spirit of educational reform efforts, an initiative exists to restructure the education of teachers through collaborative action, using mentoring to build alliances. This monograph, based on contemporary principles and issues of mentoring, presents ways to conceptualize the professional preparation and development of teachers. Following a…

  4. Anti-Streptococcal activity of Brazilian Amazon Rain Forest plant extracts presents potential for preventive strategies against dental caries

    PubMed Central

    da SILVA, Juliana Paola Corrêa; de CASTILHO, Adriana Lígia; SARACENI, Cíntia Helena Couri; DÍAZ, Ingrit Elida Collantes; PACIÊNCIA, Mateus Luís Barradas; SUFFREDINI, Ivana Barbosa

    2014-01-01

    Caries is a global public health problem, whose control requires the introduction of low-cost treatments, such as strong prevention strategies, minimally invasive techniques and chemical prevention agents. Nature plays an important role as a source of new antibacterial substances that can be used in the prevention of caries, and Brazil is the richest country in terms of biodiversity. Objective In this study, the disk diffusion method (DDM) was used to screen over 2,000 Brazilian Amazon plant extracts against Streptococcus mutans. Material and Methods Seventeen active plant extracts were identified and fractionated. Extracts and their fractions, obtained by liquid-liquid partition, were tested in the DDM assay and in the microdilution broth assay (MBA) to determine their minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimal bactericidal concentrations (MBCs). The extracts were also subjected to antioxidant analysis by thin layer chromatography. Results EB271, obtained from Casearia spruceana, showed significant activity against the bacterium in the DDM assay (20.67±0.52 mm), as did EB1129, obtained from Psychotria sp. (Rubiaceae) (15.04±2.29 mm). EB1493, obtained from Ipomoea alba, was the only extract to show strong activity against Streptococcus mutans (0.08 mg/mLactive extracts, discovered in the Amazon rain forest, show potential as sources of new antibacterial agents for use as chemical coadjuvants in prevention strategies to treat caries. PMID:24676578

  5. A Na+-activated K+ current (IK,Na) is present in guinea-pig but not rat ventricular myocytes.

    PubMed

    Lawrence, C; Rodrigo, G C

    1999-05-01

    The effects of removing extracellular Ca2+ and Mg2+ on the membrane potential, membrane current and intracellular Na+ activity (aiNa) were investigated in guinea-pig and rat ventricular myocytes. Membrane potential was recorded with a patch pipette and whole-cell membrane currents using a single-electrode voltage clamp. Both guinea-pig and rat cells depolarize when the bathing Ca2+ and Mg2+ are removed and the steady-state aiNa increases rapidly from a resting value of 6.4+/- 0.6 mM to 33+/-3.8 mM in guinea-pig (n=9) and from 8.9+/-0.8 mM to 29.3+/-3.0 mM (n=5) in rat ventricular myocytes. Guinea-pig myocytes partially repolarized when, in addition to removal of the bathing Ca2+ and Mg2+, K+ was also removed, however rat cells remained depolarized. A large diltiazem-sensitive inward current was recorded in guinea-pig and rat myocytes, voltage-clamped at -20 mV, when the bathing divalent cations were removed. When the bathing K+ was removed after Ca2+ and Mg2+ depletion, a large outward K+ current developed in guinea-pig, but not in rat myocytes. This current had a reversal potential of -80+/-0.7 mV and was not inhibited by high Mg2+ or glybenclamide indicating that it is not due to activation of non-selective cation or adenosine triphosphate (ATP)-sensitive K channels. The current was not activated when Li+ replaced the bathing Na+ and was blocked by R-56865, suggesting that it was due to the activation of KNa channels.

  6. Vibrational imaging of glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fanghao; Chen, Zhixing; Zhang, Luyuan; Shen, Yihui; Wei, Lu; Min, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is consumed as an energy source by virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Its uptake activity closely reflects the cellular metabolic status in various pathophysiological transformations, such as diabetes and cancer. Extensive efforts such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy have been made to specifically image glucose uptake activity but all with technical limitations. Here, we report a new platform to visualize glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues with subcellular resolution and minimal perturbation. A novel glucose analogue with a small alkyne tag (carbon-carbon triple bond) is developed to mimic natural glucose for cellular uptake, which can be imaged with high sensitivity and specificity by targeting the strong and characteristic alkyne vibration on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope to generate a quantitative three dimensional concentration map. Cancer cells with differing metabolic characteristics can be distinguished. Heterogeneous uptake patterns are observed in tumor xenograft tissues, neuronal culture and mouse brain tissues with clear cell-cell variations. Therefore, by offering the distinct advantage of optical resolution but without the undesirable influence of bulky fluorophores, our method of coupling SRS with alkyne labeled glucose will be an attractive tool to study energy demands of living systems at the single cell level.

  7. [The effect of cells presenting the erythroblast antigen on the natural suppressor activity of nonadhesive bone marrow cells].

    PubMed

    Kusmartsev, S A; Agranovich, I M; Bel'skiĭ, Iu P; Goncharskaia, M A

    1993-06-01

    Concanavalin A-induced proliferation of spleen cells of C57B1/6 mice was inhibited by syngeneic normal bone marrow cells. Elimination of Ag-Eb-positive cells by panning was shown to result in markedly reduced inhibitory activity of bone marrow cells. To evaluate the role of Ag-Eb in natural suppressor activity, bone marrow cells were preincubated with different dilutions of MAE-15 monoclonal antibody and then added to spleen cells. The inhibitory effect of bone marrow cells decreased with the increasing concentration of the monoclonal antibody in a dose-dependent manner and nearly disappeared at a concentration of MAE-15 of 150 m micrograms/ml and 300 m micrograms/ml. In control experiments, bone marrow cells were preincubated with antibodies non-reactive with Ag-Eb under the same conditions. It is concluded that the decrease of natural suppressor activity after incubation of bone marrow cells with MAE-15 monoclonal antibody is specific for anti-Ag-Eb antibodies.

  8. A complicated story of frost and wind: Present-day gully activity within the north polar erg, Mar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diniega, Serina; Hansen, Candice; Allen, Amanda; Grisby, Nathan; Li, Zheyu Joey

    2016-10-01

    Analyses of high-resolution observations have shown that the dunes within the martian north polar erg (AKA Olympia Undae) are currently very active on seasonal and yearly timescales, with 20-60% of the dunes within five polar dune fields undergoing the formation of alcove-apron features each Mars year. Previous studies have hypothesized formation mechanisms, based on observations of when new alcove and alcove-apron features form within an individual field through one Mars year. However, results are ill-constrained (and thus different hypotheses have been proposed) as the polar hood and winter night mean very few images are taken during the actual period of activity. In this study, we mitigate this limitation by examining several fields over several Mars years -- thus bringing aggregated results as well as detailed correlation checks against environmental conditions and seasonal processes to bear on the problem. From this, we propose a new process that appears consistent with all observations: (1) small alcoves form along the dune brink in the autumn (under the polar hood) due to instabilities induced by the night-formation and morning-sublimation of frost. As autumn progresses, the seasonal frost layer builds over the altered dune slope. (2) In the early spring, sublimation activity is concentrated and/or enhanced over these alcoves, causing further erosion and the formation of larger alcove-apron features. From the planform dimensions of the newly formed alcoves, we can estimate the volume of sand moved down the dune slope during one period of activity and estimate the aeolian sediment flux by looking at how quickly the alcoves are erased. We find that, over a Mars year, the amount of material moved via alcove-apron activity and via the wind are both comparable to aeolian sand flux estimates over dunes within lower-latitude regions of Mars. Thus it appears that the formation of alcoves-aprons is a significant mechanism for dune advancement and evolution within the

  9. ECOLOGICAL RISK ASSESSMENT AND THE PRECAUTIONARY PRINCIPLE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Precautionary Principle, generated during the late 1980s as a unifying principle for regulating discharge of hazardous material into the North Sea, has been broadened to include a shifting of the burden of proof to the proponent of a proposed activity, adoption of a more holi...

  10. The European Principles of Haemophilia Care: a pilot investigation of adherence to the principles in Europe.

    PubMed

    Fischer, K; Hermans, C

    2013-01-01

    In 2008 the 10 Principles of Haemophilia Care were outlined to provide a benchmark for haemophilia treatment. The EHTSB performed a survey to establish to what extent the Principles of Haemophilia Care were being applied throughout Europe. In total, 21 centres from 14 countries (France, UK, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, Poland, Portugal, Slovakia, Spain, Greece and Italy), were surveyed. A central organization of haemophilia care (principle 1) was present in 79%, and a central patient registry in 57% (principle 2). National haemophilia care decision-making was performed by clinicians, ministries and patient organizations (principle 4). All had designated comprehensive care centres (CCC--principle 3), responsible the majority of severe patients, but in 36% some patients were treated outside CCC/haemophilia treatment centres (HTC)s. Clotting factor concentrates were available everywhere, without dosing restraints (principle 5), including recombinant products in 86% of countries. Prophylactic treatment was available for all children but not for all adults (principle 7). Immune tolerance was available in all countries (principle 9). Home treatment was supported and taught by all centres (principle 6). At centre level, 86% had 24-h laboratory facilities and all participated in education and research (principle 10). An experienced haematologist was available at all centres, a paediatrician in 47%, and prompt out of hours review was available in all (principle 8). The Principles of Haemophilia Care were generally applied throughout Europe. Some aspects of centralization, national organization of care, use of registries, formal paediatric care and prophylaxis for adults may be improved.

  11. Engaging nursing home residents with dementia in activities: The effects of modeling, presentation order, time of day, and setting characteristics

    PubMed Central

    Cohen-Mansfield, Jiska; Thein, Khin; Dakheel-Ali, Maha; Marx, Marcia S.

    2011-01-01

    We examined the impact of setting characteristics and presentation effects on engagement with stimuli in a group of 193 nursing home residents with dementia (recruited from a total of seven nursing homes). Engagement was assessed through systematic observations using the Observational Measurement of Engagement (OME), and data pertaining to setting characteristics (background noise, light, and number of persons in proximity) were recorded via the environmental portion of the Agitation Behavior Mapping Inventory (ABMI; Cohen-Mansfield, Werner, & Marx, (1989). An observational study of agitation in agitated nursing home residents. International Psychogeriatrics, 1, 153–165). Results revealed that study participants were engaged more often with moderate levels of sound and in the presence of a small group of people (from four to nine people). As to the presentation effects, multiple presentations of the same stimulus were found to be appropriate for the severely impaired as well as the moderately cognitively impaired. Moreover, modeling of the appropriate behavior significantly increased engagement, with the severely cognitively impaired residents receiving the greatest benefit from modeling. These findings have direct implications for the way in which caregivers could structure the environment in the nursing home and how they could present stimuli to residents in order to optimize engagement in persons with dementia. PMID:20455123

  12. Lorentz Transformation from Symmetry of Reference Principle

    SciTech Connect

    Petre, M.; Dima, M.; Dima, A.; Petre, C.; Precup, I.

    2010-01-21

    The Lorentz Transformation is traditionally derived requiring the Principle of Relativity and light-speed universality. While the latter can be relaxed, the Principle of Relativity is seen as core to the transformation. The present letter relaxes both statements to the weaker, Symmetry of Reference Principle. Thus the resulting Lorentz transformation and its consequences (time dilatation, length contraction) are, in turn, effects of how we manage space and time.

  13. Soluble and Catalytically Active Endothelin Converting Enzyme-1 is Present in Cerebrospinal Fluid of Subarachnoid Hemorrhage Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuruppu, Sanjaya; Chou, Sherry H.-Y.; Feske, Steven K.; Suh, Sarah; Hanchapola, Iresha; Lo, Eng H.; Ning, MingMing; Smith, A. Ian

    2014-01-01

    Endothelin converting Enzyme-1 (ECE-1) is essential for the production of Endothelin-1 (ET-1), which is associated with vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). We have previously demonstrated the presence of a catalytically active soluble form of ECE-1 in the media of endothelial cells. We aimed to determine if this form of ECE-1 exists in vivo, in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of SAH patients. We examined CSF taken from SAH subjects for the presence of soluble ECE-1 using a bradykinin based quenched fluorescent substrate assay. We obtained further confirmation by characterizing the CSF mediated cleavage products of BigET-1 and BigET18–34 (6 μg/ml) using mass spectrometry. The specificity of cleavage was confirmed using the ECE-1 inhibitor CGS35066 5nmol/L. SAH CSF samples had mean ECE-1 activity of 0.127 ± 0.037 μmols of substrate cleaved/μl of CSF/24 h. The C-terminal peptides generated upon the cleavage of BigET-1 and BigET18–34 were detected 48 h after incubation of these substrates with CSF. Cleavage of these substrates was inhibited by CGS35066. Results of Western blots also produced strong evidence for the presence of truncated soluble ECE-1 in CSF. These results strongly suggest the presence of a truncated but catalytically active form of ECE-1 in the CSF of SAH subjects. Further studies are necessary to determine the biological significance of soluble ECE-1 in CSF of SAH subjects, including an association with vasospasm after SAH. PMID:23816989

  14. Present concept on current water protection and remediation activities for the areas contaminated by the 1986 Chernobyl accident

    SciTech Connect

    Voitsekhovitch, O.; Prister, B.; Nasvit, O.; Los, I.; Berkovski, V.

    1996-07-01

    The results of radiation monitoring data and migration pathway analysis of water bodies within areas affected by the 1986 Chernobyl accident provide a unique opportunity for decision-makers working in other extensively contaminated regions to optimize their approaches to surface and groundwater protection. Most engineering measures within the Chernobyl 30-km exclusion zone were focused on preventing secondary contamination of surface and groundwater from entering the Pripyat River and the Kiev Reservoir. However, implementation of these measures required huge financial and human resources. Therefore, lessons about post-accidental water protection activities can be learned form the Chernobyl example. 9 refs., 9 figs.

  15. Toward Principled Eclecticism in Language Teaching: The Two-Dimensional Model and the Centring Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mellow, J. Dean

    2002-01-01

    To achieve the goal of principled eclecticism (coherent, pluralistic language teaching), this article proposes principles for categorizing, selecting, and sequencing teaching and learning activities. Activities are categorized in relation to the two-dimensional model, four quadrants that result from the intersection of the dimensions of language…

  16. The Hansenula polymorpha MOX gene presents two alternative transcription start points differentially utilized and sensitive to respiratory activity.

    PubMed

    Genu, Victor; Gödecke, Stefanie; Hollenberg, Cornelis P; Pereira, Gonçalo G

    2003-06-01

    The peroxisomal methanol metabolism of Hansenula polymorpha depends on a group of genes that are coordinately regulated. Methanol oxidase (Mox) plays a key role in this pathway and its synthesis has been shown to be regulated at the transcriptional level. MOX expression is strongly repressed on glucose and activated on glycerol or methanol. In this study we have identified two MOX transcripts that are differentially expressed along MOX derepression. The first one, named l-MOX (for longer MOX), starts at position -425, is only weakly and transiently transcribed and is not translated into the Mox protein. The other is the true MOX mRNA, which initiates around position -25. Using a strain bearing multiple copies of MOX(Q1N) and a reporter gene fused to the MOX promoter, regulation of the two transcripts was investigated. Initiation of the true MOX correlates with repression of l-MOX and conditions that are repressive for MOX transcription, such as the inhibition of mitochondrial activity, lead to higher levels of l-MOX expression. This effect was first observed in a mox mutant (Q1N-M8) unable to grow on nonfermentable carbon sources. No function was detected for l-MOX, but its regulation follows a pattern similar to that of catalase, which is essential for methanol metabolism. This suggests that, l-MOX, although precisely regulated, seems to be a remnant of the evolution of the methanol metabolism network.

  17. Evaluation of prediagnosis emergency department presentations in patients with active tuberculosis: the role of chest radiography, risk factors and symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Appleton, S C; Connell, D W; Singanayagam, A; Bradley, P; Pan, D; Sanderson, F; Cleaver, B; Rahman, A; Kon, O M

    2017-01-01

    Introduction London has a high rate of tuberculosis (TB) with 2572 cases reported in 2014. Cases are more common in non-UK born, alcohol-dependent or homeless patients. The emergency department (ED) presents an opportunity for the diagnosis of TB in these patient groups. This is the first study describing the clinico-radiological characteristics of such attendances in two urban UK hospitals for pulmonary TB (PTB) and extrapulmonary TB (EPTB). Methods We conducted a retrospective cohort study using the London TB Register (LTBR) and hospital records to identify patients who presented to two London ED's in the 6 months prior to their ultimate TB diagnosis 2011–2012. Results 397 TB cases were identified. 39% (154/397) had presented to the ED in the 6 months prior to diagnosis. In the study population, the presence of cough, weight loss, fever and night sweats only had prevalence rates of 40%, 34%, 34% and 21%, respectively. Chest radiography was performed in 76% (117/154) of patients. For cases where a new diagnosis of TB was suspected, 73% (41/56) had an abnormal radiograph, compared with 36% (35/98) of patients where it was not. There was an abnormality on a chest radiograph in 73% (55/75) of PTB cases and also in 40% (21/52) of EPTB cases where a film was requested. Conclusions A large proportion of patients with TB present to ED. A diagnosis was more likely in the presence of an abnormal radiograph, suggesting opportunities for earlier diagnosis if risk factors, symptoms and chest radiograph findings are combined. PMID:28123749

  18. Instructional Software Design Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hazen, Margret

    1985-01-01

    Discusses learner/computer interaction, learner control, sequencing of instructional events, and graphic screen design as effective principles for the design of instructional software, including tutorials. (MBR)

  19. Activation of carbon dioxide by a terminal uranium-nitrogen bond in the gas-phase: a demonstration of the principle of microscopic reversibility.

    PubMed

    Dau, Phuong D; Armentrout, P B; Michelini, Maria C; Gibson, John K

    2016-03-14

    Activation of CO2 is demonstrated by its spontaneous dissociative reaction with the gas-phase anion complex NUOCl2(-), which can be considered as NUO(+) coordinated by two chloride anion ligands. This reaction was previously predicted by density functional theory to occur exothermically, without barriers above the reactant energy. The present results demonstrate the validity of the prediction of microscopic reversibility, and provide a rare case of spontaneous dissociative addition of CO2 to a gas-phase complex. The activation of CO2 by NUOCl2(-) proceeds by conversion of a U[triple bond, length as m-dash]N bond to a U[double bond, length as m-dash]O bond and creation of an isocyanate ligand to yield the complex UO2(NCO)Cl2(-), in which uranyl, UO2(2+), is coordinated by one isocyanate and two chloride anion ligands. This activation of CO2 by a uranium(vi) nitride complex is distinctive from previous reports of oxidative insertion of CO2 into lower oxidation state U(iii) or U(iv) solid complexes, during which both C-O bonds remain intact. This unusual observation of spontaneous addition and activation of CO2 by NUOCl2(-) is a result of the high oxophilicity of uranium. If the computed Gibbs free energy of the reaction pathway, rather than the energy, is considered, there are barriers above the reactant asymptotes such that the observed reaction should not proceed under thermal conditions. This result provides a demonstration that energy rather than Gibbs free energy determines reactivity under low-pressure bimolecular conditions.

  20. Fault Management Guiding Principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newhouse, Marilyn E.; Friberg, Kenneth H.; Fesq, Lorraine; Barley, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Regardless of the mission type: deep space or low Earth orbit, robotic or human spaceflight, Fault Management (FM) is a critical aspect of NASA space missions. As the complexity of space missions grows, the complexity of supporting FM systems increase in turn. Data on recent NASA missions show that development of FM capabilities is a common driver for significant cost overruns late in the project development cycle. Efforts to understand the drivers behind these cost overruns, spearheaded by NASA's Science Mission Directorate (SMD), indicate that they are primarily caused by the growing complexity of FM systems and the lack of maturity of FM as an engineering discipline. NASA can and does develop FM systems that effectively protect mission functionality and assets. The cost growth results from a lack of FM planning and emphasis by project management, as well the maturity of FM as an engineering discipline, which lags behind the maturity of other engineering disciplines. As a step towards controlling the cost growth associated with FM development, SMD has commissioned a multi-institution team to develop a practitioner's handbook representing best practices for the end-to-end processes involved in engineering FM systems. While currently concentrating primarily on FM for science missions, the expectation is that this handbook will grow into a NASA-wide handbook, serving as a companion to the NASA Systems Engineering Handbook. This paper presents a snapshot of the principles that have been identified to guide FM development from cradle to grave. The principles range from considerations for integrating FM into the project and SE organizational structure, the relationship between FM designs and mission risk, and the use of the various tools of FM (e.g., redundancy) to meet the FM goal of protecting mission functionality and assets.

  1. On-demand electrochemical activation of the click reaction on self-assembled monolayers on gold presenting masked acetylene groups.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inseong; Kim, Young-Kwan; Min, Dal-Hee; Lee, SangWook; Yeo, Woon-Seok

    2011-10-26

    We report on a new surface modification method for grafting a "dynamic" property for on-demand activation of the click reaction. Our approach utilizes the acetylene group masked with dicobalt hexacarbonyl, Co(2)(CO)(6), which is not reactive toward the click reaction. Electrochemical treatment reveals the acetylene group on the selected region, which is then used as a chemical handle for surface functionalization via the click reaction with an azide-containing molecule. Electrochemical and chemical conversions on the surface were verified by cyclic voltammetry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and fluorescence spectroscopy. We have demonstrated immobilization of an azide-modified RGD peptide and promotion of cell adhesion/migration to the region of electrochemical induction.

  2. Nematic and blue phase liquid crystals for temperature stabilization and active optical tuning of silicon photonic devices (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptasinski, Joanna N.; Khoo, Iam Choon; Fainman, Yeshaiahu

    2015-10-01

    We describe the underlying theories and experimental demonstrations of passive temperature stabilization of silicon photonic devices clad in nematic liquid crystal mixtures, and active optical tuning of silicon photonic resonant structures combined with dye-doped nematic and blue phase liquid crystals. We show how modifications to the resonator device geometry allow for not only enhanced tuning of the resonator response, but also aid in achieving complete athermal operations of silicon photonic circuits. [Ref.: I.C. Khoo, "DC-field-assisted grating formation and nonlinear diffractions in methyl-red dye-doped blue phase liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 40, 60-63 (2015); J. Ptasinski, I.C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, "Enhanced optical tuning of modified-geometry resonators clad in blue phase liquid crystals," Opt. Lett. 39, 5435-5438 (2014); J. Ptasinski, I.C. Khoo, and Y. Fainman, "Passive Temperature Stabilization of Silicon Photonic Devices Using Liquid Crystals," Materials 7(3), 2229-2241 (2014)].

  3. Past, Present, and Future of eHealth and mHealth Research to Improve Physical Activity and Dietary Behaviors.

    PubMed

    Vandelanotte, Corneel; Müller, Andre M; Short, Camille E; Hingle, Melanie; Nathan, Nicole; Williams, Susan L; Lopez, Michael L; Parekh, Sanjoti; Maher, Carol A

    2016-03-01

    Because physical inactivity and unhealthy diets are highly prevalent, there is a need for cost-effective interventions that can reach large populations. Electronic health (eHealth) and mobile health (mHealth) solutions have shown promising outcomes and have expanded rapidly in the past decade. The purpose of this report is to provide an overview of the state of the evidence for the use of eHealth and mHealth in improving physical activity and nutrition behaviors in general and special populations. The role of theory in eHealth and mHealth interventions is addressed, as are methodological issues. Key recommendations for future research in the field of eHealth and mHealth are provided.

  4. Projecting the environmental profile of Singapore's landfill activities: Comparisons of present and future scenarios based on LCA.

    PubMed

    Khoo, Hsien H; Tan, Lester L Z; Tan, Reginald B H

    2012-05-01

    This article aims to generate the environmental profile of Singapore's Semakau landfill by comparing three different operational options associated with the life cycle stages of landfilling activities, against a 'business as usual' scenario. Before life cycle assessment or LCA is used to quantify the potential impacts from landfilling activities, an attempt to incorporate localized and empirical information into the amounts of ash and MSW sent to the landfill was made. A linear regression representation of the relationship between the mass of waste disposed and the mass of incineration ash generated was modeled from waste statistics between years 2004 and 2009. Next, the mass of individual MSW components was projected from 2010 to 2030. The LCA results highlighted that in a 'business as usual' scenario the normalized total impacts of global warming, acidification and human toxicity increased by about 2% annually from 2011 to 2030. By replacing the 8000-tonne barge with a 10000-tonne coastal bulk carrier or freighter (in scenario 2) a grand total reduction of 48% of both global warming potential and acidification can be realized by year 2030. Scenario 3 explored the importance of having a Waste Water Treatment Plant in place to reduce human toxicity levels - however, the overall long-term benefits were not as significant as scenario 2. It is shown in scenario 4 that the option of increased recycling championed over all other three scenarios in the long run, resulting in a total 58% reduction in year 2030 for the total normalized results. A separate comparison of scenarios 1-4 is also carried out for energy utilization and land use in terms of volume of waste occupied. Along with the predicted reductions in environmental burdens, an additional bonus is found in the expanded lifespan of Semakau landfill from year 2032 (base case) to year 2039. Model limitations and suggestions for improvements were also discussed.

  5. Volumetric 3D display with multi-layered active screens for enhanced the depth perception (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hak-Rin; Park, Min-Kyu; Choi, Jun-Chan; Park, Ji-Sub; Min, Sung-Wook

    2016-09-01

    Three-dimensional (3D) display technology has been studied actively because it can offer more realistic images compared to the conventional 2D display. Various psychological factors such as accommodation, binocular parallax, convergence and motion parallax are used to recognize a 3D image. For glass-type 3D displays, they use only the binocular disparity in 3D depth cues. However, this method cause visual fatigue and headaches due to accommodation conflict and distorted depth perception. Thus, the hologram and volumetric display are expected to be an ideal 3D display. Holographic displays can represent realistic images satisfying the entire factors of depth perception. But, it require tremendous amount of data and fast signal processing. The volumetric 3D displays can represent images using voxel which is a physical volume. However, it is required for large data to represent the depth information on voxel. In order to simply encode 3D information, the compact type of depth fused 3D (DFD) display, which can create polarization distributed depth map (PDDM) image having both 2D color image and depth image is introduced. In this paper, a new volumetric 3D display system is shown by using PDDM image controlled by polarization controller. In order to introduce PDDM image, polarization states of the light through spatial light modulator (SLM) was analyzed by Stokes parameter depending on the gray level. Based on the analysis, polarization controller is properly designed to convert PDDM image into sectioned depth images. After synchronizing PDDM images with active screens, we can realize reconstructed 3D image. Acknowledgment This work was supported by `The Cross-Ministry Giga KOREA Project' grant from the Ministry of Science, ICT and Future Planning, Korea

  6. Presentation skills for nurses.

    PubMed

    Foulkes, Mark

    2015-02-20

    This article emphasises the importance of effective presentation skills. Such skills allow nurses to share knowledge and expertise and to communicate clearly in a range of workplace scenarios. Nurses are increasingly being asked to present in formal and informal situations, such as conferences, poster presentations, job interviews, case reports and ward-based teaching. This article explores the principles underpinning the development of these skills, discusses the situations in which they could be applied and demonstrates how nurses might improve and develop as presenters.

  7. The 'Herbivory Uncertainty Principle': application in a cerrado site.

    PubMed

    Gadotti, C A; Batalha, M A

    2010-05-01

    Researchers may alter the ecology of their studied organisms, even carrying out apparently beneficial activities, as in herbivory studies, when they may alter herbivory damage. We tested whether visit frequency altered herbivory damage, as predicted by the 'Herbivory Uncertainty Principle'. In a cerrado site, we established 80 quadrats, in which we sampled all woody individuals. We used four visit frequencies (high, medium, low, and control), quantifying, at the end of three months, herbivory damage for each species in each treatment. We did not corroborate the 'Herbivory Uncertainty Principle', since visiting frequency did not alter herbivory damage, at least when the whole plant community was taken into account. However, when we analysed each species separately, four out of 11 species presented significant differences in herbivory damage, suggesting that the researcher is not independent of its measurements. The principle could be tested in other ecological studies in which it may occur, such as those on animal behaviour, human ecology, population dynamics, and conservation.

  8. Asynchronous presentation of global and local information reveals effects of attention on brain electrical activity specific to each level

    PubMed Central

    Iglesias-Fuster, Jorge; Santos-Rodríguez, Yusniel; Trujillo-Barreto, Nelson; Valdés-Sosa, Mitchell J.

    2015-01-01

    The neural basis of selective attention within hierarchically organized Navon figures has been extensively studied with event related potentials (ERPs), by contrasting responses obtained when attending the global and the local echelons. The findings are inherently ambiguous because both levels are always presented together. Thus, only a mixture of the brain responses to two levels can be observed. Here, we use a method that allows unveiling of global and local letters at distinct times, enabling estimation of separate ERPs related to each level. Two interspersed oddball streams were presented, each using letters from one level and comprised of frequent distracters and rare targets. Previous work and our Experiment 1 show that it is difficult to divide attention between two such streams of stimuli. ERP recording in Experiment 2 evinced an early selection negativity (SN, with latencies to the 50% area of about 266 ms for global distracters and 276 ms for local distracters) that was larger for attended relative to unattended distracters. The SN was larger over right posterior occipito-temporal derivations for global stimuli and over left posterior occipito-temporal derivations for local stimuli (although the latter was less strongly lateralized). A discrimination negativity (DN, accompanied by a P3b) was larger for attended targets relative to attended distracters, with latencies to the 50% area of about 316 ms for global stimuli and 301 ms for local stimuli, which presented a similar distribution for both levels over left temporo-parietal electrodes. The two negativities apparently index successive stages in the processing of a selected level within a compound figure. By resolving the ambiguity of traditional designs, our method allowed us to observe the effects of attention for each hierarchical level on its own. PMID:25628590

  9. Principles and Application of Magnetic Rubber Testing for Crack Detection in High-Strength Steel Components: I. Active-Field Inspection

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    D6ac Denotes a grade of high strength steel MLE Maximum likelihood estimate MPI Magnetic particle inspection MRT Magnetic rubber testing NDE...crack detection if the coercive field of the grade of steel is increased [45]. Field values quoted in the general MRT literature† are of limited value...UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED Principles and Application of Magnetic Rubber Testing for Crack Detection in High-Strength Steel Components: I

  10. Principles of nanoscience: an overview.

    PubMed

    Behari, Jitendra

    2010-10-01

    The scientific basis of nanotechnology as envisaged from the first principles is compared to bulk behavior. Development of nanoparticles having controllable physical and electronic properties has opened up possibility of designing artificial solids. Top down and bottom up approaches are emphasized. The role of nanoparticle (quantum dots) application in nanophotonics (photovoltaic cell), and drug delivery vehicle is discussed. Fundamentals of DNA structure as the prime site in bionanotechnological manipulations is also discussed. A summary of presently available devices and applications are presented.

  11. Effects of rhythmic stimulus presentation on oscillatory brain activity: the physiology of cueing in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    te Woerd, Erik S.; Oostenveld, Robert; Bloem, Bastiaan R.; de Lange, Floris P.; Praamstra, Peter

    2015-01-01

    The basal ganglia play an important role in beat perception and patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) are impaired in perception of beat-based rhythms. Rhythmic cues are nonetheless beneficial in gait rehabilitation, raising the question how rhythm improves movement in PD. We addressed this question with magnetoencephalography recordings during a choice response task with rhythmic and non-rhythmic modes of stimulus presentation. Analyses focused on (i) entrainment of slow oscillations, (ii) the depth of beta power modulation, and (iii) whether a gain in modulation depth of beta power, due to rhythmicity, is of predictive or reactive nature. The results show weaker phase synchronisation of slow oscillations and a relative shift from predictive to reactive movement-related beta suppression in PD. Nonetheless, rhythmic stimulus presentation increased beta modulation depth to the same extent in patients and controls. Critically, this gain selectively increased the predictive and not reactive movement-related beta power suppression. Operation of a predictive mechanism, induced by rhythmic stimulation, was corroborated by a sensory gating effect in the sensorimotor cortex. The predictive mode of cue utilisation points to facilitation of basal ganglia-premotor interactions, contrasting with the popular view that rhythmic stimulation confers a special advantage in PD, based on recruitment of alternative pathways. PMID:26509117

  12. Monoclonal Antibody Combinations that Present Synergistic Neutralizing Activity: A Platform for Next-Generation Anti-Toxin Drugs

    PubMed Central

    Diamant, Eran; Torgeman, Amram; Ozeri, Eyal; Zichel, Ran

    2015-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) are among the fastest-growing therapeutics and are being developed for a broad range of indications, including the neutralization of toxins, bacteria and viruses. Nevertheless, MAbs potency is still relatively low when compared to conventional polyclonal Ab preparations. Moreover, the efficacy of an individual neutralizing MAb may significantly be hampered by the potential absence or modification of its target epitope in a mutant or subtype of the infectious agent. These limitations of individual neutralizing MAbs can be overcome by using oligoclonal combinations of several MAbs with different specificities to the target antigen. Studies conducted in our lab and by others show that such combined MAb preparation may present substantial synergy in its potency over the calculated additive potency of its individual MAb components. Moreover, oligoclonal preparation is expected to be better suited to compensating for reduced efficacy due to epitope variation. In this review, the synergistic neutralization properties of combined oligoclonal Ab preparations are described. The effect of Ab affinity, autologous Fc fraction, and targeting a critical number of epitopes, as well as the unexpected contribution of non-neutralizing clones to the synergistic neutralizing effect are presented and discussed. PMID:26035486

  13. Regression of melanoma metastases after immunotherapy is associated with activation of antigen presentation and interferon-mediated rejection genes

    PubMed Central

    Carretero, Rafael; Wang, Ena; Rodriguez, Ana I.; Reinboth, Jennifer; Ascierto, Maria L.; Engle, Alyson M.; Liu, Hui; Camacho, Francisco M.; Marincola, Francesco M.; Garrido, Federico; Cabrera, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    We present the results of a comparative gene expression analysis of 15 metastases (10 regressing and 5 progressing) obtained from 2 melanoma patients with mixed response following different forms of immunotherapy. Whole genome transcriptional analysis clearly indicate that regression of melanoma metastases is due to an acute immune rejection mediated by the upregulation of genes involved in antigen presentation and interferon mediated response (STAT-1/IRF-1) in all the regressing metastases from both patients. In contrast, progressing metastases showed low transcription levels of genes involved in these pathways. Histological analysis showed T cells and HLA-DR positive infiltrating cells in the regressing but not in the progressing metastases. Quantitative expression analysis of HLA-A, B and C genes on microdisected tumoral regions indicate higher HLA expression in regressing than in progressing metastases. The molecular signature obtained in melanoma rejection appeared to be similar to that observed in other forms of immune-mediated tissue-specific rejection such as allograft, pathogen clearance, graft versus host or autoimmune disease, supporting the immunological constant of rejection. We favor the idea that the major factor determining the success or failure of immunotherapy is the nature of HLA Class I alterations in tumor cells and not the type of immunotherapy used. If the molecular alteration is reversible by the immunotherapy, the HLA expression will be upregulated and the lesion will be recognized and rejected. In contrast, if the defect is structural the MHC Class I expression will remain unchanged and the lesion will progress. PMID:21964766

  14. Principles and Practices of Bioventing. Volume I: Bioventing Principles,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Bioventing is the process of aerating soils to stimulate in situ biological activity and promote bioremediation. Bioventing typically is applied in...contaminated sites. Through the efforts of the U.S. Air Force Bioventing initiative and the U.S. EPA Bioremediation Field initiative, bioventing has...zone remediation of petroleum-contaminated sites. This document is a culmination of the experience gained from these sites and provides specific guidelines on the principles and practices of bioventing .

  15. Present-day activity, monitoring, and documentation of gullies with the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) Context Camera (CTX)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harrison, Tanya N.; Malin, Michael C.; Edgett, Kenneth S.

    2009-10-01

    Covering up to 9390 km2 in a single image, CTX provides large areal coverage at a resolution (6 m/pixel) capable of observing > 95% of the middle- and high-latitude gullies on Mars. We use CTX to cover entire gullied landforms (craters, pits, etc.) to remove the sampling bias in previous Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) coverage, allowing relations between gully occurrence and insolation, geographic location, and climate influences to be addressed. The gullies are imaged during appropriate illumination and seasonal conditions for maximum visibility. We acquire CTX stereopairs to aid in quantitative geomorphic studies, and we recommend targets for higher-resolution (0.3 m/pixel) imaging by the MRO HiRISE based on our previous decade of observations of these landforms. CTX is used to routinely monitor 617 locations to look for changes in gullies. From these efforts, we found further evidence that some gullies are active today, with 6 new gully flows discovered using CTX (adding to the 2 found by MOC) that formed since 2001. Examination of HiRISE images of these 6 landforms indicates a debris flow origin (requiring liquid); this interpretation is based on the patterns of flow around obstacles, ponding in and subsequent overtopping of topographic depressions, super-elevation of deposits on channel banks where the channels change direction, anastomoses in distal reaches, and lobate terminations. Of the 6 new flows, 3 have formation dates constrained to within a single Mars year; these 3 formed during autumn to early spring, demonstrating that summer warming is not participating in creating the liquid involved in their formation. We have also found similar gully flow features for which there is no "before" image; these are interpreted to be relatively recent but we cannot constrain their age. All gullied locations imaged by MOC and CTX have been cataloged; as of July 2009, > 43% of Mars has been imaged and > 4,000 separate gullied landform sites (tens of

  16. Present-day Focal Mechanisms and Stress Field of the Sichuan-Yunnan Active Block and Its Adjacent Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    zhao, cuiping; luo, jun; zhou, lianqing

    2013-04-01

    Focal mechanism solutions together with the depths of 66 M 3.5 moderate earthquakes occurred in the Sichuan Yunnan active block and its adjacent regions from Aug.1st, 2007 to Sep.15th, 2012was obtained by CAP method. Furthermore, by combining the results with the focal mechanism solutions from Harvard University, we investigated the characteristics of the stress field in the study area. We discussed the spatial distribution of the focal mechanisms and the focal depths, and then analyzed its dynamics. Four conclusions are drawn as follows. (1)Focal mechanism solutions show zoning characteristic. Along the ANH-ZMH-XJ faults(the eastern border of Sichuan-Yunnan block), the earthquakes are mostly left-lateral strike-slip mechanism. Along the HSH fault, the earthquakes are mostly right-lateral strike-slip mechanism. Around the XGLL block and in its interior, there exists remarkable normal fault mechanism with different fault striking and direction of P and T stress axis. Along the arc boundary of Sichuan-Yunnan block with the Sichuan basin, the earthquakes are reverse fault mechanism. (2) The inversed regional stress field shows complicated local feature. On and to the east side of the eastern border of Sichuan-Yunnan block, the stress field is similar with the stress field of the Eastern China block, which is from the relative motion of Philippine plate towards the Urasia plate. Whereas to the west side of the eastern border of Sichuan-Yunnan block, the stress field is much more complicated, indicting the strong influence of local structures to the stress field, especially the NE striking of JPS-YL over-thrusting tectonic structure located in the interior of Sichuan-Yunnan block.(3)The moment center depths of events occurred in the Sichuan-Yunnan active block are within 15km deep, and mostly among 5~15km, suggesting that the brittle seismic layer is among the depth of 5~15km in the upper and middle crust.

  17. The transition from hydrostatic to greater than hydrostatic fluid pressure in presently active continental hydrothermal systems in crystalline rock

    SciTech Connect

    Fournier, R.O. )

    1991-05-01

    Fluid flow at hydrostatic pressure (P{sub h}) is relatively common through fractures in silicic and in mafic crystalline rocks where temperatures are less than about 350-370C. In contrast, pore-fluid pressure (P{sub f}) > P{sub h} has been encountered at the bottom of 3 geothermal exploration wells that attained temperatures >370C (at Larderello, Italy, at Nesjavellir, Iceland, and at The Geysers, California). Chemical sealing by deposition of minerals in veins appears to have allowed the development of the high P{sub f} encountered in the above wells. The upper limit for the magnitude of P{sub f} that can be attained is controlled by either the onset of shear fracturing (where differential stress is relatively high) that reopens clogged veins, or the hydraulic opening of new or old fractures (at relatively low values of differential stress). The brittle-plastic transition for silicic rocks can occur at temperatures as high as 370-400C in tectonically active regions. In regions where high-temperature geothermal systems develop and persist, it appears that either strain rates commonly are in the range 10{sup {minus}12} to 10{sup {minus}13}, or that silicic rocks in the shallow crust generally behave rheologically more like wet quartz diorite than wet Westerly granite.

  18. Neural progenitor cells isolated from the subventricular zone present hemichannel activity and form functional gap junctions with glial cells

    PubMed Central

    Talaverón, Rocío; Fernández, Paola; Escamilla, Rosalba; Pastor, Angel M.; Matarredona, Esperanza R.; Sáez, Juan C.

    2015-01-01

    The postnatal subventricular zone (SVZ) lining the walls of the lateral ventricles contains neural progenitor cells (NPCs) that generate new olfactory bulb interneurons. Communication via gap junctions between cells in the SVZ is involved in NPC proliferation and in neuroblast migration towards the olfactory bulb. SVZ NPCs can be expanded in vitro in the form of neurospheres that can be used for transplantation purposes after brain injury. We have previously reported that neurosphere-derived NPCs form heterocellular gap junctions with host glial cells when they are implanted after mechanical injury. To analyze functionality of NPC-glial cell gap junctions we performed dye coupling experiments in co-cultures of SVZ NPCs with astrocytes or microglia. Neurosphere-derived cells expressed mRNA for at least the hemichannel/gap junction channel proteins connexin 26 (Cx26), Cx43, Cx45 and pannexin 1 (Panx1). Dye coupling experiments revealed that gap junctional communication occurred among neurosphere cells (incidence of coupling: 100%). Moreover, hemichannel activity was also detected in neurosphere cells as evaluated in time-lapse measurements of ethidium bromide uptake. Heterocellular coupling between NPCs and glial cells was evidenced in co-cultures of neurospheres with astrocytes (incidence of coupling: 91.0 ± 4.7%) or with microglia (incidence of coupling: 71.9 ± 6.7%). Dye coupling in neurospheres and in co-cultures was inhibited by octanol, a gap junction blocker. Altogether, these results suggest the existence of functional hemichannels and gap junction channels in postnatal SVZ neurospheres. In addition, they demonstrate that SVZ-derived NPCs can establish functional gap junctions with astrocytes or microglia. Therefore, cell-cell communication via gap junctions and hemichannels with host glial cells might subserve a role in the functional integration of NPCs after implantation in the damaged brain. PMID:26528139

  19. High-frequency neural activity and human cognition: past, present and possible future of intracranial EEG research

    PubMed Central

    Lachaux, Jean-Philippe; Axmacher, Nikolai; Mormann, Florian; Halgren, Eric; Crone, Nathan E.

    2013-01-01

    Human intracranial EEG (iEEG) recordings are primarily performed in epileptic patients for presurgical mapping. When patients perform cognitive tasks, iEEG signals reveal high-frequency neural activities (HFA, between around 40 Hz and 150 Hz) with exquisite anatomical, functional and temporal specificity. Such HFA were originally interpreted in the context of perceptual or motor binding, in line with animal studies on gamma-band (‘40Hz’) neural synchronization. Today, our understanding of HFA has evolved into a more general index of cortical processing: task-induced HFA reveals, with excellent spatial and time resolution, the participation of local neural ensembles in the task-at-hand, and perhaps the neural communication mechanisms allowing them to do so. This review promotes the claim that studying HFA with iEEG provides insights into the neural bases of cognition that cannot be derived as easily from other approaches, such as fMRI. We provide a series of examples supporting that claim, drawn from studies on memory, language and default-mode networks, and successful attempts of real-time functional mapping. These examples are followed by several guidelines for HFA research, intended for new groups interested by this approach. Overall, iEEG research on HFA should play an increasing role in cognitive neuroscience in humans, because it can be explicitly linked to basic research in animals. We conclude by discussing the future evolution of this field, which might expand that role even further, for instance through the use of multi-scale electrodes and the fusion of iEEG with MEG and fMRI. PMID:22750156

  20. Classroom Demonstrations of Social Psychological Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Singleton, Royce Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Describes eight classroom activities which instruct college level sociology students about major concepts and principles of social psychology. Concepts include gestalt psychology, nonverbal communication, adaptation level, relative deprivation, selective exposure, labeling, sexism, and perceptual distortion. (Author/DB)

  1. Assessment Principles and Tools

    PubMed Central

    Golnik, Karl C.

    2014-01-01

    The goal of ophthalmology residency training is to produce competent ophthalmologists. Competence can only be determined by appropriately assessing resident performance. There are accepted guiding principles that should be applied to competence assessment methods. These principles are enumerated herein and ophthalmology-specific assessment tools that are available are described. PMID:24791100

  2. Improving Construct Validity with Cognitive Psychology Principles.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Embretson, Susan; Gorin, Joanna

    2001-01-01

    Examines testing practices in: (1) the past, in which the traditional paradigm left little room for cognitive psychology principles; (2) the present, in which testing research is enhanced by principles of cognitive psychology; and (3) the future, in which the potential of cognitive psychology should be fully realized through item design.…

  3. Designing and Implementing Multicultural Initiatives: Guiding Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watt, Sherry K.

    2013-01-01

    This chapter provides guiding principles for designing and implementing successful multicultural initiatives. A rationale for why these elements transcend both higher education and student affairs settings is presented. In addition to providing guiding principles, this chapter includes advice for socially and politically conscious-minded…

  4. Microscopic Description of Le Chatelier's Principle

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Novak, Igor

    2005-01-01

    A simple approach that "demystifies" Le Chatelier's principle (LCP) and simulates students to think about fundamental physical background behind the well-known principles is presented. The approach uses microscopic descriptors of matter like energy levels and populations and does not require any assumption about the fixed amount of substance being…

  5. Use of General Principles in Teaching Biochemistry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fernandez, Rolando Hernandez; Tomey, Agustin Vicedo

    1991-01-01

    Presents Principles of Biochemistry for use as main focus of a biochemistry course. The nine guiding ideas are the principles of continual turnover, macromolecular organization, molecular recognition, multiplicity of utilization, maximum efficiency, gradual change, interrelationship, transformational reciprocity, and information transfer. In use…

  6. Integrating Computer Concepts into Principles of Accounting.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Henry J.; Parrish, Roy James, Jr.

    A package of instructional materials for an undergraduate principles of accounting course at Danville Community College was developed based upon the following assumptions: (1) the principles of accounting student does not need to be able to write computer programs; (2) computerized accounting concepts should be presented in this course; (3)…

  7. Delivery presentations

    MedlinePlus

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000621.htm Delivery presentations To use the sharing features on this page, ... baby by cesarean birth (C-section) . Less Common Presentations With the brow-first position, the baby's head ...

  8. The strong maximum principle revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pucci, Patrizia; Serrin, James

    In this paper we first present the classical maximum principle due to E. Hopf, together with an extended commentary and discussion of Hopf's paper. We emphasize the comparison technique invented by Hopf to prove this principle, which has since become a main mathematical tool for the study of second order elliptic partial differential equations and has generated an enormous number of important applications. While Hopf's principle is generally understood to apply to linear equations, it is in fact also crucial in nonlinear theories, such as those under consideration here. In particular, we shall treat and discuss recent generalizations of the strong maximum principle, and also the compact support principle, for the case of singular quasilinear elliptic differential inequalities, under generally weak assumptions on the quasilinear operators and the nonlinearities involved. Our principal interest is in necessary and sufficient conditions for the validity of both principles; in exposing and simplifying earlier proofs of corresponding results; and in extending the conclusions to wider classes of singular operators than previously considered. The results have unexpected ramifications for other problems, as will develop from the exposition, e.g. two point boundary value problems for singular quasilinear ordinary differential equations (Sections 3 and 4); the exterior Dirichlet boundary value problem (Section 5); the existence of dead cores and compact support solutions, i.e. dead cores at infinity (Section 7); Euler-Lagrange inequalities on a Riemannian manifold (Section 9); comparison and uniqueness theorems for solutions of singular quasilinear differential inequalities (Section 10). The case of p-regular elliptic inequalities is briefly considered in Section 11.

  9. Protein Multifunctionality: Principles and Mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Zaretsky, Joseph Z.; Wreschner, Daniel H.

    2008-01-01

    In the review, the nature of protein multifunctionality is analyzed. In the first part of the review the principles of structural/functional organization of protein are discussed. In the second part, the main mechanisms involved in development of multiple functions on a single gene product(s) are analyzed. The last part represents a number of examples showing that multifunctionality is a basic feature of biologically active proteins. PMID:21566747

  10. MuRF1 activity is present in cardiac mitochondria and regulates reactive oxygen species production in vivo.

    PubMed

    Mattox, Taylor A; Young, Martin E; Rubel, Carrie E; Spaniel, Carolyn; Rodríguez, Jessica E; Grevengoed, Trisha J; Gautel, Mathias; Xu, Zhelong; Anderson, Ethan J; Willis, Monte S

    2014-06-01

    MuRF1 is a previously reported ubiquitin-ligase found in striated muscle that targets troponin I and myosin heavy chain for degradation. While MuRF1 has been reported to interact with mitochondrial substrates in yeast two-hybrid studies, no studies have identified MuRF1's role in regulating mitochondrial function to date. In the present study, we measured cardiac mitochondrial function from isolated permeabilized muscle fibers in previously phenotyped MuRF1 transgenic and MuRF1-/- mouse models to determine the role of MuRF1 in intermediate energy metabolism and ROS production. We identified a significant decrease in reactive oxygen species production in cardiac muscle fibers from MuRF1 transgenic mice with increased α-MHC driven MuRF1 expression. Increased MuRF1 expression in ex vivo and in vitro experiments revealed no alterations in the respiratory chain complex I and II function. Working perfusion experiments on MuRF1 transgenic hearts demonstrated significant changes in glucose oxidation. However, total oxygen consumption was decreased [corrected]. This data provides evidence for MuRF1 as a novel regulator of cardiac ROS, offering another mechanism by which increased MuRF1 expression may be cardioprotective in ischemia reperfusion injury, in addition to its inhibition of apoptosis via proteasome-mediate degradation of c-Jun. The lack of mitochondrial function phenotype identified in MuRF1-/- hearts may be due to the overlapping interactions of MuRF1 and MuRF2 with energy regulating proteins found by yeast two-hybrid studies reported here, implying a duplicity in MuRF1 and MuRF2's regulation of mitochondrial function.

  11. MuRF1 activity is present in cardiac mitochondria and regulates reactive oxygen species production in vivo

    PubMed Central

    Mattox, Taylor A.; Young, Martin E.; Rubel, Carrie E.; Spaniel, Carolyn; Rodríguez, Jessica E.; Grevengoed, Trisha J.; Gautel, Mathias; Xu, Zhelong; Anderson, Ethan J.; Willis, Monte S.

    2014-01-01

    MuRF1 is a previously reported ubiquitin-ligase found in striated muscle that targets troponin I and myosin heavy chain for degradation. While MuRF1 has been reported to interact with mitochondrial substrates in yeast two-hybrid studies, no studies have identified MuRF1’s role in regulating mitochondrial function to date. In the present study, we measured cardiac mitochondrial function from isolated permeabilized muscle fibers in previously phenotyped MuRF1 transgenic and MuRF1−/− mouse models to determine the role of MuRF1 in intermediate energy metabolism and ROS production. We identified a significant decrease in reactive oxygen species production in cardiac muscle fibers from MuRF1 transgenic mice with increased alpha-MHC driven MuRF1 expression. Increased MuRF1 expression in ex vivo and in vitro experiments revealed no alterations in the respiratory chain complex I and II function. Working perfusion experiments on MuRF1 transgenic hearts demonstrated significant changes in glucose or oleate oxidation; however, total oxygen consumption was decreased. This data provides evidence for MuRF1 as a novel regulator of cardiac ROS, offering another mechanism by which increased MuRF1 expression may be cardioprotective in ischemia reperfusion injury, in addition to its inhibition of apoptosis via proteasome-mediate degradation of c-Jun. The lack of mitochondrial function phenotype identified in MuRF1−/− hearts may be due to the overlapping interactions of MuRF1 and MuRF2 with energy regulating proteins found by yeast two-hybrid studies reported here, implying a duplicity in MuRF1 and MuRF2’s regulation of mitochondrial function. PMID:24733503

  12. An uncertainty principle underlying the functional architecture of V1.

    PubMed

    Barbieri, Davide; Citti, Giovanna; Sanguinetti, Gonzalo; Sarti, Alessandro

    2012-01-01

    We present a model of the morphology of orientation maps in V1 based on the uncertainty principle of the SE(2) group. Starting from the symmetries of the cortex, suitable harmonic analysis instruments are used to obtain coherent states in the Fourier domain as minimizers of the uncertainty. Cortical activities related to orientation maps are then obtained by projection on a suitable cortical Fourier basis.

  13. Design principles for nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen cells and, more recently, bipolar batteries have been built by a variety of organizations. The design principles that have been used by the technology group at the NASA Lewis Research Center draw upon their extensive background in separator technology, alkaline fuel cell technology, and several alkaline cell technology areas. These design principles have been incorporated into both the more contemporary individual pressure vessel (IPV) designs that were pioneered by other groups, as well as the more recent bipolar battery designs using active cooling that are being developed at NASA Lewis Research Center and under contract. These principles are rather straightforward applications of capillary force formalisms, coupled with the slowly developing data base resulting from careful post test analyses. The objective of this overall effort is directed towards the low-earth-orbit (LEO) application where the cycle life requirements are much more severe than the geosynchronous-orbit (GEO) application. A summary of the design principles employed is presented along with a discussion of the recommendations for component pore sizes and pore size distributions, as well as suggested materials of construction. These will be made based on our experience in these areas to show how these design principles have been translated into operating hardware.

  14. Design principles for nickel-hydrogen cells and batteries

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thaller, L. H.; Manzo, M. A.; Gonzalez-Sanabria, O. D.

    1985-01-01

    Nickel-hydrogen cells and, more recently, bipolar batteries have been built by a variety of organizations. The design principles that have been used by the technology group at the NASA Lewis Research Center draw upon their extensive background in separator technology, alkaline fuel cell technology, and several alkaline cell technology areas. These design principles have been incorporated into both the more contemporary individual pressure vessel (IPV) designs that were pioneered by other groups, as well as the more recent bipolar battery designs using active cooling that are being developed at NASA Lewis Research Center and under contract. These principles are rather straightforward applications of capillary force formalisms, coupled with the slowly developing data base resulting from careful post test analyses. The objective of this overall effort is directed towards the low-Earth-orbit (LEO) application where the cycle life requirements are much more severe than the geosynchronous-orbit (GEO) application. A summary of the design principles employed is presented along with a discussion of the recommendations for component pore sizes and pore size distributions, as well as suggested materials of construction. These will be made based on our experience in these areas to show how these design principles have been translated into operating hardware.

  15. A computational study on the N-heterocyclic carbene-catalyzed Csp(2)-Csp(3) bond activation/[4+2] cycloaddition cascade reaction of cyclobutenones with imines: a new application of the conservation principle of molecular orbital symmetry.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Wu, Bohua; Zhang, Haoyang; Wei, Donghui; Tang, Mingsheng

    2016-07-20

    A comprehensive density functional theory (DFT) investigation has been performed to interrogate the mechanisms and stereoselectivities of the Csp(2)-Csp(3) single bond activation of cyclobutenones and their [4+2] cycloaddition reaction with imines via N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) organocatalysis. According to our calculated results, the fundamental reaction pathway contains four steps: nucleophilic addition of NHC to cyclobutenone, C-C bond cleavage for the formation of an enolate intermediate, [4+2] cycloaddition of the enolate intermediate with isatin imine, and the elimination of the NHC catalyst. In addition, the calculated results also reveal that the second reaction step is the rate-determining step, whereas the third step is the regio- and stereo-selectivity determining step. For the regio- and stereo-selectivity determining step, all four possible attack modes were considered. The addition of the C[double bond, length as m-dash]N bond in isatin imine to the dienolate intermediate is more energy favorable than the addition of the C[double bond, length as m-dash]O bond to a dienolate intermediate. Moreover, the Re face addition of the C[double bond, length as m-dash]N bond in isatin imine to the Re face of the dienolate intermediate leading to the SS configuration N-containing product was demonstrated to be most energy favorable, which is mainly due to the stronger second-order perturbation energy value in the corresponding transition state. Furthermore, by tracking the frontier molecular orbital (FMO) changes in the rate-determining C-C bond cleavage step, we found that the reaction obeys the conservation principle of molecular orbital symmetry. We believe that the present work would provide valuable insights into this kind of reaction.

  16. Pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and its receptors are present and biochemically active in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

    PubMed

    Pirger, Zsolt; Laszlo, Zita; Hiripi, Laszlo; Hernadi, Laszlo; Toth, Gabor; Lubics, Andrea; Reglodi, Dora; Kemenes, Gyorgy; Mark, Laszlo

    2010-11-01

    PACAP is a highly conserved adenylate cyclase (AC) activating polypeptide, which, along with its receptors (PAC1-R, VPAC1, and VPAC2), is expressed in both vertebrate and invertebrate nervous systems. In vertebrates, PACAP has been shown to be involved in associative learning, but it is not known if it plays a similar role in invertebrates. To prepare the way for a detailed investigation into the possible role of PACAP and its receptors in a suitable invertebrate model of learning and memory, here, we undertook a study of their expression and biochemical role in the central nervous system of the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis. Lymnaea is one of the best established invertebrate model systems to study the molecular mechanisms of learning and memory, including the role of cyclic AMP-activated signaling mechanisms, which crucially depend on the learning-induced activation of AC. However, there was no information available on the expression of PACAP and its receptors in sensory structures and central ganglia of the Lymnaea nervous system known to be involved in associative learning or whether or not PACAP can actually activate AC in these ganglia. Here, using matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time of flight (MALDI-TOF) and immunohistochemistry, we established the presence of PACAP-like peptides in the cerebral ganglia and the lip region of Lymnaea. The MALDI-TOF data indicated an identity with mammalian PACAP-27 and the presence of a squid-like PACAP-38 highly homologous to vertebrate PACAP-38. We also showed that PACAP, VIP, and maxadilan stimulated the synthesis of cAMP in Lymnaea cerebral ganglion homogenates and that this effect was blocked by the appropriate general and selective PACAP receptor antagonists.

  17. High-resolution remote sensing data to monitor active volcanic areas: an application to the 2011-2015 eruptive activity of Mount Etna (Italy) (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marsella, Maria

    2016-10-01

    In volcanic areas, where it could be difficult to gain access to the most critical zones for carrying out direct surveys, remote sensing proved to have remarkable potentialities to follow the evolution of lava flow, as well as to detect slope instability processes induced by volcanic activity. By exploiting SAR and optical data a methodology for observing and quantifying eruptive processes was developed. The approach integrates HR optical images and SAR interferometric products and can optimize the observational capability of standard surveillance activities based on in-situ video camera network. A dedicated tool for mapping the evolution of the lava field, using both ground-based and satellite data, was developed and tested to map lava flows during the 2011-2015 eruptive activities. Ground based data were collected using the permanent ground NEtwork of Thermal and VIsible Sensors located on Mt. Etna (Etna_NETVIS) and allowed to downscale the information derived from satellite data and to integrate the satellite datasets in case of incomplete coverage or missing acquisitions. This work was developed in the framework of the EU-FP7 project "MED-SUV" (MEDiterranean SUpersite Volcanoes).

  18. The Penny Principle.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Farnsworth, Briant J.; Dunoskovic, Janice H.

    1980-01-01

    Granite School District, Salt Lake City, Utah, has developed an elementary consumer education program designed for infusion into regular subject matter teaching. This article presents goals and starter activities from each of the project's eight topic areas: money management, income determination, basic economics, advertising, purchasing, energy,…

  19. Basic principles of stability.

    PubMed

    Egan, William; Schofield, Timothy

    2009-11-01

    An understanding of the principles of degradation, as well as the statistical tools for measuring product stability, is essential to management of product quality. Key to this is management of vaccine potency. Vaccine shelf life is best managed through determination of a minimum potency release requirement, which helps assure adequate potency throughout expiry. Use of statistical tools such a least squares regression analysis should be employed to model potency decay. The use of such tools provides incentive to properly design vaccine stability studies, while holding stability measurements to specification presents a disincentive for collecting valuable data. The laws of kinetics such as Arrhenius behavior help practitioners design effective accelerated stability programs, which can be utilized to manage stability after a process change. Design of stability studies should be carefully considered, with an eye to minimizing the variability of the stability parameter. In the case of measuring the degradation rate, testing at the beginning and the end of the study improves the precision of this estimate. Additional design considerations such as bracketing and matrixing improve the efficiency of stability evaluation of vaccines.

  20. Na(+)-I- symport activity is present in membrane vesicles from thyrotropin-deprived non-I(-)-transporting cultured thyroid cells.

    PubMed Central

    Kaminsky, S M; Levy, O; Salvador, C; Dai, G; Carrasco, N

    1994-01-01

    The active accumulation of I- in the thyroid gland is mediated by the Na(+)-I- symporter and driven by the Na+ gradient generated by the Na+/K(+)-ATPase. Thyrotropin (TSH) stimulates thyroidal I- accumulation. Rat thyroid-derived FRTL-5 cells require TSH to accumulate I-. TSH withdrawal for over 7 days results in complete loss of Na(+)-I-symport activity in these cells [Weiss, S. J., Philp, N. J. and Grollman, E. F. (1984) Endocrinology 114, 1090-1098]. Surprisingly, membrane vesicles prepared from FRTL-5 cells maintained in TSH-free medium [TSH(-)cells]accumulate I-, suggesting that the absence of Na(+)-I- symport activity in TSH(-) cells cannot be due solely to a decrease in the biosynthesis of either the symporter or a putative activating factor. This finding indicates that the Na(+)-I- symporter is present, probably in an inactive state, in TSH(-) cells despite their lack of Na(+)-I- symport activity. Na(+)-I- symport activity in thyroid membrane vesicles is enhanced when conditions for vesicle preparation favor proteolysis. Subcellular fractionation studies in both TSH(+) and TSH(-) cells show that Na(+)-I- symport activity is mostly associated with fractions enriched in plasma membrane rather than in intracellular membranes, suggesting that the Na(+)-I- symporter may constitutively reside in the plasma membrane and may be activated by TSH. Images PMID:8170988

  1. [Principles and criteria used by the National Evaluation Committee of Research Activity (CNEAI-Spain) for the assessment of scientific publications: 1989-2009].

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Pérez, Rafael; Delgado López-Cózar, Emilio; Jiménez-Contreras, Evaristo

    2010-11-01

    Study of the origins, philosophy and history of the criteria used to assess research activities in Spain by the CNEAI. The assessment criteria and quality evidence of publications is discussed. Results are presented on the temporal development of the criteria used, grouped by publication type (articles and books) and fields of knowledge. Between 1989-1996, assessment was based on the definition and goals set by the Spanish scientific framework and on general criteria. Between 1996-2004, the formulation of indicators began to be almost exclusively based on Journal Citation Reports (JCR). Success rates up to 2004 indicate that the evaluation criteria and publishing behaviour matched the "hard sciences", but not the Social Sciences and Economics. In 2005, the criteria used were further developed and reoriented with an eye to softening the preceding JCR-centrism by taking into consideration other databases and defining the quality criteria to be met by journals, books and conferences not included in JCR. Correspondingly, the success rates for 2007 indicate a dramatic recovery in Economics. In the last 4 years, Humanities and Social Sciences have consolidated the further opening of the criteria used with the addition of new benchmarks and the full integration of books.

  2. Inhibitory effect of the Cree traditional medicine wiishichimanaanh (Vaccinium vitis-idaea) on advanced glycation endproduct formation: identification of active principles.

    PubMed

    Beaulieu, Louis-Philippe; Harris, Cory S; Saleem, Ammar; Cuerrier, Alain; Haddad, Pierre S; Martineau, Louis C; Bennett, Steffany A L; Arnason, John T

    2010-05-01

    Like many aboriginal populations, First Nations communities such as the Cree of Eeyou Istchee are facing continuously increasing rates of diabetes and related complications. Advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), which readily form and accumulate with sustained hyperglycemia, contribute to the development of diabetic complications and, as such, are considered a potential therapeutic target. In the present study, the inhibition of AGE formation by ethanolic extracts of the Cree medicinal plant Vaccinium vitis-idaea L. was assessed by fluorometric detection of fluorescent AGEs and immunodetection of N(epsilon)-(carboxymethyl)lysine adducts of albumin. Extracts from V. vitis-idaea berries demonstrated a concentration-dependent inhibition of AGE formation in both measures. High performance liquid chromatography mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS) identified nine main phenolic constituents. Four were selected for further testing, of which catechin, quercetin-3-O-galactoside and cyanidin-3-O-glucoside but not para-coumaric acid displayed antiglycation activities. These results demonstrate that the flavonoid components of the berry extract are potent antiglycation agents and provide pharmacological validation for the traditional use of V. vitis-idaea as an antidiabetic remedy.

  3. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, Kritina L.; Thompson, Shelby G.; Sandor, Aniko; McCann, Robert S.; Kaiser, Mary K.; Adelstein, Barnard D.; Begault, Durand R.; Beutter, Brent R.; Stone, Leland S.; Godfroy, Martine

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. In addition to addressing display design issues associated with information formatting, style, layout, and interaction, the Information Presentation DRP is also working toward understanding the effects of extreme environments encountered in space travel on information processing. Work is also in progress to refine human factors-based design tools, such as human performance modeling, that will supplement traditional design techniques and help ensure that optimal information design is accomplished in the most cost-efficient manner. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within the Information Presentation DRP for FY10 are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. The poster will highlight completed and planned work for each subtask.

  4. Conservation Presentation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friday, Gerald

    2001-01-01

    Introduces a project in which students teach about the importance of recycling and conservation by presenting demonstrations. Includes demonstrations on water, plastic, and other recycling products such as steel. (YDS)

  5. Archimedes' Principle in Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kires, Marian

    2007-01-01

    The conceptual understanding of Archimedes' principle can be verified in experimental procedures which determine mass and density using a floating object. This is demonstrated by simple experiments using graduated beakers. (Contains 5 figures.)

  6. Chemical Principles Exemplified

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plumb, Robert C.

    1972-01-01

    Collection of two short descriptions of chemical principles seen in life situations: the autocatalytic reaction seen in the bombardier beetle, and molecular potential energy used for quick roasting of beef. Brief reference is also made to methanol lighters. (PS)

  7. Structural studies of the protein endostatin in fusion with BAX BH3 death domain, a hybrid that presents enhanced antitumoral activity.

    PubMed

    Chura-Chambi, Rosa Maria; Arcuri, Helen Andrade; Lino, Felipe; Versati, Natan; Palma, Mario Sergio; Favaro, Denize C; Morganti, Ligia

    2016-05-04

    Endostatin (ES) is an antiangiogenic protein that exhibits antitumor activity in animal models. However, the activity observed in animals was not observed in human clinical trials. ES-BAX is a fusion protein composed of two functional domains: ES, which presents specificity and is internalized by activated endothelial cells and the proapoptotic BH3 domain of the protein BAX, a peptide inductor of cellular death when internalized. We have previously shown (Chura-Chambi et al., Cell Death Dis, 5, e1371, 2014) that ES-BAX presents improved antitumor activity in relation to wild-type ES. Secondary and tertiary structures of ES-BAX are similar to ES, as indicated by homology-modeling studies and molecular dynamics simulations. Tryptophan intrinsic fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy corroborate these data. (15) N HSQC NMR indicates that ES-BAX is structured, but some ES residues have suffered chemical shift perturbations, suggesting that the BH3 peptide interacts with some parts of the ES protein. ES and ES-BAX present similar stability to thermal denaturation. The production of stable hybrid proteins can be a new approach to the development of therapeutic agents presenting specificity for tumoral endothelium and improved antitumor effect.

  8. Information Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holden, K.L.; Boyer, J.L.; Sandor, A.; Thompson, S.G.; McCann, R.S.; Begault, D.R.; Adelstein, B.D.; Beutter, B.R.; Stone, L.S.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the Information Presentation Directed Research Project (DRP) is to address design questions related to the presentation of information to the crew. The major areas of work, or subtasks, within this DRP are: 1) Displays, 2) Controls, 3) Electronic Procedures and Fault Management, and 4) Human Performance Modeling. This DRP is a collaborative effort between researchers at Johnson Space Center and Ames Research Center.

  9. Application of fMRI to obesity research: differences in reward pathway activation measured with fMRI BOLD during visual presentation of high and low calorie foods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsao, Sinchai; Adam, Tanja C.; Goran, Michael I.; Singh, Manbir

    2012-03-01

    The factors behind the neural mechanisms that motivate food choice and obesity are not well known. Furthermore, it is not known when these neural mechanisms develop and how they are influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. This study uses fMRI together with clinical data to shed light on the aforementioned questions by investigating how appetite-related activation in the brain changes with low versus high caloric foods in pre-pubescent girls. Previous studies have shown that obese adults have less striatal D2 receptors and thus reduced Dopamine (DA) signaling leading to the reward-deficit theory of obesity. However, overeating in itself reduces D2 receptor density, D2 sensitivity and thus reward sensitivity. The results of this study will show how early these neural mechanisms develop and what effect the drastic endocrinological changes during puberty has on these mechanisms. Our preliminary results showed increased activations in the Putamen, Insula, Thalamus and Hippocampus when looking at activations where High Calorie > Low Calorie. When comparing High Calorie > Control and Low Calorie > Control, the High > Control test showed increased significant activation in the frontal lobe. The Low > Control also yielded significant activation in the Left and Right Fusiform Gyrus, which did not appear in the High > Control test. These results indicate that the reward pathway activations previously shown in post-puberty and adults are present in pre-pubescent teens. These results may suggest that some of the preferential neural mechanisms of reward are already present pre-puberty.

  10. Basic Concepts and Principles of Marketing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beder, Hal

    1986-01-01

    Presents an overview of marketing concepts and principles. These include (1) organizational objectives, (2) exchange, (3) value, (4) market segmentation, (5) market position, (6) consumer analysis, (7) product, (8) promotion, (9) place, and (10) price. (CH)

  11. The effect of electronegative difference on the electronic structure and visible light photocatalytic activity of N-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} by first-principles calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Dongqiu; Huang Xiaowei; Tian Baoli; Zhou Shaomin; Li Yuncai; Du Zuliang

    2011-04-18

    The effect of electronegative difference between nitrogen and oxygen on electronic properties of N-doped anatase TiO{sub 2} has been studied using first-principles calculations. The results indicate that the valence band maximum (VBM) shifts to high energy by 0.27 eV and the band gap states composed of N 2p, O 2p, and Ti 3d states are formed through the three states entering into the gap after N doping. The interactions of three states widen and delocalize the band gap states. The raised VBM and the wide band gap states can improve the visible light photocatalytic activity.

  12. Active matrix metalloproteinases are present in cartilage during immune complex-mediated arthritis: a pivotal role for stromelysin-1 in cartilage destruction.

    PubMed

    van Meurs, J; van Lent, P; Holthuysen, A; Lambrou, D; Bayne, E; Singer, I; van den Berg, W

    1999-11-15

    The involvement of immune complexes during experimental arthritis in induction of metalloproteinases (MMP)-induced neoepitopes in aggrecan in cartilage, as well as the role of stromelysin-1 (SLN-1) in the induction of this neoepitope, was investigated. Passive immune complex arthritis was induced, and generation of the MMP-specific cleavage product (VDIPEN) was studied by immunolocalization. The role of SLN-1 was studied with use of SLN-1-deficient (SLN-1KO) mice. VDIPEN expression was studied in vitro by exposing the cartilage to IL-1 and subsequent activation of latent MMPs. Immune complex arthritis was characterized by an acute inflammation, with influx of mainly polymorphonuclear cells into the joint cavity. Expression of VDIPEN neoepitopes was consistently found in areas extensively depleted from proteoglycans. SLN-1KO mice did not show expression of the VDIPEN neoepitope, although inflammation and proteoglycan depletion was comparable to wild-type mice. In addition, erosions of cartilage were absent in SLN-1KO mice, but were present in wild-type mice, suggesting an important role for SLN-1 in cartilage destruction. In vitro studies showed that SLN-1 is also pivotally involved in IL-1-induced MMP activity. Stimulated polymorphonuclear neutrophils were able to activate latent MMPs present in the cartilage. Neutrophil elastase was also capable of activating IL-1-induced latent MMPs, which identifies elastase as a possible activator for latent VDIPEN-inducing MMPs. This study suggests that IC are important in the activation of latent MMPs in cartilage, possibly through polymorphonuclear neutrophil activation on the cartilage edge. SLN-1 is a pivotal enzyme in overall MMP-activity in cartilage during immune complex-mediated arthritis.

  13. [The Present Status of, and Issues Related to, Mental Health Activities in the Ishinomaki Region, with a Focus on Outreach Activities].

    PubMed

    Hara, Keizo

    2015-01-01

    The Great East Japan Earthquake was a colossal event, registering a magnitude of 9.0 and causing huge tsunami that in some places were more than 40 meters in height. As of March 31, 2014, the number of dead nationwide stood at 15,882, while 2,668 persons were listed as missing; 3,089 other deaths have also been classified as being disaster-related. There were 5,500 victims in the Ishinomaki area alone. The disaster, comprising the earthquake itself, the subsequent tsunami, fires, and the nuclear power plant accident, was a combined natural and man-made catastrophe of epic proportions, affecting a broad, underpopulated region. Those hit by the disaster were affected not only by the loss of life, but also the loss of homes and livelihoods. These people experience psychological stress, fear, and anxiety as a result of lifestyle and environmental changes associated with moving from evacuation areas to prefab temporary housing, or the homes of parents, siblings, relatives, friends, or acquaintances, followed by attempts to rebuild their own homes. Other changes, such as the loss of employment, the transition to new workplaces, or having to change schools, also take a psychological and emotional toll. Delays in the construction of new housing and the resulting prolongation of life as evacuees only serve to increase anxiety and the sense of stagnation. With the above as a backdrop, the author will report on activities being conducted by his organization, particularly outreach efforts.

  14. Dark matter and the equivalence principle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frieman, Joshua A.; Gradwohl, Ben-Ami

    1993-01-01

    A survey is presented of the current understanding of dark matter invoked by astrophysical theory and cosmology. Einstein's equivalence principle asserts that local measurements cannot distinguish a system at rest in a gravitational field from one that is in uniform acceleration in empty space. Recent test-methods for the equivalence principle are presently discussed as bases for testing of dark matter scenarios involving the long-range forces between either baryonic or nonbaryonic dark matter and ordinary matter.

  15. Principles of periodontology.

    PubMed

    Dentino, Andrew; Lee, Seokwoo; Mailhot, Jason; Hefti, Arthur F

    2013-02-01

    Periodontal diseases are among the most common diseases affecting humans. Dental biofilm is a contributor to the etiology of most periodontal diseases. It is also widely accepted that immunological and inflammatory responses to biofilm components are manifested by signs and symptoms of periodontal disease. The outcome of such interaction is modulated by risk factors (modifiers), either inherent (genetic) or acquired (environmental), significantly affecting the initiation and progression of different periodontal disease phenotypes. While definitive genetic determinants responsible for either susceptibility or resistance to periodontal disease have yet to be identified, many factors affecting the pathogenesis have been described, including smoking, diabetes, obesity, medications, and nutrition. Currently, periodontal diseases are classified based upon clinical disease traits using radiographs and clinical examination. Advances in genomics, molecular biology, and personalized medicine may result in new guidelines for unambiguous disease definition and diagnosis in the future. Recent studies have implied relationships between periodontal diseases and systemic conditions. Answering critical questions regarding host-parasite interactions in periodontal diseases may provide new insight in the pathogenesis of other biomedical disorders. Therapeutic efforts have focused on the microbial nature of the infection, as active treatment centers on biofilm disruption by non-surgical mechanical debridement with antimicrobial and sometimes anti-inflammatory adjuncts. The surgical treatment aims at gaining access to periodontal lesions and correcting unfavorable gingival/osseous contours to achieve a periodontal architecture that will provide for more effective oral hygiene and periodontal maintenance. In addition, advances in tissue engineering have provided innovative means to regenerate/repair periodontal defects, based upon principles of guided tissue regeneration and utilization

  16. Presentation Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burt, Lorna; And Others

    This guide is intended for use in an eight-session course designed to develop the presentation skills required of persons employed in the manufacturing and service industries. The course is structured so that, upon its completion, students will be able to accomplish the following: identify the traits of good and bad speakers; research and organize…

  17. Identifying quantitative operation principles in metabolic pathways: a systematic method for searching feasible enzyme activity patterns leading to cellular adaptive responses

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Optimization methods allow designing changes in a system so that specific goals are attained. These techniques are fundamental for metabolic engineering. However, they are not directly applicable for investigating the evolution of metabolic adaptation to environmental changes. Although biological systems have evolved by natural selection and result in well-adapted systems, we can hardly expect that actual metabolic processes are at the theoretical optimum that could result from an optimization analysis. More likely, natural systems are to be found in a feasible region compatible with global physiological requirements. Results We first present a new method for globally optimizing nonlinear models of metabolic pathways that are based on the Generalized Mass Action (GMA) representation. The optimization task is posed as a nonconvex nonlinear programming (NLP) problem that is solved by an outer-approximation algorithm. This method relies on solving iteratively reduced NLP slave subproblems and mixed-integer linear programming (MILP) master problems that provide valid upper and lower bounds, respectively, on the global solution to the original NLP. The capabilities of this method are illustrated through its application to the anaerobic fermentation pathway in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. We next introduce a method to identify the feasibility parametric regions that allow a system to meet a set of physiological constraints that can be represented in mathematical terms through algebraic equations. This technique is based on applying the outer-approximation based algorithm iteratively over a reduced search space in order to identify regions that contain feasible solutions to the problem and discard others in which no feasible solution exists. As an example, we characterize the feasible enzyme activity changes that are compatible with an appropriate adaptive response of yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae to heat shock Conclusion Our results show the utility of the

  18. TS-1 from First Principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamba, Aldo; Tabacchi, Gloria; Fois, Ettore

    2009-09-01

    First principles studies on periodic TS-1 models at Ti content corresponding to 1.35% and 2.7% in weight of TiO2 are presented. The problem of Ti preferential siting is addressed by using realistic models corresponding to the TS-1 unit cell [TiSi95O192] and adopting for the first time a periodic DFT approach, thus providing an energy scale for Ti in the different crystallographic sites in nondefective TS-1. The structure with Ti in site T3 is the most stable, followed by T4 (+0.3 kcal/mol); the less stable structure, corresponding to Ti in T1, is 5.6 kcal/mol higher in energy. The work has been extended to investigate models with two Ti's per unit cell [Ti2Si94O192] (2.7%). The possible existence of Ti-O-Ti bridges, formed by two corner-sharing TiO4 tetrahedra, is discussed. By using cluster models cut from the optimized periodic DFT structures, both vibrational (DFT) and electronic excitation spectra (TDDFT) have been calculated and favorably compared with the experimental data available on TS-1. Interesting features emerged from excitation spectra: (i) Isolated tetrahedral Ti sites show a Beer-Lambert behavior, with absorption intensity proportional to concentration. Such a behavior is gradually lost when two Ti's occupy sites close to each other. (ii) The UV-vis absorption in the 200-250 nm region can be associated with transitions from occupied states delocalized on the framework oxygens to empty d states localized on Ti. Such extended-states-to-local-states transitions may help the interpretation of the photovoltaic activity recently detected in Ti zeolites.

  19. Overview Presentation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lytle, John

    2001-01-01

    This report provides an overview presentation of the 2000 NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) Review and Planning Meeting. Topics include: 1) a background of the program; 2) 1999 Industry Feedback; 3) FY00 Status, including resource distribution and major accomplishments; 4) FY01 Major Milestones; and 5) Future direction for the program. Specifically, simulation environment/production software and NPSS CORBA Security Development are discussed.

  20. What Metadata Principles Apply to Scientific Data?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mayernik, M. S.

    2014-12-01

    Information researchers and professionals based in the library and information science fields often approach their work through developing and applying defined sets of principles. For example, for over 100 years, the evolution of library cataloging practice has largely been driven by debates (which are still ongoing) about the fundamental principles of cataloging and how those principles should manifest in rules for cataloging. Similarly, the development of archival research and practices over the past century has proceeded hand-in-hand with the emergence of principles of archival arrangement and description, such as maintaining the original order of records and documenting provenance. This project examines principles related to the creation of metadata for scientific data. The presentation will outline: 1) how understandings and implementations of metadata can range broadly depending on the institutional context, and 2) how metadata principles developed by the library and information science community might apply to metadata developments for scientific data. The development and formalization of such principles would contribute to the development of metadata practices and standards in a wide range of institutions, including data repositories, libraries, and research centers. Shared metadata principles would potentially be useful in streamlining data discovery and integration, and would also benefit the growing efforts to formalize data curation education.

  1. Exceptional activity of sub-nm Pt clusters on CdS for photocatalytic hydrogen production: A combined of experimental and first-principles study

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Qiyuan; Su, Dong; Xiong, Shangmin; ...

    2014-12-24

    In this work we have explored a new concept of substantially increasing photocatalytic activity for H₂ production of conventional semiconductors by modifying them with sub-nm Pt particles. By combining both experimental and theoretical approaches, we have also developed new mechanistic insights into the 17 times increase in photocatalytic activity of Pt modified CdS catalysts.

  2. A Principle of Intentionality.

    PubMed

    Turner, Charles K

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett's model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone.

  3. Applying the four principles.

    PubMed

    Macklin, R

    2003-10-01

    Gillon is correct that the four principles provide a sound and useful way of analysing moral dilemmas. As he observes, the approach using these principles does not provide a unique solution to dilemmas. This can be illustrated by alternatives to Gillon's own analysis of the four case scenarios. In the first scenario, a different set of factual assumptions could yield a different conclusion about what is required by the principle of beneficence. In the second scenario, although Gillon's conclusion is correct, what is open to question is his claim that what society regards as the child's best interest determines what really is in the child's best interest. The third scenario shows how it may be reasonable for the principle of beneficence to take precedence over autonomy in certain circumstances, yet like the first scenario, the ethical conclusion relies on a set of empirical assumptions and predictions of what is likely to occur. The fourth scenario illustrates how one can draw different conclusions based on the importance given to the precautionary principle.

  4. A Principle of Intentionality

    PubMed Central

    Turner, Charles K.

    2017-01-01

    The mainstream theories and models of the physical sciences, including neuroscience, are all consistent with the principle of causality. Wholly causal explanations make sense of how things go, but are inherently value-neutral, providing no objective basis for true beliefs being better than false beliefs, nor for it being better to intend wisely than foolishly. Dennett (1987) makes a related point in calling the brain a syntactic (procedure-based) engine. He says that you cannot get to a semantic (meaning-based) engine from there. He suggests that folk psychology revolves around an intentional stance that is independent of the causal theories of the brain, and accounts for constructs such as meanings, agency, true belief, and wise desire. Dennett proposes that the intentional stance is so powerful that it can be developed into a valid intentional theory. This article expands Dennett’s model into a principle of intentionality that revolves around the construct of objective wisdom. This principle provides a structure that can account for all mental processes, and for the scientific understanding of objective value. It is suggested that science can develop a far more complete worldview with a combination of the principles of causality and intentionality than would be possible with scientific theories that are consistent with the principle of causality alone. PMID:28223954

  5. Processing and MHC class II presentation of exogenous soluble antigen involving a proteasome-dependent cytosolic pathway in CD40-activated B cells.

    PubMed

    Becker, Hans Jiro; Kondo, Eisei; Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, Alexander; Theurich, Sebastian; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    Activated B cells have the capacity to present antigen and induce immune responses as potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs). As in other APCs, antigen presentation by B cells involves antigen internalization, antigen processing, and peptide loading onto MHC molecules. However, while the mechanism of antigen processing has been studied extensively in other APCs, this pathway remains elusive in B cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the MHC class II processing pathway in CD40-activated B cells (CD40Bs), as a model for activated, antigen-presenting B cells. Using CMV pp65 as a model antigen, we evaluated processing and presentation of the CD4 + T-cell epitope 509-523 (K509) by human CD40Bs in ELISPOT assays. As expected, stimulation of specific CD4 + T-cell clones was attenuated after pretreatment of CD40Bs with inhibitors of classic class II pathway components. However, proteasome inhibitors such as epoxomicin limited antigen presentation as well. This suggests that the antigen is processed in a non-classical, cytosolic MHC class II pathway. Further experiments with truncated protein variants revealed involvement of the proteasome in processing of the N and C extensions of the epitope. Access to the cytosol was shown to be size dependent. Epoxomicin sensitivity exclusively in CD40B cells, but not in dendritic cells, suggests a novel processing mechanism unique to this APC. Our data suggest that B cells process antigen using a distinct, non-classical class II pathway.

  6. Science Activities in Energy: Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oak Ridge Associated Universities, TN.

    Presented is a science activities in energy package which includes 14 activities relating to energy conservation. Activities are simple, concrete experiments for fourth, fifth and sixth grades, which illustrate principles and problems relating to energy. Each activity is outlined on a simple card which is introduced by a question. A teacher's…

  7. Facilitating neurorehabilitation through principles of engagement.

    PubMed

    Danzl, Megan M; Etter, Nicole M; Andreatta, Richard D; Kitzman, Patrick H

    2012-01-01

    A primary goal of neurorehabilitation is to guide recovery of functional skills after injury through evidence-based interventions that operate to manipulate the sensorimotor environment of the client. While choice of intervention is an important decision for clinicians, we contend it is only one part of producing optimal activity-dependent neuroplastic changes. A key variable in the rehabilitation equation is engagement. Applying principles of engagement may yield greater neuroplastic changes and functional outcomes for clients. We review the principles of neuroplasticity and engagement and their potential linkage through concepts of attention and motivation and strategies such as mental practice and enriched environments. Clinical applications and challenges for enhancing engagement during rehabilitation are presented. Engagement strategies, such as building trust and rapport, motivational interviewing, enhancing the client education process, and interventions that empower clients, are reviewed. Well-controlled research is needed to test our theoretical framework and suggested outcomes. Clinicians may enhance engagement by investing time and energy in the growth and development of the therapeutic relationship with clients, as this is paramount to maintaining clients' investment in continuing therapy and also may act as a driver of neuroplastic changes.

  8. Involvement of Phospholipase Cγ1 in Mouse Egg Activation Induced by a Truncated Form of the C-kit Tyrosine Kinase Present in Spermatozoa

    PubMed Central

    Sette, Claudio; Bevilacqua, Arturo; Geremia, Raffaele; Rossi, Pellegrino

    1998-01-01

    Microinjection of a truncated form of the c-kit tyrosine kinase present in mouse spermatozoa (tr-kit) activates mouse eggs parthenogenetically, and tr-kit– induced egg activation is inhibited by preincubation with an inhibitor of phospholipase C (PLC) (Sette, C., A. Bevilacqua, A. Bianchini, F. Mangia, R. Geremia, and P. Rossi. 1997. Development [Camb.]. 124:2267–2274). Co-injection of glutathione-S-transferase (GST) fusion proteins containing the src-homology (SH) domains of the γ1 isoform of PLC (PLCγ1) competitively inhibits tr-kit– induced egg activation. A GST fusion protein containing the SH3 domain of PLCγ1 inhibits egg activation as efficiently as the whole SH region, while a GST fusion protein containing the two SH2 domains is much less effective. A GST fusion protein containing the SH3 domain of the Grb2 adaptor protein does not inhibit tr-kit–induced egg activation, showing that the effect of the SH3 domain of PLCγ1 is specific. Tr-kit–induced egg activation is also suppressed by co-injection of antibodies raised against the PLCγ1 SH domains, but not against the PLCγ1 COOH-terminal region. In transfected COS cells, coexpression of PLCγ1 and tr-kit increases diacylglycerol and inositol phosphate production, and the phosphotyrosine content of PLCγ1 with respect to cells expressing PLCγ1 alone. These data indicate that tr-kit activates PLCγ1, and that the SH3 domain of PLCγ1 is essential for tr-kit–induced egg activation. PMID:9722617

  9. Characterization of ribonuclease H activities present in two cell-free protein synthesizing systems, the wheat germ extract and the rabbit reticulocyte lysate.

    PubMed

    Cazenave, C; Frank, P; Büsen, W

    1993-01-01

    Experimental evidence accumulated to date by several research groups indicates that antisense oligodeoxynucleotides targeted against messenger RNA (mRNA) sequences located downstream of the initiation codon fail to inhibit the translation of this mRNA unless the hybrid is cleaved by RNase H. It has previously been shown that exogenous RNase H has to be added to rabbit reticulocyte lysate to obtain translational arrest (unless freshly prepared lysates are used). In contrast there is no need of exogenous RNase H by using wheat germ extract for translation because the level of endogenous RNase H is high enough to ensure cleavage of the hybrid formed between the antisense oligodeoxyribonucleotide and its complementary sequence on the mRNA. Surprisingly, we found that these two cell-free translation systems display similar amounts of RNase H activities when tested under standard conditions (extract diluted 500 times in the RNase H reaction mix). The RNase H activity of the rabbit reticulocyte lysate has a divalent cation requirement and sensitivity to inhibitors similar to class I ribonuclease H, whereas the activity of the wheat germ extract shows similarities to class II ribonuclease H. However, when these activities were assayed under conditions similar to those used for translation experiments, only highly reduced levels of activity were found in comparison to the standard assays. This reduction is due in part to sub-optimal ionic conditions for the endogenous RNase H activities in these extracts, and, for the other part, likely due to interactions with other proteins present in the lysates. In these conditions, however, the remaining activity found in the wheat germ extract was three times higher than the activity found in the rabbit reticulocyte lysate. Whether this difference can by itself explain the indicated differences in the two systems observed in hybrid-arrest of translation experiments remains open to discussion.

  10. Identification of Proteins with Potential Osteogenic Activity Present in the Water-Soluble Matrix Proteins from Crassostrea gigas Nacre Using a Proteomic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Daniel V.; Silva, Tomé S.; Cordeiro, Odete D.; Cavaco, Sofia I.; Simes, Dina C.

    2012-01-01

    Nacre, when implanted in vivo in bones of dogs, sheep, mice, and humans, induces a biological response that includes integration and osteogenic activity on the host tissue that seems to be activated by a set of proteins present in the nacre water-soluble matrix (WSM). We describe here an experimental approach that can accurately identify the proteins present in the WSM of shell mollusk nacre. Four proteins (three gigasin-2 isoforms and a cystatin A2) were for the first time identified in WSM of Crassostrea gigas nacre using 2DE and LC-MS/MS for protein identification. These proteins are thought to be involved in bone remodeling processes and could be responsible for the biocompatibility shown between bone and nacre grafts. These results represent a contribution to the study of shell biomineralization process and opens new perspectives for the development of new nacre biomaterials for orthopedic applications. PMID:22666151

  11. Role of antigen-presenting cells in activation of human T cells by the streptococcal M protein superantigen: requirement for secreted and membrane-associated costimulatory factors.

    PubMed Central

    Majumdar, G; Ohnishi, H; Tomai, M A; Geller, A M; Wang, B; Dockter, M E; Kotb, M

    1993-01-01

    The requirements for T-cell activation by the streptococcal superantigen (SAg), pepsin-extracted M protein from type 5 streptococci (pep M5), were studied by monitoring Ca2+ influx and cell proliferation. Cells from a pep M5-specific T-cell line showed no change in intracellular Ca2+ levels in response to pep M5 when added alone or with freshly isolated autologous antigen-presenting cells (APC). However, after being incubated with pep M5 overnight, the APC secreted soluble factors that together with pep M5 induced a marked increase in intracellular Ca2+ levels in pep M5-specific T cells or freshly isolated, purified T cells. Removal of the SAg from the overnight APC-derived supernatants resulted in loss of the Ca(2+)-mobilizing activity, which was restored within seconds of addition of SAg, suggesting that both the SAg and the soluble factors synergize to induce the Ca2+ influx. Induction of cell proliferation required additional signals inasmuch as the activated APC-derived supernatant failed to synergize with pep M5 to induce the proliferation of purified T cells and required the presence of phorbol myristate acetate for this activity. Metabolically inactive, fixed APC were impaired in their ability to present pep M5 to T cells. Presentation of pep M5 by fixed APC was, however, restored when the APC-derived soluble costimulatory factors were added to the culture. Our data suggest that pep M5-induced activation of T cells is dependent on APC-derived soluble factors and an APC membrane-associated costimulatory molecule(s). These interactions may be important in regulating the in vivo responses to M proteins, could contribute to the severity or progression of infections with Streptococcus pyogenes, and may influence the susceptibility of individuals to its associated nonsuppurative autoimmune sequelae. PMID:8423107

  12. GM-CSF-neuroantigen fusion proteins reverse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and mediate tolerogenic activity in adjuvant-primed environments: association with inflammation-dependent, inhibitory antigen presentation2

    PubMed Central

    Islam, S.M. Touhidul; Curtis, Alan D.; Taslim, Najla; Wilkinson, Daniel S.; Mannie, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Single-chain fusion proteins comprised of GM-CSF and neuroantigen (NAg) are potent, NAg-specific inhibitors of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). An important question was whether GMCSF-NAg tolerogenic vaccines retained inhibitory activity within inflammatory environments or were contingent upon steady-state conditions. A GMCSF-MOG fusion protein reversed established paralytic disease in both passive and active models of EAE in C57BL/6 mice. The fusion protein also reversed EAE in CD4-deficient and B cell-deficient mice. Notably, GMCSF-MOG inhibited EAE when co-injected adjacent to the MOG35-55/CFA emulsion. GMCSF-MOG also retained dominant inhibitory activity when directly emulsified with MOG35-55 in the CFA emulsion in both C57BL/6 or B cell-deficient models of EAE. Likewise, when combined with PLP139-151 in CFA, GMCSF-PLP inhibited EAE in SJL mice. When deliberately emulsified in CFA with the NAg, GMCSF-NAg inhibited EAE even though NAg was present at more than a 30-fold molar excess. In vitro studies revealed that the GMCSF domain of GMCSF-MOG stimulated growth and differentiation of inflammatory dendritic cells (DC) and simultaneously targeted the MOG35-55 domain for enhanced presentation by these DC. These inflammatory DC presented MOG35-55 to MOG-specific T cells by an inhibitory mechanism that was mediated in part by IFN-γ signaling and NO production. In conclusion, GMCSF-NAg was tolerogenic in CFA-primed pro-inflammatory environments by a mechanism associated with targeted antigen presentation by inflammatory DC and an inhibitory IFN-γ/ NO pathway. The inhibitory activity of GMCSF-NAg in CFA-primed lymphatics distinguishes GMCSF-NAg fusion proteins as a unique class of inflammation-dependent tolerogens that are mechanistically distinct from naked peptide or protein-based tolerogens. PMID:25049359

  13. Spaceborne receivers: Basic principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stacey, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    The underlying principles of operation of microwave receivers for space observations of planetary surfaces were examined. The design philosophy of the receiver as it is applied to operate functionally as an efficient receiving system, the principle of operation of the key components of the receiver, and the important differences among receiver types are explained. The operating performance and the sensitivity expectations for both the modulated and total power receiver configurations are outlined. The expressions are derived from first principles and are developed through the important intermediate stages to form practicle and easily applied equations. The transfer of thermodynamic energy from point to point within the receiver is illustrated. The language of microwave receivers is applied statistics.

  14. Basic Principles of Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Baraem; Nielsen, S. Suzanne

    Chromatography has a great impact on all areas of analysis and, therefore, on the progress of science in general. Chromatography differs from other methods of separation in that a wide variety of materials, equipment, and techniques can be used. [Readers are referred to references (1-19) for general and specific information on chromatography.]. This chapter will focus on the principles of chromatography, mainly liquid chromatography (LC). Detailed principles and applications of gas chromatography (GC) will be discussed in Chap. 29. In view of its widespread use and applications, high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) will be discussed in a separate chapter (Chap. 28). The general principles of extraction are first described as a basis for understanding chromatography.

  15. Principles of cellular-molecular mechanisms underlying neuron functions.

    PubMed

    Ratushnyak, Alexander S; Zapara, Tatiana A

    2009-12-01

    In the present work, it was experimentally shown that a neuron in vitro was capable of responding in a manner similar to habituation, Pavlov's reflex and avoidance of the reinforcements. The locality of plastic property modifications and molecular morphology, as well as the connection between functional activity and cytoskeleton have been revealed. A hypothesis is formulated that the neuron is a molecular system which may exercise the control, forecast, recognition, and classification. The basic principles of the molecular mechanisms of the responses underlying integrative activity, learning and memory at the neuronal level are discussed.

  16. [Ethical principles in electronvulsivotherapy].

    PubMed

    Richa, S; De Carvalho, W

    2016-12-01

    ECT or electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is a therapeutic technique invented in 1935 but which was really developed after World War II and then spreading widely until the mid 1960s. The source of this technique, and some forms of stigma including films, have participated widely to make it suspect from a moral point of view. The ethical principles that support the establishment of a treatment by ECT are those relating to any action in psychiatry and are based on the one hand on the founding principles of bioethics: autonomy, beneficence, non-malfeasance, and justice, and on the other hand on the information on the technical and consent to this type of care.

  17. Teaching/learning principles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hankins, D. B.; Wake, W. H.

    1981-01-01

    The potential remote sensing user community is enormous, and the teaching and training tasks are even larger; however, some underlying principles may be synthesized and applied at all levels from elementary school children to sophisticated and knowledgeable adults. The basic rules applying to each of the six major elements of any training course and the underlying principle involved in each rule are summarized. The six identified major elements are: (1) field sites for problems and practice; (2) lectures and inside study; (3) learning materials and resources (the kit); (4) the field experience; (5) laboratory sessions; and (6) testing and evaluation.

  18. Matching the Neurobiology of Learning to Teaching Principles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moffett, Nelle; Fleisher, Steven C.

    2013-01-01

    The authors describe principles of good teaching drawn from meta-analyses of research on teaching effectiveness. Recent developments in neurobiology are presented and aligned to provide biological support for these principles. To make it easier for college faculty to try out sample instructional strategies, the authors map principles of good…

  19. Action Research and Narrative Inquiry: Five Principles for Validation Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heikkinen, Hannu L. T.; Huttunen, Rauno; Syrjala, Leena; Pesonen, Jyri

    2012-01-01

    The article continues the discussion of the five quality principles proposed by Heikkinen, Huttunen, and Syrjala, published in 2007 in "Educational Action Research". In the present article, the authors reconsider the five principles: historical continuity; reflexivity; dialectics; workability; and evocativeness. These five principles are…

  20. Tat engagement of p38 MAP kinase and IRF7 pathways leads to activation of interferon-stimulated genes in antigen-presenting cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Nayoung; Kukkonen, Sami; Martinez-Viedma, Maria Del Pilar; Gupta, Sumeet; Aldovini, Anna

    2013-05-16

    As a result of its interaction with transcription factors, HIV type 1 (HIV-1) Tat can modulate the expression of both HIV and cellular genes. In antigen-presenting cells Tat induces the expression of a subset of interferon (IFN)-stimulated genes (ISGs) in the absence of IFNs. We investigated the genome-wide Tat association with promoters in immature dendritic cells and in monocyte-derived macrophages. Among others, Tat associated with the MAP2K6, MAP2K3, and IRF7 promoters that are functionally part of IL-1 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathways. The association correlated with their increased gene expression, increased activation of p38 MAPK and of phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1), and consequent induction of ISGs. Probing these pathways with RNA interference, pharmacological p38 MAPK inhibition, and in cell lines lacking STAT1s or the type I IFN receptor chain confirmed the role of MAPKKs and IRF7 in Tat-mediated modulation of ISGs and excluded the involvement of IFNs in this modulation. Tat interaction with the 2 MAPKK and IRF7 promoters in HIV-1-infected cells and the resulting persistent activation of ISGs, which include inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, can contribute to the increased immune activation that characterizes HIV infection.

  1. Principles for quality undergraduate education in psychology.

    PubMed

    2011-12-01

    The principles for undergraduate education in psychology presented here are designed for creating a world-class educational system that provides students with the workplace skills needed in this information age; a solid academic background that prepares them for advanced study in a wide range of fields; and the knowledge, skills, and abilities that will enhance their personal lives. A quality undergraduate education is designed to produce psychologically literate citizens who apply the principles of psychological science at work and at home. The American Psychological Association (APA) urges all stakeholders in undergraduate education in psychology to incorporate these principles in establishing goals and objectives that fit their specific institutional needs and missions.

  2. Is the Precautionary Principle Really Incoherent?

    PubMed

    Boyer-Kassem, Thomas

    2017-02-28

    The Precautionary Principle has been an increasingly important principle in international treaties since the 1980s. Through varying formulations, it states that when an activity can lead to a catastrophe for human health or the environment, measures should be taken to prevent it even if the cause-and-effect relationship is not fully established scientifically. The Precautionary Principle has been critically discussed from many sides. This article concentrates on a theoretical argument by Peterson (2006) according to which the Precautionary Principle is incoherent with other desiderata of rational decision making, and thus cannot be used as a decision rule that selects an action among several ones. I claim here that Peterson's argument fails to establish the incoherence of the Precautionary Principle, by attacking three of its premises. I argue (i) that Peterson's treatment of uncertainties lacks generality, (ii) that his Archimedian condition is problematic for incommensurability reasons, and (iii) that his explication of the Precautionary Principle is not adequate. This leads me to conjecture that the Precautionary Principle can be envisaged as a coherent decision rule, again.

  3. Mapping whole-brain activity with cellular resolution by light-sheet microscopy and high-throughput image analysis (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Silvestri, Ludovico; Rudinskiy, Nikita; Paciscopi, Marco; Müllenbroich, Marie Caroline; Costantini, Irene; Sacconi, Leonardo; Frasconi, Paolo; Hyman, Bradley T.; Pavone, Francesco S.

    2016-03-01

    Mapping neuronal activity patterns across the whole brain with cellular resolution is a challenging task for state-of-the-art imaging methods. Indeed, despite a number of technological efforts, quantitative cellular-resolution activation maps of the whole brain have not yet been obtained. Many techniques are limited by coarse resolution or by a narrow field of view. High-throughput imaging methods, such as light sheet microscopy, can be used to image large specimens with high resolution and in reasonable times. However, the bottleneck is then moved from image acquisition to image analysis, since many TeraBytes of data have to be processed to extract meaningful information. Here, we present a full experimental pipeline to quantify neuronal activity in the entire mouse brain with cellular resolution, based on a combination of genetics, optics and computer science. We used a transgenic mouse strain (Arc-dVenus mouse) in which neurons which have been active in the last hours before brain fixation are fluorescently labelled. Samples were cleared with CLARITY and imaged with a custom-made confocal light sheet microscope. To perform an automatic localization of fluorescent cells on the large images produced, we used a novel computational approach called semantic deconvolution. The combined approach presented here allows quantifying the amount of Arc-expressing neurons throughout the whole mouse brain. When applied to cohorts of mice subject to different stimuli and/or environmental conditions, this method helps finding correlations in activity between different neuronal populations, opening the possibility to infer a sort of brain-wide 'functional connectivity' with cellular resolution.

  4. Antibacterial properties of a glycolipid-rich extract and active principle from Nunavik collections of the macroalgae Fucus evanescens C. Agardh (Fucaceae).

    PubMed

    Treyvaud Amiguet, Virginie; Jewell, Linda E; Mao, Halimasadia; Sharma, Manju; Hudson, James B; Durst, Tony; Allard, Marc; Rochefort, Guy; Arnason, John Thor

    2011-09-01

    This study investigated the antibacterial activity of glycolipid-rich extracts of the brown macroalga Fucus evanescens in cell culture. Accessions were collected on the Arctic coast of Ungava Bay, Nunavik, Quebec. The crude ethyl acetate extract of these accessions showed strong antibacterial activity (≥4 log(10) cfu) against Hemophilus influenzae , Legionella pneumophila , Propionibacterium acnes (ATCC and clinical isolate), and Streptococcus pyogenes at 100 µg/mL. This algal extract inhibited by 3 log(10) Clostridium difficile and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus , whereas Bacillus cereus , Escherichia coli , Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Pseudomonas aeruginosa were not significantly affected. Further investigations of the activity of a glycolipid-rich fraction, extracted with dichloromethane, against Propionibacterium acnes showed an MIC(100) of 50 µg/mL, with an inhibition of more than 99% at only 7.8 µg/mL. The main active compound, a β-d-galactosyl O-linked glycolipid, was synthesized for the bioassay and showed an MIC(100) of 50 µg/mL but lost its activity more quickly with only 50% of inhibition at 12.5 µg/mL. Therefore, the semipurified F. evanescens extract could be a good choice for future research into the development of alternative treatments for acne therapy.

  5. [Reorganization of the system activity of the brain by understanding of the meaning of visually presented texts with increasing completeness of the information].

    PubMed

    Tkacheva, L O; Gorbunov, I A; Nasledov, A D

    2015-01-01

    The present paper investigates the study of features of brain activity by the process of change the regimes of information associated with the stages of understanding of the meaning of visually presented texts in adult subjects (n = 148). Researchers have developed an original methodology of step-by-step presentation of the texts. This technology has allowed the researchers "to catch" a psycho-physiological markers of understanding and identify the stages in a temporal sequence of the process of understanding. EEG data was analysed using spectral and non-linear methods. Was highlighted three stages: "before understanding", "understanding" and "after understanding". The study discovered the phenomenon of V- shaped changes to the values of the fractal dimension of EEG. The first stage is characterized by the increasing of the power spectrum of EEG in the high frequency range and increase the value of the fractal dimension of EEG, what probably reflects the process of the generation of ideas and the search of solutions. At the next stage ("understanding") a decrease in the value of the fractal dimension of EEG was registered, and an increase of the power spectrum of the low-frequency range. This seems to reflect the simplification of the invariance of reality to the only valid alternative. The last stage is characterised by the increasing power spectrum of EEG in the high frequency range and increase the value of the fractal dimension of EEG, which can reflect the process of intensification of activity of the brain associated with the verification of the correctness of the decision. The results obtained allow an approach to the understanding of the physiological mechanisms of the reorganization of the system of brain activity in the process.of understanding of the meaning of visually presented texts. This, therefore, outlines the path to the elimination of existing contradictions in the literature relating to the role of high- and low-frequency components of the EEG

  6. The Idiom Principle Revisited

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siyanova-Chanturia, Anna; Martinez, Ron

    2015-01-01

    John Sinclair's Idiom Principle famously posited that most texts are largely composed of multi-word expressions that "constitute single choices" in the mental lexicon. At the time that assertion was made, little actual psycholinguistic evidence existed in support of that holistic, "single choice," view of formulaic language. In…

  7. How to lead a group--practical principles and experiences of conducting a promotional group in health-related physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rinne, M; Toropainen, E

    1998-04-01

    In this article the different roles and styles of instruction for the leader of a promotional group in physical activity are described. The promotional group is defined as one in which group dynamics is used to its maximum in order to facilitate permanent change in the members' health-related physical activities. Thus e.g., the group forms its own goals on the basis of its members' individual needs and aspirations and the group members provide feedback, behavioural models and encouragement to each other in their pursuit of change. The leader-instructor works in a stepwise fashion from assessment to evaluation to reformulation of plans made and monitors closely the stages of adoption of physical activity in his or her group. As the group advances the instructor should be ready to transfer more and more responsibility to the members.

  8. Einstein's equivalence principle in quantum mechanics revisited

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nauenberg, Michael

    2016-11-01

    The gravitational equivalence principle in quantum mechanics is of considerable importance, but it is generally not included in physics textbooks. In this note, we present a precise quantum formulation of this principle and comment on its verification in a neutron diffraction experiment. The solution of the time dependent Schrödinger equation for this problem also gives the wave function for the motion of a charged particle in a homogeneous electric field, which is also usually ignored in textbooks on quantum mechanics.

  9. Teaching Principles of One-Way Analysis of Variance Using M&M's Candy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwartz, Todd A.

    2013-01-01

    I present an active learning classroom exercise illustrating essential principles of one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) methods. The exercise is easily conducted by the instructor and is instructive (as well as enjoyable) for the students. This is conducive for demonstrating many theoretical and practical issues related to ANOVA and lends itself…

  10. Application of the Total Quality Management Approach Principles and the ISO 9000 Standards in Engineering Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waks, Shlomo; Frank, Moti

    1999-01-01

    Discusses the applicability of the definition, principles, and underlying strategies of total quality management (TQM) for engineering education. Describes several tools and methods for the implementation of TQM and its suitability for a variety of school activities. Presents a TQM course outline combining lectures, discussions, suggested…

  11. Proof-of-principle results for identifying the composition of dust particles and volcanic ash samples through the technique of photon activation analysis at the IAC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mamtimin, Mayir; Cole, Philip L.; Segebade, Christian

    2013-04-01

    Instrumental analytical methods are preferable in studying sub-milligram quantities of airborne particulates collected in dust filters. The multi-step analytical procedure used in treating samples through chemical separation can be quite complicated. Further, due to the minute masses of the airborne particulates collected on filters, such chemical treatment can easily lead to significant levels of contamination. Radio-analytical techniques, and in particular, activation analysis methods offer a far cleaner alternative. Activation methods require minimal sample preparation and provide sufficient sensitivity for detecting the vast majority of the elements throughout the periodic table. In this paper, we will give a general overview of the technique of photon activation analysis. We will show that by activating dust particles with 10- to 30-MeV bremsstrahlung photons, we can ascertain their elemental composition. The samples are embedded in dust-collection filters and are irradiated "as is" by these photons. The radioactivity of the photonuclear reaction products is measured with appropriate spectrometers and the respective analytes are quantified using multi-component calibration materials. We shall provide specific examples of identifying the elemental components of airborne dust particles and volcanic ash by making use of bremsstrahlung photons from an electron linear accelerator at the Idaho Accelerator Center in Pocatello, Idaho.

  12. Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clearing: Nature and Learning in the Pacific Northwest, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Presents three activities: (1) investigating succession in a schoolground; (2) investigating oak galls; and (3) making sun prints (photographs made without camera or darkroom). Each activity includes a list of materials needed and procedures used. (JN)

  13. Influence of Agathi grandiflora active principles inhibit viral multiplication and stimulate immune system in Indian white shrimp Fenneropenaeus indicus against white spot syndrome virus infection.

    PubMed

    Bindhu, Francis; Velmurugan, Subramanian; Donio, Mariathason Birdilla Selva; Michaelbabu, Mariavincent; Citarasu, Thavasimuthu

    2014-12-01

    Five herbs including Adathoda vasica, Agathi grandiflora, Leucas aspera, Psoralea corylifolia, and Quercus infectoria were selected to screen the antiviral and immunostimulant activity against white spot syndrome virus (WSSV) and Vibrio harveyi respectively using different organic polar and non-polar solvents. Based on the initial screening results, ethyl acetate and methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora had strong antiviral and immunostimulant activities. Those extracts incubated with WSSV injected Fenneropenaeus indicus got only 20% mortality and no PCR positive signals were seen in two step PCR amplification. The methanolic extracts of A. grandiflora were further purified through silica column chromatography and the fractions screened again for antiviral and immunostimulant activity. The secondary screening results revealed that, the fractions of F5 to F7 had effectively controlled the WSSV multiplication and V. harveyi growth. The pooled fractions (F5 to F7) was structurally characterized by gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis and few compounds were identified including 3,7.11,15-Tetramethyl-2-Hexane-1-ol, pytol and 1,2-Benzenedicarboxylic acid, diisooctyl ester. The pooled fractions were mixed with the basal feed ingredients at the concentration of 100 (D-1), 200 (D-2), 300 (D-3) and 400 (D-4) mg kg(-1) and the diets fed to the F. indicus (9.0 ± 0.5 g) for 30 days. After the completion of feeding trail, they were challenged with virulent WSSV and studied the cumulative mortality, molecular diagnosis by quantitative real time PCR (qRT-PCR), biochemical, haematological and immunological parameters. The control diet fed F. indicus succumbed to death 100% within 3 days whereas the D-3 and D-4 helped to reduced the cumulative mortality of 60-80% respectively. The qRT-PCR revealed that, the WSSV copy number was gradually decreased when increasing concentration of A. grandiflora extract active fraction in the diets. The diets D-3 and D-4 helped to

  14. Artificial intelligence: Principles and applications

    SciTech Connect

    Yazdani, M.

    1986-01-01

    Following the Japanese announcement that they intend to devise, make, and market, in the 1990s, computers incorporating a level of intelligence, a vast amount of energy and expense has been diverted at the field of Artificial Intelligence. Workers for the past 25 years in this discipline have tried to reproduce human behavior on computers and this book presents their achievements and the problems. Subjects include: computer vision, speech processing, robotics, natural language processing expert systems and machine learning. The book also attempts to show the general principles behind the various applications and finally attempts to show their implications for other human endeavors such as philosophy, psychology, and the development of modern society.

  15. Inhibition of serine-peptidase activity enhances the generation of a survivin-derived HLA-A2-presented CTL epitope in colon-carcinoma cells.

    PubMed

    Preta, G; Marescotti, D; Fortini, C; Carcoforo, P; Castelli, C; Masucci, M; Gavioli, R

    2008-12-01

    Cytotoxic T lymphocytes eliminate tumor cells expressing antigenic peptides in the context of MHC-I molecules. Peptides are generated during protein degradation by the proteasome and resulting products, surviving cytosolic amino-peptidases activity, may be presented by MHC-I molecules. The MHC-I processing pathway is altered in a large number of malignancies and modulation of antigen generation is one strategy employed by cells to evade immune control. In this study we analyzed the generation and presentation of a survivin-derived CTL epitope in HLA-A2-positive colon-carcinoma cells. Although all cell lines expressed the anti-apoptotic protein survivin, some tumors were poorly recognized by ELTLGEFLKL (ELT)-specific CTL cultures. The expression of MHC-I or TAP molecules was similar in all cell lines suggesting that tumors not recognized by CTLs may present defects in the generation of the ELT-epitope which could be due either to lack of generation or to subsequent degradation of the epitope. The cells were analyzed for the expression and the activity of extra-proteasomal peptidases. A significant overexpression and higher activity of TPPII was observed in colon-carcinoma cells which are not killed by ELT-specific CTLs, suggesting a possible role of TPPII in the degradation of the ELT-epitope. To confirm the role of TPPII in the degradation of the ELT-peptide, we showed that treatment of colon-carcinoma cells with a TPPII inhibitor resulted in a dose-dependent increased sensitivity to ELT-specific CTLs. These results suggest that TPPII is involved in degradation of the ELT-peptide, and its overexpression may contribute to the immune escape of colon-carcinoma cells.

  16. Potent immunosuppressive principles, dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids, isolated from nupharis rhizoma, the rhizoma of Nuphar pumilum (nymphaeaceae): structure-requirement of nuphar-alkaloid for immunosuppressive activity.

    PubMed

    Yamahara, J; Shimoda, H; Matsuda, H; Yoshikawa, M

    1996-09-01

    Potent immunosuppressants, the dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids, 6-hydroxythiobinupharidine (2), 6,6'-dihydroxythiobinupharidine (3), 6-hydroxythionuphlutine B (5) and 6'-hydroxythionuphlutine B (6), were isolated from a natural medicine, Nupharis Rhizoma, the rhizoma of Nuphar pumilum (TIMM.) DC., through bioassay-guided separation together with five quinolizidine alkaloids (8, 9, 10, 11, 12). Dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids (2, 3, 5, 6) were found to significantly inhibit anti-sheep erythrocyte plaque forming cell formation in mice spleen cells at 10(-6) M concentration. At this concentration, 2, 5 and 6 were found to exhibit no cytotoxicity to mice spleen cells, and 3 also showed only a little cytotoxicity. In addition, the inhibitory activity of several Nuphar alkaloids, dimeric sesquiterpene thioalkaloids (1, 4, 7, 8), and monomeric sesquiterpene alkaloids (9, 10, 11, 12) on anti-sheep erythrocyte plaque forming cell formation was examined and some structural requirement of Nuphar alkaloid for immunosuppressive activity was determined.

  17. Comparison of glomerular activity patterns by fMRI and wide-field calcium imaging: Implications for principles underlying odor mapping.

    PubMed

    Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Rebello, Michelle R; Herman, Peter; Papademetris, Xenophon; Shepherd, Gordon M; Verhagen, Justus V; Hyder, Fahmeed

    2016-02-01

    Functional imaging signals arise from distinct metabolic and hemodynamic events at the neuropil, but how these processes are influenced by pre- and post-synaptic activities need to be understood for quantitative interpretation of stimulus-evoked mapping data. The olfactory bulb (OB) glomeruli, spherical neuropil regions with well-defined neuronal circuitry, can provide insights into this issue. Optical calcium-sensitive fluorescent dye imaging (OICa(2+)) reflects dynamics of pre-synaptic input to glomeruli, whereas high-resolution functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) using deoxyhemoglobin contrast reveals neuropil function within the glomerular layer where both pre- and post-synaptic activities contribute. We imaged odor-specific activity patterns of the dorsal OB in the same anesthetized rats with fMRI and OICa(2+) and then co-registered the respective maps to compare patterns in the same space. Maps by each modality were very reproducible as trial-to-trial patterns for a given odor, overlapping by ~80%. Maps evoked by ethyl butyrate and methyl valerate for a given modality overlapped by ~80%, suggesting activation of similar dorsal glomerular networks by these odors. Comparison of maps generated by both methods for a given odor showed ~70% overlap, indicating similar odor-specific maps by each method. These results suggest that odor-specific glomerular patterns by high-resolution fMRI primarily tracks pre-synaptic input to the OB. Thus combining OICa(2+) and fMRI lays the framework for studies of OB processing over a range of spatiotemporal scales, where OICa(2+) can feature the fast dynamics of dorsal glomerular clusters and fMRI can map the entire glomerular sheet in the OB.

  18. GM-CSF-neuroantigen fusion proteins reverse experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis and mediate tolerogenic activity in adjuvant-primed environments: association with inflammation-dependent, inhibitory antigen presentation.

    PubMed

    Islam, S M Touhidul; Curtis, Alan D; Taslim, Najla; Wilkinson, Daniel S; Mannie, Mark D

    2014-09-01

    Single-chain fusion proteins comprised of GM-CSF and neuroantigen (NAg) are potent, NAg-specific inhibitors of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). An important question was whether GMCSF-NAg tolerogenic vaccines retained inhibitory activity within inflammatory environments or were contingent upon steady-state conditions. GM-CSF fused to the myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein MOG35-55 peptide (GMCSF-MOG) reversed established paralytic disease in both passive and active models of EAE in C57BL/6 mice. The fusion protein also reversed EAE in CD4-deficient and B cell-deficient mice. Notably, GMCSF-MOG inhibited EAE when coinjected adjacent to the MOG35-55/CFA emulsion. GMCSF-MOG also retained dominant inhibitory activity when directly emulsified with MOG35-55 in the CFA emulsion in both C57BL/6 or B cell-deficient models of EAE. Likewise, when combined with proteolipid protein 139-151 in CFA, GM-CSF fused to proteolipid protein 139-151 peptide inhibited EAE in SJL mice. When deliberately emulsified in CFA with the NAg, GMCSF-NAg inhibited EAE even though NAg was present at >30-fold molar excess. In vitro studies revealed that the GM-CSF domain of GMCSF-MOG stimulated growth and differentiation of inflammatory dendritic cells (DC) and simultaneously targeted the MOG35-55 domain for enhanced presentation by these DC. These inflammatory DC presented MOG35-55 to MOG-specific T cells by an inhibitory mechanism that was mediated in part by IFN-γ signaling and NO production. In conclusion, GMCSF-NAg was tolerogenic in CFA-primed proinflammatory environments by a mechanism associated with targeted Ag presentation by inflammatory DC and an inhibitory IFN-γ/NO pathway. The inhibitory activity of GMCSF-NAg in CFA-primed lymphatics distinguishes GMCSF-NAg fusion proteins as a unique class of inflammation-dependent tolerogens that are mechanistically distinct from naked peptide or protein-based tolerogens.

  19. Autosomal recessive hyper IgM syndrome associated with activation-induced cytidine deaminase gene in three Turkish siblings presented with tuberculosis lymphadenitis - Case report.

    PubMed

    Patiroglu, Turkan; Akar, H Haluk; van der Burg, Mirjam; Unal, Ekrem

    2015-09-01

    The hyper-immunoglobulin M (HIGM) syndrome is a heterogeneous group of genetic disorders characterized by recurrent infections, decreased serum levels of immunoglobulin G (IgG) and IgA, and normal/increased serum levels of IgM. Herein, we describe three Turkish siblings with HIGM syndrome who had a homozygous missense mutation (c.70C>T, p.Arg24Trp) in the activation-induced cytidine deaminase gene which results in autosomal recessive HIGM syndrome. Two of the siblings, sibling 1 and sibling 3, presented with cervical deep abscess and cervical tuberculosis lymphadenitis, respectively.

  20. Principles for fostering the transdisciplinary development of assistive technologies.

    PubMed

    Boger, Jennifer; Jackson, Piper; Mulvenna, Maurice; Sixsmith, Judith; Sixsmith, Andrew; Mihailidis, Alex; Kontos, Pia; Miller Polgar, Janice; Grigorovich, Alisa; Martin, Suzanne

    2016-04-07

    Developing useful and usable assistive technologies often presents complex (or "wicked") challenges that require input from multiple disciplines and sectors. Transdisciplinary collaboration can enable holistic understanding of challenges that may lead to innovative, impactful and transformative solutions. This paper presents generalised principles that are intended to foster transdisciplinary assistive technology development. The paper introduces the area of assistive technology design before discussing general aspects of transdisciplinary collaboration followed by an overview of relevant concepts, including approaches, methodologies and frameworks for conducting and evaluating transdisciplinary working and assistive technology design. The principles for transdisciplinary development of assistive technologies are presented and applied post hoc to the COACH project, an ambient-assisted living technology for guiding completion of activities of daily living by older adults with dementia as an illustrative example. Future work includes the refinement and validation of these principles through their application to real-world transdisciplinary assistive technology projects. Implications for rehabilitation Transdisciplinarity encourages a focus on real world 'wicked' problems. A transdisciplinary approach involves transcending disciplinary boundaries and collaborating with interprofessional and community partners (including the technology's intended users) on a shared problem. Transdisciplinarity fosters new ways of thinking about and doing research, development, and implementation, expanding the scope, applicability, and commercial viability of assistive technologies.

  1. Patterns and Principles for Blended Synchronous Learning: Engaging Remote and Face-to-Face Learners in Rich-Media Real-Time Collaborative Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bower, Matt; Kenney, Jacqueline; Dalgarno, Barney; Lee, Mark J. W.; Kennedy, Gregor E.

    2014-01-01

    Blended synchronous learning involves using rich-media technologies to enable remote and face-to-face students to jointly participate in the same live classes. This article presents blended synchronous learning designs from seven case studies that were part of a project funded by the Australian Government Office for Learning and Teaching and…

  2. Principles of Glacier Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waddington, Edwin D.

    Glaciers are awesome in size and move at a majestic pace, and they frequently occupy spectacular mountainous terrain. Naturally, many Earth scientists are attracted to glaciers. Some of us are even fortunate enough to make a career of studying glacier flow. Many others work on the large, flat polar ice sheets where there is no scenery. As a leader of one of the foremost research projects now studying the flow of mountain glaciers (Storglaciaren, Norway), Roger Hooke is well qualified to describe the principles of glacier mechanics. Principles of Glacier Mechanics is written for upper-level undergraduate students and graduate students with an interest in glaciers and the landforms that glaciers produce. While most of the examples in the text are drawn from valley glacier studies, much of the material is also relevant to “glacier flatland” on the polar ice sheets.

  3. Exploring the interaction of activity limitations with context, systems, community and personal factors in accessing public health care services: A presentation of South African case studies

    PubMed Central

    Vergunst, Richard; Kritzinger, Janis; Visagie, Surona

    2017-01-01

    Background There are many factors that influence access to public health services, such as the context people live in, the existing health services, and personal, cultural and community factors. People with disabilities (activity limitations), through their experience of health services, may offer a particular understanding of the performance of the health services, thus exposing health system limitations more clearly than perhaps any other health service user. Aim This article explores how activity limitations interact with factors related to context, systems, community and personal factors in accessing public health care services in South Africa. Setting We present four case studies of people with disabilities from four low-resource diverse contexts in South Africa (rural, semi-rural, farming community and peri-urban) to highlight challenges of access to health services experienced by people with activity limitations in a variety of contexts. Methods One case study of a person with disabilities was chosen from each study setting to build evidence using an intensive qualitative case study methodology to elucidate individual and household experiences of challenges experienced by people with activity limitations when attempting to access public health services. In-depth interviews were used to collect data, using an interview guide. The analysis was conducted in the form of a thematic analysis using the interview topics as a starting point. Results First, these four case studies demonstrate that equitable access to health services for people with activity limitations is influenced by a complex interplay of a variety of factors for a single individual in a particular context. Secondly, that while problems with access to public health services are experienced by everyone, people with activity limitations are affected in particular ways making them particularly vulnerable in using public health services. Conclusion The revitalisation of primary health care and the

  4. Anticancer Principles from Medicinal Piper (胡椒 Hú Jiāo) Plants

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yue-Hu; Morris-Natschke, Susan L.; Yang, Jun; Niu, Hong-Mei; Long, Chun-Lin; Lee, Kuo-Hsiung

    2014-01-01

    The ethnomedical uses of Piper (胡椒 Hú Jiāo) plants as anticancer agents, in vitro cytotoxic activity of both extracts and compounds from Piper plants, and in vivo antitumor activity and mechanism of action of selected compounds are reviewed in the present paper. The genus Piper (Piperaceae) contains approximately 2000 species, of which 10 species have been used in traditional medicines to treat cancer or cancer-like symptoms. Studies have shown that 35 extracts from 24 Piper species and 32 compounds from Piper plants possess cytotoxic activity. Amide alkaloids account for 53% of the major active principles. Among them, piplartine (piperlongumine) shows the most promise, being toxic to dozens of cancer cell lines and having excellent in vivo activity. It is worthwhile to conduct further anticancer studies both in vitro and in vivo on Piper plants and their active principles. PMID:24872928

  5. In silico investigation into the interactions between murine 5-HT3 receptor and the principle active compounds of ginger (Zingiber officinale).

    PubMed

    Lohning, Anna E; Marx, Wolfgang; Isenring, Liz

    2016-11-01

    Gingerols and shogaols are the primary non-volatile actives within ginger (Zingiber officinale). These compounds have demonstrated in vitro to exert 5-HT3 receptor antagonism which could benefit chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting (CINV). The site and mechanism of action by which these compounds interact with the 5-HT3 receptor is not fully understood although research indicates they may bind to a currently unidentified allosteric binding site. Using in silico techniques, such as molecular docking and GRID analysis, we have characterized the recently available murine 5-HT3 receptor by identifying sites of strong interaction with particular functional groups at both the orthogonal (serotonin) site and a proposed allosteric binding site situated at the interface between the transmembrane region and the extracellular domain. These were assessed concurrently with the top-scoring poses of the docked ligands and included key active gingerols, shogaols and dehydroshogaols as well as competitive antagonists (e.g. setron class of pharmacologically active drugs), serotonin and its structural analogues, curcumin and capsaicin, non-competitive antagonists and decoys. Unexpectedly, we found that the ginger compounds and their structural analogs generally outscored other ligands at both sites. Our results correlated well with previous site-directed mutagenesis studies in identifying key binding site residues. We have identified new residues important for binding the ginger compounds. Overall, the results suggest that the ginger compounds and their structural analogues possess a high binding affinity to both sites. Notwithstanding the limitations of such theoretical analyses, these results suggest that the ginger compounds could act both competitively or non-competitively as has been shown for palonosetron and other modulators of CYS loop receptors.

  6. Ethical Principles: Guiding the Use of Animals in Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morrison, Adrian R.

    2003-01-01

    Presents arguments on the use of animals in biological and medical research. Discusses ethical considerations, principles, and animal rights in scientific research. (Contains 21 references.) (Author/YDS)

  7. Principles of plasma diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutchinson, Ian H.

    The physical principles, techniques, and instrumentation of plasma diagnostics are examined in an introduction and reference work for students and practicing scientists. Topics addressed include basic plasma properties, magnetic diagnostics, plasma particle flux, and refractive-index measurements. Consideration is given to EM emission by free and bound electrons, the scattering of EM radiation, and ion processes. Diagrams, drawings, graphs, sample problems, and a glossary of symbols are provided.

  8. Pauli Exclusion Principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    A principle of quantum theory, devised in 1925 by Wolfgang Pauli (1900-58), which states that no two fermions may exist in the same quantum state. The quantum state of a particle is defined by a set of numbers that describe quantities such as energy, angular momentum and spin. Fermions are particles such as quarks, protons, neutrons and electrons, that have spin = ½ (in units of h/2π, where h is ...

  9. Software Engineering Principles.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-07-01

    but many differences as well . ct goal: Develop a family of military message systems using 2nt software engineering principles :ovide useful product to...The hard copy could then be manually scanned , distributed, and logged. SMP would be useful in developing and testing MP. It would provide minimal...design decisions.t4 C. Alternative ways to develop the program 1. Start from scratch. 2. Start with Stage 3. Scan line by line and make required changes. 3

  10. A correspondence principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hughes, Barry D.; Ninham, Barry W.

    2016-02-01

    A single mathematical theme underpins disparate physical phenomena in classical, quantum and statistical mechanical contexts. This mathematical "correspondence principle", a kind of wave-particle duality with glorious realizations in classical and modern mathematical analysis, embodies fundamental geometrical and physical order, and yet in some sense sits on the edge of chaos. Illustrative cases discussed are drawn from classical and anomalous diffusion, quantum mechanics of single particles and ideal gases, quasicrystals and Casimir forces.

  11. Heisenberg's observability principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolff, Johanna

    2014-02-01

    Werner Heisenberg's 1925 paper 'Quantum-theoretical re-interpretation of kinematic and mechanical relations' marks the beginning of quantum mechanics. Heisenberg famously claims that the paper is based on the idea that the new quantum mechanics should be 'founded exclusively upon relationships between quantities which in principle are observable'. My paper is an attempt to understand this observability principle, and to see whether its employment is philosophically defensible. Against interpretations of 'observability' along empiricist or positivist lines I argue that such readings are philosophically unsatisfying. Moreover, a careful comparison of Heisenberg's reinterpretation of classical kinematics with Einstein's argument against absolute simultaneity reveals that the positivist reading does not fit with Heisenberg's strategy in the paper. Instead the appeal to observability should be understood as a specific criticism of the causal inefficacy of orbital electron motion in Bohr's atomic model. I conclude that the tacit philosophical principle behind Heisenberg's argument is not a positivistic connection between observability and meaning, but the idea that a theory should not contain causally idle wheels.

  12. Probing Mach's principle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annila, Arto

    2012-06-01

    The principle of least action in its original form á la Maupertuis is used to explain geodetic and frame-dragging precessions which are customarily accounted for a curved space-time in general relativity. The least-time equations of motion agree with observations and are also in concert with general relativity. Yet according to the least-time principle, gravitation does not relate to the mathematical metric of space-time, but to a tangible energy density embodied by photons. The density of free space is in balance with the total mass of the Universein accord with the Planck law. Likewise, a local photon density and its phase distribution are in balance with the mass and charge distribution of a local body. Here gravitational force is understood as an energy density difference that will diminish when the oppositely polarized pairs of photons co-propagate from the energy-dense system of bodies to the energy-sparse system of the surrounding free space. Thus when the body changes its state of motion, the surrounding energy density must accommodate the change. The concurrent resistance in restructuring the surroundings, ultimately involving the entire Universe, is known as inertia. The all-around propagating energy density couples everything with everything else in accord with Mach’s principle.

  13. Principled Missing Data Treatments.

    PubMed

    Lang, Kyle M; Little, Todd D

    2016-04-04

    We review a number of issues regarding missing data treatments for intervention and prevention researchers. Many of the common missing data practices in prevention research are still, unfortunately, ill-advised (e.g., use of listwise and pairwise deletion, insufficient use of auxiliary variables). Our goal is to promote better practice in the handling of missing data. We review the current state of missing data methodology and recent missing data reporting in prevention research. We describe antiquated, ad hoc missing data treatments and discuss their limitations. We discuss two modern, principled missing data treatments: multiple imputation and full information maximum likelihood, and we offer practical tips on how to best employ these methods in prevention research. The principled missing data treatments that we discuss are couched in terms of how they improve causal and statistical inference in the prevention sciences. Our recommendations are firmly grounded in missing data theory and well-validated statistical principles for handling the missing data issues that are ubiquitous in biosocial and prevention research. We augment our broad survey of missing data analysis with references to more exhaustive resources.

  14. Effects of heavy metals on the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity present in gill cell plasma-membrane of mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam.).

    PubMed

    Viarengo, A; Mancinelli, G; Pertica, M; Fabbri, R; Orunesu, M

    1993-11-01

    1. Heavy metals (Hg2+, Cu2+, Cd2+, Zn2+, Pb2+) at micromolar concentrations strongly inhibit the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity present in the plasma-membrane obtained from the gill cells of Mytilus galloprovincialis Lam. Heavy metals act through inhibition of the formation of the phosphorylated intermediate. 2. All the heavy metals tested inhibit the Ca(2+)-ATPase activity, the effect following the order: Hg2+ > Pb2+ > Cu2+ > Cd2+ > Zn2+; the simultaneous addition of different heavy metals causes a summatory inhibition of the enzyme activity; addition to the reaction mixture of GSH at a final concentration of 0.5 mM, reverses inhibitory effects of heavy metals. 3. The inhibitory effects of Cu2+ on Ca(2+)-ATPase are highly enhanced by addition of ascorbate to the reaction mixture. In the presence of ascorbate (100 microM), copper strongly stimulates the lipid peroxidation damage of the gill plasma-membranes, a result that may explain the high copper cytotoxicity.

  15. Comparative analysis of radical scavenging and antioxidant activity of phenolic compounds present in everyday use spice plants by means of spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods.

    PubMed

    Stankevičius, Mantas; Akuņeca, Ieva; Jãkobsone, Ida; Maruška, Audrius

    2011-06-01

    Comparative analysis of radical scavenging and antioxidant activities of phenolic compounds present in everyday use spice plants was carried out by means of spectrophotometric and chromatographic methods. Six spice plant samples, namely onion (Allium cepa), parsley (Petroselinum crispum) roots and leaves, celery (Apium graveolens) roots and leaves and leaves of dill (Anethum graveolens) were analyzed. Total amount of phenolic compounds and radical scavenging activity (RSA) was the highest in celery leaves and dill extracts and was the lowest in celery roots. Comparing commonly used spectrophotometric analysis of 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) RSA of extracts with the results obtained using reversed-phase chromatographic separation with on-line post-column radical scavenging reaction detection, good correlation was obtained (R(2)=0.848). Studies using HPLC system with electrochemical detector showed that bioactive phytochemicals can be separated and antioxidant activities of individual compounds evaluated without the need of a complex HPLC system with reaction detector. The results obtained using electrochemical detection correlate with the RSA assayed using spectrophotometric method (R(2)=0.893).

  16. Biological activities of Schottenol and Spinasterol, two natural phytosterols present in argan oil and in cactus pear seed oil, on murine miroglial BV2 cells

    SciTech Connect

    El Kharrassi, Youssef; Samadi, Mohammad; Lopez, Tatiana; Nury, Thomas; El Kebbaj, Riad; Andreoletti, Pierre; El Hajj, Hammam I.; Vamecq, Joseph; Moustaid, Khadija; Latruffe, Norbert; El Kebbaj, M’Hammed Saïd; Masson, David; and others

    2014-04-11

    Highlights: • Sterol composition in argan oil and in cactus seed oil. • Chemical synthesis of two sterols: Schottenol and Spinasterol. • Sterols from argan oil or from cactus seed oil show no toxicity on BV2 cells. • Schottenol and Spinasterol modulate the activation and the expression of two nuclear receptors, LXRα and LXRβ. - Abstract: The objective of this study was to evaluate the biological activities of the major phytosterols present in argan oil (AO) and in cactus seed oil (CSO) in BV2 microglial cells. Accordingly, we first determined the sterol composition of AO and CSO, showing the presence of Schottenol and Spinasterol as major sterols in AO. While in CSO, in addition to these two sterols, we found mainly another sterol, the Sitosterol. The chemical synthesis of Schottenol and Spinasterol was performed. Our results showed that these two phytosterols, as well as sterol extracts from AO or CSO, are not toxic to microglial BV2 cells. However, treatments by these phytosterols impact the mitochondrial membrane potential. Furthermore, both Schottenol and Spinasterol can modulate the gene expression of two nuclear receptors, liver X receptor (LXR)-α and LXRβ, their target genes ABCA1 and ABCG1. Nonetheless, only Schottenol exhibited a differential activation vis-à-vis the nuclear receptor LXRβ. Thus Schottenol and Spinasterol can be considered as new LXR agonists, which may play protective roles by the modulation of cholesterol metabolism.

  17. Early Signaling in Primary T Cells Activated by Antigen Presenting Cells Is Associated with a Deep and Transient Lamellal Actin Network

    PubMed Central

    Roybal, Kole T.; Mace, Emily M.; Mantell, Judith M.; Verkade, Paul; Orange, Jordan S.; Wülfing, Christoph

    2015-01-01

    Cellular signaling transduction critically depends on molecular interactions that are in turn governed by dynamic subcellular distributions of the signaling system components. Comprehensive insight into signal transduction requires an understanding of such distributions and cellular structures driving them. To investigate the activation of primary murine T cells by antigen presenting cells (APC) we have imaged more than 60 signaling intermediates during T cell stimulation with microscopy across resolution limits. A substantial number of signaling intermediates associated with a transient, wide, and actin-associated lamellum extending from an interdigitated T cell:APC interface several micrometers into the T cell, as characterized in detail here. By mapping the more than 60 signaling intermediates onto the spatiotemporal features of cell biological structures, the lamellum and other ones previously described, we also define distinct spatial and temporal characteristics of T cell signal initiation, amplification, and core signaling in the activation of primary T cells by APCs. These characteristics differ substantially from ones seen when T cells are activated using common reductionist approaches. PMID:26237050

  18. Xenohormetic and anti-aging activity of secoiridoid polyphenols present in extra virgin olive oil: a new family of gerosuppressant agents.

    PubMed

    Menendez, Javier A; Joven, Jorge; Aragonès, Gerard; Barrajón-Catalán, Enrique; Beltrán-Debón, Raúl; Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Camps, Jordi; Corominas-Faja, Bruna; Cufí, Sílvia; Fernández-Arroyo, Salvador; Garcia-Heredia, Anabel; Hernández-Aguilera, Anna; Herranz-López, María; Jiménez-Sánchez, Cecilia; López-Bonet, Eugeni; Lozano-Sánchez, Jesús; Luciano-Mateo, Fedra; Martin-Castillo, Begoña; Martin-Paredero, Vicente; Pérez-Sánchez, Almudena; Oliveras-Ferraros, Cristina; Riera-Borrull, Marta; Rodríguez-Gallego, Esther; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Rull, Anna; Tomás-Menor, Laura; Vazquez-Martin, Alejandro; Alonso-Villaverde, Carlos; Micol, Vicente; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2013-02-15

    Aging can be viewed as a quasi-programmed phenomenon driven by the overactivation of the nutrient-sensing mTOR gerogene. mTOR-driven aging can be triggered or accelerated by a decline or loss of responsiveness to activation of the energy-sensing protein AMPK, a critical gerosuppressor of mTOR. The occurrence of age-related diseases, therefore, reflects the synergistic interaction between our evolutionary path to sedentarism, which chronically increases a number of mTOR activating gero-promoters (e.g., food, growth factors, cytokines and insulin) and the "defective design" of central metabolic integrators such as mTOR and AMPK. Our laboratories at the Bioactive Food Component Platform in Spain have initiated a systematic approach to molecularly elucidate and clinically explore whether the "xenohormesis hypothesis," which states that stress-induced synthesis of plant polyphenols and many other phytochemicals provides an environmental chemical signature that upregulates stress-resistance pathways in plant consumers, can be explained in terms of the reactivity of the AMPK/mTOR-axis to so-called xenohormetins. Here, we explore the AMPK/mTOR-xenohormetic nature of complex polyphenols naturally present in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO), a pivotal component of the Mediterranean style diet that has been repeatedly associated with a reduction in age-related morbid conditions and longer life expectancy. Using crude EVOO phenolic extracts highly enriched in the secoiridoids oleuropein aglycon and decarboxymethyl oleuropein aglycon, we show for the first time that (1) the anticancer activity of EVOO secoiridoids is related to the activation of anti-aging/cellular stress-like gene signatures, including endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and the unfolded protein response, spermidine and polyamine metabolism, sirtuin-1 (SIRT1) and NRF2 signaling; (2) EVOO secoiridoids activate AMPK and suppress crucial genes involved in the Warburg effect and the self-renewal capacity of "immortal

  19. The Physical Principles of Magnetism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrish, Allan H.

    2001-01-01

    " The Physical Principles of Magnetism . . . is such a classic a comprehensive introduction to all aspects of magnetism . . . The corrected reissue is a welcome addition to this much-needed archival series. Dr. Morrish presents an excellent introduction to the physics and mathematics of magnetism without oversimplification . . . This respected and timeless book clearly elucidates these principles."" Edward Della Torre, The George Washington University, President of the IEEE Magnetics Society The IEEE Press is pleased to reissue this essential book for understanding the basis of modern magnetic materials. Diamagnetism, paramagnetism, ferromagnetism, ferrimagnetism, and antiferromagnetism are covered in an integrated manner unifying subject matter from physics, chemistry, metallurgy, and engineering. Magnetic phenomena are discussed both from an experimental and theoretical point of view. The underlying physical principles are presented first, followed by macroscopic or microscopic theories. Although quantum mechanical theories are given, a phenomenological approach is emphasized. More than half the book is devoted to a discussion of strongly coupled dipole systems, where the molecular field theory is emphasized. THE PHYSICAL PRINCIPLES OF MAGNETISM is a classic must read for anyone working in the magnetics, electromagnetics, computing, and communications fields. About the Author Allan Henry Morrish is a distinguished professor of physics at the University of Manitoba, Canada. He received a B.Sc. degree from the University of Manitoba in 1943, an M.A. from the University of Toronto in 1946, and a Ph.D. from the University of Chicago in 1949, specializing in nuclear physics. From 1953 to 1964, Dr. Morrish was with the Department of Electrical Engineering at the University of Minnesota at Minneapolis, where he held the rank of professor from 1959. During 1974-1975, Dr. Morrish was president of the Canadian Association of Physicists and in 1977 he was awarded their gold

  20. DOE Collegiate Wind Competition (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, J.

    2014-02-01

    This presentation for the January Stakeholder Engagement and Outreach webinar outlines the expanded need for workers in the wind industry and provides an overview of the DOE Wind Competition (to be held in May 2014) and the guiding principles of the competition.

  1. Fine-grained clay fraction (,0.2 {mu}m): An interesting tool to approach the present thermal and permeability state in active geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patrier, P.; Papapanagiotou, P.; Beaufort, D.; Traineau, H.; Bril, H.

    1992-01-01

    We have investigated by X-ray diffraction the very fine grained secondary minerals (< 0.2 {micro}m) developed in geothermal systems, in relation with their present thermal and permeability state. Because the smallest particles are the most reactive part of a rock, they are the youngest mineral phases of the geothermal fields. This study has been performed on two active geothermal fields: Milos field, Greece (130 < T < 320 C) and Chipilapa field, Salvador (90 < T < 215 C). In the Milos field, the mineralogical composition of the < 0.2 {micro}m clay fraction observed in the reservoir strongly differs from the overlying altered metamorphic schists in the presence of abundant quantities of saponite and talc/saponite interstratified minerals at unusually high temperature. These phases are considered to be kinetically control-led ''metastable'' minerals which rapidly evolve towards actinolite and talc for present temperatures higher than 300 C. Their occurrence is a good indicator of discharge in highly permeable zones. In the geothermal field of Chipilapa, the mineralogical composition of the < 0.2 {micro}m clay fractions fairly agrees with the temperatures presently measured in the wells, whereas several discrepancies may be pointed out from the compositions of coarser clay fractions (< 5 {micro}m) which contain minerals inherited from higher temperature stages. Permeable zones may be evidenced from an increase of expandable components in the interstratified minerals and a decrease of the coherent domain of the unexpandable clay particles (chlorite).

  2. Benthic foraminifera from the deep-water Niger delta (Gulf of Guinea): Assessing present-day and past activity of hydrate pockmarks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontanier, C.; Koho, K. A.; Goñi-Urriza, M. S.; Deflandre, B.; Galaup, S.; Ivanovsky, A.; Gayet, N.; Dennielou, B.; Grémare, A.; Bichon, S.; Gassie, C.; Anschutz, P.; Duran, R.; Reichart, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    We present ecological and isotopic (δ18O and δ13C) data on benthic foraminifera sampled from 4 deep-sea stations in a pockmark field from the deep-water Niger delta (Gulf of Guinea, Equatorial Atlantic Ocean). In addition, a series of sedimentological and (bio)geochemical data are shown to back up foraminiferal observations. All stations are located within 1.2 km of each other, so prevailing oceanographic conditions can be assumed to be similar at each site. Two of the sites (GMMC-01 and GMMC-02) are located in a pockmark (named "pockmark A") where current methane seepages were recorded by ROV observations. A third station (GMMC-03) is located in the topographic depression interpreted as a collapsed pockmark (named "pockmark B"). The fourth site (GMMC-04) is a reference station, without evidence of past or present seepages. Our observations show that degraded organic matter with low bio-availability is present at all stations with a preferential burial of organic compounds in topographic depressions (GMMC-03 station). Authigenic aragonite is abundant in surface sediments at stations GMMC-01 and -02. Its precipitation is likely related to high rates of methane oxidation during past seep events in episodically active pockmark A. In contrast, the absence of anaerobic methanotrophic Archaea (ANME) during the sampling period (November 2011) suggests that only moderate sulphide and methane oxidation take place close to the sediment-water interface. Compared to the reference site GMMC-04, living foraminifera at the collapsed and episodically active pockmarks show minor changes in terms of diversity, standing stocks and faunal composition. However, the δ13C signal of living and dead (but well-preserved) foraminiferal species (Ceratobulimina contraria, Melonis barleeanus, Uvigerina peregrina) is depleted in the episodically active pockmark A compared to the other stations. Overgrowth of authigenic carbonate on altered foraminifera generates an important shift to lower

  3. First principles and DFT supported investigations on vibrational spectra and electronic structure of 2-((phenylamino)methyl)isoindoline-1,3-dione--an antioxidant active Mannich base.

    PubMed

    Boobalan, Maria susai; Amaladasan, M; Ramalingam, S; Tamilvendan, D; Venkatesa Prabhu, G; Bououdina, M

    2015-02-25

    The 2-((phenylamino)methyl)isoindoline-1,3-dione (PID) is a synthesized Mannich base which has significant antioxidant activity and biological importance. Quantum mechanical calculations on energy, geometry and vibrational wavenumber of PID were computed using ab initio HF and density functional theory (DFT/B3LYP) methods with 6-31+G/6-311++G(d,p) basis sets. Optimized geometrical parameters obtained by HF and DFT calculations were indicatively agreement with experimental crystal geometry. The experimental FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of PID has been recorded and analyzed by comparing with simulated spectra. The (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra of title molecule records the chemical shift resulted from shielding and deshielding effects. Natural bond orbital (NBO) analysis has been carried out to calculate various intramolecular interactions that are accountable for the stabilization of this Mannich base. The predicted HOMO-LUMO gap offers interesting information on intramolecular charge transfer and reactivity of the molecular system. Molecular electrostatic potential (MEP) imprint visualize the reactive sites in PID, which is also supported by Mulliken, ESP, Hirshfeld and NBO charges. Thermodynamic properties of PID at various temperatures have been calculated at B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) in gas phase and the correlations between standard entropies (S), internal energy (E or U) and standard heat capacity (C) with different temperatures.

  4. Principles for Manipulation of the Lateral Organization of Aqueous-Soluble Surface-Active Molecules at the Liquid Crystal-Aqueous Interface

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Jugal K.; Abbott, Nicholas L.

    2011-01-01

    We report an investigation of the lateral organization of water-soluble, surface-active molecules within monolayers formed spontaneously at interfaces between aqueous phases and immiscible, micrometer-thick films of nematic liquid crystals (LCs; 4′-pentyl-4-cyanobiphenyl and TL205, a mixture of cyclohexanefluorinated biphenyls and fluorinated terphenyls). Using both anionic (sodium dodecylsulfate) and cationic surfactants (dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide), we demonstrate that the nematic order of the LCs can direct monolayers of surfactant in dynamic equilibria with bulk aqueous solutions to phase separate and assume lateral organizations at the interfaces of the LCs that are not seen in the absence of the nematic order. The lateral organization of the surfactants is readily evidenced by the patterned orientations assumed by the LCs, and can be manipulated reversibly by changes in the bulk concentrations of the surfactants. Experimental observations of the effects of bulk surfactant concentration, thickness of the film of LC, nematic order, and aqueous electrolyte concentration are placed within the framework of a simple thermodynamic model. The model incorporates the dynamic equilibration of surfactant between the bulk and interface as well as the coupling between the elasticity of nematic LCs and the lateral organization of the water-soluble surfactants within the monolayers. Qualitative agreement is found between the model predictions and experimental observations, thus supporting our conclusion that LCs offer the basis of general and facile methods to direct the lateral organization of interfacial molecular assemblies. PMID:19140731

  5. Classification: Purposes, Principles, Progress, Prospects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sokal, Robert R.

    1974-01-01

    Clustering and other new techniques have changed classificatory principles and practice in many sciences. Discussed are defintions, purposes of classification, principles of classification, and recent trends. (Author/RH)

  6. Principles of thermoacoustic energy harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avent, A. W.; Bowen, C. R.

    2015-11-01

    Thermoacoustics exploit a temperature gradient to produce powerful acoustic pressure waves. The technology has a key role to play in energy harvesting systems. A time-line in the development of thermoacoustics is presented from its earliest recorded example in glass blowing through to the development of the Sondhauss and Rijke tubes to Stirling engines and pulse-tube cryo-cooling. The review sets the current literature in context, identifies key publications and promising areas of research. The fundamental principles of thermoacoustic phenomena are explained; design challenges and factors influencing efficiency are explored. Thermoacoustic processes involve complex multi-physical coupling and transient, highly non-linear relationships which are computationally expensive to model; appropriate numerical modelling techniques and options for analyses are presented. Potential methods of harvesting the energy in the acoustic waves are also examined.

  7. Will present day glacier retreat increase volcanic activity? Stress induced by recent glacier retreat and its effect on magmatism at the Vatnajökull ice cap, Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pagli, Carolina; Sigmundsson, Freysteinn

    2008-05-01

    Global warming causes retreat of ice caps and ice sheets. Can melting glaciers trigger increased volcanic activity? Since 1890 the largest ice cap of Iceland, Vatnajökull, with an area of ~8000 km2, has been continuously retreating losing about 10% of its mass during last century. Present-day uplift around the ice cap is as high as 25 mm/yr. We evaluate interactions between ongoing glacio-isostasy and current changes to mantle melting and crustal stresses at volcanoes underneath Vatnajökull. The modeling indicates that a substantial volume of new magma, ~0.014 km3/yr, is produced under Vatnajökull in response to current ice thinning. Ice retreat also induces significant stress changes in the elastic crust that may contribute to high seismicity, unusual focal mechanisms, and unusual magma movements in NW-Vatnajökull.

  8. Biomass Program Overview Presentation

    SciTech Connect

    2011-12-01

    This presentation is an interactive walk through of the Program's vision of advancing the biofuels and bioproducts industry and highlights the research and development activities that will help achieve it.

  9. Complex Correspondence Principle

    SciTech Connect

    Bender, Carl M.; Meisinger, Peter N.; Hook, Daniel W.; Wang Qinghai

    2010-02-12

    Quantum mechanics and classical mechanics are distinctly different theories, but the correspondence principle states that quantum particles behave classically in the limit of high quantum number. In recent years much research has been done on extending both quantum and classical mechanics into the complex domain. These complex extensions continue to exhibit a correspondence, and this correspondence becomes more pronounced in the complex domain. The association between complex quantum mechanics and complex classical mechanics is subtle and demonstrating this relationship requires the use of asymptotics beyond all orders.

  10. Protection - Principles and practice.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, G. S.; Denning, P. J.

    1972-01-01

    The protection mechanisms of computer systems control the access to objects, especially information objects. The principles of protection system design are formalized as a model (theory) of protection. Each process has a unique identification number which is attached by the system to each access attempted by the process. Details of system implementation are discussed, taking into account the storing of the access matrix, aspects of efficiency, and the selection of subjects and objects. Two systems which have protection features incorporating all the elements of the model are described.

  11. Principles of Liquid Chromatography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakalyar, Stephen R.

    This article reviews the basic principles of high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The introductory section provides an overview of the HPLC technique, placing it in historical context and discussing the elementary facts of the separation mechanism. The next section discusses the nature of resolution, describing the two principal aspects, zone center separation and zone spreading. The third section takes a detailed look at how HPLC is used in practice to achieve a separation. It discusses the three key variables that need to be adjusted: retention, efficiency, and selectivity. A fourth section is concerned with various relationships of practical importance: flow rate, temperature, and pressure. A final section discusses future trends in HPLC.

  12. Thrombospondins selectively activate one of the two latent forms of transforming growth factor-beta present in adrenocortical cell-conditioned medium.

    PubMed

    Souchelnitskiy, S; Chambaz, E M; Feige, J J

    1995-11-01

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF beta) has been shown previously to be a potent inhibitor of bovine adrenocortical cell steroidogenic functions. However, it is present in the culture medium of these cells in a latent form. In this study, we analyzed in detail the biochemical composition of this latent TGF beta. Two distinct complexes could be separated chromatographically by gel filtration on Sephacryl S-300, and their composition was studied using immunochemical methods. The results indicate that one form (peak I) is a complex between alpha 2-macroglobulin (alpha 2M) and either the unprocessed TGF beta precursor or the mature form of TGF beta. In a major fraction of this complex, TGF beta is covalently linked to alpha 2 M, whereas in a minor fraction, it is noncovalently bound and, therefore, activatable. The second form of latent TGF beta (peak II) is a complex among latent TGF beta-binding protein (LTBP), latency-associated protein, and mature TGF beta and a complex between LTBP and unprocessed TGF beta. We investigated the ability of thrombospondins (TSP1 and TSP2) to activate these latent forms of TGF beta. TSP1 and TSP2 were equally potent at activating the LTBP-latency-associated protein-TGF beta complex in the absence of cell contact, but were ineffective on the alpha 2M-TGF beta complex. Therefore, TGF beta may act as an autocrine regulator of adrenocortical steroidogenic functions. Its activity appears to be controlled by TSPs, the local production of which is regulated by systemic ACTH.

  13. Teaching Elements and Principles of Bridge Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beck, Charles

    2005-01-01

    Bridge construction is a popular classroom activity. However, the basic principles of tension, compression, and counterbalance are not always clearly represented and defined. The common materials used to construct model bridges, such as straws, toothpicks, Legos[TM], and building blocks, are often too flexible or stationary to demonstrate the…

  14. Learning Principles and the Library Environment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nahl-Jakobovits, Diane; Jakobovits, Leon A.

    1990-01-01

    Describes how principles of learning theory can be applied to bibliographic instruction to increase its efficacy and broaden its scope. The discussion covers conditions of learning, including motivation, active responding, and reinforcement; learning of information seeking behaviors, including the power of reinforcement and librarian-initiated…

  15. Archimedes' Principle in General Coordinates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ridgely, Charles T.

    2010-01-01

    Archimedes' principle is well known to state that a body submerged in a fluid is buoyed up by a force equal to the weight of the fluid displaced by the body. Herein, Archimedes' principle is derived from first principles by using conservation of the stress-energy-momentum tensor in general coordinates. The resulting expression for the force is…

  16. A three-dimensional tumor cell defect in activating autologous CTLs is associated with inefficient antigen presentation correlated with heat shock protein-70 down-regulation.

    PubMed

    Dangles-Marie, Virginie; Richon, Sophie; El-Behi, Mohamed; Echchakir, Hamid; Dorothée, Guillaume; Thiery, Jérôme; Validire, Pierre; Vergnon, Isabelle; Menez, Jeanne; Ladjimi, Moncef; Chouaib, Salem; Bellet, Dominique; Mami-Chouaib, Fathia

    2003-07-01

    We described previously a CTL clone able to lyse the autologous carcinoma cell line IGR-Heu after specific recognition of an HLA-A2/mutated alpha-actinin-4 peptide complex. Here, we used IGR-Heu, cultured either as standard two-dimensional monolayers or as three-dimensional spheroids, to further analyze the influence of target architecture on CTL reactivity. Interestingly, we found that changes in the tumor structure from two- to three-dimensional induced a dramatic decrease in its capacity to activate autologous CTL, as measured by IFN-gamma and tumor necrosis factor-alpha secretion. These functional alterations were attributable neither to MHC class I expression nor to tumor antigen (Ag) down-regulation, because IGR-Heu, cultured as two- or three-dimensional, expressed similar levels of HLA-A2 and alpha-actinin-4. More importantly, incubation of three-dimensional cells with synthetic epitope completely restored cytokine release by CTL. This defective Ag presentation correlated with a decrease in heat shock protein (hsp)70 expression by three-dimensional tumors compared with two-dimensional cells. Furthermore, transfection of the tumor cells with hsp70 cDNA completely restored the Ag-presenting potential of spheroids and, therefore, cytokine production by T cells. These data strongly suggest that hsp70 down-regulation in three-dimensional cells may result in tumor resistance to the immune response.

  17. General principles of antimicrobial therapy.

    PubMed

    Leekha, Surbhi; Terrell, Christine L; Edson, Randall S

    2011-02-01

    Antimicrobial agents are some of the most widely, and often injudiciously, used therapeutic drugs worldwide. Important considerations when prescribing antimicrobial therapy include obtaining an accurate diagnosis of infection; understanding the difference between empiric and definitive therapy; identifying opportunities to switch to narrow-spectrum, cost-effective oral agents for the shortest duration necessary; understanding drug characteristics that are peculiar to antimicrobial agents (such as pharmacodynamics and efficacy at the site of infection); accounting for host characteristics that influence antimicrobial activity; and in turn, recognizing the adverse effects of antimicrobial agents on the host. It is also important to understand the importance of antimicrobial stewardship, to know when to consult infectious disease specialists for guidance, and to be able to identify situations when antimicrobial therapy is not needed. By following these general principles, all practicing physicians should be able to use antimicrobial agents in a responsible manner that benefits both the individual patient and the community.

  18. Principle of relative locality

    SciTech Connect

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Freidel, Laurent; Smolin, Lee; Kowalski-Glikman, Jerzy

    2011-10-15

    We propose a deepening of the relativity principle according to which the invariant arena for nonquantum physics is a phase space rather than spacetime. Descriptions of particles propagating and interacting in spacetimes are constructed by observers, but different observers, separated from each other by translations, construct different spacetime projections from the invariant phase space. Nonetheless, all observers agree that interactions are local in the spacetime coordinates constructed by observers local to them. This framework, in which absolute locality is replaced by relative locality, results from deforming energy-momentum space, just as the passage from absolute to relative simultaneity results from deforming the linear addition of velocities. Different aspects of energy-momentum space geometry, such as its curvature, torsion and nonmetricity, are reflected in different kinds of deformations of the energy-momentum conservation laws. These are in principle all measurable by appropriate experiments. We also discuss a natural set of physical hypotheses which singles out the cases of energy-momentum space with a metric compatible connection and constant curvature.

  19. Principles of Quantum Mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landé, Alfred

    2013-10-01

    Preface; Introduction: 1. Observation and interpretation; 2. Difficulties of the classical theories; 3. The purpose of quantum theory; Part I. Elementary Theory of Observation (Principle of Complementarity): 4. Refraction in inhomogeneous media (force fields); 5. Scattering of charged rays; 6. Refraction and reflection at a plane; 7. Absolute values of momentum and wave length; 8. Double ray of matter diffracting light waves; 9. Double ray of matter diffracting photons; 10. Microscopic observation of ρ (x) and σ (p); 11. Complementarity; 12. Mathematical relation between ρ (x) and σ (p) for free particles; 13. General relation between ρ (q) and σ (p); 14. Crystals; 15. Transition density and transition probability; 16. Resultant values of physical functions; matrix elements; 17. Pulsating density; 18. General relation between ρ (t) and σ (є); 19. Transition density; matrix elements; Part II. The Principle of Uncertainty: 20. Optical observation of density in matter packets; 21. Distribution of momenta in matter packets; 22. Mathematical relation between ρ and σ; 23. Causality; 24. Uncertainty; 25. Uncertainty due to optical observation; 26. Dissipation of matter packets; rays in Wilson Chamber; 27. Density maximum in time; 28. Uncertainty of energy and time; 29. Compton effect; 30. Bothe-Geiger and Compton-Simon experiments; 31. Doppler effect; Raman effect; 32. Elementary bundles of rays; 33. Jeans' number of degrees of freedom; 34. Uncertainty of electromagnetic field components; Part III. The Principle of Interference and Schrödinger's equation: 35. Physical functions; 36. Interference of probabilities for p and q; 37. General interference of probabilities; 38. Differential equations for Ψp (q) and Xq (p); 39. Differential equation for фβ (q); 40. The general probability amplitude Φβ' (Q); 41. Point transformations; 42. General theorem of interference; 43. Conjugate variables; 44. Schrödinger's equation for conservative systems; 45. Schr

  20. Iron diffusion from first principles calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wann, E.; Ammann, M. W.; Vocadlo, L.; Wood, I. G.; Lord, O. T.; Brodholt, J. P.; Dobson, D. P.

    2013-12-01

    The cores of Earth and other terrestrial planets are made up largely of iron1 and it is therefore very important to understand iron's physical properties. Chemical diffusion is one such property and is central to many processes, such as crystal growth, and viscosity. Debate still surrounds the explanation for the seismologically observed anisotropy of the inner core2, and hypotheses include convection3, anisotropic growth4 and dendritic growth5, all of which depend on diffusion. In addition to this, the main deformation mechanism at the inner-outer core boundary is believed to be diffusion creep6. It is clear, therefore, that to gain a comprehensive understanding of the core, a thorough understanding of diffusion is necessary. The extremely high pressures and temperatures of the Earth's core make experiments at these conditions a challenge. Low-temperature and low-pressure experimental data must be extrapolated across a very wide gap to reach the relevant conditions, resulting in very poorly constrained values for diffusivity and viscosity. In addition to these dangers of extrapolation, preliminary results show that magnetisation plays a major role in the activation energies for diffusion at low pressures therefore creating a break down in homologous scaling to high pressures. First principles calculations provide a means of investigating diffusivity at core conditions, have already been shown to be in very good agreement with experiments7, and will certainly provide a better estimate for diffusivity than extrapolation. Here, we present first principles simulations of self-diffusion in solid iron for the FCC, BCC and HCP structures at core conditions in addition to low-temperature and low-pressure calculations relevant to experimental data. 1. Birch, F. Density and composition of mantle and core. Journal of Geophysical Research 69, 4377-4388 (1964). 2. Irving, J. C. E. & Deuss, A. Hemispherical structure in inner core velocity anisotropy. Journal of Geophysical