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Sample records for active problem-focused coping

  1. Effectiveness of Problem-Focused Coping Strategies on the Burden on Caregivers of Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghane, Golnar; Ashghali Farahani, Mansoureh; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Haghani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that family caregivers of hemodialysis patients experience high levels of burden. However, these caregivers are often neglected, and no studies are available on the effectiveness of coping strategies on the burden of care among these caregivers. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of problem-focused coping strategies (communication skills, anger management, and deep breathing) on the burden on caregivers of hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 76 family caregivers of hemodialysis patients referred to Shahid Hasheminejad hemodialysis center in Tehran, Iran. The subjects were equally allocated into two groups of 38. Through a coin-tossing method, caregivers of patients who referred on even or odd days of the week were randomly assigned into the intervention group or the control group, respectively. The intervention group received four training sessions on problem-focused coping strategies, but the control group did not receive any intervention. Both groups answered the caregiver’s burnout inventory at the start and six weeks after the last educational session. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, Fisher’s exact test, independent-samples t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the data. Results The majority of caregivers (54%) were in the age range of 35 - 55 years, female (68.4%), and married (70%). No significant difference was found between the baseline mean caregivers’ burden scores of the intervention and control groups (88.56 ± 11.74 vs. 84.97 ± 15.13, P = 0.308). However, the mean caregivers’ burden in the intervention group decreased, and the two groups were significantly different at the end of the study (58.77 ± 6.64 vs. 87.84 ± 11.74, P < 0.001). Conclusions The current study showed the effectiveness of problem-focused coping strategies on reducing the burden on caregivers of hemodialysis patients. Authorities and

  2. Preliminary Study on the Role of Alternative Educational Pathways in Promoting the Use of Problem-Focused Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankland, Rebecca; Franca, Lionel Riou; Genolini, Christophe M.; Guelfi, Julien-Daniel; Ionescu, Serban

    2009-01-01

    Coping styles are generally considered to be environmentally driven. Up to now, research has mainly focused on family influences. However, some studies underline the effect of educational settings on the development of problem-focused coping strategies. Consistently with previous reports on the enhancement of autonomy and problem-solving in…

  3. Psychometric Analyses of the Problem-Focused Style of Coping (PF-SOC) Scale with Taiwanese Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yuhsuan; Lan, Yu-Ling; Lin, Hung-Yu; Heppner, Puncky Paul

    2012-01-01

    The current research comprises two samples that investigated the psychometric properties of the Problem-Focused Style of Coping (PF-SOC; Heppner, Cook, Wright, & Johnson) scale using two Taiwanese samples. In Sample 1 (N = 809), we investigated the structural dimensions of the PF-SOC using a principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmed…

  4. The Effect of Problem-Focused Coping Strategy Training on Psychological Symptoms of Mothers of Children with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    POURMOHAMADREZA-TAJRISHI, Masoume; AZADFALLAH, Parviz; HEMMATI GARAKANI, Sahel; BAKHSHI, Enayatollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is one of the most common reactions that parents show while understanding their children’s intellectual disability due to Down syndrome. Anxiety leads parents not to develop appropriate relations with their children, subsequently their psychological health are at risk. The present study was aimed to determine the effect of problem-focused coping strategy training on psychological symptoms of mothers with Down child. Methods: This was an experimental study with pretest and posttest design with case and control group. Sixty-four mothers were selected randomly from Iranian Down Syndrome Charity Society. They completed Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). They were assigned to experimental and control groups in equal. Experimental group participated in 12 training sessions (once a week; 60 minutes for each session) and received problem-focused coping strategy program, but control group did not. After 12th session, all subjects completed SCL-90-R again. Analysis of covariance was used for analyzing the data. Results: There was a significant difference (P<0.01) between experimental and control group according to psychological symptoms and its components (phobia, depression, paranoid thoughts, psychosis, somatic complaints, interpersonal sensitivity, obsession-compulsion, anxiety and aggression) after participation in intervention sessions. Conclusion: There was a significant decrease in psychological symptoms, phobia, depression, paranoid thoughts, psychosis, somatic complaints, interpersonal sensitivity, obsession-compulsion, anxiety and aggression of experimental group. Our findings showed that problem-focused coping strategy-training program led to improve family’s perception towards the child and subsequently promote of mental health of mothers with Down children. PMID:25905060

  5. Mindfulness Training Improves Problem-Focused Coping in Psychology and Medical Students: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halland, E.; De Vibe, M.; Solhaug, I.; Friborg, O.; Rosenvinge, J. H.; Tyssen, R.; Sørlie, T.; Bjørndal, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Students of clinical psychology and medicine experience high levels of mental distress and low levels of life satisfaction. Using adaptive coping strategies can modify the negative effect of stressors on health. Mindfulness, it has been claimed, more adaptive coping with stress, yet few studies have investigated whether mindfulness…

  6. Stress and Coping Activity: Reframing Negative Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jamie S.; Gourley, Mary K.; Madson, Laura; Le Blanc, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Stress management and coping techniques are not only relevant in many psychology courses but also personally relevant for undergraduate students. In this article, the authors describe an activity designed to provide students with practice evaluating and challenging negative self-talk. Students responded to scenarios individually, were paired with…

  7. Active music engagement with emotional-approach coping to improve well-being in liver and kidney transplant recipients.

    PubMed

    Ghetti, Claire M

    2011-01-01

    Liver and kidney transplant recipients report elevated psychological distress following transplant in comparison to other types of organ transplant recipients. Negative affective states can lead to immune dysregulation and adverse health behaviors, and therefore may contribute to disease. In contrast, positive affective states can broaden individuals' thoughts and actions to promote the accumulation of coping resources. Coping strategies have traditionally been conceived of as being either problem-focused or emotion-focused in nature, while contemporary theory and research supports a different division: approach-oriented strategies versus avoidance-oriented strategies. Emotional expression and processing may function as an approach-oriented coping strategy. Emotional-approach coping relates to the use of emotional expression, awareness and understanding to facilitate coping with significant life stressors. The current study evaluated the impact of music therapy with and without a specific emphasis on emotional-approach coping. This randomized, controlled trial aimed to use Active Music Engagement with Emotional-Approach Coping to improve well-being in post-operative liver and kidney transplant recipients (N = 29). Results indicated that music therapy using Emotional-Approach Coping led to significant increases in positive affect, music therapy using Active Music Engagement led to significant decreases in pain, and both conditions led to significant decreases in negative affect, an indicator of perceived stress/anxiety.

  8. Wellness and Coping Activities of African American Counselors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Evans, Kathy M.

    1997-01-01

    Examined physical, emotional, cognitive, and spiritual wellness activities of African American mental health counselors and behaviors they used to cope with racism. Counselors used a wide variety of wellness strategies, although counselors in school settings were less likely to engage in occupational wellness activities. Confrontation was the most…

  9. Dynamic neural activity during stress signals resilient coping

    PubMed Central

    Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl M.; Constable, R. Todd; Seo, Dongju

    2016-01-01

    Active coping underlies a healthy stress response, but neural processes supporting such resilient coping are not well-known. Using a brief, sustained exposure paradigm contrasting highly stressful, threatening, and violent stimuli versus nonaversive neutral visual stimuli in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we show significant subjective, physiologic, and endocrine increases and temporally related dynamically distinct patterns of neural activation in brain circuits underlying the stress response. First, stress-specific sustained increases in the amygdala, striatum, hypothalamus, midbrain, right insula, and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) regions supported the stress processing and reactivity circuit. Second, dynamic neural activation during stress versus neutral runs, showing early increases followed by later reduced activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), left DLPFC, hippocampus, and left insula, suggested a stress adaptation response network. Finally, dynamic stress-specific mobilization of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VmPFC), marked by initial hypoactivity followed by increased VmPFC activation, pointed to the VmPFC as a key locus of the emotional and behavioral control network. Consistent with this finding, greater neural flexibility signals in the VmPFC during stress correlated with active coping ratings whereas lower dynamic activity in the VmPFC also predicted a higher level of maladaptive coping behaviors in real life, including binge alcohol intake, emotional eating, and frequency of arguments and fights. These findings demonstrate acute functional neuroplasticity during stress, with distinct and separable brain networks that underlie critical components of the stress response, and a specific role for VmPFC neuroflexibility in stress-resilient coping. PMID:27432990

  10. Stress, active coping, and problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects.

  11. Problem focused knowledge navigation: implementing the problem focused medical record and the O-HEAP note.

    PubMed

    Meyers, K C; Miller, H J; Naeymi-Rad, F

    1998-01-01

    The current organization of most Computerized Medical Records (CMR) is based on the Problem Oriented Medical Record (POMR) and the SOAP (Subjective, Objective, Assessment and Plan) note. The organizational structure of the POMR and especially the SOAP note, does not allow for optimal use of computer capabilities in the follow up note. Since follow up visits are the most common office visit by far, this is a major flaw in the CMR. The authors propose a Problem Focused Medical Record and the OHEAP (Orientation, History, Exam, Assessment and Plan) note to resolve this problem. OHEAP starts with a powerful orientation structure that brings forward the timeline, last Assessment and Plan, and Plan Results for each problem along with the patient's historical tables as the starting point of every follow up visit. The Assessment and Plan portion brings problem specific differential diagnoses and their workups along with other relevant tables such as expert systems, treatments, instructions, medical literature or pathways. This leads to Problem Focused Knowledge Navigation that brings powerful efficiencies to the CMR. By recognizing the true workflow in the longitudinal diagnosis and management of any medical problem, the efficiency of the CMR is maximized. OHEAP allows for optimal use of both personal and external data elements in the medical record. Its powerful orientation attributes minimize the time spent in analyzing the current status of the problem while its connections to problem specific databases help resolve the problem.

  12. Family Functionality and Coping Attitudes of Patients with Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Çuhadar, Döndü; Savaş, Haluk Asuman; Ünal, Ahmet; Gökpınar, Fatma

    2015-10-01

    The coping of patients with prodromal syndromes prevents relapses, and the differences in coping strategies affect the results of bipolar disorder. The various functionality levels of bipolar disorder patients such as work, marital relations, parental abilities and social presentation are significantly related with how well they cope. The objective of this study was to determine the family functionality and coping attitudes of bipolar disorder patients. The study planned as a descriptive one was carried with 81 bipolar disorder patients. Personal description form, family assessment device and Coping Attitudes Scale were used as data acquisition tools. It was determined that the adaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were religious coping, positive reinterpretation, active coping, problem-focused coping and emotional focused coping, beneficial social support use, emotional social support use, planning, suppression of competing activities and restraint coping; maladaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were "focusing on the problem and venting of emotions and mental disengagement." It was determined that family functions affected the coping attitudes of patients and that the patients who evaluated family functions in a healthy manner made use of adaptive coping strategies more at a statistically significant level.

  13. The Relationship between Active Coping and Trait Resilience across U.S. and Taiwanese College Student Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ming-Hui; Nishikawa, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    This study compared predictors of active coping (people's tendency to actively cope with stress) among college students in the United States and Taiwan. In both samples, trait resilience predicted active coping and mediated the effect of self-efficacy on active coping. The findings indicate that trait resilience influences college students' active…

  14. [Influence of job-hunting anxiety on job-hunting: from the viewpoint of coping].

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Yuko; Nagasaku, Minoru; Arai, Kunijiro

    2010-02-01

    The present study developed a job-hunting anxiety scale and investigated the influence of job-hunting anxiety on coping, number of job-hunting applications, and satisfaction with job-hunting. Questionnaires were completed by 306 college students who had started job-hunting. Explorative factor analysis extracted five factors such as "appeal anxiety", "support anxiety", "activity persistence anxiety", "test anxiety", and "a lack of readiness anxiety". Analysis of covariance structures indicated that (a) job-hunting anxiety was negatively related to problem-focused coping, the number of job-hunting applications, and the satisfaction with job-hunting, and (b) problem-focused coping was positively related to the number of job-hunting applications and the satisfaction with job-hunting. These results suggest that reduction of job-hunting anxiety and the use of problem-focused coping facilitated job-hunting.

  15. Impact of age, and cognitive and coping resources on coping.

    PubMed

    Trouillet, Raphaël; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie

    2011-12-01

    To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data using French versions of the Perceived Stress Scale, General Self-Efficacy Scale, and Way of Coping Checklist. Cognitive assessments comprised the WAIS III digit-span subtest and the Trail Making Test parts A and B. In multivariate analyses, neither working-memory nor mental-flexibility deficit predicted problem-focused coping. Age was found to predict only problem-focused coping. Self-efficacy predicted problem-focused coping, and perceived stress predicted emotion-focused coping. Our results confirmed that use of an emotion-focused coping style would not significantly change with age. Problem-focused coping increases with age and depends primarily on participants' confidence in their ability to successfully solve problems (i.e., self-efficacy).

  16. John Henryism Active Coping, Acculturation, and Psychological Health in Korean Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Logan, Jeongok G; Barksdale, Debra J; James, Sherman A; Chien, Lung-Chang

    2015-11-23

    This study aimed to explore the levels of John Henryism (JH) active coping and its association with acculturation status and psychological health (specifically perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depression) in Korean immigrants to the United States. In 102 Korean immigrants, JH active coping was measured by the JH Scale; acculturation by the Bidimensional Acculturation Scale; perceived stress by the Perceived Stress Scale; acculturative stress by the Social, Attitudinal, Familial, and Environmental Scale; anxiety by the State Anxiety Subscale of the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory; and depression by the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale. The levels of JH active coping in this sample of Korean immigrants appear to be lower than the levels reported in other racial groups. Independent of demographic factors, JH active coping was a significant predictor of higher acculturation status and better psychological health as indicated by lower levels of perceived stress, acculturative stress, anxiety, and depressive symptoms.

  17. Psychophysiological reactions during active and passive stress coping following smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Hasenfratz, M; Bättig, K

    1991-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 9 days' smoking abstinence on psychophysiological stress reactions. The subjects were 40 female smokers; 20 of them intended to give up smoking in the course of the study, whereas the remaining 20 had no such intention. A first session was carried out before, a second and a third during days 3 and 9 of abstinence. The nonabstainers were tested at corresponding intervals. Each session consisted of a 30-min stress-coping phase with relaxation phases before and after. While performing a rapid information processing task (RIP) the subjects had to sustain electrical shocks which were, according to instructions, but not in fact, either avoidable (active coping) or not (passive coping). Generally, the active coping instruction produced greater responses to the RIP task than did the passive coping instruction for heart rate, systolic and diastolic blood pressure but not for finger pulse amplitude, thus resembling a beta-adrenergic stimulation. RIP processing rate was not affected, but the response rate (total of hits and commission errors) was greater during active than during passive coping. However, none of these stress reactions differed between abstainers and nonabstainers. On the other hand, both heart rate and the craving to smoke decreased significantly in the abstainer group across the 9 days. Thus, it is concluded that a deprivation of 1 h, 3 or 9 days has no differential effect on physiological stress reactions.

  18. Mitigating Physiological Responses to Layoff Threat: An Experimental Test of the Efficacy of Two Coping Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Tahira M.; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention) × 4 (within-subjects time points) mixed experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Eighty-four undergraduates participated in this laboratory experiment during which their galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored. Analyses indicate that individuals instructed to utilize an emotion-focused coping strategy experienced a significantly greater decline in their GSR compared to those utilizing the problem-focused coping method. Results suggest organizations conducting layoffs might focus first on dealing with the emotional aftermath of downsizing before focusing on problem-solving tasks, such as resume writing and other traditional outplacement activities. PMID:26999186

  19. Mitigating Physiological Responses to Layoff Threat: An Experimental Test of the Efficacy of Two Coping Interventions.

    PubMed

    Probst, Tahira M; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-03-18

    The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention) × 4 (within-subjects time points) mixed experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Eighty-four undergraduates participated in this laboratory experiment during which their galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored. Analyses indicate that individuals instructed to utilize an emotion-focused coping strategy experienced a significantly greater decline in their GSR compared to those utilizing the problem-focused coping method. Results suggest organizations conducting layoffs might focus first on dealing with the emotional aftermath of downsizing before focusing on problem-solving tasks, such as resume writing and other traditional outplacement activities.

  20. The roles of sex, gender, and coping in adolescent depression.

    PubMed

    Li, Cindy Ellen; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Froh, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of coping and masculinity in higher rates of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls, as compared to boys. A model was designed and tested through path analysis, which involved the variables of sex, gender, problem-focused coping, rumination, and distraction. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale and the Bem Sex Role Inventory, as well as a measure of coping with general stressors was completed by 246 adolescents. Results showed that adolescent girls were more depressed than boys, and that girls used more emotion-focused and ruminative coping than did boys. Greater degrees of ruminative coping were related to high levels of depressive symptoms. Problem-focused and distractive coping were positively correlated with masculinity and negatively associated with depression. Surprisingly, girls were more likely to use problem-focused coping. Problem-focused and distractive coping were found to mediate the negative relationship between masculinity and depression.

  1. Gender, coping strategies, homelessness stressors, and income generation among homeless young adults in three cities.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J

    2015-06-01

    This study examined gender differences among homeless young adults' coping strategies and homelessness stressors as they relate to legal (e.g., full-time employment, selling personal possessions, selling blood/plasma) and illegal economic activity (e.g., selling drugs, theft, prostitution). A sample of 601 homeless young adults was recruited from 3 cities (Los Angeles, CA [n = 200], Austin, TX [n = 200], and Denver, CO [n = 201]) to participate in semi-structured interviews from March 2010 to July 2011. Risk and resilience correlates of legal and illegal economic activity were analyzed using six Ordinary Least Squares regression models with the full sample and with the female and male sub-samples. In the full sample, three variables (i.e., avoidant coping, problem-focused coping, and mania) were associated with legal income generation whereas eight variables (i.e., social coping, age, arrest history, transience, peer substance use, antisocial personality disorder [ASPD], substance use disorder [SUD], and major depressive episode [MDE]) were associated with illegal economic activity. In the female sub-sample, three variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, race/ethnicity, and transience) were correlated with legal income generation whereas six variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, social coping, age, arrest history, peer substance use, and ASPD) were correlated with illegal economic activity. Among males, the model depicting legal income generation was not significant yet seven variables (i.e., social coping, age, transience, peer substance use, ASPD, SUD, and MDE) were associated with illegal economic activity. Understanding gender differences in coping strategies and economic activity might help customize interventions aimed at safe and legal income generation for this population.

  2. Is surviving enough? Coping and impact on activities of daily living among melanoma patients with lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, K D; Chiang, Y J; Armer, J; Heppner, P P; Mungovan, K; Ross, M I; Gershenwald, J E; Lee, J E; Royal, R E; Lucci, A; Cormier, J N

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the impact of lymphoedema (defined as ≥ 10% limb volume change) on quality of life (QOL), ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and coping in 277 melanoma patients. Limb volume was measured prospectively, pre-operatively and every 3-6 months for 18 months post-operatively using a perometer. Three questionnaires were administered to measure QOL, coping and impact on ADLs. Statistical analyses were conducted using longitudinal logistic regression models. At 18 months, the cumulative incidence of lymphoedema was 31% in patients with upper extremity nodal basin treatment and 40% in lower extremity nodal basin treatment patients. Patients with lower extremity lymphoedema reported lower QOL scores than those with upper extremity lymphoedema. Over 18 months, both groups with mild and moderate lymphoedema showed improvement in coping [odds ratio (OR): 6.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.30-13.47] and performance of ADLs (OR: 7.46, CI: 3.38-16.47). Over the course of 18 months, men were found to have poorer coping scores than women (OR: 2.91, CI: 1.35-6.27). Lymphoedema was associated with improvement in coping over time (P = 0.08) and a higher reported interference with ADLs (OR: 2.53, CI: 1.29-4.97). Patient education about lymphoedema at the time of surgical consent may improve self-efficacy and coping ability. Effective management of lymphoedema may improve patient QOL and reduce interference with ADLs.

  3. Coping with a community stressor: a proposed hazardous waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bachrach, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    This study examined a number of factors believed to influence community involvement. Residents of a rural community near Phoenix, Arizona, where a hazardous waste facility had been proposed to built, were interviewed at home in August 1982. Most residents were chosen at random (n = 70) while a smaller number (n = 29) were selected because of known involvement in activities regarding the hazardous waste facility. Residents who perceived the facility as a threat to their health, safety, and general well-being employed a number of coping strategies. Strategies to change or alter the source of stress, problem-focused coping, were associated with greater community involvement. Strategies to regulate one's emotional response to stress, emotion-focused coping, were associated with less community involvement. Increased self-efficacy and sense of community led to increased community involvement. Both measures indirectly influenced community involvement through different modes of coping. Self-efficacy was negatively related to emotion-focused coping while sense of community was positively related to problem-focused coping. Increased demoralization was associated with decreased self-efficacy, increased emotion-focused coping, and decreased community involvement. The results suggest that the psychologically most fragile residents are underrepresented in community activities, and that the use of high levels of emotion-focused coping may have been maladaptive.

  4. Coping strategies used by survivors of childhood sexual abuse on the journey to recovery.

    PubMed

    Phanichrat, Thanomjit; Townshend, Julia M

    2010-01-01

    This interpretative phenomenological analysis study explored seven adult survivors' experiences of coping with childhood sexual abuse and identified their coping strategies on the road to recovery. Data for the analysis was collected using semistructured interviews. The analytical process yielded two key theme clusters: avoidant coping strategies and problem-focused coping strategies. The participants journeyed through similar gradual and dynamic coping processes by initially adopting avoidant strategies before turning to problem-focused ones. A healthy process of coping with sexual abuse involved seeking support, cognitive engagement, optimistic thinking, self-acceptance, and seeking meaning strategies. This study suggests that problem-focused coping strategies should be promoted as part of therapeutic intervention.

  5. Children's coping after psychological stress. Choices among food, physical activity, and television.

    PubMed

    Balantekin, Katherine N; Roemmich, James N

    2012-10-01

    Children's stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if other behavioral alternatives are available. The purpose was to determine individual difference factors that moderate the duration of stress coping choices and to determine if stress-induced eating in youth persists when other stress coping behaviors are available. Thirty children (8-12 years) completed a speech stressor on one day and read magazines on another day. They completed a free-choice period with access to food, TV, and physical activity on both days. Dietary restraint moderated changes in time spent eating and energy consumed from the control to stress day. Children high in restraint increased their energy intake on the stress day. Changes in the time spent watching TV were moderated by usual TV time, as children higher in usual TV increased their TV time after stress. Thus, dietary restrained children eat more when stressed when other common stress coping behaviors are freely available. These results extend the external validity of laboratory studies of stress-induced eating.

  6. Helping Children Cope with Fears and Stress. Part I: Discussion and Activities. Part II: Facilitator's Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward H.; And Others

    How fears, phobias, anxiety and stress develop in elementary school students and how these students can be assisted in coping with fears and stress are discussed in this book. Part 1, "Discussion and Activities," contains six sections. Section 1 presents an overview of fears, and stress in children. Section 2 presents 12 fear-specific activities…

  7. Examining Cultural Correlates of Active Coping Among African American Female Trauma Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Sharma, Sakshi; Knighton, Joi Sheree’; Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2013-01-01

    African American women are at a greater risk for exposure to multiple traumatic events and are less likely to seek mental health services than White women. Many women report avoidant and passive coping strategies placing them at an increased risk for lower psychological adjustment. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to examine the role of culturally relevant factors such as spirituality, self-esteem, and social support as significant correlates of John Henryism Active Coping among African American female trauma survivors. The study utilized secondary data from the B-WISE project (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) with a sample of 161 community-based African American women with a self-reported history of trauma. Results indicate that participants with higher self-esteem and existential well-being were more likely to cope actively with daily life stressors. However, socio-demographics were not significant correlates of John Henryism Active Coping at the multivariate level. Implications for clinical practice are discussed along with the Strong Black Woman (SBW) ideology, which may explain over-reporting of positive attributes such as self-esteem and existential well-being. Limitations of the study and directions of future research are also discussed. PMID:25180071

  8. The Costs and Benefits of Active Coping for Adolescents Residing in Urban Poverty.

    PubMed

    Carothers, Kristin J; Arizaga, Jessica A; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; Taylor, Jeremy; Grant, Kathryn E

    2016-07-01

    The present study addresses the lack of specificity and diversity highlighted in recent stress literature reviews by examining active coping in relationships between exposure to violence and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a sample of urban youth from predominantly low-income, African American and Latino backgrounds. Two hundred and forty-one youth (mean age at Time 1 = 13 years; 66 % female; 41 % African American, 28 % Latino, 14 % European American, 6 % Asian American, 7 % mixed/biracial, 1 % American Indian/native American, .5 % Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 2 % other) and their parents participated in this three-wave study. Hierarchical regression analyses tested for moderation, and a cross lag panel path analysis tested for mediation. The results provide greater support for active coping as a variable that changes the relationship between exposure to community violence and externalizing symptoms, or moderation, rather than one that explains or mediates it. Further, specificity did not emerge for type of psychological outcome but did emerge for gender, such that active coping exacerbated the association between exposure to community violence and both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for girls, but not boys. These findings highlight the importance of contextual and demographic factors in influencing stress and coping processes during adolescence.

  9. Active Coping Reduces Reports of Pain from Childbirth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leventhal, Elaine A.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined pain and negative moods during labor in relation to instructions to monitor labor contractions and LaMaze class attendance. In Study 1, pain and negative moods showed sharp decline at Stage 2 (active labor) for women who monitored and LaMaze participants; in Study 2, LaMaze participants reported decline in pain during active labor and…

  10. The association of the reporting of somatic symptoms with job stress and active coping among Japanese white-collar workers.

    PubMed

    Nomura, Kyoko; Nakao, Mutsuhiro; Sato, Mikiya; Ishikawa, Hirono; Yano, Eiji

    2007-09-01

    To assess the associations between job stress and somatic symptoms and to investigate the effect of individual coping on these associations. In July 2006, a cross-sectional study was conducted during a periodic health check-up of 185 Japanese male office workers (21-66 yr old) at a Japanese company. Job stress was measured by job demand, control, and strain (=job demand/control) based on the Job Content Questionnaire (JCQ). Major somatic symptoms studied were headache, dizziness, shoulder stiffness, back pain, shortness of breath, abdominal pain, general fatigue, sleep disturbance, and skin itching. Five kinds of coping were measured using the Job Stress Scale: active coping, escape, support seeking, reconciliation, and emotional suppression. Comorbidities of hypertension, diabetes, obesity, depression, and anxiety were also evaluated. The most frequently cited somatic symptom was general fatigue (66%), followed by shoulder stiffness (63%) and sleep disturbance (53%). Of the five kinds of coping, only "active coping" was significantly and negatively associated with the number of somatic symptoms. The generalized linear models showed that the number of somatic symptoms increased as job strain index (p=0.001) and job demand (p=0.001) became higher, and decreased as active coping (p=0.018) increased, after adjusting for age and comorbidities. There was no statistical interaction among active coping, the number of somatic symptoms, and the three JCQ scales. Reporting somatic symptoms may be a simple indicator of job stress, and active coping could be used to alleviate somatization induced by job stress.

  11. Active coping with stress suppresses glucose metabolism in the rat hypothalamus.

    PubMed

    Ono, Yumie; Lin, Hsiao-Chun; Tzen, Kai-Yuan; Chen, Hui-Hsing; Yang, Pai-Feng; Lai, Wen-Sung; Chen, Jyh-Horng; Onozuka, Minoru; Yen, Chen-Tung

    2012-03-01

    We used 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose small-animal positron-emission tomography to determine whether different styles of coping with stress are associated with different patterns of neuronal activity in the hypothalamus. Adult rats were subjected to immobilization (IMO)-stress or to a non-immobilized condition for 30 min, in random order on separate days, each of which was followed by brain-scanning. Some rats in the immobilized condition were allowed to actively cope with the stress by chewing a wooden stick during IMO, while the other immobilized rats were given nothing to chew on. Voxel-based statistical analysis of the brain imaging data shows that chewing counteracted the stress-induced increased glucose uptake in the hypothalamus to the level of the non-immobilized condition. Region-of-interest analysis of the glucose uptake values further showed that chewing significantly suppressed stress-induced increased glucose uptake in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus and the anterior hypothalamic area but not in the lateral hypothalamus. Together with the finding that the mean plasma corticosterone concentration at the termination of the IMO was also significantly suppressed when rats had an opportunity to chew a wooden stick, our results showed that active coping by chewing inhibited the activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis to reduce the endocrine stress response.

  12. Incentive value, unclear task difficulty, and cardiovascular reactivity in active coping.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2007-03-01

    An experiment with 44 participants assessed the moderating effects of four levels of incentive value on cardiovascular responses in active coping. Randomly assigned to one of four different incentive conditions, participants performed a memory task without knowing its difficulty in advance. By means of successfully performing the task participants could either win no reward, 10 Swiss Francs, 20 Swiss Francs, or 30 Swiss Francs. In accordance with the theoretical predictions derived from motivational intensity theory, reactivity of systolic blood pressure and heart rate monotonically increased with incentive value. Thereby, these findings provide additional empirical evidence for the predictions of motivational intensity theory with regard to unclear task difficulty and extend recent research (Richter, M., Gendolla, G.H.E., 2006. Incentive effects on cardiovascular reactivity in active coping with unclear task difficulty. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 61, 216-225.), which was not conclusive regarding the predicted monotonic relationship between incentive value and cardiovascular reactivity under conditions of unclear task difficulty.

  13. Australian University Students’ Coping Strategies and Use of Pharmaceutical Stimulants as Cognitive Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Charmaine; Forlini, Cynthia; Partridge, Brad; Hall, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are reports that some university students are using prescription stimulants for non-medical ‘pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (PCE)’ to improve alertness, focus, memory, and mood in an attempt to manage the demands of study at university. Purported demand for PCEs in academic contexts have been based on incomplete understandings of student motivations, and often based on untested assumptions about the context within which stimulants are used. They may represent attempts to cope with biopsychosocial stressors in university life by offsetting students’ inadequate coping responses, which in turn may affect their cognitive performance. This study aimed to identify (a) what strategies students adopted to cope with the stress of university life and, (b) to assess whether students who have used stimulants for PCE exhibit particular stress or coping patterns. Methods: We interviewed 38 university students (with and without PCE experience) about their experience of managing student life, specifically their: educational values; study habits; achievement; stress management; getting assistance; competing activities and demands; health habits; and cognitive enhancement practices. All interview transcripts were coded into themes and analyzed. Results: Our thematic analysis revealed that, generally, self-rated coping ability decreased as students’ self-rated stress level increased. Students used emotion- and problem-focused coping for the most part and adjustment-focused coping to a lesser extent. Avoidance, an emotion-focused coping strategy, was the most common, followed by problem-focused coping strategies, the use of cognition on enhancing substances, and planning and monitoring of workload. PCE users predominantly used avoidant emotion-focused coping strategies until they no longer mitigated the distress of approaching deadlines resulting in the use of prescription stimulants as a substance-based problem-focused coping strategy. Conclusion: Our

  14. Career Choice Anxiety, Coping, and Perceived Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Faye M.; Healy, Charles C.; Ender, Philip B.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a study exploring whether perceived control moderates the relation between coping with career indecision and choice anxiety among women in low-level jobs. Results revealed that perceived control interacted with problem-focused coping to increase accountable variance in choice anxiety. Discusses implications for interventions with women in…

  15. Influence of Repressive Coping Style on Cortical Activation during Encoding of Angry Faces

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Astrid Veronika; ter Horst, Lena; Paul, Victoria Gabriele; Bauer, Jochen; Dannlowski, Udo; Konrad, Carsten; Ohrmann, Patricia; Kugel, Harald; Egloff, Boris; Arolt, Volker; Suslow, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Coping plays an important role for emotion regulation in threatening situations. The model of coping modes designates repression and sensitization as two independent coping styles. Repression consists of strategies that shield the individual from arousal. Sensitization indicates increased analysis of the environment in order to reduce uncertainty. According to the discontinuity hypothesis, repressors are sensitive to threat in the early stages of information processing. While repressors do not exhibit memory disturbances early on, they manifest weak memory for these stimuli later. This study investigates the discontinuity hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods Healthy volunteers (20 repressors and 20 sensitizers) were selected from a sample of 150 students on the basis of the Mainz Coping Inventory. During the fMRI experiment, subjects evaluated and memorized emotional and neutral faces. Subjects performed two sessions of face recognition: immediately after the fMRI session and three days later. Results Repressors exhibited greater activation of frontal, parietal and temporal areas during encoding of angry faces compared to sensitizers. There were no differences in recognition of facial emotions between groups neither immediately after exposure nor after three days. Conclusions The fMRI findings suggest that repressors manifest an enhanced neural processing of directly threatening facial expression which confirms the assumption of hyper-responsivity to threatening information in repression in an early processing stage. A discrepancy was observed between high neural activation in encoding-relevant brain areas in response to angry faces in repressors and no advantage in subsequent memory for these faces compared to sensitizers. PMID:25502775

  16. Context-dependent activation of reduced autobiographical memory specificity as an avoidant coping style.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Hermans, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    According to the affect-regulation hypothesis (Williams et al., 2007), reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) or overgeneral memory (OGM) might be considered a cognitive avoidance strategy; that is, people learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. Based on this hypothesis, one would predict significant negative associations between AMS and avoidant coping. However, studies investigating this prediction have led to equivocal results. In the present study we tested a possible explanation for these contradictory findings. It was hypothesized that rAMS (in part) reflects an avoidant coping strategy, which might only become apparent under certain conditions, that is, conditions that signal the possibility of 'danger.' To test this hypothesis, we assessed AMS and behavioral avoidance but experimentally manipulated the instructions. In the neutral condition, two parallel versions of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) were presented under neutral instructions. In the threat condition, the first AMT was presented under neutral instructions, while the second AMT was presented under 'threat instructions.' Results showed no significant correlations between avoidance and OGM under neutral conditions but significant and markedly stronger correlations under threat conditions, with more avoidance being associated with fewer specific and more categoric memories. In addition, high avoiders showed a stronger reduction in AMS in the threat condition as compared with the neutral condition, while low avoiders showed no such difference between conditions. The data confirm that OGM can be considered as part of a broader avoidant coping style. However, more importantly, they show that, at least in nonclinical individuals, the activation of this coping style may depend on the context.

  17. Active coping, personal satisfaction, and attachment to land in older African-American farmers.

    PubMed

    Maciuba, Sandra A; Westneat, Susan C; Reed, Deborah B

    2013-05-01

    Elevated suicide mortality rates have been reported for farmers and for the elderly. Very little literature exists that looks at the health of older minority farmers. This mixed-method study describes older African-American farmers (N = 156) in the contexts of active coping, personal satisfaction from farm work, and attachment to their farmland to provide insight into the psychosocial dimensions of their mental health. Findings show that the farmers have positive perspectives on work and farm future, and strong attachment to the land. Differences were noted by gender. Nurses can use these findings to frame culturally appropriate strategies for aging farmers to maximize positive outcomes.

  18. John Henryism Active Coping as a Cultural Correlate of Substance Abuse Treatment Participation Among African American Women.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Knighton, Joi-Sheree'; Allen, Kristin; Fisher, Sycarah; Crowell, Candice; Mahaffey, Carlos; Leukefeld, Carl; Oser, Carrie

    2016-04-01

    The rates of illicit drug use among African American women are increasing, yet African American women are least likely to participate in treatment for substance use disorders when compared to women of other racial groups. The current study examined family history of substance use, perceived family support, and John Henryism Active Coping (JHAC) as correlates to seeking treatment for substance abuse. The underlying theoretical frame of JHAC (James et al., 1983) suggests that despite limited resources and psychosocial stressors, African Americans believe that hard work and self-determination are necessary to cope with adversities. The current study is a secondary data analyses of 206 drug-using African American women (N=104 urban community women with no criminal justice involvement and N=102 women living in the community on supervised probation) from urban cities in a southern state. It was expected that African American women with a family history of substance abuse, higher levels of perceived family support, and more active coping skills would be more likely to have participated in substance abuse treatment. Step-wise logistic regression results reveal that women on probation, had children, and had a family history of substance abuse were significantly more likely to report participating in substance abuse treatment. Perceived family support and active coping were significant negative correlates of participating in treatment. Implication of results suggests coping with psychosocial stressors using a self-determined and persistent coping strategy may be problematic for drug-using women with limited resources.

  19. Self-Objectification and the Use of Body Image Coping Strategies: The Role of Shame in Highly Physically Active Women.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Lamarche, Larkin; Gammage, Kimberley L; Sullivan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mediating role of body shame in the relationship between self-objectification and body image coping strategies in highly physically active university women. Bivariate correlations revealed body shame was positively related to self-objectification, appearance fixing, and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. In addition, self-objectification was positively related to appearance fixing and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. Mediation analyses showed that body shame partially mediated the relationship between self-objectification and avoidance and appearance fixing coping but did not mediate the relationship between self-objectification and positive rational acceptance. Future research should examine other potential mediators or moderators in this relationship and explore the role of positive body image framed within self-objectification theory.

  20. Coping with Racism: What Works and Doesn't Work for Black Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Lindsey M.; Donovan, Roxanne A.; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has deleterious effects on Black Americans. However, there is minimal empirical research on the influence of gender and coping on the relationship between PRD and mental health. This study posited that coping style (i.e., problem-focused coping and avoidant coping) would moderate the relationship between PRD…

  1. Mediating role of coping in the dispositional optimism-posttraumatic growth relation in breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Büyükaşik-Colak, Canan; Gündoğdu-Aktürk, Elçin; Bozo, Ozlem

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to examine if coping strategies mediate dispositional optimism-posttraumatic growth relation in postoperative breast cancer patients. The data were collected from 90 patients in two hospitals. Regression analyses revealed that problem-focused coping fully mediated dispositional optimism-posttraumatic growth relation, but emotion-focused coping did not. That is, postoperative breast cancer patients who were optimistic were more likely to use problem-focused coping strategies that, in turn, led to the development of posttraumatic growth. The findings were congruent with the literature in which problem-focused coping was mostly highlighted as compared to emotion-focused coping, and in which optimism and problem-focused coping relationship was emphasized in the path of posttraumatic growth.

  2. Coping Efficacy and Psychological Problems of Children of Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Mehta, Paras; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim

    2000-01-01

    Investigated models relating coping efficacy, coping efforts, and psychological problems of children of divorce. Structural equation model supported coping efficacy as mediating between active coping, avoiding coping, and psychological problems. Prospective longitudinal model supported coping efficacy as mediating between active coping and…

  3. Coping strategies used by poorly adherent patients for self-managing bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol; Levin, Jennifer B; Cassidy, Kristin A; Perzynski, Adam T; Sajatovic, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mental illness associated with reduced quality of life, high rates of suicide, and high financial costs. Evidence indicates that psychosocial stress might play an important role in the onset and course of BD. Objective The objective of this study was to address the gap between coping theory and the clinical use of coping strategies used to self-manage BD. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of 21 poorly adherent patients with BD. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis with an emphasis on dominant themes. Results Transcript-based analysis generated two major domains of coping strategies used to self-manage BD: 1) problem focused (altering eating habits, managing mood-stabilizing medications, keeping psychiatric appointments, seeking knowledge, self-monitoring, and socializing) and 2) emotion focused (distracting activities, denial, isolation, modifying/avoiding, helping others, and seeking social support). Participants used both types of coping strategies to deal with stressful situations brought about by the internal and external demands associated with self-management of BD. Conclusion This qualitative study provided a first step in evaluating coping strategies as a possible mediator in the self-management of BD and has implications for health care providers. Being able to characterize an individual’s coping behaviors can help patients modify or replace more maladaptive coping with better coping strategies in the self-management of this chronic mental illness. PMID:27524888

  4. Coping Strategies in People Attempting Suicide

    PubMed Central

    Bazrafshan, Mohammad-Rafi; Jahangir, Fereidun; Mansouri, Amir; Kashfi, Seyyed Hannan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Having a set of effective coping skills can prevent suicidal behavior by increasing self-control and self-direction. This study examines coping styles used by suicidal patients. Objectives: The researchers in this study try to identify coping strategies used by suicide attempters admitted to Shiraz Shahid Faghihi Hospital emergency room. Materials and Methods: This is a analytical cross-sectional study. Participants consisted of 50 suicide-attempted people admitted to Shiraz Faghihi Hospital. Instruments for data collections were a demographic checklist and the coping styles scale of Carver, Schier and Wintrope. Data were collected conveniently and analyzed using descriptive and analytic (Pearson Correlation, Student’s t-tests, and ANOVA) statistical methods. Results: Suicide attempted people used less useful coping strategies (Mean = 49.32) more than the other strategies (respectively mean of problem focused and emotion focused strategies were 30.27 and 27.83). Using ANOVA, in different educational level, problem focused and less effective coping skills of samples differed significantly (P = 0.009, P = 0.006, respectively). People with low educational level used less effective coping skills. There was a significant difference between men and women scores in use of less effective coping skills (P = 0.029). Conclusions: Teaching effective coping skills by psychological consultants in suicide attempted people, especially for women and people with low educational level, is important PMID:24971300

  5. Children’s coping after psychological stress: choices among food, physical activity, and television

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children’s stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if othe...

  6. Coping with Traumatic Stress Reactions

    MedlinePlus

    ... Estrés Traumático | Ver todos When trauma survivors take direct action to cope with their stress reactions, they ... impact of trauma on your life and taking direct action to improve things. Active coping occurs even ...

  7. Coping with colorectal cancer: a qualitative exploration with patients and their family members

    PubMed Central

    Asiedu, Gladys B; Eustace, Rosemary W; Eton, David T

    2014-01-01

    Background. Extensive family coping research has been conducted among breast cancer, prostate cancer and melanoma with lesser emphasis on the coping experiences of colorectal cancer (CRC) patients and their family members. Objective. To examine ways in which patients and their family members cope with the diagnosis of CRC. Methods. A total of 73 participants (21 patients, 52 family members) from 23 families described their experiences during and after a CRC diagnosis, including their coping experiences with the diagnosis. Data from semi-structured interviews were audio recorded and transcribed. The data were analyzed utilizing content analysis with inductive coding methods. Results. Eight major themes were identified: positive reframing, holding on to a sense of normalcy, religion and spirituality, joining a group, creating awareness of CRC, lifestyle change, seeking information and alternative treatments. Maintaining an emotional sense of normalcy through positive thinking, engaging in activities to take one’s mind off the diagnosis and believing that there is a higher authority which has control over the diagnosis and life were vital for the patients and their family members. Patients and family members used similar coping strategies. Conclusion. Findings from this study have implications for understanding how families blend emotion-based and problem-focused coping strategies in the face of a CRC diagnosis. Further developing evidence-based interventions that target coping and well-being in cancer patients and extending them to family members is necessary and holds great promise for providers who care for patients with familial cancers. PMID:25080507

  8. Coping, Resolution and Advocacy in Parents of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott Torrance

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrate changes in the strategies they use to cope with parenting stress, shifting from problem-focused to emotion-focused coping as their child ages (Gray, 2006). Once parents have resolved their child's diagnosis, they may manage their emotions through sharing social support with…

  9. The Roles of Sex, Gender, and Coping in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Cindy Ellen; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Froh, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of coping and masculinity in higher rates of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls, as compared to boys. A model was designed and tested through path analysis, which involved the variables of sex, gender, problem-focused coping, rumination, and distraction. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale and the Bem…

  10. Co-activation Probability Estimation (CoPE): An approach for modeling functional co-activation architecture based on neuroimaging coordinates

    PubMed Central

    Chu, Congying; Fan, Lingzhong; Eickhoff, Claudia R.; Liu, Yong; Yang, Yong; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Jiang, Tianzi

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in functional neuroimaging has prompted studies of brain activation during various cognitive tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis has been utilized to discover the brain regions that are consistently activated across experiments. However, within-experiment co-activation relationships, which can reflect the underlying functional relationships between different brain regions, have not been widely studied. In particular, voxel-wise co-activation, which may be able to provide a detailed configuration of the co-activation network, still needs to be modeled. To estimate the voxel-wise co-activation pattern and deduce the co-activation network, a Co-activation Probability Estimation (CoPE) method was proposed to model within-experiment activations for the purpose of defining the co-activations. A permutation test was adopted as a significance test. Moreover, the co-activations were automatically separated into local and long-range ones, based on distance. The two types of co-activations describe distinct features: the first reflects convergent activations; the second represents co-activations between different brain regions. The validation of CoPE was based on five simulation tests and one real dataset derived from studies of working memory. Both the simulated and the real data demonstrated that CoPE was not only able to find local convergence but also significant long-range co-activation. In particular, CoPE was able to identify a ‘core’ co-activation network in the working memory dataset. As a data-driven method, the CoPE method can be used to mine underlying co-activation relationships across experiments in future studies. PMID:26037052

  11. Gritty people try harder: grit and effort-related cardiac autonomic activity during an active coping challenge.

    PubMed

    Silvia, Paul J; Eddington, Kari M; Beaty, Roger E; Nusbaum, Emily C; Kwapil, Thomas R

    2013-05-01

    Grit, a recently proposed personality trait associated with persistence for long-range goals, predicts achievement in a wide range of important life outcomes. Using motivational intensity theory, the present research examined the physiological underpinnings of grit during an active coping task. Forty young adults completed the Short Grit Scale and worked on a self-paced mental effort task. Effort-related autonomic nervous system (ANS) activity was assessed using impedance cardiography, which yielded measures of sympathetic activity (pre-ejection period; PEP) and parasympathetic activity (respiratory sinus arrhythmia; RSA). Multilevel models revealed that people high on the Perseverance of Effort subscale showed autonomic coactivation: both PEP and RSA became stronger during the task, reflecting higher activity of both ANS divisions. The Consistency of Interest subscale, in contrast, predicted only weaker sympathetic activity (slower PEP). Taken together, the findings illuminate autonomic processes associated with how "gritty" people pursue goals, and they suggest that more attention should be paid to the facets' distinct effects.

  12. Subjective Stress and Coping Resources Interact To Predict Blood Pressure Reactivity in Black College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Rodney

    2003-01-01

    Examined the effects of subjective stress and coping resources on blood pressure reactivity among black college students. The interactive effects of subjective stress and coping resources predicted diastolic blood pressure reactivity. Higher levels of problem-focused coping related to more marked diastolic blood pressure changes under conditions…

  13. Increased skin conductance responses and neural activity during fear conditioning are associated with a repressive coping style

    PubMed Central

    Klucken, Tim; Kruse, Onno; Schweckendiek, Jan; Stark, Rudolf

    2015-01-01

    The investigation of individual differences in coping styles in response to fear conditioning is an important issue for a better understanding of the etiology and treatment of psychiatric disorders. It has been assumed that an avoidant (repressive) coping style is characterized by increased emotion regulation efforts in context of fear stimuli as compared to a more vigilant coping style. However, no study so far has investigated the neural correlates of fear conditioning of repressors and sensitizers. In the present fMRI study, 76 participants were classified as repressors or as sensitizers and were exposed to a fear conditioning paradigm, in which the CS+ predicted electrical stimulation, while another neutral stimulus (CS−) did not. In addition, skin conductance responses (SCRs) were measured continuously. As the main findings, we found increased neural activity in repressors as compared to sensitizers in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) during fear conditioning. In addition, elevated activity to the CS+ in amygdala, insula, occipital, and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) as well as elevated conditioned SCRs were found in repressors. The present results demonstrate increased neural activations in structures linked to emotion down-regulation mechanisms like the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, which may reflect the increased coping effort in repressors. At the same time, repressors showed increased activations in arousal and evaluation-associated structures like the amygdala, the occipital cortex (OCC), and the OFC, which was mirrored in increased SCRs. The present results support recent assumptions about a two-process model of repression postulating a fast vigilant response to fear stimuli, and a second process associated with the down-regulation of emotional responses. PMID:26082695

  14. The Stress and Coping Responses of Certified Graduate Athletic Training Students

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Sarah

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To assess the sources of stress and coping responses of certified graduate athletic training students. Design and Setting: We interviewed certified graduate athletic training students 3 times over a 9-month period. We transcribed the interviews verbatim and used grounded theory analytic procedures to inductively analyze the participants' sources of stress and coping responses. Subjects: Three male and 3 female certified graduate athletic training students from a postcertification graduate athletic training program volunteered to participate in this investigation. The participants were full-time graduate students, with a mean age of 23 years, who had worked an average of 1.5 years as certified athletic trainers at the time of the first interview. Measurements: We used grounded theory analytic procedures to inductively analyze the participants' sources of stress and coping responses. Results: A total of 6 general sources of stress and 11 coping dimensions were revealed. The stress dimensions were labeled athletic training duties, comparing job duties, responsibilities as student, time management, social evaluation, and future concerns. The coping responses were planning, instrumental social support, adjusting to job responsibilities, positive evaluations, emotional social support, humor, wishful thinking, religion, mental or behavioral disengagement, activities outside the profession, and other outcomes. Conclusions: Certified graduate athletic training students should be encouraged to use problem-focused (eg, seeking advice, planning) and emotion-focused (eg, positive evaluations, humor) forms of coping with stress. PMID:15173872

  15. The Stress and Coping Responses of Certified Graduate Athletic Training Students.

    PubMed

    Reed, Sarah; Giacobbi, Peter R.

    2004-06-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess the sources of stress and coping responses of certified graduate athletic training students. DESIGN AND SETTING: We interviewed certified graduate athletic training students 3 times over a 9-month period. We transcribed the interviews verbatim and used grounded theory analytic procedures to inductively analyze the participants' sources of stress and coping responses. SUBJECTS: Three male and 3 female certified graduate athletic training students from a postcertification graduate athletic training program volunteered to participate in this investigation. The participants were full-time graduate students, with a mean age of 23 years, who had worked an average of 1.5 years as certified athletic trainers at the time of the first interview. MEASUREMENTS: We used grounded theory analytic procedures to inductively analyze the participants' sources of stress and coping responses. RESULTS: A total of 6 general sources of stress and 11 coping dimensions were revealed. The stress dimensions were labeled athletic training duties, comparing job duties, responsibilities as student, time management, social evaluation, and future concerns. The coping responses were planning, instrumental social support, adjusting to job responsibilities, positive evaluations, emotional social support, humor, wishful thinking, religion, mental or behavioral disengagement, activities outside the profession, and other outcomes. CONCLUSIONS: Certified graduate athletic training students should be encouraged to use problem-focused (eg, seeking advice, planning) and emotion-focused (eg, positive evaluations, humor) forms of coping with stress.

  16. Prostate cancer: appraisal, coping, and health status.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Muayyad M; Musil, Carol M; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A; Resnick, Martin I

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify how cognitive appraisal and types of coping affect the health status of men with prostate cancer. Lazarus and Folkman's model of stress and coping guided this correlational, cross-sectional study. The convenience sample was composed of 131 men with prostate cancer who completed the Cognitive Appraisal of Health Scale, the Ways of Coping Checklist, and the Short-Form Health Survey using mailed questionnaires. Participants who appraised more harm or loss experienced worse physical and mental health. When participants perceived their diagnosis as posing more harm or loss or a greater threat, they were more likely to use emotion-focused coping. When the diagnosis was perceived as a challenge, men were more likely to use more problem-focused coping. The findings of this study enable health care providers to be more attentive to the psychosocial needs of prostate cancer patients.

  17. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies.

  18. Psychobiology of PTSD in the Acute Aftermath of Trauma: Integrating Research on Coping, HPA Function and Sympathetic Nervous System Activity

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Matthew C.; Rao, Uma

    2012-01-01

    Research on the psychobiological sequelae of trauma has typically focused on long-term alterations in individuals with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Far less is known about the nature and course of psychobiological risk factors for PTSD during the acute aftermath of trauma. In this review, we summarize data from prospective studies focusing on the relationships among sympathetic nervous system activity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, coping strategies and PTSD symptoms during the early recovery (or non-recovery) phase. Findings from pertinent studies are integrated to inform psychobiological profiles of PTSD-risk in children and adults in the context of existing models of PTSD-onset and maintenance. Data regarding bidirectional relations between coping strategies and stress hormones is reviewed. Limitations of existing literature and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:23380312

  19. Predicting Physical Activity Outcomes During Episodes of Academic Goal Conflict: The Differential Role of Action Planning and Coping Planning.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Natasha; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The moderating role of academic goal conflict in the relations between action planning (AP) and coping planning (CP) with physical activity was tested using samples of university students concurrently pursuing an academic and a physical activity goal. In Study 1 (N = 317), AP was found to positively relate to physical activity goal progress at low, but not at high, levels of goal conflict. CP trended toward being positively related to goal progress at high, but not at low levels of goal conflict. Study 2 (N = 97), using a 1-week daily diary design and measures of self-reported physical activity behavior and goal progress, showed that daily AP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced lower, but not higher, levels of goal conflict relative to their average. Conversely, CP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced higher, but not lower, levels of goal conflict.

  20. Linking science to policy: the role of international collaboration and problem-focused integrative reviews.

    PubMed

    Babor, Thomas F

    2015-07-01

    This paper traces the modern history of alcohol and drug policy research through a series of four monographs that were written collaboratively by international groups of career scientists. The books promoted the view, supported by a considerable amount of evidence, that alcohol and drug problems can be reduced, if not prevented, through organized policy action by governments and public health organizations. The books used a problem-focused integrative approach to align research more effectively with public policy. A common thread that runs throughout the monographs is the influence of Professor Griffith Edwards.

  1. Optimal control of a Cope rearrangement by coupling the reaction path to a dissipative bath or a second active mode

    SciTech Connect

    Chenel, A.; Meier, C.; Dive, G.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.

    2015-01-14

    We compare the strategy found by the optimal control theory in a complex molecular system according to the active subspace coupled to the field. The model is the isomerization during a Cope rearrangement of Thiele’s ester that is the most stable dimer obtained by the dimerization of methyl-cyclopentadienenylcarboxylate. The crudest partitioning consists in retaining in the active space only the reaction coordinate, coupled to a dissipative bath of harmonic oscillators which are not coupled to the field. The control then fights against dissipation by accelerating the passage across the transition region which is very wide and flat in a Cope reaction. This mechanism has been observed in our previous simulations [Chenel et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 11273 (2012)]. We compare here, the response of the control field when the reaction path is coupled to a second active mode. Constraints on the integrated intensity and on the maximum amplitude of the fields are imposed limiting the control landscape. Then, optimum field from one-dimensional simulation cannot provide a very high yield. Better guess fields based on the two-dimensional model allow the control to exploit different mechanisms providing a high control yield. By coupling the reaction surface to a bath, we confirm the link between the robustness of the field against dissipation and the time spent in the delocalized states above the transition barrier.

  2. Anxiety, Self-Esteem and Coping with Stress in Secondary School Students in Relation to Involvement in Organized Sports

    PubMed Central

    DOLENC, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Aim The objective of the study was to examine self-esteem, anxiety level and coping strategies among secondary school students in relation to their involvement in organized sports. Methods The sample included 280 Slovenian male and female secondary school students aged between 15 and 19 years. The participants completed The Adolescent Coping Scale, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the PSDQ Selfesteem Scale. Results Participants engaged in organized sports exhibited higher self-esteem scores and lower anxiety scores in comparison to non-sport participants. Differences between the two groups have also been identified with respect to the use of certain coping strategies. Sport participants reported more productive coping than non-sport participants, which represents an active and problem-focused approach to dealing with everyday problems. Gender differences in the referred variables have also been studied, with female athletes exhibiting higher levels of anxiety than male athletes. Female participants were also found to use more non-productive coping than males, focused mainly on reducing emotional effects of stress. Conclusions Organized youth sports have an important role in improving and maintaining a favorable sense of self-worth, reducing anxiety, and promoting productive coping strategies in adolescents when dealing with everyday problems. PMID:27646730

  3. The effectiveness of expatriate coping strategies: the moderating role of cultural distance, position level, and time on the international assignment.

    PubMed

    Stahl, Günter K; Caligiuri, Paula

    2005-07-01

    On the basis of the stress and coping literature, the authors examined the diverse coping strategies used by expatriate managers in response to the problems encountered while on international assignments. It was hypothesized that although problem-focused coping strategies may be more effective than are emotion-focused coping strategies in affecting cross-cultural adjustment and intention to remain on the international assignment, the relationship is moderated by contextual factors such as hierarchical level in the organization, time on the assignment, and cultural distance. Coded semistructured interview responses from 116 German expatriates on assignment in either Japan or the United States were analyzed with moderated regression analyses. The results suggest that the effectiveness of problem-focused coping strategies in predicting cross-cultural adjustment is moderated by cultural distance and position level but not by time on the assignment. The use of problem-focused coping strategies was not related to expatriates' intention to remain on the assignment.

  4. Latent Class Analysis of Gambling Activities in a Sample of Young Swiss Men: Association with Gambling Problems, Substance Use Outcomes, Personality Traits and Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Simon, Olivier; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to identify different patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) and to investigate how PGAs differed in gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. A representative sample of 4989 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing seven distinct gambling activities, gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. PGAs were identified using latent class analysis (LCA). Differences between PGAs in gambling and substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies were tested. LCA identified six different PGAs. With regard to gambling and substance use outcomes, the three most problematic PGAs were extensive gamblers, followed by private gamblers, and electronic lottery and casino gamblers, respectively. By contrast, the three least detrimental PGAs were rare or non-gamblers, lottery only gamblers and casino gamblers. With regard to personality traits, compared with rare or non-gamblers, private and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sensation seeking. Electronic lottery and casino gamblers, private gamblers and extensive gamblers had higher levels of aggression-hostility. Extensive and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sociability, whereas casino gamblers reported lower levels of anxiety-neuroticism. Extensive gamblers used more maladaptive and less adaptive coping strategies than other groups. Results suggest that gambling is not a homogeneous activity since different types of gamblers exist according to the PGA they are engaged in. Extensive gamblers, electronic and casino gamblers and private gamblers may have the most problematic PGAs. Personality traits and coping skills may predispose individuals to PGAs associated with more or less negative outcomes.

  5. Adolescents in secure residential care: the role of active and passive coping on general well-being and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Barendregt, Charlotte S; Van der Laan, André M; Bongers, Ilja L; Van Nieuwenhuizen, Chijs

    2015-07-01

    Coping, general well-being and self-esteem play an important role during the process of adaptation to turning points in life-course. This study aimed to investigate the effect of coping on both the development of general well-being and self-esteem of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems in secure residential care. In addition, risk and protective factors were taken into account. Adolescents between the age of 16 and 18 (N = 172) were followed for 1.5 years. General well-being and self-esteem were assessed with the Lancashire Quality of Life Profile and the Self-Perception Profile for Adolescents, respectively. In addition, the Utrecht Coping List for Adolescents and the Structured Assessment of Violence Risk in Youth were administered. Results showed that the longitudinal relation between general well-being and self-esteem is no longer significant after adding active and passive coping to the model. The use of active coping strategies was associated with a higher self-esteem. The use of passive coping strategies was associated with a lower self-esteem and also a lower perceived general well-being. Having multiple risks in the individual and/or social/contextual domain affected the developmental pattern of general well-being. During treatment of adolescents with severe psychiatric problems in secure residential care, attention should be paid for enhancing those capabilities and skills, like coping, which help adolescents to fulfill their needs and consequently enhance their well-being. Enhancing the well-being of adolescents might in the long run decrease the chance of reoffending and/or psychiatric relapse.

  6. Ways of coping as predictors of satisfaction with curriculum and academic success in medical school.

    PubMed

    Alimoglu, Mustafa Kemal; Gurpinar, Erol; Mamakli, Sumer; Aktekin, Mehmet

    2011-03-01

    The purpose of the present study was to determine the coping strategies of medical students and to investigate the effects of coping strategies on student satisfaction and academic achievement with different instruction methods. A total of 152 medical students was followed throughout the first 2 yr of medical education between 2008 and 2010. Students completed a sociodemographic questionnaire and revised form of the Ways of Coping questionnaire both at the beginning of the first year and at the end of the second year. These forms provided data about the characteristics and main coping strategies (problem focused or emotion focused) of the students and revealed the change over time. At the end of the second year, participants also completed a satisfaction questionnaire asking their satisfaction with lectures, problem-based learning, and practicals. The authors used block, problem-based learning, and practical exam scores of the students attained in the past 2 yr as academic achievement indicators. No sociodemographic variable was related to coping strategy. The majority of students (80.9%) adopted problem-focused coping. A shift occurred in the main coping strategies of some students in both sides. Problem-focused coping scores decreased over time. Problem-focused coping positively correlated with satisfaction with practicals and practical exam scores, whereas emotion-focused coping showed the same correlation negatively. The main coping strategy also predicted satisfaction and exam success in practicals. In conclusion, a main coping strategy may be helpful to predict student satisfaction and academic achievement with some student-centered instruction methods. Determining undesired coping strategies may provide an opportunity for intervention to prevent relevant dissatisfaction and failure.

  7. A Randomized Clinical Trial of a Brief, Problem-Focused Couple Therapy for Depression

    PubMed Central

    Cohen, Shiri; O’Leary, K. Daniel; Foran, Heather

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate a brief couple therapy for depression targeted for mildly discordant or nondiscordant couples struggling with the negative impact of depression. Subjects included women with major depression or dysthymia who had husbands without clinical depression. Thirty-five couples were randomly assigned to the 5-week intervention (n = 18) or a waitlist control group (n = 17), and followed up 1 and 3 months later. Results showed a significant effect of treatment in reducing women’s depressive symptoms, with 67% of women improved and 40% to 47% recovered at follow-up, compared to only 17% improved and 8% recovered among women in the control group. Treatment was also effective in secondarily improving women’s marital satisfaction, reducing husbands’ levels of psychological distress and depression-specific burden, and improving both partners’ understanding and acceptance of depression. The treatment was implemented in five 2-hour sessions, representing an efficient, cost-effective approach. Findings support the growing utility of brief, problem-focused couple interventions that simultaneously target depression, relational functioning, and psychological distress experienced by the loved ones of depressed persons. PMID:21035609

  8. Coping strategies to manage acculturative stress: Meaningful activity participation, social support, and positive emotion among Korean immigrant adolescents in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Sooyeon; Gopalan, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a) engagement in meaningful activities; (b) social support; and (c) positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. PMID:23195747

  9. Emotional intelligence: its relationship to stress, coping, well-being and professional performance in nursing students.

    PubMed

    Por, Jitna; Barriball, Louise; Fitzpatrick, Joanne; Roberts, Julia

    2011-11-01

    Emotional intelligence (EI) has been highlighted as an important theoretical and practical construct. It has the potential to enable individuals to cope better and experience less stress thus contributing to a healthy and stable workforce. The study aimed to explore the EI of nursing students (n=130, 52.0%) and its relationship to perceived stress, coping strategies, subjective well-being, perceived nursing competency and academic performance. Students were on the adult pathway of a nursing diploma or degree programme in one Higher Education Institution (HEI) in the United Kingdom (UK). A prospective correlational survey design was adopted. Three methods of data collection were used: i) A self-report questionnaire; ii) an audit of students' academic performance; and iii) mapping of EI teaching in the curricula. Emotional intelligence was positively related to well-being (p<0.05), problem-focused coping (p<0.05) and perceived nursing competency (p<0.05), and negatively related to perceived stress (p<0.05). The findings suggest that increased feelings of control and emotional competence assist nursing students to adopt active and effective coping strategies when dealing with stress, which in turn enhances their subjective well-being. This study highlights the potential value of facilitating the EI of students of nursing and other healthcare professions.

  10. Individual Differences in Coping with Stressful Mass Media: An Activation-Arousal View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Glenn G.; Spirek, Melissa M.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on two studies summarizing recent advances in the study of behavioral dispositions by detailing the activation-arousal framework. Uses the Miller Behavioral Style Scale to measure individual differences in activation/arousal while viewing a negative emotional film segment and media coverage of the explosion of the space shuttle…

  11. How religious coping is used relative to other coping strategies depends on the individual's level of religiosity and spirituality.

    PubMed

    Krägeloh, Christian U; Chai, Penny Pei Minn; Shepherd, Daniel; Billington, Rex

    2012-12-01

    Results from empirical studies on the role of religiosity and spirituality in dealing with stress are frequently at odds, and the present study investigated whether level of religiosity and spirituality is related to the way in which religious coping is used relative to other coping strategies. A sample of 616 university undergraduate students completed the Brief COPE (Carver in Int J Behav Med 4:92-100, 1997) questionnaire and was classified into groups of participants with lower and higher levels of religiosity and spirituality, as measured by the WHOQOL-SRPB (WHOQOL-SRPB Group in Soc Sci Med 62:1486-1497, 2006) instrument. For participants with lower levels, religious coping tended to be associated with maladaptive or avoidant coping strategies, compared to participants with higher levels, where religious coping was more closely related to problem-focused coping, which was also supported by multigroup confirmatory factor analysis. The results of the present study thus illustrate that investigating the role of religious coping requires more complex approaches than attempting to assign it to one higher order factor, such as problem- or emotion-focused coping, and that the variability of findings reported by previous studies on the function of religious coping may partly be due to variability in religiosity and spirituality across samples.

  12. The arbuscular mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis activates storage lipid biosynthesis to cope with the benzo[a]pyrene oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Calonne, Maryline; Fontaine, Joël; Debiane, Djouher; Laruelle, Frédéric; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    The phytoremediation assisted by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could constitute an ecological and economic method to restore polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) polluted soils. Unfortunately, little is known about the PAH impact on the beneficial symbiotic AMF. Using radiolabelling experiments, our work aims to understand how benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a representative of high molecular weight PAH, acts on the AMF lipid metabolism. Our results showed decreases in the sterol precursors as well as in total phospholipid quantities, in link with the [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation decreases in these lipids. Interestingly, a concomitant increase of [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation by 29.5% into phosphatidylcholine with its content decrease in Rhizophagus irregularis extraradical mycelium was observed, suggesting a membrane regeneration. A second concomitant increase (estimated to 69%) of [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAG) with the content decrease was also observed. This suggests a fungal TAG biosynthesis activation probably to offset the decrease in storage lipid content when the fungus was grown under B[a]P pollution. In addition, our findings showed that lipase activity was induced by more than 3 fold in the presence of B[a]P in comparison to the control indicating that the drop in TAG content could be a consequence of their active degradation. Taken together, our data suggest the involvement of the fungal TAG metabolism to cope B[a]P toxicity through two means: (i) by providing carbon skeletons and energy necessary for membrane regeneration and/or for B[a]P translocation and degradation as well as (ii) by activating the phosphatidic acid and hexose metabolisms which may be involved in cellular stress defence.

  13. Active visual search in non-stationary scenes: coping with temporal variability and uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ušćumlić, Marija; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Objective. State-of-the-art experiments for studying neural processes underlying visual cognition often constrain sensory inputs (e.g., static images) and our behavior (e.g., fixed eye-gaze, long eye fixations), isolating or simplifying the interaction of neural processes. Motivated by the non-stationarity of our natural visual environment, we investigated the electroencephalography (EEG) correlates of visual recognition while participants overtly performed visual search in non-stationary scenes. We hypothesized that visual effects (such as those typically used in human-computer interfaces) may increase temporal uncertainty (with reference to fixation onset) of cognition-related EEG activity in an active search task and therefore require novel techniques for single-trial detection. Approach. We addressed fixation-related EEG activity in an active search task with respect to stimulus-appearance styles and dynamics. Alongside popping-up stimuli, our experimental study embraces two composite appearance styles based on fading-in, enlarging, and motion effects. Additionally, we explored whether the knowledge obtained in the pop-up experimental setting can be exploited to boost the EEG-based intention-decoding performance when facing transitional changes of visual content. Main results. The results confirmed our initial hypothesis that the dynamic of visual content can increase temporal uncertainty of the cognition-related EEG activity in active search with respect to fixation onset. This temporal uncertainty challenges the pivotal aim to keep the decoding performance constant irrespective of visual effects. Importantly, the proposed approach for EEG decoding based on knowledge transfer between the different experimental settings gave a promising performance. Significance. Our study demonstrates that the non-stationarity of visual scenes is an important factor in the evolution of cognitive processes, as well as in the dynamic of ocular behavior (i.e., dwell time and

  14. Coping Intelligence: Efficient Life Stress Management

    PubMed Central

    Libin, Elena

    2017-01-01

    Coping Intelligence is defined as efficient individual ways of managing life stress. This paper presents a new assessment instrument named Coping IQ (CIQ; Coping Intelligence Questionnaire). A measure is based on the Multidimensional Positive Coping Model, which includes three cross-cutting parameters that characterize coping strategy as efficient or inefficient, emotional, cognitive or behavioral, and active or passive. Results of the factor analysis verified a basic two-factor structure of the Coping Intelligence with the alternative solutions for efficient and inefficient coping strategies characterized via three basic modalities. The validity of the Coping IQ instrument showed an internal consistency ranging from 0.72 to 0.81. The unified methodology that underlies the new concept of Coping Intelligence, as well as Coping IQ assessment, is applicable for studying both clinical and general populations. CIQ parameters might serve as useful feedback while assessing changes in individual coping repertoire, for CIQ measures strategies that can be modified as a result of life experiences or educational training. Based on the study findings, Coping Intelligence is further defined by a broad repertoire of life skills required to solve successfully everyday stress and life adversities in order to achieve desired goals and maintain physical, mental, and social well-being. PMID:28316579

  15. The Best Years of Our Lives? Coping with Stress Predicts School Grades, Life Satisfaction, and Feelings about High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Carolyn; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Burrus, Jeremy; Roberts, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether problem-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidant coping strategies predict key outcomes in a sample of 354 high school students. The four outcomes considered are: academic achievement, life satisfaction, positive feelings towards school, and negative feelings towards school. Results demonstrate that coping incrementally…

  16. A Daily Diary Study of Coping in the Context of the Job Demands-Control-Support Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Kevin; Harris, Claire

    2005-01-01

    We examined one of the processes thought to underpin Karasek and Theorell's job demands-control-support model (1990). This is that control and support accentuate better well-being by fostering problem-focused coping with work demands. We also examined whether other forms of coping implemented through control and support are related to indicators…

  17. Coping of School-Age Children in the Sealed Room during Scud Missile Bombardment and Postwar Stress Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisenberg, Matisyohu; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined children's (n=492) coping behaviors in sealed room during scud missile attacks in Persian Gulf War in relation to postwar stress reactions. Emotion-focused coping (avoidance and distraction) was associated with less postwar stress reactions than persistence at direct problem-focused actions. Fifth graders used less emotion-focused and…

  18. Innate immunity activation on biomaterial surfaces: A mechanistic model and coping strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ekdahl, Kristina N; Lambris, John D.; Elwing, Hans; Ricklin, Daniel; Nilsson, Per H.; Teramura, Yuji; Nicholls, Ian A.; Nilsson, Bo

    2011-01-01

    When an artificial biomaterial (e.g., a stent or implantable pump) is exposed to blood, plasma proteins immediately adhere to the surface, creating a new interface between the biomaterial and the blood. The recognition proteins within the complement and contact activation/coagulation cascade systems of the blood will be bound to, or inserted into, this protein film and generate different mediators that will activate polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, as well as platelets. Under clinical conditions, the ultimate outcome of these processes may be thrombotic and inflammatory reactions, and consequently the composition and conformation of the proteins in the initial layer formed on the surface will to a large extent determine the outcome of a treatment involving the biomaterial, affecting both the functionality of the material and the patient’s life quality. This review presents models of biomaterial-induced activation processes and describes various strategies to attenuate potential adverse reactions by conjugating bioactive molecules to surfaces or by introducing nanostructures. PMID:21771620

  19. The Universities and Environmental Quality--Commitment to Problem Focused Education. A Report to The President's Environmental Quality Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhart, John S.; Cherniack, Stacie

    This report is based on a study of a few of the multidisciplinary enviromental programs in over 30 universities. The study was undertaken to discover what kind of programs have been tried, which ones have been successful, and how the federal government might encourage effective interdisciplinary problem-focused programs. The report reviews the…

  20. Females' coping styles and control over poker machine gambling.

    PubMed

    Scannell, E D; Quirk, M M; Smith, K; Maddern, R; Dickerson, M

    2000-01-01

    An investigation of the relationship between impaired control over gambling, coping strategies, and demographic variables was conducted by surveying female poker machine players (N = 163) in their gaming venues. Metropolitan (n = 14) and regional (n = 6) gaming venues in Victoria, Australia participated. Control over gambling was measured using the Impaired Control Over Gambling Scale (Baron & Dickerson, 1994). Coping strategies were measured using (Folkman et al., 1986) adaptation of the Revised Ways of Coping Checklist (Vitaliano et al., 1985). MANOVA supported the hypothesis that the lower the control over gambling the greater the reliance on emotion-focused coping (blamed self, wishful thinking, avoidance) with F = 9.92, 13.35, 14.04 respectively, all significant at p <.001. MANOVA failed to supported the hypothesis that problem-focused strategies (problem focus, seek social support) would be significantly related to control over gambling with F =.82 and.21 respectively. Control over gambling was not related to age, employment, relationship status, education, or distress from significant life events, further supporting the relationship between control and coping strategies. Ways in which coping styles might be related to pathological gambling are discussed.

  1. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles, and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T

    2013-01-01

    We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field (OF) test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB) and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB). Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition (PPI), implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles, and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD-like symptoms.

  2. Coping Styles of Female Adolescent Cancer Patients with Potential Fertility Loss

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Devin; Knapp, Caprice A.; Christie, Juliette; Phares, Vicky; Wells, Kristen J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the coping styles of female adolescent cancer patients regarding potential loss of fertility. Expectations and desires for the future, coping styles in typical adolescence, and coping styles when faced with potential loss of fertility due to cancer treatment are discussed. Methods Female adolescents diagnosed with cancer aged 12–18 years at study (N=14) were administered a 10-item values clarification tool to pilot test the readability and relevance of the items on reproductive concerns, followed by a cognitive debriefing interview asking participants how they would respond to each item. These qualitative responses were assessed for coping style type using the constant comparative approach. Results All adolescent participants reported having a strong desire for biological children in the future. Reactions to questions regarding the loss of fertility fell into two categories of coping styles: emotion-focused coping or problem-focused (engagement) coping. Within emotion-focused coping, there were three distinct styles: externalizing attribution style, internalizing attribution style, and repressive adaptation. Problem-focused coping adolescents displayed optimism. Conclusion Successful interventions aimed at promoting adaptive coping styles should seek to uncover adolescents' values about future parenthood and reproduction. Development of an age-appropriate assessment to stimulate dialogue regarding fertility and initiate an adolescent's cognitive processing of potential fertility loss is warranted. PMID:23781403

  3. Selective Breeding for Infant Rat Separation-Induced Ultrasonic Vocalizations: Developmental Precursors of Passive and Active Coping Styles

    PubMed Central

    Brunelli, Susan A.; Hofer, Myron A.

    2009-01-01

    Human depression and anxiety disorders show inherited biases across generations, as do antisocial disorders characterized by aggression. Each condition is preceded in children by behavioral inhibition or aggressive behavior, respectively, and both are characterized by separation anxiety disorders. In affected families, adults and children exhibit different forms of altered autonomic nervous system regulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in response to stress. Because it is difficult to determine mechanisms accounting for these associations, animal studies are useful for studying the fundamental relationships between biological and behavioral traits. Pharmacologic and behavioral studies suggest that infant rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are a measure of an early anxiety-like state related to separation anxiety. However, it was not known whether or not early ultrasound emissions in infant rats are markers for genetic risk for anxiety states later in life. To address these questions, we selectively bred two lines of rats based on high and low rates of USV to isolation at postnatal (P) 10 days of age. To our knowledge, ours is the only laboratory that has ever selectively bred on the basis of an infantile trait related to anxiety. The High and Low USV lines show two distinct sets of patterns of behavior, physiology and neurochemistry from infancy through adulthood. As adults High line rats demonstrate “anxious”/“depressed” phenotypes in behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation to standard laboratory tests. In Lows, on the other hand, behavior and autonomic regulation are consistent with an “aggressive” phenotype. The High and Low USV lines are the first genetic animal models implicating long-term associations of contrasting “coping styles” with early attachment responses. They thus present a potentially powerful model for examining gene-environment interactions in the development of life-long affective regulation. PMID

  4. [The effect of coping and appraisal for coping on mental health and later coping].

    PubMed

    Takamoto, Masahiro; Aikawa, Atsushi

    2013-02-01

    This study examined the effect of coping and appraisal for coping on mental health and later coping in two longitudinal studies. In Study 1 (Time 1: n = 342, Time 2: n = 367) investigated the influence of selected coping and coping for appraisal on mental health and assumed coping. In Study 2 (Time 1: n = 161, Time 2: n = 154) investigated the influence of selected coping and coping for appraisal on mental health and later coping. The results indicated that coping and coping for appraisal affected mental health and later coping. However, the influence of the coping for appraisal was more limited than selected coping.

  5. The Great Recession and Drinking Outcomes: Protective Effects of Politically Oriented Coping

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Judith A.; Brown, Robyn Lewis; Rospenda, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Research derived from the stress paradigm suggests that certain types of coping (e.g., problem-focused coping instead of behavioral disengagement) are protective against problem-related drinking to deal with social stressors. Going beyond the typical focus in the coping literature, we hypothesize that stressors engendered by macrolevel social forces may require coping actions within the political realm in contrast to modes of coping focused outside of the political realm. A United States sample of 663 respondents completed a mail survey in 2010, including measures of stressful consequences of the Great Recession, drinking patterns and problems, modes of coping encompassed in the Brief COPE instrument, and politically oriented coping. Structural equation modeling examined whether modes of coping mediated the links between stressors and drinking outcomes. A substantial portion of the associations between stressors and drinking was explained by modes of coping. Politically oriented coping was protective against problem drinking for both genders. Future studies should further explore politically oriented coping in addition to modes of coping outside of the political realm when studying the relationships between macrolevel social stressors and deleterious drinking outcomes. PMID:25302131

  6. Coping strategies, satisfaction with life, and quality of life in Crohn’s disease: A gender perspective using structural equation modeling analysis

    PubMed Central

    Sarid, O.; Slonim-Nevo, V.; Pereg, A.; Friger, M.; Sergienko, R.; Schwartz, D.; Greenberg, D.; Shahar, I.; Chernin, E.; Vardi, H.; Eidelman, L.; Segal, A.; Ben-Yakov, G.; Gaspar, N.; Munteanu, D.; Rozental, A.; Mushkalo, A.; Dizengof, V.; Abu-Freha, N.; Fich, A.; Odes, S.

    2017-01-01

    Objective To identify coping strategies and socio-demographics impacting satisfaction with life and quality of life in Crohn’s disease (CD). Methods 402 patients completed the Patient Harvey-Bradshaw Index, Brief COPE Inventory, Satisfaction with Life Scale (SWLS), Short Inflammatory Bowel Disease Questionnaire (SIBDQ). We performed structural equation modeling (SEM) of mediators of quality of life and satisfaction with life. Results The cohort comprised: men 39.3%, women 60.1%; P-HBI 4.75 and 5.74 (p = 0.01). In inactive CD (P-HBI≤4), both genders had SWLS score 23.8; men had SIBDQ score 57.4, women 52.6 (p = 0.001); women reported more use of emotion-focused, problem-focused and dysfunctional coping than men. In active CD, SWLS and SIBDQ scores were reduced, without gender differences; men and women used coping strategies equally. A SEM model (all patients) had a very good fit (X2(6) = 6.68, p = 0.351, X2/df = 1.114, SRMR = 0.045, RMSEA = 0.023, CFI = 0.965). In direct paths, economic status impacted SWLS (β = 0.39) and SIBDQ (β = 0.12), number of children impacted SWLS (β = 0.10), emotion-focused coping impacted SWLS (β = 0.11), dysfunctional coping impacted SWLS (β = –0.25). In an indirect path, economic status impacted dysfunctional coping (β = –0.26), dysfunctional coping impacted SIBDQ (β = –0.36). A model split by gender and disease activity showed that in active CD economic status impacted SIBDQ in men (β = 0.43) more than women (β = 0.26); emotional coping impacted SWLS in women (β = 0.36) more than men (β = 0.14). Conclusions Gender differences in coping and the impacts of economic status and emotion-focused coping vary with activity of CD. Psychological treatment in the clinic setting might improve satisfaction with life and quality of life in CD patients. PMID:28245260

  7. Fears, Stress and Trauma: Helping Children Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward H.; Rotter, Joseph C.; Robinson, Sandra L.; Fey, Mary Ann; Vogel, Joanne E.

    This book explains how fears, anxiety, and stress develop in children, and how they can learn to successfully cope with these factors. It offers specific activities designed to assist in coping with a particular aspect of fear or stress. Part I, "Overview of Fears and Stress," contains activities to complement the various curricular…

  8. Conscientiousness and mindfulness in midlife coping: An assessment based on MIDUS II.

    PubMed

    Sesker, Amanda A; Súilleabháin, Páraic Ó; Howard, Siobhán; Hughes, Brian M

    2016-02-01

    Research has demonstrated that conscientious individuals tend to engage in planful problem solving to cope with stressful situations. Likewise, mindful individuals tend to favour approach-based coping and are less likely to engage in avoidant coping strategies. To examine whether conscientiousness and mindfulness determined agentic coping behaviour, hierarchical linear regressions were conducted using data from 602 participants drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) Study II and MIDUS II Biomarker Project. Personality responses were derived from the five-factor model inventory, gathered at a single time-point. Results revealed that conscientiousness predicted problem-focused coping (p < 0.001; β = 0.23) and inversely predicted emotion-focused coping respectively (p < 0.001; β = -0.14), even after controlling for remaining Big Five and confounding variables. Mindfulness also predicted problem-focused coping (p < 0.001; β = 0.21). Neuroticism predicted emotion-focused coping (p < 0.001; β = 0.40). These findings suggest that conscientiousness and mindfulness may contribute to coping responses in potentially healthful ways, highlighting new evidence regarding the potential protective role of conscientiousness.

  9. Lesions of either anterior orbitofrontal cortex or ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in marmoset monkeys heighten innate fear and attenuate active coping behaviors to predator threat

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Yoshiro; Kim, Charissa; Santangelo, Andrea M.; Roberts, Angela C.

    2015-01-01

    The ventral prefrontal cortex is an integral part of the neural circuitry that is dysregulated in mood and anxiety disorders. However, the contribution of its distinct sub-regions to the regulation of negative emotion are poorly understood. Recently we implicated both the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and anterior orbitofrontal cortex (antOFC) in the regulation of conditioned fear and anxiety responses to a social stimulus, i.e., human intruder, in the marmoset monkey. In the present study we extend our investigations to determine the role of these two regions in regulating innate responses and coping strategies to a predator stimulus, i.e., a model snake. Both the vlPFC and antOFC lesioned groups exhibited enhanced anxiety-related responses to the snake in comparison to controls. Both groups also showed a reduction in active coping behavior. These results indicate that the vlPFC and antOFC contribute independently to the regulation of both innate fear and, as previously reported, conditioned fear, and highlight the importance of these regions in producing stimulus-appropriate coping responses. The finding that dysregulation in two distinct prefrontal regions produces the apparently similar behavioral phenotype of heightened negative emotion provides insight into the varied etiology that may underlie this symptom across a wide variety of neuropsychiatric conditions with implications for personalized treatment strategies. PMID:25653599

  10. Coping with workplace minority stress: Associations between dyadic coping and anxiety among women in same-sex relationships.

    PubMed

    Randall, Ashley K; Totenhagen, Casey J; Walsh, Kelsey J; Adams, Caroline; Tao, Chun

    2017-01-02

    Sexual minorities are exposed to stressors in the workplace (workplace minority stress), which can be detrimental for well-being (e.g., levels of anxiety). The present study examined whether a particular set of relationship processes, dyadic coping, served to moderate the association between workplace minority stress and symptoms of anxiety. Using a dyadic sample of 64 female same-sex couples, we found that partner problem-focused supportive dyadic coping (DC) and emotion-focused supportive DC (marginally) buffered, whereas partner delegated DC and negative DC did not moderate, the association between workplace minority stress and symptoms of anxiety. Implications for relationship researchers and mental health practitioners are discussed.

  11. Poverty, stressful life events, and coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Palomar Lever, Joaquina

    2008-05-01

    It was hypothesized that individuals of low socioeconomic status are exposed to a greater number of stressful events and therefore have a higher incidence of psychological disorders. However, the way they interpret, evaluate and cope with these stressful situations may either cause them to maintain, intensify or eliminate their overall stress. Past research indicates that the poorest individuals tend most frequently to falsely minimize or avoid stressful situations, which lowers the probability of resolving their problems. The objective of this study is to discover and compare the situations that have produced a high level of stress in subjects of three different socioeconomic groups over the last three months, as well as the strategies they used to cope, and their perceived effectiveness. The sample included 900 subjects of both sexes living in Mexico City. Among them, 346 were extremely poor, 260 were moderately poor and 312 were not poor. The results indicate that socioeconomic status is related to the frequency with which subjects report certain kinds of stressful situations. It was also found that non-poor subjects use problem-focused coping methods more than the other groups, while the poor use more emotionally-focused coping strategies, This article analyzes the strategies used by each group in each type of stressful situation reported.

  12. School age children's coping with sexual abuse: abuse stresses and symptoms associated with four coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Chaffin, M; Wherry, J N; Dykman, R

    1997-02-01

    Strategies used by 84 sexually abused children, ages 7 to 12, to cope with their abuse were evaluated, along with child abuse-related symptoms, parent-reported behavioral symptoms, and teacher-reported behavioral symptoms. Principal components analysis of coping yielded four strategies that were labeled avoidant coping, internalized coping, angry coping, and active/social coping. Each coping strategy was found to be associated with a unique set of abuse characteristics, abuse-related social environment, and symptoms. In contrast to findings with adult survivors and adolescents, use of avoidant coping strategies among school-age children was found to be related to fewer behavioral problems, although it was also associated with greater sexual anxieties. Internalized coping was found to be associated with increased guilt and PTSD hyperarousal symptoms. Active/social coping was the only strategy found to be unrelated to symptoms, but neither was it associated with measured benefits. In contrast to some clinical opinion that externalizing blame and venting anger is a helpful strategy, angry coping was found to be associated with a wide range of behavioral and emotional problems as rated by the child's home-room school teacher. Results are discussed in terms of a proposed mediational model.

  13. Coping with Depression in Single Black Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2016-01-01

    Very little information exists in the literature about what black women do when they experience symptoms of depression. The purpose of this descriptive study was to analyze the responses of 208 community-residing black single mothers, aged 18 to 45, to an open-ended question asking, “What do you do to feel better when you are feeling down in the dumps?” The theoretical bases of the Ways of Coping Checklist, were used to facilitate categorizing their responses into a coping scale and then a particular coping profile. Percentages were used to categorize the frequency of the responses into the respective coping scale and to categorize the frequency of the combined responses of each woman into a respective coping profile. Of the 333 responses that the women provided, 327 were useable. Findings indicated that a majority of responses fell into the Escape-Avoidance category (n = 206; 63%), followed by the Seeking Social Support (n = 60, 18.3%), Positive Reappraisal (n = 40; 12.2%), Planful Problem Solving (n = 12; 3.7%), Distancing (n = 3; 1%), and Self-Controlling (n = 6; 1.8%) categories. No responses fit the Confrontive Coping or Accepting Responsibility categories and none of the responses indicated that the women sought professional help. Of the 176 women who provided answers to the study question, more than half (64.2%; n = 113) gave only emotion-focused responses, 2.8% (n = 5) gave only problem-focused responses, 2.8% (n = 5) gave mixed responses, and 30.2% (n = 53) reported social support seeking. Implications for future research, cultural theory, and nursing practice are addressed. PMID:26979572

  14. Coping with Depression in Single Black Mothers.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2016-01-01

    Very little information exists in the literature about what black women do when they experience symptoms of depression. The purpose of this descriptive study was to analyze the responses of 208 community-residing black single mothers, aged 18 to 45, to an open-ended question asking, "What do you do to feel better when you are feeling down in the dumps?" The theoretical bases of the Ways of Coping Checklist, were used to facilitate categorizing their responses into a coping scale and then a particular coping profile. Percentages were used to categorize the frequency of the responses into the respective coping scale and to categorize the frequency of the combined responses of each woman into a respective coping profile. Of the 333 responses that the women provided, 327 were useable. Findings indicated that a majority of responses fell into the Escape-Avoidance category (n = 206; 63%), followed by the Seeking Social Support (n = 60, 18.3%), Positive Reappraisal (n = 40; 12.2%), Planful Problem Solving (n = 12; 3.7%), Distancing (n = 3; 1%), and Self-Controlling (n = 6; 1.8%) categories. No responses fit the Confrontive Coping or Accepting Responsibility categories and none of the responses indicated that the women sought professional help. Of the 176 women who provided answers to the study question, more than half (64.2%; n = 113) gave only emotion-focused responses, 2.8% (n = 5) gave only problem-focused responses, 2.8% (n = 5) gave mixed responses, and 30.2% (n = 53) reported social support seeking. Implications for future research, cultural theory, and nursing practice are addressed.

  15. Coping of school-age children in the sealed room during scud missile bombardment and postwar stress reactions.

    PubMed

    Weisenberg, M; Schwarzwald, J; Waysman, M; Solomon, Z; Klingman, A

    1993-06-01

    Children's coping behaviors in the sealed room (a shelter against chemical and biological weapons) during scud missile attacks in the Persian Gulf war were examined in relation to postwar stress reactions. Three weeks after the war, 5th, 7th, and 10th graders (N = 492) completed questionnaires assessing coping behaviors and emotional responses in the sealed room, as well as current stress reactions and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Despite an underlying feeling of tension, the dominant emotional stance in the sealed room was one of detached optimism. Common forms of coping involved information seeking, checking, and wishful thinking. Emotion-focused coping such as avoidance and distraction strategies was associated with less postwar stress reactions than persistence at direct problem-focused actions once the minimal actions available had been undertaken. Fifth graders were found to use less emotion-focused and more problem-focused coping strategies than were the 7th and 10th graders.

  16. Coping with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, Gerdenio M.; And Others

    Since the incidence of cancer in this country is high and the cancer survival rates are increasing, it is important to study coping strategies in cancer patients. As survival time lengthens, coping strategies that might affect the quality of a patient's life become increasingly important. A study was conducted to examine coping strategies in newly…

  17. Coping with Workplace Interpersonal Stress among Japanese Employees.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2015-12-01

    The current study examined the relationship between coping with workplace interpersonal stress (WIS) and psychological dysfunction (i.e. depressive symptoms, burnout, general distress and daytime sleepiness). Three hundred twenty-four Japanese full-time workers completed measures assessing coping strategies with WIS and psychological dysfunction. Three strategies of coping with WIS were measured: distancing coping, reassessing coping and constructive coping. Multiple regression analyses revealed that distancing coping, which reflects strategies to actively damage, disrupt and dissolve a stressful relationship, was related to high levels of depressive symptoms, burnout, general distress and daytime sleepiness. Reassessing coping, which incorporates efforts to patiently wait for an appropriate opportunity to act, such as a change or improvement in the situation, was related to low levels of depressive symptoms, burnout, general distress and daytime sleepiness. Constructive coping was not significantly associated with psychological dysfunction. Implications for workplace stress are discussed.

  18. Big five personality and adolescent Internet addiction: The mediating role of coping style.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yueyue; Li, Dongping; Li, Xian; Wang, Yanhui; Zhao, Liyan

    2017-01-01

    This study examined the unique associations between big five personality traits and adolescent Internet addiction (IA), as well as the mediating role of coping style underlying these relations. Our theoretical model was tested with 998 adolescents. Participants provided self-report data on demographic variables, big five personality traits, coping style, and IA. After controlling for demographic variables, it was found that agreeableness and conscientiousness were negatively associated with IA, whereas extraversion, neuroticism, and openness to experience were positively associated with IA. Mediation analyses further indicated that conscientiousness had an indirect impact on adolescent IA through decreased emotion-focused coping, whereas extraversion, neuroticism, openness to experience had indirect impacts on adolescent IA through increased emotion-focused coping. In contrast, problem-focused coping had no mediating role. These findings suggest that emotion-focused coping may, in part, account for the association between big five personality and adolescent IA.

  19. Self-generated coping strategies among muslim athletes during ramadan fasting.

    PubMed

    Roy, Jolly; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Jin, Chai Wen

    2011-01-01

    The study explored the self-generated coping strategies employed by Muslim athletes from South East Asian region during the Ramadan fasting month. Sixty-five National elite Muslim athletes responded to an open-ended question on coping strategies employed during Ramadan fasting. Inductive content analysis identified five general dimensions from 54 meaning units which were abstracted into 14 first-order themes and 10 second order themes. The general dimension included four problem-focused coping: training modifications, dietary habits, psychological, rest and recovery, and one emotion-focused coping i.e., self- control. The coping strategies employed were diverse and dynamic in nature and no specific pattern was evident. The most frequently employed strategies were associated with training and dietary habits. Emotion focused coping was the least frequently used by the athletes. Key pointsMuslim athletes employ diverse self -generated coping strategies during Ramadan fasting which can be categorized as anticipatory coping, preventative coping and proactive coping.Frequently employed coping strategies are task focused such as training modifications and adjustments in dietary habits.

  20. Pain Coping Strategies and Depression in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gregory K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined role of pain episodes and active and passive pain coping strategies in predicting depression in 287 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Findings revealed pain, passive coping, and interaction between the 2 accounted for higher depression. Results also indicated that frequent use of passive pain coping strategies in face of high pain…

  1. Personality, Life Events and Coping in the Oldest-Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared adults (n=165) in their 60s, 80s, and 100s on personality, life events, and coping. Found personality differences: centenarians scored higher on dominance, suspiciousness, and imagination. Although centenarians scored lower on active behavioral coping than other age groups, they used cognitive strategies when coping with health and family…

  2. Black women talk about workplace stress and how they cope.

    PubMed

    Hall, J Camille; Everett, Joyce E; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie

    2012-01-01

    Black women face the same struggles as White women; however, they have to face issues of diversity on top of inequality. The purpose of this study was to explore work-related stressors that affect the lives of Black women and how they cope with them. Using an exploratory design with grounded-theory methods, five basic themes emerged that identify when racism and sexism are experienced as stressors for African American women in the workplace. The themes are: (1) being hired or promoted in the workplace, (2) defending one’s race and lack of mentorship, (3) shifting or code switching to overcome barriers to employment, (4) coping with racism and discrimination, and (5) being isolated and/or excluded. The results from this study indicate African American women use emotion- and problem-focused coping responses to manage stress (e.g., racism and sexism) in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion of practice implications of these findings.

  3. Coping, family social support, and psychological symptoms among student veterans.

    PubMed

    Romero, Daniel H; Riggs, Shelley A; Ruggero, Camilo

    2015-04-01

    With rising numbers of student veterans on today's college campuses, multicultural competence in college counseling centers increasingly includes an understanding of military culture and its relation to the psychological health and functioning of student veterans. Research on interpersonal and intrapersonal factors associated with college student veterans' mental health is scarce. The current study examines the contributions of coping style and family social support on symptoms of anxiety, depression, and posttraumatic stress in a student veteran sample. We also tested the moderating role of family social support in the relationship between coping style and psychological symptoms. Data from 136 student veterans were analyzed by using path analysis. Results revealed that avoidant coping and family social support significantly predicted depressive and anxiety symptoms. Avoidant coping also significantly predicted posttraumatic stress symptoms. In addition, findings indicated that family social support moderated the relationship between problem-focused coping and depression, as well as between avoidant coping and symptoms of anxiety and depression but not posttraumatic stress. Implications of results for college and university counselors are discussed.

  4. School Age Children's Coping with Sexual Abuse: Abuse Stresses and Symptoms Associated with Four Coping Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffin, Mark; And Others

    1997-01-01

    Coping strategies used by 84 sexually abused children ages 7-12 were evaluated along with related symptoms and factors. Avoidance behavior was associated with fewer behavioral problems but greater sexual anxiety. Internalization was associated with increased guilt, and active/social coping was associated with no symptoms or benefits. Expressive…

  5. Positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and coping with stress by attachment styles in Turkish students.

    PubMed

    Deniz, M Engin; Işik, Erkan

    2010-10-01

    The purpose was to investigate positive and negative affect, life satisfaction, and coping with stress in relation to attachment styles. Undergraduate students (N=421) completed the Relationship Scales Questionnaire, the Positive and Negative Affect Scale, the Satisfaction With Life Scale, and the Coping with Stress Scale. Results indicated that secure attachment style was the unique predictor of positive affect while fearful and preoccupied attachment styles significantly predicted negative affect. Regarding life satisfaction, a positive correlation with secure attachment style and a negative correlation with fearful and preoccupied styles were seen. However, the unique predictor of life satisfaction was preoccupied attachment style. In terms of coping with stress, there was no significant association between attachment variables and avoidance coping style, but significant links were observed between problem-focused coping and dismissing, and fearful and preoccupied attachment styles.

  6. Optimism, coping and long-term recovery from coronary artery surgery in women.

    PubMed

    King, K B; Rowe, M A; Kimble, L P; Zerwic, J J

    1998-02-01

    Optimism, coping strategies, and psychological and functional outcomes were measured in 55 women undergoing coronary artery surgery. Data were collected in-hospital and at 1, 6, and 12 months after surgery. Optimism was related to positive moods and life satisfaction, and inversely related to negative moods. Few relationships were found between optimism and functional ability. Cognitive coping strategies accounted for a mediating effect between optimism and negative mood. Optimists were more likely to accept their situation, and less likely to use escapism. In turn, these coping strategies were inversely related to negative mood and mediated the relationship between optimism and this outcome. Optimism was not related to problem-focused coping strategies; this, these coping strategies cannot explain the relationship between optimism and outcomes.

  7. Life stage differences in resident coping with restart of the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility

    SciTech Connect

    Prince-Embury, S.; Rooney, J.F.

    1990-12-01

    A study of residents who remained in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) immediately following the restart of the nuclear generating plant revealed that older residents employed a more emotion-focused coping style in the face of this event than did younger residents. Coping style was, however, unrelated to the level of psychological symptoms for these older residents, whereas demographic variables were related. Among younger residents, on the other hand, coping style was related to the level of psychological symptoms, whereas demographic variables were not. Among younger residents, emotion-focused coping was associated with more symptoms and problem-focused coping was associated with fewer symptoms, contradicting previous findings among TMI area residents.

  8. Communication and cybercoping: coping with chronic illness through communicative action in online support networks.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jeong-Nam; Lee, Seungyoon

    2014-01-01

    Computer-mediated communication, specifically blogs, has expanded the range of the communicative action of patients with chronic disease from information seeking to information forwarding. The authors examine the effects of these 2 types of communicative action on perceived affective and physical coping outcomes. Using a survey dataset of 254 chronic disease patients, the authors tested 2 models using structural equation modeling: first, the effects of communicative action about chronic illness on coping outcomes; and second, the mediating role of emotion-focused and problem-focused coping processes. Findings indicate overall positive effects of communicative action on coping processes and outcomes, yet with different magnitudes of effects depending on the dimensions of communication behavior, the coping process, and outcome. Implications for patients and health care providers are discussed.

  9. Coping With Cleft: A Conceptual Framework of Caregiver Responses to Nasoalveolar Molding

    PubMed Central

    Sischo, Lacey; Broder, Hillary L.; Phillips, Ceib

    2014-01-01

    Objective To present a conceptual framework of caregiver coping and adaptation to early cleft care using nasoalveolar molding. Design In-depth interviews were conducted at three time points with caregivers of infants with cleft lip or cleft lip and palate whose children had nasoalveolar molding to treat their cleft. Qualitative data were analyzed using modified grounded theory. Results Most caregivers expressed initial apprehension and anxiety about the responsibilities of care associated with nasoalveolar molding (e.g., changing and positioning tapes, cleaning the appliance). In subsequent interviews, caregivers often reported positive feelings related to their active participation in their child’s treatment for cleft. These positive feelings were associated with increased self-esteem and feelings of empowerment for the caregivers. Although caregivers also identified burdens associated with nasoalveolar molding (e.g., stress related to lip taping, concerns about the appliance causing sores in their child’s mouth, travel to weekly appointments), they tended to minimize the impact of these issues in comparison with the perceived benefits of nasoalveolar molding. Conclusions Despite the increased burden of care, many caregivers of infants with cleft used nasoalveolar molding as a problem-focused coping strategy to deal with their child’s cleft. Completing nasoalveolar molding was often associated with positive factors such as increased empowerment, self-esteem, and bonding with their infant. PMID:25225840

  10. Gender Roles and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship of gender-role orientation and specific behavioral coping responses of wives (N=82) experiencing a long-term separation from their military spouses. Results showed that an androgynous gender-role orientation was significantly associated with four of the five coping patterns identified as helpful to wives managing a…

  11. Coping with stalking.

    PubMed

    Amar, Angela Frederick; Alexy, Eileen M

    2010-01-01

    Stalking is a serious public health and societal concern affecting the college population. Although numerous studies illustrate the physical and mental effects of stalking, literature addressing how individuals cope with this phenomenon is lacking. The purpose of this study was to describe stalking experiences of college students and the coping strategies used to manage stalking. In this descriptive study, 262 college students completed an online survey that included a stalking questionnaire and coping survey. Slightly more than one-fourth of the sample (n = 69) reported experiencing stalking victimization. Results indicated that the most common coping strategies employed were: ignoring the problem, minimizing the problem, distancing, detaching or depersonalizing, using verbal escape tactics, attempting to end the relationship, controlling the interaction, and restricting accessibility. Implications for refining current practice and research on coping strategies and stalking are suggested.

  12. Filipino Americans and racism: A multiple mediation model of coping.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Alvin N; Juang, Linda P

    2010-04-01

    Although the literature on Asian Americans and racism has been emerging, few studies have examined how coping influences one's encounters with racism. To advance the literature, the present study focused on the psychological impact of Filipino Americans' experiences with racism and the role of coping as a mediator using a community-based sample of adults (N = 199). Two multiple mediation models were used to examine the mediating effects of active, avoidance, support-seeking, and forbearance coping on the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress and self-esteem, respectively. Separate analyses were also conducted for men and women given differences in coping utilization. For men, a bootstrap procedure indicated that active, support-seeking, and avoidance coping were mediators of the relationship between perceived racism and psychological distress. Active coping was negatively associated with psychological distress, whereas both support seeking and avoidance were positively associated with psychological distress. A second bootstrap procedure for men indicated that active and avoidance coping mediated the relationship between perceived racism and self-esteem such that active coping was positively associated with self-esteem, and avoidance was negatively associated with self-esteem. For women, only avoidance coping had a significant mediating effect that was associated with elevations in psychological distress and decreases in self-esteem. The results highlight the importance of examining the efficacy of specific coping responses to racism and the need to differentiate between the experiences of men and women.

  13. Adolescent Coping Profiles Differentiate Reports of Depression and Anxiety Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Herres, Joanna; Ohannessian, Christine McCauley

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N = 982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age =16.04, SD = .73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver, Scheier, & Weintraub, 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies. PMID:26275359

  14. The development of coping.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Ellen A; Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J

    2007-01-01

    Research on coping during childhood and adolescence is distinguished by its focus on how children deal with actual stressors in real-life contexts. Despite burgeoning literatures within age groups, studies on developmental differences and changes have proven difficult to integrate. Two recent advances promise progress toward a developmental framework. First, dual-process models that conceptualize coping as "regulation under stress" establish links to the development of emotional, attentional, and behavioral self-regulation and suggest constitutional underpinnings and social factors that shape coping development. Second, analyses of the functions of higher-order coping families allow identification of corresponding lower-order ways of coping that, despite their differences, are developmentally graded members of the same family. This emerging framework was used to integrate 44 studies reporting age differences or changes in coping from infancy through adolescence. Together, these advances outline a systems perspective in which, as regulatory subsystems are integrated, general mechanisms of coping accumulate developmentally, suggesting multiple directions for future research.

  15. Just Doing What They Gotta Do: Single Black Custodial Fathers Coping with the Stresses and Reaping the Rewards of Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Roberta L.

    2009-01-01

    For single African American custodial fathers, parenting stress is exacerbated by the cultural expectation that Black fathers are "normally" absent and by the clustering of stresses that Black men are more likely to encounter. This sample of African American fathers have used a repertoire of problem-focused and cognitive coping strategies,…

  16. Coping with Daily Hassles in the Peer Group during Early Adolescence: Variations as a Function of Peer Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowker, Anne; Bukowski, William M.; Hymel, Shelley; Sippola, Lorrie K.

    2000-01-01

    Examined impact of peer experience on seventh graders' strategies for coping with peer hassles. Found that more aggressive adolescents perceived more control over hassles. More aggressive, unpopular adolescents used more negative strategies; more popular aggressive females used more problem-focused strategies. Withdrawn adolescents perceived less…

  17. Therapist stress, coping, career sustaining behavior and the working alliance.

    PubMed

    Briggs, Denise Broholm; Munley, Patrick H

    2008-10-01

    Relations were examined among therapist stress, coping styles, career sustaining behaviors and therapist working alliance. 160 therapists completed a demographic questionnaire, a rating of stress experienced in work as a psychotherapist, a rating of stress experienced in work with an individual client, the Perceived Stress Scale, the Career Sustaining Behavior Questionnaire, the COPE, and the Working Alliance Inventory. After controlling for demographic and therapists' stress variables, and alternating entry of Career Sustaining Behavior and COPE scores in the regression model, Career Sustaining Behavior contributed significant variance to predicting working alliance, and COPE scores accounted for significant variance in working alliance with active coping a significant predictor. Career Sustaining Behavior and COPE scores entered together accounted for significant unique variance in Working Alliance with career sustaining behavior and avoidant coping identified as significant predictors.

  18. [Multidimensional assessment of coping: validation of the Brief COPE among French population].

    PubMed

    Muller, L; Spitz, E

    2003-01-01

    This Article aims to introduce the translation and the validation of a multidimensional measure of coping strategies: the Brief COPE, in a French population. The coping concept comes from psychological studies that were conducted on stress. In the conceptual analysis of stress by Lazarus and Folkman, coping works with two cognitive appraisals performed by the person concerning the perception of a threatening situation and his or her available resources to deal with it. Coping is defined as "cognitive and behavioural efforts to master, reduce, or tolerate the internal and/or external demands that are created by the stressful transaction". The Brief COPE is the abridged version of the COPE inventory and presents fourteen scales all assessing different coping dimensions: 1) active coping, 2) planning, 3) using instrumental support, 4) using emotional support, 5) venting, 6) behavioural disengagement, 7) self-distraction, 8) self-blame, 9) positive reframing, 10) humor, 11) denial, 12) acceptance, 13) religion, and 14) substance use. Each scale contains two items (28 altogether). This inventory has the advantage of being built from acknowledged theoretical models (Lazarus' transactional model of stress, 1984; behavioral self-regulation model, Carver and Scheier, 1981, 1998). It can be used to assess trait coping (the usual way people cope with stress in everyday life) and state coping (the particular way people cope with a specific stressful situation). As is the COPE inventory, the Brief COPE is a measure used for many health-relevant studies: drugs addiction, ageing, breast cancer, depression, AIDS. Both measures are widely used in Anglophone countries and translated in many Languages. Today, the COPE inventory has been validated among Estonian, Croatian, Chinese, and Italian populations and the Brief COPE is also validated among Spanish people. Thus, the worldwide use of this coping inventory should allow a broad comparison of medical and psychological research for

  19. Coping with the Crunch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Examines housing strategies several college facilities managers used to cope with the problem of overcrowded residence halls. Also highlighted are tips to help facilities managers determine if their solution is to build additional housing. (GR)

  20. Helping Teens Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jami I.

    2003-01-01

    Considers the role of school library media specialists in helping teens cope with developmental and emotional challenges. Discusses resiliency research, and opportunities to develop programs and services especially for middle school and high school at-risk teens. (LRW)

  1. Coping with Transitions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bendersky, Nora; And Others

    1984-01-01

    Describes a workshop for nine South American students at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem. The two-day session focussed on exploring coping behaviors that could help students adjust to transitions. (JAC)

  2. Emotion awareness and coping in children with functional abdominal pain: a controlled study.

    PubMed

    van der Veek, Shelley M C; Derkx, H H F; de Haan, Else; Benninga, Marc A; Boer, Frits

    2012-01-01

    Literature on somatization suggests that patients suffering from medically unexplained symptoms are less aware of their emotions and use maladaptive coping strategies when coping with everyday problems. In addition, coping is hypothesized to mediate between emotion awareness and medically unexplained symptoms. Scientific evidence for the relevance of this hypothesis for children with functional abdominal pain (FAP) is, however, lacking. Therefore, the purpose of the present study was to investigate this hypothesis in Dutch children with functional abdominal pain (FAP), aged 7-18 years. Between April 2007 and April 2010, a total of 114 referred children with FAP, 235 schoolchildren without abdominal pain and 407 schoolchildren with some abdominal pain (AP) of diverse etiology filled out questionnaires concerning their pain, emotion awareness and coping. MANOVA was used to investigate group differences in emotional awareness and coping. Structural equation modeling was used to investigate the mediational role of coping. The results showed that children with FAP scored significantly lower on most aspects of emotion awareness than children without AP, although these differences were small. Contrary to expectations, children with FAP were more aware of a link between emotions and bodily sensations than children without AP. As for coping, we found that children with FAP used avoidant coping more often than children without AP. Overall, children with FAP mostly did not differ in their emotional awareness and coping compared to children with some AP. Problem focused coping had a small mediating effect for two aspects of emotion awareness. We conclude that children with FAP show only small differences in emotion awareness and coping compared to children without AP, and are practically no different from children with some AP. Contrary to common belief, it can be questioned whether emotion awareness and general coping are useful targets for psychological treatments of FAP to

  3. Social isolation in parents of children with hemangiomas: effects of coping styles and emotional distress.

    PubMed

    Quintard, Bruno; Gana, Kamel; Constant, Aymery; Quintric, Chantal; Taïeb, Alain; Léauté-Labrèze, Christine

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated factors associated with social isolation in parents of children with hemangiomas. Eighty-one parents completed questionnaires assessing their emotional distress, social isolation, and coping styles. To explore the relationships between these variables, a path analysis was used to test a model in which clinical characteristics of hemangiomas and parents' coping strategies do not have direct effects on their social isolation but indirect effects via their emotional distress. Bootstrapping was used to assess indirect effects. Time since onset and lesional complications had positive direct effects on parents' social isolation. Lesional visibility and emotion-focused coping had negative indirect effects on parents' social isolation via their emotional distress, while problem-focused coping showed a positive indirect effect. These findings may have implications for clinicians managing parents of children with hemangiomas.

  4. En las Manos de Dios [in God's Hands]: Religious and Other Forms of Coping among Latinos with Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Vasquez, Elizabeth; Echeverria, Sandra E.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model concerning religious, passive, and active coping; pain; and psychological adjustment among a sample of 200 Latinos with arthritis. Respondents reported using high levels of religious coping. A path analysis indicated that religious coping was correlated with active but not with passive coping. Religious coping…

  5. Correlations between coping styles and symptom expectation for whiplash injury.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Robert; Russell, Anthony S

    2010-11-01

    In pain conditions, active coping has been found to be associated with less severe depression, increased activity level, and less functional impairment. Studies indicate that Canadians have a high expectation for chronic pain following whiplash injury. Expectation of recovery has been shown to predict recovery in whiplash victims. The objective of this study was to compare both the expectations and the coping style for whiplash injury in injury-naive subjects. The Vanderbilt Pain Management Inventory was administered to university students. Subjects who had not yet experienced whiplash injury were given a vignette concerning a neck sprain (whiplash injury) in a motor vehicle collision and were asked to indicate how likely they were to have thoughts or behaviors indicated in the coping style questionnaire. Subjects also completed expectation questionnaires regarding whiplash injury. Subjects (57%) held an expectation of chronic pain after whiplash injury. The mean active coping style score was 28.5±6.6 (40 is the maximum score for active coping). The mean passive coping style score was 28.5±6.6 (50 is the maximum score for passive coping). Those with high passive coping styles had a higher mean expectation score. The correlation between passive coping style score and expectation score was 0.62, while the correlation between active coping style score and expectation was -0.48. Both expectations and coping styles may interact or be co-modifiers in the outcomes of whiplash injury in whiplash victims. Further studies of coping style as an etiologic factor in the chronic whiplash syndrome are needed.

  6. Mediating and Moderating Effects in Ageism and Depression among the Korean Elderly: The Roles of Emotional Reactions and Coping Reponses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il-Ho; Noh, Samuel; Chun, Heeran

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the relationship between ageism and depression, exploring the stress-mediating and stress-moderating roles of emotional reactions and coping behaviors. Methods Data were from the 2013 Ageism and Health Study (n = 816), a cross-sectional survey of urban and rural community-dwelling seniors aged 60–89 years in South Korea. Participants with at least one experience of ageism reported on their emotional reactions and coping responses. The measure yielded two types of coping: problem-focused (taking formal action, confrontation, seeking social support) and emotion-focused (passive acceptance, emotional discharge). Results Although ageism was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (B = 0.27, p < 0.0001), the association was entirely mediated by emotional reactions such as anger, sadness, and powerlessness. Problem-focused coping, especially confrontation and social support, seemingly reduced the impact of emotional reactions on depression, whereas emotion-focused coping exacerbated the adverse effects. Conclusion These findings support the cultural characterization explanation of ageism and related coping processes among Korean elderly and suggest that regulating emotional reactions may determine the efficacy of coping with ageism. PMID:26981336

  7. Perfectionism and athlete burnout in junior elite athletes: the mediating role of coping tendencies.

    PubMed

    Hill, Andrew P; Hall, Howard K; Appleton, Paul R

    2010-07-01

    Recent research indicates that some dimensions of perfectionism are positively related to athlete burnout, whereas others are negatively related to athlete burnout. The divergent relationship between these dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout may be explained by different coping tendencies. The present investigation examined whether different coping tendencies mediate the relationship between self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism and burnout. Two-hundred and six junior elite athletes (M age=15.15 years, SD=1.88 years, range=11-22 years) completed measures of self-oriented and socially prescribed perfectionism, coping tendencies, and athlete burnout. Structural equation modeling indicated that the relationship between dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout was mediated by different coping tendencies. Higher levels of socially prescribed perfectionism was related to higher levels of avoidant coping which, in turn, was related to higher levels of athlete burnout. In contrast, higher levels of self-oriented perfectionism was related to higher levels of problem-focused coping and lower levels of avoidant coping which, in turn, was related to lower levels of athlete burnout. The findings suggest that different coping tendencies may underpin the divergent relationship between self-oriented and socially prescribed dimensions of perfectionism and athlete burnout.

  8. An investigation of the five-factor model of personality and coping behaviour in sport.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mark S; Greenlees, Iain; Jones, Marc

    2011-05-01

    Coping strategies are important for performance in sport and individual differences may contribute to the coping strategies adopted by athletes. In this study, we explored the main and interactive effects of the big five personality dimensions on sport-related coping and compared personality profiles of discrete groups of athletes. Altogether, 253 athletes (mean age 21.1 years, s=3.7) completed the NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992), and the Coping Function Questionnaire for Sport (Kowalski & Crocker, 2001). Results showed that extraverted athletes, who were also emotionally stable and open to new experiences (a three-way interaction effect), reported a greater use of problem-focused coping strategies. Conscientious athletes (main effect), and athletes displaying high levels of extraversion, openness, and agreeableness (a three-way interaction effect), reported a greater use of emotion-focused coping strategies, and athletes with low levels of openness, or high levels of neuroticism (main effects), reported a greater use of avoidance coping strategies. Different personality characteristics were observed between higher-level and lower-level athletes, between men and women athletes, and between individual and team sport athletes. These findings suggest that the five-factor model of personality can help distinguish various levels of athletic involvement and can help identify the coping strategies athletes are likely to adopt during participation.

  9. Control Beliefs, Coping Efforts, and Adjustment to Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jensen, Mark P.; Karoly, Paul

    1991-01-01

    Examined adaptation to chronic pain in 118 patients. Control appraisals, ignoring pain, using coping self-statements, and increasing activities were positively related to psychological functioning. Control appraisals, diverting attention, ignoring pain, and using coping self-statements were positively related to activity level for patients…

  10. [Snacking behavior among elementary and junior high school students and its relationship to stress-coping].

    PubMed

    Shimai, S; Kawabata, T; Nishioka, N; Haruki, T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate current problems of snacking behavior and their relationship to stress coping among 1,486 fourth through ninth grade students from 10 elementary schools and six junior high schools. An anonymous self-completed questionnaire was utilized which included items about 1) selection of snack foods, which were classified into healthy, popular, complementary and western-style snacks, 2) problems of snacking behavior, which included external and emotional eating scores, and 3) stress coping scale. The stress coping scale contained two sub-scales; problem-focused and emotion-focused coping. The results were as follows: 1) Students who frequently went without breakfast did not select healthy foods, i.e., fruits and dairy products, but popular snacks, i.e., potato chips, pop corn and sweet beverage. 2) Both external and emotional eating scores increased by age in girls but was not apparent in boys. 3) Students who preferred either western-style or popular snacks showed higher score of external and emotional eating. 4) The score of problem-focused coping was positively correlated with preference for health snacks, but emotion-focused coping was positively correlated with external and emotional eating scores. The close relationship between snack food selection and problematic aspects of eating behavior suggests that modification of eating behavior is necessary to develop healthy snack habits in early adolescents. Also, it is interesting that snacking behavior is closely related to stress coping, which suggested the behavioral intervention for healthy eating habit should be included in development of stress-coping skills against various kinds of demands in life.

  11. The impact of coping on the somatic and mental status of patients with COPD: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Papava, Ion; Oancea, Cristian; Enatescu, Virgil Radu; Bredicean, Ana Cristina; Dehelean, Liana; Romosan, Radu Stefan; Timar, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most debilitating somatic diseases, having anxiety and depression frequently as comorbidities. The coping style, the way in which the subject manages to control the difficult and stressful situations of life, can influence its evolution and also the existence of the comorbidities. In this study, coping styles in a group of subjects with COPD and their association with the intensity of depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as medical determinants were identified. Materials and methods In this cross-sectional study, 28 male patients with COPD risk class D were enrolled. The patients performed spirometry tests, Borg scale, 6-minute walking test, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and COPE Inventory were recorded. Results According to their higher coping subscale score, the depression score was the highest in patients with avoidance-type coping and the lowest in patients with problem-focused coping (11.0 vs 5.6; P=0.042), respectively, patients with social support-focused coping having the highest anxiety score in contrast to patients with emotion-focused coping, which had the lowest anxiety score (11.6 vs 5.0; P=0.006). Regarding respiratory parameters, significant differences were present for the variation of the medians between the four groups only for forced vital capacity (FVC%) (the lowest FVC% was in patients with predominant social support-focused coping and the highest in patients with problem-focused coping) and 6-minute walking test (%) (the lowest score for patients with social support-focused coping and the highest value in patients with avoidance-type coping). Problem-coping score was significantly and positively associated with FVC% (Spearman’s r=0.400; P=0.035), emotion-focused coping score was significantly and positively associated with FVC% (Spearman’s r=0.395; P=0.038), and social support-focused coping score was negatively and significantly correlated

  12. The relationship between anxiety, coping strategies and characteristics of patients with diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Tuncay, Tarik; Musabak, Ilgen; Gok, Deniz Engin; Kutlu, Mustafa

    2008-01-01

    Background This study provided essential information, about Turkish patients with type I and type II diabetes, concerning: levels of anxiety, coping strategies used, and relationships that exist among anxiety, coping strategies, sociodemographic and medical characteristics. Methods A sample comprising 161 Turkish adults with both types of diabetes participated in the study. The trait anxiety scale, the brief COPE, sociodemographic and medical questionnaire were administered to patients with diabetes. Results The mean age was 49.01 (SD = 9.74), with a range from 20 to 60 years. The majority of the participants were female (60.9%) and type II diabetes (75.8%). 79% of the participants experienced anxiety. A clear majority of the participants reported to integrate their diabetes. Acceptance, religion, planning, positive reframing, instrumental support, emotional support, self-distraction and venting were the most frequently used coping strategies. The most frequently used problem-focused and the emotion-focused coping strategies were found to be similar in both type I and type II diabetes. However, participants with type II diabetes had relatively higher scores on the problem-focused strategies than those with type I. Participants with type I diabetes used humour, venting and self-blame more than those with type II diabetes. Other findings indicated that only a small minority responded to diabetes-related problems by denial, behavioural disengagement and substance use. Significant correlations were found among anxiety, coping strategies and sociodemographic characteristics of the participants. Moreover, Self-blame was found to be correlated significantly with both the problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies. Self-blame was also significantly correlated with both instrumental support and emotional support indicated that higher self-blame caused more frequent use of instrumental and emotional support by patients with diabetes. Conclusion The findings of

  13. The role of the family environment and computer-mediated social support on breast cancer patients' coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Woohyun; Shah, Dhavan V; Shaw, Bret R; Kim, Eunkyung; Smaglik, Paul; Roberts, Linda J; Hawkins, Robert P; Pingree, Suzanne; McDowell, Helene; Gustafson, David H

    2014-09-01

    Despite the importance of family environment and computer-mediated social support (CMSS) for women with breast cancer, little is known about the interplay of these sources of care and assistance on patients' coping strategies. To understand this relation, the authors examined the effect of family environment as a predictor of the use of CMSS groups as well as a moderator of the relation between group participation and forms of coping. Data were collected from 111 patients in CMSS groups in the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System "Living with Breast Cancer" intervention. Results indicate that family environment plays a crucial role in (a) predicting breast cancer patient's participation in CMSS groups and (b) moderating the effects of use of CMSS groups on breast cancer patients' coping strategies such as problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping.

  14. Impact of Age, and Cognitive and Coping Resources on Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…

  15. Coping with Aging and Amputation

    MedlinePlus

    ... Center > Coping With Aging and Amputation Coping With Aging and Amputation Web Development February 15, 2015 Senior ... Though we don’t have much control over aging, we do have some power over the way ...

  16. Coping with Fear of Recurrence

    MedlinePlus

    ... With Fear of Recurrence Request Permissions Coping With Fear of Recurrence Approved by the Cancer.Net Editorial ... affects your life. Tips for coping with the fear of recurrence Living with uncertainty is never easy. ...

  17. Coping strategies as a predictor of post-concussive symptoms in children with mild traumatic brain injury versus mild orthopedic injury.

    PubMed

    Woodrome, Stacey E; Yeates, Keith Owen; Taylor, H Gerry; Rusin, Jerome; Bangert, Barbara; Dietrich, Ann; Nuss, Kathryn; Wright, Martha

    2011-03-01

    This study examined whether children's coping strategies are related to post-concussive symptoms following mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) versus orthopedic injury (OI). Participants were 8- to 15-year-old children with mild TBI (n = 167) or OI (n = 84). They rated their current preferred coping strategies and post-injury symptoms at 2 weeks (baseline) and 1, 3, and 12 months post-injury. Children's reported use of coping strategies did not vary significantly over time, so their baseline coping ratings were examined as predictors of post-concussive symptoms across time. Self-ratings of symptoms were positively related to emotion-focused strategies and negatively related to problem-focused engagement after both mild TBI and OI. Higher problem-focused disengagement predicted larger group differences in children's ratings of symptoms, suggesting that problem-focused disengagement moderates the effects of mild TBI. Coping strategies collectively accounted for approximately 10-15% of the variance in children's post-concussive symptoms over time. The findings suggest that coping may play an important role in accounting for children's perceptions of post-concussive symptoms after mild TBI.

  18. Coping by Caring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidstone, Sheila S.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a Texas elementary school's efforts to cope with the special needs of Kenneth, a fourth grader slowly dying of kidney cancer. Besides learning their subjects like other students, Kenneth's classmates learned how to care. Every student volunteered to be Kenneth's assistant and was enriched by the boy's positive attitude and determination…

  19. Children's Coping with Academic Failure

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raftery-Helmer, Jacquelyn N.; Grolnick, Wendy S.

    2016-01-01

    There is little consensus on how to conceptualize coping after perceived failure and less is known about the contextual resources that may support or undermine the use of specific coping strategies. This study examined parenting in relation to coping using the framework of self-determination theory and examined the motivational processes through…

  20. Children Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lissette M.

    Children who live with chronic illness are confronted with challenges that frequently force them to cope in myriad ways. The ways in which children face chronic illness are summarized in this literature review. Also covered, are how the effects of family can influence coping strategies and how family members, especially parents, cope with their…

  1. Agentic personality characteristics and coping: their relation to trait anxiety in college students.

    PubMed

    Weigold, Ingrid K; Robitschek, Christine

    2011-04-01

    Anxiety and its disorders, often present before adulthood, have high personal and societal costs for men and women. This study tested a mediation model in which 3 forms of coping mediate the relation of 3 agentic personality characteristics (i.e., traits associated with the belief that people can effectively exercise control over their lives) to lower levels of anxiety within 1 subgroup of young adults (i.e., college students). The agentic personality characteristics were (a) hardiness, (b) personal growth initiative, and (c) coping self-efficacy. The forms of dispositional coping were (a) problem-focused, (b) emotion-focused, and (c) avoidant. Results suggest that agentic personality characteristics differentially relate to forms of coping and trait anxiety. In addition, coping appears to fully mediate the relations of the personality characteristics to anxiety. The results imply that agentic personality characteristics and coping are important in decreasing and/or protecting against anxiety, in part because of how they relate to forms of coping, and suggest the need for more research.

  2. Coping, stress, and personality in Spanish nursing students: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fornés-Vives, Joana; Garcia-Banda, Gloria; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Rosales-Viladrich, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dominant stress coping style in nursing students, its relationships with stressful life events and personality traits, and the students' changes during their academic training. A non-experimental two-wave longitudinal design was carried out in 199 nursing students recruited from three Spanish nursing schools. The Stressful Life Events Scale, NEO-FFI, and COPE questionnaire were administered at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of their nursing studies. Descriptive statistics, Anova(s), NPar tests, and Pearson correlations were carried out. Results show that nursing students' dominant coping style was emotion-focused coping, both at T1 and T2. Highly significant correlations between emotional coping and the neuroticism trait were found. Coping, stress, and personality changed positively during the training program. At T2, the use of problem-focused strategies increased, and participants became more extroverted, agreeable, and conscientious. Coping and personality changes experienced by nursing students throughout their degree program seem to mirror the professional competences needed by future licensed nurses.

  3. Sickle Cell Disease Pain: Relation of Coping Strategies to Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Karen M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined pain coping strategies in 79 adult sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. Results revealed that coping strategies factors were important predictors of pain and adjustment. Subjects high on Negative Thinking and Passive Adherence had more severe pain, were less active and more distressed, and used more health services. Individuals high on…

  4. The moderating role of an oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism in the relation between unsupportive social interactions and coping profiles: implications for depression

    PubMed Central

    McInnis, Opal A.; McQuaid, Robyn J.; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin is a hormone that is thought to influence prosocial behaviors and may be important in modulating responses to both positive and negative social interactions. Indeed, a single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been associated with decreased trust, empathy, optimism, and social support seeking, which are important components of coping with stressors. In the current study, conducted among undergraduate students (N = 225), it was shown that parental and peer social support was related to fewer depressive symptoms through elevated problem-focused coping and lower emotion-focused coping, and these effects were independent of the OXTR polymorphism. Unsupportive social interactions from parents were associated with more severe depressive symptoms through the greater use of emotion-focused coping, and this relation was moderated by the OXTR genotype. Specifically, individuals who carried the polymorphism on one or both of their alleles demonstrated increased emotion-focused coping following unsupportive responses compared to those without the polymorphism. Likewise, lower problem-focused coping mediated the relation between parental and peer unsupportive responses to depressive symptoms, but this mediated relation was only evident among carriers of the polymorphism. These findings suggest that carrying this OXTR polymorphism might favor disadvantageous coping styles in the face of negative social interactions, which in turn are linked to poor mood. Regardless of genotype, parental, and peer social support are fundamental in determining stress-related coping and well-being. PMID:26321972

  5. INTRODUCTION TO THE USE OF THE COPING ANALYSIS SCHEDULE FOR EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS (CASES) AND THE SPAULDING TEACHER ACTIVITY RATING SCHEDULE (STARS).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    SPAULDING, ROBERT L.

    THIS BOOKLET INTRODUCES TWO MEASUREMENT INSTRUMENTS FOCUSING ON CLASS MANAGEMENT. THE COPING ANALYSIS SCHEDULE FOR EDUCATIONAL SETTINGS PERMITS THE CODIFICATION OF ALL OPERANT BEHAVIOR OBSERVED IN THE CLASSROOM, INTO ONE OF THIRTEEN CATEGORIES. ALL BUT ONE OF THE THIRTEEN CATEGORIES ARE DESIGNED TO CHARACTERIZE THE CHILD'S ECONOMY WITH THE…

  6. COPE: A Pilot Study with Urban-Dwelling Minority Sixth-Grade Youth to Improve Physical Activity and Mental Health Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoying, Jacqueline; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek

    2016-01-01

    Approximately one in three preadolescents (34%) is obese/overweight and one in four (25%) experience a mental health issue. Urban youth suffer from higher rates of these problems, and at earlier ages than their peers. This study's purpose was to determine feasibility/acceptability and preliminary effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for…

  7. Managing pressure: patterns of appraisals and coping strategies of non-elite and elite athletes during competition.

    PubMed

    Calmeiro, Luis; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Eccles, David William

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare moment-to-moment appraisals and coping strategies of 4 non-elite and 2 elite male trap shooters during competitions and in particular during periods of competition perceived as critical to performance. Appraisals and coping patterns of trap shooters were captured via verbal reports of thinking provided between sets of shots during major competitions. Verbal reports were coded according to an appraisal and coping typology. Coded data as well as shooting performance data were subjected to a sequential analysis of probabilities of pairs of events. Fewer reports of negative appraisals (NEGAs) and more frequent reports of problem-focused coping (PFC) were observed among both elite athletes compared to non-elite athletes. After making a NEGA, non-elite shooters often progressed to the next target without attempting to cope, whereas elite shooters used both PFC and emotion-focused coping (EFC) before proceeding to the next target. After missing a target, the non-elite athletes used more EFC than expected. These results indicate that elite athletes are more likely to cope with NEGAs than non-elite athletes using a wider variety of coping strategies. Athletes might benefit from increased awareness of the potentially detrimental impact of NEGAs on performance and by integrating coping strategies within preparatory routines.

  8. Black Canadians' Coping Responses to Racial Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Justine; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a cultural coping framework, the present study examined coping responses to racial discrimination among 190 Black Canadians. The study assessed the respondents' coping with both general (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping) and Africultural coping strategies (i.e., spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping)…

  9. Enhancing Parental Well-Being and Coping through a Family-Centred Short Course for Iranian Parents of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samadi, Sayyed Ali; McConkey, Roy; Kelly, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) generally experience high levels of stress and report poorer emotional well-being and family functioning compared to parents of children with other disabilities. They also tend to rely on emotional rather than problem-focused coping strategies. Seven group-based sessions were offered to two…

  10. Coping Strategies and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Post-ICU Family Decision Makers

    PubMed Central

    Petrinec, Amy B.; Mazanec, Polly M.; Burant, Christopher J.; Hoffer, Alan; Daly, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the coping strategies used by family decision makers of adult critical care patients during and after the critical care experience and the relationship of coping strategies to posttraumatic stress symptoms experienced 60 days after hospitalization. Design A single-group descriptive longitudinal correlational study. Setting Medical, surgical, and neurological ICUs in a large tertiary care university hospital. Patients Consecutive family decision makers of adult critical care patients from August 2012 to November 2013. Study inclusion occurred after the patient's fifth day in the ICU. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Family decision makers of incapacitated adult ICU patients completed the Brief COPE instrument assessing coping strategy use 5 days after ICU admission and 30 days after hospital discharge or death of the patient and completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessing post-traumatic stress symptoms 60 days after hospital discharge. Seventy-seven family decision makers of the eligible 176 completed all data collection time points of this study. The use of problem-focused (p = 0.01) and emotion-focused (p < 0.01) coping decreased over time while avoidant coping (p = 0.20) use remained stable. Coping strategies 30 days after hospitalization (R2 = 0.50, p < 0.001) were better predictors of later posttraumatic stress symptoms than coping strategies 5 days after ICU admission (R2 = 0.30, p = 0.001) controlling for patient and decision-maker characteristics. The role of decision maker for a parent and patient death were the only noncoping predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Avoidant coping use 30 days after hospitalization mediated the relationship between patient death and later posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Conclusions Coping strategy use is a significant predictor of posttraumatic stress symptom severity 60 days after hospitalization in family decision makers of ICU patients. PMID:25785520

  11. Left Lateral Prefrontal Activity Reflects a Change of Behavioral Tactics to Cope with a Given Rule: An fNIRS Study

    PubMed Central

    Miura, Naoki; Shirasawa, Naoko; Kanoh, Shin’ichiro

    2016-01-01

    catch the red-colored ball. Thus, activation of the left LPFC corresponded more closely to the increase in cognitive control underlying the behavioral change made to cope with the additional rule. PMID:27847475

  12. Coping in the Cyberworld: Program Implementation and Evaluation--A Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Cecilia Wing Chi; Frydenberg, Erica

    2009-01-01

    As increasing numbers of adolescents become involved in online activities, many also become victims of cyberharassment. This pilot project investigates how a program teaching coping skills (Best of Coping program, BOC) and a program teaching cybersafety (Cyber Savvy Teens program, CST) can optimise adolescents' capacity to cope online.…

  13. Coping with Disaster: The Case of Israeli Adolescents under Threat of Missile Attack.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeidner, Moshe

    1993-01-01

    Studied the relationships of coping resources, optimism, perceived control, and coping strategies to anxiety, physical symptoms, and cognitive functioning for 69 male and 40 female Jewish Israeli adolescents in real crisis during the Persian Gulf War. Discusses the implications of the reported mixture of active and palliative coping strategies.…

  14. Coping Strategies and Depression Among College Students Following Child Sexual Abuse in Turkey.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz Irmak, Türkan; Aksel, Şeyda; Thompson, Dennis

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between type of coping style and depression in college students with child sexual abuse experience. A total of 1,055 college students completed self-report measures to assess depressive symptoms, coping strategies, and child sexual abuse history. This study was conducted with a subset of 125 college students who reported that they had been sexually abused in childhood. They were divided into depressive and nondepressive groups according to their depressive symptoms. Data was collected with the Childhood Sexual Abuse Measurement, the Beck Depression Inventory, and the Coping Styles of Stress Scale. Family characteristics were measured with a demographic questionnaire. Analyses involved multiple regression to test for predictive effects. Among college students with child sexual abuse histories, parental education level and both problem-focused and emotion-focused strategies significantly explained depression scores.

  15. [Coping of diseases in old age--partnership as a resource].

    PubMed

    Joraschky, P; Pöhlmann, K; Petrowski, K

    2002-11-01

    Somatic as well as mental health of the elderly are to a high extent determined by the quality of their marriage, the reciprocity of social support, and the available socio-economic resources. The coping behavior does not change very much in the course ofa person's life. If he or she has sufficient skills and resources, the elderly person will engage in problem-focused coping. If demands are appraised as outside of the person's control, secondary control strategies aiming at a reappraisal are more frequently applied. A crucial coping resource in old age is the availability of social support that is experienced as adequate and useful by the recipient. The spouse and members and close family members are the most important sources of social support for the elderly.

  16. Depressive symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: do stress and coping matter?

    PubMed

    Shah, Bijal M; Gupchup, Gireesh V; Borrego, Matthew E; Raisch, Dennis W; Knapp, Katherine K

    2012-04-01

    This article examines the relationship among diabetes-related stress, appraisal, coping and depressive symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using the transactional model of stress and coping (TMSC) as the theoretical framework. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 201 patients with T2DM was recruited from three outpatient clinics. Patients with depressive symptoms reported significantly more diabetes-related stress than patients without depressive symptoms. The results of path analysis suggest that patients who experience greater diabetes-related stress or greater depressive symptoms have a negative appraisal of their diabetes. Negative appraisal is, in turn, associated with greater use of avoidance, passive resignation and diabetes integration coping and lesser use of problem-focused coping. Avoidance, passive resignation and diabetes integration coping are, in turn, related to greater depressive symptoms or greater diabetes-related stress. Overall, the results of this study support the TMSC as a framework to elucidate the relationships among diabetes-related stress, appraisal, coping and depressive symptoms in patients with T2DM. However, given the cross-sectional nature of the study, we are unable to elucidate the directionality of the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms. Implications of the findings and the need for longitudinal studies to evaluate these relationships are discussed.

  17. Parents' religious coping styles in the first year after their child's cystic fibrosis diagnosis.

    PubMed

    Grossoehme, Daniel H; Ragsdale, Judy; Cotton, Sian; Wooldridge, Jamie L; Grimes, Lisa; Seid, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with cystic fibrosis described it as "devastating." Given religion's importance to many Americans, parents may utilize religious coping. Relatively little is known about parents' use of religious coping to handle their child's illness. Interviews with 15 parents about their use of religion in the year following their child's cystic fibrosis diagnosis were coded for religious coping styles. Sixteen styles were identified. Positive religious coping styles were more frequent than negative styles (previously associated with poorer health outcomes), and occurred more frequently than in other studies. Religious coping styles used to make meaning, gain control, or seek comfort/intimacy with God were equally prevalent. The most common styles were: Pleading, Collaboration, Benevolent Religious Reappraisals, and Seeking Spiritual Support. Parents described active rather than passive coping styles. Religious coping involving religious others was rare. Clinical attention to negative religious coping may prevent it becoming chronic and negatively affecting health.

  18. Development of the Coping Flexibility Scale: Evidence for the Coping Flexibility Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    "Coping flexibility" was defined as the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping) and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy (i.e., adaptive coping). The Coping Flexibility Scale (CFS) was developed on the basis of this definition. Five studies involving approximately 4,400 Japanese…

  19. School Principals' Emotional Coping Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirel, Emmanuel; Yvon, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the emotional coping of school principals in Quebec. Emotional coping was measured by stimulated recall; six principals were filmed during a working day and presented a week later with their video showing stressful encounters. The results show that school principals experience anger because of reproaches from staff…

  20. Coping Resources of College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hammer, Allen L.

    Coping resources are what people bring to situations (as opposed to what they do) that enable them to deal with stressors more effectively, allow them to recover faster, or experience fewer or less intense symptoms upon exposure to stressors. The Coping Resources Inventory (CRI) measures resources in the following domains: cognitive, social,…

  1. Differential Impact of Medical Status, Maternal Coping, and Marital Satisfaction on Coping with Childhood Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevon, Michael A.; And Others

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of medical, psychological, and familial factors on the coping of pediatric cancer patients. Participants were 36 pediatric cancer patients and their families under active treatment at Roswell Park Memorial Institute, a comprehensive cancer research and treatment center in Buffalo, New York. The…

  2. Coping With Droughts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaporozec, Alexander

    This book is a collection of selected papers from the NATO Advanced Study Institute on Droughts entitled “Drought Impact Control Technology,” held at the National Laboratory of Civil Engineering in Lisbon, Portugal, in June 1980. The editors of the book have chosen a nontraditional but successful approach to presenting the papers. Instead of including a verbatim proceedings of the institute, they assembled 21 papers presented by 14 of the institute's lecturers, reshaped and synthesized them, and supplemented them by five new papers that cover obvious gaps in topics. The result is enlightening reading and a more or less complete presentation of the subject. The edited material in the book was arranged around three central themes related to efforts needed to cope with or manage the droughts. In the process, the identity of individual contributors has been preserved.

  3. Age Differences and Changes of Coping Behavior in Three Age Groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…

  4. Self-esteem, psychological distress, and coping styles in pregnant smokers and non-smokers.

    PubMed

    Varescon, Isabelle; Leignel, Shirley; Gérard, Caroline; Aubourg, Frédérique; Detilleux, Michel

    2013-12-01

    The literature underscores that psychological factors could play an important role in smoking behavior, which is considered a coping mechanism. To study relations among measures of self-esteem, psychological distress, anxiety, depressive symptoms, and coping styles in pregnant smokers, a cross-sectional study was conducted. These factors were assessed in two groups of pregnant women (Smokers, n = 40; Non-smokers, n = 40) contacted at one University Hospital in Paris. All participants filled out the Fagerström Test for Nicotine Dependence, the Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale, the General Health Questionnaire, the Hospital Anxiety Depression Scale, and the Brief Cope Scale. Comparisons, correlations, and regression models were used to analyze the data. The results showed that the group of pregnant women who smoked had significantly lower mean self-esteem, elevated psychological distress and anxiety scores, and reported using more emotion-focused coping than the group of pregnant non-smokers. Self-esteem significantly predicted problem-focused coping. This study confirms the importance of assessing these psychological variables to offer women more specific support to quit smoking.

  5. Adolescents’, Mothers’, and Fathers’ Gendered Coping Strategies during Conflict: Youth and Parent Influences on Conflict Resolution and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Schreiber, Jane E; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    We observed gendered coping strategies and conflict resolution outcomes used by adolescents and parents during a conflict discussion task to evaluate associations with current and later adolescent psychopathology. We studied 137 middle-to-upper-middle class predominantly Caucasian families of adolescents (aged 11–16 years, 65 males) who represented a range of psychological functioning including normative (~1/3) sub-clinical (~1/3) and clinical (~1/3) levels of problems. Adolescent coping strategies played key roles both in the extent to which parent-adolescent dyads resolved conflict and in the trajectory of psychopathology symptom severity over a two-year period. Gender-prototypic adaptive coping strategies were observed in parents but not youth, i.e. more problem-solving by fathers than mothers and more regulated emotion-focused coping by mothers than fathers. Youth-mother dyads more often achieved full resolution of conflict than youth-father dyads. There were generally not bidirectional effects among youth and parents’ coping across the discussion except boys’ initial use of angry/hostile coping predicted fathers’ angry/hostile coping. The child was more influential than the parent on conflict resolution. This extended to exacerbation/alleviation of psychopathology over two years: higher conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents’ use of problem-focused coping with decreases in symptom severity over time. Lower conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents’ use of angry/hostile emotion coping with increases in symptom severity over time. Implications of findings are considered within a broadened context of the nature of coping and conflict resolution in youth-parent interactions, as well as how these processes impact on youth well-being and dysfunction over time. PMID:26439060

  6. Resilience, self-efficacy, coping styles and depressive and anxiety symptoms in those newly diagnosed with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tan-Kristanto, Stef; Kiropoulos, Litza A

    2015-01-01

    High levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms have been reported by individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study examined the associations between resilience, self-efficacy and coping and depressive and anxiety symptoms and whether resilience, self-efficacy and coping were predictors of depressive and anxiety symptoms in patients newly diagnosed with MS. A sample of 129 individuals newly diagnosed with MS participated in this cross-sectional study and completed an online questionnaire assessing resilience, self-efficacy, coping and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Results revealed that depressive and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with problem-focused, emotion-focused and avoidance coping strategies, resilience and self-efficacy. Anxiety symptoms were also significantly associated with employment status and level of disability. Results from hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the resilience subscale of personal competence, the avoidance coping style of substance use and emotion-focused coping styles of venting predicted depressive symptoms and uniquely accounted for 63.8% of the variance in the depression score, F (18, 124) = 10.36, p = .000. Level of disability and employment status accounted for 13.2% of the anxiety score and avoidance coping style of denial and emotion-focused coping style of humour accounted for 36.4% of the variance in the anxiety symptom score, F (15, 112) = 6.37, p = .000. Our findings suggest that resilience and avoidance and emotion-focused coping strategies are predictive of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in those newly diagnosed with MS. Resilience and coping styles may be another target for interventions aimed at managing depressive and anxiety symptoms in those newly diagnosed with MS.

  7. Job stress and coping: self-employed versus organizationally employed professionals.

    PubMed

    Oren, Lior

    2012-04-01

    In order to examine job stress and coping among self-employed and organizationally employed professionals, job-related stressors and coping strategies were assessed among self-employed (n = 149) and organizationally employed (n = 159) professionals working as accountants, lawyers, pharmacists and psychologists. Results indicate that although self-employed workers complained about lack of security and organizationally employed workers complained about lack of autonomy, no differences were found in overall stress levels or overload. Examination of workers' coping strategies provided a partial explanation for these findings. Stress levels negatively correlated with active coping and positively correlated with passive/avoidance coping; self-employed workers were found to cope by confronting problems, whereas organizationally employed workers were found to cope by avoiding them. These findings qualify previous research findings on self-employed and organizationally employed workers.

  8. Coping Strategies in Patients Who Had Suicide Attempts

    PubMed Central

    KONKAN, Ramazan; ERKUŞ, Gizem Hanzade; GÜÇLÜ, Oya; ŞENORMANCI, Ömer; AYDIN, Erkan; ÜLGEN, Mine Cansu; SUNGUR, Mehmet Z.

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The aim of this study was to investigate coping strategies suggested to be a determinant of suicide attempt and to compare them with coping strategies of healthy volunteers. Methods This study was conducted on 50 patients who had suicide attempts within the past two months and 52 healthy volunteers who did not have any suicide attempt. They were evaluated with the Turkish version of COPE inventory. The results were analyzed using SPSS version 15.0 for Windows. Results In the suicide attempt group, ‘active coping’, ‘planning’, ‘positive reinterpretation and growth’ scores were found to be lower than that in the control group. On the other hand, ‘restraint coping’, ‘acceptance’, ‘focus on and venting of emotions’, ‘behavioral disengagement’, ‘substance use’ and nonfunctional coping total points were significantly higher in the suicide attempt group. The patients with depression in the suicide group were found less of the ‘positive reinterpretation and growth’ but more of the ‘substance use’ compared to the healthy group. Subjects who attempted suicide more than once tended to ‘substance use’ rather than ‘active coping’. ‘Focus on and venting of emotions’ scores in suicide attempters were higher in women than in males. Conclusion We observed that individuals who attempted suicide have fewer functional coping strategies and more nonfunctional coping strategies than who do not attempt suicide. It was determined that under stressful situations, individuals with depression tended to alcohol and substance abuse instead of positive reinterpretation and growth. In subjects who had recurrent suicidal attempts, alcohol and substance abuse was more common than active coping. Women were using focusing on and venting of emotions techniques much more than men. We assume that to monitor, and in case of necessity, to change the coping strategies in suicide attempters are vitally important for preventing suicide

  9. The relationship between cognitive dysfunction and coping abilities in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Wilder-Willis, Kelly E; Shear, Paula K; Steffen, John J; Borkin, Joyce

    2002-06-01

    Cognitive dysfunction is a core feature of schizophrenia [Psychiatr. Clin. North Am., 16 (1993) 295; Psychopharmacology: The fourth generation of progress, Raven Press, New York (1995) 1171; Clinical Neuropsychology, Oxford University Press, New York (1993) 449] and is related to psychosocial functioning in this population [Am. J. Psychiatry, 153 (1996) 321]. It is unclear whether cognitive dysfunction is related to specific areas of functioning in schizophrenia, such as coping abilities. Individuals with schizophrenia have deficient coping skills, which may contribute to their difficulties dealing with stressors [Am. J. Orthopsychiatry, 62 (1992) 117; J. Abnorm. Psychol., 82 (1986) 189]. The current study examined the relationship between coping abilities and cognitive dysfunction in a community sample of individuals with schizophrenia. It was hypothesized that executive dysfunction and mnemonic impairments would be positively related to deficiencies in active coping efforts involving problem solving and self-initiation (e.g. advocating for oneself and others with mental illness and becoming involved in meaningful activities, such as work), independent of the contributions of the general intellectual deficits associated with the disorder and psychiatric symptoms. The results indicated that both executive dysfunction and mnemonic impairments were related to decreased usage of active coping mechanisms after controlling for general intellectual deficits. Further, recognition memory made independent contributions to the prediction of coping involving action and help seeking after controlling for the effects of negative symptoms. These findings suggest that individuals with schizophrenia may be less flexible in their use of coping strategies, which may in turn contribute to their difficulties in coping with mental illness and its consequences.

  10. Coping with cancer -- hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000914.htm Coping with cancer - hair loss To use the sharing features on this ... lose your hair. Why Cancer Treatments can Cause Hair Loss Many chemotherapy drugs attack fast-growing cells. ...

  11. Validation of the Mindful Coping Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharaldsen, Kjersti B.; Bru, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop and validate a self-report measure of mindfulness and coping, the mindful coping scale (MCS). Dimensions of mindful coping were theoretically deduced from mindfulness theory and coping theory. The MCS was empirically evaluated by use of factor analyses, reliability testing and nomological network validation.…

  12. Temporal differences in coping, mood, and stress with chemotherapy.

    PubMed

    Chernecky, C

    1999-08-01

    This longitudinal study examined relations among mood, coping, perceived stress, and side effects from chemotherapy in 50 individuals with stages III and IV adenocarcinoma of the lung over four consecutive combination chemotherapy courses. Results indicated that perceived stress was moderately high only at the time of pretreatment, and four coping strategies were used: seeking social support, planful problem solving, self-control, and positive reappraisal. No relations existed between coping strategies and side effects from chemotherapy, coping and perceived stress, mood and side effects, and perceived stress and side effects. Seven side effects occurred: leukopenia, decreased activity, nausea, loss of appetite, fatigue, constipation, and taste changes. In summary, receiving chemotherapy is stressful at the time of pretreatment, so nursing interventions need to be concentrated at that point.

  13. Novelty-seeking and avoidant coping strategies are associated with academic stress in Korean medical students.

    PubMed

    An, Hoyoung; Chung, Seockhoon; Park, Jangho; Kim, Seong-Yoon; Kim, Kyung Mo; Kim, Ki-Soo

    2012-12-30

    High levels of stress and depression in medical students is raising concern. In this study, we sought to identify coping strategies and other factors influencing academic stress in medical students. We enrolled 157 students from the University of Ulsan College of Medicine, Korea, in November, 2010. We used the Medical Stress Scale, Temperament and Character Inventory, Hamilton Depression Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, and Coping Response Inventory to assess psychological parameters. We used Pearson's correlation and linear regression analyses to analyze the data. Novelty-seeking, self-directedness, cooperativeness, coping strategy, and depression scale scores all correlated significantly with stress level. Linear regression analysis indicated that students who are novelty-seeking, likely to use avoidant coping strategies, and unlikely to use active-cognitive and active-behavioral strategies tend to have higher stress levels. Reduction of stress in medical students may be achieved through evaluation of coping strategies and personality features and use of interventions to promote active coping strategies.

  14. Thirst Is Associated with Suppression of Habenula Output and Active Stress Coping: Is there a Role for a Non-canonical Vasopressin-Glutamate Pathway?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Limei; Hernández, Vito S.; Vázquez-Juárez, Erika; Chay, Freya K.; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2016-01-01

    Water-homeostasis is a fundamental physiological process for terrestrial life. In vertebrates, thirst drives water intake, but the neuronal circuits that connect the physiology of water regulation with emotional context are poorly understood. Vasopressin (VP) is a prominent messenger in this circuit, as well as L-glutamate. We have investigated the role of a VP circuit and interaction between thirst and motivational behaviors evoked by life-threatening stimuli in rats. We demonstrate a direct pathway from hypothalamic paraventricular VP-expressing, glutamatergic magnocellular neurons to the medial division of lateral habenula (LHbM), a region containing GABAergic neurons. In vivo recording and juxtacellular labeling revealed that GABAergic neurons in the LHbM had locally branching axons, and received VP-positive axon terminal contacts on their dendrites. Water deprivation significantly reduced freezing and immobility behaviors evoked by innate fear and behavioral despair, respectively, accompanied by decreased Fos expression in the lateral habenula. Our results reveal a novel VP-expressing hypothalamus to the LHbM circuit that is likely to evoke GABA-mediated inhibition in the LHbM, which promotes escape behavior during stress coping. PMID:27065810

  15. Appraisal and coping styles account for the effects of temperament on preadolescent adjustment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephanie F; Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J

    2014-06-01

    Temperament, appraisal, and coping are known to underlie emotion regulation, yet less is known about how these processes relate to each other across time. We examined temperamental fear, frustration, effortful control, and impulsivity, positive and threat appraisals, and active and avoidant coping as processes underpinning the emotion regulation of pre-adolescent children managing stressful events. Appraisal and coping styles were tested as mediators of the longitudinal effects of temperamental emotionality and self-regulation on adjustment using a community sample (N=316) of preadolescent children (8-12 years at T1) studied across one year. High threat appraisals were concurrently related to high fear and impulsivity, whereas effortful control predicted relative decreases in threat appraisal. High fear was concurrently related to high positive appraisal, and impulsivity predicted increases in positive appraisal. Fear was concurrently related to greater avoidant coping, and impulsivity predicted increases in avoidance. Frustration predicted decreases in active coping. These findings suggest temperament, or dispositional aspects of reactivity and regulation, relates to concurrent appraisal and coping processes and additionally predicts change in these processes. Significant indirect effects indicated that appraisal and coping mediated the effects of temperament on adjustment. Threat appraisal mediated the effects of fear and effortful control on internalizing and externalizing problems, and avoidant coping mediated the effect of impulsivity on internalizing problems. These mediated effects suggest that one pathway through which temperament influences adjustment is pre-adolescents' appraisal and coping. Findings highlight temperament, appraisal and coping as emotion regulation processes relevant to children's adjustment in response to stress.

  16. Managing stress: the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping among university students in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Nicole M.; Balogun, Shyngle K.; Oratile, Kutlo N.

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping strategies among university students in Botswana. Sixty-four males and 64 females, ranging in age from 18 to 29 years completed the Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale and the Coping Strategy Inventory. Female students used wishful thinking and problem-focused disengagement more than male students; however, there were no other significant gender differences in coping strategies. Older students were more likely to use problem-solving, cognitive restructuring and express emotion coping strategies. In addition, problems in emotion regulation significantly predicted problem-and emotion-focused engagement, problem- and emotion-focused disengagement and coping strategies. There was a unique finding that non-acceptance of emotional responses, a type of emotion suppression, was positively correlated with problem solving, cognitive restructuring, expressing emotion, social support, problem avoidance and wishful thinking coping strategies. Cultural context and implications for student well-being and university support are discussed. PMID:24910491

  17. Negative mood regulation expectancies moderate the relationship between psychological abuse and avoidant coping.

    PubMed

    Shepherd-McMullen, Cassandra; Mearns, Jack; Stokes, Julie E; Mechanic, Mindy B

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the relationships among psychological abuse, attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV), negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE), and coping. Participants were 126 female college students in dating, cohabitating, or married relationships within the previous year. In one single session, they completed self-report scales measuring IPV, NMRE, and coping. Results indicated that women reporting higher levels of psychological abuse reported less negative attitudes toward IPV, engaged in less-active coping responses, and had lower NMRE. Psychological abuse was a significant predictor of avoidant coping, while NMRE significantly predicted both active and avoidant coping. In addition, the interaction of NMRE × Psychological abuse added incremental prediction of avoidant coping. Implications for research and practice are discussed.

  18. Pediatric oncologists' coping strategies for dealing with patient death.

    PubMed

    Granek, Leeat; Barrera, Maru; Scheinemann, Katrin; Bartels, Ute

    2016-01-01

    This research examined pediatric oncologists coping strategies when their patients died of cancer. Twenty-one pediatric oncologists at 2 Canadian pediatric academic hospitals were interviewed about their coping strategies when patients died or were in the process of dying. The grounded theory method of data collection and data analysis were used. Line-by-line coding was used to establish codes and themes and constant comparison was used to establish relations among emerging codes and themes. Pediatric oncologists used engagement coping strategies with primary and secondary responses including emotional regulation (social support and religion), problem solving (supporting families at end of life), cognitive restructuring (making a difference and research), and distraction (breaks, physical activity, hobbies and entertainment, spending time with own children). They also used disengagement coping strategies that included voluntary avoidance (compartmentalization and withdrawing from families at end of life). Given the chronic nature of patient death in pediatric oncology and the emotionally difficult nature of this work, medical institutions such as hospitals have a responsibility to assist pediatric oncologists in coping with this challenging aspect of their work. Future research is needed to evaluate how best to implement these changes on the institutional level to help oncologists cope with patient death and the effect of using these strategies on their quality of life.

  19. Psychological distress and coping in military cadre candidates

    PubMed Central

    Nakkas, Can; Annen, Hubert; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility), and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for promotion. These cognitive–emotional features not only contribute to resilience but are also consistent with leadership research, indicating the importance of emotional stability and prosocial behavior in successful leaders. PMID:27621634

  20. Investigating racial differences in coping with chronic osteoarthritis pain.

    PubMed

    Jones, Alvin C; Kwoh, C Kent; Groeneveld, P W; Mor, Maria; Geng, Ming; Ibrahim, Said A

    2008-12-01

    Osteoarthritis is a prevalent disease in older patients of all racial groups, and it is known to cause significant pain and functional disability. Racial differences in how patients cope with the chronic pain of knee or hip osteoarthritis may have implications for utilization of treatment modalities such as joint replacement. Therefore, we examined the relationships between patient race and pain coping strategies (diverting attention, reinterpreting pain, catastrophizing, ignoring sensations, hoping and praying, coping self-statements, and increasing behavior activities) for hip and knee osteoarthritis. This is a cross-sectional survey of 939 veterans 50 to 79 years old with chronic hip or knee osteoarthritis pain recruited from VA primary care clinics in Philadelphia and Pittsburgh. Patients had to have moderate to severe hip or knee osteoarthritis symptoms as measured by the WOMAC index. Standard, validated instruments were used to obtain information on attitudes and use of prayer, pain coping strategies, and arthritis self-efficacy. Analysis included separate multivariable models adjusting for demographic and clinical characteristics. Attitudes on prayer differed, with African Americans being more likely to perceive prayer as helpful (adjusted OR = 3.38, 95% CI 2.35 to 4.86) and to have tried prayer (adjusted OR = 2.28, 95% 1.66 to 3.13) to manage their osteoarthritis pain. Upon evaluating the coping strategies, we found that, compared to whites, African Americans had greater use of the hoping and praying method (beta = 0.74, 95% CI 0.50 to 0.99). Race was not associated with arthritis pain self-efficacy, arthritis function self-efficacy, or any other coping strategies. This increased use of the hoping and praying coping strategy by African Americans may play a role in the decreased utilization of total joint arthroplasty among African Americans compared to whites. Further investigation of the role this coping strategy has on the decision making process for

  1. The relationship of coping strategies, social support, and attachment style with posttraumatic growth in cancer survivors.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Steven D; Blank, Thomas O; Bellizzi, Keith M; Park, Crystal L

    2012-10-01

    This cross-sectional study investigated attachment style, coping strategies, social support, and posttraumatic growth (PTG) in 54 cancer survivors. Secure attachment was significantly associated with active coping, positive reframing, and religion, and these were all associated with PTG. Insecure types of attachment and social support variables were unrelated to PTG. Regression analysis suggests that positive reframing and religion as coping strategies may mediate the relationship between secure attachment and PTG.

  2. [Coping of cybervictimization in adolescence - emotional and behavioral reactions to cyberbullying ].

    PubMed

    Ittel, Angela; Müller, Christin R; Pfetsch, Jan; Walk, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The experience of cybervictimization is related to health, psychological, and behavioral problems among children and adolescents. Up to today research is scarce, how the persons affected by cybervictimization react and which determinants influence the choice for social, problem-focused, technical, or helpless coping behavior. The current online study with 428 adolescents considers age, sex, mean internet use, frequency of victimization, roles in cyberbullying, and emotional reactions to cybervictimization as potential determinants of the mentioned coping strategies. Based on the participant role approach, roles of cyberbullies, cybervictims, defenders or outsiders are frequently changing. Logistic regression analyses point out the important relevance of emotional reactions like anger or helplessness and the roles as cyberbully-victim or outsider. Further, younger participants reported cybervictimization more often, while the frequency of cybervictimization and sex did not and internet use only partially predict coping strategies. These findings corroborate the relevance of emotional reactions and the roles in the process of cyberbullying. As a starting point for prevention and intervention of cybervictimization, we suggest emotion regulation, teaching of technical coping behaviors as well as reflexion of roles in the context of cyberbullying. If feasible, different stakeholders should be engaged in this process: adolescents, parents, educational staff inside and outside of schools, experts from counseling and therapy as well as internet and mobile phone service providers.

  3. Coping Processes Among Bereaved Spouses

    PubMed Central

    Caserta, Michael; Utz, Rebecca; Lund, Dale; Bearnson, Kristin Lee; de Vries, Brian

    2012-01-01

    We investigated if an intervention based on the dual process model (vs. traditional bereavement support) enhanced oscillation between loss- and restoration-oriented (LO/RO) coping of recently bereaved (2–6 months) spouses/partners. Participants were followed over 12 months. We found an increased emphasis over time on RO coping, particularly for women and those who were younger; however, no treatment effect was detected. Although patterns in the data are consistent with the model, we conclude that it is difficult for interventions to modify LO, RO and oscillation unless there is sufficient intervention dosage and tailored to those exclusively engaged in one process. PMID:24524542

  4. Aesthetic Response as Coping Behavior: An Anthropological Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, David E.

    1982-01-01

    Far from being peripheral to human functioning, aesthetic activity is fundamental to the process of coping. It is distinguished from other cultural activity, like religion and science, because its raw materials are formal properties--line, form, color, texture--derived from the external world. (Author/CS)

  5. Perfectionism, neuroticism, and daily stress reactivity and coping effectiveness 6 months and 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, David M; Mandel, Tobey; Ma, Denise

    2014-10-01

    The present study addressed a fundamental gap between research and clinical work by advancing longitudinal explanatory conceptualizations of stress and coping processes that trigger daily affect in the short- and long-term for individuals with higher levels of personality vulnerability. Community adults completed measures of 2 higher order dimensions of perfectionism (personal standards [PS], self-criticism [SC]), neuroticism, and conscientiousness. Then, 6 months later and again 3 years later, participants completed daily questionnaires of stress, coping, and affect for 14 consecutive days. PS was associated with aggregated daily problem-focused coping and positive reinterpretation, whereas SC was uniquely associated with daily negative social interactions, avoidant coping, negative affect, and sadness at Month 6 and Year 3. Multilevel modeling results demonstrated that both individuals with higher PS and those with higher SC were emotionally reactive to event stress, negative social interactions, and avoidant coping at Month 6 and Year 3 and to less perceived control at Year 3. Positive reinterpretation was especially effective for individuals with higher SC at Month 6 and Year 3. The effects of PS on daily stress reactivity and coping (in)effectiveness were clearly distinguished from the effects of neuroticism and conscientiousness, whereas the SC effects were due to shared overlap with PS and neuroticism. The present findings demonstrate the promise of using repeated daily diary methodologies to help therapists and clients reliably predict future client reactions to daily stressors, which, in turn, could help guide interventions to break apart dysfunctional patterns connected to distress and build resilience for vulnerable individuals.

  6. Coping with Pain in the Face of Healthcare Injustice in Patients with Sickle Cell Disease.

    PubMed

    Ezenwa, Miriam O; Yao, Yingwei; Molokie, Robert E; Wang, Zaijie Jim; Mandernach, Molly W; Suarez, Marie L; Wilkie, Diana J

    2016-05-23

    To evaluate the pain coping strategies of patients with sickle cell disease (SCD) who experience healthcare injustice from either physicians or nurses during medical visits for pain management. It is unknown how patients' coping with pain relates to their experiences of healthcare injustice from physicians or nurses. This descriptive comparative study included adult outpatients with SCD who completed the PAINReportIt(®), Healthcare Justice Questionnaire(©), and Coping Strategies Questionnaire-SCD. Data were analyzed using independent t tests. Frequent coping strategies of patients who experienced healthcare justice from physicians were praying-hoping and from nurses were praying-hoping, calming self-statements, diverting attention, and increasing behavioral activity. In contrast, frequent coping strategies of patients who experienced healthcare injustice from physicians were catastrophizing and isolation and from nurses were isolation. Patients who experienced healthcare justice used different sets of pain coping strategies than those who experienced healthcare injustice during medical visits for pain management.

  7. Stress, coping, and well-being in military spouses during deployment separation.

    PubMed

    Padden, Diane L; Connors, Rebecca A; Agazio, Janice G

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the relationships between stress, coping, general well-being, and sociodemographic characteristics using Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress and coping. A descriptive correlational design was used. The sample consisted of 105 female spouses of currently deployed active duty military members. Instruments included the Perceived Stress Scale, the Jalowiec Coping Scale, and the RAND-36. Perceived stress was the best predictor of both mental and physical well-being, accounting for 51.7% and 25.4% of the variance, respectively. Evasive and optimistic coping contributed an additional 1.9 % and 4.3%, respectively, to the variance in mental well-being. Differences in coping use were found among rank groups, those who grew up in a military family, and those with a previous deployment separation. Nurses are in an ideal position to identify military spouses at risk and provide education on effective coping behaviors shown to positively affect well-being during deployment separation.

  8. Coping Checklist for Caregivers

    MedlinePlus

    ... bone structure. I use relaxation methods like meditation, yoga, or progressive muscle relaxation at least 5 times ... minutes of moderate exercise (such as walking or yoga) or 75 minutes of vigorous activity (such as ...

  9. The relationship between socio-demographic characteristics, family environment, and caregiver coping in families of children with cancer.

    PubMed

    Gage-Bouchard, Elizabeth A; Devine, Katie A; Heckler, Charles E

    2013-12-01

    The factors that influence caregiver coping mechanism preferences after a child's diagnosis with cancer are not fully understood. This study examines the relationship between caregivers' socio-demographic characteristics and the coping strategies they use to adapt to childhood cancer. Sixty caregivers of pediatric cancer patients completed a socio-demographic questionnaire, the Family Environment Scale, and the COPE inventory. There were no significant differences in family environment by income or education. Caregiver educational attainment was positively associated with use of planning and active coping styles, while income was not associated with caregiver coping style. Mothers were more likely than fathers to use active coping, instrumental support, religious coping, and emotional support. Men with lower education engaged in greater substance use coping and lower planning. The findings show that educational attainment and caregiver gender influence caregiver coping styles following a pediatric cancer diagnosis and suggest that educational attainment rather than financial resources drive the association between SES and coping. Programs that address educational gaps and teach caregivers planning and active coping skills may be beneficial for parents with lower educational attainment, particularly men.

  10. Appraisal and coping as mediators of the effects of cumulative risk on preadolescent adjustment.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Stephanie F; Lengua, Liliana J; Garcia, Connie Meza

    2016-05-01

    This study examined the concurrent and longitudinal relations among cumulative risk, appraisal, coping, and adjustment. Longitudinal path models were tested in a community sample of 316 children in preadolescence to examine hypotheses that threat appraisal and avoidant coping mediate the effects of cumulative risk on child adjustment, whereas positive appraisal and active coping were hypothesized to predict better adjustment independently. Children and their mothers were assessed during in-home interviews at three time points at one-year intervals. Children reported on appraisal and coping strategies. Mothers and children reported on child adjustment problems and positive adjustment. Rank-order changes in appraisal and coping predicted rank-order changes in adjustment. Cumulative risk was concurrently related to higher threat appraisal and avoidant coping at each time point. Threat appraisal and avoidant coping mediated the relations of cumulative risk to rank-order changes in adjustment. There is specificity in the relations of cumulative risk to threat appraisal and avoidant coping, whereas positive appraisal and active coping are independent of risk and operate as individual resource factors.

  11. Coping and health service utilisation in a UK study of paediatric sickle cell pain

    PubMed Central

    Anie, K; Steptoe, A; Ball, S; Dick, M; Smalling, B

    2002-01-01

    Aims: To assess sickle cell pain and coping in children and to examine the relation between these factors and the utilisation of health services. Methods: Cross sectional study involving 67 children with sickle cell disease attending three London hospitals. Interviews and questionnaires involved measures of pain, health service utilisation, and coping responses (measured with the Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ), revised for children with sickle cell disease). Medical data on complications, haemoglobin (Hb) levels, and foetal haemoglobin (HbF) percentage were also collected. Results: Pain accounted for about 24% of hospital service use, independent of age, sex, number of with sickle cell disease complications, and Hb levels. However, 42% of patients had not utilised hospital services in the past 12 months. Three higher order factors emerged from analysis of the CSQ (active coping, affective coping, passive adherence coping). Pain severity was predicted by passive adherence coping, while utilisation of hospital services was predicted by active coping. Conclusions: Sickle cell disease in children involves severe recurrent pain leading to hospitalisation in some cases. Psychological coping patterns are relevant to both pain experience, and the use of acute hospital services. It is likely that children would benefit from community based interventions that incorporate both medical and psychological assessments. PMID:11970920

  12. Genetic association of the transcription of neuroplasticity-related genes and variation in stress-coping style

    PubMed Central

    Aizawa, Saeko; Ishitobi, Yoshinobu; Masuda, Koji; Inoue, Ayako; Oshita, Harumi; Hirakawa, Hirofumi; Ninomiya, Taiga; Maruyama, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Yoshihiro; Okamoto, Kana; Kawashima, Chiwa; Nakanishi, Mari; Higuma, Haruka; Kanehisa, Masayuki; Akiyoshi, Jotaro

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Stress coping has been defined as the cognitive and behavioral efforts made to conquer, endure, or decrease external and internal demands and the conflicts between them. It has two main elements: the control or modification of the person–environment relationship causing the stress (i.e., problem-focused coping) and/or regulation of stressful feelings (i.e., emotion-focused coping). Research suggests that the expressions of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and neurotrophic tyrosine kinase receptor type 2 (NTRK2) play important roles in brain adaptation to investigate stress. To clarify the genetic basis of stress coping, we investigated the association of stress-coping strategies and social adaptation with single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) involved in neural plasticity, anxiety, and depression. Methods In 252 healthy controls (94 women; 158 men), we measured and estimated the stress-coping style using the Lazarus-type stress-coping inventory, ego aptitude scale (EAS), and social adaptation self-evaluation scale (SASS). We investigated one SNP of BDNF (rs6265, Val/Met) and five SNPs of NTRK2 (rs11140800, rs1187286, rs1867283, rs1147198, and rs10868235). Results We observed significant associations between BDNF and emotion-focused strategies, seeking social support, self-control, and distancing. We also found significant associations between NTRK2 and cognitive strategies, problem-solving, confrontive- coping, seeking social support, distancing and positive reappraisal. Significant associations were also found between BDNF and critical attitudes and between NTRK2 and all seven ego-related factors on the EAS. In the SASS, the minor allele rs1867283 of NTRK2 had a significantly higher score than the heterozygote. Conclusions These findings may provide insights into the partial effects of genetic mutations in BDNF and NTRK2 on stress tolerance and personality. PMID:26445699

  13. Coping with an Alcoholic Parent

    MedlinePlus

    ... also use other drugs. Despite what happens, most children of alcoholics love their parents and worry about something bad happening to them. ... there are lots of support groups to help children of alcoholics cope with the problem. What If a Parent Doesn't See a Problem? Drinking too much ...

  14. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  15. COPE: Computer Organized Physical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lambdin, Dolly

    1997-01-01

    Reviews the need for and appropriate use of individual assessment in physical education and explains how computerized data management can combat the logistical difficulties of using the data. Describes project COPE (Computer Organized Physical Education), a computerized data management system for improving recordkeeping, planning, and…

  16. Helping Students Cope with Death.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodabough, Tillman

    1980-01-01

    Classroom teachers need to understand the broad differences that exist between a child's perception of death and that of an adult and should be prepared to confront and cope with the effects of death and grief upon students. Children's perceptions of death and ways in which the teacher can help the child with his grief are described. (JN)

  17. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  18. The Interrelationships of Coping Styles and Professional Burnout Among Physiotherapists

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska-Domagala, Katarzyna; Jablkowska-Górecka, Karolina; Kostrzanowska-Jarmakowska, Lilianna; Mortoń, Marta; Stecz, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Burnout is a pathological syndrome in which emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DEP), and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment (PA) develop in response to prolonged occupational stress. Those working in the physiotherapy profession appear to be at risk for professional burnout brought on by the specific character of the medical professions, involving continuous contact with patients and associated stress, as well as poor working conditions. However, literature data concerning the scale of professional burnout and its psychosocial correlates remain scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the scale of professional burnout among physiotherapists and to determine the interrelationships between coping styles and burnout symptoms. The sample consisted of 117 professionally active physiotherapists (90 women and 27 men) aged 21 to 55 years (mean [M] 31.88, standard deviation [SD] = 9.14, responsiveness rate of 80.6%) from randomly selected medical institutions of the Lodz Region. The study was conducted using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) by Endler and Parker. Demographic and job-related data on the respondents were also collected. Task-oriented coping correlated negatively with DEP, EE, and low PA, in contrast to emotion-oriented coping. No correlation was found between avoidance-oriented coping and burnout symptoms. Similarly, no interactive correlations between coping styles and particular burnout symptoms were confirmed. Coping styles correlate independently with professional burnout, without any mutual correlations. Physiotherapists employing a wider spectrum of task-oriented strategies are slightly more satisfied with their job. The incidence of burnout syndrome in the analyzed group is similar to that observed in other medical professions and requires the adoption of preventive measures. PMID:26091455

  19. Coping Styles and Alcohol Dependence among Homeless People

    PubMed Central

    Opalach, Cezary; Romaszko, Jerzy; Jaracz, Marcin; Kuchta, Robert; Borkowska, Alina; Buciński, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objectives The ways in which homeless individuals cope with stress may differ from those relied upon by the members of the general population and these differences may either be the result or the cause of their living conditions. The aim of the study was to determine the preferred coping style among the homeless and its relationship with alcohol dependence. Methods The study included 78 homeless individuals and involved the collection of demographic, sociological, psychological and medical data from each participant. Coping styles relied upon when dealing with stressful situations were assessed using a Polish adaptation of the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations. Alcohol dependence was assessed using the Michigan Alcoholism Screening Test (MAST) and a quantitative analysis of alcohol consumption. Results Men accounted for 91.93% of the study population. Nearly 75% of the subjects met the alcohol dependence criterion. Significant relationships were observed between the individual's age, preferred coping style and alcohol consumption level. As an individual’s age increased, the use of emotion-oriented coping styles decreased, while an increase in alcohol consumption was associated with a more frequent use of emotion- and avoidance-oriented strategies. Conclusions The findings of this study, similarly to those of many other studies of homeless individuals but investigating other areas (e.g. epidemiology of tuberculosis and traumatic injuries), are an exaggerated representation of associations observed in the general population. The results describe a group of people living on the margins of the society, often suffering from extremely advanced alcoholism, with clear evident psychodegradation. The presence of specific ways of coping with stress related to excessive alcohol consumption in this group of individuals may interfere with active participation in support programmes provided for the homeless and may further exacerbate their problems. PMID

  20. Age Differences in Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Barbara J.; Revenson, Tracey A.

    While most lifespan developmental theories of personality predict age-related changes in coping, little direct evidence exists for determining whether age differences in coping style are due to intrinsic developmental processes or to age differences in the kinds of stresses encountered. To evaluate age differences in coping strategies and whether…

  1. Coping Processes of Couples Experiencing Infertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brennan D.; Newton, Christopher R.; Rosen, Karen H.; Schulman, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the coping processes of couples experiencing infertility. Participants included 420 couples referred for advanced reproductive treatments. Couples were divided into groups based on the frequency of their use of eight coping strategies. Findings suggest that coping processes, which are beneficial to individuals, may be…

  2. Interrelationships between Coping, School Connectedness and Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenberg, Erica; Care, Esther; Freeman, Elizabeth; Chan, Esther

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships between coping styles, emotional wellbeing, and school connectedness using path analysis. A total of 536 Year 8 students (241 boys and 295 girls) responded to an in-class survey and the "Adolescent Coping Scale" (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993a) as part of a larger study. Productive coping style…

  3. Coping Strategies in Young Male Prisoners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mohino, Susana; Kirchner, Teresa; Forns, Maria

    2004-01-01

    The general aim of this study is to analyze diverse aspects relating to the use of coping strategies among prison inmates. The specific objectives are (a) to analyze which type of coping strategies predominate among prisoners, considering both the focus and the method; (b) to relate the use of coping strategies with variables related to the prison…

  4. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  5. Coping with Schizophrenia: Patterns in Later Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano, Nancy H.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether the coping framework developed with younger adults with schizophrenia could be applied to people over 50 with schizophrenia. Results indicated that coping strategies used by older people were similar to those of younger populations. However, it was reported that efficacy of coping strategies had increased as participants had…

  6. Age Differences in Coping, Behavioral Dysfunction and Depression Following Colostomy Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Kathryn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the responses of a group of middle-aged and older adults (N=34) to colostomy surgery. Analyzed the relationship between the method and focus of coping and age, sickness-related dysfunction, and depression. Found that neither a lower level of active behavioral coping nor age itself was correlated with depression or dysfunction. (Author/ABB)

  7. Expectancies for Negative Mood Regulation, Coping, and Dysphoria among College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Catanzaro, Salvatore J.; Greenwood, Gregory

    1994-01-01

    College students (n=222) completed measures of negative mood regulation (NMR) expectancies, negative life events, coping responses, dysphoria, and somatic symptoms. Weeks later, they completed same questionnaires but with daily hassles replacing life events. NMR expectancies were positively related to active coping and negatively related to…

  8. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  9. 'Gun! Gun! Gun!': An exploration of law enforcement officers' decision-making and coping under stress during actual events.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kevin R; Eccles, David W; Freeman, Carlos; Ward, Paul

    2016-11-30

    Research on decision-making under stress has mainly involved laboratory-based studies with few contextual descriptions of decision-making under stress in the natural ecology. We examined how police officers prepared for, coped with and made decisions under threat-of-death stress during real events. A delayed retrospective report method was used to elicit skilled police officers' thoughts and feelings during attempts to resolve such events. Reports were analysed to identify experiences of stress and coping, and thought processes underpinning decision-making during the event. Officers experienced a wide range of events, coped with stress predominantly via problem-focused strategies, and adapted their decision-making under stress based on the available context. Future officer training should involve a greater variety of training scenarios than is involved in current training, and expose trainees to the possible variants of each situation to foster better situational representation and, thus, a more reliable and adaptive mental model for use in decision-making. Practitioner Summary: This study concerns decision-making and coping strategies used by skilled police officers during real threat-of-death situations. Officers' decision-making strategies differed according to the complexity of the situation and they coped with the stress of these situations via attempts to resolve the situations (e.g. by planning responses) and, to a lesser extent, via attempts to deal with their emotions.

  10. A Comparison of Type II Diabetic Patients With Healthy People: Coping Strategies, Hardiness, and Occupational Life Quality

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Safdar; Jaafari, Asghar; Ghamari, Mohammad; Esfandiary, Maryam; Salehi Mazandarani, Foroozan; Daneshvar, Sahar; Ajami, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to the epidemiologic transition and a rise in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases different coping strategies have been studied and developed. These strategies may help the affected people to conduct a normal life style. Objectives This research was conducted in Qazvin, Iran to determine the relationship between coping strategies, hardiness, and occupational life quality in Type II diabetic patients and healthy people. Patients and Methods Questionnaires such as Valton’s on “occupational life quality,” Billings and Moos’ examination of “Coping strategies,” and Kobasa’s investigation of “hardiness” were applied to collect the data needed for the present study. In this regard, 80 people were randomly selected from employees of offices in Qazvin, Iran. Results The results of this research indicated that there is a significant relationship between problem-focused strategies, emotion-focused strategies, hardiness, and occupational life quality in people suffering from Type II diabetes and healthy people (P ≤ 0.05). These results also indicated that hardiness does not predict occupational life quality of people suffering from Type II diabetes. Conclusions The results of the present study give some evidence that allows us to conclude that hardiness and coping strategies affect occupational life quality for both people suffering from Type II diabetes and healthy people. Therefore, it is proposed that people strengthen their hardiness and coping strategies, in order to improve their occupational life quality. PMID:27162758

  11. Relationship between behavioural coping strategies and acceptance in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome: Elucidating targets of interventions

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Previous research has found that acceptance of pain is more successful than cognitive coping variables for predicting adjustment to pain. This research has a limitation because measures of cognitive coping rely on observations and reports of thoughts or attempts to change thoughts rather than on overt behaviours. The purpose of the present study, therefore, is to compare the influence of acceptance measures and the influence of different behavioural coping strategies on the adjustment to chronic pain. Methods A sample of 167 individuals diagnosed with fibromyalgia syndrome completed the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory (CPCI) and the Chronic Pain Acceptance Questionnaire (CPAQ). Results Correlational analyses indicated that the acceptance variables were more related to distress and functioning than were behavioural coping variables. The average magnitudes of the coefficients for activity engagement and pain willingness (both subscales of pain acceptance) across the measures of distress and functioning were r = 0.42 and 0.25, respectively, meanwhile the average magnitude of the correlation between coping and functioning was r = 0.17. Regression analyses examined the independent, relative contributions of coping and acceptance to adjustment indicators and demonstrated that acceptance accounted for more variance than did coping variables. The variance contributed by acceptance scores ranged from 4.0 to 40%. The variance contributed by the coping variables ranged from 0 to 9%. Conclusions This study extends the findings of previous work in enhancing the adoption of acceptance-based interventions for maintaining accurate functioning in fibromyalgia patients. PMID:21714918

  12. Coping behavior and depressive symptoms in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith; Chen, Rui; Kelley, Michelle L; Schroeder, Valarie M; Braitman, Abby L; Mignone, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) would report more depressive mood symptoms as compared to non-ACOAs, whether coping behaviors differed as a function of ACOA status, and whether specific coping behaviors were related to depressive mood symptoms in ACOAs. Participants were 136 college students categorized as ACOAs and 436 college students categorized as non-ACOAs as determined by scores on the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; J.W.Jones, 1983 The children of alcoholics screening test: test manual. Chicago: Camelot). As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported significantly more symptoms of depressive mood as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1992 POMS manual: profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Edits). On the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56:267-283), ACOAs reported higher use of the following coping strategies: Behavior Disengagement, Denial, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Humor, and Substance Use. For both the ACOA and non-ACOA groups, the use of Positive Reinterpretation and Growth and the use of Planning were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, whereas Mental Disengagement, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Denial, Behavior Disengagement, Substance Use, and Suppression of Competing Activities were associated with higher depressive mood scores.

  13. [The international adoption waiting period: waiting experience and coping strategies].

    PubMed

    Pedro-Viejo, Ana Berástegui

    2008-11-01

    The adoption waiting period is a powerful stressor that can affect the well-being and configuration of future family life. Adoption research and practice have not paid enough attention to this phase. The principal aim of this study is to address prospective adoptive parents' experience of and coping with this period. For this purpose, 63 families answered a feelings scale, a coping resources scale and a needs questionnaire, all elaborated for the study. Results show that a shorter length of waiting time, using cognitive and learning coping strategies and associative participation were related to a better general experience of adoption whereas process-centred strategies were related to a worse experience of adoption. Families would like to see more speed in the process, more warmth and humanity in their relation with institutions and better information about their expedients. We conclude by proposing some activities and services during the waiting period that could be useful for post adoption.

  14. Play and Healing: Therapeutic Recreation's Role in Coping with Grief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sorensen, Beth; King, Kathryn

    1999-01-01

    Camp Releaf, a weekend camp in North Carolina, uses therapeutic recreation to help children in grades K-8 develop positive coping skills for dealing with the recent death of a family member. The camp's therapeutic activities are described. Sidebars outline the nature of grief in different age groups and suggestions for working with grieving…

  15. Coping Strategies of Iranian Elderly Women: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Rafii, Forough; Oskouie, Seyede Fatemeh H.

    2010-01-01

    Successful aging is a process through which older people actively deal with their age-related changes. This study, as a part of more extensive research, explored and describes coping strategies used by Iranian elderly women in response to age-related changes. Grounded theory was used as method. Nineteen participates were recruited. The…

  16. Family Stress and Coping for Mexican Origin Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Freda F.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fernandez, Aida Cristina; Millsap, Roger E.; Dumka, Larry E.

    2011-01-01

    Family-related stressors pose special challenges for adolescents of Mexican origin, given traditional cultural norms that compel youths to get involved with family problems despite their limited ability to effect change. The current study examines the prospective effects of coping strategies (i.e., active, distraction, avoidance, support-seeking,…

  17. Israeli Counsellors Facing Terrorism: Coping and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Hellman, Shoshana

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined the characteristics and functioning of 12 Israeli school counsellors located at different stages of professional development who worked in schools affected by terrorist attacks. Semi-structured interviews explored the counsellors professional behaviour, activities, and coping with terror and its effects. Consensual…

  18. Coping with Grief: Guidelines and Resources for Assisting Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Leavy, Deon; Hansen, Kristina; Ryan, Katherine; Lawrence, Lacey; Sonntag, Amy Gerritsen

    2008-01-01

    This article provides basic information for school-based mental health professionals, teachers, staff, and administrators to support students coping with grief, and more specifically, grief related to death. The information is consolidated into guidelines and key points in providing support; suggested children's books and activities; Web sites…

  19. Family Coping Behaviors in Chronic Illness: A Rehabilitation Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Power, Paul W.

    1985-01-01

    Research with 49 families identified key variables that indicate why some families assist disabled persons to reach appropriate, rehabilitation goals. With early intervention, such coping mechanisms as denial, appropriate use of information, outward-directed activities, and positive expectations improved the family's ability to facilitate the…

  20. Living with the unexplained: coping, distress, and depression among women with chronic fatigue syndrome and/or fibromyalgia compared to an autoimmune disorder.

    PubMed

    McInnis, Opal A; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2014-01-01

    Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) and fibromyalgia are disabling conditions without objective diagnostic tests, clear-cut treatments, or established etiologies. Those with the disorders are viewed suspiciously, and claims of malingering are common, thus promoting further distress. It was hypothesized in the current study that levels of unsupportive social interactions and the coping styles used among those with CFS/fibromyalgia would be associated with perceived distress and depressive symptoms. Women with CFS/fibromyalgia (n=39), in fact, reported higher depression scores, greater perceived distress and more frequent unsupportive relationships than healthy women (n=55), whereas those with a chronic, but medically accepted illness comprising an autoimmune disorder (lupus erythematosus, multiple sclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis; n=28), displayed intermediate scores. High problem-focused coping was associated with low levels of depression and perceived distress in those with an autoimmune condition. In contrast, although CFS/fibromyalgia was also accompanied by higher depression scores and higher perceived distress, this occurred irrespective of problem-focused coping. It is suggested that because the veracity of ambiguous illnesses is often questioned, this might represent a potent stressor in women with such illnesses, and even coping methods typically thought to be useful in other conditions, are not associated with diminished distress among those with CFS/fibromyalgia.

  1. Stress appraisal, coping, and work engagement among police recruits: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Kaiseler, Mariana; Queirós, Cristina; Passos, Fernando; Sousa, Pedro

    2014-04-01

    This study investigated the influence of stress appraisal and coping on work engagement levels (Absorption, Vigour, and Dedication) of police recruits. Participants were 387 men, ages 20 to 33 yr. (M = 24.1, SD = 2.4), in their last month of academy training before becoming police officers. Partially in support of predictions, work engagement was associated with Stressor control perceived, but not Stress intensity experienced over a self-selected stressor. Although the three dimensions of work engagement were explained by Stressor control and coping, Absorption was the dimension better explained by these variables. Police recruits reporting higher Absorption, Vigour, and Dedication reported using more Active coping and less Behavioural disengagement. Results showed that stress appraisal and coping are important variables influencing work engagement among police recruits. Findings suggested that future applied interventions fostering work engagement among police recruits should reinforce perceptions of control over a stressor as well as Active coping strategies.

  2. Coping with distributed computing

    SciTech Connect

    Cormell, L.

    1992-09-01

    The rapid increase in the availability of high performance, cost-effective RISC/UNIX workstations has been both a blessing and a curse. The blessing of having extremely powerful computing engines available on the desk top is well-known to many users. The user has tremendous freedom, flexibility, and control of his environment. That freedom can, however, become the curse of distributed computing. The user must become a system manager to some extent, he must worry about backups, maintenance, upgrades, etc. Traditionally these activities have been the responsibility of a central computing group. The central computing group, however, may find that it can no longer provide all of the traditional services. With the plethora of workstations now found on so many desktops throughout the entire campus or lab, the central computing group may be swamped by support requests. This talk will address several of these computer support and management issues by providing some examples of the approaches taken at various HEP institutions. In addition, a brief review of commercial directions or products for distributed computing and management will be given.

  3. Coping behaviors among sexual minority female youth.

    PubMed

    Pendragon, Diane K

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment.

  4. Mastication as a Stress-Coping Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Iinuma, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to chronic stress induces various physical and mental effects that may ultimately lead to disease. Stress-related disease has become a global health problem. Mastication (chewing) is an effective behavior for coping with stress, likely due to the alterations chewing causes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. Mastication under stressful conditions attenuates stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone and catecholamines, as well as the expression of stress-related substances, such as neurotrophic factors and nitric oxide. Further, chewing reduces stress-induced changes in central nervous system morphology, especially in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. In rodents, chewing or biting on wooden sticks during exposure to various stressors reduces stress-induced gastric ulcer formation and attenuates spatial cognitive dysfunction, anxiety-like behavior, and bone loss. In humans, some studies demonstrate that chewing gum during exposure to stress decreases plasma and salivary cortisol levels and reduces mental stress, although other studies report no such effect. Here, we discuss the neuronal mechanisms that underline the interactions between masticatory function and stress-coping behaviors in animals and humans. PMID:26090453

  5. Major life stress, coping styles, and social support in relation to psychological distress in patients with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Kozora, E; Ellison, M C; Waxmonsky, J A; Wamboldt, F S; Patterson, T L

    2005-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine psychological processes in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) patients in relation to measures of life stress, coping styles, social support and cognitive ability. Fifty-two SLE patients without overt neuropsychiatric symptoms, 29 RA patients and 27 healthy controls completed measures of depression, mood, disease activity, perceived health, stressful life events, coping, and social support. Variables entered into the multiple regression analysis following principal component analysis were: group, major difficult event, major life threatening event, disengaging coping, emotional coping, social support, and cognitive impairment. Depressive symptoms were associated with SLE group status (P < 0.001), major life-threatening events (P < 0.01), disengage coping (P < 0.001) and emotional coping (P < 0.05). SLE group status (P < 0.05), disengage coping (P < 0.05) and emotional coping (P < 0.05) were associated with current distressed mood. SLE patients without overt, major neuropsychiatric symptoms had greater psychological distress compared to RA and control subjects. Increased depressive symptoms and distressed mood state in SLE patients were related to use of disengaging and emotional coping styles. These findings are limited to SLE patients with no overt neuropsychiatric illness and low disease activity, suggesting the need for future studies with a greater variety of SLE patients. Interventions aimed at improving active coping and minimizing emotional response to stress may lower psychological distress in SLE patients with mild disease.

  6. A closer look at co-rumination: gender, coping, peer functioning and internalizing/externalizing problems.

    PubMed

    Tompkins, Tanya L; Hockett, Ashlee R; Abraibesh, Nadia; Witt, Jody L

    2011-10-01

    Co-rumination, defined as repetitive, problem-focused talk explains higher levels of friendship quality in youth (Rose, 2002) and increased levels of anxiety/depression in females. Middle adolescents (N = 146) participated in a study of co-rumination, individual coping, externalizing/internalizing problems, and peer functioning. Consistent with past research, girls reported higher levels of co-rumination and internalizing symptoms. Co-rumination was also positively correlated with self-reports, but not teacher reports, of anxiety/depression and aggressive behavior. Both self-reported number of friends and teacher-rated social acceptance were negatively associated with co-rumination. Co-rumination partially accounted for the significant indirect effect of gender on internalizing symptoms. Additionally, co-rumination was associated with internalizing and externalizing symptoms but not individual coping efforts. Finally, co-rumination accounted for a unique amount of variance in internalizing symptoms, controlling for externalizing problems and secondary control coping. Theoretical implications and the importance of including broad domains of adjustment and peer functioning in future investigations of co-rumination are discussed.

  7. Exploring student nurse anesthetist stressors and coping using grounded theory methodology.

    PubMed

    Phillips, Joy Kieffer

    2010-12-01

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to examine the challenges that recent graduates of nurse anesthesia programs coped with during their anesthesia curriculum from their perspective. The initial research questions for this study were: From the graduates'perspective, what were the stressors that they encountered during their nurse anesthesia program? And how did they successfully negotiate those stressors in order to graduate from their program? This phenomenon was studied using grounded theory methodology. The data were collected by individual, semistructured, in-depth interviews with 12 recent nurse anesthesia program graduates, from 5 different nurse anesthesia programs, who have been out of school for less than 2 years. This exploration into student nurse anesthetist stress and coping articulates 3 phases of development as these students progressed through their program. The phases are transitioning in (first 9 months of program), finding their way (9 to 18 months into program), and transitioning out (18 to 28 months into program). Coping mechanisms employed by the participants were problem focused, emotion focused, and a combination of the 2. Recommendations for action and future research are discussed.

  8. Factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS): activities and coping strategies in relation to positive and negative affect

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous research (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006) shows that there are eight general happiness-increasing strategies: social affiliation, partying, mental control, goal pursuit, passive leisure, active leisure, religion, and direct attempts. The present study investigates the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS) and their relationship to positive and negative affect. Method. The present study used participants’ (N = 1,050 and age mean = 34.21 sd = 12.73) responses to the H-ISS in structural equation modeling analyses. Affect was measured using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. Results. After small modifications we obtained a good model that contains the original eight factors/scales. Moreover, we found that women tend to use social affiliation, mental control, passive leisure, religion, and direct attempts more than men, while men preferred to engage in partying and clubbing more than women. The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R2 = .41) and the variance of negative affect (R2 = .27). Conclusions. Our study is an addition to previous research showing that the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies is valid and reliable. However, due to the model fitting issues that arise in the present study, we give some suggestions for improving the instrument. PMID:26157626

  9. Temperament and stress coping styles in bronchial asthma patients

    PubMed Central

    Kuna, Piotr; Witusik, Andrzej; Wujcik, Radosław; Antczak, Adam; Pietras, Tadeusz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Temperament, defined as the formal characteristics of behavior, is a personality trait which can influence the clinical presentation and course of bronchial asthma. It determines susceptibility to stress as well as stress coping styles. Aim The aim of the study was to assess whether healthy subjects differ from bronchial asthma patients with regard to temperamental variables and stress coping styles, and whether these factors may also differentiate patients with severe asthma from those with the milder form. The study also assesses whether the results of flow volume curve analysis correlate with temperamental traits and stress coping styles. Material and methods The study was conducted in a group of 65 asthma patients and 62 healthy controls. All underwent flow volume curve examination and psychological tests: Formal Characteristics of Behavior – Temperament Inventory (FCB-TI) and Coping in Stress Situations (CISS) questionnaire. Results Bronchial asthma patients were characterized by a lower level of briskness (“agility”) than healthy subjects (13.35 ±4.48 vs. 14.97 ±3.98, p = 0.031). The remaining temperamental traits and stress coping styles did not differ between the groups. Additionally, the forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1) value was found to correlate negatively with the intensity of the emotion-oriented stress coping style, whereas FEV1 and forced vital capacity (FVC) were found to positively correlate with briskness, emotional reactivity and endurance, while a negative correlation was found with activity. Conclusions Briskness differentiates healthy subjects from bronchial asthma patients. The values obtained in FEV1 and FVC pulmonary function tests were also found to correlate with some temperamental variables. PMID:28035226

  10. Collectivism and coping: current theories, evidence, and measurements of collective coping.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Ben C H

    2013-01-01

    A burgeoning body of cultural coping research has begun to identify the prevalence and the functional importance of collective coping behaviors among culturally diverse populations in North America and internationally. These emerging findings are highly significant as they evidence culture's impacts on the stress-coping process via collectivistic values and orientation. They provide a critical counterpoint to the prevailing Western, individualistic stress and coping paradigm. However, current research and understanding about collective coping appear to be piecemeal and not well integrated. To address this issue, this review attempts to comprehensively survey, summarize, and evaluate existing research related to collective coping and its implications for coping research with culturally diverse populations from multiple domains. Specifically, this paper reviews relevant research and knowledge on collective coping in terms of: (a) operational definitions; (b) theories; (c) empirical evidence based on studies of specific cultural groups and broad cultural values/dimensions; (d) measurements; and (e) implications for future cultural coping research. Overall, collective coping behaviors are conceived as a product of the communal/relational norms and values of a cultural group across studies. They also encompass a wide array of stress responses ranging from value-driven to interpersonally based to culturally conditioned emotional/cognitive to religion- and spirituality-grounded coping strategies. In addition, this review highlights: (a) the relevance and the potential of cultural coping theories to guide future collective coping research; (b) growing evidence for the prominence of collective coping behaviors particularly among Asian nationals, Asian Americans/Canadians and African Americans/Canadians; (c) preference for collective coping behaviors as a function of collectivism and interdependent cultural value and orientation; and (d) six cultural coping scales. This

  11. Coping with chronic neurological impairment: a contrastive analysis of Parkinson's disease and stroke.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, M; Freyholdt, U; Fuchs, G; Wallesch, C W

    1997-01-01

    This study aimed at a contrastive analysis of coping strategies and psychosocial alterations in patients with Parkinson's disease (PD) and stroke (CVA) and their relatives. Fifty-four PD and 50 CVA patients were investigated with a standardized semistructured interview to assess the severity of psychosocial changes following illness, the Freiburg Questionnaire on Coping with Illness, the Cornell Depression Scale and instruments to assess motor impairment. Psychosocial alterations were most prominent in the professional and emotional-cognitive domains. Degree of depression correlated with familial and emotional-cognitive alterations in both patient groups. Active problem-oriented coping and distraction predominated as coping styles. Religious relief and quest for sense were significantly more important for the PD patients. Coping styles did not correlate with degrees of depression, motor impairment or psychosocial alterations.

  12. Associations of coping and appraisal styles with emotion regulation during preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Wilson, Anna C; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the associations of appraisal and coping styles with emotion regulation in a community sample of preadolescents (N=196, 9-12 years of age), with appraisal, coping styles, and emotion regulation measured at a single time point. In a previous study, we identified five frustration and four anxiety emotion regulation profiles based on children's physiological, behavioral, and self-reported reactions to emotion-eliciting tasks. In this study, preadolescents' self-reported appraisal and coping styles were associated with those emotion regulation profiles. Overall, findings revealed that children who were more effective at regulating their emotions during the emotion-eliciting tasks had higher levels of positive appraisal and active coping when dealing with their own problems. Conversely, children who regulated their emotions less effectively had higher levels of threat appraisal and avoidant coping.

  13. Military Family Coping Project - Phase 2

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Award Number: W81XWH-11-2-0470 TITLE: Military Family Coping Project – Phase II PRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR: James W. Ellor, Ph.D. CONTRACTING...Family Coping Project – Phase II 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER W81XWH-11-2-0470 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER...AVAILABILITY STATEMENT Approved for Public Release; Distribution Unlimited 13. SUPPLEMENTARY NOTES 14. ABSTRACT he Military Family Coping Project is a

  14. Self-regulation as a moderator of the relation between coping and symptomatology in children of divorce.

    PubMed

    Lengua, L J; Sandler, I N

    1996-12-01

    Investigated the effects of self-regulation as a moderator of the relations between coping efforts and psychological symptoms of children of divorce. The interactions of two dimensions of self-regulation (task orientation and approach-flexibility) and two dimensions of coping (active and avoidant) predicting children's postdivorce symptoms were tested using a sample of 199 divorced mothers and their children, ages 8 to 12. The approach-flexibility dimension moderated the relations of both active and avoidant coping with children's self-report of anxiety. At higher levels of approach-flexibility, active coping was negatively related to anxiety, while at lower levels of approach-flexibility, active coping was unrelated to anxiety. Avoidant coping was unrelated to anxiety at higher levels of approach-flexibility, whereas at lower levels of approach-flexibility, avoidant coping was positively related to anxiety. The task orientation dimension did not interact with coping, but had direct, independent effects on children's self-report of conduct problems, depression, and parent-report of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. The implications for understanding children's coping with divorce and future directions for research are discussed.

  15. Religious coping methods of Taiwanese folk religion.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi-Jung

    2014-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore religious coping methods employed by Taiwanese folk religious believers. This study applied qualitative research methods in data collection and data analysis by conducting semi-structured interviews with participants and analyzing the interview contents. We have identified fourteen coping methods that can be categorized into five different religious dimensions: belief, ritual, ethical, emotional and material. The findings not only expanded our knowledge about how believers of Taiwanese folk religion employ the religion to cope with difficulties but also discovered that some coping methods employed by them are also reported in Western countries, only in different forms.

  16. Appraisal and coping styles account for the effects of temperament on preadolescent adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Stephanie F.; Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.

    2014-01-01

    Temperament, appraisal, and coping are known to underlie emotion regulation, yet less is known about how these processes relate to each other across time. We examined temperamental fear, frustration, effortful control, and impulsivity, positive and threat appraisals, and active and avoidant coping as processes underpinning the emotion regulation of pre-adolescent children managing stressful events. Appraisal and coping styles were tested as mediators of the longitudinal effects of temperamental emotionality and self-regulation on adjustment using a community sample (N=316) of preadolescent children (8–12 years at T1) studied across one year. High threat appraisals were concurrently related to high fear and impulsivity, whereas effortful control predicted relative decreases in threat appraisal. High fear was concurrently related to high positive appraisal, and impulsivity predicted increases in positive appraisal. Fear was concurrently related to greater avoidant coping, and impulsivity predicted increases in avoidance. Frustration predicted decreases in active coping. These findings suggest temperament, or dispositional aspects of reactivity and regulation, relates to concurrent appraisal and coping processes and additionally predicts change in these processes. Significant indirect effects indicated that appraisal and coping mediated the effects of temperament on adjustment. Threat appraisal mediated the effects of fear and effortful control on internalizing and externalizing problems, and avoidant coping mediated the effect of impulsivity on internalizing problems. These mediated effects suggest that one pathway through which temperament influences adjustment is pre-adolescents’ appraisal and coping. Findings highlight temperament, appraisal and coping as emotion regulation processes relevant to children’s adjustment in response to stress. PMID:25821237

  17. Association Between Coping With Anger and Feelings of Depression Among Youths

    PubMed Central

    Goodwin, Renee D.

    2006-01-01

    Objectives. I examined the association, among youths, between coping behavior when angry and depression. Methods. Data were drawn from the Health Behavior in School-Aged Children in the United States survey (n=9938). Factor analyses and multivariate logistic regression analyses were used to determine the association between self-reported coping behavior when angry and depression. Gender-specific models were run. Results. Factor analysis of 11 coping behaviors indicated a 4-factor solution: substance use, physical activity, emotional coping behavior, and aggressive behavior. Substance use, emotional coping, and aggressive behavior coping were associated with increased likelihood of depression, whereas physical activity was associated with decreased likelihood of depression. Male youths were more likely to engage in physical activity and were less likely to feel depressed. Conclusions. These data provide preliminary evidence of a link between specific coping behavior when angry and the likelihood of depression among youths. Whether these associations may be useful in identifying youths at risk for depression cannot be determined from these data alone but may be an important area for future study. PMID:16507737

  18. Stability and Change in Patterns of Coping with Parkinson's Disease

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frazier, Leslie D.

    2002-01-01

    This study examined how Parkinson's disease patients cope with disease-related stressors over time. Of interest was whether patterns of coping would support a dispositional model of coping (i.e., stability) or a contextual model of coping (i.e., change). The influence of stability and change in coping on mental and physical health outcomes was…

  19. Maladaptive Coping, Adaptive Coping, and Depressive Symptoms: Variations across Age and Depressive State

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Renee J.; Mata, Jutta; Jaeggi, Susanne M.; Buschkuehl, Martin; Jonides, John; Gotlib, Ian H.

    2010-01-01

    Rumination has consistently been found to be associated with the onset and duration of major depressive episodes. Little research, however, has examined factors that may weaken the association between maladaptive coping, such as rumination, and depressive symptoms. In three samples of participants, including 149 never-depressed adolescent girls, 41 never-depressed women, and 39 depressed women, we examined whether generally adaptive forms of coping interacted with generally maladaptive coping to predict depressive symptoms. Age-appropriate measures of coping and depression were administered to participants in each sample. In never-depressed females, maladaptive coping / rumination were more strongly related to depressive symptoms in the presence of lower levels of adaptive coping. The relation between depression and maladaptive coping / rumination was weaker in the context of higher levels of adaptive coping. In contrast, for the depressed females, we found main effects for rumination and adaptive coping, with higher levels of rumination and lower levels of adaptive coping being associated with higher levels of depressive symptoms. The present findings highlight how adaptive coping and maladaptive coping, including rumination, differentially relate to each other and depressive symptoms depending on individuals’ current depressive state. PMID:20211463

  20. How Dyslexic Teenagers Cope: An Investigation of Self-Esteem, Coping and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander-Passe, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Research into how dyslexics cope and the effects of their coping has received little attention in the 100 years since dyslexia has been recognized. Why is this? Well it is not an easy area to investigate, partly as most qualitative studies have looked only at coping strategies of specific dyslexics. These are individuals and are unsuitable for…

  1. Effective and ineffective coping strategies in a low-autonomy work environment.

    PubMed

    Britt, Thomas W; Crane, Monique; Hodson, Stephanie E; Adler, Amy B

    2016-04-01

    The authors examined the effectiveness of different coping strategies in buffering the negative effects of uncontrollable stressors and predicting mental health symptoms in a low-autonomy work environment using a longitudinal design. Soldiers in training indicated the extent to which they engaged in various coping strategies to deal with stressors related to the training environment at 4 different points in time. Factor analyses of soldiers in 2 different countries (i.e., United States and Australia) yielded 5 coping dimensions: active coping, acceptance of demands, seeking social support, humor, and denial/self-criticism. Among U.S. soldiers in basic training, acceptance of demands and denial/self-criticism interacted with the magnitude of basic-training stressors to predict mental health symptoms (depression and anxiety) at 3 different points during training while controlling for symptoms at the immediate prior time period. Acceptance buffered soldiers from the negative effects of the stressors, whereas denial/self-criticism exacerbated the effects of the stressors. The results of LGC models also indicated that the slopes of acceptance and active coping were negatively related to the slope of mental health symptoms across training, whereas the slope for denial/self-criticism was positively related to the slope of symptoms. Active coping was less predictive of functioning in the face of stressors and in the prediction of symptoms over time. The results demonstrated that in a low-autonomy occupational setting, acceptance coping was more effective in facilitating good mental health outcomes compared with other coping strategies considered important in prior research (e.g., active coping).

  2. The Mediating Role of Coping Style in the Relationship between Psychological Capital and Burnout among Chinese Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yongqing; Yang, Yanjie; Yang, Xiuxian; Zhang, Tiehui; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Xin; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Lin; Sui, Hong

    2015-01-01

    avoid negative coping style, improve skill of coping and enhance PsyCap of nurses, active interventions should be developed in the future. PMID:25898257

  3. Multicultural Mastery Scale for Youth: Multidimensional Assessment of Culturally Mediated Coping Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Allen, James; Henry, David; Mohatt, Gerald V.

    2012-01-01

    Self-mastery refers to problem-focused coping facilitated through personal agency. Communal mastery describes problem solving through an interwoven social network. This study investigates an adaptation of self- and communal mastery measures for youth. Given the important distinction between family and peers in the lives of youth, these adaptation efforts produced Mastery-Family and Mastery-Friends subscales, along with a Mastery-Self subscale. We tested these measures for psychometric properties and internal structure with 284 12 to 18-year-old predominately Yup’ik Eskimo Alaska Native adolescents from rural, remote communities — a non-Western culturally distinct group hypothesized to display higher levels of collectivism and communal mastery. Results demonstrate a subset of items adapted for youth function satisfactorily, a three-response alternative format provided meaningful information, and the subscale’s underlying structure is best described through three distinct first-order factors organized under one higher order mastery factor. PMID:21928912

  4. The social and cultural context of coping: action, gender and symptoms in a southern black community.

    PubMed

    Dressler, W W

    1985-01-01

    Research was conducted on the relationships of coping styles, chronic economic stressors and symptoms of distress in a black community in the rural South. It was found that the effect of an active coping style in moderating the effects of stressors was different for males and females. For females, active coping buffered the effects of stressors; for males, active coping exacerbated the effects of stressors. These results are consistent with the social and cultural context of the community, and with cultural norms governing gender roles within the community. This study demonstrates the need to systematically incorporate cultural and social structural factors in models of the stress process. Cultural norms and structural constraints interact to systematically alter the meaning of different factors in the stress process and in turn alter the effects of those factors on health.

  5. Protecting children from the consequences of divorce: a longitudinal study of the effects of parenting on children's coping processes.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Clorinda E; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether intervention-induced changes in mother-child relationship quality and discipline led to short-term (6 months) and long-term (6 years) changes in children's coping processes in a sample of 240 youth aged 9-12 years when assessed initially. Data were from a randomized, experimental trial of a parenting-focused preventive intervention designed to improve children's postdivorce adjustment. Three-wave prospective mediational analyses revealed that intervention-induced improvements in relationship quality led to increases in coping efficacy at 6 months and to increases in coping efficacy and active coping at 6 years. Tests of the mediated effects were significant for all 3 indirect paths. Results are discussed in terms of pathways to adaptive coping and implications for the implementation of preventive interventions targeting coping.

  6. Coping with chronic pain among younger, middle-aged, and older adults living with neurological injury and disease.

    PubMed

    Molton, Ivan; Jensen, Mark P; Ehde, Dawn M; Carter, Gregory T; Kraft, George; Cardemas, Diana D

    2008-01-01

    Objective. This article compares use of pain coping strategies among older, middle-aged, and younger adults living with chronic pain and seeks to determine whether the relationship between pain severity and coping is moderated by age. Method. Participants were 464 adults reporting chronic pain secondary to multiple sclerosis, spinal cord injury, or neuromuscular disease. Participants completed a survey including measures of pain severity and the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory. Results. After controlling for clinical and demographic variables, older adults (older than 60) reported a wider range of frequently used strategies and significantly more frequent engagement in activity pacing, seeking social support, and use of coping self-statements than did younger or middle-aged adults. Moderation analyses suggest that, for younger adults, efforts at coping generally increased with greater pain severity, whereas this relationship did not exist for older adults. Discussion. These data suggest differences in the quantity and quality of pain coping among age groups.

  7. Coping mediates the influence of personality on life satisfaction in patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Vollmann, Manja; Pukrop, Jörg; Salewski, Christel

    2016-04-01

    A rheumatic disease can severely impair a person's quality of life. The degree of impairment, however, is not closely related to objective indicators of disease severity. This study investigated the influence and the interplay of core psychological factors, i.e., personality and coping, on life satisfaction in patients with rheumatic diseases. Particularly, it was tested whether coping mediates the effects of personality on life satisfaction. In a cross-sectional design, 158 patients diagnosed with a rheumatic disease completed questionnaires assessing the Big 5 personality traits (BFI-10), several disease-related coping strategies (EFK) and life satisfaction (HSWBS). Data were analyzed using a complex multiple mediation analysis with the Big 5 personality traits as predictors, coping strategies as mediators and life satisfaction as outcome. All personality traits and seven of the nine coping strategies were associated with life satisfaction (rs > |0.16|, ps ≤ 0.05). The mediation analysis revealed that personality traits had no direct, but rather indirect effects on life satisfaction through coping. Neuroticism had a negative indirect effect on life satisfaction through less active problem solving and more depressive coping (indirect effects > -0.03, ps < 0.05). Extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness had positive indirect effects on life satisfaction through more active problem solving, less depressive coping and/or a more active search for social support (indirect effects > 0.06, ps < 0.05). Personality and coping play a role in adjustment to rheumatic diseases. The interplay of these variables should be considered in psychological interventions for patients with rheumatic diseases.

  8. Infertile Partnersʼ Coping Strategies Are Interrelated – Implications for Targeted Psychological Counseling

    PubMed Central

    Volmer, L.; Rösner, S.; Toth, B.; Strowitzki, T.; Wischmann, T.

    2017-01-01

    Background Infertility patients often have high stress levels which, in some cases, represent a risk of developing depression or anxiety. The SCREENIVF questionnaire is a validated tool to evaluate such risks. Some coping strategies have been shown to be correlated with infertile couplesʼ levels of stress. Determining which strategies are correlated with higher levels of risk for depression or anxiety could be useful to offer targeted psychological counseling to reduce the risk of depression or anxiety. Materials and Methods A total of 296 women and men who attended the Fertility Center at Heidelberg University Hospital completed the SCREENIVF questionnaire and the COMPI coping scales. Data were analyzed first on an individual basis and focused on the couple, using the Actor Partner Interdependence Model. Results On an individual level, active avoidance coping was positively correlated with a higher risk of depression or anxiety in women, while meaning-based coping was negatively correlated with risk in men. When the results of couples were viewed together, women and men using active avoidance coping exhibited higher risk scores as individuals (actor effect), as did their partners (partner effect). Women who used meaning-based coping had positive actor and partner effects. Women using active-confronting coping had a negative partner effect (higher risk score for men). Conclusions These findings indicate that some coping strategies may have a protective effect while others may increase the risk of emotional maladjustment in infertile couples. Further analysis of coping strategies could help to identify new counseling approaches for infertile patients. PMID:28190889

  9. Neuronal Correlates of Maladaptive Coping: An EEG-Study in Tinnitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vanneste, Sven; Joos, Kathleen; Langguth, Berthold; To, Wing Ting; De Ridder, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Here we aimed to investigate the neuronal correlates of different coping styles in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Adaptive and maladaptive coping styles were determined in 85 tinnitus patients. Based on resting state EEG recordings, coping related differences in brain activity and connectivity were found. Maladaptive coping behavior was related to increases in subjective tinnitus loudness and distress, higher tinnitus severity and higher depression scores. EEG recordings demonstrated increased alpha activity over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) as well as increased connectivity in the default (i.e. resting state) network in tinnitus patients with a maladaptive coping style. Correlation analysis revealed that the changes in the DLPFC correlate primarily with maladaptive coping behavior, whereas the changes in the sgACC correlate with tinnitus severity and depression. Our findings are in line with previous research in the field of depression that during resting state a alpha band hyperconnectivity exists within the default network for patients who use a maladaptive coping style, with the sgACC as the dysfunctional node and that the strength of the connectivity is related to focusing on negative mood and catastrophizing about the consequences of tinnitus. PMID:24558383

  10. Neuronal correlates of maladaptive coping: an EEG-study in tinnitus patients.

    PubMed

    Vanneste, Sven; Joos, Kathleen; Langguth, Berthold; To, Wing Ting; De Ridder, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Here we aimed to investigate the neuronal correlates of different coping styles in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Adaptive and maladaptive coping styles were determined in 85 tinnitus patients. Based on resting state EEG recordings, coping related differences in brain activity and connectivity were found. Maladaptive coping behavior was related to increases in subjective tinnitus loudness and distress, higher tinnitus severity and higher depression scores. EEG recordings demonstrated increased alpha activity over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) as well as increased connectivity in the default (i.e. resting state) network in tinnitus patients with a maladaptive coping style. Correlation analysis revealed that the changes in the DLPFC correlate primarily with maladaptive coping behavior, whereas the changes in the sgACC correlate with tinnitus severity and depression. Our findings are in line with previous research in the field of depression that during resting state a alpha band hyperconnectivity exists within the default network for patients who use a maladaptive coping style, with the sgACC as the dysfunctional node and that the strength of the connectivity is related to focusing on negative mood and catastrophizing about the consequences of tinnitus.

  11. The Trauma of Terrorism: Helping Children Cope.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berson, Ilene R.; Berson, Michael J.

    2001-01-01

    Focuses on how to help young people cope with the terrorist attacks of September 11, 2001. Discusses the reactions of students and social studies teachers. Explores how to discuss the students' feelings about the events to help them cope. Includes a list of Web sites. (CMK)

  12. Coping with Demotivation: EFL Learners' Remotivation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falout, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    When foreign language education is compulsory, competitive, or coercive, how learners cope with stress can determine outcomes, including value of the subject, persistence on task, and level of proficiency. The development of adaptive or maladaptive coping processes toward situated learning goals is influenced by learners' beliefs about themselves…

  13. Coping Strategies of Caribbean "Problem Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Donna-Maria B.; Welch, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    The coping strategies of middle adolescents (14-16 years) generate interest amongst educators, parents, school psychologists and school counsellors. This study, using a phenomenological approach, examined the coping strategies of "problem" adolescents in the Caribbean in regard to their interactions with peers and teachers. Data were…

  14. Pain Coping Strategies in Osteoarthritis Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the relation of pain coping strategies to pain, health status, and psychological distress in a group of osteoarthritis patients with chronic pain. Patients completed various questionnaires. Medical status variables were also used. The Pain Control and Rational Thinking factor derived from the Coping Strategies Questionnaire proved to…

  15. Coping with Discrimination among Mexican Descent Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lisa M.; Romero, Andrea J.

    2008-01-01

    The current research is designed to explore the relationship among discrimination stress, coping strategies, and self-esteem among Mexican descent youth (N = 73, age 11-15 years). Results suggest that primary control engagement and disengagement coping strategies are positively associated with discrimination stress. Furthermore, self-esteem is…

  16. Mindfulness, Stress, and Coping among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Angele; Rodger, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 135 first-year university students living in residence completed questionnaires that measured individual differences in mindfulness, coping styles, and perceived stress. Findings revealed significant positive relationships between mindfulness and rational coping, and significant negative relationships with emotional and avoidant coping…

  17. Childlessness: Strategies for Coping with Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollett, Anne

    1985-01-01

    Examines the coping strategies adopted by 50 infertile men and women. All interviewed had sought medical help, and many became knowledgeable about reproduction and infertility. Redefining the problem and managing negative concepts about infertility were other coping strategies. Seeking social support, positive identities, and other ways of meeting…

  18. Coping Power. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Coping Power" is based on the earlier "Anger Coping Power" program. It emphasizes social and emotional skills that are needed during the transition to middle school. The program incorporates child and parent components. The child component consists of thirty-four 50-minute group sessions and periodic individual sessions over…

  19. Coping Style, Cognitive Hardiness, & Health Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowack, Kenneth M.

    Much research has examined how individuals cope with work and life stress. Findings have suggested that stress, generally measured as major life events or daily hassles, may be less important to both physical and psychological well-being than are other individual appraisal and coping processes. This study was conducted to examine the effects of…

  20. Novice Teachers and How They Cope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspersen, Joakim; Raaen, Finn Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Teachers often describe their first teaching job following graduation as a shocking experience. This description raises several questions: Do novice teachers actually have a lower level of coping than experienced teachers? Are there factors in the work environment that make coping difficult for all teachers at a school? This paper compares the…

  1. Coping with Relationship Stressors: A Decade Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This review identifies key issues in research on adolescent coping with stress with parents, friends, and romantic partners during the past decade. An analysis of 78 studies revealed findings on relationship stressors and the potential links between the use of different coping styles for different relationship types. Research has confirmed…

  2. Coping with the Impact of Incontinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartley, Cheryle

    2008-01-01

    This article presents Part 2 of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. In this article, the author contends that it is extremely important to teach children coping skills…

  3. Helping Students Cope with Fears and Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R., Ed.; Bleuer, Jeanne C., Ed.

    This document consists of two modules extracted from a six-module larger work. Module 1 presents six articles on the topic of "helping students to cope with fears and crises." Module 2 contains 17 articles on "programs and practices for helping students cope with fears and crises." Article titles and authors are as follows: (1)…

  4. Patterns of Coping, Patterns of Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzen, Michael D.; Heffernan, William

    Both behavioral and cognitive coping strategies are determined by an individual's perception of the stressful stimuli. To investigate the relationship of an individual's usual coping style to differential responses to a behavioral or cognitive stressor in four response systems (heart rate, muscle tension, galvanic skin response, and subjective…

  5. Involuntary coping mechanisms: a psychodynamic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Coping responses to stress can be divided into three broad categories. The first coping category involves voluntarily mobilizing social supports. The second category involves voluntary coping strategies like rehearsing responses to danger. The third coping category, like fever and leukocytosis, is involuntary. It entails deploying unconscious homeostatic mechanisms that reduce the disorganizing effects of sudden stress, DSM-5 offers a tentative hierarchy of defenses, from psychotic to immature to mature. The 70-year prospective Study of Development at Harvard provides a clinical validation of this hierarchy Maturity of coping predicted psychosocial adjustment to aging 25 years later, and was associated with not developing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder after very severe WWII combat. PMID:22034454

  6. Coping and coping assistance among children with sickle cell disease and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Lamia P.; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Marsac, Meghan L.

    2014-01-01

    The ways in which a family copes with the physical and psychosocial burdens of sickle cell disease (SCD) can influence child and family functioning. However, few studies have examined SCD-related stressors beyond pain or how children and parents cope with these stressors. This study aimed to describe child coping and parent attempts to help their children cope (i.e., coping assistance) with a range of SCD stressors by using a triangulated mixed methods design. We also explored convergence between findings from qualitative interviews and quantitative coping inventories. Fifteen children (aged 6 – 14) with SCD and their parents (N = 15) completed semi-structured interviews and self-report measures to assess SCD-related stressors, coping, and coping assistance strategies. Findings indicate that children experience numerous stressors related to SCD and its treatment, including but not limited to pain. To manage these stressors, families employ a range of approach- and avoidance-oriented coping strategies. Quantitative and qualitative assessments provided complementary and unique contributions to understanding coping processes among children with SCD and their parents. Examining a broad range of stressors and integrating multiple assessment methods helps improve our understanding of coping with pediatric SCD, which may inform clinical practice and family-focused intervention development. PMID:24327131

  7. Bimodal control of fear-coping strategies by CB₁ cannabinoid receptors.

    PubMed

    Metna-Laurent, Mathilde; Soria-Gómez, Edgar; Verrier, Danièle; Conforzi, Martina; Jégo, Pierrick; Lafenêtre, Pauline; Marsicano, Giovanni

    2012-05-23

    To maximize their chances of survival, animals need to rapidly and efficiently respond to aversive situations. These responses can be classified as active or passive and depend on the specific nature of threats, but also on individual fear coping styles. In this study, we show that the control of excitatory and inhibitory brain neurons by type-1 cannabinoid (CB₁) receptors is a key determinant of fear coping strategies in mice. In classical fear conditioning, a switch between initially predominant passive fear responses (freezing) and active behaviors (escape attempts and risk assessment) develops over time. Constitutive genetic deletion of CB₁ receptors in CB₁⁻/⁻ mice disrupted this pattern by favoring passive responses. This phenotype can be ascribed to endocannabinoid control of excitatory neurons, because it was reproduced in conditional mutant mice lacking CB₁ receptors from cortical glutamatergic neurons. CB₁ receptor deletion from GABAergic brain neurons led to the opposite phenotype, characterized by the predominance of active coping. The CB₁ receptor agonist Δ⁹-tetrahydrocannabinol exerted a biphasic control of fear coping strategies, with lower and higher doses favoring active and passive responses, respectively. Finally, viral re-expression of CB₁ receptors in the amygdala of CB₁⁻/⁻ mice restored the normal switch between the two coping strategies. These data strongly suggest that CB₁ receptor signaling bimodally controls the spontaneous adoption of active or passive coping strategies in individuals. This primary function of the endocannabinoid system in shaping individual behavioral traits should be considered when studying the mechanisms of physiological and pathological fear.

  8. Wellness and Religious Coping Among Thai Individuals Living with Chronic Kidney Disease in Southern California.

    PubMed

    Chatrung, Chutikarn; Sorajjakool, Siroj; Amnatsatsue, Kwanjai

    2015-12-01

    This qualitative research is based on eight Thai participants living with chronic kidney disease living in Southern California. Four emerging themes are (a) wellness, (b) self-care, (c) impact of illness on life, and (d) religious coping. Family relations, social support, and religious coping affected self-care and how they managed their everyday activities. Knowledge about the disease and its mechanism were crucial to the decision-making process in relation to self-care. Good self-care and appropriate self-management led to wellness and improved quality of life. Religion provided a belief system focusing on the place of acceptance that was essential for coping with emotional stressors.

  9. Relationship of Coping Styles with Suicidal Behavior in Hospitalized Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: Substance Abusers versus Non- Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Mitra; Talischi, Firouzeh; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of patients with chronic conditions requiring hospitalization requires patient acceptance and cooperation and adoption of coping strategies. Inappropriate coping strategies such as substance abuse are concerning in the course of treatment. This study sought to explore the association of coping strategies with suicidal behavior in substance abusers and non substance abuser patients with chronic pulmonary diseases namely asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and Methods This comparative study was performed on 100 patients with asthma and COPD selected via convenience sampling. Subjects with and without substance abuse were separated into two groups of 50 patients each. Ways of Coping Questionnaire of Lazarus (WOCQ) and Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) were completed by them. Five Persian speaking patients rated this questionnaire to be easily understandable in the pre-test stage. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to measure the internal consistency. Results The mean (±standard deviation) age of participants was 40 (±14) years; 58% of individuals were men; 62% had chosen problem-focused coping. The most abused substances were cigarettes (78%) and opium (42%); 6% of substance abusers had thought about suicide five times or more in the past year; 5% of substance abusers had seriously attempted suicide. Tendency to commit suicide was greater in men, substance abusers and participants who had chosen emotion-focused coping strategies, based on a regression model. Average score of suicide tendency was significantly higher in substance abusers (B=2.196, P =0.007). Conclusion Chronic disease is a crisis and patients need to acquire appropriate coping strategies to deal with it, especially in substance abusers and suicidal patients. Precise recognition of coping strategies in chronic pulmonary patients with substance abuse is necessary via a team cooperation among psychiatrics, psychologists and an internal

  10. Dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction: A meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Falconier, Mariana K; Jackson, Jeffrey B; Hilpert, Peter; Bodenmann, Guy

    2015-12-01

    Meta-analytic methods were used to empirically determine the association between dyadic coping and relationship satisfaction. Dyadic coping is a systemic conceptualization of the processes partners use to cope with stressors, such as stress communication, individual strategies to assist the other partner cope with stress, and partners' strategies to cope together. A total of 72 independent samples from 57 reports with a combined sum of 17,856 participants were included. The aggregated standardized zero-order correlation (r) for total dyadic coping with relationship satisfaction was .45 (p=.000). Total dyadic coping strongly predicted relationship satisfaction regardless of gender, age, relationship length, education level, and nationality. Perceptions of overall dyadic coping by partner and by both partners together were stronger predictors of relationship satisfaction than perceptions of overall dyadic coping by self. Aggregated positive forms of dyadic coping were a stronger predictor of relationship satisfaction than aggregated negative forms of dyadic coping. Comparisons among dyadic coping dimensions indicated that collaborative common coping, supportive coping, and hostile/ambivalent coping were stronger predictors of relationship satisfaction than stress communication, delegated coping, protective buffering coping, and overprotection coping. Clinical implications and recommendations for future research are provided.

  11. Coping strategies and caregiving outcomes among rural dementia caregivers.

    PubMed

    Sun, Fei; Kosberg, Jordan I; Kaufman, Allan V; Leeper, James D

    2010-08-01

    We studied the coping styles by which family caregivers living in rural areas of Alabama deal with the demands of caring for an older relative with dementia. Data were obtained from a sample of 141 caregivers through the random-digit dialing telephone survey. Two coping styles were identified: deliberate coping and avoidance coping. Deliberate coping was related to higher life satisfaction scores and, avoidance coping was related to lower life satisfaction scores and higher caregiver burden scores. Avoidance coping appeared to moderate the effects of caregiver health on caregiver burden. Social workers should pay greater attention to caregivers with dysfunctional coping styles.

  12. Strategies for Coping with Chronic Lower Back Pain in Patients with Long Physiotherapy Wait Time

    PubMed Central

    Cabak, Anna; Dąbrowska-Zimakowska, Anna; Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Rogala, Patryk; Laprus, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment efficacy for the increasing prevalence of back pain is a great challenge for both health care providers and individuals coping with this problem. This study aimed to evaluate pain coping strategies used by primary care patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP) as a supplementation of medical diagnosis before a physiotherapy programme. Material/Methods A total of 88 people were divided into 3 age groups: young adults (21–40 years old), middle-aged adults (41–60 years old), and the elderly (over 60 years old). Data was gathered from rehabilitation centers and primary medical care facilities. A cross-sectional design was used. The Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) was completed before the physiotherapy course. Results Patients complained of CLBP for 11.32±6.81 years on average. The most common strategies to cope with back pain included declaring that the pain is manageable, praying and hoping, as well as increased behavioral activity. Statistically significant differences in coping strategies were found between age groups. The elderly patients were more likely to “declare coping with pain” in comparison to the younger age groups (p<0.01). People over 60 years of age were more likely to declare active coping with pain, while young people reported catastrophizing. Conclusions Patients in different age groups had various difficulties in pain coping. Most of them required support in self-management of pain in addition to physiotherapy. The basic assessment of pain coping strategies should be consistently taken into account and included in rehabilitation protocols in chronic pain treatment. PMID:26670743

  13. Strategies for Coping with Chronic Lower Back Pain in Patients with Long Physiotherapy Wait Time.

    PubMed

    Cabak, Anna; Dąbrowska-Zimakowska, Anna; Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Rogala, Patryk; Laprus, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Wiesław

    2015-12-15

    BACKGROUND Treatment efficacy for the increasing prevalence of back pain is a great challenge for both health care providers and individuals coping with this problem. This study aimed to evaluate pain coping strategies used by primary care patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP) as a supplementation of medical diagnosis before a physiotherapy programme. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 88 people were divided into 3 age groups: young adults (21-40 years old), middle-aged adults (41-60 years old), and the elderly (over 60 years old). Data was gathered from rehabilitation centers and primary medical care facilities. A cross-sectional design was used. The Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) was completed before the physiotherapy course. RESULTS Patients complained of CLBP for 11.32±6.81 years on average. The most common strategies to cope with back pain included declaring that the pain is manageable, praying and hoping, as well as increased behavioral activity. Statistically significant differences in coping strategies were found between age groups. The elderly patients were more likely to "declare coping with pain" in comparison to the younger age groups (p<0.01). People over 60 years of age were more likely to declare active coping with pain, while young people reported catastrophizing. CONCLUSIONS Patients in different age groups had various difficulties in pain coping. Most of them required support in self-management of pain in addition to physiotherapy. The basic assessment of pain coping strategies should be consistently taken into account and included in rehabilitation protocols in chronic pain treatment.

  14. Acculturative stress, social support, and coping: relations to psychological adjustment among Mexican American college students.

    PubMed

    Crockett, Lisa J; Iturbide, Maria I; Torres Stone, Rosalie A; McGinley, Meredith; Raffaelli, Marcela; Carlo, Gustavo

    2007-10-01

    This study examined the relations between acculturative stress and psychological functioning, as well as the protective role of social support and coping style, in a sample of 148 Mexican American college students (67% female, 33% male; mean age = 23.05 years, SD = 3.33). In bivariate analyses, acculturative stress was associated with higher levels of anxiety and depressive symptoms. Moreover, active coping was associated with better adjustment (lower depression), whereas avoidant coping predicted poorer adjustment (higher levels of depression and anxiety). Tests of interaction effects indicated that parental support and active coping buffered the effects of high acculturative stress on anxiety symptoms and depressive symptoms. In addition, peer support moderated the relation between acculturative stress and anxiety symptoms. Implications for reducing the effects of acculturative stress among Mexican American college students are discussed.

  15. The Impact of Resources on Women's Strategies for Coping with Work-Home Conflict: Does Sociocultural Context Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Liat

    2012-01-01

    The study examined differences in the impact of resources on strategies for coping with work-home conflict (WHC) among Jewish (n = 59) and Muslim Arab (n = 87) women from dual-earner families in Israel. A distinction was made between three main types of coping strategies: taking initiative, help seeking (active strategies), and redefinition (a…

  16. Everybody's Scared--But Life Goes On: Coping, Defense and Action in the Face of Nuclear Threat.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haste, Helen

    1989-01-01

    Presents model of sequence of processes by which people deal with recurrent fears about nuclear war, drawing on risk perception and stress paradigms. Shows activism to be but one coping mechanism rather than the logical outcome of effective coping. Discusses implications for psychologists concerned about nuclear threat. (Author/NB)

  17. Personality and coping in first episode psychosis linked to mental health care use.

    PubMed

    Scholte-Stalenhoef, Anne Neeltje; la Bastide-van Gemert, Sacha; van de Willige, Gerard; Dost-Otter, Rianne; Visser, Ellen; Liemburg, Edith J; Knegtering, Henderikus; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Schoevers, Robert A; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H M; Bruggeman, Richard

    2016-04-30

    A body of literature focuses on associations of neuroticism, extraversion, passive coping and active coping with the course of psychotic illness. Less is known about other personality and coping variables - and underlying causal mechanisms between variables remain unclear. We explored causal effects from personality, coping and symptoms on mental health care consumption over two years in 208 first episode patients. Causal inference search algorithms lead to formation of a hypothetical causal model based on presumptions on (non-)mutuality between variables and consistent with data. Structural equation modelling estimated effect sizes conditionally on the causal model. Our observed model implies that none of the coping or personality variables have any effect on the number of days of hospitalisation, whereas general psychopathology symptoms do have a direct positive effect. For ambulatory care it is proposed that openness to experience, depressive symptoms and age have direct positive effects. Reassuring thoughts as a coping strategy seems to have a direct negative effect on the use of ambulatory care and mediates indirect effects of other personality and coping variables on ambulatory care. Furthermore, while previously established relations between personality and symptoms are confirmed by our model, it challenges traditional ideas about causation between personality and symptoms.

  18. Coping with cancer: what do patients do.

    PubMed

    Zaza, Christine; Sellick, Scott M; Hillier, Loretta M

    2005-01-01

    Although psychosocial coping techniques and supportive care services have been shown to improve cancer patients' quality of life, there is evidence that many of these strategies have not been widely integrated into the routine care of cancer patients. This study examined: (1) the extent to which cancer patients use certain coping strategies; (2) reasons for non-use; (3) perceived effectiveness of the coping strategies; (4) participants' interest in trying the strategies; and (5) if the strategies were recommended to participants. At the Northwestern Ontario Regional Cancer Centre in Thunder Bay, Ontario, Canada, 292 outpatients (98% response rate) completed an in-person interview with a research assistant concerning seven individual coping strategies (music, breathing exercises, meditation, prayer, muscle relaxation, visualization/imagery, hypnosis/self-hypnosis) and four coping strategies offered through supportive care services (individual counselling, family counselling, support groups, religious support). Of all the coping strategies presented, prayer was used by the highest number (n = 186) of participants (64%). Music was the next most commonly used strategy, used by 43% (n = 124) of participants, and all other strategies were used by less than 30%of participants. The individualized approaches that are used for disseminating disease and treatment information to cancer patients should also be used to provide them with information on effective coping strategies.

  19. Coping and adaptation process during puerperium

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz de Rodríguez, Lucy; Ruiz de Cárdenas, Carmen Helena

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The puerperium is a stage that produces changes and adaptations in women, couples and family. Effective coping, during this stage, depends on the relationship between the demands of stressful or difficult situations and the recourses that the puerperal individual has. Roy (2004), in her Middle Range Theory about the Coping and Adaptation Processing, defines Coping as the ''behavioral and cognitive efforts that a person makes to meet the environment demands''. For the puerperal individual, the correct coping is necessary to maintain her physical and mental well being, especially against situations that can be stressful like breastfeeding and return to work. According to Lazarus and Folkman (1986), a resource for coping is to have someone who receives emotional support, informative and / or tangible. Objective: To review the issue of women coping and adaptation during the puerperium stage and the strategies that enhance this adaptation. Methods: search and selection of database articles: Cochrane, Medline, Ovid, ProQuest, Scielo, and Blackwell Synergy. Other sources: unpublished documents by Roy, published books on Roy´s Model, Websites from of international health organizations. Results: the need to recognize the puerperium as a stage that requires comprehensive care is evident, where nurses must be protagonist with the care offered to women and their families, considering the specific demands of this situation and recourses that promote effective coping and the family, education and health services. PMID:24893059

  20. Ways of coping with premenstrual change: development and validation of a premenstrual coping measure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Negative premenstrual change can result in distress for a significant proportion of women. Previous research has suggested that women employ a range of coping strategies and behaviours in order to manage and reduce premenstrual distress. However, as yet there has been no specific scale available to measure premenstrual coping. This research aimed to develop and validate a measure of premenstrual coping which can be used in future investigations of negative premenstrual experience. Methods A sample of 250 women living in Australia, reporting mild to severe premenstrual distress, completed an online survey containing 64 items related to premenstrual coping. The items were generated by reviewing past literature related to premenstrual experience, in particular recent qualitative research on premenstrual coping. A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted to determine item clusters that would form a measure. Reliability and validity were tested using calculations of Cronbach alphas, correlational analysis with psychological coping scales and a content analysis of participant reports of coping strategies. Results The factor analysis, which involved two principal component analyses, resulted in five factors containing 32 premenstrual coping behaviours. Interpretation of the factor solution drew on empirical and theoretical accounts of premenstrual coping and the emergent factors were labelled Avoiding Harm, Awareness and Acceptance of Premenstrual Change, Adjusting Energy, Self-Care, and Communicating. These factors form the subscales of the Premenstrual Coping Measure (PMCM). The subscales demonstrated acceptable to very good reliability and tests of construct, concurrent and content validity were supportive of sound validity. Conclusions The PMCM provides a valid and reliable scale for quantifying ways of coping specific to negative premenstrual change. Conceptual similarity was found between some coping behaviours and

  1. Coping Strategies in Liver Transplant Recipients and Caregivers According to Patient Posttraumatic Growth

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-San-Gregorio, M. Ángeles; Martín-Rodríguez, Agustín; Borda-Mas, Mercedes; Avargues-Navarro, M. Luisa; Pérez-Bernal, José; Gómez-Bravo, M. Ángel

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the differences in coping strategies employed by liver transplant recipients and their family members according to patient posttraumatic growth. Two matched groups of 214 liver transplant recipients and 214 family members were selected. The Posttraumatic Growth Inventory and Brief COPE were used. The most relevant results were: (1) Interactive effects in active coping, support (instrumental and emotional) and acceptance strategies, which were all used more by patients with higher growth levels, while their family members showed no differences in use of these strategies by patient growth level. Furthermore, while a low level of patient growth did not mark differences between them and their caregivers, a high level did, patients employing more active coping and support (instrumental and emotional), (2) In both groups a high level of patient growth was associated with more use of positive reframing and denial than a low one, and (3) Self-blame was employed by patients more than by their caregivers. It was concluded that a high level of posttraumatic growth in liver transplant recipients is associated with more use of healthy coping strategies, basically active coping, instrumental support, and emotional support. PMID:28163691

  2. Assessment of nursing students' stress levels and coping strategies in operating room practice.

    PubMed

    Yildiz Findik, Ummu; Ozbas, Ayfer; Cavdar, Ikbal; Yildizeli Topcu, Sacide; Onler, Ebru

    2015-05-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the stress levels and stress coping strategies of nursing students in their first operating room experience. This descriptive study was done with 126 nursing students who were having an experience in an operating room for the first time. Data were collected by using Personal Information Form, Clinical Stress Questionnaire, and Styles of Coping Inventory. The nursing students mostly had low clinical stress levels (M = 27.56, SD = 10.76) and adopted a self-confident approach in coping with stress (M = 14.3, SD = 3.58). The nursing students generally employed a helpless/self-accusatory approach among passive patterns as their clinical stress levels increased, used a self-confident and optimistic approach among active patterns as their average age increased, and those who had never been to an operating room previously used a submissive approach among passive patterns. The results showed that low levels of stress caused the nursing students to use active patterns in coping with stress, whereas increasing levels of stress resulted in employing passive patterns in stress coping. The nursing students should be ensured to maintain low levels of stress and use active patterns in stress coping.

  3. Predicting levels of Latino depression: acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping.

    PubMed

    Torres, Lucas

    2010-04-01

    Past research has noted that aspects of living in the United States place Latinos at risk for experiencing psychological problems. However, the specific features of the adaptation process that contribute to depression remain unclear. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the ability of acculturation, acculturative stress, and coping to predict membership into low, medium, and high groups of depression among Latinos. Within a group of 148 Latino adults from the community, a multinomial logistic regression revealed that an Anglo orientation, English competency pressures, and active coping differentiated high from low depression and that a Latino orientation and, to some extent, the pressure to acculturate distinguished medium from low depression. These results highlight a pattern of characteristics that function as risk and protective factors in relation to level of symptom severity. The findings are discussed in terms of implications for Latino mental health, including considerations for intervention and prevention.

  4. Coping with traumatic stress in journalism: a critical ethnographic study.

    PubMed

    Buchanan, Marla; Keats, Patrice

    2011-04-01

    Journalists who witness trauma and disaster events are at risk for physical, emotional, and psychological injury. The purpose of this paper is to present the results of a critical ethnographic study among 31 Canadian journalists and photojournalists with regard to coping strategies used to buffer the effects of being exposed to trauma and disaster events and work-related stress. The findings are the result of in-depth individual interviews and six workplace observations with journalists across Canada. The most commonly reported coping strategies were: avoidance strategies at work, use of black humor, controlling one's emotions and memories, exercise and other physical activities, focusing on the technical aspects, and using substances. Recommendations for addressing the effects of work-related stress within this population are provided.

  5. Cadet basic training: an ethnographic study of stress and coping.

    PubMed

    Gold, M A; Friedman, S B

    2000-02-01

    Cadet basic training (CBT) at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point is an initial cadet experience designed to transition freshmen (new cadets) into the military. Challenge is an inherent component of CBT, and some challenging activities may be stressful. However, the nature and the impact of stress on health status have not been systematically investigated. An ethnographic technique, participant observation, was used to identify stressors and coping strategies among cadets aged 18 to 21 years participating in CBT. A company of 183 cadets, consisting of 123 new cadets and 60 supervising upperclass cadets from the U.S. Military Academy, was followed throughout the 6-week CBT in the summer of 1993. The investigator observed daily activities and participated in select field training experiences. Daily field observations were taped, and field notes were generated chronicling the experience. After CBT, 10 of the 60 upperclass cadets participated in a 20-minute structured interview. Field and interview notes were systematically reviewed to identify and categorize stressors and coping techniques. Stressors included anticipatory stress, time management pressures, sleep deprivation, performance evaluations, conflicts between teamwork and competitive grading, and inexperience in the leadership role. Coping techniques identified included perceiving social support, humor, and rationalization. Three new hypotheses were generated from the observations.

  6. Bullying at Work: Cognitive Appraisal of Negative Acts, Coping, Wellbeing, and Performance.

    PubMed

    Hewett, Rebecca; Liefooghe, Andreas; Visockaite, Gintare; Roongrerngsuke, Siriyupa

    2016-12-12

    The negative outcomes of experiencing workplace bullying are well documented, but a strong theoretical explanation for this has been relatively neglected. We draw on cognitive appraisal theory to suggest that individuals' appraisals of and responses to negative acts at work will moderate the impact of said acts on wellbeing and performance outcomes. In a large study (N = 3,217) in Southeast Asia, we examine moderators in the form of (a) the extent to which individuals identify themselves as being bullied and (b) the coping strategies that individuals use to deal with negative acts. We find that these factors do moderate the impact of experiencing negative acts, in particular work-related negative acts. When individuals are subject to work-related negative acts but do not see themselves as being bullied they report higher levels of performance than those who do identify themselves as being bullied. Problem-focused coping was found to be effective for those sometimes targeted, but for persistent targets was detrimental to wellbeing. The present research has important implications for bullying research in examining factors that contribute to outcomes of bullying. (PsycINFO Database Record

  7. Recovery After Stroke: Coping with Emotions

    MedlinePlus

    Recovery After Stroke: Coping with Emotions Dealing with a flood of emotions can be hard for stroke ... not be considered a normal part of stroke recovery. If you suffer from depression, anxiety or emotions ...

  8. Coping Behavior of Elderly Flood Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Faye; Horton, Robert

    1978-01-01

    A study of the effects of the Teton Dam Disaster in 1976 suggests that elderly persons cope quite well with disaster situations and tend to report fewer adverse emotional effects and feelings of relative deprivation than younger victims. (Author)

  9. Stress and Coping with Discrimination and Stigmatization

    PubMed Central

    Berjot, Sophie; Gillet, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on stigmatization and more generally identity threats, to focus more specifically of the way people appraise and cope with those threatening situations. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping of Lazarus and Folkman (1984), we propose a model of coping with identity threats that takes into accounts the principle characteristic of stigma, its devaluing aspect. We present a model with specific antecedents, a refined appraisal phase and a new classification of coping strategies based on the motives that may be elicited by the threatening situation, those of protecting and/or enhancing the personal and/or social identity. PMID:21713247

  10. Coping with a Breast Cancer Diagnosis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Be patient. Coping with breast cancer requires time, acceptance, a fighting spirit and support. Many people also ... is to get rid of the cancer and offer the best possible chance of survival. But even ...

  11. Grief, Bereavement, and Coping with Loss (PDQ)

    MedlinePlus

    ... a loved one include rituals, beliefs, and roles. Cultures have different ways of coping with death. Grief ... personal experiences of grief are similar in different cultures. The ways in which people of all cultures ...

  12. How Do People Cope with Muscular Dystrophy?

    MedlinePlus

    ... section. How do people cope with muscular dystrophy (MD)? Although MD presents many challenges in many different aspects of daily life, those with MD enjoy full lives. Advances in drug therapies, physical ...

  13. Development of a Measure of Behavioral Coping Skills for Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Egan, Mary A.; And Others

    Development and initial validation are described for an instrument to assess the behavioral coping skills of adolescents. The Assessment of Behavioral Coping Skills (ABCS) was designed for use in the South Carolina Coping Skills Project, a school-based coping skills prevention program for adolescents at high risk for substance abuse. The ABCS…

  14. Coping with Parental Problems: Issues in Judging Effectiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Menaghan, Elizabeth

    Empirical knowledge of coping usage and coping effectiveness has lagged behind popular interest. To examine the effectiveness of specific coping efforts in a single role area--parenting--panel data from a large metropolitan population were examined. The same coping efforts were assessed using two criteria of effectiveness: the extent to which they…

  15. Adapting the Brief COPE for Chinese Adolescents with Visual Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuan, Wei; Zhang, Li-fang; Li, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The present research pioneered the effort in assessing adolescents' coping with visual impairment through adapting the Brief COPE in an eastern context. The first study preliminarily explored the applicability of the Brief COPE to Chinese adolescent students with visual impairments. Based on the results, the Brief COPE was modified…

  16. Proactive and Preventive Coping in Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Yiqun; Hu, Yueqin; Zhang, Yiwen

    2010-01-01

    The current study compared the relative importance of proactive coping and preventive coping in the adjustment to university life among 403 freshmen at a Chinese university and evaluated the function of proactive coping in the stress process. Participants completed the Future-Oriented Coping Inventory (Gan, Yang, Zhou, & Zhang, 2007), the…

  17. The Family Coping Inventory Applied to Parents with New Babies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventura, Jacqueline N.; Boss, Pauline G.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated parent coping behaviors in a sample of 100 mothers and 100 fathers of infants using the Family Coping Inventory. Factor analyses yielded three coping patterns: seeking social support and self-development; maintaining family integrity; and being religious, thankful, and content. Coping patterns were affected by respondent gender. (JAC)

  18. Coping Flexibility: Influencing Appraisals of Stress

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-25

    have helped subjects focus their coping efforts and minimize the stress caused by the film (Speisman et al, 1964). Alternatively the soundtracks 12... film . various types of coping could be elicited (Speisman et al, 1964; Lazarus & Alfert , 1964). The film depicted a set of primitive manhood rites...harmless, and the third described the rites in an overly intellectualized way. The greatest stress response was seen to the film with the

  19. Coping with Academic Stressors: A Pilot Study

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1976-12-20

    responses. Subjects were also given practice in using these coping skills in mildly stressful situations. Coping skills subjects as compared to controls were...situations. Subjects were also given instructions In the use of relaxation. Homework for this section of the program involved practicing relaxation twice...all of the arithmetical operations. After this l.iodeled illustration, each subject was asked to complete a practice problem while verbalizing outloud

  20. Religion and Health in African Americans: The Role of Religious Coping

    PubMed Central

    Holt, Cheryl L.; Clark, Eddie M.; Debnam, Katrina J.; Roth, David L.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To test a model of the religion-health connection to determine whether religious coping plays a mediating role in health behaviors in a national sample of African Americans. Methods Participants completed a telephone survey (N = 2370) assessing religious involvement, religious coping, health behaviors, and demographics. Results Religious beliefs were associated with greater vegetable consumption, which may be due to the role of positive and negative religious coping. Negative religious coping played a role in the relationship between religious beliefs and alcohol consumption. There was no evidence of mediation for fruit consumption, alcohol use in the past 30 days, or smoking. Conclusions Findings have implications for theory and health promotion activities for African Americans. PMID:24629548

  1. Gender differences in coping strategies of parents of children with Down syndrome.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Anthony

    2002-09-01

    Little research has been conducted on the reactions of parents, and fathers in particular, following the birth of a child with Down syndrome. Previous studies suggest that gender differences exist in coping strategies and a number of theories have supported this. The current study is informed by Pleck's (1981) Gender Role Strain model which attempts to explain the different socialisation processes males encounter which influence their development in our society. Questionnaires from Carver, Scheier and Weintraub's COPE inventory (1989) were given to parents (n = 150) to measure coping strategies and a number of gender differences were found. Females scored significantly higher than males in seeking instrumental and emotional support; in focusing on and venting emotions; and suppression of competing activities. An additional analysis carried out on parents of young children (n = 74) yielded similar results. The overall findings from the study provides mixed implications for Pleck's theory. Gender differences were found but no value can be ascribed to these different coping strategies.

  2. Coping and Psychological Health of Aging Parents of Adult Children With Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Vivian E.; Floyd, Frank J.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2015-01-01

    Among aging parents (mean age = 65, N = 139) of adults with developmental disabilities, we examined the effectiveness of multiple forms of coping with caregiver burden. As expected, accommodative strategies of adapting to stress (secondary engagement), used frequently in later life, buffered the impact of caregiver burden, whereas disengagement and distraction strategies exacerbated the effects of burden on depression symptoms. Most effects were similar for mothers and fathers, and all coping strategies, including active strategies to reduce stress (primary engagement), had greater effects for the parents with co-resident children. Vulnerability to caregiver burden was greatest when the aging parents with co-resident children used disengagement and distraction coping, but those who used engagement coping were resilient. PMID:24679353

  3. Perceived discrimination, coping, and quality of life for African-American and Caucasian persons with cancer.

    PubMed

    Merluzzi, Thomas V; Philip, Errol J; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney

    2015-07-01

    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed "threshold-constraint" theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and may use more active coping strategies. There were 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer who participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p < 001) and attributed mistreatment more to race or ethnicity (p < .001). In the mistreatment-quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = -.39; CI .13-.83) and African Americans (B = -.20; CI .07-.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = -.48; CI .18-.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship.

  4. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness

    PubMed Central

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of 72 Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit) using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations) as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit). Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:25699003

  5. The stress-coping (mis)match hypothesis for nature × nurture interactions.

    PubMed

    Homberg, Judith R

    2012-01-13

    There is high consensus that stress-related disorders like depression are shaped by nature×nurture interactions. However, the complexity appears larger than envisaged and nature×nurture research is progressing too slowly. An important reason is that mainstream research is focussing on the idea that a combination of genotypic stress-sensitivity and stress exposure inevitably leads to maladaptive stress-coping responses, and thereby stress-related disorders. However, stress-coping responses can also be adaptive and adhere to the expected norm. Here I elaborate the 'environment' mismatch hypothesis proposed by Mathias Schmidt (Psychoneuroendocrinology, 36, 330-338, 2011) to the stress-coping (mis)match (SCM) hypothesis postulating that stress-coping responses-as programmed by nature×age-dependent nurture interactions-are adaptive when they match current stress conditions, but maladaptive when they mismatch current stress conditions. For instance, acquisition of an active stress-coping response during nurture may lead to the programmed release of active coping responses in current life. This is adaptive when current stress is escapable, but maladaptive when current stress is inescapable, leading to agitation. A model par example for nature×nurture interactions is the serotonin transporter promoter polymorphism, which will be discussed in the framework of the SCM hypothesis. The potential role of the prefrontal-amygdala circuit and the therapeutic implications of the SCM hypothesis will also be discussed.

  6. A comparison of coping strategies in patients with fibromyalgia, chronic neuropathic pain, and pain-free controls.

    PubMed

    Baastrup, Sidsel; Schultz, Rikke; Brødsgaard, Inger; Moore, Rod; Jensen, Troels S; Vase Toft, Lene; Bach, Flemming W; Rosenberg, Raben; Gormsen, Lise

    2016-12-01

    Patients suffering from chronic pain may benefit from learning adaptive coping strategies. Consensus on efficient strategies for this group of patients is, however, lacking, and previous studies have shown inconsistent results. The present study has examined coping strategies in two distinctly different groups of chronic pain patients and a group of healthy controls. Thirty neuropathic pain (NP) patients, 28 fibromyalgia (FM) patients, and 26 pain-free healthy controls completed the Coping Strategy Questionnaire (CSQ-48/27) and rated their daily pain. The results showed that FM and NP patients did not cope differently with pain. The only difference between the groups was that FM patients felt more in control of their pain than NP patients. Both patient groups used more maladaptive/passive coping strategies, but surprisingly also more adaptive/active coping strategies than healthy controls. However, FM patients with high levels of passive strategies felt less in control than FM patients with low levels of passive strategies. This was not seen in NP patients. An important implication for clinical practice is therefore that passive coping strategies should be restructured into active ones, especially for FM patients. Otherwise, the same psychological treatment model can be applied to both groups since they use similar coping styles.

  7. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research methodology…

  8. Personality and coping traits: A joint factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eamonn

    2001-11-01

    OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this paper is to explore the structural similarities between Eysenck's model of personality and the dimensions of the dispositional COPE. Costa et al. {Costa P., Somerfield, M., & McCrae, R. (1996). Personality and coping: A reconceptualisation. In (pp. 44-61) Handbook of coping: Theory, research and applications. New York: Wiley} suggest that personality and coping behaviour are part of a continuum based on adaptation. If this is the case, there should be structural similarities between measures of personality and coping behaviour. This is tested using a joint factor analysis of personality and coping measures. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: The EPQ-R and the dispositional COPE were administered to 154 participants, and the data were analysed using joint factor analysis and bivariate associations. RESULTS: The joint factor analysis indicated that these data were best explained by a four-factor model. One factor was primarily unrelated to personality. There was a COPE-neurotic-introvert factor (NI-COPE) containing coping behaviours such as denial, a COPE-extroversion (E-COPE) factor containing behaviours such as seeking social support and a COPE-psychoticism factor (P-COPE) containing behaviours such as alcohol use. This factor pattern, especially for NI- and E-COPE, was interpreted in terms of Gray's model of personality {Gray, J. A. (1987) The psychology of fear and stress. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press}. NI-, E-, and P-COPE were shown to be related, in a theoretically consistent manner, to perceived coping success and perceived coping functions. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that there are indeed conceptual links between models of personality and coping. It is argued that future research should focus on identifying coping 'trait complexes'. Implications for practice are discussed.

  9. Empowerment and Coping Strategies in Menopause Women: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yazdkhasti, Mansoureh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Abdi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Context: Menopause is described as a period of psychological difficulties that changes the lifestyle of women in multiple ways. Menopausal women require more information about their physical and psychosocial needs. Empowerment during the menopause can contribute to improving the perception of this stage and the importance of self-care. It is essential to increase women’s awareness and adaptation to menopause, using empowerment programs. The aim of this study was to review the empowerment and coping strategies in menopause women. Evidence Acquisition: In this review, PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, and Iranian databases were scanned for relevant literature. A comprehensive search was performed, using the combinations of the keywords "empowerment, menopause, coping with" to review relevant literature and higher education journals. Results: Most interventions for menopause women have focused on educational intervention, physical activity/exercise, healthy diet, stress management, healthy behaviors, preventing certain diseases and osteoporosis. Health education intervention strategy is one of the alternative strategies for improving women's attitudes and coping with menopause symptoms, identified as severalof the subcategories of health promotion programs. Conclusions: Empowerment of menopausal women will guarantee their health during the last third of their life. It will also help them benefit from their final years of reproductive life. The results of the present study can pave the way for future research about women’s health promotion and empowerment. PMID:26019897

  10. Coping in caregivers of youth with spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Dasch, Kimberly B; Russell, Heather F; Kelly, Erin H; Gorzkowski, Julie A; Mulcahey, Mary Jane; Betz, Randal R; Vogel, Lawrence C

    2011-12-01

    This study examined coping among caregivers of youth with spinal cord injuries (SCI). Using a cross-sectional survey study design, 164 caregivers completed a demographics questionnaire and the Brief COPE. Their children, youth with SCI ages 7-18, completed the Kidcope. T-tests were conducted to examine differences in caregiver coping by demographic and injury-related factors. Further, logistic regression models were evaluated to examine predictive relationships between caregiver coping and youth coping. Several demographic and injury-related factors were related to caregiver coping, including caregiver gender, race, and education, as well as youth gender, age at injury, and time since injury. In the logistic regressions, two caregiver coping strategies were related to youth coping: caregiver self-blame coping was related to youth self-criticism, and caregiver behavioral disengagement coping (giving up attempts to cope) was related to youth blaming others coping. The findings suggest that caregiver coping may play a role in the coping of their children, and should be considered when addressing coping among youth with SCI.

  11. The possibility of nuclear war: Appraisal, coping and emotional response

    SciTech Connect

    Kanofsky, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study used Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model of appraisal and coping to explore people's emotional response to the possibility of nuclear war. Sixty-seven women and 49 men participated in a questionnaire study. The sample represented a cross-section of Americans by age and ethnic group but had more education and higher occupational status scores than is typical for the greater population. Sampling limitations and the political climate at the time of questionnaire administration suggested that the present findings be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, results suggested the importance of appraisal, defined in this study as the estimated probability of nuclear war and beliefs that citizen efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear war can be effective, and coping as factors in people's nuclear threat related emotional response. Six of the study's 11 hypotheses received at least partial confirmation. One or more measures of nuclear threat-related emotional distress were positively correlated with probability estimates of nuclear war, individual and collective response efficacy beliefs, and seeking social support in regard to the nuclear threat. Negative correlations were found between measures of threat-related distress and both trust in political leaders and distancing. Statistically significant relationships contrary to the other five hypotheses were also obtained. Measures of threat-related distress were positively, rather than negatively, correlated with escape avoidance and positive reappraisal coping efforts. Appraisal, coping, and emotion variables, acting together, predicted the extent of political activism regarding the nuclear arms race. It is useful to consider attitudes toward the nuclear arms race, distinguishing between intensity and frequency of emotional distress, and between measures of trait, state, and concept-specific emotionality in understanding emotional responses.

  12. Coping with occupational stress: the role of optimism and coping flexibility.

    PubMed

    Reed, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at measuring whether coping flexibility is a reliable and valid construct in a UK sample and subsequently investigating the association between coping flexibility, optimism, and psychological health - measured by perceived stress and life satisfaction. A UK university undergraduate student sample (N=95) completed an online questionnaire. The study is among the first to examine the validity and reliability of the English version of a scale measuring coping flexibility in a Western population and is also the first to investigate the association between optimism and coping flexibility. The results revealed that the scale had good reliability overall; however, factor analysis revealed no support for the existing two-factor structure of the scale. Coping flexibility and optimism were found to be strongly correlated, and hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the interaction between them predicted a large proportion of the variance in both perceived stress and life satisfaction. In addition, structural equation modeling revealed that optimism completely mediated the relationship between coping flexibility and both perceived stress and life satisfaction. The findings add to the occupational stress literature to further our understanding of how optimism is important in psychological health. Furthermore, given that optimism is a personality trait, and consequently relatively stable, the study also provides preliminary support for the potential of targeting coping flexibility to improve psychological health in Western populations. These findings must be replicated, and further analyses of the English version of the Coping Flexibility Scale are needed.

  13. Adolescents Coping with Poverty-Related Family Stress: Prospective Predictors of Coping and Psychological Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Berger, Lauren E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined prospective associations among poverty-related family stress, coping, involuntary stress reactivity, and psychological symptoms in a sample of 79 rural, low-income adolescents. Poverty-related family stress predicted adolescents' anxious/depressed and aggressive behavior 8 months later, controlling for prior symptoms. Coping interacted…

  14. Development and Validation of an Exploratory Measure to Assess Student Coping: The Student Coping Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boujut, Emile

    2013-01-01

    Students is a very specific population according to their manner to cope with stress. A coping questionnaire for students was developed and administered to 1100 French students at the beginning of the term (T1). Principal Component Analysis of responses, followed by varimax rotations, yielded three factors accounting for 50.5% of the total…

  15. Coping with occupational stress: the role of optimism and coping flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at measuring whether coping flexibility is a reliable and valid construct in a UK sample and subsequently investigating the association between coping flexibility, optimism, and psychological health – measured by perceived stress and life satisfaction. A UK university undergraduate student sample (N=95) completed an online questionnaire. The study is among the first to examine the validity and reliability of the English version of a scale measuring coping flexibility in a Western population and is also the first to investigate the association between optimism and coping flexibility. The results revealed that the scale had good reliability overall; however, factor analysis revealed no support for the existing two-factor structure of the scale. Coping flexibility and optimism were found to be strongly correlated, and hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the interaction between them predicted a large proportion of the variance in both perceived stress and life satisfaction. In addition, structural equation modeling revealed that optimism completely mediated the relationship between coping flexibility and both perceived stress and life satisfaction. The findings add to the occupational stress literature to further our understanding of how optimism is important in psychological health. Furthermore, given that optimism is a personality trait, and consequently relatively stable, the study also provides preliminary support for the potential of targeting coping flexibility to improve psychological health in Western populations. These findings must be replicated, and further analyses of the English version of the Coping Flexibility Scale are needed. PMID:27186146

  16. Testing of the coping flexibility hypothesis based on the dual-process theory: Relationships between coping flexibility and depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2015-12-15

    According to the dual-process theory of coping flexibility (Kato, 2012), coping flexibility is the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping process) and implement an alternative strategy (i.e., adaptive coping process). The coping flexibility hypothesis (CFH) proposes that the ability to engage in flexible coping is related to better psychological functioning and physical health, including less depression. I the present study, participants were 393 American Whites, 429 Australian Whites, and 496 Chinese, selected from the data pool of the 2013 Coping and Health Survey (see Kato, 2014b). They completed both the Coping Flexibility Scale (Kato, 2012), which is based on the dual-process theory of coping flexibility, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). For all nationalities and genders, evaluation coping and adaptive coping were significantly correlated with lower levels of depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that evaluation coping was associated with lower depressive symptoms for all nationalities and genders, whereas no significant relationships between adaptive coping and depressive symptoms were found for any nationalities. Our results partially supported that the CFH fits with the dual-process theory of coping flexibility.

  17. The relationship between coping style and loneliness in adolescents: can "sad passivity" be adaptive?

    PubMed

    Van Buskirk, A M; Duke, M P

    1991-06-01

    The authors' purpose in this paper was to examine how the use of the "sad passive" coping style may be related to adolescent self-reported loneliness. Subjects were asked to complete the revised UCLA Loneliness Scale (Russell, Peplau, & Cutrona, 1980) to determine self-reported loneliness and the Coping with Loneliness Questionnaire (CLQ; Rubenstein & Shaver, 1980) in order to examine coping styles. We hypothesized that those adolescents whose coping strategies fell into the category of sad passivity described by Rubenstein and Shaver would indicate greater loneliness than those adolescents whose coping strategies fell into other categories. Results indicated that sad passivity was used by both lonely and nonlonely adolescents, but that nonlonely youngsters resorted to this method only temporarily and in preparation for a more active coping style. Lonely teens, on the other hand, appeared to remain in the sad-passive mode to a maladaptive degree. These results were discussed in terms of their importance for theories of adolescent loneliness and for possible intervention strategies.

  18. The Rodent Forced Swim Test Measures Stress-Coping Strategy, Not Depression-like Behavior.

    PubMed

    Commons, Kathryn G; Cholanians, Aram B; Babb, Jessica A; Ehlinger, Daniel G

    2017-03-22

    The forced swim test (FST) measures coping strategy to an acute inescapable stress and thus provides unique insight into the neural limb of the stress response. Stress, particularly chronic stress, is a contributing factor to depression in humans and depression is associated with altered response to stress. In addition, drugs that are effective antidepressants in humans typically promote active coping strategy in the FST. As a consequence, passive coping in the FST has become loosely equated with depression and is often referred to as "depression-like" behavior. This terminology oversimplifies complex biology and misrepresents both the utility and limitations of the FST. The FST provides little construct- or face-validity to support an interpretation as "depression-like" behavior. While stress coping and the FST are arguably relevant to depression, there are likely many factors that can influence stress coping strategy. Importantly, there are other neuropsychiatric disorders characterized by altered responses to stress and difficulty in adapting to change. One of these is autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and several mouse genetic models of ASD exhibit altered stress-coping strategies in the FST. Here we review evidence that argues a more thoughtful consideration of the FST, and more precise terminology, would benefit the study of stress and disorders characterized by altered response to stress, which include but are not limited to depression.

  19. The association of personality traits and coping styles according to stress level

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Hamid; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Mazaheri, Mina; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some personality traits and coping styles could be as risk factors in stressful situations. This study aimed to investigate the association of personality traits and coping styles according to the stress level. Meterials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2011. A total of 4628 individuals over 20 years were selected by random sampling from nonacademic employees that working in 50 different centers across Isfahan province. Data were collected using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Big Five Personality Inventory Short Form and coping strategies scale, and individuals were divided into high and low-stress groups in term of GHQ-12. To analyze the data, a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: Mean age of participants was 36.3 ± 7.91 years and 56.26% (2604) of them were female. Neuroticism with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of personality traits was a risk factor for stress level with odds ratios (OR) OR:1.24; but other personality traits were protective. Also, active coping styles were protective factors for OR of stress level with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of coping styles, and positive reinterpretation and growth was the most effective of coping style with OR:0.84. Conclusion: Some personality traits are associated with passive copings and cause high-stress level. So, it could be concluded that improve and strengthen effective coping strategies in individual with maladaptive traits should be considered as a crucial component of prevention and control programs of stress. PMID:26109990

  20. Engaging in Rather than Disengaging from Stress: Effective Coping and Perceived Control

    PubMed Central

    Dijkstra, Maria T. M.; Homan, Astrid C.

    2016-01-01

    Being able to cope effectively with stress can help people to avoid negative consequences for their psychological well-being. The purpose of this study was to find out why some coping strategies are effective in reducing the negative effect of stressors on well-being and some are not. We argue that the degree to which such coping strategies engage or disengage people from stressful incidents is related to their perceived control of the situation that, in turn, is positively associated with their psychological well-being. We thus propose that the relationship between coping and psychological well-being is mediated by the extent of perceived sense of control. We collected cross-sectional data from a large heterogeneous sample (N = 543) in the Netherlands. We assessed seven different coping strategies, perceived control, and psychological well-being. Our results indeed revealed that strategies reflecting more engaged coping such as active confronting and reassuring thoughts, were associated with more sense of control and therefore to psychological well-being. In contrast, strategies reflecting disengagement coping, such as passive reaction pattern, palliative reaction, and avoidance, were associated with less perceived control, which in turn was negatively associated with psychological well-being. Results regarding the coping strategies expressing emotions and seeking social support were less straightforward, with the former being negatively associated with perceived control and psychological well-being, even though this strategy has stress engaging elements, and the latter only showing a positive indirect effect on psychological well-being via perceived control, but no positive main effect on well-being. These findings are discussed from the perspective of stress being an environment-perception-response process. PMID:27708603

  1. Social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms: A latent profile analysis of adolescents in military families.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Ebony; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the relationship between context-specific social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms among adolescents in active duty military families across seven installations (three of which were in Europe) (N = 1036) using a person-centered approach and a stress process theoretical framework. Results of the exploratory latent profile analysis revealed four distinct coping profiles: Disengaged Copers, Troubled Copers, Humor-intensive Copers, and Active Copers. Multinomial logistic regressions found no relationship between military-related stressors (parental separation, frequent relocations, and parental rank) and profile membership. Analysis of variance results revealed significant and meaningful differences between the coping profiles and depressive symptomology, specifically somatic symptoms, depressive affect, positive affect, and interpersonal problems. Post-hoc analyses revealed that Active Copers, the largest profile, reported the fewest depressive symptoms. Accordingly, frequent use of diverse, active coping behaviors was associated with enhanced resilience. Discussion is provided regarding the promotion of adaptive coping behaviors within this developmental period and the context of military family life.

  2. Negative Religious Coping, Positive Religious Coping, and Quality of Life Among Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Taheri-Kharameh, Zahra; Zamanian, Hadi; Montazeri, Ali; Asgarian, Azadeh; Esbiri, Roya

    2016-01-01

    Background Religious coping is known as a main resource influencing how individuals cope with the complications and stressors of chronic disease. Objectives The aim of this study was to assess the relationship between religious coping and quality of life among hemodialysis patients. Methods This cross-sectional study was conducted in Qom, Iran, from June 2012 to July 2013. Ninety-five end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients undergoing hemodialysis were selected via the convenience sampling method. Data were collected via a questionnaire comprising items on sociodemographic information, quality of life, the anxiety and depression scale, and religious coping. Following this, the data were analyzed using descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. Results The mean age of patients was 50.4 (standard deviation [SD] = 15.7) years, and most were male (61%). The mean score for positive religious coping was 23.38 (SD = 4.17), while that for negative religious coping was 11.46 (SD = 4.34). It was found that 53.6% of patients had higher than the mean score of positive religious coping, while those with negative religious coping made up 37.9%. Negative religious coping was associated with worse quality of life, including physical functioning (odds ratio [OR] = 0.72; P = 0.009), role physical (OR = 0.79; P = 0.04), vitality (OR = 0.62; P = 0.005), social functioning (OR = 0.69; P = 0.007), and mental health (OR = 0.58; P = 0.01) after controlling for sociodemographic, clinical, and anxiety and depression variables. Conclusions The results indicated that patients with negative religious coping abilities were at risk of a suboptimal quality of life. Incorporating religious support in the care of hemodialysis patients may be helpful in improving quality of life in this patient population. Further longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether these associations are causal and the direction of effect. PMID:27896237

  3. Coping with stalking among university students.

    PubMed

    Björklund, Katja; Häkkänen-Nyholm, Helinä; Sheridan, Lorraine; Roberts, Karl

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined behavioral coping actions and coping strategies in relation to specific contextual factors (e.g., victim-stalker relationship, stalking violence, duration of stalking, and prior victimization) among Finnish university students. Participants completed a stalking survey, also including items concerning coping. Victims of violent stalking threatened the stalker with the use of certain legal actions significantly more compared with victims of nonviolent stalking, but no difference in the actual use of formal help was found. Instead victims of stalking tried to avoid the stalker or turned to friends and family for help. Victim-stalker relationship, stalker violence, and number of stalking episodes had a significant main effect on certain coping strategies (e.g., positive reappraisal, escape-avoidance, and problem-solving), while no interaction effect was found. The findings suggest that knowledge of victim-coping behavior and strategies is crucial for health care and law enforcement professionals when devising appropriate support for victims and developing multidisciplinary approaches.

  4. Correlation between stress, stress-coping and current sleep bruxism

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Stress is discussed as a potential factor in the development of sleep bruxism (SB). The aim of this study was to investigate whether specific stress-factors correlate with SB-activity. Methods Sixty-nine subjects, of which 48 were SB-patients, completed three German questionnaires assessing different stress-parameters and stress-coping-strategies: Short questionnaire for recognition of stress-factors (Kurzer Fragebogen zur Erfassung von Belastungen, KFB), Questionnaire for recuperation and strain (Erholungs-Belastungs-Fragebogen, EBF-24 A/3) and the stress-coping questionnaire (Stressverarbeitungsfragebogen-78, SVF-78). The diagnosis of SB was based on the clinical criteria of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine (AASM). The degree of SB-activity was measured by the Bruxcore-Bruxism-Monitoring-Device (BBMD, Bruxcore, Boston, USA), worn for five consecutive nights and analyzed using a computer-based method. Non-parametric Spearman correlation coefficients, rho, were calculated between the psychometric data and the amount of SB-activity measured by a pixel score of the BBMD. Results Significant correlations were found for 'daily problems' (r = 0.461, p < 0.01), 'trouble at work' (r = 0.293), 'fatigue' (r = 0.288), 'physical problems' (r = 0.288) and the coping-strategy 'escape' (r = 0.295) (all p < 0.05). Conclusions Within the limitations of this study it could be shown that subjects with high SB-activity tend to feel more stressed at work and in their daily life, which in turn might influence their physical state. These subjects also seem to deal with stress in a negative way. However, due to the rather low to almost moderate correlation coefficients and the descriptive character of the study, further investigations are necessary to examine a possible causal relationship. PMID:20205705

  5. Quantifying insufficient coping behavior under chronic stress: a cross-cultural study of 1,303 students from Italy, Spain and Argentina.

    PubMed

    Delfino, Juan P; Barragán, Elena; Botella, Cristina; Braun, Silke; Bridler, René; Camussi, Elisabetta; Chafrat, Verónica; Lott, Petra; Mohr, Christine; Moragrega, Inés; Papagno, Costanza; Sanchez, Susana; Seifritz, Erich; Soler, Carla; Stassen, Hans H

    2015-01-01

    The question of how to quantify insufficient coping behavior under chronic stress is of major clinical relevance. In fact, chronic stress increasingly dominates modern work conditions and can affect nearly every system of the human body, as suggested by physical, cognitive, affective and behavioral symptoms. Since freshmen students experience constantly high levels of stress due to tight schedules and frequent examinations, we carried out a 3-center study of 1,303 students from Italy, Spain and Argentina in order to develop socioculturally independent means for quantifying coping behavior. The data analysis relied on 2 self-report questionnaires: the Coping Strategies Inventory (COPE) for the assessment of coping behavior and the Zurich Health Questionnaire which assesses consumption behavior and general health dimensions. A neural network approach was used to determine the structural properties inherent in the COPE instrument. Our analyses revealed 2 highly stable, socioculturally independent scales that reflected basic coping behavior in terms of the personality traits activity-passivity and defeatism-resilience. This replicated previous results based on Swiss and US-American data. The percentage of students exhibiting insufficient coping behavior was very similar across the study sites (11.5-18.0%). Given their stability and validity, the newly developed scales enable the quantification of basic coping behavior in a cost-efficient and reliable way, thus clearing the way for the early detection of subjects with insufficient coping skills under chronic stress who may be at risk of physical or mental health problems.

  6. A mixed methods assessment of coping with pediatric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alderfer, Melissa A.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Marsac, Meghan L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe child coping and parent coping assistance with cancer-related stressors during treatment. Fifteen children (aged 6-12) with cancer and their parents (N = 17) completed semi-structured interviews and self-report measures to assess coping and coping assistance. Results suggest families utilized a broad array of approach and avoidance strategies to manage cancer and its treatment. Quantitative and qualitative assessments provided complementary and unique contributions to understanding coping among children with cancer and their parents. Using a mixed methods approach to assess coping provides a richer understanding of families’ experiences, which can better inform clinical practice. PMID:24428250

  7. Internet Addiction and Psychosocial Maladjustment: Avoidant Coping and Coping Inflexibility as Psychological Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cecilia; Sun, Peizhen; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2015-09-01

    This 6 month prospective study systematically tested some multivariate models that advanced the understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying Internet addiction and psychosocial maladjustment. On the basis of previous theories, avoidant coping and coping inflexibility were proposed as underlying mechanisms. Participants were 271 Chinese undergraduates (75% women, Mage=20.49) who took part in both phases of this study. Structural equation modeling was performed to obtain the best fit models for both the cross-sectional and the prospective data. The cross-sectional model testing revealed statistically significant mediating effects for both avoidant coping (β=0.149 [95% CI 0.071-0.226], p=0.002) and coping flexibility (β=0.048 [95% CI 0.013-0.081], p=0.032). The prospective model testing further showed that avoidant coping mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and Time 2 psychosocial maladjustment (β=0.141 [95% CI 0.065-0.216], p=0.005), as well as that between coping flexibility and Time 2 psychosocial maladjustment (β=-0.096 [95% CI -0.161 to -0.031], p=0.015). This study was the first to establish theory-driven models, which unveiled an inflexible, avoidant coping style as psychological mechanisms that explained the link between Internet addiction and psychosocial maladjustment.

  8. Can the NHS cope in future?

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, A.; Dixon, J.; New, B.; Judge, K.

    1997-01-01

    Four potential pressures are likely to determine whether the NHS will be able to cope in future: the change in population structure, changes in level of morbidity, introduction of new technologies, and increasing expectations of patients and NHS providers. New technology and changes in expectations are likely to have the biggest effect and are also the most difficult to quantify. Nevertheless, these pressures are to some extent amenable to control. If the growth in funding continues as it has in the past there is no convincing evidence that the NHS will not continue to cope. PMID:9006479

  9. Pain-Coping Traits of Nontraditional Women Athletes: Relevance to Optimal Treatment and Rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Meyers, Michael C.; Higgs, Robert; LeUnes, Arnold D.; Bourgeois, Anthony E.; Laurent, C. Matthew

    2015-01-01

    Context The primary goal of traditional treatment and rehabilitation programs is to safely return athletes to full functional capacity. Nontraditional activities such as rock climbing or rodeo are typically less training structured and coach structured; individualism, self-determination, and autonomy are more prevalent than observed in athletes in National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA)-sponsored sports. The limited research available on nontraditional athletes has provided the athletic trainer little insight into the coping skills and adaptations to stressors that these athletes may bring into the clinical setting, especially among the growing number of women participating in these types of activities. A better understanding of the pain-coping traits of nontraditional competitors would enhance insight and triage procedures while heading off potential athlete-related risk factors in the clinical setting. Objective To quantify and compare pain-coping traits among individual-sport women athletes participating in nontraditional versus traditional NCAA-structured competition, with relevance to optimal treatment and rehabilitation. Design Cross-sectional study. Setting Data collected during each participant's respective group meeting before seasonal activity. Participants or Other Participants A total of 298 athletes involved in either nontraditional, non-NCAA individual sports (n = 152; mean age = 20.2 ± 1.3 years; downhill skiing, martial arts, rock climbing, rodeo, skydiving, telemark skiing) or traditional NCAA sports (n = 146; mean age = 20.3 ± 1.4 years; equestrian, golf, swimming/diving, tennis, track). Main Outcome Measure(s) All participants completed the Sports Inventory for Pain, a sport-specific, self-report instrument that measures pain-coping traits relevant to competition, treatment, and rehabilitation. Trait measures were direct coping, cognitive, catastrophizing, avoidance, body awareness, and total coping response. Data were grouped for

  10. Personality disorders, depression, and coping styles in Argentinean bulimic patients.

    PubMed

    Gongora, Vanesa C; van der Staak, Cees P F; Derksen, Jan J L

    2004-06-01

    This study investigates the coping styles of bulimic patients with personality disorders (PDs) and the effects of the level of depression on the relations between PDs and coping. The sample consisted of 75 Argentinean bulimic outpatients engaged in treatment. Patients completed the SCID II (Structural Interview for DSM IV-Personality Disorders), COPE (Coping Inventory), and the SCL-90-R (Symptom Checklist-90-Revised). No differences in the coping styles of bulimic patients with or without a PD were found. However, when three specific PDs were considered-Avoidant, Obsessive-Compulsive, or Borderline PDs-clear differences in the coping styles of the bulimics were found. However, the differences disappeared when depression was controlled. Regarding the severity of the three specific PDs, coping styles were only found to be associated with the Avoidant PD. Depression showed to affect the relations between coping styles and two specific PDs-Avoidant and Borderline PDs-in bulimic patients.

  11. Intolerance of Uncertainty and Coping Mechanisms in Nonclinical Young Subjects

    PubMed Central

    DORUK, Ali; DUGENCİ, Muharrem; ERSÖZ, Filiz; ÖZNUR, Taner

    2015-01-01

    Introduction We aimed to explore the relationship between intolerance of uncertainty (IU) and coping mechanisms in a nonclinical sample with the same age and educational level. Methods The Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced (COPE) scale was used to evaluate the coping mechanisms. The IU scale was used to evaluate IU situations. Results We found that the negative impact of uncertainty on the action in female students was greater than males. While female students used more planning, instrumental support, reinterpretation, religion, emotional support, venting, and mental disengagement coping styles, male students used more humor, denial, and alcohol/drug abuse coping styles. Subjects with psychological problems had higher IU scores and used some more coping mechanisms (restraint, acceptance, behavioral disengagement, and alcohol/drug abuse) than the others. Conclusion Our results suggest that healthy subjects use different coping styles and respond differently to uncertainty in both genders.

  12. Dispositional optimism and coping: a meta-analytic review.

    PubMed

    Nes, Lise Solberg; Segerstrom, Suzanne C

    2006-01-01

    The relation between dispositional optimism and better adjustment to diverse stressors may be attributable to optimism's effects on coping strategies. A meta-analytic review (K = 50, N = 11,629) examined the impact of dispositional optimism on coping. Dispositional optimism was found to be positively associated with approach coping strategies aiming to eliminate, reduce, or manage stressors or emotions (r = .17), and negatively associated with avoidance coping strategies seeking to ignore, avoid, or withdraw from stressors or emotions (r = -.21). Effect sizes were larger for the distinction between approach and avoidance coping strategies than for that between problem and emotion-focused coping. Meta-analytic findings also indicate that optimists may adjust their coping strategies to meet the demands of the stressors at hand, and that the optimism-coping relationship is strongest in English-speaking samples.

  13. Confronting the bomber: coping at the site of previous terror attacks.

    PubMed

    Strous, Rael D; Mishaeli, Nurit; Ranen, Yaniv; Benatov, Joy; Green, Dovid; Zivotofsky, Ari Z

    2007-03-01

    Terror exposure has become commonplace in Israel, with civilians needing to develop appropriate coping mechanisms. This study investigated coping mechanisms of those who are able to return to leisure activity at sites of previous terror attacks. A specially designed questionnaire, exploring knowledge of the terror event, previous terror exposure, coping mechanisms, state of anxiety, and mood, was administered to 93 restaurant attendees at sites of well-known recent terror attacks (2001-2005). Most respondents were aware of the previous terror attack (92.3%) and most reported no fear at revisiting (70.3%), with 20.9% reporting some anxiety and 5.5% reporting moderate or severe anxiety. Sixty percent reported that they have no fear that a terror attack will reoccur at the same place. Some (27.7%) reported change in practices or decrease in one or more activity, especially use of public transport (18%). The most helpful reported resource for facilitating stress coping following a suicide bombing was to "call or be in touch with friends or relatives," and least helpful was "medicines." Over half of respondents (53%) reported that the current security climate affected their mood. Older individuals and females were more affected by terror events. Study observations confirm that resilience develops in the general population in response to ongoing terror attacks. Response to terror is heterogeneous with a range of coping mechanisms expressed.

  14. Cognitive Coping in Anxiety-Disordered Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Garnefski, Nadia; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious adolescents. In addition, the interaction effect with gender as well as differences between specific anxiety diagnoses was examined. A clinical sample of 159 anxiety-disordered adolescents and a general community sample of 370…

  15. Empowering Children to Cope with Teasing

    MedlinePlus

    ... child cope with name-calling, ridicule, and verbal bullying by Judy S. Freedman • Bullies are a Pain in the Brain by Trevor ... vol. 1 by Erin McCoy • How to Handle Bullies, Teasers and other Meanies: A book that takes ...

  16. Suppressor Effects of Coping Strategies on Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Jae ho; Lee, Ji hae; Lee, Chae Yeon; Cho, Minhee; Lee, Sang Min

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate a significant suppressor effect among coping strategies on resilience. Two different samples were used to replicate the suppressor effect. Participants in the first example were 391 adolescents (middle school students) in Korea, and participants in the second example were 282 young adults…

  17. Social Coping of Gifted and LGBTQ Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Virginia H.; Tieso, Carol L.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study used critical ethnography as a theoretical framework to investigate the social coping strategies of gifted and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students in middle and high school. Twelve LGBTQ college students from a selective Southeastern university were interviewed and asked to retrospectively…

  18. Sally's Corner: Coping with Unmarried Motherhood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Presser, Harriet B.

    1980-01-01

    Based on a longitudinal survey of first parity, mostly Black mothers in New York City, examines the coping strategies of unmarried mothers. Analyzes the expansion of role responsibilities and support systems utilized and discusses the relationship between support systems and subsequent fertility. Presents three case studies. (Author/GC)

  19. Coping with Loneliness among the Terminally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami

    2007-01-01

    Loneliness is a universal phenomenon, and its pain is intensified by a diagnosis of a terminal illness. The present study is an investigation of the strategies used by patients with Multiple sclerosis (MS), by individuals diagnosed with cancer, and by the general population to cope with loneliness. Three hundred and twenty nine MS patients, 315…

  20. Process of Coping with Radiation Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated ability of self-regulation and emotional-drive theories to explain effects of informational intervention entailing objective descriptions of experience on outcomes of coping with radiation therapy among 84 men with prostate cancer. Consistent with self-regulation theory, similarity between expectations and experience and degree of…

  1. Coping Skills Program for Individuals with Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Cynthia P.; Hood, Colleen Deyell

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a theory based coping skills program for people with alcoholism. Based on Shiffman and Wills' (1985) Stress Program Process model, it helped clients effectively respond to conditions that contributed to negative affect and create life- enhancing experiences. Evaluation involved social…

  2. Coping With Pain: Studies in Stress Inoculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    The stress-inoculation paradigm for helping clients deal with pain consists of education about the psychological dimensions of pain, training in a number of coping skills relevant to each dimension, and practice in applying these skills to the noxious stimulus. Presented are two studies, the first of which represents a component analysis of stress…

  3. Coping & Caring: Living with Alzheimer's Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leroux, Charles

    This guide on Alzheimer's disease is for those who care for Alzheimer's patients, as well as those who want to learn more about the disease. It answers these questions: (1) what is Alzheimer's? (2) how does the disease progress and how long does it last? (3) how do families cope? and (4) who can provide assistance and information? The guide also…

  4. Coping and Mental Health in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique

    1995-01-01

    Focused on mental health and protective factors in early adolescence. Significant relations between coping strategies and mental health were found, which are different according to gender: girls invest in more social relations, negative feelings, and consumption habits; boys often use sense of humor, or practice a hobby or sport. (JBJ)

  5. Coping with uncertainties of mercury regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, K.

    2006-09-15

    The thermometer is rising as coal-fired plants cope with the uncertainties of mercury regulation. The paper deals with a diagnosis and a suggested cure. It describes the state of mercury emission rules in the different US states, many of which had laws or rules in place before the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was promulgated.

  6. Strengths for Coping with Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jamie C.

    2005-01-01

    Maltreatment in the family occurs through a variety of forms of abuse and neglect. These risks are particularly prevalent in families with parents who abuse substances. The author describes connections between parental addiction and coping behaviors used by the children in these high-risk families. Strength-based strategies enable these youth to…

  7. Coping Attitudes toward Personal Suffering among Retirees.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Daniel P.

    Although some researchers have distinguished the concepts of pain and suffering and despite the recent rise of many centers for pain management in the United States, medical educators and practitioners have given little attention to the topic of suffering. In the studies which have been conducted, patients differed in styles of coping with and…

  8. Construct Validity of the Social Coping Questionnaire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swiatek, Mary Ann; Cross, Tracy L.

    2007-01-01

    The Social coping Questionnaire (SCQ) measures strategies used by gifted adolescents to minimize the negative effect they believe their high ability has on their social interactions. Previous studies have supported the factor structure, internal consistency, and test-retest reliability of the SCQ. The current study provides construct validity…

  9. Drug Withdrawal and Coping with Loneliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami

    2005-01-01

    Loneliness is a prevailing experience which is particularly familiar to adolescents and young adults. It is a subjective experience which is influenced by one's personality, life experiences, and situational variables. The present study examined the influence of drug cessation on coping with loneliness. Drug abusers, during their stay in detox…

  10. Coping with Loneliness: Young Adult Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami; Orzeck, Tricia

    Since there appears to be a connection between substance use (and abuse) and loneliness it is of theoretical and clinical interest to explore the differences of coping with loneliness which drug users employ. The present study examined the manner in which MDMA (Ecstasy) users in comparison with non-MDMA (Non-Ecstasy) users and the general…

  11. Children of Torture Victims: Reactions and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Edith; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of 11 children from 5 exile families with at least 1 parent having been subjected to torture found children were anxious, depressive, and regressive with psychosomatic symptoms, sleep disorders, and family and school problems. Coping strategies including isolation and withdrawal, mental flight, eagerness to acclimatize, and strength of…

  12. Emotional and Cognitive Coping in Relationship Dissolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrape, Elizabeth R.; Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Callahan, Jennifer L.; Nowlin, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolution of a romantic relationship can adversely affect functioning among college students and represents one primary reason for seeking campus counseling. This study examined the associations among common coping strategies and distress following relationship dissolution. Avoidance and repetitive negative thinking (RNT) were significantly…

  13. Healing Art: Young Children Coping With Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Judy Ann

    Helping young children to cope with stress plays a vital role in today's classroom. It is normal for children to experience stress, which comes from pressures such as family, friends, and school. Some of the indicators of stress in young children are behavioral changes (e.g., mood swings, changes in sleep patterns, and incontinence) and physical…

  14. Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort, and Anxiety

    MedlinePlus

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will ... Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort, and Anxiety Share this page: Was ...

  15. Life Coping Skills through Developmental Group Counseling.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Muro, James J.; Engels, Dennis W.

    1980-01-01

    The goals of developmental group counseling are closely aligned to life-coping skills. They include helping members to do the following: (1) know themselves; (2) develop self-acceptance; (3) master developmental tasks; (4) develop self-direction, problem-solving, and decision-making abilities; and (5) develop sensitivity to the needs of others.…

  16. Coping skills of olympic developmental soccer athletes.

    PubMed

    Meyers, M C; Stewart, C C; Laurent, C M; Leunes, A D; Bourgeois, A E

    2008-12-01

    Athletes at Olympic Developmental Program (ODP) camps experience unusually high levels of expectations and inherent mental and physical challenges within such a short span of time. With the increasing emphasis on talent development, there has been consensus by the ODP staff to more clearly define present levels of coping skills, in order to enhance athletic prediction, maximize training efforts, identify the predisposition to injury, and focus on areas pertinent to successful performance. This study examined athletic and pain coping skills of U. S. ODP soccer athletes not previously investigated. Following written informed consent, 70 males completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Data were analyzed by competitive level (U-14, U-15), and skill position (goalkeeper/defense, midfield/foward). MANOVA indicated a significant main effect across competitive level (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 2.27; p = 0.02; n-beta = 0.915) but no significant effect by skill position (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 0.931; p = 0.523; n-beta = 0.457). Post hoc analyses indicated that U-15 athletes scored significantly higher in concentration (p = 0.01) and body awareness (p = 0.03), but lower in avoidance (p = 0.01) than U-14 competitors. In conclusion, older, more experienced athletes revealed more positive athletic and pain coping skills than younger, less experienced athletes, although athletes in skill positions requiring spontaneous decision-making skills and split-second adjustment in a constantly changing sport environment (forwards, midfielders) did not exhibit more positive athletic and pain coping skills than those positions requiring reaction and protection (defenders, goalkeepers).

  17. Prognostic Value of Preoperative Coping Strategies for Pain in Patients with Residual Neuropathic Pain after Laminoplasty for Compressive Cervical Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Single-center retrospective cohort study. Purpose To clarify the prognostic value of preoperative coping strategies for pain due to compressive cervical myelopathy. Overview of Literature Preoperative physical function, imaging and electrophysiological findings are known predictors of surgical outcomes. However, coping strategies for pain have not been considered. Methods Postoperative questionnaires, concerning health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and daily living activities, were sent to 78 patients with compressive cervical myelopathy who had suffered from neuropathic pain before laminoplasty, and been preoperatively assessed with respect to their physical and mental status and coping strategies for pain. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to clarify the extent to which the patient's preoperative coping strategies could explain the variance in postoperative HRQOL and activity levels. Results Forty-two patients with residual neuropathic pain after laminoplasty were analyzed by questionnaires (28 men, 14 women; mean age, 62.7±10.2 years; symptom duration, 48.0±66.0 months). The valid response rate was 53.8%. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that preoperative coping strategies, which involved coping self-statements, diverting attention, and catastrophizing, were independently associated with postoperative HRQOL and activity level, and could explain 7% to 11% of their variance. Combinations of the coping strategies for pain and upper/lower motor functions could explain 26% to 36% of the variance in postoperative HRQOL and activity level. Conclusions Preoperative coping strategies for pain are good predictors of postoperative HRQOL and activities of daily living in patients with postoperative residual neuropathic pain due to compressive cervical myelopathy. PMID:26435783

  18. Restoring integrity-A grounded theory of coping with a fast track surgery programme.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Fridlund, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to generate a theory conceptualizing and explaining behavioural processes involved in coping in order to identify the predominant coping types and coping type-specific features. Background Patients undergoing fast track procedures do not experience a higher risk of complications, readmission, or mortality. However, such programmes presuppose an increasing degree of patient involvement, placing high educational, physical, and mental demands on the patients. There is a lack of knowledge about how patients understand and cope with fast track programmes. Design The study design used classical grounded theory. Methods The study used a multimodal approach with qualitative and quantitative data sets from 14 patients. Results Four predominant types of coping, with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features, existed among patients going through a fast track total hip replacement programme. These patients' main concern was to restore their physical and psychosocial integrity, which had been compromised by reduced function and mobility in daily life. To restore integrity they economized their mental resources, while striving to fulfil the expectations of the fast track programme. This goal was achieved by being mentally proactive and physically active. Three out of the four predominant types of coping matched the expectations expressed in the fast track programme. The non-matching behaviour was seen among the most nervous patients, who claimed the right to diverge from the programme. Conclusion In theory, four predominant types of coping with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features occur among patients going through a fast track total hip arthroplasty programme.

  19. ‘Elastic band strategy’: women's lived experiences of coping with domestic violence in rural Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Eriksson, Malin; Hakimi, Mohammad; Högberg, Ulf; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Background Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways in which women cope with domestic violence. Objective Our study aimed to deepen our understanding of how rural Javanese women cope with domestic violence. Our objective was to explore how the sociocultural context influences coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence in rural Purworejo. Design A phenomenological approach was used to transform lived experiences into textual expressions of the coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence. Results Experiencing chronic violence ruined the women's personal lives because of the associated physical, mental, psychosocial, and financial impairments. These chronic stressors led women to access external and internal resources to form coping strategies. Both external and internal factors prompted conflicting impulses to seek support, that is, to escape versus remain in the relationship. This strong tension led to a coping strategy that implied a long-term process of moving between actively opposing the violence and surrendering or tolerating the situation, resembling an elastic band that stretches in and out. Conclusions Women survivors in Purworejo face a lack of institutional support and tend to have traditional beliefs that hamper their potential to stop the abuse. Although the women in this study were educated and economically independent, they still had difficulty mobilizing internal and external support to end the abuse, partly due to internalized gender norms. PMID:23336615

  20. Restoring integrity—A grounded theory of coping with a fast track surgery programme

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Fridlund, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to generate a theory conceptualizing and explaining behavioural processes involved in coping in order to identify the predominant coping types and coping type-specific features. Background Patients undergoing fast track procedures do not experience a higher risk of complications, readmission, or mortality. However, such programmes presuppose an increasing degree of patient involvement, placing high educational, physical, and mental demands on the patients. There is a lack of knowledge about how patients understand and cope with fast track programmes. Design The study design used classical grounded theory. Methods The study used a multimodal approach with qualitative and quantitative data sets from 14 patients. Results Four predominant types of coping, with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features, existed among patients going through a fast track total hip replacement programme. These patients’ main concern was to restore their physical and psychosocial integrity, which had been compromised by reduced function and mobility in daily life. To restore integrity they economized their mental resources, while striving to fulfil the expectations of the fast track programme. This goal was achieved by being mentally proactive and physically active. Three out of the four predominant types of coping matched the expectations expressed in the fast track programme. The non-matching behaviour was seen among the most nervous patients, who claimed the right to diverge from the programme. Conclusion In theory, four predominant types of coping with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features occur among patients going through a fast track total hip arthroplasty programme. PMID:26751199

  1. Coping strategies as psychological risk factor for antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression among Greek women.

    PubMed

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Lykeridou, Katerina

    2013-10-01

    A range of psychosocial, medical, and demographic variables may influence pregnant women's psychological status. However the association between coping strategies, anxiety, worries, and depression during pregnancy is a relatively neglected area of research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies, antenatal anxiety, pregnancy worries, and depressive symptomatology after controlling for the effects of background variables. The study sample consisted of 163 pregnant women, with gestational age ranging from 11 to 26 weeks, attending antenatal screening at a Greek public hospital. Coping strategies were measured with Brief COPE, pregnancy worries were measured with Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), anxiety was assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-X version), and depression was measured with Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated among all study variables, followed by hierarchical multiple linear regression. In the univariate analysis, low annual income, unemployment, conception after an IVF treatment, and a previous history of miscarriage were associated with anxiety, depression, and worries. Additionally, almost all coping strategies (denial, behavioral disengagement, self-blame, self-distraction, substance use, acceptance, positive reframing, active coping, and seeking emotional support) were significantly associated with antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression. Linear regression analysis showed that only previous history of miscarriage, conception after IVF, as well as denial, behavioral disengagement and acceptance coping strategies were significantly related to anxiety, worries and depressive symptomatology. The risk factors found in this study could help clinicians target anxiety and depression screening to high-risk populations of pregnant women. Provision of adequate training for obstetricians and midwives in the detection and

  2. Burnout and Coping Strategies in Male Staff from National Police in Valparaíso, Chile

    PubMed Central

    BRIONES MELLA, Daniel; KINKEAD BOUTIN, Ana P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the relationship between several dimensions of the burnout syndrome with certain stress-coping strategies, seniority level and marital status in male staff from National Police in Vaparaíso, Chile. Methods The sample collected in 2010 was composed of 338 male officers coming from various special units of a National Police in Valparaíso. Burnout and Coping Strategies were assessed and classified according Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and COPE Inventory, respectively. Data was analyzed using Pearson product-moment correlation, t-test for independent measures and Multiple Linear Regression to generate a predictive model. Results The prevalence of the burnout syndrome disaggregated by grouping criteria, the dimensions concentrated in middle levels for emotional exhaustion with a 52.1%, a 51.8% for depersonalization and finally, personal achievement with a 48.8%. Only 28% of participants showed more exacerbated dimensions of the burnout syndrome. There was a weak and direct yet statistically significant relationship between personal achievement and active coping. Mental disconnection had a weak direct relationship between both coping strategies and emotional exhaustion also existed. Certain correlations between burnout dimensions and coping strategies focused on emotion as predictor variables over the criterion variable corresponding to emotional exhaustion were mental disconnection in first place, secondly, focusing on emotions, and emotional social support. Conclusions Burnout dimensions scored medium values ​​focusing mainly on emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment. Coping strategies are used in parallel and in general are not mutually exclusive. Finally, there were not any relationship between variables seniority level and marital status. PMID:26060656

  3. Future-Oriented Coping and Job Hunting among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Yueqin; Gan, Yiqun

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of Chinese college students (n = 216), the present study showed that future-oriented coping negatively correlated with perceived pressure and positively correlated with successful job hunting. The relationship between proactive coping and preventive coping was also explored. Structural equation modeling suggested that a sequence…

  4. 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies

    MedlinePlus

    ... Week of Healthy Breakfasts Shyness 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies KidsHealth > For Teens > 5 Ways to Cope When a Loved One Dies Print A A ... Here are 5 ideas that might help you cope when someone you love has died: Join in ...

  5. Coping and Late-Deafness: An Examination of Two Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jill M.; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the psychometric properties of two measures of coping in a sample of individuals with acquired hearing loss, specifically late-deafness. Methods: Using a quantitative descriptive design, coping of participants (N = 277) with late-deafness was measured to examine the reliability and validity of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire…

  6. Coping Styles in Youths with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Cindy L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated relationships between two coping styles and two health outcomes in 135 youth with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Found that poor adherence to treatment, older adolescent age, and long duration of IDDM correlated with ventilation and avoidance coping. High ventilation and avoidance coping was predicted by high stress, low…

  7. Validation of the English Version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Christine; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Caron, Angela; Fitzpatrick, Josée

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the English version of the original German Dyadic Coping Inventory. Results indicated that the English version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory is a valid and reliable measure of dyadic coping in a sample of 709 heterosexual university students.

  8. Causal Model of Stress and Coping: Women in Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Bonita C.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Tested model of managerial women's (n=249) stress. Model was developed from Lazarus's theoretical framework of stress/coping and incorporated causal antecedent constructs (demographics, sex role attitudes, agentic traits), mediating constructs (environment, appraisals, engagement coping, disengagement coping), and outcomes (work performance,…

  9. Coping with fibromialgia: usefulness of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Campayo, Javier; Pascual, Aida; Alda, Marta; Gonzalez Ramirez, Monica Teresa

    2007-11-01

    There are few studies on coping with fibromyalgia (FM). The aim of the present study was to assess the usefulness of a Spanish version of the Chronic Pain Coping Inventory-42 (CPCI-42) in patients with FM. A random sample (N=402) of patients with FM was obtained from the Fibromyalgia Association of Aragon, Spain. Patients were assessed with the CPCI-42, the Fibrofatigue Scale (FFS), the EuroQol-5D (EQ-5D), and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale (HADS). The psychometric properties of the CPCI-42 were valid and factor analyses supported the eight-factor structure described in patients with chronic pain. Illness-focused coping strategies (i.e., guarding, resting, and asking for assistance) were strongly correlated with each other, positively correlated with disability and depression, and negatively correlated with quality of life, indicating construct validity. Seeking social support was weakly correlated with any other scale or outcome, confirming it belongs to a different group of coping strategies. The wellness-focused group of coping strategies was the most incoherent group. Task persistence correlated with illness-focused strategies and negative outcomes, indicating that it should be included in the illness-focused group. However, other wellness-focused strategies, including relaxation, exercise, and coping self-statements, were correlated with each other, negatively correlated with depression, and positively correlated with quality of life. Future research directions and clinical implications are discussed.

  10. Twelve-month effects of the COPE Healthy Lifestyles TEEN Program on Overweight and Depressive Symptoms in high school adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jacobson, Diana; Kelly, Stephanie A.; Belyea, Michael J.; Shaibi, Gabriel Q.; Small, Leigh; O’Haver, Judith A.; Marsiglia, Flavio Francisco

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND We evaluated the 12-month effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotions, Exercise, Nutrition) program versus an attention control program (Healthy Teens) on overweight/obesity and depressive symptoms in high school adolescents. METHODS A cluster randomized controlled trial was conducted. Participants were 779 culturally diverse adolescents in the US Southwest. COPE is a cognitive-behavioral skills-building intervention with 20 minutes of physical activity integrated into a health course and taught by teachers once a week for 15 weeks. Outcome measures included body mass index (BMI) and depressive symptoms. RESULTS COPE teens had a significantly lower BMI at 12 months (F1, 698 = 11.22, p = .001) than Healthy Teens (24.95 versus 25.48). There was a significant decrease in the proportion of overweight and obese COPE teens from baseline to 12 months (χ2= 5.40, p = .02) as compared to Healthy Teens. For youth who began the study with extremely elevated depressive symptoms, COPE teens had significantly lower depression at 12 months compared to Healthy Teens (COPE M=42.39; Healthy Teens M=57.90); (F1, 12 = 5.78, p = .03). CONCLUSIONS COPE can improve long-term physical and mental health outcomes in teens. PMID:26522175

  11. Psychological morbidity, sources of stress and coping strategies among undergraduate medical students of Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Sreeramareddy, Chandrashekhar T; Shankar, Pathiyil R; Binu, VS; Mukhopadhyay, Chiranjoy; Ray, Biswabina; Menezes, Ritesh G

    2007-01-01

    Background In recent years there has been a growing appreciation of the issues of quality of life and stresses involved medical training as this may affect their learning and academic performance. However, such studies are lacking in medical schools of Nepal. Therefore, we carried out this study to assess the prevalence of psychological morbidity, sources and severity of stress and coping strategies among medical students in our integrated problem-stimulated undergraduate medical curriculum. Methods A cross-sectional, questionnaire-based survey was carried out among the undergraduate medical students of Manipal College of Medical Sciences, Pokhara, Nepal during the time period August, 2005 to December, 2006. The psychological morbidity was assessed using General Health Questionnaire. A 24-item questionnaire was used to assess sources of stress and their severity. Coping strategies adopted was assessed using brief COPE inventory. Results The overall response rate was 75.8% (407 out of 525 students). The overall prevalence of psychological morbidity was 20.9% and was higher among students of basic sciences, Indian nationality and whose parents were medical doctors. By logistic regression analysis, GHQ-caseness was associated with occurrence of academic and health-related stressors. The most common sources of stress were related to academic and psychosocial concerns. The most important and severe sources of stress were staying in hostel, high parental expectations, vastness of syllabus, tests/exams, lack of time and facilities for entertainment. The students generally used active coping strategies and alcohol/drug was a least used coping strategy. The coping strategies commonly used by students in our institution were positive reframing, planning, acceptance, active coping, self-distraction and emotional support. The coping strategies showed variation by GHQ-caseness, year of study, gender and parents' occupation. Conclusion The higher level of psychological morbidity

  12. LLNL data collection during NOAA/ETL COPE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mantrom, D.D.

    1995-09-06

    COPE is the acronym for the Coastal Ocean Probe Experiment, to be conducted by NOAA/ETL off the northern Oregon coast in September--October 1995. In general terms, ETL desires to collect data on how various types of microwave sensors including radar would respond to internal wave-induced modulations to the ocean surface, and what effects propagation through the atmosphere might have on the data collected. In COPE, ETL will field a broad suite of microwave sensors, and a variety of sea-truth and atmospheric-truth instruments. These will include a land-based, high power, X and Ka-band real aperture radar (RAR) located atop a 3,000 ft high coastal peak, various water column, surface wave, air-sea interface, and atmospheric sensors on the FLIP measurement platform to be moored approximately 15 miles offshore, various active and passive microwave devices onboard a blimp which will fly at 6,000--8,000 ft altitude, two ground-based CODARs that measure large-scale surface currents, various wind profilers, and others. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Imaging and Detection Program will take advantage of this unique site and opportunity to collect imagery with the radar that will be well ground-truthed with subsurface, surface, and above-water environmental data and possibly be compared to radar image data collected simultaneously or nearly simultaneously with another radar. Specifically, the authors are planning to conduct a short data collection with their Airborne Experimental Test Bed (AETB) jet aircraft-based X-band, HH-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as a piggyback to the planned COPE operation.

  13. Primary and Secondary Control among Children Undergoing Medical Procedures: Adjustment as a Function of Coping Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, John R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Obtained reports of coping and goals from 33 children being treated for leukemia. Coping strategies were classified as primary control coping (attempts to alter objective conditions), secondary control coping (attempts to adjust to objective conditions), or relinquished control (no attempt to cope). Secondary control coping was positively…

  14. Cultural adaptation of the Brief COPE for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Mohanraj, Rani; Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Kumar, Shuba; Mani, Thenmozhi; Rao, Deepa; Murray, Katherine R.; Manhart, Lisa E.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and psychological stressors of HIV infection demand adequate coping responses from persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and coping strategies may vary by cultural context. The Brief COPE is a well validated scale that has been used extensively to assess coping with cancer, depression, and HIV infection in other settings, but never in India. In this study we translated and validated the 28 item Brief COPE among 299 PLHA in South India, assessing reliability, validity, and cultural appropriateness. Although the original scale demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (alpha=0.70) and good convergent validity with depression, the test-retest reliability was marginal (test-retest=0.6) and the original factor structure demonstrated poor fit in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) yielded a 16 item scale with 5 factors (active planning, social support, avoidant emotions, substance use, religion). A second CFA demonstrated good model fit and acceptable reliability (alpha=0.61) of the adapted scale. PMID:25096895

  15. Behavioral and physiological indicators of stress coping styles in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tudorache, Christian; ter Braake, Anique; Tromp, Mara; Slabbekoorn, Hans; Schaaf, Marcel J M

    2015-01-01

    Different individuals cope with stressors in different ways. Stress coping styles are defined as a coherent set of individual behavioral and physiological differences in the response to a stressor which remain consistent across time and context. In the present study, we have investigated coping styles in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) at 8 days post-fertilization. Larvae were separated into two groups, according to the emergence sequence from a darkened into a novel well-lit environment, early (EE) and late (LE) emergers. We used brief periods of netting as a stressor. Swimming behavior and kinematics before and after netting stress were analyzed, as were whole-body cortisol levels before and at 10, 30 and 60 min after the stress event. The results show that general swimming activity was different between EE and LE larvae, with lower baseline cumulative distance and more erratic swimming movements in EE than in LE larvae. EE larvae showed a faster recovery to baseline levels after stress than LE larvae. Cortisol baseline levels were not different between EE and LE larvae, but peak levels after stress were higher and the recovery towards basal levels was faster in EE than in LE larvae. This study shows that coping styles are manifest in zebrafish larvae, and that behavior and swimming kinematics are associated with different cortisol responses to stress. A better understanding of the expression of coping styles may be of great value for medical applications, animal welfare issues and conservation.

  16. Returning to work: The cancer survivor’s transformational journey of adjustment and coping

    PubMed Central

    Barnard, Antoni; Clur, Loraine; Joubert, Yvonne

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore cancer survivors’ return to work (RTW) experience with a specific focus on the adjustment and coping process underlying their journey. The study was conducted in the Southern Cape, South Africa, with eight cancer survivors having returned to work following successful treatment of various types of cancer. Unstructured interviews were conducted and data were analysed following the principles of hermeneutic phenomenological reflection and analysis. Four themes emerged, representing the changing adjustment responses and coping during the RTW journey. Participants evolve from being overwhelmed with emotions and applying avoidant coping to seeking understanding and positive affectivity in their attempt to comprehend the reality of their situation. Participants’ external locus of control change to a more active approach and problem-solving orientation, demonstrating a need to take control and responsibility. Ultimately, adjustment and coping become most constructive when cancer survivors resolve to re-assess life and self through meaning-making, resulting in renewed appreciation of life, appropriate life style changes, and regained confidence in their relational role. A process perspective is proposed to facilitate an understanding of, and working with, cancer survivors’ transition through the RTW journey towards optimal coping phases. PMID:27852419

  17. Cultural adaptation of the Brief COPE for persons living with HIV/AIDS in southern India.

    PubMed

    Mohanraj, Rani; Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Kumar, Shuba; Mani, Thenmozhi; Rao, Deepa; Murray, Katherine R; Manhart, Lisa E

    2015-02-01

    Physical and psychological stressors of HIV infection demand adequate coping responses from persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and coping strategies may vary by cultural context. The Brief COPE is a well validated scale that has been used extensively to assess coping with cancer, depression, and HIV infection in other settings, but never in India. In this study we translated and validated the 28 item Brief COPE among 299 PLHA in South India, assessing reliability, validity, and cultural appropriateness. Although the original scale demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (alpha = 0.70) and good convergent validity with depression, the test-retest reliability was marginal (test-retest = 0.6) and the original factor structure demonstrated poor fit in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). An exploratory factor analysis yielded a 16 item scale with five factors (active planning, social support, avoidant emotions, substance use, religion). A second CFA demonstrated good model fit and acceptable reliability (alpha = 0.61) of the adapted scale.

  18. Quality of life and coping strategies of caregivers of children with physical and mental disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Ganjiwale, Deepak; Ganjiwale, Jaishree; Sharma, Bharti; Mishra, Brajesh

    2016-01-01

    Background: Developmental disability is a term that refers to permanent cognitive and or physical impairment. Arrested development of physical or mental capacities can lead to number of problems for the sufferer as well as the carers. Methodology: This study was conducted to assess the quality of life (QOL) and coping mechanisms used by the carers of physically challenged children. In this cross-sectional study, all the 116 children from a school for children with special needs in Anand, Gujarat and their carers were included. World Health Organization-QOL (WHO-QOL) and BREF COPE were administered to measure QOL and coping strategies, respectively. Results: On WHO-QOL, the social relationship domain was observed to be the best while environment domain had the lowest score. The main coping style used by the caregivers was Active emotional coping. Conclusions: Significant differences were found in QOL of the caregivers of physically challenged children based on the type of disability of the child. Rehabilitation programs can be planned to provide psychological support to the caregivers to ease the burden if any through collaborative efforts. PMID:27843839

  19. Belief in Divine Control, Coping, and Race/Ethnicity among Older Women with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Umezawa, Yoshiko; You, Jin; Kagawa-Singer, Marjorie; Leake, Barbara; Maly, Rose C.

    2013-01-01

    Background Belief in divine control is often assumed to be fatalistic. However, the assumption has rarely been investigated in racial/ethnic minorities. Objectives This study aims to examine the association between belief in divine control and coping and how the association was moderated by ethnicity/acculturation in a multi-ethnic sample of breast cancer patients. Methods Latina, African American, and non-Hispanic White older women with newly diagnosed breast cancer (N=257) from a population-based survey completed the scale of Belief in Divine Control and the Brief COPE. Results Belief in divine control was positively related to approach coping (i.e., positive reframing, active coping, and planning) in all ethnic groups. Belief in divine control was positively related to acceptance and negatively related to avoidance coping (i.e., denial and behavioral disengagement) among low-acculturated Latinas. Conclusions Negative presumptions about fatalistic implications of belief in divine control should be critically reappraised, especially when such skepticism is applied to racial/ethnic minority patients. PMID:22529040

  20. Associations Between Academic Stressors, Reaction to Stress, Coping Strategies and Musculoskeletal Disorders Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Daniel, Nyebuk E; Aribo, Ekpe O

    2013-01-01

    Background The adverse health effects of stress are enormous, and vary among people, probably because of differences in how stress is appraised and the strategies individuals use to cope with it. This study assessed the association between academic stress and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among 1365 undergraduates. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a Nigerian university at the beginning of the 2010/2011 academic session with the same group of participants. The Life Stress Assessment Inventory, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, and Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment were administered as tools of data gathering. Results Students' stress level and associated MSDs were higher during the examination period than the pre-examination periods. Stressors were significantly associated with increased risk of MSDs in both sexes were those related to changes (odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, p = 0.002) and pressures (OR = 2.09, p = 0.001). Emotional and physiological reactions to stress were significantly associated with MSDs in both sexes, with higher odds for MSDs in females, whereas cognitive and behavioral reactions showed higher odds (though non-significant) in males. The risk of MSDs was higher in respondents who adopted avoidance and religious coping strategies compared with those who adopted active practical and distracting coping strategies. Conclusions Stress among students could be significantly associated with MSDs depending on individuals' demographics, stressors, reactions to stress, and coping methods. Interventions to reduce stress-induced MSDs among students should consider these factors among others. PMID:23950626

  1. Religious Coping and Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment After Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Henslee, Amber M; Coffey, Scott F; Schumacher, Julie A; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Positive and negative religious coping are related to positive and negative psychological adjustment, respectively. The current study examined the relation between religious coping and PTSD, major depression, quality of life, and substance use among residents residing in Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina. Results indicated that negative religious coping was positively associated with major depression and poorer quality of life and positive religious coping was negatively associated with PTSD, depression, poorer quality of life, and increased alcohol use. These results suggest that mental health providers should be mindful of the role of religious coping after traumatic events such as natural disasters.

  2. Religious Coping and Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment after Hurricane Katrina

    PubMed Central

    Henslee, Amber M.; Coffey, Scott F.; Schumacher, Julie A.; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran; Galea, Sandro

    2016-01-01

    Positive and negative religious coping are related to positive and negative psychological adjustment, respectively. The current study examined the relation between religious coping and PTSD, major depression, quality of life, and substance use among residents residing in Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina. Results indicated that negative religious coping was positively associated with major depression and poorer quality of life and positive religious coping was negatively associated with PTSD, depression, poorer quality of life, and increased alcohol use. These results suggest that mental health providers should be mindful of the role of religious coping after traumatic events such as natural disasters. PMID:25275223

  3. Entering exile: trauma, mental health, and coping among Tibetan refugees arriving in Dharamsala, India.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Emily; Rosenfeld, Barry; Lhewa, Dechen; Rasmussen, Andrew; Keller, Allen

    2008-04-01

    Each year thousands of Tibetans escape Chinese-controlled Tibet. The authors present findings on the experiences, coping strategies, and psychological distress (depression, anxiety, somatization, and posttraumatic stress disorder) of 769 Tibetan refugees arriving in Dharamsala, India (2003-2004). Distress increased significantly with greater trauma exposure. However, despite a high prevalence of potentially traumatizing events, levels of psychological distress were extremely low. Coping activity (primarily religious) and subjective appraisals of trauma severity appeared to mediate the psychological effects of trauma exposure. The potential impact of other variables, including culturally determined attitudes about trauma and timing of assessment, are discussed.

  4. Religious Coping and Behavioral Disengagement: Opposing Influences on Advance Care Planning and Receipt of Intensive Care Near Death

    PubMed Central

    Maciejewski, Paul K.; Phelps, Andrea C.; Kacel, Elizabeth L.; Balboni, Tracy A.; Balboni, Michael; Wright, Alexi A.; Pirl, William; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examines the relationships between methods of coping with advanced cancer, completion of advance care directives, and receipt of intensive, life-prolonging care near death. Methods The analysis is based on a sample of 345 patients interviewed between January 1, 2003, and August 31, 2007, and followed until death as part of the Coping with Cancer Study, an NCI/NIMH-funded, multi-site, prospective, longitudinal, cohort study of patients with advanced cancer. The Brief COPE was used to assess active coping, use of emotional-support, and behavioral disengagement. The Brief RCOPE was used to assess positive and negative religious coping. The main outcome was intensive, life-prolonging care near death, defined as receipt of ventilation or resuscitation in the last week of life. Results Positive religious coping was associated with lower rates of having a living will (AOR=0.39, p=0.003) and predicted higher rates of intensive, life-prolonging care near death (AOR, 5.43; p<0.001), adjusting for other coping methods and potential socio-demographic and health status confounds. Behavioral disengagement was associated with higher rates of DNR order completion (AOR, 2.78; p=0.003) and predicted lower rates of intensive life-prolonging care near death (AOR, 0.20; p=0.036). Not having a living will partially mediated the influence of positive religious coping on receipt of intensive, life-prolonging care near death. Conclusion Positive religious coping and behavioral disengagement are important determinants of completion of advance care directives and receipt of intensive, life-prolonging care near death. PMID:21449037

  5. Depression in Adults With Mild Intellectual Disability: Role of Stress, Attributions, and Coping

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E.

    2010-01-01

    The experience of stressful social interactions, negative causal attributions, and the use of maladaptive coping efforts help maintain depression over time in the general population. We investigated whether a similar experience occurs among adults with mild intellectual disability. We compared the frequency and stress impact of such interactions, identified causal attributions for these interactions, and determined the coping strategies of 47 depressed and 47 nondepressed adults with mild intellectual disability matched on subject characteristics. The depressed group reported a higher frequency and stress impact of stressful social interactions, more negative attribution style, and more avoidant and less active coping strategies did than the nondepressed group. Findings have implications for theory building and development of psychotherapies to treat depression. PMID:19374469

  6. Experienced stressors and coping strategies among Iranian nursing students

    PubMed Central

    Seyedfatemi, Naiemeh; Tafreshi, Maryam; Hagani, Hamid

    2007-01-01

    Background College students are prone to stress due to the transitional nature of college life. High levels of stress are believed to affect students' health and academic functions. If the stress is not dealt with effectively, feelings of loneliness, nervousness, sleeplessness and worrying may result. Effective coping strategies facilitate the return to a balanced state, reducing the negative effects of stress. Methods This descriptive cross-sectional study was performed to determine sources of stress and coping strategies in nursing students studying at the Iran Faculty of Nursing & Midwifery. All undergraduate nursing students enrolled in years 1-4 during academic year 2004-2005 were included in this study, with a total of 366 questionnaires fully completed by the students. The Student Stress Survey and the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Inventory (ACOPE) were used for data collection. Results Most students reported "finding new friends" (76.2%), "working with people they did not know" (63.4%) as interpersonal sources of stress, "new responsibilities" (72.1%), "started college" (65.8%) as intrapersonal sources of stress more than others. The most frequent academic source of stress was "increased class workload" (66.9%) and the most frequent environmental sources of stress were being "placed in unfamiliar situations" (64.2%) and "waiting in long lines" (60.4%). Interpersonal and environmental sources of stress were reported more frequently than intrapersonal and academic sources. Mean interpersonal (P=0.04) and environmental (P=0.04) sources of stress were significantly greater in first year than in fourth year students. Among coping strategies in 12 areas, the family problem solving strategies, "trying to reason with parents and compromise" (73%) and "going along with family rules" (68%) were used "often or always" by most students. To cope with engaging in demanding activity, students often or always used "trying to figure out how to deal

  7. Dialectical thinking and coping flexibility: a multimethod approach.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cecilia

    2009-04-01

    Coping flexibility refers to the formulation of flexible coping strategies that meet distinct demands under changing circumstances. Dialectical thinking was proposed to be related to flexible coping across situations. The hypothesized link between dialectical thinking and coping flexibility was explored by a multimethod approach. In Study 1, the association between dialectical thinking and coping flexibility was examined using a cross-sectional design. In Study 2, the hypothesized link was tested using an experimental paradigm in which dialectical thinking was manipulated by priming procedures. Participants' responses to different hypothetical stressful situations were assessed after priming. Study 3 adopted a prospective design in which dialectical thinking assessed at an initial phase was a predictor of changes in coping flexibility and state anxiety over a 12-month period. Results from the three studies consistently revealed a positive relationship between dialectical thinking and coping flexibility.

  8. A Moderated Mediation Model: Racial Discrimination, Coping Strategies, and Racial Identity among Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies)…

  9. Psychological Coping and Well-Being of Male Latino Undergraduates: "Sobreviviendo la Universidad"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gloria, Alberta M.; Castellanos, Jeanett; Scull, Nicholas C.; Villegas, Francisco J.

    2009-01-01

    This study examined 100 male Latino undergraduates' cultural self-esteem, perceived educational barriers, cultural fit, coping responses (CRs), and subsequent well-being within higher education. The most commonly reported CR for Latino males was to actively find out more about the situation and take a positive planned action. Assessing group mean…

  10. Mentoring, Type, and Coping with Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairhurst, A.; Garcia, M.

    1994-01-01

    Formal mentoring programs can help meet organizational goals. A case study at JPL illustrates the dey elements of a successful mentoring program. In the full-day training session, interpretation of two tools (the Meyers-Brigg Type Indicator and Invest in Your Values) helps participants to understand and appreciate the wide range of human norms. Career training within the program helps individuals cope with change.

  11. Indian Ocean tsunami: relationships among posttraumatic stress, posttraumatic growth, resource loss, and coping at 3 and 15 months.

    PubMed

    Sattler, David N; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Moller, Adam M; Kesavatana-Dohrs, Wiworn; Graham, James M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines variables associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and posttraumatic growth among 2 independent samples of survivors following the Indian Ocean tsunami in Khao Lak, Thailand. Participants were exposed to unprecedented horror and loss of life and property. At 3 months participants (N = 248) were living in temporary shelters, and at 15 months a second sample (N = 255) was living in homes built after the tsunami. Prior traumatic experiences, life threat, loss of personal characteristic resources and condition resources, somatic problems, and social support accounted for close to half of the variance in PTS in each sample. At 3 months, emotion-focused coping and concerns about government favoritism also contributed to PTS. At 15 months, lack of prior disaster experience and loss of energy resources also contributed to PTS. Distress was higher among participants surveyed at 3 months than among those surveyed at 15 months. Posttraumatic growth was positively associated with social support and problem-focused coping in both samples. The findings support conservation of resources stress theory ( Hobfoll, 2012 ) and underscore how systemic issues affect mental health. The implications of the findings are discussed, as is the educational International Tsunami Museum designed by the first author to address systemic stressors.

  12. Adaptedness and coping in dysphagic students.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, B; Theorell, T

    1995-01-01

    Using a definition based on Bowlby and Pörn, an effort is made to interpret adaptedness and coping in 87 dysphagic students (corresponding to a prevalence of dysphagia in 9% of the boys and 12% of the girls) found in a screening study utilizing a questionnaire. Coping patterns and methods of adaptation were explored in a telephone interview with dysphagic students. Those who stated that their dysphagia influenced their daily living were classified as subjectively maladapted (S-maladapted; n = 9). Compared with the S-adapted students, the S-maladapted students reported more defects in ability to eat, more inappropriate beliefs about the causes and management of dysphagia, and greater desires regarding eating than S-adapted students (p < 0.05). The environmental conditions more often impaired the eating ability in S-maladapted students (p < 0.05). Anxiety at mealtime was reported more frequently than in S-adapted students (p < 0.05). Every second S-maladapted student had reduced self-esteem because of dysphagia (p < 0.05). The S-maladapted students had talked about their dysphagia with parents and/or friends and visited a school physician because of dysphagia more often than S-adapted students (p < 0.05). Two of 9 students felt confirmed by the physician and experienced help. There was concordance between the students' own beliefs regarding the causes of dysphagia and corresponding coping strategy.

  13. Job stressors and coping in health professions.

    PubMed

    Heim, E

    1991-01-01

    In spite of their knowledge about stressors, health hazards and coping, health professionals are in general not aware of their own health risks. In an attempt to clarify the issue results of our own studies are compared to the relevant literature. A survey on 1,248 Swiss nurses confirmed the major stressors known: ethical conflicts about appropriate patient care, team conflicts, role ambiguity, workload and organizational deficits. In doctors workload and shortage of time, combined with specific responsibility in decision making, are most prominent. Nevertheless, job satisfaction is still high in both professions. Health hazards in doctors are considerable, although life expectancy has improved and is comparable to the general public, but still lower as compared to other professionals. Depression and substance abuse are related to higher suicide rates. The specific role strain of female doctors is responsible for health risks with an alarming 10 years lower life expectancy than in the general population. Little is known about specific health hazards in nurses, except for burnout. A lack of coping research in the field makes conclusions difficult. Our own studies show limited coping skills in nurses, but good buffering effect in 1,700 Swiss dentists.

  14. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version "COPE Breve".

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Sarah V; Orsini, Mara R C A; Cavalcante, Julianna A; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M; Costa, Paulo S S; Costa, Luciane R

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts.

  15. Coping with the economic consequences of ill health in Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Sparrow, Robert; Van de Poel, Ellen; Hadiwidjaja, Gracia; Yumna, Athia; Warda, Nila; Suryahadi, Asep

    2014-06-01

    We assess the economic risk of ill health for households in Indonesia and the role of informal coping strategies. Using household panel data from the Indonesian socio-economic household survey (Susenas) for 2003 and 2004, and applying fixed effects Poisson models, we find evidence of economic risk from illness through medical expenses. For the poor and the informal sector, ill health events impact negatively on income from wage labour, whereas for the non-poor and formal sector, it is income from self-employed business activities which is negatively affected. However, only for the rural population and the poor does this lead to a decrease in consumption, whereas the non-poor seem to be able to protect current household spending. Borrowing and drawing on family network and buffers, such as savings and assets, seem to be key informal coping strategies for the poor, which may have negative long-term effects. While these results suggest scope for public intervention, the economic risk from income loss for the rural poor is beyond public health care financing reforms. Rather, formal sector employment seems to be a key instrument for financial protection from illness, by also reducing income risk.

  16. How groups cope with collective responsibility for ecological problems: Symbolic coping and collective emotions.

    PubMed

    Caillaud, Sabine; Bonnot, Virginie; Ratiu, Eugenia; Krauth-Gruber, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the way groups cope with collective responsibility for ecological problems. The social representations approach was adopted, and the collective symbolic coping model was used as a frame of analysis, integrating collective emotions to enhance the understanding of coping processes. The original feature of this study is that the analysis is at group level. Seven focus groups were conducted with French students. An original use of focus groups was proposed: Discussions were structured to induce feelings of collective responsibility and enable observation of how groups cope with such feelings at various levels (social knowledge; social identities; group dynamics). Two analyses were conducted: Qualitative analysis of participants' use of various kinds of knowledge, social categories and the group dynamics, and lexicometric analysis to reveal how emotions varied during the different discussion phases. Results showed that groups' emotional states moved from negative to positive: They used specific social categories and resorted to shared stereotypes to cope with collective responsibility and maintain the integrity of their worldview. Only then did debate become possible again; it was anchored in the nature-culture dichotomy such that groups switched from group-based to system-based emotions.

  17. Variations in coping stages for individuals with chronic kidney disease: Results from an exploratory study with patient navigators.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Nicole M; Simpson, Kit N; Kazley, Abby S; Balliet, Wendy E; Chavin, Kenneth D; Baliga, Prabhakar K

    2016-07-01

    Using a cross-sectional design, we examined coping stages (Kübler-Ross) among patients with end-stage renal disease at nephrology practices incorporating professional social workers as patient navigators, providing person-centered education and support (N = 420). We evaluated associations with behavioral counseling constructs (assess-advise-agree-assist-arrange). Coping stages comprised denial = 35.24 percent, acceptance = 24.05 percent, depression = 21.43 percent, bargaining = 12.86 percent, and anger = 6.43 percent. Compared to denial, other coping stages showed increased odds ratios for transplant referral agreement, transplant referral evaluations, understanding treatments, understanding donation procedures, plans to recruit donors, active donor recruitment, and potential living donor(s). Assessment of coping stages, and strategies to influence these, may be key factors in guiding patients to living donor kidney transplantation.

  18. Cardiac autonomic regulation and anger coping in adolescents.

    PubMed

    Vögele, Claus; Sorg, Sonja; Studtmann, Markus; Weber, Hannelore

    2010-12-01

    The current study investigated spontaneous anger coping, cardiac autonomic regulation and phasic heart rate responses to anger provocation. Forty-five adolescents (27 female, mean age 14.7 years) attended the single experimental session, which included monitoring of continuous heart rate and blood pressure responses to anger provocation (receiving an unfair offer) using a modified version of the Ultimatum Game (UG). Vagal activation was operationalized as high frequency component of heart rate variability during rest periods, and spontaneous baroreflex-sensitivity (SBR) during the UG. Adolescents employing cognitive reappraisal showed higher vagal activity under resting conditions and attenuated heart rate deceleration after receiving the unfair offer compared with participants who tended to ruminate about their anger and experienced injustice. Results from SBR suggested vagal withdrawal in anger ruminators during contemplation of the unfair offer. These results provide further support for the specificity and sensitivity of vagal responses to higher cortical functions such as emotion regulation.

  19. Maladaptive coping strategies and glaucoma progression.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ellen E; Lesk, Mark R; Harasymowycz, Paul; Desjardins, Daniel; Flores, Veronica; Kamga, Hortence; Li, Gisèle

    2016-08-01

    The identification of modifiable risk factors for glaucoma progression is needed. Our objective was to determine whether maladaptive coping styles are associated with recent glaucoma progression or worse visual field mean deviation.A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the Glaucoma Service of Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal, Canada. Patients with primary open angle glaucoma or normal tension glaucoma with ≥4 years of follow-up and ≥5 Humphrey visual fields were included. Cases had recent visual field progression as defined according to the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial pattern change probability maps. Controls had stable visual fields. The Brief Cope questionnaire, a 28-item questionnaire about 14 different ways of coping with the stress of a chronic disease, was asked. Questions were also asked about demographic and medical factors, and the medical chart was examined. Outcomes included glaucoma progression (yes, no) and visual field mean deviation. Logistic and linear regressions were used.A total of 180 patients were included (82 progressors and 98 nonprogressors). Although none of the 14 coping scales were associated with glaucoma progression (P > 0.05), higher denial was correlated with worse visual field mean deviation (r = -0.173, P = 0.024). In a linear regression model including age, sex, education, depression, intraocular pressure, and family history of glaucoma, greater levels of denial (β = -1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.32, -0.41), Haitian ethnicity (β = -7.78, 95% CI -12.52, -3.04), and the number of glaucoma medications (β = -1.20, 95% CI -2.00, -0.38) were statistically significantly associated with visual field mean deviation.The maladaptive coping mechanism of denial was a risk factor for worse visual field mean deviation. Further prospective research will be required to verify the pathways by which denial may exert an effect on glaucomatous visual field loss.

  20. Exposure to bullying behaviors at work and subsequent symptoms of anxiety: the moderating role of individual coping style

    PubMed Central

    REKNES, Iselin; EINARSEN, Ståle; PALLESEN, Ståle; BJORVATN, Bjørn; MOEN, Bente Elisabeth; MAGERØY, Nils

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate if bullied nurses have a more negative coping style when facing stressful events than do non-bullied nurses, and to determine if coping style moderates the well-established bullying-anxiety relationship. Cohort data were gathered in 2008/2009 and 2010 with a time lag of approximately one year for all respondents. At T1 2059 Norwegian nurses participated, whereof 1582 also responded at T2. A t-test and a hierarchical regression analysis were conducted to obtain results for the hypothesized relationships. The results show that bullied nurses use an active goal-oriented coping style less often compared to non-bullied nurses. Furthermore, active goal-oriented coping seems beneficial only when exposure to bullying behaviors is very low. This effect diminishes however as the bullying behavior intensifies. Hence, victims of bullying seem to cope more negatively with stressful events than do others. On the other hand, high exposure to bullying behaviors has negative consequences for the subsequent level of anxiety for those affected, regardless of their general coping style. PMID:27151548

  1. Cope's Rule in the Pterosauria, and differing perceptions of Cope's Rule at different taxonomic levels.

    PubMed

    Hone, D W E; Benton, M J

    2007-05-01

    The remarkable extinct flying reptiles, the pterosaurs, show increasing body size over 100 million years of the Late Jurassic and Cretaceous, and this seems to be a rare example of a driven trend to large size (Cope's Rule). The size increases continue throughout the long time span, and small forms disappear as larger pterosaurs evolve. Mean wingspan increases through time. Examining for Cope's Rule at a variety of taxonomic levels reveals varying trends within the Pterosauria as a whole, as pterodactyloid pterosaurs increase in size at all levels of examination, but rhamphorhynchoid pterosaurs show both size increase and size decrease in different analyses. These results suggest that analyses testing for Cope's Rule at a single taxonomic level may give misleading results.

  2. Coping with obsessive relational intrusion and stalking: the role of social support and coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Linda Kim; Spitzberg, Brian H; Lee, Carmen M

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the extent to which social support mediates negative effects of stalking and obsessive relational intrusion (ORI) victimization. A survey of 1,068 respondents indicated that (a) ORI/stalking victimization is positively related to negative symptoms and trauma; (b) five different types of coping responses are positively related to negative symptoms; (c) four domains of social support reveal small but significant negative relationships with negative symptoms; and (d) females are more threatened by unwanted pursuit than male victims, and male pursuers are more threatening than female pursuers. Structural equation modeling indicates that the influence of ORI/stalking on negative symptoms is mediated by the use of coping strategies and the adequacy of social support. Discussion speculates on the functional theoretical value of coping and support processes in managing unwanted pursuit and stalking.

  3. Religious coping among women with obstetric fistula in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Melissa H.; Wilson, Sarah M.; Joseph, Mercykutty; Masenga, Gileard; MacFarlane, Jessica C.; Oneko, Olola; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2014-01-01

    Religion is an important aspect of Tanzanian culture, and is often used to cope with adversity and distress. This study aimed to examine religious coping among women with obstetric fistulae. Fifty-four women receiving fistula repair at a Tanzanian hospital completed a structured survey. RCOPE assessed positive and negative religious coping strategies. Analyses included associations between negative religious coping and key variables (demographics, religiosity, depression, social support and stigma). Forty-five women also completed individual in-depth interviews where religion was discussed. Although participants utilised positive religious coping strategies more frequently than negative strategies (p<.001), 76% reported at least one form of negative religious coping. In univariate analysis, negative religious coping was associated with stigma, depression and low social support. In multivariate analysis, only depression remained significant, explaining 42% of the variance in coping. Qualitative data confirmed reliance upon religion to deal with fistula-related distress, and suggested that negative forms of religious coping may be an expression of depressive symptoms. Results suggest that negative religious coping could reflect cognitive distortions and negative emotionality, characteristic of depression. Religious leaders should be engaged to recognise signs of depression and provide appropriate pastoral/spiritual counseling and general psychosocial support for this population. PMID:24735435

  4. Coping strategies: gender differences and development throughout life span.

    PubMed

    Meléndez, Juan Carlos; Mayordomo, Teresa; Sancho, Patricia; Tomás, José Manuel

    2012-11-01

    Development during life-span implies to cope with stressful events, and this coping may be done with several strategies. It could be useful to know if these coping strategies differ as a consequence of personal characteristics. This work uses the Coping with Stress Questionnaire with this aim using a sample of 400 participants. Specifically, the effects of gender and age group (young people, middle age and elderly), as well as its interaction on coping strategies is studied. With regard to age, on one hand, it is hypothesised a decrement in the use of coping strategies centred in problem solving and social support seeking as age increases. On the other hand, the use of emotional coping is hypothesised to increase with age. With respect to gender, it is hypothesised a larger use of emotional coping and social support seeking within women, and a larger use of problem solving within men. A MANOVA found significant effects for the two main effects (gender and age) as well as several interactions. Separate ANOVAs allowed us to test for potential differences in each of the coping strategies measured in the CAE. These results partially supported the hypotheses. Results are discussed in relation to scientific literature on coping, age and gender.

  5. The Relationship Between Stress and Coping in Table Tennis

    PubMed Central

    Pope-Rhodius, Alison; Kondric, Miran

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between cognitive competitive anxiety intensity and coping strategies in table tennis players. One hundred and two (102) US competitive table tennis players of age range from 10 to 60 filled out a Revised Competitive State Anxiety Inventory-2 (CSAI-2R, Cox et al., 2003) at least 30 minutes before the start of their tournament match and a Modified Cope questionnaire (MCOPE; Crocker and Graham, 1995) 15 minutes after they finished their match. Our study found significant differences between low and high cognitive competitive anxiety groups with regard to the use of coping strategies. The high cognitive competitive anxiety intensity group used significantly more behavioral disengagement (avoidance coping, p ≤ 0.05), denial coping strategies (emotion focused coping, p ≤ 0.01) compared to the low cognitive anxiety intensity group. Our results suggest that there is some connection between anxiety intensity and coping strategies. If the cognitive anxiety intensity (for example, intensity from worrying) is very high, an athlete might be more likely to use avoidance coping (such as behavioral disengagement) and emotion-focused coping (such as denial and venting of emotions) compared to athletes who have low cognitive competitive anxiety. Furthermore, gender differences in cognitive anxiety and direction were found. Confidence management techniques such as positive self-talk, breathing techniques and visualization should be taught to athletes to assist them in coping with their competitive anxiety better and to enhance their performance. PMID:28210340

  6. Comparative Study of Teachers in Regular Schools and Teachers in Specialized Schools in France, Working with Students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Stress, Social Support, Coping Strategies and Burnout.

    PubMed

    Boujut, Emilie; Dean, Annika; Grouselle, Amélie; Cappe, Emilie

    2016-09-01

    The inclusion of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in schools is a source of stress for teachers. Specialized teachers have, in theory, received special training. To compare the experiences of teachers dealing with students with ASD in different classroom environments. A total of 245 teachers filled out four self-report questionnaires measuring perceived stress, social support, coping strategies, and burnout. Specialized teachers perceive their teaching as a challenge, can count on receiving help from colleagues, use more problem-focused coping strategies and social support seeking behavior, and are less emotionally exhausted than teachers in regular classes. This study highlights that teachers in specialized schools and classes have better adjustment, probably due to their training, experience, and tailored classroom conditions.

  7. Coping strategies, care manager support and mental health outcome among Japanese family caregivers.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Miho; Hagihara, Akihito; Nobutomo, Koichi

    2008-07-01

    Coping and social support are regarded as major modifiers of the caregiving stress and negative mental health effects experienced by caregivers. Under Japan's Long-term Care Insurance (LTCI) system, care managers have played a major role in providing psychosocial support for family caregivers while coordinating formal and informal care resources for elderly people. However, since the launch of the LTCI system in 2000, no evaluation has examined the role care managers play in buffering the negative effects of the caregiver burden among family caregivers in Japan. This study examined the direct and buffering effects of stress-coping strategies and care manager support on caregiver burden and depression among Japanese family caregivers (n = 371) caring for community-dwelling persons aged 65 or over who were having difficulties with the activities of daily living. A self-administrated questionnaire survey was conducted between February and March 2005 in a rural suburb in south-western Japan. Hierarchical regression analyses revealed the following. (i) Coping strategies and 'social talk' by care managers had direct effects on caregiver burden and depression. (ii) 'Avoidant' coping and 'social talk' by care managers had buffering effects on the care needs-depression relationship. (iii) 'Information giving' by care managers had no significant direct effect, but it had a negative effect on the care needs-depression relationship. Overall, results concerning 'approaching' coping were in line with those of previous studies, while findings concerning 'avoidant' coping were not consistent with findings in Western countries. The type of care manager support appeared to have a variable influence on caregiver burden and depression.

  8. Two strategies for coping with food shortage in desert golden spiny mice.

    PubMed

    Gutman, Roee; Yosha, Dotan; Choshniak, Itzhak; Kronfeld-Schor, Noga

    2007-01-30

    Desert rodents face periods of food shortage and use different strategies for coping with it, including changes in activity level. Golden spiny mice (Acomys russatus) inhabit rock crevasses and do not dig burrows nor store food. When kept under 50% food restriction most, but not all, golden spiny mice defend their body mass by physiological means. We tested the hypothesis that these rodents use two different behavioral strategies, i.e., increasing activity level and searching for food or decreasing activity level and conserving energy to cope with food shortage. Twelve golden spiny mice were fed ad libitum for 14 days, followed by 40 days of 50% food restriction, and 14 days of refeeding. Body mass, food consumption and general activity were monitored. Seven mice significantly reduced activity level, concentrating their activity around feeding time, lowering energy expenditure and thus keeping their body mass constant ("resistant"), while five ("non-resistant") significantly increased activity level (possibly searching for food) and thus energy expenditure, thereby losing mass rapidly (more than 25% of body mass). The non-resistant golden spiny mice were active throughout many hours of the day, with high variability both between and among individuals. The use of two strategies to cope with food shortage as found in the golden spiny mice may be of evolutionary advantage, since it allows a more flexible reaction to food restriction at the population level.

  9. Coping with stroke: a prospective comparative cross-cultural research.

    PubMed

    Rana, Madiha; Bullinger, Monika; Rana, Majeed

    2015-02-01

    In the present study, the coping strategies of stroke patients were examined. An intercultural comparison between patients from Germany and Pakistan was made to investigate the impact of culture on coping processes and the need to consider these in the therapy of stroke patients. Six self-completed questionnaires were given to 53 stroke patients from Germany and 44 from Pakistan. In addition to coping processes, potential determinants on coping such as religiosity, social support and locus of control were examined. Analysis suggested both samples to be characterized by similar coping processes,but the German and Pakistani patients eventually differ in the extent they use these psychosocial determinants. This study provides modern treatment strategies for coping with stroke.

  10. Coping strategies of rural families of critically ill patients.

    PubMed

    Hunsucker, S; Flannery, J; Frank, D

    2000-04-01

    This study explored the coping strategies of families of critically ill patients in a rural Southern Appalachian setting. A convenience sample of 30 family members of 22 critically ill patients in two rural hospitals completed the Jaloweic Coping Scale. The five most frequently used coping methods were helping, thinking positively, worrying about the problem, trying to find out more about the problem and trying to handle things one step at a time. The five most effective coping strategies were talking the problem over with friends, praying, thinking about the good things in life, trying to handle things one step at a time and trying to see the good side of the situation. Findings contradicted many of the more "negative" descriptions of Appalachian people in the literature. Similarities outweighed differences when comparing the coping styles of rural and urban populations. Findings suggest that coping strategies must be considered for positive outcomes in the delivery of care to such a rural population.

  11. Emotionality and self-regulation, threat appraisal, and coping in children of divorce.

    PubMed

    Lengua, L J; Sandler, I N; West, S G; Wolchik, S A; Curran, P J

    1999-01-01

    A model of the effects of children's temperament (negative and positive emotionality, impulsivity and attention focusing) on post-divorce threat appraisals, coping (active and avoidant), and psychological symptoms (depression and conduct problems) was investigated. The study utilized a sample of 223 mothers and children (ages 9 to 12 years) who had experienced divorce within the last two years. Evidence was found of direct effects of child-report negative emotionality on children's threat perceptions and of child-report positive emotionality and impulsivity on children's coping. Indirect effects of negative emotionality on active and avoidant coping through threat appraisal were found. Direct effects of the temperament variables on symptoms were also found. Cross group analyses indicated that the models were robust to age differences, but gender differences were found in the relation between negative emotionality and depression. The results of this study indicate that temperament and threat appraisals are important predictors of children's post-divorce symptoms, and that temperament is a predictor of children's appraisal and coping process.

  12. Coping Strategies and Mood during Cold Weather Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-12-20

    about better times and places, and there was a trend toward less frequent problem solving and planning in the cold. (c) Positive moods were higher among...most debilitating and hardest to prevent . . " (9). Current psychological stress theories take the general position that how people adjust to or cope...weather operations represent one specific instance of this general position . Coping theories also assert that coping strategies can be modified

  13. Identifying the effects of education on the ability to cope with a disability among individuals with disabilities

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    The literature on disability has suggested that an educated individual with a disability is more likely to better cope with her/his disability than those without education. However, few published studies explore whether the relationship between education and ability to cope with a disability is anything more than an association. Using data on disability and accommodation from a large Danish survey from 2012–13 and exploiting a major Danish schooling reform as a natural experiment, we identified a potential causal effect of education on both economic (holding a job) as well as social (cultural activities, visiting clubs/associations, etc.) dimensions of coping among individuals with a disability, controlling for background factors, functioning, and disability characteristics. We found that endogeneity bias was only present in the case of economic participation and more educated individuals with a disability indeed had higher levels of both economic and social coping. To some extent, having more knowledge of public support systems and higher motivation explained the better coping among the group of individuals with disabilities who were educated. Our results indicated, however, that a large part of the effect of education on the ability to cope with a disability among individuals with disabilities was suggestive of a causal relationship. PMID:28355237

  14. Untangling the neurobiology of coping styles in rodents: Towards neural mechanisms underlying individual differences in disease susceptibility.

    PubMed

    de Boer, Sietse F; Buwalda, Bauke; Koolhaas, Jaap M

    2017-03-01

    Considerable individual differences exist in trait-like patterns of behavioral and physiological responses to salient environmental challenges. This individual variation in stress coping styles has an important functional role in terms of health and fitness. Hence, understanding the neural embedding of coping style variation is fundamental for biobehavioral neurosciences in probing individual disease susceptibility. This review outlines individual differences in trait-aggressiveness as an adaptive component of the natural sociobiology of rats and mice, and highlights that these reflect the general style of coping that varies from proactive (aggressive) to reactive (docile). We propose that this qualitative coping style can be disentangled into multiple quantitative behavioral domains, e.g., flexibility/impulse control, emotional reactivity and harm avoidance/reward processing, that each are encoded into selective neural circuitries. Since functioning of all these brain circuitries rely on fine-tuned serotonin signaling, autoinhibitory control mechanisms of serotonergic neuron (re)activity are crucial in orchestrating general coping style. Untangling the precise neuromolecular mechanisms of different coping styles will provide a roadmap for developing better therapeutic strategies of stress-related diseases.

  15. Causal Attribution and Coping Maxims Differences between Immigrants and Non-Immigrants Suffering from Back Pain in Switzerland

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives This study aimed at investigating the relationship between causal attributions and coping maxims in people suffering from back pain. Further, it aimed at identifying in how far causal attributions and related coping maxims would defer between immigrants and non-immigrants in Switzerland. Methods Data for this study came from a larger survey study that was conducted among immigrant populations in the German- and Italian-speaking part of Switzerland. Included in the analyses were native Swiss participants, as well as Albanian- and Serbian-speaking immigrants, who had indicated to have suffered from back pain within the last 12 months prior to the study. Data was analyzed for overall 495 participants. Items for causal attributions and coping maxims were subject to factor analyses. Cultural differences were assessed with ANOVA and regression analyses. Interaction terms were included to investigate whether the relationship between causal attributions and coping maxims would differ with cultural affiliation. Results For both immigrant groups the physician’s influence on the course of their back pain was more important than for Swiss participants (p <.05). With regard to coping, both immigrant groups were more likely to agree with maxims that were related to the improvement of the back pain, as well as the acceptance of the current situation (p <.05). The only consistent interaction effect that was found indicated that being Albanian-speaking negatively moderated the relationship between physical activity as an attributed cause of back pain and all three identified coping maxims. Conclusion The study shows that differences in causal attribution and coping maxims between immigrants and non-immigrants exist. Further, the results support the assumption of an association between causal attribution and coping maxims. However cultural affiliation did not considerably moderate this relationship. PMID:27583445

  16. Night terrors: strategies for family coping.

    PubMed

    Gates, D; Morwessel, N

    1989-02-01

    This article discusses the occurrence of night terrors (parvor nocturnus) in children. The characteristics of a typical night terror incident are described, as are the common parental reactions to such frightening events. Nurses who work with children and families need to know about the etiology and clinical course of night terrors. They need to be able to differentiate night terrors from other sleep disturbances and determine possible ways to alleviate the occurrences. This article emphasizes assessment, anticipatory guidance, education, and counseling. A practical guide for parents is included to provide families with information on ways to cope with night terrors.

  17. Reaction to and Coping With Domestic Violence by Iranian Women Victims: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Masoud; Shokrollahi, Paymaneh; Kohan, Shahnaz; Momeni, Ghodratollah; Rivaz, Mozhgan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Domestic violence is a continual stressor that motivates its victim to react. The way a woman deals with her husband’s violence determine the consequence of the violent relationship. In the present study, a qualitative approach was employed to investigate women’s reactions to and ways of coping with domestic violence. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2014 with 18 women who experienced domestic violence in an attempt to explain how women deal with domestic violence. After the interviews were transcribed word by word, they were explored in the form of meaningful units and encoded as subcategories and categories through inductive content analysis. The reliability and validity of the interviews were measured by an external supervisor. Results: Two categories of reaction and coping were identified through content analysis: passive and non-normative measures and active measures. Passive and non-normative measures included the subcategories of harmful behaviors, retaliation, tolerance, and silence. Active measures included seeking help and advice, legal measures, leaving the spouse, positive and health promoting measures. Conclusion: In the present study, ways of coping with a husband’s violence among women experiencing domestic violence were divided into two categories: passive and non-normative measures and active measures. These categories confirmed the models of coping with stress in previous studies. Adopting an appropriate approach to dealing with domestic violence is affected by a woman’s capacity and beliefs, the dominant culture, intensity of the violence, available social and legal supports, and effectiveness of evaluation measures. To generalize service provision to victimized women, the type of coping and the reason for adopting the chosen approach need to be taken into account. PMID:26925908

  18. The impact of group singing on mood, coping, and perceived pain in chronic pain patients attending a multidisciplinary pain clinic.

    PubMed

    Kenny, Dianna T; Faunce, Gavin

    2004-01-01

    This study explored the impact of group singing on mood, coping, and perceived pain in chronic pain patients attending a multidisciplinary pain clinic. Singers participated in nine 30-minute sessions of small group singing, while comparisons listened to music while exercising. A short form of The Profile of Mood States (POMS) was administered before and after selected singing sessions to assess whether singing produced short-term elevations in mood. Results indicated that pre to post difference scores were significantly different between singing and control groups for only one of the 15 mood variables (i.e., uneasy). To test the longer term impacts of singing the Profile of Mood States, Zung Depression Inventory, Pain Self-Efficacy Questionnaire, Pain Rating Self-Statement, and Pain Disability Questionnaire were administered immediately before and after the singing sessions. All inventories other than the POMS were re-administered 6 months later. One-way ANCOVAs indicated that participants who attended the singing sessions showed evidence of postintervention improvements in active coping, relative to those who failed to attend, when preintervention differences in active coping were controlled for. While the singing group showed marked improvements from pre to postintervention on all mood, coping, and perceived pain variables, these improvements were also observed among comparison participants. The results of this study suggest that active singing may have some benefits, in terms of enhancing active coping, though the limitations of the study and small effect sizes observed suggest that further research is required to fully explore such effects.

  19. Elevated CRP in adolescents: Roles of stress and coping

    PubMed Central

    Low, Carissa A.; Matthews, Karen A.; Hall, Martica

    2013-01-01

    Objective Psychological stress can upregulate inflammatory processes and increase disease risk. In the context of stress, differences in how individuals cope might have implications for health. The goal of this study was to evaluate associations among stress, coping, and inflammation in a sample of African-American and white adolescents. Methods Adolescents (n = 245) completed self-report measures of stressful life events and coping, provided daily diary reports of interpersonal conflict over seven days, and provided fasting blood samples for assessment of C-reactive protein (CRP). Results In regression analyses adjusted for age, sex, race, body mass index, smoking, and socioeconomic status, there were no significant associations between stress and CRP, but significant interactions between stress and coping emerged. For adolescents reporting more unpleasant stressful life events in the past 12 months, positive engagement coping was inversely associated with CRP (β = −.19, p < .05), whereas coping was not significantly associated with CRP for adolescents reporting fewer stressful life events. Positive engagement coping was significantly and inversely associated with CRP in the context of interpersonal stress, whether measured as stressful life events reflecting interpersonal conflict (e.g., arguments with parents or siblings, conflict between adults in the home, friendship ended) or frequency of arguments with others reported in daily diaries. Disengagement coping was unrelated to CRP. Conclusion Findings suggest that positive engagement coping is associated with lower levels of inflammation, but only when adolescents are challenged by significant stress. PMID:23576771

  20. Coping at School--Academic Success or/and Sustainable Coping in Future?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakk, Monica

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of the research was to monitor opinions of learners, parents and teachers on the aspects of coping at the second level of primary school in both Estonian-medium and Russian-medium schools. The research was carried out from 2006 to 2011. The research used a questionnaire which was administered to 652 learners and their parents in Forms…

  1. Coping with Examinations: Exploring Relationships between Students' Coping Strategies, Implicit Theories of Ability, and Perceived Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doron, Julie; Stephan, Yannick; Boiche, Julie; Le Scanff, Christine

    2009-01-01

    Background: Relatively little is known about the contribution of students' beliefs regarding the nature of academic ability (i.e. their implicit theories) on strategies used to deal with examinations. Aims: This study applied Dweck's socio-cognitive model of achievement motivation to better understand how students cope with examinations. It was…

  2. Personality, Stress, and Coping: Implications for Education. Research on Stress and Coping in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reevy, Gretchen M., Ed.; Frydenberg, Erica, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    Nearly all chapters in this volume are contemporary original research on personality, stress, and coping in educational contexts. The research spans primary, secondary, and tertiary education. Research participants are students and teachers. The volume brings together contributions from the United States, Australia, Canada, Italy, Scotland, and…

  3. Coping with Stress and Types of Burnout: Explanatory Power of Different Coping Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Montero-Marin, Jesus; Prado-Abril, Javier; Piva Demarzo, Marcelo Marcos; Gascon, Santiago; García-Campayo, Javier

    2014-01-01

    Background Burnout occurs when professionals use ineffective coping strategies to try to protect themselves from work-related stress. The dimensions of ‘overload’, ‘lack of development’ and ‘neglect’, belonging to the ‘frenetic’, ‘under-challenged’ and ‘worn-out’ subtypes, respectively, comprise a brief typological definition of burnout. The aim of the present study was to estimate the explanatory power of the different coping strategies on the development of burnout subtypes. Methods This was a cross-sectional survey with a random sample of university employees, stratified by occupation (n = 429). Multivariate linear regression models were constructed between the ‘Burnout Clinical Subtypes Questionnaire’, with its three dimensions –overload, lack of development and neglect– as dependent variables, and the ‘Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences’, with its fifteen dimensions, as independent variables. Adjusted multiple determination coefficients and beta coefficients were calculated to evaluate and compare the explanatory capacity of the different coping strategies. Results The ‘Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences’ subscales together explained 15% of the ‘overload’ (p<0.001), 9% of the ‘lack of development’ (p<0.001), and 21% of the ‘neglect’ (p<0.001). ‘Overload’ was mainly explained by ‘venting of emotions’ (Beta = 0.34; p<0.001); ‘lack of development’ by ‘cognitive avoidance’ (Beta = 0.21; p<0.001); and ‘neglect’ by ‘behavioural disengagement’ (Beta = 0.40; p<0.001). Other interesting associations were observed. Conclusions These findings further our understanding of the way in which the effectiveness of interventions for burnout may be improved, by influencing new treatments and preventive programmes using features of the strategies for handling stress in the workplace. PMID:24551223

  4. Coping and Depressive Symptoms in Adolescents with a Chronic Medical Condition: A Search for Intervention Targets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraaij, Vivian; Garnefski, Nadia

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to find relevant coping factors for the development of psychological intervention programs for adolescents with a chronic medical condition. A wide range of coping techniques were studied, including cognitive coping, behavioral coping and goal adjustment coping. A total of 176 adolescents participated. They were…

  5. The fit between stress appraisal and dyadic coping in understanding perceived coping effectiveness for adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Berg, Cynthia A; Skinner, Michelle; Ko, Kelly; Butler, Jorie M; Palmer, Debra L; Butner, Jonathan; Wiebe, Deborah J

    2009-08-01

    This study examined whether perceived coping effectiveness (PCE) was associated with better diabetes management and was higher when adolescents' dyadic coping was matched to shared stress appraisals. There were 252 adolescents with Type 1 diabetes who completed stress and coping interviews where they appraised mothers' and fathers' involvement in stress ownership (mine, indirectly shared, directly shared with parent), in coping (uninvolved, supportive, collaborative, or controlling), and rated their effectiveness in coping. Adolescents completed assessments of depressive symptoms (Children's Depression Inventory), self-care behaviors (Self-Care Inventory), and efficacy of disease management (Diabetes Self-Efficacy). Glycosylated hemoglobin levels were obtained from medical records. Higher PCE was associated with fewer depressive symptoms, self-care behaviors, and efficacy across age and, more strongly for older adolescents' metabolic control. Appraisals of support or collaboration from parents were more frequent when stressors were appraised as shared. PCE was enhanced when dyadic coping with mothers (but not fathers) was consistent with stress appraisals (e.g., shared stressors together with collaborative coping). Stress and coping is embedded within a relational context and this context is useful in understanding the coping effectiveness of adolescents.

  6. Coping with the Forced Swim Stressor: Towards Understanding an Adaptive Mechanism.

    PubMed

    de Kloet, E R; Molendijk, M L

    2016-01-01

    In the forced swim test (FST) rodents progressively show increased episodes of immobility if immersed in a beaker with water from where escape is not possible. In this test, a compound qualifies as a potential antidepressant if it prevents or delays the transition to this passive (energy conserving) behavioural style. In the past decade however the switch from active to passive "coping" was used increasingly to describe the phenotype of an animal that has been exposed to a stressful history and/or genetic modification. A PubMed analysis revealed that in a rapidly increasing number of papers (currently more than 2,000) stress-related immobility in the FST is labeled as a depression-like phenotype. In this contribution we will examine the different phases of information processing during coping with the forced swim stressor. For this purpose we focus on the action of corticosterone that is mediated by the closely related mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) and glucocorticoid receptors (GR) in the limbic brain. The evidence available suggests a model in which we propose that the limbic MR-mediated response selection operates in complementary fashion with dopaminergic accumbens/prefrontal executive functions to regulate the transition between active and passive coping styles. Upon rescue from the beaker the preferred, mostly passive, coping style is stored in the memory via a GR-dependent action in the hippocampal dentate gyrus. It is concluded that the rodent's behavioural response to a forced swim stressor does not reflect depression. Rather the forced swim experience provides a unique paradigm to investigate the mechanistic underpinning of stress coping and adaptation.

  7. Nature as the Most Important Coping Strategy Among Cancer Patients: A Swedish Survey.

    PubMed

    Ahmadi, Fereshteh; Ahmadi, Nader

    2015-08-01

    The authors have conducted a quantitative survey to examine the extent to which the results obtained in a qualitative study among cancer patients in Sweden (Ahmadi, Culture, religion and spirituality in coping: The example of cancer patients in Sweden, Uppsala, Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis, 2006) are applicable to a wider population of cancer patients in this country. In addition to questions relating to the former qualitative study, this survey also references the RCOPE questionnaire (designed by Kenneth I Pargament) in the design of the new quantitative study. In this study, questionnaires were distributed among persons diagnosed with cancer; 2,355 people responded. The results show that nature has been the most important coping method among cancer patients in Sweden. The highest mean value (2.9) is the factor 'nature has been an important resource to you so that you could deal with your illnesses'. Two out of three respondents (68 %) affirm that this method helped them feel significantly better during or after illness. The second highest average (2.8) is the factor 'listening to 'natural music' (birdsong and the wind)'. Two out of three respondents (66 %) answered that this coping method significantly helped them feel better during illness. The third highest average (2.7) is the factor 'to walk or engage in any activity outdoors gives you a spiritual sense'. This survey concerning the role of nature as the most important coping method for cancer patients confirms the result obtained from the previous qualitative studies.

  8. Best friends and better coping: Facilitating psychological resilience through boys' and girls' closest friendships.

    PubMed

    Graber, Rebecca; Turner, Rhiannon; Madill, Anna

    2016-05-01

    This is a novel investigation of whether, and how, a single close supportive friendship may facilitate psychological resilience in socio-economically vulnerable British adolescents. A total of 409 adolescents (160 boys, 245 girls, four unknown), aged between 11 and 19 years, completed self-report measures of close friendship quality, psychological resilience, social support, and other resources. Findings revealed a significant positive association between perceived friendship quality and resilience. This relationship was facilitated through inter-related mechanisms of developing a constructive coping style (comprised of support-seeking and active coping), effort, a supportive friendship network, and reduced disengaged and externalising coping. While protective processes were encouragingly significantly present across genders, boys were more vulnerable to the deleterious effects of disengaged and externalizing coping than girls. We suggest that individual close friendships are an important potential protective mechanism accessible to most adolescents. We discuss implications of the resulting Adolescent Friendship and Resilience Model for resilience theories and integration into practice.

  9. Perceptions of Intragroup Rejection and Coping Strategies: Malleable Factors Affecting Hispanic Adolescents’ Emotional and Academic Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Warren, Michael T.; Crano, William D.; Unger, Jennifer B.

    2015-01-01

    Understanding psychosocial factors that affect the academic achievement of Hispanic adolescents remains a nationwide priority in the United States. Extending previous studies of the stressful effects of perceived discrimination, this year-long longitudinal study examined the correlates of perceived ethnic in-group rejection, coping strategies and fatalistic beliefs, on depressive symptoms, grades, and college aspirations of 2,214 Hispanic adolescents (54 % female) in Southern California. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping and on self-perception theory, structural equation models revealed that high perceived intragroup rejection (10th grade) and low levels of active coping (11th grade) were associated with depressive symptoms in 11th grade. Also, depressive symptoms partially mediated the link between intragroup rejection and both academic outcomes. Avoidant coping strategies (e.g., watching TV) also predicted depressive symptoms and were positively related to fatalism. In addition, fatalism was negatively related to grades and aspiration to attend college. The findings suggest the need to help adolescents find adequate outlets for communication and to create awareness about the potential effects of intragroup rejection. PMID:24234042

  10. Characterization of stress coping style in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders for aquaculture

    PubMed Central

    Fatsini, E.; Rey, S.; Chereguini, O.; Martin, I.; Rasines, I.; Duncan, N.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize stress coping styles of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders and to select an operational behavioural screening test (OBST) that can be used by the aquaculture industry to classify and select between behavioural phenotypes in order to improve production indicators. A total of 61 juveniles and 59 breeders were subjected to five individual behavioural tests and two grouping tests. At the end of the individual tests, all animals were blood sampled in order to measure cortisol, glucose and lactate. Three tests (restraining, new environment and confinement) characterized the stress coping style behaviour of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders and demonstrated inter-individual consistency. Further, the tests when incorporated into a principal components analysis (PCA) (i) identified two principal axes of personality traits: ‘fearfulness-reactivity’ and ‘activity-exploration’, (ii) were representative of the physiological axis of stress coping style, and (iii) were validated by established group tests. This study proposed for the first time three individual coping style tests that reliably represented proactive and reactive personalities of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders. In addition, the three proposed tests met some basic operational criteria (rapid testing, no special equipment and easy to apply and interpret) that could prove attractive for fish farmers to identify fish with a specific behaviour that gives advantages in the culture system and that could be used to establish selection-based breeding programmes to improve domestication and production. PMID:28018634

  11. [Japanese college students' pessimism, coping strategies and anxiety: validation of the Japanese Defensive Pessimism Inventory (JDPI)].

    PubMed

    Araki, Yukiko

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop the Japanese Defensive Pessimism Inventory (JDPI), which measures defensive pessimism in an academic achievement situation for Japanese undergraduate students and differentiates between those who are realistically pessimistic and those who are defensively pessimistic. In Study 1,695 undergraduates completed the JDPI. A factor analysis revealed that the 24 items of the JDPI comprised four factors: Pessimism, Past experience, Positive reflectivity, and Effort. In Study 2, 618 undergraduates completed the JDPI, the Test Coping Strategy Scale, and the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. The JDPI had high internal consistency and test-retest reliability. Defensive pessimists and strategic optimists had higher scores on the active coping strategy and lower scores on the avoidant-thinking coping strategy than did realistic pessimists. Furthermore, defensive pessimists and realistic pessimists had higher scores on the state anxiety and lower scores on the optimistic-thinking coping strategy than did strategic optimists. The results indicate that the JDPI had high concurrent validity.

  12. Political violence, health, and coping among Palestinian women in the West Bank.

    PubMed

    Sousa, Cindy A

    2013-10-01

    Political violence poses a considerable threat to the health of individuals. Protective factors, however, may help people to build resilience in the face of political violence. This study examined the influence of lifetime and past 30-day experiences of political violence on the mental and physical health of adult Palestinian women from the West Bank (N = 122). Two hypotheses were examined: (a) Reports of political violence exposure would be related to reports of poorer physical and mental health and (b) several coping variables (proactive coping; self-reliance; reliance on political, family, and religious support; and political or civic engagement) would function as moderators of the effects of political violence, buffering or weakening its effects on physical and mental health outcomes. Both lifetime and past 30-day measures of political violence were positively correlated with posttraumatic stress disorder symptoms. Proactive coping, reliance on self, and political or civic engagement significantly interacted with political violence to affect health in a counterintuitive direction; those with higher scores on these more internalized and individualistic coping strategies demonstrated worse health as political violence increased. Reliance on religious support, and, in particular, support from and participation in activities of religious institutions, emerged as a significant protective factor. Results underscore the importance of looking not only at whether political violence affects health, but also at how the relationships between political violence and health might occur, including the potential protective influence of resources within people's social environments.

  13. COPE Method Implementation Program to Reduce Communication Apprehension Level in Full Day Yunior High School Students

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prasetyo, A. R.

    2017-02-01

    This study was aimed to explore the effect of COPE method to reduce communication apprehension level of students in Early Adolescence who become Full Day Junior High School students. Full Day Junior High School students, especially in Surabaya coastal area, have more demands to develop the communication aspects such as group discussions and presentations and extracurricular activities. Higher demands to develop such aspects of communication may cause them to experience communication apprehension. The subject was Full Day School students totaling 31 students. The design of the research was experimental design. The experimental method used was a non-randomized pretest posttest control group design and purposive sampling was also used. COPE method is a process that consists of four main stages where people are trying to deal with and control of stressful situations as a result of the problem being faced by conducting cognitive and behavioral changes. Four main stages COPE method is Calming the nervous system, Originating an imaginative plan, Persisting in the face of obstacles and failure, and Evaluating and adjusting the plan. Results of quantitative analysis based on U-Mann Whitney Test shows significant effect on the COPE Method to decrease anxiety levels of communication (0.000 <0.005).

  14. Patient Disease Perceptions and Coping Strategies for Arthritis in a Developing Nation: A Qualitative Study

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background There is little prior research on the burden of arthritis in the developing world. We sought to document how patients with advanced arthritis living in the Dominican Republic are affected by and cope with their disease. Methods We conducted semi-structured, one-to-one interviews with economically disadvantaged Dominican patients with advanced knee and/or hip arthritis in the Dominican Republic. The interviews, conducted in Spanish, followed a moderator's guide that included topics such as the patients' understanding of disease etiology, their support networks, and their coping mechanisms. The interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim in Spanish, and systematically analyzed using content analysis. We assessed agreement in coding between two investigators. Results 18 patients were interviewed (mean age 60 years, median age 62 years, 72% women, 100% response rate). Patients invoked religious and environmental theories of disease etiology, stating that their illness had been caused by God's will or through contact with water. While all patients experienced pain and functional limitation, the social effects of arthritis were gender-specific: women noted interference with homemaking and churchgoing activities, while men experienced disruption with occupational roles. The coping strategies used by patients appeared to reflect their beliefs about disease causation and included prayer and avoidance of water. Conclusions Patients' explanatory models of arthritis influenced the psychosocial effects of the disease and coping mechanisms used. Given the increasing reach of global health programs, understanding these culturally influenced perceptions of disease will be crucial in successfully treating chronic diseases in the developing world. PMID:21985605

  15. Characterization of stress coping style in Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders for aquaculture.

    PubMed

    Ibarra-Zatarain, Z; Fatsini, E; Rey, S; Chereguini, O; Martin, I; Rasines, I; Alcaraz, C; Duncan, N

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this work was to characterize stress coping styles of Senegalese sole (Solea senegalensis) juveniles and breeders and to select an operational behavioural screening test (OBST) that can be used by the aquaculture industry to classify and select between behavioural phenotypes in order to improve production indicators. A total of 61 juveniles and 59 breeders were subjected to five individual behavioural tests and two grouping tests. At the end of the individual tests, all animals were blood sampled in order to measure cortisol, glucose and lactate. Three tests (restraining, new environment and confinement) characterized the stress coping style behaviour of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders and demonstrated inter-individual consistency. Further, the tests when incorporated into a principal components analysis (PCA) (i) identified two principal axes of personality traits: 'fearfulness-reactivity' and 'activity-exploration', (ii) were representative of the physiological axis of stress coping style, and (iii) were validated by established group tests. This study proposed for the first time three individual coping style tests that reliably represented proactive and reactive personalities of Senegalese sole juveniles and breeders. In addition, the three proposed tests met some basic operational criteria (rapid testing, no special equipment and easy to apply and interpret) that could prove attractive for fish farmers to identify fish with a specific behaviour that gives advantages in the culture system and that could be used to establish selection-based breeding programmes to improve domestication and production.

  16. Interactions between Adaptive Coping and Drinking to Cope in Predicting Naturalistic Drinking and Drinking Following a Lab-Based Psychosocial Stressor

    PubMed Central

    Merrill, Jennifer E.; Thomas, Suzanne E.

    2012-01-01

    Using alcohol to cope (i.e., coping motivation) and general coping style both are theorized and demonstrated empirically to lead to problematic drinking. In the present study, we sought to examine whether these factors interact to predict alcohol use, both retrospectively reported and in the lab following a stressor task. Social drinkers (N=50, 50% women) received the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and then consumed beer under the guise of a taste-test. A Timeline Followback interview to assess past month alcohol use, the Drinking Motives Questionnaire (DMQ), and the COPE (to assess adaptive coping) were administered prior to the laboratory challenge. Multiple regression models were used to examine DMQ coping motives, adaptive coping, and their interaction as predictors of milliliters (mls) of beer consumed in a clinical laboratory setting. The association between coping motives and mls beer was positive at both high and low levels of adaptive coping, but at low levels of adaptive coping, this association was stronger. In contrast, there was no interaction between adaptive coping and coping motives in predicting quantity and frequency of drinking in the prior month. Findings suggest that stronger coping motives for drinking predict greater alcohol consumption following a stress provocation to a greater extent when an individual is lacking in adaptive coping strategies. As both general coping skills and coping motives for alcohol use are responsive to intervention, study of the conditions under which they exert unique and interactive effects is important. PMID:23254217

  17. Coping with Peer Victimization: The Role of Children's Attributions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Visconti, Kari Jeanne; Sechler, Casey M.; Kochenderfer-Ladd, Becky

    2013-01-01

    A social-cognitive framework was used to generate and test hypotheses regarding the role of children's causal attributions for peer victimization in predicting how they cope with such experiences. It was hypothesized that attributions would be differentially associated with coping as a function of the direction (i.e., upward, horizontal, or…

  18. Teacher Stress and Coping Strategies: A National Snapshot

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, Jan

    2012-01-01

    This national survey of 1,201 kindergarten through Grade-12-U.S. teachers focused on three related areas: (1) sources of teacher stress, (2) manifestations of stress, and (3) suggested coping strategies. The survey instrument was adapted from the Teacher Stress Inventory and the Coping Scale for Adults. Results indicated that teachers nationwide…

  19. Tobacco Smoking in Adolescence Predicts Maladaptive Coping Styles in Adulthood

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Introduction: To examine the extent to which cigarette smoking in adolescence is associated with maladaptive versus adaptive coping behaviors in adulthood. Method: The data came from a longitudinal study of New Zealand adolescents followed into adulthood at age 32 years. Using structural equation modeling (SEM), we examined the predictive association between daily smoking of cigarettes and symptoms of tobacco dependence from 18 to 26 years of age and later coping at age 32 years. We included pathways from childhood family disadvantage in addition to both adolescent stress–worry and adult coping in the model. Results: SEM revealed that cigarette smoking had a small but direct inverse effect on later adaptive coping (−.14) and a direct effect on maladaptive coping (.23) independent of the relationships between adolescent coping and stress–worry and later adult coping. Conclusions: The findings are consistent with the hypothesis that tobacco smoking may inhibit the development of self-efficacy or one’s ability to act with appropriate coping behaviors in any given situation. PMID:23817581

  20. Stressors and Coping Strategies in Community College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Marjorie

    The document summarizes a study on stress and coping in a group of college students. In this study, 30 community college students, who were enrolled in an experientially taught stress reduction course, completed measures of stress, support, and coping strategies. The purpose of this study was to explore the possible positive effects of…

  1. Unipolar Depression, Life Context Vulnerabilities, and Drinking to Cope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holahan, Charles J.; Moos, Rudolf H.; Holahan, Carole K.; Cronkite, Ruth C.; Randall, Patrick K.

    2004-01-01

    This study followed baseline samples of 424 unipolar depressed patients and 424 community controls across 10 years to investigate the association between depression and alcohol-related coping and to examine how life context vulnerabilities underlie the risk for depressed individuals to rely on drinking to cope. Findings supported all hypotheses.…

  2. Coping, Regulation, and Development during Childhood and Adolescence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compas, Bruce E.

    2009-01-01

    This chapter identifies four challenges to the study of the development of coping and regulation and outlines specific theoretical and empirical strategies for addressing them. The challenges are (1) to integrate work on coping and processes of emotion regulation, (2) to use the integration of research on neuro-biology and context to inform the…

  3. A Qualitative Analysis of the Coping Strategies of Substitute Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vorell, Matthew S.

    2011-01-01

    This study distinguishes whether substitute teachers enact coping strategies that mitigate the source of work-related stress (problem-centered) or coping strategies that enable them to adapt to stress created by work-related stressors (avoidance-centered). The author gathered data for this analysis by conducting 37 in-depth interviews with…

  4. Health Education Strategies for Coping with Academic Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moradi Sheykhjan, Tohid

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to find out the significance of health education strategies for coping with academic stress. Comprehensive health education strategies for coping with academic stress can help students obtain the greatest benefits from education and become healthy and productive adults .One child out of four has an emotional, social,…

  5. Academic Resourcefulness, Coping Strategies and Doubting in University Undergraduates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuereb, Sharon

    2015-01-01

    This study hypothesised that academic resourcefulness and coping strategies would predict doubting amongst university undergraduates. Doubting refers to the serious consideration of prematurely withdrawing from university. It was predicted that mature students would report higher levels of academic resourcefulness and adaptive coping strategies,…

  6. Beyond Host Language Proficiency: Coping Resources Predicting International Students' Satisfaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mak, Anita S.; Bodycott, Peter; Ramburuth, Prem

    2015-01-01

    As international students navigate in a foreign educational environment, having higher levels of coping or stress-resistance resources--both internal and external--could be related to increased satisfaction with personal and university life. The internal coping resources examined in this study were host language proficiency, self-esteem,…

  7. Establishing a Career: Developmental Tasks and Coping Responses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dix, Janet E.; Savickas, Mark L.

    1995-01-01

    The critical incidents technique was used with 50 workers successfully coping with career establishment. The workers identified behaviors used to cope with six tasks: organizational adaptation, position performance, work habits/attitudes, coworker relations, advancement, and career choice/plans. Responses were organized into patterns of coping…

  8. Solution-focused therapy for families coping with suicide.

    PubMed

    de Castro, Sahily; Guterman, Jeffrey T

    2008-01-01

    Solution-focused therapy is proposed as a model for families coping with suicide. The nature and incidence of suicide is described along with a consideration of the effects that suicide has on families and prevailing treatment approaches. Three case examples illustrate the application. Implications are discussed pertaining to the theory, practice, and research of solution-focused therapy for families coping with suicide.

  9. Age and Gender Effects on Coping in Children and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Petermann, Franz

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate age and gender effects of children's and adolescents' coping with common stressors in 3 age groups (late childhood, early, and middle adolescence). Furthermore, age and developmental differences in situation-specific coping with 2 stress domains were examined. N = 1,123 participants (ages 8 to 13 years)…

  10. Behavioral Coping Styles of Mentally Retarded and Learning Disabled Pupils.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Price, Barrie Jo; Marsh, George E., II

    The Coping Analysis Schedule for Educational Settings (CASES), an observation instrument to identify students' primary coping or interaction styles, was evaluated with 44 educable mentally retarded (EMR), learning disabled (LD), or normal children (7 to 11 years old). CASES is intended to be a quantitative tool for collecting the data required…

  11. Coping Strategies among Adolescents: A Cross-Cultural Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olah, Attila

    1995-01-01

    Studied influence of culture on coping behavior of youngsters in anxiety-provoking situations. Applied a situation-reaction inventory to late adolescents (n=721) from India, Italy, Hungary, Sweden, and Yemen. Consistent results showed adolescents at low-medium anxiety levels employed constructive and assimilative coping and at high anxiety levels…

  12. Cognitive Appraisal, Stress, and Coping in Teenage Employment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manzi, Peter A.

    1986-01-01

    Examined the stressful work experiences of 20 teenagers. Results indicated teenagers make differential assessments of stressful work situations; sex differences in assessment of coping options exist; specific emotions have stronger association with different types of primary appraisal; teenagers use problem and emotion-focused coping; and…

  13. Coping Styles as Mediators of Teachers' Classroom Management Techniques

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Ramon; Roache, Joel; Romi, Shlomo

    2011-01-01

    This study reports the relationships between coping styles of Australian teachers and the classroom based classroom management techniques they use to cope with student misbehaviour. There is great interest internationally in improving educational systems by upgrading the quality of teachers' classroom management. However, the relationship between…

  14. COPE AND DRAG PATTERNS, EACH IS USED AT SEPARATE TIMES ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    COPE AND DRAG PATTERNS, EACH IS USED AT SEPARATE TIMES TO CREATE INDIVIDUAL MOLD. HALVES FOR AN EXHAUST MANIFOLD CASTING SIT IN FRONT OF MATCHPLATE PATTERNS WITH BOTH COPE AND DRAG SIDES AFFIXED TO A SINGLE PLATE, USED TO CREATE BOTH MOLD HALVES AT THE SAME TIME, IN THE BACKGROUND. - Southern Ductile Casting Company, Mold Making, 2217 Carolina Avenue, Bessemer, Jefferson County, AL

  15. Sex differences in coping strategies in military survival school.

    PubMed

    Schmied, Emily A; Padilla, Genieleah A; Thomsen, Cynthia J; Lauby, Melissa D Hiller; Harris, Erica; Taylor, Marcus K

    2015-01-01

    A wealth of research has examined psychological responses to trauma among male military service members, but few studies have examined sex differences in response to trauma, such as coping strategies. This study assessed coping strategies used by male and female U.S. service members completing an intensely stressful mock-captivity exercise, compared strategies by sex, and assessed the relationship between coping and posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTSS). Two hundred service members (78% male) completed self-report surveys before and after mock captivity. Surveys assessed demographics, service characteristics, PTSS, and coping strategies used during mock captivity. Participants used seven coping strategies: denial, self-blame, religion, self-distraction, behavioral disengagement, positive reframing, and planning. Women used denial (p≤.05), self-blame (p≤.05), and positive reinterpretation (p≤.05) strategies more frequently than men, and they had higher PTSS levels following the exercise. Structural equation modeling showed that the relationship between sex and PTSS was fully mediated by coping strategies. The results of this study suggest that reducing the use of maladaptive coping strategies may mitigate PTSS among females. Future efforts should target improving coping during highly stressful and traumatic experiences.

  16. Assessment of Anger Coping Skills in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willner, P.; Brace, N.; Phillips, J.

    2005-01-01

    Recent controlled studies have supported the effectiveness of anger management training for people with intellectual disabilities (IDs). This report describes an evaluation instrument designed to assess their usage of specific anger coping skills. The Profile of Anger Coping Skills (PACS) is designed for completion by a staff member or carer.…

  17. Coping Behaviors of Parents with Children with Congenital Heart Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strobino, Jane

    The study addresses parental coping patterns of children with congenital heart disease in the state of Hawaii. Attention was given to geography and ethnicity as well as parental and child characteristics as factors impacting on the coping pattern. Telephone interviews with parents (N=32) obtained data concerning parent characteristics, their…

  18. Coping Strategies at the Ages 8, 10 and 12

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zsolnai, Aniko; Kasik, Laszlo; Braunitzer, Gabor

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the cross-sectional study was to reveal what coping strategies 8, 10- and 12-year-old Hungarian students (N?=?167) use in situations that are frustrating, either for themselves or their peers. The coping strategies in school situations were assessed by our own questionnaires. The instrument enables the investigation of the following…

  19. Perceptions of Resiliency and Coping: Homeless Young Adults Speak Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Sanna J.; Ryan, Tiffany N.; Montgomery, Katherine L.; Lippman, Angie Del Prado; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin

    2016-01-01

    This study explored the perceptions of resilience and coping among homeless young adults, a focus that differs from previous research by considering the unconventional resilience and coping of this high-risk population. Semistructured qualitative interviews were conducted with 45 homeless young adults. Individual interviews were audio recorded,…

  20. Filipino Americans and Racism: A Multiple Mediation Model of Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alvarez, Alvin N.; Juang, Linda P.

    2010-01-01

    Although the literature on Asian Americans and racism has been emerging, few studies have examined how coping influences one's encounters with racism. To advance the literature, the present study focused on the psychological impact of Filipino Americans' experiences with racism and the role of coping as a mediator using a community-based sample of…

  1. Self-Esteem and Coping Strategies among Deaf Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jambor, Edina; Elliott, Marta

    2005-01-01

    Research studies on the determinants of self-esteem of deaf individuals often yield inconsistent findings. The current study assessed the effects on self-esteem of factors related to deafness, such as the means of communication at home and severity of hearing loss with hearing aid, as well as the coping styles that deaf people adopt to cope with…

  2. Coping, Reasons for Living, and Suicide in Black College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Mei-Chuan; Nyutu, Pius N.; Tran, Kimberly K.

    2012-01-01

    The authors examined the roles of reasons for living and coping in protecting against suicidal behaviors among 361 Black college students. Results of a path analysis revealed that reasons for living mediated against suicidal ideation through an inverse effect on depression. Results also indicated that greater use of emotion-oriented coping may…

  3. Stress, Coping and Suicide Ideation in Chinese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Wang, Haiping; Xia, Yan; Liu, Xiaohong; Jung, Eunju

    2012-01-01

    The study was to examine 1) whether stress and coping styles could significantly predict the probability of suicide ideation; 2) and whether coping styles were mediators or moderators on the association between life stress and suicide ideation. The survey was conducted in a sample of 671 Chinese college students. Approximately twenty percent…

  4. Stress, Coping, Social Support, and Psychological Distress among MSW Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Addonizio, Frank Patrick

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the relationship among sources and levels of stress, coping patterns, sources and levels of social support, and psychological distress for MSW students. Stress is a common feeling experienced by people throughout life and it is important to understand the way they cope with their stressors. Most of the…

  5. Strategies for Coping with Stress and Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Genevieve Rogge

    This guide presents strategies used in Pain Management and Stress Reduction workshops for helping the elderly cope with stress and chronic pain. Client evaluations of the workshops are given along with an analysis of the clients' presenting problems. Coping strategies described include: the relaxation response, imagery, daily logs, journal…

  6. Recovering from Alcoholism: The Role of Coping with Stressful Events.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billings, Andrew G.; Moos, Rudolf H.

    Although stressful life change events are thought to influence the development of alcoholism and to enhance the probability of relapse after treatment, the actual coping responses to specific events among alcoholics remain largely unexplored. Efforts were made to operationalize and classify coping responses and to explore their relationship to…

  7. Coping with threats of terrorism: a protocol for group intervention.

    PubMed

    Ottenstein, Richard J

    2003-01-01

    This article presents a group protocol designed to assist people in coping with direct and ongoing threats of terrorism. The protocol is intended to enable participants to address the psychological issues necessary to cope during periods of extreme threat. A step-by-step description of the protocol is provided.

  8. Validating Work Discrimination and Coping Strategy Models for Sexual Minorities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chung, Y. Barry; Williams, Wendi; Dispenza, Franco

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate and expand on Y. B. Chung's (2001) models of work discrimination and coping strategies among lesbian, gay, and bisexual persons. In semistructured individual interviews, 17 lesbians and gay men reported 35 discrimination incidents and their related coping strategies. Responses were coded based on Chung's…

  9. Individual and dyadic coping in chronic pain patients

    PubMed Central

    Burri, Andrea; Blank Gebre, Michèle; Bodenmann, Guy

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of the current cross-sectional study was to test the associations between individual coping responses to pain, dyadic coping, and perceived social support, with a number of pain outcomes, including pain intensity, functional disability, and pain adjustment, in a sample of N = 43 patients suffering from chronic pain in Switzerland. In contrast to previous research, we were interested not only in specific pain coping but also in more general stress coping strategies and their potential influence on pain outcomes. Analyses were performed using correlation and regression analyses. “Praying and hoping” turned out to be an independent predictor of higher pain intensity and higher anxiety levels, whereas both “coping self-instructions” and “diverting attention” were associated with higher well-being, less feelings of helplessness, and less depression and anxiety. We further found a link between “focusing on and venting emotions” and “worse pain adjustment”. No significant relationship between dyadic coping and social support with any of our pain outcomes could be observed. Overall, our results indicate that individual coping strategies outweigh the effects of social support and dyadic coping on pain-related outcomes and pain adjustment. However, results need to be interpreted with caution given the small sample size. PMID:28331356

  10. Preliminary Psychometric Data for the "Academic Coping Strategies Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Jeremy R.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to describe the psychometric characteristics of the "Academic Coping Strategies Scale" (ACSS), which was designed to assess college students' coping strategies within the context of a specific academic stressor. This article will present results of analyses of factor structure, internal consistency, test-retest…

  11. Coping Resources, Perfectionism, and Academic Performance among Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nounopoulos, Alex; Ashby, Jeffrey S.; Gilman, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Research finds that the availability of specific coping resources can alleviate the more harmful effects of stress among adolescents. Although studies have investigated the relationship between coping resources and various outcomes among general samples of youth, no research has focused on adolescents who report high personal standards in…

  12. Tales of the Unexpected: Coping among Female Collegiate Volleyball Players

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Nicholas L.; Berg, Kylie-Joy; Tamminen, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine patterns of appraisal, coping, and coping effectiveness in sport. Ten players from a collegiate female volleyball team were interviewed on two occasions, first in the week before a provincial final playoff tournament and in the week following the tournament. Data were transcribed verbatim and subjected to…

  13. Development and Analyses of the Coping Stress Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gadzella, Bernadette M.; Pierce, Devin; Young, Adena

    2008-01-01

    This is a report on the development of a coping stress inventory and the analyses of the data collected from 344 participants. The Coping Stress Inventory, CSI, with 16 items intercorrelated in the categories (Behavioral, Emotional, and Cognitive Appraisal). The internal consistency for the CSI was 0.77. Responses to the CSI were compared (a)…

  14. Optimism, Social Comparisons, and Coping with Vision Loss in Israel

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ben-Zur, Hasida; Debi, Zoharit

    2005-01-01

    This study of 90 adults (aged 55?80) who lost their vision assessed their dispositional optimism, social comparisons, coping strategies, and wellbeing. The findings suggest that optimism and positive social comparisons play an important role in stimulating the motivation to cope adaptively with vision loss and that enhancing optimism and social…

  15. Self and Coping among College Students in Japan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yeh, Christine; Inose, Mayuko; Kobori, Akiko; Chang, Tai

    2001-01-01

    Examines Japanese aspects of identity and coping attitudes, sources, and practices among a sample of 240 college students in Japan. Participants reported that they tended to use family members and friends when coping with personal difficulties. Study also found that collective identity was a significant predictor of seeking help from family…

  16. Coping strategies utilized by adolescents with end stage renal disease.

    PubMed

    Snethen, Julia A; Broome, Marion E; Kelber, Sheryl; Warady, Bradley A

    2004-01-01

    Children and adolescents with end stage renal disease (ESRD) require life-long treatment. The purpose of this descriptive investigation was to identify coping strategies that adolescents with ESRD use to manage their chronic illness. Participants for this investigation were 35 adolescents, 13-18 years of age, with ESRD. The A-COPE survey instrument was used in a clinical and camp setting to measure the coping strategies used by adolescents with ESRD. Analyses revealed that adolescents with ESRD utilized a variety of coping strategies to manage the stresses of living with their chronic condition. Personal characteristics of gender, transplant status, age, and religious views were significantly related to the coping strategies the adolescents reported using.

  17. Workplace mobbing: How the victim's coping behavior influences bystander responses.

    PubMed

    Mulder, Roelie; Bos, Arjan E R; Pouwelse, Mieneke; van Dam, Karen

    2017-01-01

    Victims of workplace mobbing show diverse coping behavior. We investigated the impact of this behavior on bystander cognitions, emotions, and helping toward the victim, integrating coping literature with attribution theory. Adult part-time university students (N = 161) working at various organizations participated in a study with a 3(Coping: approach/avoidance/neutral) × 2(Gender Victim: male/female) × 2(Gender Bystander: male/female) design. Victims showing approach (vs. avoidance) coping were considered to be more self-reliant and less responsible for the continuation of the mobbing, and they elicited less anger. Continuation responsibility and self-reliance mediated the relationship between the victim's coping behavior and bystanders' helping intentions. Female (vs. male) participants reported more sympathy for the victim and greater willingness to help, and female (vs. male) victims elicited less anger. Theoretical and practical implications of the findings are discussed.

  18. Beyond good intentions: The role of proactive coping in achieving sustained behavioural change in the context of diabetes management.

    PubMed

    Thoolen, Bart Johan; de Ridder, Denise; Bensing, Jozien; Gorter, Kees; Rutten, Guy

    2009-03-01

    This study examines the effectiveness of a brief self-management intervention to support patients recently diagnosed with type-2 diabetes to achieve sustained improvements in their self-care behaviours. Based on proactive coping, the intervention emphasizes the crucial role of anticipation and planning in maintaining self-care behaviours. In a randomised controlled trial among recent screen-detected patients, participants who received the intervention were compared with usual-care controls, examining changes in proximal outcomes (intentions, self-efficacy and proactive coping), self-care behaviour (diet, physical activity and medication) and weight over time (0, 3 and 12 months). Subsequently, the contribution of proactive coping in predicting maintenance of behavioural change was analysed using stepwise hierarchical regression analyses, controlling for baseline self-care behaviour, patient characteristics, and intentions and self-efficacy as measured after the course. The intervention was effective in improving proximal outcomes and behaviour with regard to diet and physical activity, resulting in significant weight loss at 12 months. Furthermore, proactive coping was a better predictor of long-term self-management than either intentions or self-efficacy. Proactive coping thus offers new insights into behavioural maintenance theory and can be used to develop effective self-management interventions.

  19. Reliability and validity of the Brief COPE Scale (English version) among women with breast cancer undergoing treatment of adjuvant chemotherapy: a Malaysian study.

    PubMed

    Yusoff, N; Low, W Y; Yip, C H

    2010-03-01

    This paper validates the Brief COPE Scale in Malaysian women with breast cancer. Test-retest evaluation was undertaken at two/three weeks and ten weeks following surgery. Internal consistencies ranged from 0.25 to 1.00. Meanwhile, the Intraclass Correlation Coefficient (ICC) ranged from 0.05 to 1.00. Sensitivity of the scale was indicated by the mean differences as observed in most of the domains with Effect Size Index (ESI) ranged from 0 to 0.53. Significant differences between mastectomy and lumpectomy were observed for Active coping, Planning and Acceptance. Brief COPE Scale showed fairly good reliability and validity.

  20. Coping Styles and Psychological Distress among Hong Kong University Students: Validation of the Collectivist Coping Style Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siu, Angela F. Y.; Chang, Jian Fang

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the factorial structure of the Collectivist Coping Style inventory (Heppner "et al." "Journal of Counseling Psychology" 53:107-125, 2006) and investigated how the effects of stress-related events on psychological distress are mediated through coping strategies. Three hundred and five Hong Kong university…

  1. Stress Coping Mechanisms in Elderly Adults: An Initial Study of Recreational and Other Coping Behaviors in Nursing Home Patients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, I. Roy; Gillen, Mark C.

    2009-01-01

    Residents (N = 32) of 3 skilled nursing homes participated in a study designed to document the nature of the stressors they experienced and the coping mechanisms they used. Medical issues were the most common stressors. The most common coping responses were prayer, reading, watching television, listening to music, and talking to friends and…

  2. Pilot Evaluation of the Coping Course: A Cognitive-Behavioral Intervention to Enhance Coping Skills in Incarcerated Youth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohde, Paul; Jorgensen, Jenel S.; Seeley, John R.; Mace, David E.

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To describe the development and initial evaluation of the Coping Course, a cognitive-behavioral group intervention designed to enhance general coping and problem-solving skills among incarcerated youth. Method: Between 2001 and 2002, 76 male adolescents incarcerated at a youth correctional facility were assessed by questionnaire and…

  3. The Bodenmann Couples Coping Enhancement Training (CCET): A New Approach to Prevention of Marital Distress Based upon Stress and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bodenmann, Guy; Shantinath, S. D.

    2004-01-01

    We describe a distress prevention training program for couples and three empirical studies that support its effectiveness. The program, Couples Coping Enhancement Training (CCET), is based both upon stress and coping theory and research on couples. In addition to traditional elements of couples programs (e.g., communication and problem-solving…

  4. Dyadic Coping in an Eastern European Context: Validity and Measurement Invariance of the Romanian Version of Dyadic Coping Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rusu, Petruta P.; Hilpert, Peter; Turliuc, Maria N.; Bodenmann, Guy

    2016-01-01

    This study investigates the psychometric properties of the Romanian version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory with data from 510 married couples. The results confirm the theoretical factorial structure of the Dyadic Coping Inventory for both partners, indicating convergent validity, discriminate validity, and measurement invariance (across genders…

  5. Coping Patterns of African American Adolescents: A Confirmatory Factor Analysis and Cluster Analysis of the Children's Coping Strategies Checklist

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaylord-Harden, Noni K.; Gipson, Polly; Mance, GiShawn; Grant, Kathryn E.

    2008-01-01

    The current study examined patterns of coping strategies in a sample of 497 low-income urban African American adolescents (mean age = 12.61 years). Results of confirmatory factor analysis indicated that the 4-factor structure of the Children's Coping Strategies Checklist (T. S. Ayers, I. N. Sandler, S. G. West, & M. W. Roosa, 1996) was not…

  6. What Works in Coping with HIV? A Meta-Analysis with Implications for Coping with Serious Illness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moskowitz, Judith Tedlie; Hult, Jen R.; Bussolari, Cori; Acree, Michael

    2009-01-01

    Knowledge of effective ways of coping with HIV is critical to help individuals with HIV maintain the best possible psychological and physical well-being. The purpose of the present article is to determine, through meta-analysis, the strength of the evidence regarding 2 questions: (a) Which types of coping are related to psychological and physical…

  7. Cancer Conversations in Context: Naturalistic Observation of Couples Coping with Breast Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Robbins, Megan L.; López, Ana María; Weihs, Karen L.; Mehl, Matthias R.

    2014-01-01

    This study explored the feasibility and potentials of a naturalistic observation approach to studying dyadic coping in everyday life. Specifically, it examined the natural context and content of the spontaneous cancer conversations of couples coping with cancer, and how they relate to patients’ and spouses’ psychological adjustment. Fifty-six women with breast cancer and their spouses wore the Electronically Activated Recorder (EAR), an unobtrusive observation method that periodically records snippets of ambient sounds, over one weekend to observe the couples’ cancer conversations in their natural context. Both patients and spouses completed self-reported measures of psychological adjustment at baseline and at a two-month follow-up. Cancer was a topic of approximately 5% of couples’ conversations. Cancer conversations occurred more often within the couple than with friends and family, and they were more often informational than emotional or supportive. Consistent with research on the Social Cognitive Processing model (Lepore & Revenson, 2007), spouses’ engagement in emotional disclosure and informational conversation with patients predicted better patient adjustment. This first naturalistic observation study of dyadic coping revealed that the EAR method can be implemented with high compliance and relatively low obtrusiveness within the sensitive context of couples coping with cancer, and having a spouse who discussed cancer in an emotional or informational way predicted better patient adjustment. As a complement to in-lab and other momentary assessment methods, a naturalistic observation approach with a method such as the EAR can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the role that communication processes play in coping with cancer. PMID:24730380

  8. Military Experience and Levels of Stress and Coping in Police Officers

    PubMed Central

    Hartley, Tara A.; Violanti, John M.; Mnatsakanova, Anna; Andrew, Michael E.; Burchfiel, Cecil M.

    2016-01-01

    Policing is a stressful occupation and working in this environment may make officers more vulnerable to adverse psychological and physiological outcomes. The impact of prior military experience on work stress and coping strategies has not been well-studied in police. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to examine differences in levels of police-related stress and coping in officers with and without military experience. Participants were 452 police officers from the Buffalo Cardio-metabolic Occupational Police Stress Study. Officers were categorized into three groups: non-military (n=334), non-combat military (n=84), and military with combat (n=34). Age, sex and education adjusted levels of psychological stress and coping measures were compared across the three groups using ANCOVA. P-values were derived from post-hoc comparisons. Non-military police officers had significantly higher stress levels for physically and psychological threatening events compared to non-combat officers (p=0.019). Non-military officers also reported experiencing significantly more organizational stressors and physically and psychologically threatening events in the past year than combat and non-combat officers (p<0.05). Combat officers had significantly lower levels of planning and active coping styles compared to non-combat officers (p=0.026, p=0.032, respectively) and non-military officers (p=0.010, p=0.005, respectively). In summary, police officers without military experience reported experiencing more organizational and life-threatening events than officers who served in the military. Yet combat officers were less likely to utilize positive coping than non-combat and non-military officers. These findings demonstrate the potential positive influence of military experience on police stress. Further research is needed as military veterans return to police work. PMID:24707586

  9. Clinical values of control over pain and pain coping strategies in surgical treatment for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Background Control over pain and pain coping strategies are associated with pain intensity as well as psychological status and subjective disability in patients experiencing pain. The present study assessed the clinical values of control over pain and pain coping strategies in surgical treatment for patients with lumbar spinal stenosis using mediation analysis. Methods Sixty-two patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (median age, 70 years; 34 men, 28 women) were evaluated before surgery. The pain intensity and area, psychological status/subjective disability (Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire), and control over pain/pain coping strategies (Coping Strategies Questionnaire) were assessed. Mediation analysis, which consisted of serial regression analyses, mainly tested whether (1) control over pain/pain coping strategies were predicted by pain characteristics and (2) control over pain/pain coping strategies predicted psychological status/subjective disability after controlling for pain characteristics. Results Control over pain was predicted by pain intensity (regression coefficient, -0.33; p = 0.01); moreover, it predicted walking ability (standardized partial regression coefficient, 0.31; p = 0.01) and social function (0.38; p = 0.00) after controlling for pain intensity. Although increasing activity level, one pain coping strategy, was predicted by pain intensity (regression coefficient, -0.30; p = 0.02), it did not predict walking ability (standardized partial regression coefficient, 0.07; p = 0.53) or social function (0.13; p = 0.33) when considering pain intensity. Conclusions In this cohort, mediation analysis demonstrated that pain intensity did not directly affect perceived walking ability or social function, but did affect control over pain; moreover, control over pain affected walking ability and social function. Clinical relevance These findings are useful for a deep understanding of the relationships between pain and

  10. Coping profiles characterize individual flourishing, languishing, and depression.

    PubMed

    Faulk, Kathryn E; Gloria, Christian T; Steinhardt, Mary A

    2013-01-01

    According to the broaden-and-build theory of positive emotions, negative emotions narrow one's thought-action repertoire. In contrast, positive emotions have a broadening effect, expanding cognitive capacity, increasing potential coping strategies that come to mind, and enhancing decision-making, reaction, and adaptation to adversity. Fredrickson and Losada determined that a positivity ratio - the ratio of experienced positive to negative emotions - at or above 2.9 promotes human flourishing. A ratio below 2.9 is indicative of languishing individuals, whereas a ratio below 1.0 is a marker of depression. This study examined whether adaptive and maladaptive coping profiles differentiated those who flourish, languish, or are depressed in two convenience samples - military spouses (n =367) and public school teachers (n=267). Results were consistent with the theoretical predictions, as coping profiles of the groups differed significantly, with flourishing individuals favoring adaptive coping strategies more than those who were languishing or depressed. Conversely, depressed individuals reported greater use of maladaptive coping strategies than those who were languishing or flourishing. These results provide further empirical support for the mathematical model of Fredrickson and Losada, as the set of positivity criteria were predictive of coping profiles in two samples where successful coping and adaptation are important.

  11. Proactive coping and gambling disorder among young men.

    PubMed

    Sleczka, Pawel; Braun, Barbara; Grüne, Bettina; Bühringer, Gerhard; Kraus, Ludwig

    2016-12-01

    Objectives Male sex, young age, and frequent gambling are considered as risk factors for gambling disorder (GD) and stress might be one of the triggers of gambling behavior among problem gamblers. Conversely, well-developed coping with stress might counteract gambling problems. The Proactive Coping Theory provides a promising approach for the further development of preventive and treatment measures. The objective of the study was to investigate different facets of proactive coping (PC) in young male gamblers. Methods Young men from Bavaria were recruited via the Munich citizens' registry (n = 2,588) and Facebook invitations (n = 105). In total, 173 out of 398 individuals were positively screened for frequent gambling and/or signs of related problems and completed the baseline questionnaire of the Munich Leisure-time Study. Factors investigated include gambling problems, PC, impulsiveness, social support, and psychological distress. Results Gambling problems were associated with lower levels of preventive coping as well as of adaptive reaction delay. The associations were also significant when controlled for impulsiveness and general psychological distress. Preventive coping moderated the association between social support and gambling problems. Discussion and conclusions Young men with gambling problems less frequently prevent the occurrence of stressors and more often react hasty when these occur. While the investigated group reported good social support, this factor was negatively associated with GD only among individuals with good preventive coping. Preventive coping poses a useful construct for selective prevention and treatment as it can be modified in professional interventions.

  12. Spiritual stress and coping model of divorce: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Krumrei, Elizabeth J; Mahoney, Annette; Pargament, Kenneth I

    2011-12-01

    This study represents the first longitudinal effort to use a spiritual stress and coping model to predict adults' psychosocial adjustment following divorce. A community sample of 89 participants completed measures at the time of their divorce and 1 year later. Though the sample endorsed slightly lower levels of religiosity than the general U.S. population, most reported spiritual appraisals and positive and negative religious coping tied to divorce. Hierarchical regression analyses controlling general religiousness and nonreligious forms of coping indicated that (a) appraising divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred predicted more depressive symptoms and dysfunctional conflict tactics with the ex-spouse 1 year later; (b) positive religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted greater posttraumatic growth 1 year after divorce; and (c) negative religious coping reported about the year following divorce predicted more depressive symptoms 1 year after the divorce. Bootstrapping mediation analyses indicated that negative religious coping fully mediated links between appraising the divorce as a sacred loss or desecration at the time it occurred and depressive symptoms 1 year later. In addition, moderation analyses revealed that negative religious coping is more strongly associated with depressive symptoms among those who form high versus low appraisals of their divorce as a sacred loss or desecration. These findings are relevant to divorce education and intervention provided by professionals in legal, family, mental health, and clerical roles. Implications are discussed for clinical and counseling psychology and religious communities.

  13. Proactive coping and gambling disorder among young men

    PubMed Central

    Sleczka, Pawel; Braun, Barbara; Grüne, Bettina; Bühringer, Gerhard; Kraus, Ludwig

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Male sex, young age, and frequent gambling are considered as risk factors for gambling disorder (GD) and stress might be one of the triggers of gambling behavior among problem gamblers. Conversely, well-developed coping with stress might counteract gambling problems. The Proactive Coping Theory provides a promising approach for the further development of preventive and treatment measures. The objective of the study was to investigate different facets of proactive coping (PC) in young male gamblers. Methods Young men from Bavaria were recruited via the Munich citizens’ registry (n = 2,588) and Facebook invitations (n = 105). In total, 173 out of 398 individuals were positively screened for frequent gambling and/or signs of related problems and completed the baseline questionnaire of the Munich Leisure-time Study. Factors investigated include gambling problems, PC, impulsiveness, social support, and psychological distress. Results Gambling problems were associated with lower levels of preventive coping as well as of adaptive reaction delay. The associations were also significant when controlled for impulsiveness and general psychological distress. Preventive coping moderated the association between social support and gambling problems. Discussion and conclusions Young men with gambling problems less frequently prevent the occurrence of stressors and more often react hasty when these occur. While the investigated group reported good social support, this factor was negatively associated with GD only among individuals with good preventive coping. Preventive coping poses a useful construct for selective prevention and treatment as it can be modified in professional interventions. PMID:27838919

  14. Testing the predictions of coping styles theory in threespined sticklebacks.

    PubMed

    Bensky, Miles K; Paitz, Ryan; Pereira, Laura; Bell, Alison M

    2017-03-01

    Coping styles theory provides a framework for understanding individual variation in how animals respond to environmental change, and predicts how individual differences in stress responsiveness and behavior might relate to cognitive differences. According to coping styles theory, proactive individuals are bolder, less reactive to stressors, and more routinized than their reactive counterparts. A key tenet of coping styles theory is that variation in coping styles is maintained by tradeoffs with behavioral flexibility: proactive individuals excel in stable environments while more flexible, reactive individuals perform better in variable environments. Here, we assess evidence for coping styles within a natural population of threespined sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). We developed a criterion-based learning paradigm to evaluate individual variation in initial and reversal learning. We observed strong individual differences in boldness, cortisol production, and learning performance. Consistent with coping styles, fish that released more cortisol were more timid in response to a predator attack and slower to learn a color discrimination task. However, there was no evidence that reactive individuals performed better when the environment changed (when the rewarded color was reversed). The failure to detect trade-offs between behavioral routinization and flexibility prompts other explanations for the maintenance of differing coping styles.

  15. Burnout and coping strategies among hospital staff nurses.

    PubMed

    Ceslowitz, S B

    1989-07-01

    This study examined the relationship between use of coping strategies and burnout among 150 randomly selected staff nurses from four hospitals. The instruments used were the frequency dimension of the Maslach Burnout Inventory (Maslach & Jackson 1981) and the Ways of Coping (Revised) (Folkman & Lazarus 1985). In the canonical correlation analysis, two significant canonical variate sets differentiated nurses on the dimension of burnout. Nurses who experienced increased levels of burnout used the coping strategies of escape/avoidance, self-controlling and confronting (P less than 0.001). Nurses who experience decreased levels of burnout used the coping strategies of planful problem solving, positive reappraisal, seeking social support, and self-controlling (P less than 0.003). Self-controlling coping, although present in both variate sets, was used to a lesser extent by nurses with decreased burnout levels. The positive relationship between planful problem solving and reduced burnout levels supports the theoretical framework of Lazarus. This framework asserts that during the appraisal process, persons evaluate the harmfulness of an event and their own coping resources. Persons with lower levels of burnout may perceive the event as amenable to change or they may perceive their coping resources as adequate. Either perception may promote the view that the situation is amenable to problem solving. Another rationale for the effectiveness of particular coping strategies may lie in the reactions that these strategies engender in others. The use of planful problem solving, seeking social support and positive reappraisal has been reported to result in the offering of greater social support than when confronting and self-controlling coping were used.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  16. Community violence exposure, coping, and problematic alcohol and drug use among urban, female caregivers: A prospective study

    PubMed Central

    Kliewer, Wendy; Zaharakis, Nikola

    2013-01-01

    Victimization is associated with substance use in women, but less is known about linkages between witnessing community violence and substance use, even though more women witness versus directly experience violence. Further, factors that contribute to or protect against women’s problematic substance use are less well understood. Urban female caregivers (N = 318; > 92% African American/black) living in low-income communities were interviewed annually for three waves regarding exposure to community violence, coping behaviors, substance use, and protective factors. Path analyses revealed that lifetime witnessing of violence, but not victimization, assessed at baseline, was associated with changes in avoidant coping, but not active coping, one year later; avoidant coping, in turn, was related to changes in and higher levels of problematic drug use the following year. Victimization was directly related to problematic drug use, but not to alcohol use. Regression analyses indicated that high levels of religious commitment and social support at baseline were prospectively associated with lower levels of avoidant coping. Because caregivers are important role models for their children, it is important to attend to the factors that contribute to their substance use and abuse. PMID:24039324

  17. Community violence exposure, coping, and problematic alcohol and drug use among urban, female caregivers: A prospective study.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, Wendy; Zaharakis, Nikola

    2013-08-01

    Victimization is associated with substance use in women, but less is known about linkages between witnessing community violence and substance use, even though more women witness versus directly experience violence. Further, factors that contribute to or protect against women's problematic substance use are less well understood. Urban female caregivers (N = 318; > 92% African American/black) living in low-income communities were interviewed annually for three waves regarding exposure to community violence, coping behaviors, substance use, and protective factors. Path analyses revealed that lifetime witnessing of violence, but not victimization, assessed at baseline, was associated with changes in avoidant coping, but not active coping, one year later; avoidant coping, in turn, was related to changes in and higher levels of problematic drug use the following year. Victimization was directly related to problematic drug use, but not to alcohol use. Regression analyses indicated that high levels of religious commitment and social support at baseline were prospectively associated with lower levels of avoidant coping. Because caregivers are important role models for their children, it is important to attend to the factors that contribute to their substance use and abuse.

  18. Dyadic coping of parents after the death of a child.

    PubMed

    Bergstraesser, Eva; Inglin, Susanne; Hornung, Rainer; Landolt, Markus A

    2015-01-01

    This article explores the grief process of parents following the death of a child due to a life-limiting illness, putting particular focus on dyadic coping. Participants included 46 married parents (23 couples). A mixed-methods design was used with in-depth interviews and standardized questionnaires. All parents were interviewed separately. Aspects of common dyadic coping (e.g., sharing emotions or maintaining bonds to the child) helped them work through their grief as a couple but also individually. The authors conclude that dyadic coping plays an important role in grief work and adjustment to bereavement.

  19. Teaching strategies for coping with stress – the perceptions of medical students

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The undergraduate medical course is a period full of stressors, which may contribute to the high prevalence of mental disorders among students and a decrease in life’s quality. Research shows that interventions during an undergraduate course can reduce stress levels. The aim of this paper is to evaluate the Strategies for Coping with Professional Stress class offered to medical students of the Federal University of Goiás, at Goiânia, Goiás, in Brazil. Methods Qualitative research, developed with medical students in an elective class addressing strategies for coping with stress after a focal group (composed of nine of the 33 students taking this course) identified stress factors in the medical course and the coping strategies that these students use. Analysis of the results of the class evaluation questionnaire filled out by the students on the last day of class. Results Stress factors identified by students in the focus group: lack of time, excessive class content, tests, demanding too much of themselves, overload of extracurricular activities, competitiveness among students and family problems. Coping strategies mentioned in the focus group: respecting one’s limits, setting priorities, avoiding comparisons, leisure activities (movies, literature, sports, meeting with friends and family). Results of the questionnaires: class content that was considered most important: quality of life, strategies for coping with stress, stress factors, assertiveness, community therapy, relaxation, cognitive restructuring, career choice, breathing, social networking, taking care of the caregiver, music therapy and narcissism. Most popular methodologies: relaxation practice, drawing words and discussion them in a group, community therapy, music therapy, simulated jury, short texts and discussion. Meaning of the class: asking questions and reinforcing already known strategies (22.6%), moment of reflection and self-assessment (19.4%), new interest and a worthwhile

  20. Maternal Coping Strategies in Response to a Child's Chronic and Oncological Disease: a Cross-Cultural Study in Italy and Portugal.

    PubMed

    Perricone, Giovanna; Guerra, Marina Prista; Cruz, Orlanda; Polizzi, Concetta; Lima, Lígia; Morales, Maria Regina; de Lemos, Marina Serra; Fontana, Valentina

    2013-06-13

    A child's oncological or chronic disease is a stressful situation for parents. This stress may make it difficult for appropriate management strategies aimed at promoting the child's wellbeing and helping him or her cope with a disease to be adopted. In particular, this study focuses on the possible connections between the variable national cultural influences and the parental strategies used to cope with a child's severe disease by comparing the experiences of Italian and Portuguese mothers. The study investigates differences and cross-cultural elements among the coping strategies used by Italian and Portuguese mothers of children with oncological or chronic disease. Two groups of mothers took part: 59 Italian mothers (average age 37.7 years; SD=4.5) and 36 Portuguese mothers (average age 39.3 years; SD=4.6). The tool used was the Italian and the Portuguese versions of the COPE inventory that measures five coping strategies: Social Support, Avoidance Coping, Positive Aptitude, Religious Faith and Humor, Active Coping. There were statistically significant differences between Portuguese and Italian mothers regarding Social Support (F(3, 94)=6.32, P=0.014, ɳ(2)=0.065), Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94)=20.06, P=0.001, ɳ(2)=0.18, higher values for Portuguese mothers) and Avoidance Coping (F(3, 94)=3.30, P=0.06, ɳ(2)=0.035, higher values for Italian mothers). Regarding child's disease, the only statistically significant difference was in Religious Faith and Humor (F(3, 94)=7.49, P=0.007, ɳ(2)=0.076, higher values for mothers of children with chronic disease). The findings of specific cultural transversalities provide the basis for reflection on important factors emerging on the relationship between physicians and parents. In fact, mothers' coping abilities may allow health workers involved in a child's care not only to understand how parents face a distressful event, but also to provide them with professional support.