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Sample records for active problem-focused coping

  1. Managing Stress and Maintaining Well-Being: Social Support, Problem-Focused Coping, and Avoidant Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chao, Ruth Chu-Lien

    2011-01-01

    This study tested a model that links stress, social support, problem-focused coping, and well-being. First, it looks at how high support significantly moderated the association between stress and well-being. Next, the students' problem-focused coping was seen as mediating this moderated association. Finally, a 3-way interaction of stress, social…

  2. The relationship between problem-focused coping strategies and quality of life in schizophrenic patients

    PubMed Central

    Moslehi, Shandiz; Atefimanesh, Pezhman; Asgharnejad Farid, Aliasghar

    2015-01-01

    Background: Schizophrenia is a disorder with psychotic symptoms that severely affects personal performance. Assessing problem- focused strategies and quality of life (QoL) in patients with schizophrenia may help the clinicians to use appropriate interventions. This study was conducted to find the relationship between problem-focused coping strategies and quality of life in schizophrenic patients who referred to the clinic of Iran University of Medical Sciences in 2013. Methods: Non-random sampling was used in two stages (quota and convenience sampling). Data were collected through Demographic Questionnaire, 5-point Likert-type scale World Health Organization Quality of Life and Problem-Focused Strategies Standard Questionnaire. Four dimensions of QoL which were assessed among schizophrenic patients were as follows: Physical health, mental health, social relationships and environmental factors. Pearson correlation coefficient and regression were used for data analysis. Results: The highest mean score (Mean= 2.7) belonged to environmental factors and the lowest score to social relationships (Mean= 2.55). Overall, there was a significant direct relationship between the QoL and problem-focused coping strategies (p= 0.024, r= 0.319). Conclusion: The Schizophrenic patients who used more problem- focused coping strategies had better QoL. Therefore, it is important to take into account problem- focus coping strategies when treating the patients. The application of this research will be crucial to clinicians and healthcare executives. PMID:26913251

  3. Effectiveness of Problem-Focused Coping Strategies on the Burden on Caregivers of Hemodialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Ghane, Golnar; Ashghali Farahani, Mansoureh; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Haghani, Hamid

    2016-01-01

    Background Studies have shown that family caregivers of hemodialysis patients experience high levels of burden. However, these caregivers are often neglected, and no studies are available on the effectiveness of coping strategies on the burden of care among these caregivers. Objectives This study aimed to examine the effectiveness of problem-focused coping strategies (communication skills, anger management, and deep breathing) on the burden on caregivers of hemodialysis patients. Patients and Methods A randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 76 family caregivers of hemodialysis patients referred to Shahid Hasheminejad hemodialysis center in Tehran, Iran. The subjects were equally allocated into two groups of 38. Through a coin-tossing method, caregivers of patients who referred on even or odd days of the week were randomly assigned into the intervention group or the control group, respectively. The intervention group received four training sessions on problem-focused coping strategies, but the control group did not receive any intervention. Both groups answered the caregiver’s burnout inventory at the start and six weeks after the last educational session. Descriptive statistics, chi-square, Fisher’s exact test, independent-samples t-test, and Mann-Whitney U test were used to analyze the data. Results The majority of caregivers (54%) were in the age range of 35 - 55 years, female (68.4%), and married (70%). No significant difference was found between the baseline mean caregivers’ burden scores of the intervention and control groups (88.56 ± 11.74 vs. 84.97 ± 15.13, P = 0.308). However, the mean caregivers’ burden in the intervention group decreased, and the two groups were significantly different at the end of the study (58.77 ± 6.64 vs. 87.84 ± 11.74, P < 0.001). Conclusions The current study showed the effectiveness of problem-focused coping strategies on reducing the burden on caregivers of hemodialysis patients. Authorities and

  4. Preliminary Study on the Role of Alternative Educational Pathways in Promoting the Use of Problem-Focused Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shankland, Rebecca; Franca, Lionel Riou; Genolini, Christophe M.; Guelfi, Julien-Daniel; Ionescu, Serban

    2009-01-01

    Coping styles are generally considered to be environmentally driven. Up to now, research has mainly focused on family influences. However, some studies underline the effect of educational settings on the development of problem-focused coping strategies. Consistently with previous reports on the enhancement of autonomy and problem-solving in…

  5. Psychometric Analyses of the Problem-Focused Style of Coping (PF-SOC) Scale with Taiwanese Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chang, Yuhsuan; Lan, Yu-Ling; Lin, Hung-Yu; Heppner, Puncky Paul

    2012-01-01

    The current research comprises two samples that investigated the psychometric properties of the Problem-Focused Style of Coping (PF-SOC; Heppner, Cook, Wright, & Johnson) scale using two Taiwanese samples. In Sample 1 (N = 809), we investigated the structural dimensions of the PF-SOC using a principal component analysis (PCA) and confirmed three…

  6. Marital Adjustment in Families of Young Children with Disabilities: Associations with Daily Hassles and Problem-Focused Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoneman, Zolinda; Gavidia-Payne, Susana

    2006-01-01

    A family systems framework was used to examine associations between stressors/hassles, problem-focused coping, and marital adjustment in 67 families of young children with disabilities. Most of the couples were experiencing average to above average marital adjustment. When daily stressors/hassles were higher, husbands and wives viewed their…

  7. The Effect of Problem-Focused Coping Strategy Training on Psychological Symptoms of Mothers of Children with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    POURMOHAMADREZA-TAJRISHI, Masoume; AZADFALLAH, Parviz; HEMMATI GARAKANI, Sahel; BAKHSHI, Enayatollah

    2015-01-01

    Background: Anxiety is one of the most common reactions that parents show while understanding their children’s intellectual disability due to Down syndrome. Anxiety leads parents not to develop appropriate relations with their children, subsequently their psychological health are at risk. The present study was aimed to determine the effect of problem-focused coping strategy training on psychological symptoms of mothers with Down child. Methods: This was an experimental study with pretest and posttest design with case and control group. Sixty-four mothers were selected randomly from Iranian Down Syndrome Charity Society. They completed Symptoms Checklist-90-Revised (SCL-90-R). They were assigned to experimental and control groups in equal. Experimental group participated in 12 training sessions (once a week; 60 minutes for each session) and received problem-focused coping strategy program, but control group did not. After 12th session, all subjects completed SCL-90-R again. Analysis of covariance was used for analyzing the data. Results: There was a significant difference (P<0.01) between experimental and control group according to psychological symptoms and its components (phobia, depression, paranoid thoughts, psychosis, somatic complaints, interpersonal sensitivity, obsession-compulsion, anxiety and aggression) after participation in intervention sessions. Conclusion: There was a significant decrease in psychological symptoms, phobia, depression, paranoid thoughts, psychosis, somatic complaints, interpersonal sensitivity, obsession-compulsion, anxiety and aggression of experimental group. Our findings showed that problem-focused coping strategy-training program led to improve family’s perception towards the child and subsequently promote of mental health of mothers with Down children. PMID:25905060

  8. Use of Student Support Services among University Students: Associations with Problem-Focused Coping, Experience of Personal Difficulty and Psychological Distress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Julal, F. S.

    2013-01-01

    Universities provide a range of problem-focused social support services to help students who are experiencing personal difficulties. The current study examines how the effectiveness of students' ("N" = 131) problem-coping style, experience of personal difficulty and psychological distress are associated with actual use of support…

  9. Work-supportive family, family-supportive supervision, use of organizational benefits, and problem-focused coping: implications for work-family conflict and employee well-being.

    PubMed

    Lapierre, Laurent M; Allen, Tammy D

    2006-04-01

    Employees (n = 230) from multiple organizations and industries were involved in a study assessing how work-family conflict avoidance methods stemming from the family domain (emotional sustenance and instrumental assistance from the family), the work domain (family-supportive supervision, use of telework and flextime), and the individual (use of problem-focused coping) independently relate to different dimensions of work-family conflict and to employees' affective and physical well-being. Results suggest that support from one's family and one's supervisor and the use of problem-focused coping seem most promising in terms of avoiding work-family conflict and/or decreased well-being. Benefits associated with the use of flextime, however, are relatively less evident, and using telework may potentially increase the extent to which family time demands interfere with work responsibilities. PMID:16649850

  10. Mindfulness Training Improves Problem-Focused Coping in Psychology and Medical Students: Results from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Halland, E.; De Vibe, M.; Solhaug, I.; Friborg, O.; Rosenvinge, J. H.; Tyssen, R.; Sørlie, T.; Bjørndal, A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Students of clinical psychology and medicine experience high levels of mental distress and low levels of life satisfaction. Using adaptive coping strategies can modify the negative effect of stressors on health. Mindfulness, it has been claimed, more adaptive coping with stress, yet few studies have investigated whether mindfulness…

  11. Coping Styles and Depression Among Undocumented Hispanic Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Cobb, Cory L; Xie, Dong; Sanders, Gardiner L

    2016-08-01

    This cross-sectional study examined coping strategies and their relationship with depression among undocumented Hispanic immigrants. A community sample of 122 self-identified undocumented Hispanics filled out questionnaires measuring coping and depression. The authors categorized coping strategies as problem-focused, active-emotional, or avoidant-emotional. Findings indicated that coping through "prayer and meditation" (problem-focused), "get comfort from someone" (active-emotional), and "see bad things positively" (active-emotional) were more frequently used by undocumented Hispanics. Contrary to past research and predictions, problem-focused and active-emotional coping were both positively related to depression. What is more, problem-focused coping accounted for additional variance of depression above and beyond active-emotional coping. The insoluble nature of many of the problems faced by undocumented immigrants may explain the counterintuitive finding that as problem-focused and active-emotional coping increased, so too did depression. PMID:26330154

  12. Stress and Coping Activity: Reframing Negative Thoughts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Jamie S.; Gourley, Mary K.; Madson, Laura; Le Blanc, Katya

    2011-01-01

    Stress management and coping techniques are not only relevant in many psychology courses but also personally relevant for undergraduate students. In this article, the authors describe an activity designed to provide students with practice evaluating and challenging negative self-talk. Students responded to scenarios individually, were paired with…

  13. Positive and negative religious coping in German breast cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Zwingmann, Christian; Wirtz, Markus; Müller, Claudia; Körber, Jürgen; Murken, Sebastian

    2006-12-01

    A growing interest has been focusing on the relationship between religious coping and psychosocial adjustment among cancer patients. However, previous research mostly has not differentiated between positive and negative components of religious coping. The current cross-sectional study investigated the role of both positive religious coping, i.e., a confident and constructive turning to religion, and negative religious coping, i.e., religious struggle and doubt, in a sample of 156 German breast cancer patients. Participants were assessed upon admission to an inpatient rehabilitation program. In addition to religious coping, two basic nonreligious coping styles (depressive coping and active problem-focused coping) and psychosocial adjustment (anxiety and depression) were measured. Major research questions concerning the mediating role of nonreligious coping and the relative predictive power of positive and negative religious coping were primarily addressed using structural equation modeling. Results indicated that the relationship between religious coping and psychosocial outcomes was completely mediated by nonreligious coping, whereby only depressive coping and not active problem-focused coping proved to be a mediating variable. Positive and negative religious coping were somewhat positively related to each other; their (indirect) predictive power on psychosocial adjustment was identical though in an opposite direction. All in all, the results correspond to previous Anglo-American research. There are, however, some discrepancies which may be due to the specific religious-cultural background in Germany. PMID:16951991

  14. Dynamic neural activity during stress signals resilient coping.

    PubMed

    Sinha, Rajita; Lacadie, Cheryl M; Constable, R Todd; Seo, Dongju

    2016-08-01

    Active coping underlies a healthy stress response, but neural processes supporting such resilient coping are not well-known. Using a brief, sustained exposure paradigm contrasting highly stressful, threatening, and violent stimuli versus nonaversive neutral visual stimuli in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study, we show significant subjective, physiologic, and endocrine increases and temporally related dynamically distinct patterns of neural activation in brain circuits underlying the stress response. First, stress-specific sustained increases in the amygdala, striatum, hypothalamus, midbrain, right insula, and right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) regions supported the stress processing and reactivity circuit. Second, dynamic neural activation during stress versus neutral runs, showing early increases followed by later reduced activation in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), left DLPFC, hippocampus, and left insula, suggested a stress adaptation response network. Finally, dynamic stress-specific mobilization of the ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VmPFC), marked by initial hypoactivity followed by increased VmPFC activation, pointed to the VmPFC as a key locus of the emotional and behavioral control network. Consistent with this finding, greater neural flexibility signals in the VmPFC during stress correlated with active coping ratings whereas lower dynamic activity in the VmPFC also predicted a higher level of maladaptive coping behaviors in real life, including binge alcohol intake, emotional eating, and frequency of arguments and fights. These findings demonstrate acute functional neuroplasticity during stress, with distinct and separable brain networks that underlie critical components of the stress response, and a specific role for VmPFC neuroflexibility in stress-resilient coping. PMID:27432990

  15. Stress, active coping, and problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents.

    PubMed

    Hsieh, Hsing-Fang; Zimmerman, Marc A; Xue, Yange; Bauermeister, Jose A; Caldwell, Cleopatra H; Wang, Zhenhong; Hou, Yubo

    2014-07-01

    Little is known about the stress and coping mechanisms on problem behaviors among Chinese adolescents, which might be quite different from their counterparts in Western cultures. We examined risk process of stress for internalizing outcomes (i.e., psychological distress, self-acceptance) and externalizing outcomes (i.e., substance use, delinquency, violent behavior) among Chinese adolescents. We also examined John Henryism Active Coping as a protective factor in a test of resilience from the negative effects of stress. A cross-sectional survey using self-reported questionnaires was conducted in 2 urban cities in China: Beijing and Xian. Participants included 1,356 students in Grades 7 to 12 (48% male, 52% female). Structural equation modeling analyses were conducted to test the conceptual model. The modifying (protective) effects of John Henryism were tested in multiple-group analysis. After controlling for demographics, we found that stress was associated with decreased self-acceptance and increased psychological distress among adolescents. Higher degree of psychological distress was then associated with increased delinquent behaviors and substance use. The results also indicated that individuals who scored higher in John Henryism reported more substance use as a result of psychological distress. Overall, our results support previous research with Western samples. Although John Henryism did not serve as a protective factor between stress and its negative outcomes, the findings underscore the relevance of addressing stress and possible coping strategies among Chinese adolescents. Further research that refines the active coping tailored for Chinese adolescents is necessary to more precisely test its protective effects. PMID:24999522

  16. Identity style and coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Berzonsky, M D

    1992-12-01

    This study examined the relationship between identity style and strategies used to cope with stressors that potentially threaten one's sense of identity. Identity style refers to differences in the way individuals construct and revise or maintain their sense of identity. An informational style involves actively seeking out, evaluating, and utilizing self-relevant information. A normative style highlights the expectations and standards of significant others. A diffuse/avoidant style is characterized by procrastination and situation-specific reactions. Late-adolescent college subjects were administered measures of identity style, ways of coping with academic stressors, and test anxiety. Within this self-as-student context, subjects with diffuse and normative identity styles employed avoidant-oriented coping strategies (wishful thinking, distancing, and tension reduction). An informational style was associated with deliberate, problem-focused coping. Findings are discussed in terms of a process model of identity development. PMID:1469598

  17. CHICAGO COPED ACTIVITIES--SOME COMMENTS ON STRUCTURE, FUNCTION AND THE HELPING RELATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LIGHTHALL, FREDERICK F.

    THE CHICAGO COOPERATIVE PROJECT IN EDUCATIONAL DEVELOPMENT (COPED), LIKE OTHER COPED CENTERS, WAS DESIGNED TO STUDY AND FACILITATE THE PROCESS OF PLANNED CHANGE IN SCHOOL SYSTEMS. THE PROJECT IS DESCRIBED AS "EMERGENT," SLOWLY EVOLVING WITH EACH ACTIVITY ALTERING ITS DEVELOPMENT. A DISTINCTION IS MADE BETWEEN PLANNING AND PREPARATION. COPED IS…

  18. Family Functionality and Coping Attitudes of Patients with Bipolar Disorder.

    PubMed

    Çuhadar, Döndü; Savaş, Haluk Asuman; Ünal, Ahmet; Gökpınar, Fatma

    2015-10-01

    The coping of patients with prodromal syndromes prevents relapses, and the differences in coping strategies affect the results of bipolar disorder. The various functionality levels of bipolar disorder patients such as work, marital relations, parental abilities and social presentation are significantly related with how well they cope. The objective of this study was to determine the family functionality and coping attitudes of bipolar disorder patients. The study planned as a descriptive one was carried with 81 bipolar disorder patients. Personal description form, family assessment device and Coping Attitudes Scale were used as data acquisition tools. It was determined that the adaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were religious coping, positive reinterpretation, active coping, problem-focused coping and emotional focused coping, beneficial social support use, emotional social support use, planning, suppression of competing activities and restraint coping; maladaptive coping attitudes used most frequently by the patients were "focusing on the problem and venting of emotions and mental disengagement." It was determined that family functions affected the coping attitudes of patients and that the patients who evaluated family functions in a healthy manner made use of adaptive coping strategies more at a statistically significant level. PMID:25086849

  19. The Relationship between Active Coping and Trait Resilience across U.S. and Taiwanese College Student Samples

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ming-Hui; Nishikawa, Takeshi

    2012-01-01

    This study compared predictors of active coping (people's tendency to actively cope with stress) among college students in the United States and Taiwan. In both samples, trait resilience predicted active coping and mediated the effect of self-efficacy on active coping. The findings indicate that trait resilience influences college students' active…

  20. Central circuits mediating patterned autonomic activity during active vs. passive emotional coping.

    PubMed

    Bandler, R; Keay, K A; Floyd, N; Price, J

    2000-09-01

    Animals, including humans, react with distinct emotional coping strategies to different sets of environmental demands. These strategies include the capacity to affect appropriate responses to "escapable" or "inescapable" stressors. Active emotional coping strategies--fight or flight--are particularly adaptive if the stress is escapable. On the other hand, passive emotional coping strategies-quiescence, immobility, decreased responsiveness to the environment-are useful when the stress is inescapable. Passive strategies contribute also to facilitating recovery and healing once the stressful event is over. Active vs. passive emotional coping strategies are characterised further by distinct patterns of autonomic change. Active strategies are associated with sympathoexcitation (hypertension, tachycardia), whereas passive strategies are associated with sympathoinhibitory patterns (hypotension, bradycardia). Distinct neural substrates mediating active vs. passive emotional coping have been identified within the longitudinal neuronal columns of the midbrain periaqueductal gray region (PAG). The PAG offers then a potentially useful point of entry for delineating neural circuits mediating the different forms of emotional coping and their associated patterns of autonomic activity. As one example, recent studies of the connections of orbital and medial prefrontal cortical (PFC) fields with specific PAG longitudinal neuronal columns are reviewed. Findings of discrete orbital and medial PFC projections to different PAG columns, and related PFC and PAG columnar connections with specific subregions of the hypothalamus, suggest that distinct but parallel circuits mediate the behavioural strategies and patterns of autonomic activity characteristic of emotional "engagement with" or "disengagement from" the external environment. PMID:11033213

  1. Coping Style Use Predicts Posttraumatic Stress and Complicated Grief Symptom Severity Among College Students Reporting a Traumatic Loss

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schnider, Kimberly R.; Elhai, Jon D.; Gray, Matt J.

    2007-01-01

    Problem-focused coping, and active and avoidant emotional coping were examined as correlates of grief and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) severity among 123 college students reporting the unexpected death of an immediate family member, romantic partner, or very close friend. The authors administered to participants, via the Internet, 5…

  2. Active and Avoidant Coping and Coping Efficacy as Mediators of the Relation of Maternal Involvement to Depressive Symptoms among Urban Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mosher, Catherine E.; Prelow, Hazel M.

    2007-01-01

    Our study tested an extension of the social resource model in an urban sample of 129 African American and 114 European American adolescents. Maternal involvement was positively related to the use of active and avoidant coping strategies among youth of both ethnicities. Additionally, use of active coping strategies was related to greater coping…

  3. Coping styles of pregnant adolescents.

    PubMed

    Myors, K; Johnson, M; Langdon, R

    2001-01-01

    This descriptive study examined the coping styles and specific strategies used by a group of pregnant adolescents attending an adolescent family support service. Seventy-one adolescents, with a mean age of 17 years, and a mean gestation of 25 weeks, completed the Revised Jalowiec Coping Scale (JCS-R). The findings demonstrated that the optimistic coping style (emotion-focused) was the most frequently used and most effective coping style for these young women. A confrontive coping style (problem-focused) was also used and found to be effective. A combination of problem-focused and emotion-focused styles is recommended, with an increased emphasis on problem-focused approaches. The focus by the adolescents on optimistic approaches is suggestive of a lack of understanding of the challenges that motherhood will place upon them, but is consistent with their age and developmental stage. A longitudinal study of coping styles and changes in style throughout pregnancy and early motherhood is recommended. Initial assessment and monitoring of coping styles of pregnant adolescents is proposed. This assessment would be the beginning point for a teaching program that highlights increased use of adaptive coping styles (problem-focused) with decreased use of maladaptive approaches, and includes emotion-focused styles. By expanding the repertoire of coping styles and strategies available to the adolescent, the public health nurse (PHN) prepares these vulnerable mothers for the challenges ahead. PMID:11251870

  4. Peer stress-related coping activities in young adolescents' asthma management.

    PubMed

    Yang, TienYu Owen; Lunt, Ingrid; Sylva, Kathy

    2009-08-01

    Managing asthma around peers can be stressful for young adolescents (age 9-14). However, the contexualised coping activities under asthma management-related peer stress is under-investigated. The study aims to explore the peer stress-related coping strategies young adolescents adopt in asthma management. Thirty-four young adolescents were interviewed with semi-structured storytelling protocols. Young adolescents expressed their opinions about four scenarios where the characters had difficulties managing asthma among peers. Interviews were transcribed, and qualitative data were analysed with analytical induction and constant comparison to generate themes that described the coping activities young adolescents adopted in four asthma management scenarios. Young adolescents' responses in each scenario were summarised. The coping activities adolescents adopted were cognitive justifying, explaining, outsourcing and undisclosing. Despite the limitations in a scenario-based qualitative study, the results may be useful for teachers and health professionals in social skill interventions for asthma management in early adolescence. PMID:19657905

  5. Mitigating Physiological Responses to Layoff Threat: An Experimental Test of the Efficacy of Two Coping Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Probst, Tahira M.; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention) × 4 (within-subjects time points) mixed experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Eighty-four undergraduates participated in this laboratory experiment during which their galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored. Analyses indicate that individuals instructed to utilize an emotion-focused coping strategy experienced a significantly greater decline in their GSR compared to those utilizing the problem-focused coping method. Results suggest organizations conducting layoffs might focus first on dealing with the emotional aftermath of downsizing before focusing on problem-solving tasks, such as resume writing and other traditional outplacement activities. PMID:26999186

  6. Mitigating Physiological Responses to Layoff Threat: An Experimental Test of the Efficacy of Two Coping Interventions.

    PubMed

    Probst, Tahira M; Jiang, Lixin

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of the current study was to assess real-time physiological reactions to the threat of layoffs and to determine whether the use of an emotion-focused vs. problem-focused coping intervention would be more efficacious in attenuating these physiological reactions. A 2 (coping intervention) × 4 (within-subjects time points) mixed experimental design was used to test the hypotheses. Eighty-four undergraduates participated in this laboratory experiment during which their galvanic skin response (GSR) and heart rate (HR) were continuously monitored. Analyses indicate that individuals instructed to utilize an emotion-focused coping strategy experienced a significantly greater decline in their GSR compared to those utilizing the problem-focused coping method. Results suggest organizations conducting layoffs might focus first on dealing with the emotional aftermath of downsizing before focusing on problem-solving tasks, such as resume writing and other traditional outplacement activities. PMID:26999186

  7. Gender, coping strategies, homelessness stressors, and income generation among homeless young adults in three cities.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Kristin M; Bender, Kimberly; Thompson, Sanna J

    2015-06-01

    This study examined gender differences among homeless young adults' coping strategies and homelessness stressors as they relate to legal (e.g., full-time employment, selling personal possessions, selling blood/plasma) and illegal economic activity (e.g., selling drugs, theft, prostitution). A sample of 601 homeless young adults was recruited from 3 cities (Los Angeles, CA [n = 200], Austin, TX [n = 200], and Denver, CO [n = 201]) to participate in semi-structured interviews from March 2010 to July 2011. Risk and resilience correlates of legal and illegal economic activity were analyzed using six Ordinary Least Squares regression models with the full sample and with the female and male sub-samples. In the full sample, three variables (i.e., avoidant coping, problem-focused coping, and mania) were associated with legal income generation whereas eight variables (i.e., social coping, age, arrest history, transience, peer substance use, antisocial personality disorder [ASPD], substance use disorder [SUD], and major depressive episode [MDE]) were associated with illegal economic activity. In the female sub-sample, three variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, race/ethnicity, and transience) were correlated with legal income generation whereas six variables (i.e., problem-focused coping, social coping, age, arrest history, peer substance use, and ASPD) were correlated with illegal economic activity. Among males, the model depicting legal income generation was not significant yet seven variables (i.e., social coping, age, transience, peer substance use, ASPD, SUD, and MDE) were associated with illegal economic activity. Understanding gender differences in coping strategies and economic activity might help customize interventions aimed at safe and legal income generation for this population. PMID:25942470

  8. Is surviving enough? Coping and impact on activities of daily living among melanoma patients with lymphoedema.

    PubMed

    Cromwell, K D; Chiang, Y J; Armer, J; Heppner, P P; Mungovan, K; Ross, M I; Gershenwald, J E; Lee, J E; Royal, R E; Lucci, A; Cormier, J N

    2015-09-01

    We assessed the impact of lymphoedema (defined as ≥ 10% limb volume change) on quality of life (QOL), ability to perform activities of daily living (ADLs) and coping in 277 melanoma patients. Limb volume was measured prospectively, pre-operatively and every 3-6 months for 18 months post-operatively using a perometer. Three questionnaires were administered to measure QOL, coping and impact on ADLs. Statistical analyses were conducted using longitudinal logistic regression models. At 18 months, the cumulative incidence of lymphoedema was 31% in patients with upper extremity nodal basin treatment and 40% in lower extremity nodal basin treatment patients. Patients with lower extremity lymphoedema reported lower QOL scores than those with upper extremity lymphoedema. Over 18 months, both groups with mild and moderate lymphoedema showed improvement in coping [odds ratio (OR): 6.67, 95% confidence interval (CI): 3.30-13.47] and performance of ADLs (OR: 7.46, CI: 3.38-16.47). Over the course of 18 months, men were found to have poorer coping scores than women (OR: 2.91, CI: 1.35-6.27). Lymphoedema was associated with improvement in coping over time (P = 0.08) and a higher reported interference with ADLs (OR: 2.53, CI: 1.29-4.97). Patient education about lymphoedema at the time of surgical consent may improve self-efficacy and coping ability. Effective management of lymphoedema may improve patient QOL and reduce interference with ADLs. PMID:25809989

  9. John Henry Active Coping, education, and blood pressure among urban blacks.

    PubMed Central

    Fernander, Anita F.; Durán, Ron E. F.; Saab, Patrice G.; Schneiderman, Neil

    2004-01-01

    The John Henryism hypothesis posits that individuals who actively cope with psychosocial stressors in the face of low socioeconomic resources are more likely to exhibit higher blood pressure levels than those with greater socioeconomic resources. It has been proposed that John Henryism may contribute to the disproportionately high rates of hypertension among blacks. Previous studies which support the John Henryism hypothesis have been conducted among blacks who reside in primarily southern rural settings. However, more recent studies conducted among urban blacks, have yielded contrasting results. This study examined the John Henryism hypothesis in a middle-aged urban sample of blacks in south Florida. The results of the study confirmed that there is indeed a relationship among John Henry Active Coping, years of education, and blood pressure among urban blacks in south Florida. Upon closer examination, higher John Henry Active Coping scores were associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure among higher educated men, and John Henry Active Coping scores were associated with higher systolic and diastolic blood pressure among women with lower levels of education. The findings are discussed in terms of sociocultural factors that may influence the coping styles of black men and women in different communities and environments. PMID:14977286

  10. Coping strategies for HIV-related stigma in Liuzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying-Xia; Ying-Xia, Zhang; Golin, Carol E; Bu, Jin; Jin, Bu; Emrick, Catherine Boland; Nan, Zhang; Li, Ming-Qiang; Ming-Qiang, Li

    2014-02-01

    This study explores the feelings, experiences, and coping strategies of people living with HIV (PLHIV) in Liuzhou, China. In a southwestern Chinese city with high HIV prevalence, we conducted semi-structured in-depth interviews with 47 PLHIV selected to represent individuals who had acquired HIV via different acquisition routes. Many participants felt severely stigmatized; they commonly reported having very low self-esteem and feelings of despair. Based on style of coping and whether it occurred at the interpersonal or intrapersonal level, four types of coping that participants used to deal with HIV-associated stigma were identified: (1) Compassion (Passive/Avoidant-Interpersonal); (2) Hiding HIV status (Passive/Avoidant-Intrapersonal); (3) Social support (Active/Problem-focused-Interpersonal; and (4) Self-care (Active/Problem-focused-Intrapersonal). Educational and stigma-reduction interventions targeting potential social support networks for PLHIV (e.g., family, close friends, and peers) could strengthen active interpersonal PLHIV coping strategies. Interventions teaching self-care to PLHIV would encourage active intrapersonal coping, both of which may enhance PLHIV quality of life in Liuzhou, China. PMID:24337724

  11. Coping with Fears and Stress. An Activity Guide: Grades K-8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, Edward H.; And Others

    This guide consists of a set of activities to help elementary school students cope with fears and stress. Each activity includes the curricular areas in which it would fit (i.e., language arts, social studies, etc.), the grade level and group size for which it is suitable, and the approximate time necessary for its completion. The guide is divided…

  12. Coping with a community stressor: a proposed hazardous waste disposal facility

    SciTech Connect

    Bachrach, K.M.

    1983-01-01

    This study examined a number of factors believed to influence community involvement. Residents of a rural community near Phoenix, Arizona, where a hazardous waste facility had been proposed to built, were interviewed at home in August 1982. Most residents were chosen at random (n = 70) while a smaller number (n = 29) were selected because of known involvement in activities regarding the hazardous waste facility. Residents who perceived the facility as a threat to their health, safety, and general well-being employed a number of coping strategies. Strategies to change or alter the source of stress, problem-focused coping, were associated with greater community involvement. Strategies to regulate one's emotional response to stress, emotion-focused coping, were associated with less community involvement. Increased self-efficacy and sense of community led to increased community involvement. Both measures indirectly influenced community involvement through different modes of coping. Self-efficacy was negatively related to emotion-focused coping while sense of community was positively related to problem-focused coping. Increased demoralization was associated with decreased self-efficacy, increased emotion-focused coping, and decreased community involvement. The results suggest that the psychologically most fragile residents are underrepresented in community activities, and that the use of high levels of emotion-focused coping may have been maladaptive.

  13. Personality and Coping among Caregivers of Spouses with Dementia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Karen; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Examined personality factors and coping strategies among 50 spouse caregivers of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease or related dementia. Results showed that personality traits explained 60% of variance in emotion-focused coping, 30% of variance in problem-focused coping, and 15% of variance associated with social support coping.…

  14. Children's coping after psychological stress. Choices among food, physical activity, and television.

    PubMed

    Balantekin, Katherine N; Roemmich, James N

    2012-10-01

    Children's stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if other behavioral alternatives are available. The purpose was to determine individual difference factors that moderate the duration of stress coping choices and to determine if stress-induced eating in youth persists when other stress coping behaviors are available. Thirty children (8-12 years) completed a speech stressor on one day and read magazines on another day. They completed a free-choice period with access to food, TV, and physical activity on both days. Dietary restraint moderated changes in time spent eating and energy consumed from the control to stress day. Children high in restraint increased their energy intake on the stress day. Changes in the time spent watching TV were moderated by usual TV time, as children higher in usual TV increased their TV time after stress. Thus, dietary restrained children eat more when stressed when other common stress coping behaviors are freely available. These results extend the external validity of laboratory studies of stress-induced eating. PMID:22634198

  15. Predicting Changes in Physical Activity among Adolescents: The Role of Self-Efficacy, Intention, Action Planning and Coping Planning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Araujo-Soares, Vera; McIntyre, Teresa; Sniehotta, Falko F.

    2009-01-01

    This paper aims to test the direct predictors of the theory of planned behaviour (TPB), action planning and coping planning as predictors of changes in physical activity (PA) in 157 adolescents (mean age: 12). TPB measures, the Action Planning and Coping Planning Scales (APCPS) and the International Physical Activity Questionnaires were measured…

  16. How Pupils with Severe Visual Impairment Describe Coping with Reading Activities in the Norwegian Inclusive School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vik, Astrid Kristin; Lassen, Liv M.

    2010-01-01

    This article explores how 11 pupils with severe visual impairment cope with reading activities in inclusive Norwegian schools. All pupils received instruction in braille and print, and used an audio-text format. Having multiple reading options provided possibilities for pupils to achieve reading skills, but also generated stress. Theories of…

  17. Stress, Coping Methods, and Physical Activity among Community College Student Nurses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tichy, Anna Mae; Means, Susan I.

    1990-01-01

    Presents findings from a survey of 236 graduates of eight community college nursing programs in Oregon, concerning graduates' perceptions of the level of stress they felt and their personal health status as students in the program, their responses to stress, and positive methods of coping (e.g., physical activity). (DMM)

  18. The Costs and Benefits of Active Coping for Adolescents Residing in Urban Poverty.

    PubMed

    Carothers, Kristin J; Arizaga, Jessica A; Carter, Jocelyn Smith; Taylor, Jeremy; Grant, Kathryn E

    2016-07-01

    The present study addresses the lack of specificity and diversity highlighted in recent stress literature reviews by examining active coping in relationships between exposure to violence and internalizing and externalizing symptoms in a sample of urban youth from predominantly low-income, African American and Latino backgrounds. Two hundred and forty-one youth (mean age at Time 1 = 13 years; 66 % female; 41 % African American, 28 % Latino, 14 % European American, 6 % Asian American, 7 % mixed/biracial, 1 % American Indian/native American, .5 % Hawaiian/Pacific Islander, 2 % other) and their parents participated in this three-wave study. Hierarchical regression analyses tested for moderation, and a cross lag panel path analysis tested for mediation. The results provide greater support for active coping as a variable that changes the relationship between exposure to community violence and externalizing symptoms, or moderation, rather than one that explains or mediates it. Further, specificity did not emerge for type of psychological outcome but did emerge for gender, such that active coping exacerbated the association between exposure to community violence and both internalizing and externalizing symptoms for girls, but not boys. These findings highlight the importance of contextual and demographic factors in influencing stress and coping processes during adolescence. PMID:27138173

  19. Examining Cultural Correlates of Active Coping Among African American Female Trauma Survivors

    PubMed Central

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Sharma, Sakshi; Knighton, Joi Sheree’; Oser, Carrie B.; Leukefeld, Carl G.

    2013-01-01

    African American women are at a greater risk for exposure to multiple traumatic events and are less likely to seek mental health services than White women. Many women report avoidant and passive coping strategies placing them at an increased risk for lower psychological adjustment. Thus, the purpose of the current study is to examine the role of culturally relevant factors such as spirituality, self-esteem, and social support as significant correlates of John Henryism Active Coping among African American female trauma survivors. The study utilized secondary data from the B-WISE project (Black Women in a Study of Epidemics) with a sample of 161 community-based African American women with a self-reported history of trauma. Results indicate that participants with higher self-esteem and existential well-being were more likely to cope actively with daily life stressors. However, socio-demographics were not significant correlates of John Henryism Active Coping at the multivariate level. Implications for clinical practice are discussed along with the Strong Black Woman (SBW) ideology, which may explain over-reporting of positive attributes such as self-esteem and existential well-being. Limitations of the study and directions of future research are also discussed. PMID:25180071

  20. Australian University Students’ Coping Strategies and Use of Pharmaceutical Stimulants as Cognitive Enhancers

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Charmaine; Forlini, Cynthia; Partridge, Brad; Hall, Wayne

    2016-01-01

    Background: There are reports that some university students are using prescription stimulants for non-medical ‘pharmaceutical cognitive enhancement (PCE)’ to improve alertness, focus, memory, and mood in an attempt to manage the demands of study at university. Purported demand for PCEs in academic contexts have been based on incomplete understandings of student motivations, and often based on untested assumptions about the context within which stimulants are used. They may represent attempts to cope with biopsychosocial stressors in university life by offsetting students’ inadequate coping responses, which in turn may affect their cognitive performance. This study aimed to identify (a) what strategies students adopted to cope with the stress of university life and, (b) to assess whether students who have used stimulants for PCE exhibit particular stress or coping patterns. Methods: We interviewed 38 university students (with and without PCE experience) about their experience of managing student life, specifically their: educational values; study habits; achievement; stress management; getting assistance; competing activities and demands; health habits; and cognitive enhancement practices. All interview transcripts were coded into themes and analyzed. Results: Our thematic analysis revealed that, generally, self-rated coping ability decreased as students’ self-rated stress level increased. Students used emotion- and problem-focused coping for the most part and adjustment-focused coping to a lesser extent. Avoidance, an emotion-focused coping strategy, was the most common, followed by problem-focused coping strategies, the use of cognition on enhancing substances, and planning and monitoring of workload. PCE users predominantly used avoidant emotion-focused coping strategies until they no longer mitigated the distress of approaching deadlines resulting in the use of prescription stimulants as a substance-based problem-focused coping strategy. Conclusion: Our

  1. Career Choice Anxiety, Coping, and Perceived Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinstein, Faye M.; Healy, Charles C.; Ender, Philip B.

    2002-01-01

    Presents a study exploring whether perceived control moderates the relation between coping with career indecision and choice anxiety among women in low-level jobs. Results revealed that perceived control interacted with problem-focused coping to increase accountable variance in choice anxiety. Discusses implications for interventions with women in…

  2. Influence of Repressive Coping Style on Cortical Activation during Encoding of Angry Faces

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Astrid Veronika; ter Horst, Lena; Paul, Victoria Gabriele; Bauer, Jochen; Dannlowski, Udo; Konrad, Carsten; Ohrmann, Patricia; Kugel, Harald; Egloff, Boris; Arolt, Volker; Suslow, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Background Coping plays an important role for emotion regulation in threatening situations. The model of coping modes designates repression and sensitization as two independent coping styles. Repression consists of strategies that shield the individual from arousal. Sensitization indicates increased analysis of the environment in order to reduce uncertainty. According to the discontinuity hypothesis, repressors are sensitive to threat in the early stages of information processing. While repressors do not exhibit memory disturbances early on, they manifest weak memory for these stimuli later. This study investigates the discontinuity hypothesis using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Methods Healthy volunteers (20 repressors and 20 sensitizers) were selected from a sample of 150 students on the basis of the Mainz Coping Inventory. During the fMRI experiment, subjects evaluated and memorized emotional and neutral faces. Subjects performed two sessions of face recognition: immediately after the fMRI session and three days later. Results Repressors exhibited greater activation of frontal, parietal and temporal areas during encoding of angry faces compared to sensitizers. There were no differences in recognition of facial emotions between groups neither immediately after exposure nor after three days. Conclusions The fMRI findings suggest that repressors manifest an enhanced neural processing of directly threatening facial expression which confirms the assumption of hyper-responsivity to threatening information in repression in an early processing stage. A discrepancy was observed between high neural activation in encoding-relevant brain areas in response to angry faces in repressors and no advantage in subsequent memory for these faces compared to sensitizers. PMID:25502775

  3. Context-dependent activation of reduced autobiographical memory specificity as an avoidant coping style.

    PubMed

    Debeer, Elise; Raes, Filip; Williams, J Mark G; Hermans, Dirk

    2011-12-01

    According to the affect-regulation hypothesis (Williams et al., 2007), reduced autobiographical memory specificity (rAMS) or overgeneral memory (OGM) might be considered a cognitive avoidance strategy; that is, people learn to avoid the emotionally painful consequences associated with the retrieval of specific negative memories. Based on this hypothesis, one would predict significant negative associations between AMS and avoidant coping. However, studies investigating this prediction have led to equivocal results. In the present study we tested a possible explanation for these contradictory findings. It was hypothesized that rAMS (in part) reflects an avoidant coping strategy, which might only become apparent under certain conditions, that is, conditions that signal the possibility of 'danger.' To test this hypothesis, we assessed AMS and behavioral avoidance but experimentally manipulated the instructions. In the neutral condition, two parallel versions of the Autobiographical Memory Test (AMT) were presented under neutral instructions. In the threat condition, the first AMT was presented under neutral instructions, while the second AMT was presented under 'threat instructions.' Results showed no significant correlations between avoidance and OGM under neutral conditions but significant and markedly stronger correlations under threat conditions, with more avoidance being associated with fewer specific and more categoric memories. In addition, high avoiders showed a stronger reduction in AMS in the threat condition as compared with the neutral condition, while low avoiders showed no such difference between conditions. The data confirm that OGM can be considered as part of a broader avoidant coping style. However, more importantly, they show that, at least in nonclinical individuals, the activation of this coping style may depend on the context. PMID:22142214

  4. John Henryism Active Coping as a Cultural Correlate of Substance Abuse Treatment Participation Among African American Women.

    PubMed

    Stevens-Watkins, Danelle; Knighton, Joi-Sheree'; Allen, Kristin; Fisher, Sycarah; Crowell, Candice; Mahaffey, Carlos; Leukefeld, Carl; Oser, Carrie

    2016-04-01

    The rates of illicit drug use among African American women are increasing, yet African American women are least likely to participate in treatment for substance use disorders when compared to women of other racial groups. The current study examined family history of substance use, perceived family support, and John Henryism Active Coping (JHAC) as correlates to seeking treatment for substance abuse. The underlying theoretical frame of JHAC (James et al., 1983) suggests that despite limited resources and psychosocial stressors, African Americans believe that hard work and self-determination are necessary to cope with adversities. The current study is a secondary data analyses of 206 drug-using African American women (N=104 urban community women with no criminal justice involvement and N=102 women living in the community on supervised probation) from urban cities in a southern state. It was expected that African American women with a family history of substance abuse, higher levels of perceived family support, and more active coping skills would be more likely to have participated in substance abuse treatment. Step-wise logistic regression results reveal that women on probation, had children, and had a family history of substance abuse were significantly more likely to report participating in substance abuse treatment. Perceived family support and active coping were significant negative correlates of participating in treatment. Implication of results suggests coping with psychosocial stressors using a self-determined and persistent coping strategy may be problematic for drug-using women with limited resources. PMID:26899801

  5. Self-Objectification and the Use of Body Image Coping Strategies: The Role of Shame in Highly Physically Active Women.

    PubMed

    Bailey, K Alysse; Lamarche, Larkin; Gammage, Kimberley L; Sullivan, Philip J

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the mediating role of body shame in the relationship between self-objectification and body image coping strategies in highly physically active university women. Bivariate correlations revealed body shame was positively related to self-objectification, appearance fixing, and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. In addition, self-objectification was positively related to appearance fixing and avoidance coping but unrelated to positive rational acceptance. Mediation analyses showed that body shame partially mediated the relationship between self-objectification and avoidance and appearance fixing coping but did not mediate the relationship between self-objectification and positive rational acceptance. Future research should examine other potential mediators or moderators in this relationship and explore the role of positive body image framed within self-objectification theory. PMID:27029108

  6. Coping with Racism: What Works and Doesn't Work for Black Women?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Lindsey M.; Donovan, Roxanne A.; Roemer, Lizabeth

    2010-01-01

    Perceived racial discrimination (PRD) has deleterious effects on Black Americans. However, there is minimal empirical research on the influence of gender and coping on the relationship between PRD and mental health. This study posited that coping style (i.e., problem-focused coping and avoidant coping) would moderate the relationship between PRD…

  7. Perceived Discrimination and Depression: Moderating Effects of Coping, Acculturation, and Ethnic Support

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Samuel; Kaspar, Violet

    2003-01-01

    The authors evaluated the effects of cultural norms and social contexts on coping processes involved in dealing with perceived racial discrimination. Cross-sectional data derived from personal interviews with Korean immigrants residing in Toronto were analyzed. Among the respondents, active, problem-focused coping styles were more effective in reducing the impacts on depression of perceived discrimination, while frequent use of passive, emotion-focused coping had debilitating mental health effects. The present findings lend greater support to a social contextual explanation than to a cultural maintenance explanation of coping processes. They also suggest that, when empowered with sufficient social resources, racial minority individuals of diverse cultural heritages are more likely to confront than to accept racial bias. PMID:12554575

  8. Coping Efficacy and Psychological Problems of Children of Divorce.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandler, Irwin N.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Mehta, Paras; Wolchik, Sharlene; Ayers, Tim

    2000-01-01

    Investigated models relating coping efficacy, coping efforts, and psychological problems of children of divorce. Structural equation model supported coping efficacy as mediating between active coping, avoiding coping, and psychological problems. Prospective longitudinal model supported coping efficacy as mediating between active coping and…

  9. Variability in emotional responsiveness and coping style during active avoidance as a window onto psychological vulnerability to stress.

    PubMed

    Gorka, Adam X; LaBar, Kevin S; Hariri, Ahmad R

    2016-05-01

    Individual differences in coping styles are associated with psychological vulnerability to stress. Recent animal research suggests that coping styles reflect trade-offs between proactive and reactive threat responses during active avoidance paradigms, with proactive responses associated with better stress tolerance. Based on these preclinical findings, we developed a novel instructed active avoidance paradigm to characterize patterns of proactive and reactive responses using behavioral, motoric, and autonomic measures in humans. Analyses revealed significant inter-individual variability not only in the magnitude of general emotional responsiveness but also the likelihood to specifically express proactive or reactive responses. In men but not women, individual differences in general emotional responsiveness were linked to increased trait anxiety while proactive coping style was linked to increased trait aggression. These patterns are consistent with preclinical findings and suggest that instructed active avoidance paradigms may be useful in assessing psychological vulnerability to stress using objective behavioral measures. PMID:26922874

  10. Coping strategies used by poorly adherent patients for self-managing bipolar disorder

    PubMed Central

    Blixen, Carol; Levin, Jennifer B; Cassidy, Kristin A; Perzynski, Adam T; Sajatovic, Martha

    2016-01-01

    Background Bipolar disorder (BD) is a chronic mental illness associated with reduced quality of life, high rates of suicide, and high financial costs. Evidence indicates that psychosocial stress might play an important role in the onset and course of BD. Objective The objective of this study was to address the gap between coping theory and the clinical use of coping strategies used to self-manage BD. Methods In-depth interviews were conducted with a sample of 21 poorly adherent patients with BD. All interviews were audiotaped, transcribed verbatim, and analyzed using content analysis with an emphasis on dominant themes. Results Transcript-based analysis generated two major domains of coping strategies used to self-manage BD: 1) problem focused (altering eating habits, managing mood-stabilizing medications, keeping psychiatric appointments, seeking knowledge, self-monitoring, and socializing) and 2) emotion focused (distracting activities, denial, isolation, modifying/avoiding, helping others, and seeking social support). Participants used both types of coping strategies to deal with stressful situations brought about by the internal and external demands associated with self-management of BD. Conclusion This qualitative study provided a first step in evaluating coping strategies as a possible mediator in the self-management of BD and has implications for health care providers. Being able to characterize an individual’s coping behaviors can help patients modify or replace more maladaptive coping with better coping strategies in the self-management of this chronic mental illness. PMID:27524888

  11. Children’s coping after psychological stress: choices among food, physical activity, and television

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Children’s stress-coping behaviors and their determinants have not been widely studied. Some children eat more after stress and dietary restraint moderates stress eating in youth, but eating has been studied in isolation of other coping behaviors. Children may not choose to eat when stressed if othe...

  12. Co-activation Probability Estimation (CoPE): An approach for modeling functional co-activation architecture based on neuroimaging coordinates.

    PubMed

    Chu, Congying; Fan, Lingzhong; Eickhoff, Claudia R; Liu, Yong; Yang, Yong; Eickhoff, Simon B; Jiang, Tianzi

    2015-08-15

    Recent progress in functional neuroimaging has prompted studies of brain activation during various cognitive tasks. Coordinate-based meta-analysis has been utilized to discover the brain regions that are consistently activated across experiments. However, within-experiment co-activation relationships, which can reflect the underlying functional relationships between different brain regions, have not been widely studied. In particular, voxel-wise co-activation, which may be able to provide a detailed configuration of the co-activation network, still needs to be modeled. To estimate the voxel-wise co-activation pattern and deduce the co-activation network, a Co-activation Probability Estimation (CoPE) method was proposed to model within-experiment activations for the purpose of defining the co-activations. A permutation test was adopted as a significance test. Moreover, the co-activations were automatically separated into local and long-range ones, based on distance. The two types of co-activations describe distinct features: the first reflects convergent activations; the second represents co-activations between different brain regions. The validation of CoPE was based on five simulation tests and one real dataset derived from studies of working memory. Both the simulated and the real data demonstrated that CoPE was not only able to find local convergence but also significant long-range co-activation. In particular, CoPE was able to identify a 'core' co-activation network in the working memory dataset. As a data-driven method, the CoPE method can be used to mine underlying co-activation relationships across experiments in future studies. PMID:26037052

  13. Coping, Resolution and Advocacy in Parents of Children with Autism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Scott Torrance

    2014-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) demonstrate changes in the strategies they use to cope with parenting stress, shifting from problem-focused to emotion-focused coping as their child ages (Gray, 2006). Once parents have resolved their child's diagnosis, they may manage their emotions through sharing social support with…

  14. Coping Strategies Used by Distance Rehabilitation Counseling Interns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kampfe, Charlene M.; Smith, Mae S.; Manyibe, Edward O.; Sales, Amos P.; Moore, Susan F.

    2009-01-01

    This study investigated coping strategies used by distance master's level student interns from one rehabilitation counseling program. Analysis of variance revealed a significant difference among five coping strategies. Post hoc comparisons showed that interns used problem-focused and seeking social support more frequently than self-blame, wishful…

  15. The Roles of Sex, Gender, and Coping in Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Cindy Ellen; DiGiuseppe, Raymond; Froh, Jeffrey

    2006-01-01

    This study investigated the roles of coping and masculinity in higher rates of depressive symptoms among adolescent girls, as compared to boys. A model was designed and tested through path analysis, which involved the variables of sex, gender, problem-focused coping, rumination, and distraction. The Reynolds Adolescent Depression Scale and the Bem…

  16. The Depression Coping Questionnaire.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kleinke, Chris L.

    College students (N=396), chronic pain patients (N=319), and schizophrenic veterans (N=43) completed the Depression Coping Questionnaire (DCQ) and the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI). Factor analysis of the DCQ identified eleven coping responses: social support, problem solving, self-blame/escape, aggression, indulgence, activities, medication,…

  17. Coping strategies used by survivors of childhood sexual abuse on the journey to recovery.

    PubMed

    Phanichrat, Thanomjit; Townshend, Julia M

    2010-01-01

    This interpretative phenomenological analysis study explored seven adult survivors' experiences of coping with childhood sexual abuse and identified their coping strategies on the road to recovery. Data for the analysis was collected using semistructured interviews. The analytical process yielded two key theme clusters: avoidant coping strategies and problem-focused coping strategies. The participants journeyed through similar gradual and dynamic coping processes by initially adopting avoidant strategies before turning to problem-focused ones. A healthy process of coping with sexual abuse involved seeking support, cognitive engagement, optimistic thinking, self-acceptance, and seeking meaning strategies. This study suggests that problem-focused coping strategies should be promoted as part of therapeutic intervention. PMID:20390779

  18. Failure to upregulate Agrp and Orexin in response to activity based anorexia in weight loss vulnerable rats characterized by passive stress coping and prenatal stress experience.

    PubMed

    Boersma, Gretha J; Liang, Nu-Chu; Lee, Richard S; Albertz, Jennifer D; Kastelein, Anneke; Moody, Laura A; Aryal, Shivani; Moran, Timothy H; Tamashiro, Kellie L

    2016-05-01

    We hypothesize that anorexia nervosa (AN) poses a physiological stress. Therefore, the way an individual copes with stress may affect AN vulnerability. Since prenatal stress (PNS) exposure alters stress responsivity in offspring this may increase their risk of developing AN. We tested this hypothesis using the activity based anorexia (ABA) rat model in control and PNS rats that were characterized by either proactive or passive stress-coping behavior. We found that PNS passively coping rats ate less and lost more weight during the ABA paradigm. Exposure to ABA resulted in higher baseline corticosterone and lower insulin levels in all groups. However, leptin levels were only decreased in rats with a proactive stress-coping style. Similarly, ghrelin levels were increased only in proactively coping ABA rats. Neuropeptide Y (Npy) expression was increased and proopiomelanocortin (Pomc) expression was decreased in all rats exposed to ABA. In contrast, agouti-related peptide (Agrp) and orexin (Hctr) expression were increased in all but the PNS passively coping ABA rats. Furthermore, DNA methylation of the orexin gene was increased after ABA in proactive coping rats and not in passive coping rats. Overall our study suggests that passive PNS rats have innate impairments in leptin and ghrelin in responses to starvation combined with prenatal stress associated impairments in Agrp and orexin expression in response to starvation. These impairments may underlie decreased food intake and associated heightened body weight loss during ABA in the passively coping PNS rats. PMID:26907996

  19. Coping with stigma by association and family burden among family members of people with mental illness.

    PubMed

    van der Sanden, Remko L M; Stutterheim, Sarah E; Pryor, John B; Kok, Gerjo; Bos, Arjan E R

    2014-10-01

    In this study, we explored stigma by association, family burden, and their impact on the family members of people with mental illness. We also studied the ways in which family members coped with these phenomena. We conducted semistructured interviews with 23 immediate family members of people with mental illness. Participants reported various experiences of stigma by association and family burden. Social exclusion, being blamed, not being taken seriously, time-consuming caregiving activities, and exhaustion appeared to be the predominant forms of stigma by association and family burden experienced by the participants. The participants used problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies, separately or simultaneously, to cope with the negative impact of stigma by association and family burden. The results suggest that family members should have access to services to address these problems. Social, instrumental, and emotional support should be given to family members by community members and mental health professionals. PMID:25198703

  20. Subjective Stress and Coping Resources Interact To Predict Blood Pressure Reactivity in Black College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Rodney

    2003-01-01

    Examined the effects of subjective stress and coping resources on blood pressure reactivity among black college students. The interactive effects of subjective stress and coping resources predicted diastolic blood pressure reactivity. Higher levels of problem-focused coping related to more marked diastolic blood pressure changes under conditions…

  1. Coping Strategy Use, Personality, and Adjustment of Parents Rearing Children with Developmental Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glidden, L. M.; Natcher, A. L.

    2009-01-01

    Background: Parents rearing children with developmental disabilities encounter stressors that require coping and adaptation. In Glidden et al. 2006, the use of problem-focused coping strategies was more often associated with positive adjustment outcomes than was the use of emotion-focused coping strategies, and parental personality was shown to…

  2. The role of meaning-focused coping in significant loss.

    PubMed

    Guo, Mingzhu; Gan, Yiqun; Tong, Jing

    2013-01-01

    When individuals face uncontrollable situations such as natural disasters, meaning-focused coping (MFC) can contribute to individuals' adjustment. The objectives of the current study were to examine the role of MFC in post-traumatic growth and to explore how three different types of coping (problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping, and MFC) affected the mental health of earthquake victims following the 2008 Sichuan Earthquake. Hierarchical regression analyses indicated that MFC had a significantly incremental value in predicting positive affect (ΔR2=7.6%, p<.01) and well-being (ΔR2=3.1%, p<.01), above and beyond problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping. In contrast, for negative affect and depression, these incremental effects were not significant. Path analysis was conducted to test the mediating role of post-traumatic growth among the three coping styles and the outcome variables (well-being, positive affect, negative affect, and depression). The results showed that post-traumatic growth mediated the path from MFC to well-being and positive affect (for positive affect: Sobel z = 3.74, p<.001; for well-being: Sobel z = 5.02, p<.001). In addition, post-traumatic growth mediated the path from problem-focused coping to depression (Sobel z = 2.21, p<.001). The hypothetical model of emotion-focused coping did not converge. PMID:22091795

  3. Psychobiology of PTSD in the Acute Aftermath of Trauma: Integrating Research on Coping, HPA Function and Sympathetic Nervous System Activity

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Matthew C.; Rao, Uma

    2012-01-01

    Research on the psychobiological sequelae of trauma has typically focused on long-term alterations in individuals with chronic posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Far less is known about the nature and course of psychobiological risk factors for PTSD during the acute aftermath of trauma. In this review, we summarize data from prospective studies focusing on the relationships among sympathetic nervous system activity, hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal function, coping strategies and PTSD symptoms during the early recovery (or non-recovery) phase. Findings from pertinent studies are integrated to inform psychobiological profiles of PTSD-risk in children and adults in the context of existing models of PTSD-onset and maintenance. Data regarding bidirectional relations between coping strategies and stress hormones is reviewed. Limitations of existing literature and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:23380312

  4. Optimism and coping strategies among Caucasian, Korean, and African American older women.

    PubMed

    Lee, Heesoon; Mason, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Coping strategies and optimism have significant effects on the health of older women. Culture affects coping behaviors used to deal with stress. We examined the relationship between optimism and coping strategies used to manage daily stress and health among community-dwelling Caucasian, Korean American, and African American women. Data were collected from 373 women over the age of 65. Results showed that each group used different coping strategies. The more optimistic used more problem-focused and adaptive copings, while the less optimistic employed more avoidant copings. Differences in cultural background and individual levels of optimism guided their coping strategies. PMID:23865863

  5. The Effect of Solution-Focused Versus Problem-Focused Questions: A Replication.

    PubMed

    Neipp, Marie-Carmen; Beyebach, Mark; Nuñez, Rosa M; Martínez-González, Marie-Carmen

    2016-07-01

    In therapeutic conversations, questions can be considered as interventions in their own right. This study is a cross-cultural replication of Grant (Journal of Systemic Therapies, 2012, 31, 2, 21) study on the effects of different types of questions on various clinically relevant variables. A total of 204 students of a Spanish university described a real-life problem that they wanted to solve and were then randomly assigned to either a solution-focused or a problem-focused questions condition. Before and after answering the questions, they completed a set of measures that assessed positive and negative affect, self-efficacy, and goal attainment. Solution-focused questions produced a significantly greater increase in self-efficacy, goal approach, and action steps than problem-focused questions, and a significantly greater decrease in negative affect, providing further empirical support to solution-focused practices. PMID:26387987

  6. To Cope with the Current: Guidelines and Activities for Learning to Deal with Change. Bulletin 35.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, William R.

    Eight guidelines for teaching students to cope with change are included in this handbook, which is directed at teachers, student teachers, supervisors of instruction, and curriculum specialists. They include a) providing time for thinking about and dealing with change, b) knowing oneself and one's values, c) setting realistic goals for personal…

  7. An investigation of coping styles of hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Dehkordi, Leila Mardanian; Shahgholian, Nahid

    2013-01-01

    Background: Hemodialysis patients are exposed to different stressful factors and have to use coping strategies as supportive processes. The goal of the present study is to investigate coping styles of hemodialysis patients. Materials and Methods: This is a descriptive analytical study conducted on 96 patients referring to hemodialysis centers affiliated to Isfahan University of Medical Sciences in 2011. The data, collected by a questionnaire including two sections of demographic characteristics and patients’ coping with the disease, were analyzed by parametric and non- parametric statistical tests. Results: Patients used emotion focused coping strategies more (mean = 20.07, SD = 4.39) to adapt with the disease compared to problem focused coping strategies (mean = 14.65, SD = 5.08). There was a significant association in coping (P = 0.027) and emotion focused dimension (P = 0.008) in various ages, but there was no significant association in problem focused dimension (P = 0.134). Conclusion: Since most of the hemodialysis patients use emotion focused coping styles, it is suggested to consider educational programs on application of problem focused coping styles for these patients in order to decrease the pressures of the disease and treatment, and to promote their mental health, quality of life and efficiency. PMID:23983727

  8. Predicting Physical Activity Outcomes During Episodes of Academic Goal Conflict: The Differential Role of Action Planning and Coping Planning.

    PubMed

    Carraro, Natasha; Gaudreau, Patrick

    2015-09-01

    The moderating role of academic goal conflict in the relations between action planning (AP) and coping planning (CP) with physical activity was tested using samples of university students concurrently pursuing an academic and a physical activity goal. In Study 1 (N = 317), AP was found to positively relate to physical activity goal progress at low, but not at high, levels of goal conflict. CP trended toward being positively related to goal progress at high, but not at low levels of goal conflict. Study 2 (N = 97), using a 1-week daily diary design and measures of self-reported physical activity behavior and goal progress, showed that daily AP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced lower, but not higher, levels of goal conflict relative to their average. Conversely, CP positively related to daily physical activity outcomes on days when students experienced higher, but not lower, levels of goal conflict. PMID:26174696

  9. Conscious and unconscious coping with loss.

    PubMed

    Jacobs, S; Kasl, S; Schaefer, C; Ostfeld, A

    1994-01-01

    Sixty-seven persons were identified 1 to 2 months after the death or life-threatening illness of their spouse and followed for 25 months. Intake measures included a) a revised Ways of Coping Scale, a structured assessment of ego defenses, sociodemographic information, and other baseline variables. Fifty-six completed follow-up. Outcome measures included deaths, hospitalization, self-rated health, depressive symptoms, symptoms of anxiety, and separation distress. In our analyses, bereavement was used as a covariate and found to be unrelated to outcome. Low self-ratings on coping by making a change and problem-focused planning predicted higher scores on separation distress at 13 months (p < or = .05). Participants who used less problem-focused planning were at risk for higher depression scores 13 months after the stressful event (p < or = .05). Low ego-defensive work and high neurotic ego-defensive ratings predicted high depression scores at 13 months (p < or = .05). At 25 months, coping by self-blame was inversely related to scores on separation distress (p < or = .05). Coping variables predicted neither scores on anxiety symptom scales nor the outcomes of hospitalization or death over the 25-month study period. These observations counter some prevailing clinical assumptions about coping with a loss and emphasize the value of empirical studies of coping as a mediator of outcome during the stress of a loss. PMID:7871112

  10. Changes in Coping, Pain and Activity following Cognitive-Behavioral Training: A Randomized Clinical Trial for Pediatric Sickle Cell Disease using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Schatz, Jeffrey; Schlenz, Alyssa; McClellan, Catherine B.; Puffer, Eve S.; Hardy, Steven; Pfeiffer, Matthew; Roberts, Carla W.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives We examined the outcomes of a cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) intervention for pain in pediatric sickle cell disease (SCD) using smartphones as a novel delivery method. Methods Forty-six children with SCD received CBT coping skills training using a randomized, waitlist control design. The intervention involved a single-session of CBT training and home-based practice using smartphones for eight weeks. Pre-post questionnaires between the randomized groups were used to evaluate changes in active psychological coping and negative thinking using the Coping Strategies Questionnaire. Daily diaries completed by the full sample during the treatment period were used to assess if CBT skill use was related to reductions in next day pain intensity and increases in same day functional activity. Results The pre-post group comparison suggested that youth increased active psychological coping attempts with the intervention. Daily diary data indicated that when children used CBT skills on days with higher pain, there were reductions in next day pain intensity. There was no such association between skill use and functional activity. Discussion CBT coping skills training supported via smartphones can increase coping and reduce pain intensity for children with SCD; however, additions to the study protocols are recommended in future studies. Advantages and caveats of using smartphones are also discussed. PMID:25503599

  11. Relations between different coping strategies for social stress, tumor development and neuroendocrine and immune activity in male mice.

    PubMed

    Azpiroz, A; De Miguel, Z; Fano, E; Vegas, O

    2008-07-01

    This study analyzes the effects of acute social stress and different coping strategies employed in response to it on the development of B16F10 melanoma pulmonary metastases, the activation of the HPA axis and the NKG2D receptor expression. To this end, male OF1 mice were subjected to 24h of social stress using the sensorial contact model. This model includes three 5-min sessions of direct social interaction with resident cagemates selected for consistent levels of aggression. Subjects' behavior was videotaped and assessed. Six days after the first social interaction (1st social stress), the animals were inoculated with tumor cells or vehicle, and six days later, both tumor-bearing and non tumor-bearing mice were subjected to a second 24h sensorial contact social stress session (2nd social stress). One hour after the 2nd social interaction, corticosterone levels and NKG2D receptor expression were determined. Lung metastatic foci numbers were determined 21 days after inoculation (15 days post-stress). Social stress increased the number of pulmonary metastases and the serum corticosterone level. A combination of cluster and discriminant analyses established the existence of two types of coping strategies: (1) a passive-reactive strategy characterized by subjects dedicating a greater percentage of time to submission, flee and avoidance behaviors; and (2) an active-proactive strategy, characterized by subjects dedicating a greater percentage of time to attack and non social exploration behaviors. Subjects belonging to the passive-reactive group were found to have a higher number of tumor foci, a higher level of corticosterone and a lower NKG2D receptor expression than subjects in the active-proactive group. These data indicate the relationship between different coping strategies for social stress and tumor development. PMID:18061400

  12. Do Cardiovascular Responses to Active and Passive Coping Tasks predict Future Blood Pressure over a 10-Month Later?

    PubMed

    Yuenyongchaiwat, Kornanong; Baker, Ian; Maratos, Frankie; Sheffield, David

    2016-01-01

    The study examined whether cardiovascular responses to active or passive coping tasks and single or multiple tasks predicted changes in resting blood pressure (BP) over a ten-month period. Heart rate (HR), BP, cardiac output (CO), and total peripheral resistance (TPR) were measured at rest, and during mental stress tests (mental arithmetic, speech, and cold pressor tasks). A total of 104 eligible participants participated in the initial study, and 77 (74.04%) normotensive adult participants' resting BP were re-evaluated at ten-month follow-up. Regression analyses indicated that after adjustment for baseline BP, initial age, gender, body mass index, family history of cardiovascular disease, and current cigarette smoking, heighted systolic blood pressure (SBP) and HR responses to an active coping task (mental arithmetic) were associated with increased future SBP (ΔR2 = .060, ΔR2 = .045, respectively). Further, aggregated SBP responsivity (over the three tasks) to the predictor models resulted in significant, but smaller increases in ΔR2 accounting for .040 of the variance of follow-up SBP. These findings suggest that cardiovascular responses to active coping tasks predict future SBP. Further, compared with single tasks, the findings revealed that SBP responses to three tasks were less predictive compared to an individual task (i.e., mental arithmetic). Of importance, hemodynamic reactivity (namely CO and TPR) did not predict future BP suggesting that more general psychophysiological processes (e.g., inflammation, platelet aggregation) may be implicated, or that BP, but not hemodynamic reactivity may be a marker of hypertension. PMID:26972632

  13. Pupil Insights into Bullying, and Coping with Bullying: A Bi-National Study in Japan and England.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kanetsuna, Tomoyuki; Smith, Peter K.

    2002-01-01

    Investigated children's perceptions of bullying and coping with bullying in Japan and England. Surveys of secondary school students indicated that respondents had definite ideas about the best coping strategies for different types of bullying. They considered problem-focused coping skills more useful than emotional-focused skills. Most victims and…

  14. Optimal control of a Cope rearrangement by coupling the reaction path to a dissipative bath or a second active mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chenel, A.; Meier, C.; Dive, G.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.

    2015-01-01

    We compare the strategy found by the optimal control theory in a complex molecular system according to the active subspace coupled to the field. The model is the isomerization during a Cope rearrangement of Thiele's ester that is the most stable dimer obtained by the dimerization of methyl-cyclopentadienenylcarboxylate. The crudest partitioning consists in retaining in the active space only the reaction coordinate, coupled to a dissipative bath of harmonic oscillators which are not coupled to the field. The control then fights against dissipation by accelerating the passage across the transition region which is very wide and flat in a Cope reaction. This mechanism has been observed in our previous simulations [Chenel et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 11273 (2012)]. We compare here, the response of the control field when the reaction path is coupled to a second active mode. Constraints on the integrated intensity and on the maximum amplitude of the fields are imposed limiting the control landscape. Then, optimum field from one-dimensional simulation cannot provide a very high yield. Better guess fields based on the two-dimensional model allow the control to exploit different mechanisms providing a high control yield. By coupling the reaction surface to a bath, we confirm the link between the robustness of the field against dissipation and the time spent in the delocalized states above the transition barrier.

  15. Optimal control of a Cope rearrangement by coupling the reaction path to a dissipative bath or a second active mode

    SciTech Connect

    Chenel, A.; Meier, C.; Dive, G.; Desouter-Lecomte, M.

    2015-01-14

    We compare the strategy found by the optimal control theory in a complex molecular system according to the active subspace coupled to the field. The model is the isomerization during a Cope rearrangement of Thiele’s ester that is the most stable dimer obtained by the dimerization of methyl-cyclopentadienenylcarboxylate. The crudest partitioning consists in retaining in the active space only the reaction coordinate, coupled to a dissipative bath of harmonic oscillators which are not coupled to the field. The control then fights against dissipation by accelerating the passage across the transition region which is very wide and flat in a Cope reaction. This mechanism has been observed in our previous simulations [Chenel et al., J. Phys. Chem. A 116, 11273 (2012)]. We compare here, the response of the control field when the reaction path is coupled to a second active mode. Constraints on the integrated intensity and on the maximum amplitude of the fields are imposed limiting the control landscape. Then, optimum field from one-dimensional simulation cannot provide a very high yield. Better guess fields based on the two-dimensional model allow the control to exploit different mechanisms providing a high control yield. By coupling the reaction surface to a bath, we confirm the link between the robustness of the field against dissipation and the time spent in the delocalized states above the transition barrier.

  16. Self-Efficacy for Coping with Barriers Helps Students Stay Physically Active during Transition to Their First Year at a University

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bray, Steven R.

    2007-01-01

    The present study examined undergraduate students' physical activity during transition from high school to first-year university. Students' (N = 127) self-efficacy for coping with barriers to physical activity was investigated both as a predictor of physical activity and mediator of the relationship between pretransition and first-year physical…

  17. Measuring coping in pregnant minority women.

    PubMed

    Ruiz, Roberta Jeanne; Gennaro, Susan; O'Connor, Caitlin; Marti, C Nathan; Lulloff, Amanda; Keshinover, Tayra; Gibeau, Anne; Melnyk, Bernadette

    2015-02-01

    Coping strategies may help explain why some minority women experience more stress and poorer birth outcomes, so a psychometrically sound instrument to assess coping is needed. We examined the psychometric properties, readability, and correlates of coping in pregnant Black (n = 186) and Hispanic (n = 220) women using the Brief COPE. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis tested psychometric properties. The Flesch-Kincaid Reading Level test assessed readability. Linear regression models tested correlates of coping. Findings suggested two factors for the questionnaire: active and disengaged coping, as well as adequate reliability, validity, and readability level. For disengaged coping, Cronbach's α was .78 (English) and .70 (Spanish), and for active coping .86 (English) and .92 (Spanish). A two group confirmatory factor analysis revealed both minority groups had equivalent factor loadings. The reading level was at the sixth grade. Age, education, and gravidity were all found to be significant correlates with active coping. PMID:24658289

  18. Fibromyalgia, Spirituality, Coping and Quality of Life.

    PubMed

    Biccheri, Eliane; Roussiau, Nicolas; Mambet-Doué, Constance

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this study is to identify the impact of spirituality on coping strategies and on the quality of life of fibromyalgia patients. The study was carried out on 590 people suffering from fibromyalgia. The data were collected with the French version of the WCC-R (The Ways of Coping Checklist: Cousson et al. 1996), the questionnaire of spirituality (Evaluation de La Spiritualité: Renard and Roussiau, 2016) and Diener's Satisfaction with Life Scale questionnaire, translated into French (Blais et al. 1989). An analysis carried out with the software SPSS and Hayes' models showed that both problem-focused coping and coping through social support seeking are mediating variables that enable an indirect link between spirituality and quality of life. PMID:26922751

  19. Monitoring: a dual-function coping style.

    PubMed

    Shiloh, Shoshana; Orgler-Shoob, Michal

    2006-04-01

    Monitoring (Miller, 1991) is defined as a cognitive coping style characterized by the tendency to seek information about threats. This study found that information seeking in stressful situations is perceived by individuals as related to the emotion-focused more than the problem-focused function of coping and that there is considerable variance among individuals in the perceived functions of information seeking and the relationships among information-seeking reactions and their perceived functions. Information-seeking preferences in a natural stressful situation (a final course examination) were predicted by individual differences in perceived functions of information seeking rather than by generalized behavioral coping styles (monitoring). The results were interpreted in relation to the cognitive-affective system theory (Mischel & Shoda, 1995), and implications for the measurement of coping dispositions were discussed. PMID:16529583

  20. Anxiety, Self-Esteem and Coping with Stress in Secondary School Students in Relation to Involvement in Organized Sports

    PubMed Central

    DOLENC, Petra

    2015-01-01

    Aim The objective of the study was to examine self-esteem, anxiety level and coping strategies among secondary school students in relation to their involvement in organized sports. Methods The sample included 280 Slovenian male and female secondary school students aged between 15 and 19 years. The participants completed The Adolescent Coping Scale, the Spielberger State-Trait Anxiety Inventory, and the PSDQ Selfesteem Scale. Results Participants engaged in organized sports exhibited higher self-esteem scores and lower anxiety scores in comparison to non-sport participants. Differences between the two groups have also been identified with respect to the use of certain coping strategies. Sport participants reported more productive coping than non-sport participants, which represents an active and problem-focused approach to dealing with everyday problems. Gender differences in the referred variables have also been studied, with female athletes exhibiting higher levels of anxiety than male athletes. Female participants were also found to use more non-productive coping than males, focused mainly on reducing emotional effects of stress. Conclusions Organized youth sports have an important role in improving and maintaining a favorable sense of self-worth, reducing anxiety, and promoting productive coping strategies in adolescents when dealing with everyday problems.

  1. Active coping toward predatory stress is associated with lower corticosterone and progesterone plasma levels and decreased methylation in the medial amygdala vasopressin system.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Michael T; Dass, Shantala A Hari; Booth, Jessica; Suraev, Anastasia; Vyas, Ajai; McGregor, Iain S

    2014-08-01

    An active coping style displayed under stress - which involves proactive investigatory responses toward environmental threats - has been associated with reduced vulnerability to psychiatric illness. However, the neurobiological determinants of coping styles are not well understood. When rats are exposed to a naturalistic stressor (cat fur) in a group, some individuals in the group show robust active investigation of the stimulus while others show a passive response involving retreat, immobility and close aggregation with conspecifics. Here we explored endocrine and epigenetic correlates of these contrasting coping styles. Male Wistar rats (n=48) were exposed to cat fur in groups of 4 and the passive and active responders were identified and assessed for endocrine and epigenetic differences. Three days after the final cat fur exposure, active responders had substantially lower plasma levels of corticosterone and progesterone than passive responders. Plasma and testicular testosterone levels did not differ between active and passive responders. Active responders had markedly less methylation of the AVP CGCG promoter region located at base 4970 in the posterodorsal region of the medial amygdala but did not differ in the methylation status of the CCGG sequence located at base 2243. This is in agreement with prior research suggesting that AVP and progesterone act in opposition within the medial amygdala to modulate stress-related behaviors. The present study reports striking endocrine and epigenetic differences between active and passive responders, providing insight into potential systems involved in the manifestation of differing coping styles. PMID:25127982

  2. Relationships among Abuse Characteristics, Coping Strategies, and Abused Women's Psychological Health: A Path Model

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Glennys; Lee, Christina

    2007-01-01

    We examined relationships between abuse, coping, and psychological health among 143 women who had experienced abuse in adult relationships. Measures included characteristics of the abuse, problem-focused and emotion-focused coping, Sense of Coherence, and four measures of psychological wellbeing--the SF-36 Mental Component Scale, the General…

  3. The Development and Application of the Coping with Bullying Scale for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parris, Leandra N.

    2013-01-01

    The Multidimensional Model for Coping with Bullying (MMCB; Parris, in development) was conceptualized based on a literature review of coping with bullying and by combining relevant aspects of previous models. Strategies were described based on their focus (problem-focused vs. emotion-focused) and orientation (avoidance, approach-self,…

  4. Experience of Being Spurned: Coping Style, Stress Preparation, and Depersonalization in Beginning Kindergarten Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wong, Kwok Sai; Cheuk, Wai Hing; Rosen, Sidney

    2007-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to examine whether recurrent rejection of offers of help by peer teachers would induce depersonalization in kindergarten teachers. Another objective was to examine whether a predominantly problem-focused coping style would be more effective than a predominantly emotion-focused coping style in reducing the…

  5. Coping Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    This annotated bibliography lists approximately 150 braille books and 300 audiocassettes of books which address coping skills for people in a variety of situations. All items listed are available in the network library collections provided by the National Library Service for the Blind and Physically Handicapped of the Library of Congress.…

  6. Couples' agreement on presenting problems predicts engagement and outcomes in problem-focused couple therapy.

    PubMed

    Biesen, Judith N; Doss, Brian D

    2013-08-01

    This study investigated the impact of couples' agreement regarding relationship problems at therapy intake on subsequent treatment engagement and success. One hundred and 47 couples seeking marital therapy at one of two Veteran Administration Medical Centers completed questionnaires assessing relationship satisfaction and were asked to indicate their three biggest relationship concerns. Agreement on relationship concern was defined as one person's list containing the partner's top relationship problem. Pretreatment agreement on relationship problems was unrelated to treatment course or outcomes when the therapy was longer and more integrative in nature. However, when couples received a brief, problem-focused treatment, agreement predicted greater engagement in therapy process and more positive treatment outcomes. Specifically, couples who were in agreement were more likely to attend the minimum number of required sessions and were more likely to be assessed as having received a full course of therapy by their treatment provider. Additionally, partners who agreed with each other were more likely to experience clinically significant changes during treatment. Taken together, results suggest that therapists and researchers should consider assessing agreement on relationship problems at the beginning of treatment and potentially suggest that couples who perceive their relationship differently should receive more integrative treatment. Future research is needed to examine the most effective sequencing for addressing differing, presenting problems as well as the mechanisms through which disagreement on presenting problems impacts treatment course and outcomes. PMID:23772844

  7. Women's Eating Problems: An Analysis of a Coping Mechanism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hooker, Dawn; Convisser, Ellen

    1983-01-01

    Discusses clinical observations of women (N=100) with eating problems, focusing on emotional issues as well as how these women use food as a coping mechanism. Reported that therapy helped these women shed anxiety and fear about food and to see eating as something they consciously choose to do. (LLL)

  8. How they cope: a qualitative study of the coping skills of hospice volunteers.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mary V

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this phenomenological study was to examine the coping techniques utilized by hospice volunteers. Individual semi-structured interviews were conducted with 15 hospice volunteers who had at least 1 year of experience, working as a hospice volunteer with direct patient care. The interviews were digitally recorded, transcribed, and analyzed utilizing qualitative research methods. The results indicated the volunteers used problem-focused coping (seeking advice from members of the hospice interdisciplinary team), emotion-focused coping (talking with others, going to funerals), meaning making through appraisal (religious beliefs, downward comparison), and physical techniques (walking, deep breathing). The most significant coping mechanism utilized for the volunteer was talking with the volunteer coordinator. Implications for hospice volunteer coordinators are also discussed. PMID:21262760

  9. Coping strategies to manage acculturative stress: Meaningful activity participation, social support, and positive emotion among Korean immigrant adolescents in the USA

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Kim, Sooyeon; Gopalan, Himanshu

    2012-01-01

    During acculturation, Asian immigrant adolescents have numerous challenges such as language barriers, cultural and ethnic differences, different school environments, discrimination experiences, and intergroup conflicts and tension. These challenges generate acculturative stress, which negatively affects the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. This article explored how Asian immigrant adolescents perceive and cope with acculturative stress. In particular, this study examined the stress-coping strategies in the adaptation process as experienced by Korean immigrant adolescents. Three main themes associated with the stress-coping strategies were captured: (a) engagement in meaningful activities; (b) social support; and (c) positive emotion. This finding implies that Asian immigrant adolescents create and develop their own strategies to deal with acculturative stress, which results in a sense of happiness and psychological well-being. This study discuss the future implications on how to improve the perception of health and well-being among Asian immigrant adolescents. PMID:23195747

  10. HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean communities in the Netherlands: manifestations, consequences and coping.

    PubMed

    Stutterheim, Sarah E; Bos, Arjan E R; Shiripinda, Iris; de Bruin, Marijn; Pryor, John B; Schaalma, Herman P

    2012-01-01

    HIV-related stigma in African and Afro-Caribbean diaspora communities in the Netherlands was investigated. Interviews with HIV-positive and HIV-negative community members demonstrated that HIV-related stigma manifests as social distance, physical distance, words and silence. The psychological consequences of HIV-related stigma among those diagnosed with HIV reported were emotional pain, sadness, loneliness, anger, frustration and internalised stigma. The social consequences included decreased social network size, limited social support and social isolation, and resulted from not only enacted stigma but also self-imposed social withdrawal. Also, poor treatment adherence was a health-related consequence. People living with HIV employed both problem-focused and emotion-focused coping strategies to mitigate the negative consequences of stigma. Problem-focused coping strategies included selective disclosure, disengagement, affiliating with similar others, seeking social support and, to a lesser extent, activism. Emotion-focused strategies included distraction, positive reappraisal, religious coping, external attributions, disidentification and acceptance. HIV-related stigma clearly permeates African and Afro-Caribbean communities in the Netherlands, and should be targeted for intervention. PMID:21678184

  11. On the Limits of Coping: Interaction between Stress and Coping for Inner-City Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzales, Nancy A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin N.; Friedman, Ruth J.

    2001-01-01

    Examined effects of four coping dimensions on conduct problems, depression, and achievement in multiethnic, inner- city sample of early adolescents. Found that for girls, interactions of active coping with family and community stress revealed a classic stress-buffering effect for active coping. Findings for boys did not support this effect.…

  12. Migraine and Meditation: Characteristics of Cortical Activity and Stress Coping in Migraine Patients, Meditators and Healthy Controls-An Exploratory Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Keller, Armin; Meyer, Bianca; Wöhlbier, Hans-Georg; Overath, Claudia Helene; Kropp, Peter

    2016-09-01

    The aim of this exploratory cross-sectional study was to investigate the characteristics of cortical activity and stress coping in migraine patients, meditation experienced subjects, and healthy controls. 45 meditation experienced subjects, 46 migraine patients, and 46 healthy controls took part in the study. Cortical activity was measured with the contingent negative variation (CNV), a slow cortical event-related potential. Stress coping was examined with the standardized Stress Coping Questionnaire SVF-78. A one-way analysis of variance was used to investigate possible differences between the groups. CNV-amplitude was significantly higher in migraineurs than in controls. The meditators showed significantly lowest amplitudes. Migraine patients used negative stress-coping strategies significantly more often than meditators and healthy controls. Especially the application of the strategy "rumination" was most frequent in migraine patients and least frequent in meditators. Moreover, frequent rumination was significantly correlated with high CNV-amplitudes. Cortical and stress processing in people with meditation experience was improved compared to migraine patients and healthy controls. PMID:26984470

  13. Individual Differences in Coping with Stressful Mass Media: An Activation-Arousal View.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, Glenn G.; Spirek, Melissa M.

    1988-01-01

    Reports on two studies summarizing recent advances in the study of behavioral dispositions by detailing the activation-arousal framework. Uses the Miller Behavioral Style Scale to measure individual differences in activation/arousal while viewing a negative emotional film segment and media coverage of the explosion of the space shuttle…

  14. Coping strategies in patients with acquired brain injury: relationships between coping, apathy, depression and lesion location.

    PubMed

    Finset, A; Andersson, S

    2000-10-01

    Coping strategies in individuals suffering severe traumatic brain injury (TBI), cerebrovascular accidents (CVA), or hypoxic brain injury (HBI) were investigated in relation to apathy, depression, and lesion location. Seventy patients (27 with TBI, 30 with CVA, and 13 with HBI) filled in a coping questionnaire (COPE) and were evaluated with respect to apathy and depression. A comparison sample of 71 students also filled in COPE. Patients coping strategies were similar to the comparison group, but patients tended to display less differentiated coping styles. A factor analysis indicated two dimensions of coping in the patient sample; approach oriented and avoidance oriented coping. Approach and avoidance coping sum scores, based on subscales from the two factors, were positively correlated in the patient sample, but not in the comparison group. Lack of active approach oriented coping was associated with apathy, whereas avoidant coping was associated with depression. Coping styles were not related to lesion location. Apathy was related to subcortical and right hemisphere lesions. In bivariate analyses, depression was unrelated to lesion location, but, in a MANCOVA, avoidant coping, apathy and lesion location (left hemisphere lesions) contributed to the variance in positive depressive symptoms. The consistent relationships between coping strategies and neuropsychiatric symptoms were interpreted as two dimensions of adaptational behaviour: an active vs. passive dimension and a depression--distress-avoidance dimension. PMID:11076135

  15. Coping with negative symptoms of schizophrenia: patient and family perspectives.

    PubMed

    Mueser, K T; Valentiner, D P; Agresta, J

    1997-01-01

    An exploratory study was conducted of the strategies that schizophrenia patients and their relatives employ to cope with negative symptoms. Coping strategies and their perceived efficacy were elicited in semistructured interviews conducted separately with patients and relatives. Coping responses were coded according to the following dimensions: behavioral-cognitive, social-nonsocial, and problem focused-emotion focused. Overall, the number of coping strategies was related to perceived coping efficacy for both patients and relatives, regardless of the type of strategy. Perceived coping efficacy tended to be highest for apathy; intermediate for alogia, anhedonia, and inattention; and lowest for blunting. Relatives with more knowledge about schizophrenia used more coping strategies and reported higher levels of coping efficacy. Patient rejection by relatives and distress (either patient or relative) tended to not be related to coping strategies. The findings suggest that patients and relatives use a wide variety of strategies to cope with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. Future clinical work and research need to evaluate whether families may benefit from psychoeducational approaches to teaching them how to better manage negative symptoms. PMID:9165641

  16. Latent Class Analysis of Gambling Activities in a Sample of Young Swiss Men: Association with Gambling Problems, Substance Use Outcomes, Personality Traits and Coping Strategies.

    PubMed

    Studer, Joseph; Baggio, Stéphanie; Mohler-Kuo, Meichun; Simon, Olivier; Daeppen, Jean-Bernard; Gmel, Gerhard

    2016-06-01

    The study aimed to identify different patterns of gambling activities (PGAs) and to investigate how PGAs differed in gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. A representative sample of 4989 young Swiss males completed a questionnaire assessing seven distinct gambling activities, gambling problems, substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies. PGAs were identified using latent class analysis (LCA). Differences between PGAs in gambling and substance use outcomes, personality traits and coping strategies were tested. LCA identified six different PGAs. With regard to gambling and substance use outcomes, the three most problematic PGAs were extensive gamblers, followed by private gamblers, and electronic lottery and casino gamblers, respectively. By contrast, the three least detrimental PGAs were rare or non-gamblers, lottery only gamblers and casino gamblers. With regard to personality traits, compared with rare or non-gamblers, private and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sensation seeking. Electronic lottery and casino gamblers, private gamblers and extensive gamblers had higher levels of aggression-hostility. Extensive and casino gamblers reported higher levels of sociability, whereas casino gamblers reported lower levels of anxiety-neuroticism. Extensive gamblers used more maladaptive and less adaptive coping strategies than other groups. Results suggest that gambling is not a homogeneous activity since different types of gamblers exist according to the PGA they are engaged in. Extensive gamblers, electronic and casino gamblers and private gamblers may have the most problematic PGAs. Personality traits and coping skills may predispose individuals to PGAs associated with more or less negative outcomes. PMID:25929440

  17. The arbuscular mycorrhizal Rhizophagus irregularis activates storage lipid biosynthesis to cope with the benzo[a]pyrene oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Calonne, Maryline; Fontaine, Joël; Debiane, Djouher; Laruelle, Frédéric; Grandmougin-Ferjani, Anne; Lounès-Hadj Sahraoui, Anissa

    2014-01-01

    The phytoremediation assisted by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) could constitute an ecological and economic method to restore polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) polluted soils. Unfortunately, little is known about the PAH impact on the beneficial symbiotic AMF. Using radiolabelling experiments, our work aims to understand how benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a representative of high molecular weight PAH, acts on the AMF lipid metabolism. Our results showed decreases in the sterol precursors as well as in total phospholipid quantities, in link with the [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation decreases in these lipids. Interestingly, a concomitant increase of [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation by 29.5% into phosphatidylcholine with its content decrease in Rhizophagus irregularis extraradical mycelium was observed, suggesting a membrane regeneration. A second concomitant increase (estimated to 69%) of [1-(14)C]acetate incorporation into triacylglycerols (TAG) with the content decrease was also observed. This suggests a fungal TAG biosynthesis activation probably to offset the decrease in storage lipid content when the fungus was grown under B[a]P pollution. In addition, our findings showed that lipase activity was induced by more than 3 fold in the presence of B[a]P in comparison to the control indicating that the drop in TAG content could be a consequence of their active degradation. Taken together, our data suggest the involvement of the fungal TAG metabolism to cope B[a]P toxicity through two means: (i) by providing carbon skeletons and energy necessary for membrane regeneration and/or for B[a]P translocation and degradation as well as (ii) by activating the phosphatidic acid and hexose metabolisms which may be involved in cellular stress defence. PMID:24246754

  18. COPE: A Pilot Study With Urban-Dwelling Minority Sixth-Grade Youth to Improve Physical Activity and Mental Health Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Hoying, Jacqueline; Melnyk, Bernadette Mazurek

    2016-10-01

    Approximately one in three preadolescents (34%) is obese/overweight and one in four (25%) experience a mental health issue. Urban youth suffer from higher rates of these problems, and at earlier ages than their peers. This study's purpose was to determine feasibility/acceptability and preliminary effects of the COPE (Creating Opportunities for Personal Empowerment) Healthy Lifestyles TEEN (Thinking, Emotion, Exercise, and Nutrition) intervention on physical activity (PA) and mental health outcomes of 11- to 13-year-olds. A one group pre- and posttest design was used in a Midwest urban middle school. Preadolescents (n = 31) who received COPE reported significant decreases in anxiety and increases in healthy lifestyle beliefs and PA. Further, preadolescents at baseline with elevated anxiety, depression, suicide risk, and below average self-concept who received COPE reported significant increases in self-concept and decreases in anxiety, depression, and suicidal ideation. The COPE program is a promising intervention that can improve physical and mental health outcomes. PMID:27026664

  19. Active visual search in non-stationary scenes: coping with temporal variability and uncertainty

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ušćumlić, Marija; Blankertz, Benjamin

    2016-02-01

    Objective. State-of-the-art experiments for studying neural processes underlying visual cognition often constrain sensory inputs (e.g., static images) and our behavior (e.g., fixed eye-gaze, long eye fixations), isolating or simplifying the interaction of neural processes. Motivated by the non-stationarity of our natural visual environment, we investigated the electroencephalography (EEG) correlates of visual recognition while participants overtly performed visual search in non-stationary scenes. We hypothesized that visual effects (such as those typically used in human-computer interfaces) may increase temporal uncertainty (with reference to fixation onset) of cognition-related EEG activity in an active search task and therefore require novel techniques for single-trial detection. Approach. We addressed fixation-related EEG activity in an active search task with respect to stimulus-appearance styles and dynamics. Alongside popping-up stimuli, our experimental study embraces two composite appearance styles based on fading-in, enlarging, and motion effects. Additionally, we explored whether the knowledge obtained in the pop-up experimental setting can be exploited to boost the EEG-based intention-decoding performance when facing transitional changes of visual content. Main results. The results confirmed our initial hypothesis that the dynamic of visual content can increase temporal uncertainty of the cognition-related EEG activity in active search with respect to fixation onset. This temporal uncertainty challenges the pivotal aim to keep the decoding performance constant irrespective of visual effects. Importantly, the proposed approach for EEG decoding based on knowledge transfer between the different experimental settings gave a promising performance. Significance. Our study demonstrates that the non-stationarity of visual scenes is an important factor in the evolution of cognitive processes, as well as in the dynamic of ocular behavior (i.e., dwell time and

  20. Activation of central CRF receptor 1 by cortagine results in enhanced passive coping with a naturalistic threat in mice

    PubMed Central

    Tovote, Philip; Farrokhi, Catherine Borna; Gonzales, Rachael M. K.; Schnitzbauer, Udo; Blanchard, D. Caroline; Blanchard, Robert J.; Spiess, Joachim

    2010-01-01

    Summary CRF receptor subtype 1 (CRF1), abundantly expressed in the central nervous system, has been implicated in defensive behavior in rodents. Pharmacological activation of CRF1 by peptidic agonists results in enhancement of anxiety-like behavior. However, receptor specificity of commonly used agonists was confounded by significant affinity to other receptors and widely used laboratory tests of experimental anxiety suffer from artificial aversive stimulation (e.g. electric shock), and limited measures of anxiety-like behavior. We used the recently developed, CRF1-selective agonist cortagine in a mouse model of defensive behaviors under semi-natural conditions, the Rat Exposure Test (RET). Cortagine was injected bilaterally into the cerebral ventricles (i.c.v.) of male C57Bl/6J mice, 20 min before exposure to a rat in specifically designed box that evokes a wide variety of defensive behaviors such as active/passive avoidance, freezing, risk assessment, and burying. Pre-injection of the CRF receptor antagonist acidic astressin was used to test for receptor specificity of the observed cortagine effects. A control experiment with no rat present was performed to test for baseline effects of cortagine in the exposure setup. Cortagine dose-dependently enhanced passive avoidance and freezing while burying was decreased. CRF receptor antagonism reliably blocked the effects of cortagine. Our results confirm previous findings of anxiogenic-like effects of cortagine, and demonstrate the usefulness of the RET in investigating differential pattering of drug-induced anxiety-like behavior in mice. In conclusion, our results suggest that CRF1 activation in forebrain areas promotes passive coping with the natural threat presented in the RET. PMID:20036073

  1. The Universities and Environmental Quality--Commitment to Problem Focused Education. A Report to The President's Environmental Quality Council.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steinhart, John S.; Cherniack, Stacie

    This report is based on a study of a few of the multidisciplinary enviromental programs in over 30 universities. The study was undertaken to discover what kind of programs have been tried, which ones have been successful, and how the federal government might encourage effective interdisciplinary problem-focused programs. The report reviews the…

  2. Innate immunity activation on biomaterial surfaces: A mechanistic model and coping strategies

    PubMed Central

    Ekdahl, Kristina N; Lambris, John D.; Elwing, Hans; Ricklin, Daniel; Nilsson, Per H.; Teramura, Yuji; Nicholls, Ian A.; Nilsson, Bo

    2011-01-01

    When an artificial biomaterial (e.g., a stent or implantable pump) is exposed to blood, plasma proteins immediately adhere to the surface, creating a new interface between the biomaterial and the blood. The recognition proteins within the complement and contact activation/coagulation cascade systems of the blood will be bound to, or inserted into, this protein film and generate different mediators that will activate polymorphonuclear leukocytes and monocytes, as well as platelets. Under clinical conditions, the ultimate outcome of these processes may be thrombotic and inflammatory reactions, and consequently the composition and conformation of the proteins in the initial layer formed on the surface will to a large extent determine the outcome of a treatment involving the biomaterial, affecting both the functionality of the material and the patient’s life quality. This review presents models of biomaterial-induced activation processes and describes various strategies to attenuate potential adverse reactions by conjugating bioactive molecules to surfaces or by introducing nanostructures. PMID:21771620

  3. Coping of School-Age Children in the Sealed Room during Scud Missile Bombardment and Postwar Stress Reactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisenberg, Matisyohu; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Examined children's (n=492) coping behaviors in sealed room during scud missile attacks in Persian Gulf War in relation to postwar stress reactions. Emotion-focused coping (avoidance and distraction) was associated with less postwar stress reactions than persistence at direct problem-focused actions. Fifth graders used less emotion-focused and…

  4. The Best Years of Our Lives? Coping with Stress Predicts School Grades, Life Satisfaction, and Feelings about High School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacCann, Carolyn; Lipnevich, Anastasiya A.; Burrus, Jeremy; Roberts, Richard D.

    2012-01-01

    This study examines whether problem-focused, emotion-focused, and avoidant coping strategies predict key outcomes in a sample of 354 high school students. The four outcomes considered are: academic achievement, life satisfaction, positive feelings towards school, and negative feelings towards school. Results demonstrate that coping incrementally…

  5. Coping with dehydration: sympathetic activation and regulation of glutamatergic transmission in the hypothalamic PVN.

    PubMed

    Bardgett, Megan E; Chen, Qing-Hui; Guo, Qing; Calderon, Alfredo S; Andrade, Mary Ann; Toney, Glenn M

    2014-06-01

    Autonomic and endocrine profiles of chronic hypertension and heart failure resemble those of acute dehydration. Importantly, all of these conditions are associated with exaggerated sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) driven by glutamatergic activation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus (PVN). Here, studies sought to gain insight into mechanisms of disease by determining the role of PVN ionotropic glutamate receptors in supporting SNA and mean arterial pressure (MAP) during dehydration and by elucidating mechanisms regulating receptor activity. Blockade of PVN N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors reduced (P < 0.01) renal SNA and MAP in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized dehydrated (DH) (48 h water deprivation) rats, but had no effect in euhydrated (EH) controls. Blockade of PVN α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptors had no effect in either group. NMDA in PVN caused dose-dependent increases of renal SNA and MAP in both groups, but the maximum agonist evoked response (Emax) of the renal SNA response was greater (P < 0.05) in DH rats. The latter was not explained by increased PVN expression of NMDA receptor NR1 subunit protein, increased PVN neuronal excitability, or decreased brain water content. Interestingly, PVN injection of the pan-specific excitatory amino acid transporter (EAAT) inhibitor DL-threo-β-benzyloxyaspartic acid produced smaller sympathoexcitatory and pressor responses in DH rats, which was associated with reduced glial expression of EAAT2 in PVN. Like chronic hypertension and heart failure, dehydration increases excitatory NMDA receptor tone in PVN. Reduced glial-mediated glutamate uptake was identified as a key contributing factor. Defective glutamate uptake in PVN could therefore be an important, but as yet unexplored, mechanism driving sympathetic hyperactivity in chronic cardiovascular diseases. PMID:24671240

  6. Work, food and physical activity. A qualitative study of coping strategies among men in three occupations.

    PubMed

    Wandel, Margareta; Roos, Gun

    2005-02-01

    Life style diseases contribute heavily to inequalities in health. Thus, there is a need for a better understanding of factors affecting health-related habits, such as diet and exercise, among different groups of people. In this study, the work situation is chosen as a point of departure for analyses on health-related perceptions and habits among men from three different occupations: 20 carpenters, 15 engineers and 11 drivers in Oslo, Norway. The data were collected by in depth semi-structured interviews. There were clear differences in the way men in the three types of work view food, meals, the body and physical activity. The distribution of different types of meals throughout the day was also tied to the type of work. This was linked to notions of food as fuel for immediate body functioning, vis a vis body shape and future health. The differences observed are most likely a mixture and mutual reinforcement of demands related to the work situation as well as the socio-cultural background, level of knowledge and education. Benefits at work were also different; those in higher positions (engineers) received most healthy benefits, such as fruit baskets, healthy lunches, and participation in physical activities. These may contribute to the already large differences in health practices. PMID:15604036

  7. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles, and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety.

    PubMed

    Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T

    2013-01-01

    We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field (OF) test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB) and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB). Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition (PPI), implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles, and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD-like symptoms

  8. Co-segregation of hyperactivity, active coping styles, and cognitive dysfunction in mice selectively bred for low levels of anxiety

    PubMed Central

    Yen, Yi-Chun; Anderzhanova, Elmira; Bunck, Mirjam; Schuller, Julia; Landgraf, Rainer; Wotjak, Carsten T.

    2013-01-01

    We established mouse models of extremes in trait anxiety, which are based on selective breeding for low vs. normal vs. high open-arm exploration on the elevated plus-maze. Genetically selected low anxiety-related behavior (LAB) coincided with hyperactivity in the home cage. Given the fact that several psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, mania, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) share hyperactivity symptom, we systematically examined LAB mice with respect to unique and overlapping endophenotypes of the three diseases. To this end Venn diagrams were used as an instrument for discrimination of possible models. We arranged the endophenotypes in Venn diagrams and translated them into different behavioral tests. LAB mice showed elevated levels of locomotion in the open field (OF) test with deficits in habituation, compared to mice bred for normal (NAB) and high anxiety-related behavior (HAB). Cross-breeding of hypoactive HAB and hyperactive LAB mice resulted in offspring showing a low level of locomotion comparable to HAB mice, indicating that the HAB alleles are dominant over LAB alleles in determining the level of locomotion. In a holeboard test, LAB mice spent less time in hole exploration, as shown in patients with schizophrenia and ADHD; however, LAB mice displayed no impairments in social interaction and prepulse inhibition (PPI), implying a unlikelihood of LAB as an animal model of schizophrenia. Although LAB mice displayed hyperarousal, active coping styles, and cognitive deficits, symptoms shared by mania and ADHD, they failed to reveal the classic manic endophenotypes, such as increased hedonia and object interaction. The neuroleptic haloperidol reduced locomotor activity in all mouse lines. The mood stabilizer lithium and the psychostimulant amphetamine, in contrast, selectively reduced hyperactivity in LAB mice. Based on the behavioral and pharmacological profiles, LAB mice are suggested as a novel rodent model of ADHD-like symptoms

  9. Coping Styles of Female Adolescent Cancer Patients with Potential Fertility Loss

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Devin; Knapp, Caprice A.; Christie, Juliette; Phares, Vicky; Wells, Kristen J.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this qualitative study was to assess the coping styles of female adolescent cancer patients regarding potential loss of fertility. Expectations and desires for the future, coping styles in typical adolescence, and coping styles when faced with potential loss of fertility due to cancer treatment are discussed. Methods Female adolescents diagnosed with cancer aged 12–18 years at study (N=14) were administered a 10-item values clarification tool to pilot test the readability and relevance of the items on reproductive concerns, followed by a cognitive debriefing interview asking participants how they would respond to each item. These qualitative responses were assessed for coping style type using the constant comparative approach. Results All adolescent participants reported having a strong desire for biological children in the future. Reactions to questions regarding the loss of fertility fell into two categories of coping styles: emotion-focused coping or problem-focused (engagement) coping. Within emotion-focused coping, there were three distinct styles: externalizing attribution style, internalizing attribution style, and repressive adaptation. Problem-focused coping adolescents displayed optimism. Conclusion Successful interventions aimed at promoting adaptive coping styles should seek to uncover adolescents' values about future parenthood and reproduction. Development of an age-appropriate assessment to stimulate dialogue regarding fertility and initiate an adolescent's cognitive processing of potential fertility loss is warranted. PMID:23781403

  10. Selective breeding for infant rat separation-induced ultrasonic vocalizations: developmental precursors of passive and active coping styles.

    PubMed

    Brunelli, Susan A; Hofer, Myron A

    2007-09-01

    Human depression and anxiety disorders show inherited biases across generations, as do antisocial disorders characterized by aggression. Each condition is preceded in children by behavioral inhibition or aggressive behavior, respectively, and both are characterized by separation anxiety disorders. In affected families, adults and children exhibit different forms of altered autonomic nervous system regulation and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal activity in response to stress. Because it is difficult to determine mechanisms accounting for these associations, animal studies are useful for studying the fundamental relationships between biological and behavioral traits. Pharmacologic and behavioral studies suggest that infant rat ultrasonic vocalizations (USV) are a measure of an early anxiety-like state related to separation anxiety. However, it was not known whether or not early ultrasound emissions in infant rats are markers for genetic risk for anxiety states later in life. To address these questions, we selectively bred two lines of rats based on high and low rates of USV to isolation at postnatal (P) 10 days of age. To our knowledge, ours is the only laboratory that has ever selectively bred on the basis of an infantile trait related to anxiety. The High and Low USV lines show two distinct sets of patterns of behavior, physiology and neurochemistry from infancy through adulthood. As adults High line rats demonstrate "anxious"/"depressed" phenotypes in behavior and autonomic nervous system (ANS) regulation to standard laboratory tests. In Lows, on the other hand, behavior and autonomic regulation are consistent with an "aggressive" phenotype. The High and Low USV lines are the first genetic animal models implicating long-term associations of contrasting "coping styles" with early attachment responses. They thus present a potentially powerful model for examining gene-environment interactions in the development of life-long affective regulation. PMID:17543397

  11. Coping strategies of Spanish pregnant women and their impact on anxiety and depression.

    PubMed

    Peñacoba-Puente, Cecilia; Carmona-Monge, Francisco Javier; Marín-Morales, Dolores; Naber, Katharina

    2013-02-01

    The aims of this study were to analyze the coping strategies used by women in the first trimester of low-risk pregnancies, their relationships to sociodemographic and pregnancy variables, and their ability to predict anxiety and depression in the third trimester. Participants in the first trimester were 285 Spanish pregnant women, of whom 122 were followed into the third trimester. The use of problem-focused coping was stable, whereas variations occurred in emotion-focused coping. Age, educational level, employment, planned pregnancy, previous childbirth, and previous miscarriage were associated with adaptive coping. Coping strategies predicting anxiety and depressive symptoms were overt emotional expression and social support seeking. Coping through religion predicted anxiety. Coping is a complex process influenced by sociodemographic and obstetric factors that can contribute to the onset of psychological symptoms. PMID:23080536

  12. The Great Recession and Drinking Outcomes: Protective Effects of Politically Oriented Coping

    PubMed Central

    Richman, Judith A.; Brown, Robyn Lewis; Rospenda, Kathleen M.

    2014-01-01

    Research derived from the stress paradigm suggests that certain types of coping (e.g., problem-focused coping instead of behavioral disengagement) are protective against problem-related drinking to deal with social stressors. Going beyond the typical focus in the coping literature, we hypothesize that stressors engendered by macrolevel social forces may require coping actions within the political realm in contrast to modes of coping focused outside of the political realm. A United States sample of 663 respondents completed a mail survey in 2010, including measures of stressful consequences of the Great Recession, drinking patterns and problems, modes of coping encompassed in the Brief COPE instrument, and politically oriented coping. Structural equation modeling examined whether modes of coping mediated the links between stressors and drinking outcomes. A substantial portion of the associations between stressors and drinking was explained by modes of coping. Politically oriented coping was protective against problem drinking for both genders. Future studies should further explore politically oriented coping in addition to modes of coping outside of the political realm when studying the relationships between macrolevel social stressors and deleterious drinking outcomes. PMID:25302131

  13. Lesions of either anterior orbitofrontal cortex or ventrolateral prefrontal cortex in marmoset monkeys heighten innate fear and attenuate active coping behaviors to predator threat

    PubMed Central

    Shiba, Yoshiro; Kim, Charissa; Santangelo, Andrea M.; Roberts, Angela C.

    2015-01-01

    The ventral prefrontal cortex is an integral part of the neural circuitry that is dysregulated in mood and anxiety disorders. However, the contribution of its distinct sub-regions to the regulation of negative emotion are poorly understood. Recently we implicated both the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (vlPFC) and anterior orbitofrontal cortex (antOFC) in the regulation of conditioned fear and anxiety responses to a social stimulus, i.e., human intruder, in the marmoset monkey. In the present study we extend our investigations to determine the role of these two regions in regulating innate responses and coping strategies to a predator stimulus, i.e., a model snake. Both the vlPFC and antOFC lesioned groups exhibited enhanced anxiety-related responses to the snake in comparison to controls. Both groups also showed a reduction in active coping behavior. These results indicate that the vlPFC and antOFC contribute independently to the regulation of both innate fear and, as previously reported, conditioned fear, and highlight the importance of these regions in producing stimulus-appropriate coping responses. The finding that dysregulation in two distinct prefrontal regions produces the apparently similar behavioral phenotype of heightened negative emotion provides insight into the varied etiology that may underlie this symptom across a wide variety of neuropsychiatric conditions with implications for personalized treatment strategies. PMID:25653599

  14. Conscientiousness and mindfulness in midlife coping: An assessment based on MIDUS II.

    PubMed

    Sesker, Amanda A; Súilleabháin, Páraic Ó; Howard, Siobhán; Hughes, Brian M

    2016-02-01

    Research has demonstrated that conscientious individuals tend to engage in planful problem solving to cope with stressful situations. Likewise, mindful individuals tend to favour approach-based coping and are less likely to engage in avoidant coping strategies. To examine whether conscientiousness and mindfulness determined agentic coping behaviour, hierarchical linear regressions were conducted using data from 602 participants drawn from the National Survey of Midlife Development in the United States (MIDUS) Study II and MIDUS II Biomarker Project. Personality responses were derived from the five-factor model inventory, gathered at a single time-point. Results revealed that conscientiousness predicted problem-focused coping (p < 0.001; β = 0.23) and inversely predicted emotion-focused coping respectively (p < 0.001; β = -0.14), even after controlling for remaining Big Five and confounding variables. Mindfulness also predicted problem-focused coping (p < 0.001; β = 0.21). Neuroticism predicted emotion-focused coping (p < 0.001; β = 0.40). These findings suggest that conscientiousness and mindfulness may contribute to coping responses in potentially healthful ways, highlighting new evidence regarding the potential protective role of conscientiousness. PMID:26593128

  15. The adolescent emotional coping after an earthquake: a risk factor for suicidal ideation.

    PubMed

    Stratta, Paolo; Capanna, Cristina; Carmassi, Claudia; Patriarca, Sara; Di Emidio, Gabriella; Riccardi, Ilaria; Collazzoni, Alberto; Dell'Osso, Liliana; Rossi, Alessandro

    2014-07-01

    The study aims to investigate the relationship of suicidal ideation with coping and resilience in a sample of adolescents who survived an earthquake. Three hundred forty-three adolescents who had experienced the L'Aquila earthquake were investigated for a screening distinguishing Suicidal Screen-Negative (SSN) from the Positive (SSP) subjects. Resilience Scale for Adolescents (READ) and Brief Cope were administered. Emotion-focused coping score was significantly higher in SSP subjects. In the SSN but not in the SSP sample the READ total score correlated with problem-focused total score. A positive correlation was seen between emotion-focused and problem-focused scores in both samples, with a higher coefficient in SSP sample. Externalising problems and maladaptive behaviours can arise in adolescents exposed to traumatic events. Attention should be paid in reducing risk factors and in the development of psychological abilities, improving the coping strategies that can protect from emotional despair and suicidal ideation. PMID:24931563

  16. How do women cope with menstrual cycle changes?

    PubMed

    Choi, P Y; Salmon, P

    1995-02-01

    Very little is known about how women naturally cope with premenstrual and menstrual symptoms. A sample of 342 women was therefore surveyed to discover how they coped with menstrual cycle changes and how helpful these methods were. Principal components analysis of responses to a specially devised coping checklist revealed four components which corresponded to types of coping distinguished in the literature. These were termed: active-behavioural, active-cognitive, avoidance and menstrual cycle specific. There was no relationship between the extent to which particular coping strategies were used and how helpful they were thought to be. The most popular ways of coping were active-cognitive. The most helpful were active-behavioural and active-cognitive. Further analyses did not show any effect of parity or occupational group on the frequency or helpfulness of the different types of coping; nor was there any association with age. Modest correlations of coping methods with symptom severity emerged. PMID:7757036

  17. Coping with Depression in Single Black Mothers.

    PubMed

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2016-01-01

    Very little information exists in the literature about what black women do when they experience symptoms of depression. The purpose of this descriptive study was to analyze the responses of 208 community-residing black single mothers, aged 18 to 45, to an open-ended question asking, "What do you do to feel better when you are feeling down in the dumps?" The theoretical bases of the Ways of Coping Checklist, were used to facilitate categorizing their responses into a coping scale and then a particular coping profile. Percentages were used to categorize the frequency of the responses into the respective coping scale and to categorize the frequency of the combined responses of each woman into a respective coping profile. Of the 333 responses that the women provided, 327 were useable. Findings indicated that a majority of responses fell into the Escape-Avoidance category (n = 206; 63%), followed by the Seeking Social Support (n = 60, 18.3%), Positive Reappraisal (n = 40; 12.2%), Planful Problem Solving (n = 12; 3.7%), Distancing (n = 3; 1%), and Self-Controlling (n = 6; 1.8%) categories. No responses fit the Confrontive Coping or Accepting Responsibility categories and none of the responses indicated that the women sought professional help. Of the 176 women who provided answers to the study question, more than half (64.2%; n = 113) gave only emotion-focused responses, 2.8% (n = 5) gave only problem-focused responses, 2.8% (n = 5) gave mixed responses, and 30.2% (n = 53) reported social support seeking. Implications for future research, cultural theory, and nursing practice are addressed. PMID:26979572

  18. Coping with Depression in Single Black Mothers

    PubMed Central

    Atkins, Rahshida

    2016-01-01

    Very little information exists in the literature about what black women do when they experience symptoms of depression. The purpose of this descriptive study was to analyze the responses of 208 community-residing black single mothers, aged 18 to 45, to an open-ended question asking, “What do you do to feel better when you are feeling down in the dumps?” The theoretical bases of the Ways of Coping Checklist, were used to facilitate categorizing their responses into a coping scale and then a particular coping profile. Percentages were used to categorize the frequency of the responses into the respective coping scale and to categorize the frequency of the combined responses of each woman into a respective coping profile. Of the 333 responses that the women provided, 327 were useable. Findings indicated that a majority of responses fell into the Escape-Avoidance category (n = 206; 63%), followed by the Seeking Social Support (n = 60, 18.3%), Positive Reappraisal (n = 40; 12.2%), Planful Problem Solving (n = 12; 3.7%), Distancing (n = 3; 1%), and Self-Controlling (n = 6; 1.8%) categories. No responses fit the Confrontive Coping or Accepting Responsibility categories and none of the responses indicated that the women sought professional help. Of the 176 women who provided answers to the study question, more than half (64.2%; n = 113) gave only emotion-focused responses, 2.8% (n = 5) gave only problem-focused responses, 2.8% (n = 5) gave mixed responses, and 30.2% (n = 53) reported social support seeking. Implications for future research, cultural theory, and nursing practice are addressed. PMID:26979572

  19. Coping with Cold Sores

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Coping With Cold Sores KidsHealth > For Kids > Coping With Cold Sores ... sore." What's that? Adam wondered. What Is a Cold Sore? Cold sores are small blisters that is ...

  20. Coping with work-family conflict: A leader-member exchange perspective.

    PubMed

    Major, Debra A; Morganson, Valerie J

    2011-01-01

    Leader-member exchange (LMX) theory is applied as a framework for understanding coping with work-family conflict. The effectiveness of four work-family coping strategies (i.e., preventive and episodic forms of both problem-focused and emotion-focused coping) is considered with emphasis on how the LMX relationship contributes to each form of coping with work interference with family. The LMX-based model of work-family coping accounts for the development of family-friendly work roles, use of organizational family-friendly policies, and the negotiation of flextime and flexplace accommodations. Constraints on the relationship between LMX and work-family coping associated with supervisor authority and resources and aspects of the organizational context are also discussed. Research and applied implications of the model are offered. PMID:21280949

  1. Coping skills in Japanese women with eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Nakahara, R; Yoshiuchi, K; Yamanaka, G; Sasaki, T; Suematsu, H; Kuboki, T

    2000-12-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate coping skills in the different types of eating disorders in Japan. Groups of patients with eating disorders diagnosed with DSM-IV and 22 controls were studied. Coping skills were assessed with the Stress Coping Inventory. The mean Problem-focused coping score tended to be lower in the bulimia nervosa purging-type group (n = 20) than in the control group. The former group and the bulimia nervosa nonpurging-type group (n = 6) used significantly less planful problem solving and less positive reappraisal coping than the control group, while the anorexia nervosa restricting-type group of 11 tended to use less positive reappraisal, and the anorexia nervosa binge-eating/purging-type (n = 11) tended to use less planful problem solving and less positive reappraisal than the control group. As some uses of coping skills by patients with eating disorders were lower than those of the control group, developing coping skills may be useful in treatment for eating disorders in Japan. PMID:11191380

  2. Coping among the caregivers of patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Grover, Sandeep; Pradyumna; Chakrabarti, Subho

    2015-01-01

    Coping is understood as the process of managing external or internal demands that are considered as taxing or exceeding the resources of the person. There is no formal classification of coping strategies, and these are understood as adaptive versus maladaptive and problem focuses versus emotion-focused. Understanding the commonly used coping strategies in a particular group of subjects can provide valuable insights for designing interventions to reduce the stress. In this review, we look at the literature which is available with regards to the coping strategies used by the caregivers of patients with schizophrenia. Findings suggest that caregivers of patients with schizophrenia use mixed type of coping mechanisms to deal with the stress of caregiving. The coping strategies are shown to have association with variables such as caregiver burden, caregiving experience, expressed emotions, social support, psychological morbidity in the caregivers, quality of life of caregivers and psychopathology in patients. One of the major limitations of the literature is that there is a lot of variability in the assessment instruments used across different studies to assess coping. PMID:26257476

  3. Coping with Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Manuel, Gerdenio M.; And Others

    Since the incidence of cancer in this country is high and the cancer survival rates are increasing, it is important to study coping strategies in cancer patients. As survival time lengthens, coping strategies that might affect the quality of a patient's life become increasingly important. A study was conducted to examine coping strategies in newly…

  4. Multicultural Mastery Scale for Youth: Multidimensional Assessment of Culturally Mediated Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Allen, James; Henry, David; Mohatt, Gerald V.

    2012-01-01

    Self-mastery refers to problem-focused coping facilitated through personal agency. Communal mastery describes problem solving through an interwoven social network. This study investigates an adaptation of self- and communal mastery measures for youth. Given the important distinction between family and peers in the lives of youth, these adaptation…

  5. A Closer Look at Co-Rumination: Gender, Coping, Peer Functioning and Internalizing/Externalizing Problems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tompkins, Tanya L.; Hockett, Ashlee R.; Abraibesh, Nadia; Witt, Jody L.

    2011-01-01

    Co-rumination, defined as repetitive, problem-focused talk explains higher levels of friendship quality in youth (Rose, 2002) and increased levels of anxiety/depression in females. Middle adolescents (N = 146) participated in a study of co-rumination, individual coping, externalizing/internalizing problems, and peer functioning. Consistent with…

  6. Self-Generated Coping Strategies Among Muslim Athletes During Ramadan Fasting

    PubMed Central

    Roy, Jolly; Hwa, Ooi Cheong; Singh, Rabindarjeet; Aziz, Abdul Rashid; Jin, Chai Wen

    2011-01-01

    The study explored the self-generated coping strategies employed by Muslim athletes from South East Asian region during the Ramadan fasting month. Sixty-five National elite Muslim athletes responded to an open-ended question on coping strategies employed during Ramadan fasting. Inductive content analysis identified five general dimensions from 54 meaning units which were abstracted into 14 first-order themes and 10 second order themes. The general dimension included four problem-focused coping: training modifications, dietary habits, psychological, rest and recovery, and one emotion-focused coping i.e., self- control. The coping strategies employed were diverse and dynamic in nature and no specific pattern was evident. The most frequently employed strategies were associated with training and dietary habits. Emotion focused coping was the least frequently used by the athletes. Key points Muslim athletes employ diverse self -generated coping strategies during Ramadan fasting which can be categorized as anticipatory coping, preventative coping and proactive coping. Frequently employed coping strategies are task focused such as training modifications and adjustments in dietary habits. PMID:24149306

  7. Relations among stress, coping strategies, coping motives, alcohol consumption and related problems: a mediated moderation model.

    PubMed

    Corbin, William R; Farmer, Nicole M; Nolen-Hoekesma, Susan

    2013-04-01

    Although prominent models of alcohol use and abuse implicate stress as an important motivator of alcohol consumption, research has not consistently identified a relationship between stress and drinking outcomes. Presumably stress leads to heavier alcohol consumption and related problems primarily for individuals who lack other adaptive methods for coping effectively with stressful experiences. To test this hypothesis, we examined four adaptive coping approaches (active coping, planning, suppression of competing activities, and restraint), as predictors of alcohol use and related problems as well as moderators of relations between stress and drinking outcomes in an undergraduate population (N=225). Further, we examined coping motives for drinking as potential mediators of the effects of coping strategies as well as stress by coping strategy interactions. Analyses supported both restraint and suppression of competing activities as moderators of the influence of stress on alcohol use but not problems. The stress by restraint interaction was also evident in the prediction of coping motives, and coping motives were related to higher levels of both weekly drinking and alcohol-related problems. Finally, coping motives for drinking served to mediate the stress by restraint interaction on weekly drinking. Overall, these results suggest that efforts to suppress competing activities and restrain impulsive responses in the face of stress may reduce the risk for heavy drinking during the transition from high school to college. PMID:23380486

  8. Pain Coping Strategies and Depression in Rheumatoid Arthritis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Gregory K.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined role of pain episodes and active and passive pain coping strategies in predicting depression in 287 patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Findings revealed pain, passive coping, and interaction between the 2 accounted for higher depression. Results also indicated that frequent use of passive pain coping strategies in face of high pain…

  9. Personality, Life Events and Coping in the Oldest-Old.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Compared adults (n=165) in their 60s, 80s, and 100s on personality, life events, and coping. Found personality differences: centenarians scored higher on dominance, suspiciousness, and imagination. Although centenarians scored lower on active behavioral coping than other age groups, they used cognitive strategies when coping with health and family…

  10. Coping style as a predictor of health and well-being across the first year of medical school.

    PubMed

    Park, Crystal L; Adler, Nancy E

    2003-11-01

    Medical students in their 1st year (N=71) were assessed prior to starting training and at year's end. Coping styles reported at baseline were strongly related to coping styles at the end of the year. Students' physical health and psychological well-being declined over the course of the year. The greater the students' use of both problem-focused coping and approach emotion-focused coping, the less their physical health deteriorated. Psychological well-being at year's end was more strongly related to baseline functioning, and coping style did not predict change. This study demonstrated the utility of measuring coping style and the predictive ability of coping on physical health in a healthy sample. PMID:14640860

  11. Do Coping Strategies Mediate the Relationship Between Parental Attachment and Self-Harm in Young People?

    PubMed

    Glazebrook, Katie; Townsend, Ellen; Sayal, Kapil

    2016-01-01

    Insecure attachment is associated with self-harm in young people, but little research has explored the pathways through which this relationship develops. We investigated whether attachment impacts on self-harm via its effect on coping strategies and appraisal of problem-solving abilities. A total of 314 students aged 18-20 years completed an online survey with measures of parental attachment, emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies, and psychological distress and self-harm. A mediational model was not supported as there were no direct effects between parental attachment and self-harm. However, analysis of specific indirect pathways revealed that perceived parental attachment impacts on self-harm through problem-focused coping. Higher quality of attachment was associated with greater reliance on problem-focused (adaptive) coping, which in turn was associated with a decreased risk of having self-harmed. Furthermore, poorer paternal attachment was associated with lower appraisal of problem-solving skills, which in turn was associated with an increased risk of having self-harmed. Individuals with insecure attachment may be more vulnerable to self-harm because they lack other more constructive coping strategies for relieving stress. PMID:26699201

  12. A comparison of the level of functioning in chronic schizophrenia with coping and burden in caregivers

    PubMed Central

    Creado, Dean A.; Parkar, Shubhangi R.; Kamath, Ravindra M.

    2006-01-01

    Background: A chronic mental illness such as schizophrenia is a challenging task for caregivers especially in the current era of de-institutionalization. In India, few studies have attempted to directly determine the relationship between coping mechanisms and burden; in the West, studies have found that improved coping in family members can decrease the perceived burden. Aim: To evaluate the burden and coping of caregivers in relation to the level of functioning in patients with chronic schizophrenia. Methods: The sample was 100 patients with their primary caregivers attending a Psychiatry OPD. Patients were assessed on the Global Assessment of Functioning (GAF) scale while caregivers were administered the Burden Assessment Schedule (BAS) and Mechanisms of Coping (MOC) scale. Results: Fatalism and problem-solving were the two most preferred ways of coping. Problem-focused coping, i.e. problem-solving and expressive-action decreased the burden of caregivers, while emotion-focused coping, i.e. fatalism and passivity, increased it. As the level of functioning of the patient decreased, the significance with which the coping mechanisms influenced the burden, increased. The use of problem-solving coping by caregivers showed a significant correlation with higher level of functioning in patients. Conclusion: Coping mechanisms such as problem-solving can decrease the burden of illness on caregivers and may even improve the level of functioning of patients. PMID:20703411

  13. Clinical use of coping in affective disorder, a critical review of the literature

    PubMed Central

    2005-01-01

    Background The relationship between life stressors, coping and affective disorder is interesting when predicting onset of a affective disorder and relapse of mood episodes. Methods A litteratur review of cross-sectional and longitudinal studies concerning coping and affective disorder in adults including a Medline and Embase search was conducted. Results 11 cross-sectional studies and 17 longitudinal studies concerning affective disorder and coping were found, among these, two studies include patients with bipolar disorder exclusively. Only four studies elucidate whether emotion-oriented and/or avoidance coping styles are associated with a higher risk of developing affective disorder, so this hypothesis remains unclear. Most studies shows that emotion-oriented and avoidance coping strategies are associated with relapse of depressive episodes. Conversely, problem-focused and task-oriented coping seem to be associated with a good outcome. Conclusion There is a gap between coping theory and clinical use of coping and the clinical relevance of coping is, though promising, still unclear. In future research it is recommended to concentrate on development of a semi-structured interview combining coping style, life events and personality traits. PMID:16212656

  14. Strategies for Coping with Interpersonal Hurt: Preliminary Evidence for the Relationship between Coping and Forgiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strelan, Peter; Wojtysiak, Nicole

    2009-01-01

    This study provides a preliminary empirical test suggesting a coping framework that describes the behavioral, cognitive, and emotion-focused activities related to the process that may lead to forgiveness. Among 170 participants, the study explored the coping strategies people use when they respond to an interpersonal hurt and also the general use…

  15. Life stage differences in resident coping with restart of the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility.

    PubMed

    Prince-Embury, S; Rooney, J F

    1990-12-01

    A study of residents who remained in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) immediately following the restart of the nuclear generating plant revealed that older residents employed a more emotion-focused coping style in the face of this event than did younger residents. Coping style was, however, unrelated to the level of psychological symptoms for these older residents, whereas demographic variables were related. Among younger residents, on the other hand, coping style was related to the level of psychological symptoms, whereas demographic variables were not. Among younger residents, emotion-focused coping was associated with more symptoms and problem-focused coping was associated with fewer symptoms, contradicting previous findings among TMI area residents. PMID:2087105

  16. Life stage differences in resident coping with restart of the Three Mile Island nuclear generating facility

    SciTech Connect

    Prince-Embury, S.; Rooney, J.F.

    1990-12-01

    A study of residents who remained in the vicinity of Three Mile Island (TMI) immediately following the restart of the nuclear generating plant revealed that older residents employed a more emotion-focused coping style in the face of this event than did younger residents. Coping style was, however, unrelated to the level of psychological symptoms for these older residents, whereas demographic variables were related. Among younger residents, on the other hand, coping style was related to the level of psychological symptoms, whereas demographic variables were not. Among younger residents, emotion-focused coping was associated with more symptoms and problem-focused coping was associated with fewer symptoms, contradicting previous findings among TMI area residents.

  17. Coping With Cleft: A Conceptual Framework of Caregiver Responses to Nasoalveolar Molding

    PubMed Central

    Sischo, Lacey; Broder, Hillary L.; Phillips, Ceib

    2014-01-01

    Objective To present a conceptual framework of caregiver coping and adaptation to early cleft care using nasoalveolar molding. Design In-depth interviews were conducted at three time points with caregivers of infants with cleft lip or cleft lip and palate whose children had nasoalveolar molding to treat their cleft. Qualitative data were analyzed using modified grounded theory. Results Most caregivers expressed initial apprehension and anxiety about the responsibilities of care associated with nasoalveolar molding (e.g., changing and positioning tapes, cleaning the appliance). In subsequent interviews, caregivers often reported positive feelings related to their active participation in their child’s treatment for cleft. These positive feelings were associated with increased self-esteem and feelings of empowerment for the caregivers. Although caregivers also identified burdens associated with nasoalveolar molding (e.g., stress related to lip taping, concerns about the appliance causing sores in their child’s mouth, travel to weekly appointments), they tended to minimize the impact of these issues in comparison with the perceived benefits of nasoalveolar molding. Conclusions Despite the increased burden of care, many caregivers of infants with cleft used nasoalveolar molding as a problem-focused coping strategy to deal with their child’s cleft. Completing nasoalveolar molding was often associated with positive factors such as increased empowerment, self-esteem, and bonding with their infant. PMID:25225840

  18. Insight, distress and coping styles in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Cooke, Michael; Peters, Emmanuelle; Fannon, Dominic; Anilkumar, Anantha P.P.; Aasen, Ingrid; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Kumari, Veena

    2007-01-01

    Background The stigma and negative societal views attached to schizophrenia can make the diagnosis distressing. There is evidence that poor insight into symptoms of the disorder and need for treatment may reflect the use of denial as a coping style. However, the relationships between insight and other coping styles have seldom been investigated. Method We examined the associations between insight, distress and a number of coping styles in 65 outpatients with schizophrenia (final n = 57) in a cross-sectional study. Results We found that (i) awareness of symptoms and problems correlated with greater distress, (ii) ‘preference for positive reinterpretation and growth’ coping style correlated with lower distress and with lower symptom awareness (re-labelling), (iii) ‘preference for mental disengagement’ coping style correlated with greater distress and lower awareness of problems, and (iv) ‘social support-seeking’ coping style correlated with greater awareness of illness, but not distress. No relationship occurred between the use of ‘denial’ as a coping style and insight or distress. Conclusions Our findings demonstrate that awareness of illness and related problems is associated with greater distress in schizophrenia. However, this investigation has not supported a simple psychological denial explanation for this relationship, as complex relationships emerged between different dimensions of insight and coping styles. The negative association between ‘positive reinterpretation and growth’ and distress suggests that adopting this style may lead to re-labelling symptoms in a less distressing way. Avoidant and isolating styles of coping both appear unhelpful. Psychological interventions should aim to promote more active coping such as discussing a mental health problem with others. PMID:17561377

  19. Gender Roles and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson, Joan M.; McCubbin, Hamilton I.

    1984-01-01

    Examined the relationship of gender-role orientation and specific behavioral coping responses of wives (N=82) experiencing a long-term separation from their military spouses. Results showed that an androgynous gender-role orientation was significantly associated with four of the five coping patterns identified as helpful to wives managing a…

  20. [Which comes first for interpersonal stress, coping or support?].

    PubMed

    Takamoto, Masahiro; Takada, Haruki

    2016-02-01

    This study used structural equation modeling to investigate directional relationships between coping with interpersonal stress and received support. One hundred and seventy-seven undergraduates who had experienced interpersonal stress during the past month answered questions about coping with interpersonal stress and received support. Structural equation modeling based on third-order moment structures was used to examine the directionality of the relationship between these two variables. The results revealed interactive associations between distancing and emotional support. Received support affected coping with interpersonal stress in terms of active coping, planning and monitoring, and positive reappraisal. These results suggest that received support functions as a coping resource. PMID:26964375

  1. Family influences on coping processes in children and adolescents with sickle cell disease.

    PubMed

    Kliewer, W; Lewis, H

    1995-08-01

    Examined the contribution of parenting and family variables to the general coping processes of 39 children and adolescents with sickle cell disease (SCD). In home interviews, parents reported on their child's health history, the coping suggestions they make to their children, their own coping strategies, and family cohesion. Children rated their general coping strategies and level of hope. Partial support was obtained for each of the three models of family influences tested in this study. After accounting for the effects of age, gender, family structure, and type of SCD, children's hope was positively associated with active coping suggestions by parents. Children's active coping was associated with a cohesive family environment, and avoidance coping was predicted by less parental use of restructuring coping, and greater parental use of active coping strategies. Taken together, this study provides evidence for the influence of parental coaching and modeling and the family environment on coping processes in children with SCD. PMID:7666291

  2. Adolescent coping profiles differentiate reports of depression and anxiety symptoms.

    PubMed

    Herres, Joanna

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to identify groups of adolescents based on their reported use of different coping strategies and compare levels of depression and anxiety symptoms across the groups. Tenth and eleventh grade public school students (N=982; 51% girls; 66% Caucasian; M age=16.04, SD=0.73) completed a battery of self-report measures that assessed their use of different coping strategies, depressive symptoms, and anxiety symptoms. Latent profile analysis (LPA) classified the participants into four distinct groups based on their responses on subscales of the COPE inventory (Carver et al., 1989). Groups differed in amount of coping with participants in each group showing relative preference for engaging in certain strategies over others. Disengaged copers reported the lowest amounts of coping with a preference for avoidance strategies. Independent copers reported moderate levels of coping with relatively less use of support-seeking. Social support-seeking copers and active copers reported the highest levels of coping with a particular preference for support-seeking strategies. The independent copers reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms compared to the three other groups. The Social Support Seeking and Active Coping Groups reported the highest levels of anxiety. Although distinct coping profiles were observed, findings showed that adolescents between the ages of 14 and 16 engage in multiple coping strategies and are more likely to vary in their amount of coping than in their use of specific strategies. PMID:26275359

  3. Perceived Social Support, Coping Styles, and Chinese Immigrants’ Cardiovascular Responses to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Christine; Suchday, Sonia; Wylie-Rosett, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Background Social support and coping strategies are important determinants of health, especially for those in the immigrant community adjusting to a new environment. Purpose This study assessed the buffering effects of perceived social support and different coping styles on cardiovascular reactivity to stress among Chinese immigrants in the New York City Chinatown area. Method Participants (N = 50, 76% women, and 22–84 years old) completed questionnaires assessing their perceived social support and coping strategy preferences. They were then asked to recall a stress provoking event related to their immigration experience in a semi-structured interview format. Results Hierarchical multiple regression analyses confirmed the interaction effect between perceived social support and problem-focused, emotion-focused, or reappraisal coping on heart rate reactivity. Additionally, Chinese immigrants who upheld more Chinese values were highly correlated with stronger perceived availability of social support and were more likely to incorporate the use of problem-focused and reappraisal coping styles. Conclusion Findings suggest that high level of social support and the use of reappraisal coping strategies were associated with attenuated cardiovascular responses to stress. PMID:21472482

  4. Stress, coping, and psychological health of vocational high school nursing students associated with a competitive entrance exam.

    PubMed

    Wang, Huey-Fen; Yeh, Mei Chang

    2005-06-01

    An important issue for the nursing education system in Taiwan is to reinforce nursing education to enhance competence levels for entry to nursing specialties. Consequently, to meet the prospective demands of technical manpower, not only do nursing students in college and vocational schools pursue further studies, but they also take competitive entrance exams. Using a descriptive cross-sectional design, the study examined the following among nursing students in vocational high schools: (1) perception and sources of entrance exam stress and use of coping behaviors; (2) the effect of difference in entrance exam stress levels on coping behaviors used, and (3) measurement of coping function to determine which coping behavior works best for buffering the impact of stress on psychological health during a preparatory stage of a college and university entrance exam. The subjects were 441 third-year nursing students of vocational high schools in northern Taiwan, recruited by convenience sampling. Three measurements were adopted: Stress perceived scale, Coping behavior inventory, and a Chinese health questionnaire. Results showed that the five main stressors of entrance exam stress, in descending order, were taking tests, the student's own aspirations, learning tasks, teacher's aspirations and parent's aspirations. Students generally used problem-focused coping strategies including optimistic action and social support to deal with the entrance exam stress, but use of emotion-focused coping strategies including avoidance and emotional disturbance was significantly increased as perceived level of stress rose. Two-way analyses of variance (2-way ANOVA) revealed that problem-focused coping had a positive main effect of alleviating psychological distress. A significant interaction was observed between stress perceived and problem-focused coping used for psychological health. Further examination of the interaction effect showed that problem-focused coping behaviors were potentially

  5. Just Doing What They Gotta Do: Single Black Custodial Fathers Coping with the Stresses and Reaping the Rewards of Parenting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coles, Roberta L.

    2009-01-01

    For single African American custodial fathers, parenting stress is exacerbated by the cultural expectation that Black fathers are "normally" absent and by the clustering of stresses that Black men are more likely to encounter. This sample of African American fathers have used a repertoire of problem-focused and cognitive coping strategies,…

  6. Auditory hallucination coping techniques and their relationship to psychotic symptomatology.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Naoki; Igarashi, Yoshito; Suda, Kiyoko; Nakagawa, Seishu

    2007-12-01

    Use of coping techniques is of importance in the treatment for patients experiencing auditory hallucinations. Phenomenological features of auditory hallucinations and other psychotic symptoms are assumed to be factors influencing the coping activities. The aim of the present study was to determine psychotic symptoms including auditory hallucination phenomenological features that have effects on coping activities. The authors investigated 17 generally used coping techniques of 144 chronically psychotic patients who were currently experiencing auditory hallucination in DSM-IV schizophrenia or schizoaffective psychosis. Using factor analysis, scales characterizing the styles of coping application and efficacy were constructed. To assess the phenomenological features, the authors used the Matsuzawa Assessment Schedule for Auditory Hallucination (MASAH), which had been devised to assess four basic phenomenological features: intractability, delusion, influence, and externality. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) was also applied for the assessment of psychotic symptoms. Regression analyses were conducted to determine the features and symptoms that could have effects on coping activities. Constructed scales were those of distraction and counteraction styles for each of coping application and efficacy. It was found that MASAH influence and externality features had an activating effect on both distraction and counteraction coping application, and counteraction coping application, respectively, and that PANSS negative symptom clusters and MASAH delusion feature had an inhibiting effect on distraction and counteraction coping application, respectively. No salient factor for coping efficacy was recognized. The current study presents information on the relationship between coping activities and the psychotic experience features and symptoms, which can be of help for planning coping training programs. PMID:18081625

  7. Interrelatedness of Proactive Coping, Reactive Coping, and Learned Resourcefulness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moring, John; Fuhrman, Robert; Zauszniewski, Jaclene A.

    2011-01-01

    Research has identified that coping strategies used by individuals depend on temporal locations of stressors. Dispositional attributes are also identified as predictors of coping. The current study identified commonalities of proactive coping, reactive coping, and learned resourcefulness measures. The analysis yielded three factors reflective of…

  8. Coping with Decline

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boulding, Kenneth

    1977-01-01

    A quantitative decline is predicted because of the leveling off of industrial production and exhaustion of resources. Coping with these conditions requires flexibility and adaptability. Delusions of certainty zero in on catastrophe. (Author/MLF)

  9. Coping with the Unthinkable.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scholzman, Steven C.

    2001-01-01

    Describes the symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder in students. Suggests ways that teachers can help students cope with catastrophic events such as the September 11 terrorist attack on the World Trade Center and the Pentagon. (PKP)

  10. Coping with the Crunch.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sturgeon, Julie

    2000-01-01

    Examines housing strategies several college facilities managers used to cope with the problem of overcrowded residence halls. Also highlighted are tips to help facilities managers determine if their solution is to build additional housing. (GR)

  11. Caregivers--Who Copes How?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chappell, Neena L.; Dujela, Carren

    2009-01-01

    Within gerontological caregiving research, there is a major emphasis on stresses and burdens of this role. Yet there has been little attention directed toward the coping strategies that caregivers engage in to cope with this role and the factors that influence their adoption of different coping strategies. This article examines coping strategies…

  12. En las Manos de Dios [in God's Hands]: Religious and Other Forms of Coping among Latinos with Arthritis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abraido-Lanza, Ana F.; Vasquez, Elizabeth; Echeverria, Sandra E.

    2004-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model concerning religious, passive, and active coping; pain; and psychological adjustment among a sample of 200 Latinos with arthritis. Respondents reported using high levels of religious coping. A path analysis indicated that religious coping was correlated with active but not with passive coping. Religious coping…

  13. Mediating and Moderating Effects in Ageism and Depression among the Korean Elderly: The Roles of Emotional Reactions and Coping Reponses

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il-Ho; Noh, Samuel; Chun, Heeran

    2015-01-01

    Objectives This study evaluated the relationship between ageism and depression, exploring the stress-mediating and stress-moderating roles of emotional reactions and coping behaviors. Methods Data were from the 2013 Ageism and Health Study (n = 816), a cross-sectional survey of urban and rural community-dwelling seniors aged 60–89 years in South Korea. Participants with at least one experience of ageism reported on their emotional reactions and coping responses. The measure yielded two types of coping: problem-focused (taking formal action, confrontation, seeking social support) and emotion-focused (passive acceptance, emotional discharge). Results Although ageism was significantly associated with depressive symptoms (B = 0.27, p < 0.0001), the association was entirely mediated by emotional reactions such as anger, sadness, and powerlessness. Problem-focused coping, especially confrontation and social support, seemingly reduced the impact of emotional reactions on depression, whereas emotion-focused coping exacerbated the adverse effects. Conclusion These findings support the cultural characterization explanation of ageism and related coping processes among Korean elderly and suggest that regulating emotional reactions may determine the efficacy of coping with ageism. PMID:26981336

  14. An investigation of the five-factor model of personality and coping behaviour in sport.

    PubMed

    Allen, Mark S; Greenlees, Iain; Jones, Marc

    2011-05-01

    Coping strategies are important for performance in sport and individual differences may contribute to the coping strategies adopted by athletes. In this study, we explored the main and interactive effects of the big five personality dimensions on sport-related coping and compared personality profiles of discrete groups of athletes. Altogether, 253 athletes (mean age 21.1 years, s=3.7) completed the NEO-FFI (Costa & McCrae, 1992), and the Coping Function Questionnaire for Sport (Kowalski & Crocker, 2001). Results showed that extraverted athletes, who were also emotionally stable and open to new experiences (a three-way interaction effect), reported a greater use of problem-focused coping strategies. Conscientious athletes (main effect), and athletes displaying high levels of extraversion, openness, and agreeableness (a three-way interaction effect), reported a greater use of emotion-focused coping strategies, and athletes with low levels of openness, or high levels of neuroticism (main effects), reported a greater use of avoidance coping strategies. Different personality characteristics were observed between higher-level and lower-level athletes, between men and women athletes, and between individual and team sport athletes. These findings suggest that the five-factor model of personality can help distinguish various levels of athletic involvement and can help identify the coping strategies athletes are likely to adopt during participation. PMID:21500081

  15. [Coping psychologically with amputation].

    PubMed

    Schulz, M

    2009-02-01

    An amputation is a "tragic event" in someone's biography which causes a dramatic change in the outer appearance, the loss of mobility, independence and self esteem. The following article is about how people learn to cope with this difficult situation; with the practical problems of everyday life as well as their emotional problems. It is important for the amputees to go through the different stages of mourning: The first stage is the rejection of the situation. Repression and denial of the loss protects the patient from emotional overstrain. Confrontation is the next step: emotionally as well as mentally. "How could it happen?", (understanding the reasons why ...) "What will my future be like?", "How will I cope?" (ability of coping) "Why did it happen to me?" (sense) The last stage of coping with the amputation is to accept and deal with the new situation and to build up new self-confidence. A successful process of coping leads to a new identity. If a person fails to adapt to the new situation, he will develop an inferiority complex and fall into a depression. He might also try to look for culprit and blame the situation on someone else. About two thirds of all amputees don't cope with their amputation and become depressive. 15% develop symptoms of anxiety. Therefore it is important to offer help. The patients should get together in self helping groups and talk about their experiences and problems. If they need more intensive and individual help, they should have the opportunity to contact a psychologist. During the process of coping with their amputation the patients often alternate between optimistic and pessimistic moods. Sometimes they fall back into a negative and resigned state of mind. This is natural and part of the process as long as they find their own way to a positive attitude and view of life. PMID:19259934

  16. Coping strategies and health symptoms among women and men in a downsizing organisation.

    PubMed

    Torkelson, Eva; Muhonen, Tuija

    2003-06-01

    This study examined how women and men cope with stress during a period of organizational change and how the coping strategies are related to health. Questionnaire responses were obtained from 98 female and male administrators of health care service working in a Swedish governmental County Council during a period of downsizing. In line with earlier studies, the results showed women to be more likely than men to endorse the emotion-focused strategies of Seeking Social Support and Focus on and Venting of Emotions. Contrary to earlier studies the men did not report using problem-focused strategies more frequently than the women. The results of a regression analysis indicated that the reported use of problem-focused strategies did not contribute significantly to the explained variance in health. Instead, the emotion-focused strategy Denial explained a significant proportion of variance in the health problems. No sex differences in reported health problems were found. PMID:12841464

  17. The impact of coping on the somatic and mental status of patients with COPD: a cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Papava, Ion; Oancea, Cristian; Enatescu, Virgil Radu; Bredicean, Ana Cristina; Dehelean, Liana; Romosan, Radu Stefan; Timar, Bogdan

    2016-01-01

    Background and objectives Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is one of the most debilitating somatic diseases, having anxiety and depression frequently as comorbidities. The coping style, the way in which the subject manages to control the difficult and stressful situations of life, can influence its evolution and also the existence of the comorbidities. In this study, coping styles in a group of subjects with COPD and their association with the intensity of depressive and anxiety symptoms as well as medical determinants were identified. Materials and methods In this cross-sectional study, 28 male patients with COPD risk class D were enrolled. The patients performed spirometry tests, Borg scale, 6-minute walking test, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and COPE Inventory were recorded. Results According to their higher coping subscale score, the depression score was the highest in patients with avoidance-type coping and the lowest in patients with problem-focused coping (11.0 vs 5.6; P=0.042), respectively, patients with social support-focused coping having the highest anxiety score in contrast to patients with emotion-focused coping, which had the lowest anxiety score (11.6 vs 5.0; P=0.006). Regarding respiratory parameters, significant differences were present for the variation of the medians between the four groups only for forced vital capacity (FVC%) (the lowest FVC% was in patients with predominant social support-focused coping and the highest in patients with problem-focused coping) and 6-minute walking test (%) (the lowest score for patients with social support-focused coping and the highest value in patients with avoidance-type coping). Problem-coping score was significantly and positively associated with FVC% (Spearman’s r=0.400; P=0.035), emotion-focused coping score was significantly and positively associated with FVC% (Spearman’s r=0.395; P=0.038), and social support-focused coping score was negatively and significantly correlated

  18. [Snacking behavior among elementary and junior high school students and its relationship to stress-coping].

    PubMed

    Shimai, S; Kawabata, T; Nishioka, N; Haruki, T

    2000-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate current problems of snacking behavior and their relationship to stress coping among 1,486 fourth through ninth grade students from 10 elementary schools and six junior high schools. An anonymous self-completed questionnaire was utilized which included items about 1) selection of snack foods, which were classified into healthy, popular, complementary and western-style snacks, 2) problems of snacking behavior, which included external and emotional eating scores, and 3) stress coping scale. The stress coping scale contained two sub-scales; problem-focused and emotion-focused coping. The results were as follows: 1) Students who frequently went without breakfast did not select healthy foods, i.e., fruits and dairy products, but popular snacks, i.e., potato chips, pop corn and sweet beverage. 2) Both external and emotional eating scores increased by age in girls but was not apparent in boys. 3) Students who preferred either western-style or popular snacks showed higher score of external and emotional eating. 4) The score of problem-focused coping was positively correlated with preference for health snacks, but emotion-focused coping was positively correlated with external and emotional eating scores. The close relationship between snack food selection and problematic aspects of eating behavior suggests that modification of eating behavior is necessary to develop healthy snack habits in early adolescents. Also, it is interesting that snacking behavior is closely related to stress coping, which suggested the behavioral intervention for healthy eating habit should be included in development of stress-coping skills against various kinds of demands in life. PMID:10695335

  19. Coping with copper: legacy effect of copper on potential activity of soil bacteria following a century of exposure.

    PubMed

    Nunes, Inês; Jacquiod, Samuel; Brejnrod, Asker; Holm, Peter E; Johansen, Anders; Brandt, Kristian K; Priemé, Anders; Sørensen, Søren J

    2016-11-01

    Copper has been intensively used in industry and agriculture since mid-18(th) century and is currently accumulating in soils. We investigated the diversity of potential active bacteria by 16S rRNA gene transcript amplicon sequencing in a temperate grassland soil subjected to century-long exposure to normal (∼15 mg kg(-1)), high (∼450 mg kg(-1)) or extremely high (∼4500 mg kg(-1)) copper levels. Results showed that bioavailable copper had pronounced impacts on the structure of the transcriptionally active bacterial community, overruling other environmental factors (e.g. season and pH). As copper concentration increased, bacterial richness and evenness were negatively impacted, while distinct communities with an enhanced relative abundance of Nitrospira and Acidobacteria members and a lower representation of Verrucomicrobia, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were selected. Our analysis showed the presence of six functional response groups (FRGs), each consisting of bacterial taxa with similar tolerance response to copper. Furthermore, the use of FRGs revealed that specific taxa like the genus Nitrospira and several Acidobacteria groups could accurately predict the copper legacy burden in our system, suggesting a potential promising role as bioindicators of copper contamination in soils. PMID:27543319

  20. The Role of the Family Environment and Computer-Mediated Social Support on Breast Cancer Patients' Coping Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Yoo, Woohyun; Shah, Dhavan V.; Shaw, Bret R.; Kim, Eunkyung; Smaglik, Paul; Roberts, Linda J.; Hawkins, Robert P.; Pingree, Suzanne; Mcdowell, Helene; Gustafson, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Despite the importance of family environment and computer-mediated social support (CMSS) for women with breast cancer, little is known about the interplay of these sources of care and assistance on patients' coping strategies. To understand this relation, the authors examined the effect of family environment as a predictor of the use of CMSS groups as well as a moderator of the relation between group participation and forms of coping. Data were collected from 111 patients in CMSS groups in the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System “Living with Breast Cancer” intervention. Results indicate that family environment plays a crucial role in (a) predicting breast cancer patient's participation in CMSS groups and (b) moderating the effects of use of CMSS groups on breast cancer patients' coping strategies such as problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping. PMID:24511907

  1. The role of the family environment and computer-mediated social support on breast cancer patients' coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Woohyun; Shah, Dhavan V; Shaw, Bret R; Kim, Eunkyung; Smaglik, Paul; Roberts, Linda J; Hawkins, Robert P; Pingree, Suzanne; McDowell, Helene; Gustafson, David H

    2014-09-01

    Despite the importance of family environment and computer-mediated social support (CMSS) for women with breast cancer, little is known about the interplay of these sources of care and assistance on patients' coping strategies. To understand this relation, the authors examined the effect of family environment as a predictor of the use of CMSS groups as well as a moderator of the relation between group participation and forms of coping. Data were collected from 111 patients in CMSS groups in the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System "Living with Breast Cancer" intervention. Results indicate that family environment plays a crucial role in (a) predicting breast cancer patient's participation in CMSS groups and (b) moderating the effects of use of CMSS groups on breast cancer patients' coping strategies such as problem-focused coping and emotion-focused coping. PMID:24511907

  2. The development and pilot testing of the Self-management Programme of Activity, Coping and Education for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (SPACE for COPD)

    PubMed Central

    Apps, Lindsay D; Mitchell, Katy E; Harrison, Samantha L; Sewell, Louise; Williams, Johanna E; Young, Hannah ML; Steiner, Michael; Morgan, Mike; Singh, Sally J

    2013-01-01

    Purpose There is no independent standardized self-management approach available for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this project was to develop and test a novel self-management manual for individuals with COPD. Patients Participants with a confirmed diagnosis of COPD were recruited from primary care. Methods A novel self-management manual was developed with health care professionals and patients. Five focus groups were conducted with individuals with COPD (N = 24) during development to confirm and enhance the content of the prototype manual. The Self-management Programme of Activity, Coping and Education for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (SPACE for COPD) manual was developed as the focus of a comprehensive self-management approach facilitated by health care professionals. Preference for delivery was initial face-to-face consultation with telephone follow-up. The SPACE for COPD manual was piloted with 37 participants in primary care. Outcome measures included the Self-Report Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire, Incremental Shuttle Walk Test, and Endurance Shuttle Walking Test (ESWT); measurements were taken at baseline and 6 weeks. Results The pilot study observed statistically significant improvements for the dyspnea domain of the Self-Report Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire and ESWT. Dyspnea showed a mean change of 0.67 (95% confidence interval 0.23–1.11, P = 0.005). ESWT score increased by 302.25 seconds (95% confidence interval 161.47–443.03, P < 0.001). Conclusion This article describes the development and delivery of a novel self-management approach for COPD. The program, incorporating the SPACE for COPD manual, appears to provoke important changes in exercise capacity and breathlessness for individuals with COPD managed in primary care. PMID:23874093

  3. Impact of Age, and Cognitive and Coping Resources on Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trouillet, Raphael; Doan-Van-Hay, Loane-Martine; Launay, Michel; Martin, Sophie

    2011-01-01

    To explore the predictive value of cognitive and coping resources for problem- and emotion-focused coping with age, we collected data from community-dwelling adults between 20 and 90 years old. We hypothesized that age, perceived stress, self-efficacy, working-memory capacity, and mental flexibility were predictors of coping. We collected data…

  4. The structure of coping among older adults living with HIV/AIDS and depressive symptoms.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Nathan B; Harrison, Blair; Fambro, Stacy; Bodnar, Sara; Heckman, Timothy G; Sikkema, Kathleen J

    2013-02-01

    One-third of adults living with HIV/AIDS are over the age of 50. This study evaluated the structure of coping among 307 older adults living with HIV/AIDS. Participants completed 61 coping items and measures of anxiety, depression, loneliness, and coping self-efficacy. Exploratory factor analyses retained 40 coping items loading on five specific first order factors (Distancing Avoidance, Social Support Seeking, Self-Destructive Avoidance, Spiritual Coping, and Solution-Focused Coping) and two general second order factors (Active and Avoidant Coping). Factors demonstrated good reliability and validity. Results suggest that general coping factors should be considered with specific factors when measuring coping among older adults. PMID:22453164

  5. Coping by Caring.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lidstone, Sheila S.

    1992-01-01

    Describes a Texas elementary school's efforts to cope with the special needs of Kenneth, a fourth grader slowly dying of kidney cancer. Besides learning their subjects like other students, Kenneth's classmates learned how to care. Every student volunteered to be Kenneth's assistant and was enriched by the boy's positive attitude and determination…

  6. Coping with Computing Success.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Breslin, Richard D.

    Elements of computing success of Iona College, the challenges it currently faces, and the strategies conceived to cope with future computing needs are discussed. The college has mandated computer literacy for students and offers nine degrees in the computerized information system/management information system areas. Since planning is needed in…

  7. Incarceration, Coping, and Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Bonnie E.; Cervera, Neil J.

    1991-01-01

    Examined effects of incarceration on family life among 63 inmates and 38 inmate wives. Contrasted those who participated in Family Reunion (conjugal visits) Program with nonparticipants. Found that coping was in normal range for both groups of inmates and wives and, except for measures of wives' passive appraisal, did not differ according to…

  8. Children's online coping strategies: Rethinking coping typologies in a risk-specific approach.

    PubMed

    Vandoninck, Sofie; d'Haenens, Leen

    2015-12-01

    Understanding how children deal with problematic situations online is helpful in developing efficient awareness raising and online resilience building initiatives. In this article, we will discuss and develop typologies for online coping strategies. In a school survey, 2046 Flemish children aged 10-16 were asked about how they (would) respond when confronted with different types of online risks. Using principal component analyses and multi-dimensional scaling, we identified different types of cross-risk and risk-specific coping strategies, and explored which types of coping have similar underlying meanings. The results suggest to distinguish behavioral avoidance tactics from mere passive responses or indifference. Young people tend to perceive online coping strategies along two dimensions: engagement versus disengagement and technical versus non-technical measures. Behavioral avoidance is popular among younger children and is associated with a medium level of active engagement and often combined with communicative approaches. Girls are more communicative and respond more proactively. PMID:26513127

  9. Coping, stress, and personality in Spanish nursing students: A longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Fornés-Vives, Joana; Garcia-Banda, Gloria; Frias-Navarro, Dolores; Rosales-Viladrich, Gerard

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the dominant stress coping style in nursing students, its relationships with stressful life events and personality traits, and the students' changes during their academic training. A non-experimental two-wave longitudinal design was carried out in 199 nursing students recruited from three Spanish nursing schools. The Stressful Life Events Scale, NEO-FFI, and COPE questionnaire were administered at the beginning (T1) and end (T2) of their nursing studies. Descriptive statistics, Anova(s), NPar tests, and Pearson correlations were carried out. Results show that nursing students' dominant coping style was emotion-focused coping, both at T1 and T2. Highly significant correlations between emotional coping and the neuroticism trait were found. Coping, stress, and personality changed positively during the training program. At T2, the use of problem-focused strategies increased, and participants became more extroverted, agreeable, and conscientious. Coping and personality changes experienced by nursing students throughout their degree program seem to mirror the professional competences needed by future licensed nurses. PMID:26343997

  10. Sickle Cell Disease Pain: Relation of Coping Strategies to Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gil, Karen M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined pain coping strategies in 79 adult sickle cell disease (SCD) patients. Results revealed that coping strategies factors were important predictors of pain and adjustment. Subjects high on Negative Thinking and Passive Adherence had more severe pain, were less active and more distressed, and used more health services. Individuals high on…

  11. Cognitive Distortions, Coping Behavior, and Depression in College Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warren, Nancy J.; And Others

    1982-01-01

    This study explored the relationship of cognitive distortions and coping strategies to depression in college students. A measure of cognitive distortions (the Interpretation Inventory) and a measure of strategies for coping with depression (the Active Checklist) were developed and used for this study. Results are discussed. (CJ)

  12. Students' Stress, Coping Strategies, and School Completion: A Longitudinal Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hess, Robyn S.; Copeland, Ellis P.

    2001-01-01

    Investigates the relationship between stressful life change events and coping strategies, and high school completion status among early adolescents. Discriminant analysis was used to build a prediction model and indicated that the coping factors of Social Activities and Seeking Professional Support significantly predicted high school dropout…

  13. The moderating role of an oxytocin receptor gene polymorphism in the relation between unsupportive social interactions and coping profiles: implications for depression

    PubMed Central

    McInnis, Opal A.; McQuaid, Robyn J.; Matheson, Kimberly; Anisman, Hymie

    2015-01-01

    Oxytocin is a hormone that is thought to influence prosocial behaviors and may be important in modulating responses to both positive and negative social interactions. Indeed, a single nucleotide polymorphism, rs53576, of the oxytocin receptor gene (OXTR) has been associated with decreased trust, empathy, optimism, and social support seeking, which are important components of coping with stressors. In the current study, conducted among undergraduate students (N = 225), it was shown that parental and peer social support was related to fewer depressive symptoms through elevated problem-focused coping and lower emotion-focused coping, and these effects were independent of the OXTR polymorphism. Unsupportive social interactions from parents were associated with more severe depressive symptoms through the greater use of emotion-focused coping, and this relation was moderated by the OXTR genotype. Specifically, individuals who carried the polymorphism on one or both of their alleles demonstrated increased emotion-focused coping following unsupportive responses compared to those without the polymorphism. Likewise, lower problem-focused coping mediated the relation between parental and peer unsupportive responses to depressive symptoms, but this mediated relation was only evident among carriers of the polymorphism. These findings suggest that carrying this OXTR polymorphism might favor disadvantageous coping styles in the face of negative social interactions, which in turn are linked to poor mood. Regardless of genotype, parental, and peer social support are fundamental in determining stress-related coping and well-being. PMID:26321972

  14. Children Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Perez, Lissette M.

    Children who live with chronic illness are confronted with challenges that frequently force them to cope in myriad ways. The ways in which children face chronic illness are summarized in this literature review. Also covered, are how the effects of family can influence coping strategies and how family members, especially parents, cope with their…

  15. Coping during inpatient stroke rehabilitation: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Gillen, Glen

    2006-01-01

    The emotional impact of surviving a stroke has not received the same attention as physical aspects. This is particularly true regarding how stroke survivors cope during inpatient rehabilitation. This study examined the coping strategies used by stroke survivors undergoing inpatient rehabilitation and the relationships between demographic or clinical variables and coping behaviors. This case series examined 16 acute stroke survivors via standardized assessments and a medical records review completed during the first week of inpatient rehabilitation. Stroke survivors used combinations of multiple coping strategies. All stroke survivors used a higher number and frequency of adaptive rather than maladaptive strategies. Women used a higher number of adaptive strategies. Stroke survivors with depression used maladaptive coping strategies more frequently, whereas those presenting with a greater number and severity of comorbidities used adaptive coping strategies more frequently. Stroke survivors with higher levels of coping self-efficacy used the strategies of active coping and positive reframing more frequently. Based on these results, it is recommended direct-care providers place greater emphasis on objectifying the emotional consequences of stroke. Further research is recommended regarding understanding the relationship between coping and outcomes. PMID:16596917

  16. Enhancing Parental Well-Being and Coping through a Family-Centred Short Course for Iranian Parents of Children with an Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Samadi, Sayyed Ali; McConkey, Roy; Kelly, Greg

    2013-01-01

    Parents of children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) generally experience high levels of stress and report poorer emotional well-being and family functioning compared to parents of children with other disabilities. They also tend to rely on emotional rather than problem-focused coping strategies. Seven group-based sessions were offered to two…

  17. Black Canadians' Coping Responses to Racial Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Joseph, Justine; Kuo, Ben C. H.

    2009-01-01

    On the basis of a cultural coping framework, the present study examined coping responses to racial discrimination among 190 Black Canadians. The study assessed the respondents' coping with both general (i.e., problem- and emotion-focused coping) and Africultural coping strategies (i.e., spiritual-centered, collective, and ritual-centered coping)…

  18. Coping Strategies and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms in Post-ICU Family Decision Makers

    PubMed Central

    Petrinec, Amy B.; Mazanec, Polly M.; Burant, Christopher J.; Hoffer, Alan; Daly, Barbara J.

    2015-01-01

    Objective To assess the coping strategies used by family decision makers of adult critical care patients during and after the critical care experience and the relationship of coping strategies to posttraumatic stress symptoms experienced 60 days after hospitalization. Design A single-group descriptive longitudinal correlational study. Setting Medical, surgical, and neurological ICUs in a large tertiary care university hospital. Patients Consecutive family decision makers of adult critical care patients from August 2012 to November 2013. Study inclusion occurred after the patient's fifth day in the ICU. Interventions None. Measurements and Main Results Family decision makers of incapacitated adult ICU patients completed the Brief COPE instrument assessing coping strategy use 5 days after ICU admission and 30 days after hospital discharge or death of the patient and completed the Impact of Event Scale-Revised assessing post-traumatic stress symptoms 60 days after hospital discharge. Seventy-seven family decision makers of the eligible 176 completed all data collection time points of this study. The use of problem-focused (p = 0.01) and emotion-focused (p < 0.01) coping decreased over time while avoidant coping (p = 0.20) use remained stable. Coping strategies 30 days after hospitalization (R2 = 0.50, p < 0.001) were better predictors of later posttraumatic stress symptoms than coping strategies 5 days after ICU admission (R2 = 0.30, p = 0.001) controlling for patient and decision-maker characteristics. The role of decision maker for a parent and patient death were the only noncoping predictors of post-traumatic stress symptoms. Avoidant coping use 30 days after hospitalization mediated the relationship between patient death and later posttraumatic stress symptom severity. Conclusions Coping strategy use is a significant predictor of posttraumatic stress symptom severity 60 days after hospitalization in family decision makers of ICU patients. PMID:25785520

  19. Integrating Coping Behavior in Family Stress Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbin, Hamilton I.

    Traditional approaches to family stress theory have underscored the importance of the family as a reactor to stress, as a manager of resources within the family system. In contrast, the active process of employing coping strategies within the family and in transactions with the community have received limited consideration in both research and…

  20. Coping by Children Undergoing Stressful Medical Procedures: Some Conceptual, Methodological, and Therapeutic Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Lizette

    1989-01-01

    As an example of current trends in research on children's coping, this article reviews a small set of recent pediatric psychology studies that describe children's active, information-seeking styles of coping versus avoidant or information-denying coping. The review highlights the need for tighter, more complete concepts and improved methods.…

  1. Coping in the Cyberworld: Program Implementation and Evaluation--A Pilot Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Cecilia Wing Chi; Frydenberg, Erica

    2009-01-01

    As increasing numbers of adolescents become involved in online activities, many also become victims of cyberharassment. This pilot project investigates how a program teaching coping skills (Best of Coping program, BOC) and a program teaching cybersafety (Cyber Savvy Teens program, CST) can optimise adolescents' capacity to cope online.…

  2. Moderation and mediation effects of coping by Chinese American and European American adolescents.

    PubMed

    Jose, Paul E; Huntsinger, Carol S

    2005-03-01

    The authors asked 55 second-generation Chinese American adolescents (M age = 16.8 years) and 58 European American adolescents (M age = 17.0 years) to complete self-report measures of stress levels, use of coping strategies, psychological outcomes, and grades. Chinese American adolescents reported higher levels of everyday life event stress (e.g., stress from schoolwork), more depression, and higher grade point averages. Problem-focused and avoidance-coping behaviors moderated the effect of stress on negative adjustment for Chinese American youth but not for European American youth. Path analysis showed that avoidance coping behavior partially mediated the stress-to-negative adjustment relationship for Chinese American youth but not for European American youth. Stress was associated with lower grades in Chinese American youth, but the authors found no association for European American youth. PMID:15782676

  3. Black women talk about workplace stress and how they cope.

    PubMed

    Hall, J Camille; Everett, Joyce E; Hamilton-Mason, Johnnie

    2012-01-01

    Black women face the same struggles as White women; however, they have to face issues of diversity on top of inequality. The purpose of this study was to explore work-related stressors that affect the lives of Black women and how they cope with them. Using an exploratory design with grounded-theory methods, five basic themes emerged that identify when racism and sexism are experienced as stressors for African American women in the workplace. The themes are: (1) being hired or promoted in the workplace, (2) defending one’s race and lack of mentorship, (3) shifting or code switching to overcome barriers to employment, (4) coping with racism and discrimination, and (5) being isolated and/or excluded. The results from this study indicate African American women use emotion- and problem-focused coping responses to manage stress (e.g., racism and sexism) in the workplace. The article concludes with a discussion of practice implications of these findings. PMID:22457894

  4. “Have a drink, you’ll feel better.” Predictors of Daily Alcohol Consumption Among Extraverts: The Mediational Role of Coping

    PubMed Central

    McCabe, Cameron T.; Roesch, Scott C.; Aldridge-Gerry, Arianna A.

    2012-01-01

    An abundance of information exists pertaining to individual differences in college drinking behaviors with much attention being provided to the role of personality. However, plausible explanations for what prompts engagement in or avoidance of these behaviors have remained largely ambiguous or underexplored, particularly with respect to extraversion. Research has since explored how coping behaviors contribute to these associations. The present study built on this research by evaluating differences in daily alcohol consumption as a function of coping choice. The mediational effects of two specific strategies frequently observed in high extraversion individuals (i.e., problem-focused coping and social support) were examined. Using a daily diary approach, 365 undergraduates reported their most stressful experience, how they coped with it, and the number of drinks consumed for five consecutive days. Resulting multilevel-models were consistent with hypotheses indicating the relationship between extraversion and alcohol consumption was partially mediated by problem-focused and support-seeking strategies. The use of problem-focused coping by high extraversion individuals was associated with lower levels of daily alcohol consumption, suggesting this strategy may play a protective role in influencing drinking behaviors. Conversely, the positive effect observed for social support approached significance (p=.054) and was indicative of a potential risk-factor for daily alcohol consumption. PMID:22313495

  5. En las Manos de Dios [in God’s Hands]: Religious and Other Forms of Coping Among Latinos With Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Abraído-Lanza, Ana F.; Vásquez, Elizabeth; Echeverría, Sandra E.

    2013-01-01

    This study tested a theoretical model concerning religious, passive, and active coping; pain; and psychological adjustment among a sample of 200 Latinos with arthritis. Respondents reported using high levels of religious coping. A path analysis indicated that religious coping was correlated with active but not with passive coping. Religious coping was directly related to psychological well-being. Passive coping was associated with greater pain and worse adjustment. The effects of active coping on pain, depression, and psychological well-being were entirely indirect, mediated by acceptance of illness and self-efficacy. These findings warrant more research on the mechanisms that mediate the relationship between coping and health. This study contributes to a growing literature on religious coping among people with chronic illness, as well as contributing to a historically under-studied ethnic group. PMID:14756618

  6. A Comparative Analysis of Well-Being and Coping among Mothers of Toddlers and Mothers of Adolescents with ASD

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Leann E.; Seltzer, Marsha Mailick; Tager-Flusberg, Helen; Greenberg, Jan S.; Carter, Alice S.

    2010-01-01

    The present study examined the impact of autism symptoms and coping strategies on the well-being of mothers of children with ASD. The sample consisted of 153 mothers of toddlers and 201 mothers of adolescents drawn from two ongoing, longitudinal studies of families of individuals with ASD. For mothers of toddlers, lower levels of emotion-focused coping and higher levels of problem-focused coping were generally associated with better maternal well-being, regardless of the level of child symptomatology. For mothers of adolescents, coping often acted as a buffer when autism symptoms were high. Although there was evidence of maternal distress in both groups, the presence of significant buffering effects reflects adaptation in the face of stress, particularly for mothers of adolescents. PMID:17924181

  7. Latino Caregiver Coping With Children's Chronic Health Conditions: An Integrative Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Desai, Priti P; Rivera, Abigail Torres; Backes, Emily M

    2016-01-01

    In this study we examined research pertaining to how Latino caregivers cope with their children's chronic health conditions. An understanding of this topic could facilitate appropriate interventions by health care staff to promote optimal child health outcomes. In this integrative review we categorized 21 studies by publication characteristics, methodology, findings, and their focus on emotion-focused and/or problem-focused coping. Thirteen studies used a qualitative design. Five studies included fathers in the sample. Twelve studies investigated coping with child's asthma, primarily in Mexican or Puerto Rican families. Coping strategies utilizing religion/spirituality, alternate healing practices, family support, and education about the child's illness were identified. Language, cultural dissimilarities, receiving inadequate information about the child's health care, differences in health beliefs, and feeling disrespected by providers were frequently cited coping challenges. Addressing these barriers is imperative to enhance coping of caregivers. Inconsistencies in research samples regarding income, education, immigration, and acculturation histories make findings difficult to generalize; recommendations for further research are suggested. PMID:26188357

  8. Depressive symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus: do stress and coping matter?

    PubMed

    Shah, Bijal M; Gupchup, Gireesh V; Borrego, Matthew E; Raisch, Dennis W; Knapp, Katherine K

    2012-04-01

    This article examines the relationship among diabetes-related stress, appraisal, coping and depressive symptoms in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) using the transactional model of stress and coping (TMSC) as the theoretical framework. In this cross-sectional study, a convenience sample of 201 patients with T2DM was recruited from three outpatient clinics. Patients with depressive symptoms reported significantly more diabetes-related stress than patients without depressive symptoms. The results of path analysis suggest that patients who experience greater diabetes-related stress or greater depressive symptoms have a negative appraisal of their diabetes. Negative appraisal is, in turn, associated with greater use of avoidance, passive resignation and diabetes integration coping and lesser use of problem-focused coping. Avoidance, passive resignation and diabetes integration coping are, in turn, related to greater depressive symptoms or greater diabetes-related stress. Overall, the results of this study support the TMSC as a framework to elucidate the relationships among diabetes-related stress, appraisal, coping and depressive symptoms in patients with T2DM. However, given the cross-sectional nature of the study, we are unable to elucidate the directionality of the relationship between stress and depressive symptoms. Implications of the findings and the need for longitudinal studies to evaluate these relationships are discussed. PMID:22282035

  9. Microinfusion of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide into the central nucleus of amygdala of the rat produces a shift from an active to passive mode of coping in the shock-probe fear/defensive burying test.

    PubMed

    Legradi, Gabor; Das, Mahasweta; Giunta, Brian; Hirani, Khemraj; Mitchell, E Alice; Diamond, David M

    2007-01-01

    High concentrations of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) nerve fibers are present in the central nucleus of amygdala (CeA), a brain region implicated in the control of fear-related behavior. This study evaluated PACAPergic modulation of fear responses at the CeA in male Sprague-Dawley rats. PACAP (50-100 pmol) microinfusion via intra-CeA cannulae produced increases in immobility and time the rats spent withdrawn into a corner opposite to the electrified probe compared to controls in the shock-probe fear/defensive burying test. Shock-probe burying and exploration, numbers of shocks received, locomotion distance, and velocity were all reduced by intra-CeA PACAP injection. Further, intra-CeA PACAP effects were manifested only when the animals were challenged by shock, as intra-CeA PACAP injections did not cause significant changes in the behaviors of unshocked rats. Thus, intra-CeA administration of PACAP produces a distinct reorganization of stress-coping behaviors from active (burying) to passive modes, such as withdrawal and immobility. These findings are potentially significant toward enhancing our understanding of the involvement of PACAP and the CeA in the neural basis of fear and anxiety. PMID:17641738

  10. Parents’ Religious Coping Styles in the First Year After Their Child’s Cystic Fibrosis Diagnosis

    PubMed Central

    GROSSOEHME, DANIEL H.; RAGSDALE, JUDY; COTTON, SIAN; WOOLDRIDGE, JAMIE L.; GRIMES, LISA; SEID, MICHAEL

    2015-01-01

    Parents of children diagnosed with cystic fibrosis described it as “devastating.” Given religion’s importance to many Americans, parents may utilize religious coping. Relatively little is known about parents’ use of religious coping to handle their child’s illness. Interviews with 15 parents about their use of religion in the year following their child’s cystic fibrosis diagnosis were coded for religious coping styles. Sixteen styles were identified. Positive religious coping styles were more frequent than negative styles (previously associated with poorer health outcomes), and occurred more frequently than in other studies. Religious coping styles used to make meaning, gain control, or seek comfort/intimacy with God were equally prevalent. The most common styles were: Pleading, Collaboration, Benevolent Religious Reappraisals, and Seeking Spiritual Support. Parents described active rather than passive coping styles. Religious coping involving religious others was rare. Clinical attention to negative religious coping may prevent it becoming chronic and negatively affecting health. PMID:20658425

  11. Investigating coping strategies and social support among Canadian melanoma patients: A survey approach.

    PubMed

    Kalbfleisch, Melanie; Cyr, Annette; Gregorio, Nancy; Nyhof-Young, Joyce

    2015-01-01

    Complex support needs are involved in coping with a diagnosis of melanoma. The purpose of this study was to determine the perceived social support levels and utilization of adaptive and maladaptive coping strategies by Canadian melanoma patients. The impact of social support level on coping strategy utilization was also examined. Social support and coping strategies were assessed using the Medical Outcomes Study Social Support Survey (MOS-SSS) and the 28-item Brief COPE, respectively. Perceived levels of emotional/informational support were significantly lower than affectionate support and positive social interaction. Acceptance, active coping, and use of emotional support were the most frequently utilized coping strategies. Patients with higher perceived levels of social support had significantly higher adaptive coping scores than patients with lower levels of social support. Health care professionals have an important role in promoting awareness of and access to emotional and informational support resources in order to improve perceived social support levels. PMID:26642495

  12. Burden among male Alzheimer's caregivers: effects of distinct coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Geiger, Jennifer R; Wilks, Scott E; Lovelace, Lauren L; Chen, Zibei; Spivey, Christina A

    2015-05-01

    Focusing on the understudied, increasing population of male Alzheimer's disease (AD) caregivers, the purpose of this study was to identify their likelihood of utilizing 3 coping strategies (task focused, emotion focused, and avoidance focused) and to examine the effects of each coping strategy on caregiving burden. Data were collected from 138 male AD caregivers in southern United States, including geographically proportional representation of African Americans in the sample. Stepwise regression revealed effects of each coping strategy on caregiving burden, controlling for demographics. The sample reported high burden. Task focused was the highest reported coping strategy. Yet, regression models indicated no significant effect of task-focused coping on burden outcomes. Emotion-focused and avoidance-focused coping each showed significant proportional effects on burden. Implications suggest that emotion- and avoidance-focused coping among male AD caregivers may be maladaptive, that is, reinforcing burden. Male AD caregivers may benefit from more task-focused coping, such as planning and active problem solving. PMID:25267930

  13. COPE Coastal ocean probe experiment Northern Oregon Coast 14-16 September 1995: Test Operations Report summary of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory activities

    SciTech Connect

    Mantrom, D.D.; Miller, M.G.

    1995-10-01

    Operations involving Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) assets associated with a field experiment named COPE (Coastal Ocean Probe Experiment) are described. The lead organization responsible for the planning and conduct of COPE is NOAA/ETL headquartered in Boulder, Colorado. This experiment was conducted off the coast of Northern Oregon during September-October 1995. The primary measurements involve radars and other imaging microwave sensors imaging surface effects associated with natural internal waves which are abundant off the Oregon coast in the late summer and early fall. In-water, surface, and above- water environmental sensors were fielded by ETL and their contractors on the FLIP platform moored 13 miles offshore and elsewhere to characterize the environmental conditions and help interpret various features in the imagery. LLNL`s Imaging and Detection Program has taken advantage of this unique site and suite of ground-truth measurements to collect radar image data over a three-day period (14-16 September 1995) with our Airborne Experimental Test Bed (AETB) and its X-band, HH-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as a piggyback to the primary COPE data collection. This report documents test operations during this three-day data collection involving the AETB/SAR from a LLNL perspective. A total of 42 SAR images were collected at grazing angles of 8{degrees}, 20{degrees}, and 45{degrees}. From all indications during data collection, data quality appears good for about 75 percent of the passes. Strong internal waves were observed each day in calm to light wind conditions. ETL`s hillside dual-polarization X-band and Ka-band real aperture radars recorded data simultaneous with the AETB SAR. The presence of other airborne platforms and low cloud cover limited the AETB aircraft`s ability to operate at low altitude. Limited sea-truth data was collected onboard FLIP.

  14. Dimensions of Family Coping with Head Injury.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosciulek, John F.

    1994-01-01

    Examined dimensions underlying family coping with head injury. Data from 150 families with a member with a head injury identified 3 dimensions of coping: individual-to-family versus family-to-community coping; family-respite versus head-injury-focused coping; and cognitive versus behavioral coping. Findings have implications for family stress and…

  15. Development of the Coping Flexibility Scale: Evidence for the Coping Flexibility Hypothesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2012-01-01

    "Coping flexibility" was defined as the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping) and produce and implement an alternative coping strategy (i.e., adaptive coping). The Coping Flexibility Scale (CFS) was developed on the basis of this definition. Five studies involving approximately 4,400 Japanese college…

  16. Age Differences and Changes of Coping Behavior in Three Age Groups: Findings from the Georgia Centenarian Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Peter; Kliegel, Matthias; Rott, Christoph; Poon, Leonard W.; Johnson, Mary Ann

    2008-01-01

    With increasing age, older adults are more likely to be challenged by an increasing number of physical, functional and social losses. As a result, coping with losses becomes a central theme in very late life. This study investigated age differences and age changes in active behavioral, active cognitive and avoidance coping and related coping to…

  17. School Principals' Emotional Coping Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poirel, Emmanuel; Yvon, Frédéric

    2014-01-01

    The present study examines the emotional coping of school principals in Quebec. Emotional coping was measured by stimulated recall; six principals were filmed during a working day and presented a week later with their video showing stressful encounters. The results show that school principals experience anger because of reproaches from staff…

  18. Intergenerational Child Abuse and Coping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robboy, Juliet; Anderson, Kristen G.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies have investigated the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) but few have examined the intergenerational effects of poly-victimization and maladaptive coping. The purpose of this investigation was to examine patterns of maltreatment and maladaptive coping among second-generation CSA survivors. It is hypothesized that: (a) maternal…

  19. Differential Impact of Medical Status, Maternal Coping, and Marital Satisfaction on Coping with Childhood Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zevon, Michael A.; And Others

    This study was conducted to examine the influence of medical, psychological, and familial factors on the coping of pediatric cancer patients. Participants were 36 pediatric cancer patients and their families under active treatment at Roswell Park Memorial Institute, a comprehensive cancer research and treatment center in Buffalo, New York. The…

  20. The Role of Religious Coping Strategies in Predicting Depression among a Sample of Women with Fertility Problems in Shiraz

    PubMed Central

    Aflakseir, Abdulaziz; Mahdiyar, Mansoureh

    2016-01-01

    Background: One of the most common mental health problems among women with infertility problems is depression. Research has shown that religious beliefs and practices can help people to cope with difficult situations. The purpose of this study was to explore the role of different religious coping strategies in predicting depression in a group of infertile women in Shiraz. Methods: A total of 72 women with fertility problems were recruited from several private infertility clinics in Shiraz using convenience sampling. The participants completed the research questionnaires including Beck Depression Inventory and Religious Coping Scale. The Religious Coping Scale consists of five dimensions including practice, active, passive, benevolent reappraisal and negative religious coping. Descriptive statistics (frequency percentage, mean and standard deviation), Pearson’s correlation and simultaneous multiple regression analysis were used for data analysis using SPSS version 16. A p-value less than 0.05 was considered statistically significant. Results: The present study showed that about 30% of women with fertility problems experienced the symptoms of depression. The findings also indicated that the most commonly used religious coping strategy was practice religious coping, while the least commonly used religious coping strategies were passive and negative religious coping. The findings also showed that active religious coping, practice religious coping and benevolent reappraisal coping predicted depression reduction. Conclusion: This study highlights the effect of religious coping on depression reduction of women with fertility problems. In other words, women who used religious coping strategies were less likely to experience depression symptoms. PMID:27141467

  1. Coping with chronic social stress in mice: hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal/ sympathetic-adrenal-medullary axis activity, behavioral changes and effects of antalarmin treatment: implications for the study of stress-related psychopathologies.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Tejada, Joana; Arregi, Amaia; Gómez-Lázaro, Eneritz; Vegas, Oscar; Azpiroz, Arantza; Garmendia, Larraitz

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the individual differences that lead to the development of psychopathological changes in response to chronic social stress. We also assessed the ability of an antagonist of the corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) receptors to reverse the effects of stress. Male adult mice were exposed to repeated defeat experiences for 21 days using a sensorial contact model. After 18 days of defeat, two groups of subjects were established (active and passive), according to their behaviors during social confrontation. Antalarmin treatment was given for 4 and 6 days. The results corroborated previous data indicating that subjects who adopted a passive coping strategy had higher corticosterone levels after 21 days of defeat and decreased resting levels 3 days later. Moreover, they showed higher resting expression levels of hypothalamic CRH than their active counterparts. On day 24, the experimental animals were subjected to another social defeat to determine whether the stress response remained. The increase in corticosterone and hypothalamic CRH levels was similar for all of the stressed subjects, but the passive subjects also had a greater CRH response in the amygdala. Passive subjects had decreased levels of adrenal dopamine β-hydroxylase, tyrosine hydroxylase and plasma adrenaline compared to the active subjects, and lower plasma noradrenaline levels than manipulated controls. The passive profile of physiological changes in both the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal and sympathetic-adrenal-medullary (SAM) axes has been associated with changes related to mood disorders, such as posttraumatic stress disorder and depression. The active coping profile is characterized by similar corticosterone resting levels to controls and increased SAM activity. Both profiles showed alterations in the novel palatable and forced swimming tests, with the passive profile being the most vulnerable to the effects of stress in this last test. Pharmacological

  2. An Exploratory Factor Analysis of Coping Styles and Relationship to Depression Among a Sample of Homeless Youth.

    PubMed

    Brown, Samantha M; Begun, Stephanie; Bender, Kimberly; Ferguson, Kristin M; Thompson, Sanna J

    2015-10-01

    The extent to which measures of coping adequately capture the ways that homeless youth cope with challenges, and the influence these coping styles have on mental health outcomes, is largely absent from the literature. This study tests the factor structure of the Coping Scale using Exploratory Factor Analysis (EFA) and then investigates the relationship between coping styles and depression using hierarchical logistic regression with data from 201 homeless youth. Results of the EFA indicate a 3-factor structure of coping, which includes active, avoidant, and social coping styles. Results of the hierarchical logistic regression show that homeless youth who engage in greater avoidant coping are at increased risk of meeting criteria for major depressive disorder. Findings provide insight into the utility of a preliminary tool for assessing homeless youths' coping styles. Such assessment may identify malleable risk factors that could be addressed by service providers to help prevent mental health problems. PMID:25821043

  3. Racial differences in adolescent coping and self-esteem.

    PubMed

    Chapman, P L; Mullis, R L

    2000-06-01

    Racial differences in coping strategies and self-esteem were examined for 361 male and female adolescents in Grades 7-12. Coping strategies were assessed with the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences (J. M. Patterson & H. I. McCubbin, 1986). Self-esteem was assessed by the Coopersmith Self-Esteem Inventory (S. Coopersmith, 1987). Multivariate analysis revealed racial differences in adolescent coping strategies of ventilating feelings, seeking diversions, developing self-reliance, avoiding problems, seeking spiritual support, investing in close friends, engaging in demanding activities, solving family problems, and relaxing. In particular, African American adolescents reported using diversions, self-reliance, spiritual support, close friends, demanding activities, family problems, and relaxation more frequently than Caucasian adolescents did. Implications for professionals and recommendations for future research are discussed. PMID:10851678

  4. Executive function does not predict coping with symptoms in stable patients with a diagnosis of schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Bak, Maarten; Krabbendam, Lydia; Delespaul, Philippe; Huistra, Karola; Walraven, Wil; van Os, Jim

    2008-01-01

    Background Associations between coping with and control over psychotic symptoms were examined using the Maastricht Assessment of Coping Strategies-24, testing the hypothesis that the cognitive domain of executive functioning predicted quality and quantity of coping. Methods MACS-24 was administered to 32 individuals with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. For each of 24 symptoms, experience of distress, type of coping and the resulting degree of perceived control were assessed. Coping types were reduced to two contrasting coping categories: symptomatic coping (SC) and non-symptomatic coping (NSC; combining active problem solving, passive illness behaviour, active problem avoiding, and passive problem avoiding). Cognitive functioning was assessed using the GIT (Groninger Intelligence Test), the Zoo map (BADS: Behavioural Assessment of Dysexecutive function), Stroop-test and Trail making. Results Cognitive function was not associated with frequency of coping, nor did cognitive function differentially predict SC or NSC. Cognitive function similarly was not associated with symptom distress or level of perceived control over the symptom. Conclusion There was no evidence that cognitive function predicts quantity or quality of coping with symptoms in people with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. Variation in the realm of emotion regulation and social cognition may be more predictive of coping with psychotic symptoms. PMID:18510757

  5. Coping with HIV/AIDS Stigma in Five African Countries

    PubMed Central

    Makoae, Lucia N.; Greeff, Minrie; Phetlhu, René D.; Uys, Leana R.; Naidoo, Joanne R.; Kohi, Thecla W.; Dlamini, Priscilla S.; Chirwa, Maureen L.; Holzemer, William L.

    2008-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) and their families are subjected to prejudice, discrimination and hostility related to the stigmatization of AIDS. This paper examines how PLWH cope with HIV-related stigma in the five southern African countries of Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. A descriptive, qualitative research design was used to explore the experience of HIV-related stigma of PLWH and nurses in 2004. Forty-three focus groups were conducted with 251 participants (114 nurses, 111 PLWHs and 26 volunteers). In describing incidents of stigma, respondents reported strategies used or observed to cope with those incidents of stigma. Nurse reports of coping strategies that they used as well as coping strategies they observed as used by HIV-infected patients were coded. Coping strategies used by PLWH in dealing with HIV-related stigma were coded. Seventeen different self-care strategies were identified: restructuring, seeing oneself as OK, letting go, turning to God, hoping, changing behavior, keeping oneself active, using humor, joining a support or social group, disclosing one’s HIV status, speaking to others with same problem, getting counseling, helping others to cope with the illness, educating others, learning from others, acquiring knowledge and understanding about the disease, and getting help from others. Coping appears to be self-taught and only modestly helpful in managing perceived stigma. PMID:18328964

  6. Coping with and factors impacting upon the experience of lung cancer in patients and primary carers.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J; Lloyd Williams, M; Wagland, R; Bailey, C; Molassiotis, A

    2013-01-01

    There is a paucity of research exploring patients' and their informal carers' experience of coping with and factors impacting on the lung cancer experience. This study aims to explore how patients and their informal carers cope with a diagnosis of lung cancer and describe the key factors that mediate distress in this population in order that they may be better supported in the future. This was a qualitative study employing semi-structured interviews and framework analysis to elicit the experience of 37 patients with lung cancer and 23 primary carers regarding their coping with and factors influencing patient/carer distress. The findings illustrate that participants used both emotional- and problem-focused coping strategies, including accepting the reality of lung cancer, adopting a positive attitude/fighting spirit, denial, avoidance and distraction and information seeking. Maintaining normality was also important. Key factors that mediate the lung cancer experience were also identified including hope, social network, prior experience of cancer and other chronic illnesses, the competing coping strategies of patients and their primary carers, the unpredictable nature of patients' behaviour, changing symptomatology, the perceived attitudes of health professionals and the impact of perceived delays in diagnosis. This study provides important insights into how patients with lung cancer and their primary carers might be better supported. PMID:22978743

  7. Coping strategies in melanoma patients.

    PubMed

    Trapp, Michael; Trapp, Eva-Maria; Richtig, Erika; Egger, Josef Wilhelm; Zampetti, Anna; Sampogna, Francesca; Rohrer, Peter Michael; Komericki, Peter; Strimitzer, Tanja; Linder, Michael Dennis

    2012-11-01

    An observational, questionnaire-based, cross-sectional study was performed to assess whether differences in coping behaviour (positive and negative strategies) between patients with either a recent diagnosis of malignant melanoma (MM) or with benign dermatological disease, were predictive of the diagnosis. Coping strategies were assessed with the German version of the stress-coping questionnaire (SVF 120) in 46 inpatients for whom surgery was planned at the Department of Dermatology, Medical University of Graz, Austria. Subjects were divided into two groups: patients with non-metastatic MM, and patients with benign dermatological diseases (controls). The risk for the diagnosis "melanoma" decreased with higher values of "situation control" (p = 0.007) and increased with higher values of resignation (p = 0.035) and trivialisation (p = 0.039). More-over, the risk for having a MM with thickness > 1 mm decreased in patients with higher values in positive coping strategies (p < 0.34). These results suggest differences in coping behaviour between patients with MM and those with benign skin diseases and, amidst patients with MM, between patients with different MM thickness; the results may hence lead to earlier, more specific and more effective psychological interventions to improve coping in patients with MM, as differences in coping behaviour seem to appear even in the non-metastatic stage of the disease. PMID:22772950

  8. Resilience, self-efficacy, coping styles and depressive and anxiety symptoms in those newly diagnosed with multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Tan-Kristanto, Stef; Kiropoulos, Litza A

    2015-01-01

    High levels of depressive and anxiety symptoms have been reported by individuals with multiple sclerosis (MS). This study examined the associations between resilience, self-efficacy and coping and depressive and anxiety symptoms and whether resilience, self-efficacy and coping were predictors of depressive and anxiety symptoms in patients newly diagnosed with MS. A sample of 129 individuals newly diagnosed with MS participated in this cross-sectional study and completed an online questionnaire assessing resilience, self-efficacy, coping and depressive and anxiety symptoms. Results revealed that depressive and anxiety symptoms were significantly associated with problem-focused, emotion-focused and avoidance coping strategies, resilience and self-efficacy. Anxiety symptoms were also significantly associated with employment status and level of disability. Results from hierarchical multiple regression revealed that the resilience subscale of personal competence, the avoidance coping style of substance use and emotion-focused coping styles of venting predicted depressive symptoms and uniquely accounted for 63.8% of the variance in the depression score, F (18, 124) = 10.36, p = .000. Level of disability and employment status accounted for 13.2% of the anxiety score and avoidance coping style of denial and emotion-focused coping style of humour accounted for 36.4% of the variance in the anxiety symptom score, F (15, 112) = 6.37, p = .000. Our findings suggest that resilience and avoidance and emotion-focused coping strategies are predictive of depressive symptoms and anxiety symptoms in those newly diagnosed with MS. Resilience and coping styles may be another target for interventions aimed at managing depressive and anxiety symptoms in those newly diagnosed with MS. PMID:25588098

  9. Adolescents', mothers', and fathers' gendered coping strategies during conflict: Youth and parent influences on conflict resolution and psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Marceau, Kristine; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A; Schreiber, Jane E; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-11-01

    We observed gendered coping strategies and conflict resolution outcomes used by adolescents and parents during a conflict discussion task to evaluate associations with current and later adolescent psychopathology. We studied 137 middle- to upper-middle-class, predominantly Caucasian families of adolescents (aged 11-16 years, 65 males) who represented a range of psychological functioning, including normative, subclinical, and clinical levels of problems. Adolescent coping strategies played key roles both in the extent to which parent-adolescent dyads resolved conflict and in the trajectory of psychopathology symptom severity over a 2-year period. Gender-prototypic adaptive coping strategies were observed in parents but not youth, (i.e., more problem solving by fathers than mothers and more regulated emotion-focused coping by mothers than fathers). Youth-mother dyads more often achieved full resolution of conflict than youth-father dyads. There were generally not bidirectional effects among youth and parents' coping across the discussion except boys' initial use of angry/hostile coping predicted fathers' angry/hostile coping. The child was more influential than the parent on conflict resolution. This extended to exacerbation/alleviation of psychopathology over 2 years: higher conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents' use of problem-focused coping with decreases in symptom severity over time. Lower conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents' use of angry/hostile emotion coping with increases in symptom severity over time. Implications of findings are considered within a broadened context of the nature of coping and conflict resolution in youth-parent interactions, as well as on how these processes impact youth well-being and dysfunction over time. PMID:26439060

  10. Adolescents’, Mothers’, and Fathers’ Gendered Coping Strategies during Conflict: Youth and Parent Influences on Conflict Resolution and Psychopathology

    PubMed Central

    Marceau, Kristine; Zahn-Waxler, Carolyn; Shirtcliff, Elizabeth A.; Schreiber, Jane E; Hastings, Paul; Klimes-Dougan, Bonnie

    2015-01-01

    We observed gendered coping strategies and conflict resolution outcomes used by adolescents and parents during a conflict discussion task to evaluate associations with current and later adolescent psychopathology. We studied 137 middle-to-upper-middle class predominantly Caucasian families of adolescents (aged 11–16 years, 65 males) who represented a range of psychological functioning including normative (~1/3) sub-clinical (~1/3) and clinical (~1/3) levels of problems. Adolescent coping strategies played key roles both in the extent to which parent-adolescent dyads resolved conflict and in the trajectory of psychopathology symptom severity over a two-year period. Gender-prototypic adaptive coping strategies were observed in parents but not youth, i.e. more problem-solving by fathers than mothers and more regulated emotion-focused coping by mothers than fathers. Youth-mother dyads more often achieved full resolution of conflict than youth-father dyads. There were generally not bidirectional effects among youth and parents’ coping across the discussion except boys’ initial use of angry/hostile coping predicted fathers’ angry/hostile coping. The child was more influential than the parent on conflict resolution. This extended to exacerbation/alleviation of psychopathology over two years: higher conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents’ use of problem-focused coping with decreases in symptom severity over time. Lower conflict resolution mediated the association of adolescents’ use of angry/hostile emotion coping with increases in symptom severity over time. Implications of findings are considered within a broadened context of the nature of coping and conflict resolution in youth-parent interactions, as well as how these processes impact on youth well-being and dysfunction over time. PMID:26439060

  11. Job stress and coping: self-employed versus organizationally employed professionals.

    PubMed

    Oren, Lior

    2012-04-01

    In order to examine job stress and coping among self-employed and organizationally employed professionals, job-related stressors and coping strategies were assessed among self-employed (n = 149) and organizationally employed (n = 159) professionals working as accountants, lawyers, pharmacists and psychologists. Results indicate that although self-employed workers complained about lack of security and organizationally employed workers complained about lack of autonomy, no differences were found in overall stress levels or overload. Examination of workers' coping strategies provided a partial explanation for these findings. Stress levels negatively correlated with active coping and positively correlated with passive/avoidance coping; self-employed workers were found to cope by confronting problems, whereas organizationally employed workers were found to cope by avoiding them. These findings qualify previous research findings on self-employed and organizationally employed workers. PMID:22282343

  12. Voices of strength and struggle: women's coping strategies against spousal violence in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zakar, Rubeena; Zakar, Muhammad Zakria; Krämer, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    This article documents the coping strategies adopted by women victims of spousal violence in Pakistan. By drawing on 21 in-depth interviews conducted in Lahore and Sialkot (Pakistan), we found that the women tried to cope with violence by using various strategies, both emotion focused (e.g., use of religion, placating the husband, etc.) and problem focused (e.g., seeking support from formal institutions, etc.). The data showed that a majority of the women used emotion-focused strategies, especially spiritual therapies, which somehow reduced the violence and provided them with psychosocial solace. Nonetheless, these strategies incurred some costs, such as the consumption of scarce resources, time, and emotional energy. Our data also showed that few women opted for problem-focused strategies, such as seeking help from formal institutions, as these strategies could lead to overt confrontation with their husbands and may result in divorce, the outcome least desired by most of the Pakistani women. We noted that the coping behavior of Pakistani women was complex, subjective, and nonlinear and that the boundaries between emotion-focused and problem-focused strategies were diffuse and blurred. Although the women never surrendered to violence, they were fully aware of their structural limitations and vulnerabilities. Being mindful of the consequences of their actions, women carefully tailored a combination of strategies which could be helpful in resisting or reducing violence but, at the same time, should not be counterproductive. This article argues that Pakistani women alone cannot effectively resist violence while living under a harshly patriarchal regime, where violence against women is embedded in the social, political, and legal structures of society. There are no quick fixes to change the status quo. The Pakistani government, civil society, and formal institutions must proactively support women in reducing their vulnerabilities and facilitate them in expanding their

  13. Relationship between Coping with Interpersonal Stressors and Depressive Symptoms in the United States, Australia, and China: A Focus on Reassessing Coping

    PubMed Central

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2014-01-01

    Objective Reassessing coping involves efforts to wait patiently for an appropriate opportunity to act or for a change or improvement in the situation, and can be observed in individuals encountering a stressful relationship event. It was hypothesized that reassessing coping would be negatively associated with depressive symptoms. Methods A cross-sectional Web-based survey was conducted in order to test this hypothesis by examining relationships between coping strategies including reassessing coping, distancing coping and constructive coping for stressful relationship events and depressive symptoms. Participants were 1,500 individuals recruited from the general populations of the United States, Australia, and China. Results Structural equation modeling analysis revealed that scores on coping strategies predicted depressive symptom scores in the samples from all three countries with medium or large effect sizes. Further, the beta values for reassessing coping scores were negative and significant in all samples, indicating that the hypothesis was supported for each of the population samples surveyed. In addition, distancing coping, which reflects strategies that attempt to actively damage, disrupt, and dissolve a stressful relationship, was associated with high levels of depressive symptoms. Conclusions Reassessing coping for interpersonal stressors was be negatively associated with depressive symptoms in sample from general populations of the United States, Australia, and China. PMID:25299135

  14. Hurricane! Coping With Disaster

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lifland, Jonathan

    A new AGU book, Hurricane! Coping With Disaster, analyzes the progress made in hurricane science and recounts how advances in the field have affected the public's and the scientific community's understanding of these storms. The book explores the evolution of hurricane study, from the catastrophic strike in Galveston, Texas in 1900—still the worst natural disaster in United States history—to today's satellite and aircraft observations that track a storm's progress and monitor its strength. In this issue, Eos talks with Robert Simpson, the books' senior editor.Simpson has studied severe storms for more than 60 years, including conducting one of the first research flights through a hurricane in 1945. He was the founding director of the (U.S.) National Hurricane Research Project and has served as director of the National Hurricane Center. In collaboration with Herbert Saffir, Simpson helped design and implement the Saffir/Simpson damage potential scale that is widely used to identify potential damage from hurricanes.

  15. Coping with Agitation and Aggression

    MedlinePlus

    Alzheimer ’s Caregiving Tips Coping with Agitation and Aggression People with Alzheimer’s disease may become agitated or aggressive as the disease gets worse. Agitation means that a person is restless or worried. ...

  16. Coping with cancer -- hair loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... gov/ency/patientinstructions/000914.htm Coping with cancer - hair loss To use the sharing features on this ... lose your hair. Why Cancer Treatments can Cause Hair Loss Many chemotherapy drugs attack fast-growing cells. ...

  17. Validation of the Mindful Coping Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tharaldsen, Kjersti B.; Bru, Edvin

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research is to develop and validate a self-report measure of mindfulness and coping, the mindful coping scale (MCS). Dimensions of mindful coping were theoretically deduced from mindfulness theory and coping theory. The MCS was empirically evaluated by use of factor analyses, reliability testing and nomological network validation.…

  18. Thirst Is Associated with Suppression of Habenula Output and Active Stress Coping: Is there a Role for a Non-canonical Vasopressin-Glutamate Pathway?

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Limei; Hernández, Vito S.; Vázquez-Juárez, Erika; Chay, Freya K.; Barrio, Rafael A.

    2016-01-01

    Water-homeostasis is a fundamental physiological process for terrestrial life. In vertebrates, thirst drives water intake, but the neuronal circuits that connect the physiology of water regulation with emotional context are poorly understood. Vasopressin (VP) is a prominent messenger in this circuit, as well as L-glutamate. We have investigated the role of a VP circuit and interaction between thirst and motivational behaviors evoked by life-threatening stimuli in rats. We demonstrate a direct pathway from hypothalamic paraventricular VP-expressing, glutamatergic magnocellular neurons to the medial division of lateral habenula (LHbM), a region containing GABAergic neurons. In vivo recording and juxtacellular labeling revealed that GABAergic neurons in the LHbM had locally branching axons, and received VP-positive axon terminal contacts on their dendrites. Water deprivation significantly reduced freezing and immobility behaviors evoked by innate fear and behavioral despair, respectively, accompanied by decreased Fos expression in the lateral habenula. Our results reveal a novel VP-expressing hypothalamus to the LHbM circuit that is likely to evoke GABA-mediated inhibition in the LHbM, which promotes escape behavior during stress coping. PMID:27065810

  19. Intergenerational child abuse and coping.

    PubMed

    Robboy, Juliet; Anderson, Kristen G

    2011-11-01

    Many studies have investigated the consequences of child sexual abuse (CSA) but few have examined the intergenerational effects of poly- victimization and maladaptive coping. The purpose of this investigation was to examine patterns of maltreatment and maladaptive coping among second-generation CSA survivors. It is hypothesized that: (a) maternal CSA history would be associated with a higher incidence of poly-victimization and maladaptive coping and (b) experiencing more forms of abuse would mediate the relation between maternal CSA history and maladaptive coping behaviors. The method used was a chart review of 139 sexually abused females aged 12 to 17, examining maternal abuse history, maladaptive coping behaviors, and child maltreatment. The results showed that poly-victimization differed as a function of maternal CSA history but maladaptive coping did not. Experiencing more types of abuse was associated with both self-injurious behaviors and substance use. In conclusion, results support the hypothesis that second generation CSA survivors are more likely to experience poly-victimization. Future research should address how intergenerational patterns of abuse might affect presenting symptomatology and treatment outcome. PMID:21602207

  20. Computer copings for partial coverage.

    PubMed

    Denissen, H; van der Zel, J; Reisig, J; Vlaar, S; de Ruiter, W; van Waas, R

    1999-04-01

    Partial coverage posterior tooth preparations are very complex surfaces for computer surface digitization, computer design, and manufacture of ceramic copings. The aim of this study was therefore to determine whether the Computer Integrated Crown Reconstruction (Cicero) system was compatible with a proposed partial coverage preparation design and capable of producing ceramic copings. Posterior teeth were prepared for partial coverage copings with deep gingival chamfers in the proximal boxes and around the functional cusps (buccal of mandibular and lingual of maxillary posterior teeth). The nonfunctional cusps (lingual of mandibular and buccal of maxillary posterior teeth) were prepared with broad bevels following the inclined occlusal plane pattern. Optical impressions were taken of stone dies by means of a fast laser-line scanning method that measured the three-dimensional geometry of the partial coverage preparation. Computers digitized the images, and designed and produced the ceramic copings. The Cicero system digitized the partial coverage preparation surfaces precisely with a minor coefficient of variance of 0.2%. The accuracy of the surface digitization, the design, and the computer aided milling showed that the system was capable of producing partial coverage copings with a mean marginal gap of 74 microns. This value was obtained before optimizing the marginal fit by means of porcelain veneering. In summary, Cicero computer technology, i.e., surface digitization, coping design, and manufacture, was compatible with the described partial coverage preparations for posterior teeth. PMID:11351490

  1. The Lost Boys of Sudan: coping with ambiguous loss and separation from parents.

    PubMed

    Luster, Tom; Qin, Desiree; Bates, Laura; Johnson, Deborah; Rana, Meenal

    2009-04-01

    The Lost Boys of Sudan were separated from their families by civil war and subsequently lived in three other countries-Ethiopia, Kenya, and the United States. In-depth interviews were conducted with 10 refugees about their experiences of separation from parents and ambiguous loss, and the coping strategies the youth used when they did not know if other members of their family were dead or alive. All of the youth reported using both emotion-focused and problem-focused coping strategies. The youth also discussed the importance of support from peers and elders while they lived in the refugee camps. In addition, they reflected on the psychological presence of parents who were physically absent, and the important role that hope of being reunited with parents played as they struggled with survival issues and ambiguous loss. PMID:19485637

  2. Daily Stress and Alcohol Consumption: Modeling Between-Person and Within-Person Ethnic Variation in Coping Behavior*

    PubMed Central

    Aldridge-Gerry, Arianna A.; Roesch, Scott C.; Villodas, Feion; McCabe, Cameron; Leung, Queenie K.; Da Costa, Morgan

    2011-01-01

    Objective: Using a daily diary approach, the current study evaluated the relationship between coping and alcohol consumption using a large, multiethnic sample. The primary goals of this study were to (a) identify coping strategies that are either protective or risk factors for alcohol consumption and (b) model between-ethnic and within-ethnic group variation for these relations. Method: College students (N = 365, 69.0% female) were recruited via flyers, course/club presentations, and university seminars. Participants completed Internet-based daily diaries over the course of 5 days and reported specifically on a target stressful event, how they coped with the stressful event, and the amount of alcohol consumed on a daily level. Results: Use of more avoidance-oriented coping strategies (minimization of stressor, emotional rumination) and social support were significantly associated with more alcohol consumption. Ethnicity, however, did moderate some coping—alcohol associations. Use of religious coping was associated with less alcohol consumption and minimization of the stressor was associated with more alcohol consumption in African Americans; use of social support was associated with more alcohol consumption in Asian Americans; and use of problem-focused coping was associated with less alcohol consumption in Whites. Conclusions: Three maladaptive or risky coping strategies with respect to alcohol consumption were identified using an ecologically valid methodology. However, ethnic-specific variation of these risky (and protective) coping factors was identified. The findings highlight the importance of considering both between-ethnic and within-ethnic group variation with respect to the stress/coping and alcohol consumption. PMID:21138719

  3. Negative mood regulation expectancies moderate the relationship between psychological abuse and avoidant coping.

    PubMed

    Shepherd-McMullen, Cassandra; Mearns, Jack; Stokes, Julie E; Mechanic, Mindy B

    2015-05-01

    This study explored the relationships among psychological abuse, attitudes about intimate partner violence (IPV), negative mood regulation expectancies (NMRE), and coping. Participants were 126 female college students in dating, cohabitating, or married relationships within the previous year. In one single session, they completed self-report scales measuring IPV, NMRE, and coping. Results indicated that women reporting higher levels of psychological abuse reported less negative attitudes toward IPV, engaged in less-active coping responses, and had lower NMRE. Psychological abuse was a significant predictor of avoidant coping, while NMRE significantly predicted both active and avoidant coping. In addition, the interaction of NMRE × Psychological abuse added incremental prediction of avoidant coping. Implications for research and practice are discussed. PMID:25049030

  4. Managing stress: the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping among university students in Botswana

    PubMed Central

    Monteiro, Nicole M.; Balogun, Shyngle K.; Oratile, Kutlo N.

    2014-01-01

    This study focused on the influence of gender, age and emotion regulation on coping strategies among university students in Botswana. Sixty-four males and 64 females, ranging in age from 18 to 29 years completed the Difficulty in Emotion Regulation Scale and the Coping Strategy Inventory. Female students used wishful thinking and problem-focused disengagement more than male students; however, there were no other significant gender differences in coping strategies. Older students were more likely to use problem-solving, cognitive restructuring and express emotion coping strategies. In addition, problems in emotion regulation significantly predicted problem-and emotion-focused engagement, problem- and emotion-focused disengagement and coping strategies. There was a unique finding that non-acceptance of emotional responses, a type of emotion suppression, was positively correlated with problem solving, cognitive restructuring, expressing emotion, social support, problem avoidance and wishful thinking coping strategies. Cultural context and implications for student well-being and university support are discussed. PMID:24910491

  5. Dealing with Organizational Double Binds: Three-way Interactive Effects of Role Stressors and Coping on Worker Exhaustion.

    PubMed

    Hornung, Severin; Lampert, Bettina; Glaser, Jürgen

    2016-04-01

    Based on theory regarding the dynamics of organizational double binds, hypotheses were developed about interactive effects of role conflict, role ambiguity, and coping on psychological exhaustion. Hypotheses were tested in a sample of 948 civil servants employed by a government administration in Germany. The sample included 250 (26.4%) women (M age = 43.6 year, SD = 8.3) and average organizational tenure was 17.1 year (SD = 10.0). Moderated multiple regression supported the two hypothesized three-way interactions. Under conditions of high role conflict and high role ambiguity, exhaustion was lower in workers reporting high control coping than in workers reporting low control coping. Under conditions of high role conflict and high role ambiguity, worker exhaustion was more pronounced when support coping was high than when it was low. Problem-focused control coping seems crucial to maintain mental health in dealing with contradictory and unclear work role expectations. Emotion-focused support coping appears symptomatic of prolonged involvement in psychologically dysfunctional work situations that cannot otherwise be addressed. Implications are discussed in the context of growing awareness of the contradictory demands organizations impose on employees. PMID:27154375

  6. A STUDY OF COPING WITH AUDITORY HALLUCINATIONS IN SCHIZOPHRENICS

    PubMed Central

    Ramanathan, A.

    1984-01-01

    SUMMARY The general orientation and activities involved in coping with auditory hallucinations were examined in 30 schizophrenics. Age, personality dimensions, duration of illness, position, loudness and pitch of the voice and interference with activities of patients by the voice were associated with the general orientation. Systematic coping behavior was useful. Socio-economic status and degree of interference with activities were associated with the choice of useful orientation. Manipulation of arousal and control of attention were beneficial. Neuroticism, interference due to voice, emotional intensity during the voice, ‘third person’ voices and anticipation of voice were related to suicidal ideas. PMID:21965990

  7. Coping with HIV-related stigma in five African countries.

    PubMed

    Makoae, Lucia N; Greeff, Minrie; Phetlhu, René D; Uys, Leana R; Naidoo, Joanne R; Kohi, Thecla W; Dlamini, Priscilla S; Chirwa, Maureen L; Holzemer, William L

    2008-01-01

    People living with HIV (PLWH) and their families are subjected to prejudice, discrimination, and hostility related to the stigmatization of AIDS. This report examines how PLWH cope with HIV-related stigma in the five southern African countries of Lesotho, Malawi, South Africa, Swaziland, and Tanzania. A descriptive qualitative research design was used to explore the experience of HIV-related stigma of PLWH and nurses in 2004. A total of 43 focus groups were conducted with 251 participants (114 nurses, 111 PLWH, and 26 volunteers). In describing incidents of stigma, respondents reported strategies used or observed to cope with those incidents. Nurse reports of coping strategies that they used as well as observed in HIV-infected patients were coded. Coping strategies used by PLWH in dealing with HIV-related stigma were coded. A total of 17 different self-care strategies were identified: restructuring, seeing oneself as OK, letting go, turning to God, hoping, changing behavior, keeping oneself active, using humor, joining a support or social group, disclosing one's HIV status, speaking to others with same problem, getting counseling, helping others to cope with the illness, educating others, learning from others, acquiring knowledge and understanding about the disease, and getting help from others. Coping appears to be self-taught and only modestly helpful in managing perceived stigma. PMID:18328964

  8. Pediatric oncologists' coping strategies for dealing with patient death.

    PubMed

    Granek, Leeat; Barrera, Maru; Scheinemann, Katrin; Bartels, Ute

    2016-01-01

    This research examined pediatric oncologists coping strategies when their patients died of cancer. Twenty-one pediatric oncologists at 2 Canadian pediatric academic hospitals were interviewed about their coping strategies when patients died or were in the process of dying. The grounded theory method of data collection and data analysis were used. Line-by-line coding was used to establish codes and themes and constant comparison was used to establish relations among emerging codes and themes. Pediatric oncologists used engagement coping strategies with primary and secondary responses including emotional regulation (social support and religion), problem solving (supporting families at end of life), cognitive restructuring (making a difference and research), and distraction (breaks, physical activity, hobbies and entertainment, spending time with own children). They also used disengagement coping strategies that included voluntary avoidance (compartmentalization and withdrawing from families at end of life). Given the chronic nature of patient death in pediatric oncology and the emotionally difficult nature of this work, medical institutions such as hospitals have a responsibility to assist pediatric oncologists in coping with this challenging aspect of their work. Future research is needed to evaluate how best to implement these changes on the institutional level to help oncologists cope with patient death and the effect of using these strategies on their quality of life. PMID:26865337

  9. Psychological distress and coping in military cadre candidates

    PubMed Central

    Nakkas, Can; Annen, Hubert; Brand, Serge

    2016-01-01

    Background Soldiers must cope with stressors during both military operations and training if they are to accomplish their missions successfully and stay mentally stable. This holds true particularly for military superiors, as they bear greater responsibilities and must meet greater demands during both deployment and training. Accordingly, in the present study, we investigated whether recruits chosen for further promotion at the end of basic training differed with regard to psychological distress and coping strategies from those not chosen for promotion, and whether recruits’ coping styles and distress levels were associated. Methods A total of 675 Swiss recruits took part in the study. At the beginning of basic training, recruits filled out self-rating questionnaires covering demographic data, psychological distress (depression, somatization, anxiety, interpersonal sensitivity, and hostility), and coping styles. Results were compared between those recruits who received a recommendation for further promotion at the end of basic training and those who did not. Results Recruits selected for promotion had lower scores for depressive symptoms and hostility, engaged more in active coping, and considered their coping to be more effective. Dysfunctional and functional coping were associated with higher and lower distress levels, respectively. Conclusion Recruits recommended for promotion exhibited less psychological distress during basic training and exhibited a socially more conducive profile of distress. They also endorsed more efficient and more prosocial coping strategies than those recruits not recommended for promotion. These cognitive–emotional features not only contribute to resilience but are also consistent with leadership research, indicating the importance of emotional stability and prosocial behavior in successful leaders. PMID:27621634

  10. The impact of self-efficacy on stressor-strain relations: coping style as an explanatory mechanism.

    PubMed

    Jex, S M; Bliese, P D; Buzzell, S; Primeau, J

    2001-06-01

    The present study was designed to examine whether coping style influences the impact of self-efficacy on stressor-strain relations. It was hypothesized that high self-efficacy would weaken stressor-strain relations when accompanied by frequent use of active coping and infrequent use of avoidance coping. Data collected from 2,293 members of the U.S. Army revealed 3-way interactions among self-efficacy, role clarity, and active coping and among self-efficacy, work overload, and avoidance coping. As predicted, self-efficacy mitigated the effects of low role clarity on strain only when active coping was high. Also as expected, strain levels were lower for participants with high self-efficacy than for participants with lower self-efficacy when work overload was low but avoidance coping was high. Implications of these findings for occupational stress research are discussed. PMID:11419800

  11. Coping strategies of adolescents living with HIV: disease-specific stressors and responses.

    PubMed

    Orban, Lisa A; Stein, Renee; Koenig, Linda J; Conner, Latoya C; Rexhouse, Erika L; Lewis, Jennifer V; LaGrange, Ricardo

    2010-04-01

    This study examined disease-specific stressors and coping responses employed by youth with HIV. Data were analyzed from Adolescent Impact, a multi-site study of 166 adolescents infected with HIV in three major US cities. Participants identified HIV-related stressors during a face-to-face interview. Coping strategies were measured using the adolescent version of the Kidcope. Emotional and behavioral functioning were assessed with the Youth or Adult Self Report symptom checklists. Medication-related stressors were most common (30%) and reported more often by perinatally infected youth, whereas youth infected through risk behaviors reported more disclosure-related stressors. Passive emotional regulation was perceived as the most used and most helpful coping strategy overall. Youth reporting medication adherence-related stressors used resignation most frequently. A two-factor model (Passive and Active Coping) emerged. The Passive Coping factor included strategies that do not directly approach the problem, whereas Active Coping included strategies that involve an active approach. Youth with moderately advanced disease (CD4 200-500 cells/mm(3)) used a Passive Coping style more often than healthier youth (CD4 > 500 cells/mm(3)). Additionally, Passive Coping was associated with greater emotional and behavioral problems. Youth infected with HIV may benefit from interventions promoting adaptive coping responses to HIV-specific stressors, particularly medication adherence. PMID:20146110

  12. [Coping of cybervictimization in adolescence - emotional and behavioral reactions to cyberbullying ].

    PubMed

    Ittel, Angela; Müller, Christin R; Pfetsch, Jan; Walk, Sebastian

    2014-01-01

    The experience of cybervictimization is related to health, psychological, and behavioral problems among children and adolescents. Up to today research is scarce, how the persons affected by cybervictimization react and which determinants influence the choice for social, problem-focused, technical, or helpless coping behavior. The current online study with 428 adolescents considers age, sex, mean internet use, frequency of victimization, roles in cyberbullying, and emotional reactions to cybervictimization as potential determinants of the mentioned coping strategies. Based on the participant role approach, roles of cyberbullies, cybervictims, defenders or outsiders are frequently changing. Logistic regression analyses point out the important relevance of emotional reactions like anger or helplessness and the roles as cyberbully-victim or outsider. Further, younger participants reported cybervictimization more often, while the frequency of cybervictimization and sex did not and internet use only partially predict coping strategies. These findings corroborate the relevance of emotional reactions and the roles in the process of cyberbullying. As a starting point for prevention and intervention of cybervictimization, we suggest emotion regulation, teaching of technical coping behaviors as well as reflexion of roles in the context of cyberbullying. If feasible, different stakeholders should be engaged in this process: adolescents, parents, educational staff inside and outside of schools, experts from counseling and therapy as well as internet and mobile phone service providers. PMID:24877776

  13. Personality traits and coping styles in women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Bargiel-Matusiewicz, Kamilla

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The purpose of the study was to determine whether women with Mayer-Rokitansky-Küster-Hauser (MRKH) syndrome differ from healthy women as regards personality traits and coping styles. Material and methods Personality (the Big Five) and coping styles (problem-, emotion- and avoidance-focused coping) were analyzed in a group of 46 women with MRKH syndrome (age: M = 23.48; SD = 4.88), and in a group of 44 healthy women (age: M = 25.95; SD = 5.24), based on Polish versions of the NEO-FFI and CISS inventories. Results Results of analysis of covariance (ANCOVA, age, education and having a partner controlled) revealed significant differences in neuroticism level (F1.86 = 7.01, p < 0.01) and problem (F1.86 = 7.88, p < 0.01) and emotion-focused (F1.86 = 4.98, p < 0.05) coping styles. Differences in the level of neuroticism and instrumental coping was also revealed in analyses which took into account the time for which individuals have been aware of their illness: in women who have been aware of the MRKH diagnosis for more than 6 years, the level of neuroticism was higher (F1.85 = 3.97, p < 0.05) and the problem-focused coping style was at a lower level (F1.85 = 3.93, p < 0.05) than in healthy women. Conclusions The results obtained make it possible to identify basic psychological problems related to MRKH syndrome, and to formulate proposals on psychological interventions addressed to this group of women. This study showed that with time negative psychological consequences become more severe, and thus those women should be provided with specialist help from the moment the diagnosis is made. PMID:26788086

  14. An assessment of the stressors and ways of coping in Iranian medical sciences students

    PubMed Central

    Niknami, Maryam; Dehghani, Fatemeh; Bouraki, Shahnaz; Kazemnejad, Ehsan; Soleimani, Robabe

    2015-01-01

    Background: Several studies have reported that medical sciences students are usually dealing with severe stress. However, no study is available on ways of coping in medical sciences students in Iran. As socio-cultural factors may affect the students’ responses toward stress, this study aimed to investigate the stressors and ways of coping among students of Guilan University of Medical Sciences (GUMS). Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 487 randomly selected students in GUMS in 2012. The student stress scale and Lazarus ways of coping scale were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Also, Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests, and logistic regression analysis were utilized for data analysis. cross-sectional study was conducted on 487 randomly selected students in GUMS in 2012. The student stress scale and Lazarus ways of coping scale were used for data collection. Descriptive statistics were calculated. Also, Chi-square and Fisher's exact tests, Kruskal–Wallis and Mann–Whitney U tests, and logistic regression analysis were utilized for data analysis. Results: In the majority of students (61.4%), interpersonal factors were the dominant stressor. Most of the students used problem-focused ways of coping (79.7%). Chi-square test showed a significant relationship between gender and ways of coping (P = 0.03). Conclusions: Interpersonal sources of stress were the most common stressors among the medical sciences students. Establishing workshops on communication skills and effective counseling system are suggested. PMID:26257811

  15. Perfectionism, neuroticism, and daily stress reactivity and coping effectiveness 6 months and 3 years later.

    PubMed

    Dunkley, David M; Mandel, Tobey; Ma, Denise

    2014-10-01

    The present study addressed a fundamental gap between research and clinical work by advancing longitudinal explanatory conceptualizations of stress and coping processes that trigger daily affect in the short- and long-term for individuals with higher levels of personality vulnerability. Community adults completed measures of 2 higher order dimensions of perfectionism (personal standards [PS], self-criticism [SC]), neuroticism, and conscientiousness. Then, 6 months later and again 3 years later, participants completed daily questionnaires of stress, coping, and affect for 14 consecutive days. PS was associated with aggregated daily problem-focused coping and positive reinterpretation, whereas SC was uniquely associated with daily negative social interactions, avoidant coping, negative affect, and sadness at Month 6 and Year 3. Multilevel modeling results demonstrated that both individuals with higher PS and those with higher SC were emotionally reactive to event stress, negative social interactions, and avoidant coping at Month 6 and Year 3 and to less perceived control at Year 3. Positive reinterpretation was especially effective for individuals with higher SC at Month 6 and Year 3. The effects of PS on daily stress reactivity and coping (in)effectiveness were clearly distinguished from the effects of neuroticism and conscientiousness, whereas the SC effects were due to shared overlap with PS and neuroticism. The present findings demonstrate the promise of using repeated daily diary methodologies to help therapists and clients reliably predict future client reactions to daily stressors, which, in turn, could help guide interventions to break apart dysfunctional patterns connected to distress and build resilience for vulnerable individuals. PMID:25111703

  16. Coping with Congenital Hand Differences

    PubMed Central

    Franzblau, Lauren E.; Chung, Kevin C.; Carlozzi, Noelle; Chin, Autumn Y. T.; Nellans, Kate W.; Waljee, Jennifer F.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Although functional outcomes following reconstruction for congenital hand differences are frequently described, much less is known regarding children’s ability to cope with psychosocial effects of these conditions. We qualitatively explored stress and coping mechanisms among children following reconstructive surgery for congenital hand differences. Methods Forty patients and their parents participated in semi-structured interviews examining stress related to hand functioning and appearance, emotional responses to stress, and coping strategies. Interviews were audio-taped, transcribed, and analyzed thematically. A consensus taxonomy for classifying content evolved from comparisons of coding by two reviewers. Themes expressed by participants were studied for patterns of connection and grouped into broader categories. Results In this sample, 58% of children and 40% of parents reported stress related to congenital hand differences, attributed to functional deficits (61%), hand appearance (27%), social interactions (58%), and emotional reactions (46%). Among the 18 children who reported stress, 43% of parents were not aware of the presence of stress. Eight coping strategies emerged, including humor (12%), self-acceptance (21%), avoidance (27%), seeking external support (30%), concealment (30%), educating others (9%), support programs (21%) and religion (24%). Conclusions Although children with congenital hand differences often experience emotional stress related to functional limitations and aesthetic deformities, many apply positive coping mechanisms that enhance self-esteem and self-esteem. Clinicians caring for children with congenital hand differences should inform families about potential sources of stress in order to direct resources toward strengthening coping strategies and support systems. Level of Evidence Level IV-Case series PMID:25502854

  17. Coping with unreliable public water supplies: Averting expenditures by households in Kathmandu, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattanayak, Subhrendu K.; Yang, Jui-Chen; Whittington, Dale; Bal Kumar, K. C.

    2005-02-01

    This paper investigates two complementary pieces of data on households' demand for improved water services, coping costs and willingness to pay (WTP), from a survey of 1500 randomly sampled households in Kathmandu, Nepal. We evaluate how coping costs and WTP vary across types of water users and income. We find that households in Kathmandu Valley engage in five main types of coping behaviors: collecting, pumping, treating, storing, and purchasing. These activities impose coping costs on an average household of as much as 3 U.S. dollars per month or about 1% of current incomes, representing hidden but real costs of poor infrastructure service. We find that these coping costs are almost twice as much as the current monthly bills paid to the water utility but are significantly lower than estimates of WTP for improved services. We find that coping costs are statistically correlated with WTP and several household characteristics.

  18. Stress, coping, and well-being in military spouses during deployment separation.

    PubMed

    Padden, Diane L; Connors, Rebecca A; Agazio, Janice G

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the relationships between stress, coping, general well-being, and sociodemographic characteristics using Lazarus and Folkman's theory of stress and coping. A descriptive correlational design was used. The sample consisted of 105 female spouses of currently deployed active duty military members. Instruments included the Perceived Stress Scale, the Jalowiec Coping Scale, and the RAND-36. Perceived stress was the best predictor of both mental and physical well-being, accounting for 51.7% and 25.4% of the variance, respectively. Evasive and optimistic coping contributed an additional 1.9 % and 4.3%, respectively, to the variance in mental well-being. Differences in coping use were found among rank groups, those who grew up in a military family, and those with a previous deployment separation. Nurses are in an ideal position to identify military spouses at risk and provide education on effective coping behaviors shown to positively affect well-being during deployment separation. PMID:20647551

  19. Children's coping with marital conflict and their adjustment and physical health: vulnerability and protective functions.

    PubMed

    Nicolotti, Linda; el-Sheikh, Mona; Whitson, Stephanie M

    2003-09-01

    Children's strategies for coping with parental marital conflict were examined as predictors, mediators, and moderators of the relations between marital conflict and 8- to 11-year-olds' internalizing, externalizing, and physical health problems. In the context of marital conflict, a higher level of active coping and support coping combined was a protective factor against girls' depression symptoms and self-esteem problems and both boys' and girls' health problems. Further, avoidance coping was a vulnerability factor for externalizing, internalizing, and physical health problems in boys, and distraction coping was protective against children's depression and health problems. These findings extend the literature by delineating coping strategies that either protected children against, or heightened their vulnerability to, adjustment and health problems associated with exposure to parental marital conflict. PMID:14562456

  20. Cultural and gender differences in coping strategies between Caucasian American and Korean American older people.

    PubMed

    Lee, HeeSoon; Mason, Derek

    2014-12-01

    Coping strategies have significant effects on older people's health. This study examined whether gender and ethnic differences influence the coping strategies chosen by older adults when they encounter daily life stressors. Data were collected from 444 community-dwelling people over the age of 65, including 238 Caucasian Americans and 206 Korean Americans. Results showed significant differences between the two groups. Korean Americans had higher scores on problem and emotion-focused coping strategies as well as avoidant coping strategies than Caucasian Americans. Caucasian older women employed more active coping, planning, and positive reframing skills; relied more on religion; and sought emotional support more than Caucasian men. For Korean Americans, older women utilized religion and denial; whereas older men employed instrumental support and substance abuse. The results suggest that practitioners should develop ethnic, gender-specific programs to help older adults cope more effectively with their daily life stressors. PMID:25260229

  1. Coping with cognitive impairment and dementia: Rural caregivers' perspectives.

    PubMed

    Branger, Camille; Burton, Rachel; O'Connell, Megan E; Stewart, Norma; Morgan, Debra

    2016-07-01

    Caregiving in a rural context is unique, but the experience of rural caregivers is understudied. This paper describes how rural caregivers cope with caring for a loved one diagnosed with mild cognitive impairment or dementia using qualitative description to generate a low-inference summary of a response to an open-ended question. This approach allowed these rural caregivers to describe their positive experiences in addition to the more commonly explored caregiver experiences related to stress. Analyses of coping revealed use of social support, engaging in relaxing and physical activity, and cognitive reframing. In addition, caregivers reported strong faith and religiosity, and to a lesser frequency behavioral changes, checking in with the person with dementia via telephone, and joint activity. Predominantly, these methods reflect approach-based strategies. The current data suggest that these caregivers manage well and adopt adaptive coping strategies to meet the demands of the caregiving role. PMID:24951255

  2. Coping response following a diagnosis of breast cancer: A systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabi, Esmat; Hajian, Sepideh; Simbar, Masoomeh; Hoshyari, Mohammad; Zayeri, Farid

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Coping with breast cancer is an important health issue that results in adjustments to the disease in survivors. The present systematic review aims to synthesize the evidence about the coping strategies used by women who are primary breast cancer survivors to adjust to their new situations in their lives. Methods Searches were conducted using Google Scholar, PubMed, Scopus, Wiley Online Library, and PsycINFO, using the terms “breast cancer,” “breast malignancy,” “coping strategies,” “coping behaviors,” and “adjustment” from January 2000 to July 2015. Only relevant studies in English were selected at the end of the search. Only those papers were selected that focused on coping strategies/behaviors that were used by breast cancer survivors. Results Searching the electronic databases resulted in 2390 articles. Ultimately, 20 studies met the inclusion criteria of the present study and were included in the review. Two reviewers independently reviewed all relevant articles using the same inclusion criteria. The reviewers completed a quality assessment using the Newcastle–Ottawa Quality Assessment scales for observational studies. The more frequent coping strategies that patients with breast cancer used in the studies were 1) seeking social support (9 studies), 2) positive reframing and reappraisal behaviors as problem focused strategies (7 studies), 3) religious/spirituality-focused efforts (8 studies), 4) emotional expression as positive emotion-focused strategies (3 studies), and 5) avoidance and distraction as avoidance orientated strategies (6 studies). Women with different ethnicities and educational levels used different coping strategies with breast cancer, and they used different strategies in different phases of the disease. Conclusion This systematic review revealed that seeking social support and emotion-focused efforts were the main coping strategies that women with breast cancer diagnosis used, especially in the early phase

  3. Grief: Helping Young Children Cope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, Frances B.

    2008-01-01

    In their role as caregivers supporting the children they teach, it is important for teachers to understand the grieving process and recognize symptoms of grief. The author explains Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's five stages of grief and offers 10 classroom strategies to help young children cope with their feelings.

  4. Eating Disorders as Coping Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagener, Amy M.; Much, Kari

    2010-01-01

    This article focuses on the complex nature of eating disorders, specifically highlighting their use as coping mechanisms for underlying emotional and psychological concerns. Case examples of college counseling center clients are discussed in order to illustrate common ways in which eating disorders are utilized by clients with varying…

  5. Coping Strategies of Unemployed Families.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shickell, Charlyn R.

    As part of a larger research effort, a study was conducted to determine the coping strategies used by families undergoing unemployment. Data were collected from a 95-item questionnaire (developed and tested at the University of Nebraska-Lincoln) that was mailed to 150 persons and/or their spouses who were currently unemployed or had been…

  6. The Relationship between Coping Styles in Response to Unfair Treatment and Understanding of Diabetes Self-Care

    PubMed Central

    Dyke, Michelle L.; Cuffee, Yendelela L.; Halanych, Jewell H.; McManus, Richard H.; Curtin, Carol; Allison, Jeroan J.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study examined the relationship between coping style and understanding of diabetes self-care among African American and white elders in a southern Medicare managed care plan. Methods Participants were identified through a diabetes-related pharmacy claim or ICD-9 code and completed a computer-assisted telephone survey in 2006-7. Understanding of diabetes self-care was assessed using the Diabetes Care Profile Understanding (DCP-U) scale. Coping styles were classified as active (talk about it/take action) or passive (keep it to yourself). Linear regression was used to estimate the associations between coping style with the DCP-U, adjusting for age, sex, education, and comorbidities. Based on the conceptual model, four separate categories were established for African American and white participants who displayed active and passive coping styles. Results Of 1,420 participants, the mean age was 73 years, 46% were African-American, and 63% were female. Most respondents (77%) exhibited active coping in response to unfair treatment. For African American participants in the study, active coping was associated with higher adjusted mean DCP-U scores when compared to participants with a passive coping style. No difference in DCP-U score was noted among white participants on the basis of coping style. Conclusions Active coping was more strongly associated with understanding of diabetes self-care among older African Americans than whites. Future research on coping styles may give new insights into reducing diabetes disparities among racial/ethnic minorities. PMID:24096805

  7. The Interrelationships of Coping Styles and Professional Burnout Among Physiotherapists

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska-Domagala, Katarzyna; Jablkowska-Górecka, Karolina; Kostrzanowska-Jarmakowska, Lilianna; Mortoń, Marta; Stecz, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Burnout is a pathological syndrome in which emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DEP), and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment (PA) develop in response to prolonged occupational stress. Those working in the physiotherapy profession appear to be at risk for professional burnout brought on by the specific character of the medical professions, involving continuous contact with patients and associated stress, as well as poor working conditions. However, literature data concerning the scale of professional burnout and its psychosocial correlates remain scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the scale of professional burnout among physiotherapists and to determine the interrelationships between coping styles and burnout symptoms. The sample consisted of 117 professionally active physiotherapists (90 women and 27 men) aged 21 to 55 years (mean [M] 31.88, standard deviation [SD] = 9.14, responsiveness rate of 80.6%) from randomly selected medical institutions of the Lodz Region. The study was conducted using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) by Endler and Parker. Demographic and job-related data on the respondents were also collected. Task-oriented coping correlated negatively with DEP, EE, and low PA, in contrast to emotion-oriented coping. No correlation was found between avoidance-oriented coping and burnout symptoms. Similarly, no interactive correlations between coping styles and particular burnout symptoms were confirmed. Coping styles correlate independently with professional burnout, without any mutual correlations. Physiotherapists employing a wider spectrum of task-oriented strategies are slightly more satisfied with their job. The incidence of burnout syndrome in the analyzed group is similar to that observed in other medical professions and requires the adoption of preventive measures. PMID:26091455

  8. The Interrelationships of Coping Styles and Professional Burnout Among Physiotherapists

    PubMed Central

    Nowakowska-Domagala, Katarzyna; Jablkowska-Górecka, Karolina; Kostrzanowska-Jarmakowska, Lilianna; Mortoń, Marta; Stecz, Patryk

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Burnout is a pathological syndrome in which emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DEP), and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment (PA) develop in response to prolonged occupational stress. Those working in the physiotherapy profession appear to be at risk for professional burnout brought on by the specific character of the medical professions, involving continuous contact with patients and associated stress, as well as poor working conditions. However, literature data concerning the scale of professional burnout and its psychosocial correlates remain scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the scale of professional burnout among physiotherapists and to determine the interrelationships between coping styles and burnout symptoms. The sample consisted of 117 professionally active physiotherapists (90 women and 27 men) aged 21 to 55 years (mean [M] 31.88, standard deviation [SD] = 9.14, responsiveness rate of 80.6%) from randomly selected medical institutions of the Lodz Region. The study was conducted using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) by Endler and Parker. Demographic and job-related data on the respondents were also collected. Task-oriented coping correlated negatively with DEP, EE, and low PA, in contrast to emotion-oriented coping. No correlation was found between avoidance-oriented coping and burnout symptoms. Similarly, no interactive correlations between coping styles and particular burnout symptoms were confirmed. Coping styles correlate independently with professional burnout, without any mutual correlations. Physiotherapists employing a wider spectrum of task-oriented strategies are slightly more satisfied with their job. The incidence of burnout syndrome in the analyzed group is similar to that observed in other medical professions and requires the adoption of preventive measures.

  9. Age Differences in Coping, Behavioral Dysfunction and Depression Following Colostomy Surgery.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keyes, Kathryn; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Examined the responses of a group of middle-aged and older adults (N=34) to colostomy surgery. Analyzed the relationship between the method and focus of coping and age, sickness-related dysfunction, and depression. Found that neither a lower level of active behavioral coping nor age itself was correlated with depression or dysfunction. (Author/ABB)

  10. Coping Strategies of Adults with Mild Intellectual Disability for Stressful Social Interactions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartley, Sigan L.; MacLean, William E., Jr.

    2008-01-01

    Adults with mild intellectual disability (ID) experience stressful social interactions and often utilize maladaptive coping strategies to manage these interactions. We investigated the specific types of "Active and Avoidant" coping strategies reported by 114 adults with mild ID to deal with stressful social interactions. Open-ended responses to a…

  11. Coping Behaviors, Parenting, and Perceptions of Children's Internalizing and Externalizing Problems in Rural African American Mothers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bynum, Mia Smith; Brody, Gene H.

    2005-01-01

    We tested a hypothetical model linking maternal education and maternal coping behavior with parent-child relationship quality, and in turn, children's self-regulatory behavior and mental health difficulties. Consistent with predictions, mothers' use of active coping behaviors predicted more positive parent-child relationship quality, greater child…

  12. Peer Attachment, Coping, and Self-Esteem in Institutionalized Adolescents: The Mediating Role of Social Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mota, Catarina Pinheiro; Matos, Paula Mena

    2013-01-01

    This study analyzes the contribution of peer attachment in predicting active coping and self-esteem in a sample of 109 institutionalized adolescents. It also explores the mediating role of social skills in the association between peer attachment, coping, and self-esteem. Structural equation modeling identified a model able to predict a positive…

  13. Age Differences in Coping with Chronic Illness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felton, Barbara J.; Revenson, Tracey A.

    While most lifespan developmental theories of personality predict age-related changes in coping, little direct evidence exists for determining whether age differences in coping style are due to intrinsic developmental processes or to age differences in the kinds of stresses encountered. To evaluate age differences in coping strategies and whether…

  14. Adolescents' Coping with Frightening Mass Media.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoffner, Cynthia

    1995-01-01

    Investigates the use and perceived effectiveness of strategies for coping with scary films, coping style, and two dimensions of empathy. Confirms evidence that "blunting" is characterized by distraction or reinterpretation of scary events, whereas "monitoring" is characterized by attention to threat cues. Interprets gender differences in coping as…

  15. Coping Styles among Adolescent Competitive Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anshel, Mark

    1996-01-01

    Examines the various coping strategies that competitive adolescent athletes use to deal with errors, penalties, and unpleasant comments from spectators. Identifies and discusses four coping strategies: avoidance, approach, task-focused, and emotion-focused. Briefly reviews the literature on coping and the results of a survey of Australian…

  16. Coping Processes of Couples Experiencing Infertility

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peterson, Brennan D.; Newton, Christopher R.; Rosen, Karen H.; Schulman, Robert S.

    2006-01-01

    This study explored the coping processes of couples experiencing infertility. Participants included 420 couples referred for advanced reproductive treatments. Couples were divided into groups based on the frequency of their use of eight coping strategies. Findings suggest that coping processes, which are beneficial to individuals, may be…

  17. Stress and Coping Strategies among Zimbabwean Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magaya, Lindiwe; Asner-Self, Kimberly K.; Schreiber, James B.

    2005-01-01

    Background: Stress and social support influence adolescents' coping strategies. Adolescents need to acquire a large repertoire of coping strategies in light of a rapidly changing socio-economic and political situation. Aim: This study reports on the coping strategies of Zimbabwean adolescents and highlights some major stressors they face. The…

  18. Interrelationships between Coping, School Connectedness and Wellbeing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frydenberg, Erica; Care, Esther; Freeman, Elizabeth; Chan, Esther

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the interrelationships between coping styles, emotional wellbeing, and school connectedness using path analysis. A total of 536 Year 8 students (241 boys and 295 girls) responded to an in-class survey and the "Adolescent Coping Scale" (Frydenberg & Lewis, 1993a) as part of a larger study. Productive coping style was positively…

  19. Coping with Schizophrenia: Patterns in Later Adulthood.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solano, Nancy H.; Whitbourne, Susan Krauss

    2001-01-01

    Investigated whether the coping framework developed with younger adults with schizophrenia could be applied to people over 50 with schizophrenia. Results indicated that coping strategies used by older people were similar to those of younger populations. However, it was reported that efficacy of coping strategies had increased as participants had…

  20. Differential Coping Patterns in Old Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Staudinger, U. M.; And Others

    This study was conducted to examine how old and very old people cope with the difficult situations in their lives. The main goals of the study were to develop a measure for the identification of coping patterns in the old and very old, identify coping patterns, and investigate those patterns with respect to age and subjective well-being.…

  1. Coping with Relationship Problems: A Gender Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santos, Melissa; Cook, Stephen W.

    This study was conducted to explore the differences and/or similarities in how men and women cope with relationship problems. Aside from gender, various other demographic as well as attitude variables were explored in their relationship with coping. This study found that there was no difference in coping strategies used by men and women in coping…

  2. Family Background, Adolescent Coping Styles, and Adjustment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schludermann, Shirin; And Others

    This study explored the effects of family background variables on coping styles, and the contribution of coping styles and locus of control to the overall adjustment of older adolescents. The objectives of this study were to develop a Canadian adaptation of the Seiffge-Krenke Adolescent Coping Style Scale; to explore the influences of family and…

  3. Mothers' Coping and Hope in Early Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Einav, Michal; Levi, Uzi; Margalit, Malka

    2012-01-01

    The goals of the study were to examine the relations between maternal coping and hope among mothers who participated in early intervention program for their infants. Earlier studies focused attention on mothers' experiences of stress and their coping. Within the salutogenic construct, we aim at examining relations between mothers' coping and hope…

  4. Dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity among adolescent athletes.

    PubMed

    Nicholls, Adam R; Perry, John L; Jones, Leigh; Morley, Dave; Carson, Fraser

    2013-06-01

    It is accepted among scholars that coping changes as people mature during adolescence, but little is known about the relationship between maturity and coping. The purpose of this paper was to assess a model, which included dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity. We predicted that cognitive social maturity would have a direct effect on coping effectiveness, and also an indirect impact via dispositional coping. Two hundred forty-five adolescent athletes completed measures of dispositional coping, coping effectiveness, and cognitive social maturity, which has three dimensions: conscientiousness, peer influence on behavior, and rule following. Using structural equation modeling, we found support for our model, suggesting that coping is related to cognitive social maturity. This information can be used to influence the content of coping interventions for adolescents of different maturational levels. PMID:23798586

  5. Coping with Marketing Change

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mason, Ralph E.; Ross, Herbert L.

    1975-01-01

    The effective teacher-coordinator is actively aware of changes occurring in marketing today: impact of ethnic group purchasing power, retailing response to variables, marketing of services, and using data processing in decision-making. Teaching strategies and instructional materials should be chosen accordingly. (BP)

  6. A Comparison of Type II Diabetic Patients With Healthy People: Coping Strategies, Hardiness, and Occupational Life Quality

    PubMed Central

    Karimi, Safdar; Jaafari, Asghar; Ghamari, Mohammad; Esfandiary, Maryam; Salehi Mazandarani, Foroozan; Daneshvar, Sahar; Ajami, Marjan

    2016-01-01

    Background Due to the epidemiologic transition and a rise in the prevalence of non-communicable diseases different coping strategies have been studied and developed. These strategies may help the affected people to conduct a normal life style. Objectives This research was conducted in Qazvin, Iran to determine the relationship between coping strategies, hardiness, and occupational life quality in Type II diabetic patients and healthy people. Patients and Methods Questionnaires such as Valton’s on “occupational life quality,” Billings and Moos’ examination of “Coping strategies,” and Kobasa’s investigation of “hardiness” were applied to collect the data needed for the present study. In this regard, 80 people were randomly selected from employees of offices in Qazvin, Iran. Results The results of this research indicated that there is a significant relationship between problem-focused strategies, emotion-focused strategies, hardiness, and occupational life quality in people suffering from Type II diabetes and healthy people (P ≤ 0.05). These results also indicated that hardiness does not predict occupational life quality of people suffering from Type II diabetes. Conclusions The results of the present study give some evidence that allows us to conclude that hardiness and coping strategies affect occupational life quality for both people suffering from Type II diabetes and healthy people. Therefore, it is proposed that people strengthen their hardiness and coping strategies, in order to improve their occupational life quality. PMID:27162758

  7. ["Coping... and the person with chronic pain"].

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Leonor Ana; Santos, Céila

    2008-01-01

    We intend to present some aspects related with the coping process in a person with chronic pain. The presence of pain has implications in daily life activities, such as eating, drinking, sleeping or selfcare. Pain can unchain responses in the person, namely depression, anxiety, isolation, fear of pain and pessimistic thoughts. Thus we verify that in his/her adaptation process to the condition of chronic pain the person needs to integrate some strategies to manage his/her day by day activities. In this article we try to systematize the process where nurses based on Lazarus and Folkman's Model: Stress processing and Coping, can systematize care. In fact, nurses try to help people in the identification of their personal resources as well as the socio-ecological resources. The sense the care process has as a goal is the improvement of the quality of life through pain control and the person's adaptation of his/her condition of health, through development of his/her knowledge and capacities to use the resources, be they personal as instrumental or social. PMID:19341045

  8. Coping behavior and depressive symptoms in adult children of alcoholics.

    PubMed

    Klostermann, Keith; Chen, Rui; Kelley, Michelle L; Schroeder, Valarie M; Braitman, Abby L; Mignone, Theresa

    2011-01-01

    This paper examined whether adult children of alcoholics (ACOAs) would report more depressive mood symptoms as compared to non-ACOAs, whether coping behaviors differed as a function of ACOA status, and whether specific coping behaviors were related to depressive mood symptoms in ACOAs. Participants were 136 college students categorized as ACOAs and 436 college students categorized as non-ACOAs as determined by scores on the Children of Alcoholics Screening Test (CAST; J.W.Jones, 1983 The children of alcoholics screening test: test manual. Chicago: Camelot). As compared to non-ACOAs, ACOAs reported significantly more symptoms of depressive mood as measured by the Profile of Mood States (POMS; McNair, Lorr, and Droppleman, 1992 POMS manual: profile of mood states. San Diego, CA: Edits). On the COPE Inventory (Carver, Scheier, and Weintraub, 1989 Assessing coping strategies: a theoretically based approach. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 56:267-283), ACOAs reported higher use of the following coping strategies: Behavior Disengagement, Denial, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Humor, and Substance Use. For both the ACOA and non-ACOA groups, the use of Positive Reinterpretation and Growth and the use of Planning were significantly associated with fewer depressive symptoms, whereas Mental Disengagement, Focus on and Venting of Emotions, Denial, Behavior Disengagement, Substance Use, and Suppression of Competing Activities were associated with higher depressive mood scores. PMID:21449712

  9. Coping Strategies of Iranian Elderly Women: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bagheri-Nesami, Masoumeh; Rafii, Forough; Oskouie, Seyede Fatemeh H.

    2010-01-01

    Successful aging is a process through which older people actively deal with their age-related changes. This study, as a part of more extensive research, explored and describes coping strategies used by Iranian elderly women in response to age-related changes. Grounded theory was used as method. Nineteen participates were recruited. The…

  10. Coping with Grief: Guidelines and Resources for Assisting Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heath, Melissa Allen; Leavy, Deon; Hansen, Kristina; Ryan, Katherine; Lawrence, Lacey; Sonntag, Amy Gerritsen

    2008-01-01

    This article provides basic information for school-based mental health professionals, teachers, staff, and administrators to support students coping with grief, and more specifically, grief related to death. The information is consolidated into guidelines and key points in providing support; suggested children's books and activities; Web sites…

  11. Family Stress and Coping for Mexican Origin Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liu, Freda F.; Gonzales, Nancy A.; Fernandez, Aida Cristina; Millsap, Roger E.; Dumka, Larry E.

    2011-01-01

    Family-related stressors pose special challenges for adolescents of Mexican origin, given traditional cultural norms that compel youths to get involved with family problems despite their limited ability to effect change. The current study examines the prospective effects of coping strategies (i.e., active, distraction, avoidance, support-seeking,…

  12. Israeli Counsellors Facing Terrorism: Coping and Professional Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cinamon, Rachel Gali; Hellman, Shoshana

    2006-01-01

    The current study examined the characteristics and functioning of 12 Israeli school counsellors located at different stages of professional development who worked in schools affected by terrorist attacks. Semi-structured interviews explored the counsellors professional behaviour, activities, and coping with terror and its effects. Consensual…

  13. Attachment, Coping, and Explanatory Style in Late Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Greenberger, Ellen; McLaughlin, Caitlin S.

    1998-01-01

    Self-report data from 157 college students show that, in general, more secure attachments were positively related to support-seeking and active problem-solving coping styles and to females', but not males', tendency to explain hypothetical successes and failures in a positive or self-enhancing manner. Sex differences in security of attachments are…

  14. Impact of Coping Resources on the Well-Being of Custodial Grandmothers and Grandchildren

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Gregory C.; Cichy, Kelly E.; Montoro-Rodriguez, Julian

    2015-01-01

    The authors blended elements from the Stress Process Model and the Family Stress Model to investigate the direct and indirect effects of custodial grandmothers’ (CGMs’) coping resources (i.e., active strategies, passive strategies, and social support) on their psychological distress, their parenting practices, and their grandchild’s internalizing and externalizing symptoms. Participants included African American and White CGMs (N = 733, M age = 56) who provided full-time care to a grandchild (Mage = 9.8). Structural equation modeling revealed that social support and active coping were related to lower CGM distress and less ineffective parenting, whereas passive coping was associated with increased distress and more ineffective parenting. Ineffective parenting had direct effects on grandchildren’s outcomes, whereas CGM coping resources had direct effects on ineffective parenting and indirect effects (through ineffective parenting) on grandchildren’s externalizing and internalizing difficulties. The authors conclude that CGM coping resources affect the psychological well-being of both generations. PMID:26089583

  15. Coping flexibility in young adults: comparison between subjects with and without schizotypal personality features.

    PubMed

    Zong, Ji-gang; Chan, Raymond C K; Stone, William S; Hsi, Xiaolu; Cao, Xiao-yan; Zhao, Qing; Shi, Yan-fang; Wang, Yu-na; Wang, Ya

    2010-09-01

    The current study examined characteristics of coping patterns adopted by college students in mainland China. In particular, it examined the coping strategies adopted by subjects with schizotypal personality (SPD) features compared to those without SPD features, and compared the relative effectiveness of their coping. Four types of coping flexibility were identified among the college sample (n=427), including active-inflexible, passive-inflexible, active-inconsistent, and passive-inconsistent styles. The passive-inconsistent style was related to the worst outcomes. When comparing subjects with SPD features with those without SPD features, subjects with SPD features endorsed significantly more emotion-focused strategies in uncontrollable situations than those without SPD features. The SPD group experienced higher levels of trait anxiety, depression, paranoid ideation and general health problems. The SPD group also generally perceived more, less controllable stress than the non-SPD group and randomly used all four categories of coping strategies. PMID:20510586

  16. Coping behavior in patients with panic disorder.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Kumiko; Fujii, Isao; Akiyoshi, Jotaro; Nagayama, Haruo

    2004-04-01

    The purpose of the present paper was to investigate the role of coping behavior in patients with panic disorder (PD). This was done by evaluating three items of coping behavior (seeking of social support, wishful thinking and avoidance) in the Ways of Coping Checklist. The subjects consisted of 30 patients with PD (26 with agoraphobia). Coping behavior and the severity of PD was investigated at baseline and at 24 months (the final outcome). At baseline there were no gender differences in coping behavior. The severity of panic attacks significantly correlated with that of agoraphobia. The baseline severity of PD (panic attacks and agoraphobia) did not correlate with coping behavior. At the outcome assessment there was no significant correlation between the severity of panic attack and coping behavior. The severity of agoraphobia at final outcome and the coping behavior (seeking of social support) at baseline were significantly correlated. In the group that had remission in agoraphobia (the good outcome group), the severity of agoraphobia at baseline was significantly lower and the seeking of social support coping behavior was significantly higher than that of the poor outcome group. No significant difference in panic attack severity was noted between the good and poor outcome groups. Discriminant analysis revealed that seeking of social support coping behavior was a significant discriminant factor of agoraphobia. Although these are preliminary data, special coping behavior might be related to improvement of agoraphobia in patients with PD. PMID:15009823

  17. Clinical nurses' characterizations of patient coping problems.

    PubMed

    Becket, N

    1991-01-01

    The author reports the findings from a qualitative study of diagnostic data obtained and interpreted by hospital nurses on the coping of adult patients and their families. Clinical data taken from taped interviews were transcribed and analyzed using grounded theory and analytic induction techniques. The data were then compared with diagnoses accepted for testing by NANDA. The phenomena described by the research did not match the NANDA constructs for individual and family coping problems. Nurses' assessments of coping response, however, fit within transactional theory. The use of the term "ineffective" to qualify coping was generally avoided. Ineffective coping, suggesting an outcome or product of coping, was not often considered applicable to the coping responses nurses found appropriate at specific times in specific situations. PMID:1873103

  18. Mastication as a Stress-Coping Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Iinuma, Mitsuo

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to chronic stress induces various physical and mental effects that may ultimately lead to disease. Stress-related disease has become a global health problem. Mastication (chewing) is an effective behavior for coping with stress, likely due to the alterations chewing causes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. Mastication under stressful conditions attenuates stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone and catecholamines, as well as the expression of stress-related substances, such as neurotrophic factors and nitric oxide. Further, chewing reduces stress-induced changes in central nervous system morphology, especially in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. In rodents, chewing or biting on wooden sticks during exposure to various stressors reduces stress-induced gastric ulcer formation and attenuates spatial cognitive dysfunction, anxiety-like behavior, and bone loss. In humans, some studies demonstrate that chewing gum during exposure to stress decreases plasma and salivary cortisol levels and reduces mental stress, although other studies report no such effect. Here, we discuss the neuronal mechanisms that underline the interactions between masticatory function and stress-coping behaviors in animals and humans. PMID:26090453

  19. Coping behaviors among sexual minority female youth.

    PubMed

    Pendragon, Diane K

    2010-01-01

    This article summarizes data from a qualitative study investigating the ways in which female youth perceive and respond to challenges related to the interplay of late adolescence and a minority sexual orientation. Fifteen sexual minority females in late adolescence were interviewed individually and in focus groups. The interviews focused on participants' perceptions of challenges, the impact those stressors have in their lives, and methods they utilize to cope with them. The most common negative experiences reported were isolation, lack of acceptance, harassment, and violence. Sub-themes include: hearing negative messages about gender and sexual orientation, pressures to conform to a variety of cultural norms including gender norms, fears of future violence, and pressure to identify sexual orientation. Collectively, the participants described these negative consequences of experiences of heterosexism, sexism, and racism as their most difficult experiences. The most common responses to these stressors reported by participants were finding support in relationships, engaging in coping responses, pursuing education and activism, rebellion and resistance, and avoidance and deferment. PMID:20077261

  20. Mastication as a Stress-Coping Behavior.

    PubMed

    Kubo, Kin-ya; Iinuma, Mitsuo; Chen, Huayue

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to chronic stress induces various physical and mental effects that may ultimately lead to disease. Stress-related disease has become a global health problem. Mastication (chewing) is an effective behavior for coping with stress, likely due to the alterations chewing causes in the activity of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and autonomic nervous system. Mastication under stressful conditions attenuates stress-induced increases in plasma corticosterone and catecholamines, as well as the expression of stress-related substances, such as neurotrophic factors and nitric oxide. Further, chewing reduces stress-induced changes in central nervous system morphology, especially in the hippocampus and hypothalamus. In rodents, chewing or biting on wooden sticks during exposure to various stressors reduces stress-induced gastric ulcer formation and attenuates spatial cognitive dysfunction, anxiety-like behavior, and bone loss. In humans, some studies demonstrate that chewing gum during exposure to stress decreases plasma and salivary cortisol levels and reduces mental stress, although other studies report no such effect. Here, we discuss the neuronal mechanisms that underline the interactions between masticatory function and stress-coping behaviors in animals and humans. PMID:26090453

  1. Coping with distributed computing

    SciTech Connect

    Cormell, L.

    1992-09-01

    The rapid increase in the availability of high performance, cost-effective RISC/UNIX workstations has been both a blessing and a curse. The blessing of having extremely powerful computing engines available on the desk top is well-known to many users. The user has tremendous freedom, flexibility, and control of his environment. That freedom can, however, become the curse of distributed computing. The user must become a system manager to some extent, he must worry about backups, maintenance, upgrades, etc. Traditionally these activities have been the responsibility of a central computing group. The central computing group, however, may find that it can no longer provide all of the traditional services. With the plethora of workstations now found on so many desktops throughout the entire campus or lab, the central computing group may be swamped by support requests. This talk will address several of these computer support and management issues by providing some examples of the approaches taken at various HEP institutions. In addition, a brief review of commercial directions or products for distributed computing and management will be given.

  2. The Ways of Coping Checklist: Revision and Psychometric Properties.

    PubMed

    Vitaliano, P P; Russo, J; Carr, J E; Maiuro, R D; Becker, J

    1985-01-01

    This study examined the psychometric properties of the "original" seven factored scales derived by Aldwin et al. from Folkman and Lazarus' Ways of Coping Checklist (WCCL) versus a revised set of scales. Four psychometric properties were examined including the reproducibility of the factor structure of the original scales, the internal consistency reliabilities and intercorrelations of the original and the revised scales, the construct and concurrent validity of the scales, and their relationships to demographic factors. These properties were studied on three distressed samples: 83 psychiatric outpatients, 62 spouses of patients with Alzheimer's disease, and 425 medical students. The revised scales were consistently shown to be more reliable and to share substantially less variance than the original scales across all samples. In terms of construct validity, depression was positively related to the revised Wishful Thinking Scale and negatively related to the revised Problem-Focused Scale consistently across samples. Anxiety was also related to these scales, and in addition, it was positively related to the Seeks Social Support Scale across samples. The Mixed Scale was the only original scale that was consistently related to depression and anxiety across the three samples. Evidence for concurrent validity was provided by the fact that medical students in group therapy had significantly higher original and revised scale scores than students not participating in such groups. Both sets of scales were shown to be generally free of demographic biases. PMID:26776273

  3. Factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS): activities and coping strategies in relation to positive and negative affect

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background. Previous research (Tkach & Lyubomirsky, 2006) shows that there are eight general happiness-increasing strategies: social affiliation, partying, mental control, goal pursuit, passive leisure, active leisure, religion, and direct attempts. The present study investigates the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies scales (H-ISS) and their relationship to positive and negative affect. Method. The present study used participants’ (N = 1,050 and age mean = 34.21 sd = 12.73) responses to the H-ISS in structural equation modeling analyses. Affect was measured using the Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule. Results. After small modifications we obtained a good model that contains the original eight factors/scales. Moreover, we found that women tend to use social affiliation, mental control, passive leisure, religion, and direct attempts more than men, while men preferred to engage in partying and clubbing more than women. The H-ISS explained significantly the variance of positive affect (R2 = .41) and the variance of negative affect (R2 = .27). Conclusions. Our study is an addition to previous research showing that the factor structure of the happiness-increasing strategies is valid and reliable. However, due to the model fitting issues that arise in the present study, we give some suggestions for improving the instrument. PMID:26157626

  4. Frequently Used Coping Scales: A Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2015-10-01

    This article reports the frequency of the use of coping scales in academic journals published from 1998 to 2010. Two thousand empirical journal articles were selected from the EBSCO database. The COPE, Ways of Coping Questionnaire, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations, Religious-COPE and Coping Response Inventory were frequently mentioned. In particular, the COPE (20.2%) and Ways of Coping Questionnaire (13.6%) were used the most frequently. In this literature reviewed, coping scales were most often used to assess coping with health issues (e.g. illness, pain and medical diagnoses) over other types of stressors, and patients were the most frequent participants. Further, alpha coefficients were estimated for the COPE subscales, and correlations between the COPE subscales and coping outcomes were calculated, including depressive symptoms, anxiety, negative affect, psychological distress, physical symptoms and well-being. PMID:24338955

  5. Creating a bond between caregivers online: effect on caregivers' coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Namkoong, Kang; DuBenske, Lori L; Shaw, Bret R; Gustafson, David H; Hawkins, Robert P; Shah, Dhavan V; McTavish, Fiona M; Cleary, James F

    2012-01-01

    Numerous studies have investigated the effect of Interactive Cancer Communication Systems (ICCSs) on system users' improvements in psychosocial status. Research in this area, however, has focused mostly on cancer patients, rather than on caregivers, and on the direct effects of ICCSs on improved outcomes, rather than on the psychological mechanisms of ICCS effects. To understand the underlying mechanisms, this study examines the mediating role of perceived caregiver bonding in the relation between one ICCS (the Comprehensive Health Enhancement Support System [CHESS]) use and caregivers' coping strategies. To test the hypotheses, a secondary analysis of data was conducted on 246 caregivers of lung cancer patients. These caregivers were randomly assigned to (a) the Internet, with links to high-quality lung cancer websites, or (b) access to CHESS, which integrated information, communication, and interactive coaching tools. Findings suggest that perceived bonding has positive effects on caregivers' appraisal and problem-focused coping strategies, and it mediates the effect of ICCS on the coping strategies 6 months after the intervention has begun. PMID:22004055

  6. [The multivector nature of relief of acute and chronic pain and necessity of using pain coping strategies].

    PubMed

    Yakupov, E Z; Yakupova, S P; Muslimova, E A

    2015-01-01

    The paper is devoted to the urgent problem of pain syndromes of multimodal character developed in different pathologies. The diagnosis and treatment of pain is frequently complicated by nociceptive, neuropathic and dysfunctional components. Special attention is drawn to the dysfunctional component and its relation to depression. In this context, the authors consider psychological aspects of pain syndrome formation and methods of treatment using pharmacological medications and pain-coping strategies as well. Different coping strategies of active and passive pain-coping styles depending on sex, personality features, nosologic forms are presented. The necessity of using the active coping-strategies to relieve pain of different genesis is highlighted. PMID:26978501

  7. Successful coping in urban, community-dwelling older adults with HIV.

    PubMed

    DeGrezia, Mary G; Scrandis, Debra

    2015-01-01

    By 2015, 50% of HIV-infected individuals in the United States will be 50 years of age and older. Examining successful coping in older adults with HIV could expand existing coping toolkits, enhance disease management, and improve overall outcomes. We explored how urban, community-dwelling older adults (N = 40) coped with HIV infection, comorbidities, and related stressors. Participants completed an individual or focus group interview session using open-ended questions formulated from extended participant observation. Data were analyzed for theme development using interpretive hermeneutics and qualitative content analysis. Stressors included HIV, comorbidities, fear, anger, stigma, and finances. Three themes for successful coping were identified: accessing support, helping selves and helping others, and tapping into spirituality. Participants engaged in active, meaning-based strategies to successfully cope with HIV and related stressors. These strategies can be adapted for other older adults with HIV, leading to holistic care and improved outcomes. PMID:25665886

  8. Associations of coping and appraisal styles with emotion regulation during preadolescence.

    PubMed

    Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J; Wilson, Anna C; Trancik, Anika; Bazinet, Alissa

    2011-10-01

    We investigated the associations of appraisal and coping styles with emotion regulation in a community sample of preadolescents (N=196, 9-12 years of age), with appraisal, coping styles, and emotion regulation measured at a single time point. In a previous study, we identified five frustration and four anxiety emotion regulation profiles based on children's physiological, behavioral, and self-reported reactions to emotion-eliciting tasks. In this study, preadolescents' self-reported appraisal and coping styles were associated with those emotion regulation profiles. Overall, findings revealed that children who were more effective at regulating their emotions during the emotion-eliciting tasks had higher levels of positive appraisal and active coping when dealing with their own problems. Conversely, children who regulated their emotions less effectively had higher levels of threat appraisal and avoidant coping. PMID:21507423

  9. Extending and applying the demand-control model: the role of soldier's coping on a peacekeeping deployment.

    PubMed

    Ippolito, Jessica; Adler, Amy B; Thomas, Jeffrey L; Litz, Brett T; Hölzl, Rupert

    2005-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to extend the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek, 1979) by examining coping as an additional factor. It was hypothesized that perceived job control only buffered the demand-strain relationship when individuals used active coping and exacerbated the relationship when individuals used passive coping. Soldiers (N=638) were surveyed before and during a 6-month peacekeeping deployment to Kosovo. Results partially confirmed the hypotheses. Even after controlling for general psychological health at predeployment, job control moderated the relationship between demands and psychological health during deployment when soldiers used active coping. No significant 3-way interactions were found for religious coping and passive coping. Implications for demand-control modeling and potential applications of the findings to soldier and leader training are discussed. PMID:16248692

  10. Coping styles and behavioural flexibility: towards underlying mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    Coppens, Caroline M.; de Boer, Sietse F.; Koolhaas, Jaap M.

    2010-01-01

    A coping style (also termed behavioural syndrome or personality) is defined as a correlated set of individual behavioural and physiological characteristics that is consistent over time and across situations. This relatively stable trait is a fundamental and adaptively significant phenomenon in the biology of a broad range of species, i.e. it confers differential fitness consequences under divergent environmental conditions. Behavioural flexibility appears to be an important underlying attribute or feature of the coping style that might explain consistency across situations. Proactive coping is characterized by low flexibility expressed as rather rigid, routine-like behavioural tendencies and reduced impulse control (behavioural inhibition) in operant conditioning paradigms. This article summarizes some of the evidence that individual differentiation in behavioural flexibility emerges as a function of underlying variability in the activation of a brain circuitry that includes the prefrontal cortex and its key neurochemical signalling pathways (e.g. dopaminergic and serotonergic input). We argue that the multidimensional nature of animal personality and the terminology used for the various dimensions should reflect the differential pattern of activation of the underlying neuronal network and the behavioural control function of its components. Accordingly, unravelling the molecular mechanisms that give rise to individual differences in the coping style will be an important topic in biobehavioural neurosciences, ecology and evolutionary biology. PMID:21078654

  11. Self-regulation as a moderator of the relation between coping and symptomatology in children of divorce.

    PubMed

    Lengua, L J; Sandler, I N

    1996-12-01

    Investigated the effects of self-regulation as a moderator of the relations between coping efforts and psychological symptoms of children of divorce. The interactions of two dimensions of self-regulation (task orientation and approach-flexibility) and two dimensions of coping (active and avoidant) predicting children's postdivorce symptoms were tested using a sample of 199 divorced mothers and their children, ages 8 to 12. The approach-flexibility dimension moderated the relations of both active and avoidant coping with children's self-report of anxiety. At higher levels of approach-flexibility, active coping was negatively related to anxiety, while at lower levels of approach-flexibility, active coping was unrelated to anxiety. Avoidant coping was unrelated to anxiety at higher levels of approach-flexibility, whereas at lower levels of approach-flexibility, avoidant coping was positively related to anxiety. The task orientation dimension did not interact with coping, but had direct, independent effects on children's self-report of conduct problems, depression, and parent-report of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. The implications for understanding children's coping with divorce and future directions for research are discussed. PMID:8970904

  12. Mother-daughter coping and disordered eating.

    PubMed

    Lantzouni, Eleni; Cox, Molly Havnen; Salvator, Ann; Crosby, Ross D

    2015-03-01

    This study explores whether the coping style of teenage girls with and without an eating disorder is similar to that of their mothers' (biological and adoptive), and whether teens with disordered eating utilize more maladaptive coping compared with those without. Eating disorder was diagnosed using the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, Text Revision criteria, and the Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations was administered to distinguish the coping style of the participants. Our findings suggest that daughters coped very similarly to their mothers in either group. Contrary to previous studies, our sample of teenage girls with eating disorders as well as their mothers utilized less frequently the avoidance-distraction coping compared with the girls without eating disorders and their mothers. These findings reinforce the importance for family involvement and for simultaneous focus on intrapersonal and interpersonal maintenance factors during eating disorder treatment. PMID:25645347

  13. Adolescent coping scales: a critical psychometric review.

    PubMed

    Sveinbjornsdottir, Sigrun; Thorsteinsson, Einar Baldvin

    2008-12-01

    Individual coping is identified as an important factor in relation to health and well-being. Although several coping scales have been developed, key terms of coping such as nature and a number of primary and secondary factors (dimensions) are obscure. Coping scales, such as those that have been developed through exploratory factor analysis (EFA), have been criticized for poor psychometric properties, yet the critique so far does not evaluate development of the scales against best test-theoretical practice. The present study reviews six adolescent coping scales against ten detailed psychometric criteria in relation to statistical choices throughout the process of scale development. All six scales measured poorly on several criteria. Best practice had not been followed throughout their development and they suffered serious psychometric limitations. These findings indicate that there still is empirical research to be pursued in search of latent constructs and possible dimensions of coping through the implementation of EFA. PMID:18489531

  14. Coping with epilepsy in Zimbabwe and the Midwest, USA.

    PubMed

    Devlieger, P; Piachaud, J; Leung, P; George, N

    1994-09-01

    In this article, the experiences of persons with epilepsy were explored in terms of coping with providing a basis of discussion and training to support groups, particularly in Zimbabwe. Coping mechanisms lay stress upon the individual's control in mastering the disease. It was assumed that a systematic research effort of intra-cultural and cross-cultural sharing of experiences could enhance discussion and training in the support groups. Coping with epilepsy was explored with 37 adults (27 from Zimbabwe and 10 from the Midwest, USA) using open-ended questions in a written questionnaire. Questions aimed to elicit general feelings, experiences and strategies and skills in coping with epilepsy. The questionnaire covered such semantic domains as childhood, education, employment, friendships, relations within the family, and handling of seizures in public places. Coping mechanisms were categorized into two modes, one, adjustment to the disability (palliative), the other adjustment to the environment (problem-solving). In comparing the information between the two groups, some trends can be distinguished which need a larger scale validation. First, palliative skills during childhood in the Zimbabwean group is indicative for early development of personality characteristics and socialization as a result of the illness experiences. A great variety in palliative mechanisms in handling seizures indicates better familiarity with seizures in the Midwestern group. Similarities between the two groups are found in the friendship domain, where palliative coping skills seem to be of no importance, as well as in the domain of intimate relations, where a trend in adherence to medication is observed in both groups. Second, many problem-solving skills are developed in both groups but vary in context. In view of public education and training activities and the enhancement of problem-solving skills, the domain of education for the Zimbabwean group and the domains of friendship with the

  15. Appraisal and coping styles account for the effects of temperament on preadolescent adjustment

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Stephanie F.; Zalewski, Maureen; Lengua, Liliana J.

    2014-01-01

    Temperament, appraisal, and coping are known to underlie emotion regulation, yet less is known about how these processes relate to each other across time. We examined temperamental fear, frustration, effortful control, and impulsivity, positive and threat appraisals, and active and avoidant coping as processes underpinning the emotion regulation of pre-adolescent children managing stressful events. Appraisal and coping styles were tested as mediators of the longitudinal effects of temperamental emotionality and self-regulation on adjustment using a community sample (N=316) of preadolescent children (8–12 years at T1) studied across one year. High threat appraisals were concurrently related to high fear and impulsivity, whereas effortful control predicted relative decreases in threat appraisal. High fear was concurrently related to high positive appraisal, and impulsivity predicted increases in positive appraisal. Fear was concurrently related to greater avoidant coping, and impulsivity predicted increases in avoidance. Frustration predicted decreases in active coping. These findings suggest temperament, or dispositional aspects of reactivity and regulation, relates to concurrent appraisal and coping processes and additionally predicts change in these processes. Significant indirect effects indicated that appraisal and coping mediated the effects of temperament on adjustment. Threat appraisal mediated the effects of fear and effortful control on internalizing and externalizing problems, and avoidant coping mediated the effect of impulsivity on internalizing problems. These mediated effects suggest that one pathway through which temperament influences adjustment is pre-adolescents’ appraisal and coping. Findings highlight temperament, appraisal and coping as emotion regulation processes relevant to children’s adjustment in response to stress. PMID:25821237

  16. Coping styles of Chicago adults: description.

    PubMed

    Ilfeld, F W

    1980-01-01

    Drawing upon a sample of 2,299 Chicago adults the author empirically describes the coping styles used to combat stressors in the social roles of marriage, parenting, finances, and job. Factor analyses of coping responses uncovered three major patterns: taking direct action, rationalization avoidance of the stressor, and acceptance of the stressful situation without attempting alteration. Respondents did not consistently utilize one coping style across all role areas, but rather employed a repertoire of responses. Demographic characteristics were found to explain only a small amount of variation in the coping styles. PMID:7391556

  17. Effective and ineffective coping strategies in a low-autonomy work environment.

    PubMed

    Britt, Thomas W; Crane, Monique; Hodson, Stephanie E; Adler, Amy B

    2016-04-01

    The authors examined the effectiveness of different coping strategies in buffering the negative effects of uncontrollable stressors and predicting mental health symptoms in a low-autonomy work environment using a longitudinal design. Soldiers in training indicated the extent to which they engaged in various coping strategies to deal with stressors related to the training environment at 4 different points in time. Factor analyses of soldiers in 2 different countries (i.e., United States and Australia) yielded 5 coping dimensions: active coping, acceptance of demands, seeking social support, humor, and denial/self-criticism. Among U.S. soldiers in basic training, acceptance of demands and denial/self-criticism interacted with the magnitude of basic-training stressors to predict mental health symptoms (depression and anxiety) at 3 different points during training while controlling for symptoms at the immediate prior time period. Acceptance buffered soldiers from the negative effects of the stressors, whereas denial/self-criticism exacerbated the effects of the stressors. The results of LGC models also indicated that the slopes of acceptance and active coping were negatively related to the slope of mental health symptoms across training, whereas the slope for denial/self-criticism was positively related to the slope of symptoms. Active coping was less predictive of functioning in the face of stressors and in the prediction of symptoms over time. The results demonstrated that in a low-autonomy occupational setting, acceptance coping was more effective in facilitating good mental health outcomes compared with other coping strategies considered important in prior research (e.g., active coping). (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26641486

  18. How Dyslexic Teenagers Cope: An Investigation of Self-Esteem, Coping and Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander-Passe, Neil

    2006-01-01

    Research into how dyslexics cope and the effects of their coping has received little attention in the 100 years since dyslexia has been recognized. Why is this? Well it is not an easy area to investigate, partly as most qualitative studies have looked only at coping strategies of specific dyslexics. These are individuals and are unsuitable for…

  19. Trauma-exposed firefighters: relationships among posttraumatic growth, posttraumatic stress, resource availability, coping and critical incident stress debriefing experience.

    PubMed

    Sattler, David N; Boyd, Bill; Kirsch, Julie

    2014-12-01

    This project examines protective factors associated with resilience/posttraumatic growth and risk factors associated with posttraumatic stress among firefighters exposed to critical incidents. The participants were 286 (257 men and 29 women) volunteer and paid firefighters in Whatcom County, Washington. Participants completed an anonymous survey asking about demographics, critical incident exposure, posttraumatic stress symptoms, posttraumatic growth, resource availability, coping, occupational stress and critical incident stress debriefing experience. Most participants had significant critical incident exposure, and about half had attended critical incident stress debriefing sessions. Posttraumatic growth was associated with being female, critical incident exposure, critical incident stress debriefing attendance, posttraumatic stress symptoms (negative association), occupational support, occupation satisfaction, occupational effort, problem-focused coping, emotion-focused coping and personal characteristic resources. Posttraumatic stress symptoms were positively associated with years of firefighting, burnout, occupational effort and disengagement coping and negatively associated with critical incident stress debriefing attendance, posttraumatic growth, social support, internal locus of control, personal characteristic resources, energy resources and condition resources. The findings support conservation of resources stress theory and show that the maintenance and acquisition of resources can offset losses and facilitate resilience/posttraumatic growth. Implications of the findings for enhancing firefighter resources, facilitating resilience and minimizing occupational stressors are discussed. PMID:25476961

  20. Coping with Multiple Sclerosis Scale

    PubMed Central

    Parkerson, Holly A.; Kehler, Melissa D.; Sharpe, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Background: The Coping with Multiple Sclerosis Scale (CMSS) was developed to assess coping strategies specific to multiple sclerosis (MS). Despite its wide application in MS research, psychometric support for the CMSS remains limited to the initial factor analytic investigation by Pakenham in 2001. Methods: The current investigation assessed the factor structure and construct validity of the CMSS. Participants with MS (N = 453) completed the CMSS, as well as measures of disability related to MS (Multiple Sclerosis Impact Scale), quality of life (World Health Organization Quality of Life Brief Scale), and anxiety and depression (Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale). Results: The original factor structure reported by Pakenham was a poor fit to the data. An alternate seven-factor structure was identified using exploratory factor analysis. Although there were some similarities with the existing CMSS subscales, differences in factor content and item loadings were found. Relationships between the revised CMSS subscales and additional measures were assessed, and the findings were consistent with previous research. Conclusions: Refinement of the CMSS is suggested, especially for subscales related to acceptance and avoidance strategies. Until further research is conducted on the revised CMSS, it is recommended that the original CMSS continue to be administered. Clinicians and researchers should be mindful of lack of support for the acceptance and avoidance subscales and should seek additional scales to assess these areas. PMID:27551244

  1. The Mediating Role of Coping Style in the Relationship between Psychological Capital and Burnout among Chinese Nurses

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Yongqing; Yang, Yanjie; Yang, Xiuxian; Zhang, Tiehui; Qiu, Xiaohui; He, Xin; Wang, Wenbo; Wang, Lin; Sui, Hong

    2015-01-01

    avoid negative coping style, improve skill of coping and enhance PsyCap of nurses, active interventions should be developed in the future. PMID:25898257

  2. Contributions of Socialization of Coping to Physiological Responses to Stress

    PubMed Central

    Monti, Jennifer D.; Abaied, Jamie L.; Rudolph, Karen D.

    2015-01-01

    The messages mothers communicate to their children about coping may play an important role in children’s emotional development by shaping children’s responses to stress. Building on prior research demonstrating associations between maternal socialization of coping (SOC) and children’s self-reported coping and emotional functioning (Abaied & Rudolph, 2010; 2011), we examined the contribution of SOC to children’s physiological responses to stress. Mothers completed a measure of SOC with peer victimization. Children (N = 118; M age = 9.46 years, SD = 0.33) completed a measure of peer victimization and participated in a laboratory social challenge task. Saliva samples were collected prior to and following the task and were assayed for alpha-amylase (sAA), a marker of autonomic nervous system (ANS) activation. Hierarchical linear modeling analyses revealed that SOC contributed to sAA reactivity. Peer victimization predicted greater sAA reactivity when mothers made few engagement suggestions (orienting toward stress and associated emotions and cognitions) but not when mothers made many engagement suggestions. Mothers’ distress responses predicted greater sAA reactivity. These findings provide novel evidence that the messages parents communicate about coping have implications for children’s physiological reactivity to stress during middle childhood. PMID:26973351

  3. Coping styles of older adults with ostomies.

    PubMed

    Reynaud, Sheila Normand; Meeker, Bonnie Juve'

    2002-05-01

    Various clinical studies throughout the years have shown that individuals with ostomies are a unique group facing adjustment demands. One of the most important challenges for an individual with an ostomy is coping with the physiological and psychological changes. The purpose of this study was to describe coping styles of older adults after undergoing ostomy surgery and to explore its helpfulness in dealing with the stressors related to having an ostomy. Lazarus and Folkman's theory on stress and coping was used as the framework to guide this study. A sample of 27 participants ranging from age 50 to 84 years was obtained from an ostomy association in southeastern Louisiana. Participants were asked to complete a demographic data form and the Revised Jalowiec Coping Scale. This revised scale measured eight coping styles related to Use and Effectiveness. Findings revealed significant differences existed among the means of the eight measures for both Use and Effectiveness at p < .01. Results demonstrated that the optimistic and self-reliant styles of coping were the most frequently used as effective styles for coping with an ostomy. This indicated a positive outlook and dependence on oneself rather than dependence on others when coping with the stressors of having an ostomy. There were no statistically significant differences related to gender or ostomy type. Also, aging did not appear to be a factor when considering coping styles of older adults with ostomies. The nursing role should include assessment of the individual preoperatively to identify fears, concerns, and stressors related to having an ostomy. Also, nurses can provide education on disease management, assist with identification of ineffective coping mechanisms, and promote effective coping skills and stress management techniques. PMID:12035824

  4. Protecting children from the consequences of divorce: a longitudinal study of the effects of parenting on children's coping processes.

    PubMed

    Vélez, Clorinda E; Wolchik, Sharlene A; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin

    2011-01-01

    This study examines whether intervention-induced changes in mother-child relationship quality and discipline led to short-term (6 months) and long-term (6 years) changes in children's coping processes in a sample of 240 youth aged 9-12 years when assessed initially. Data were from a randomized, experimental trial of a parenting-focused preventive intervention designed to improve children's postdivorce adjustment. Three-wave prospective mediational analyses revealed that intervention-induced improvements in relationship quality led to increases in coping efficacy at 6 months and to increases in coping efficacy and active coping at 6 years. Tests of the mediated effects were significant for all 3 indirect paths. Results are discussed in terms of pathways to adaptive coping and implications for the implementation of preventive interventions targeting coping. PMID:21291440

  5. Protecting children from the consequences of divorce: A longitudinal study of the effects of parenting on children's coping processes

    PubMed Central

    Vélez, Clorinda E.; Wolchik, Sharlene A.; Tein, Jenn-Yun; Sandler, Irwin

    2010-01-01

    This study examined whether intervention-induced changes in mother-child relationship quality and discipline led to short-term (6 months) and long-term (6 years) changes in children's coping processes in a sample of 240 youth aged 9-12 years when assessed initially. Data were from a randomized, experimental trial of a parenting-focused preventive intervention designed to improve children's post-divorce adjustment. Three-wave prospective mediational analyses revealed that intervention-induced improvements in relationship quality led to increases in coping efficacy at 6 months and to increases in coping efficacy and active coping at 6 years. Tests of the mediated effects were significant for all 3 indirect paths. Results are discussed in terms of pathways to adaptive coping and implications for the implementation of preventive interventions targeting coping. PMID:21291440

  6. Coping as a multisystem construct associated with pathways mediating HIV-relevant immune function and disease progression.

    PubMed

    Temoshok, Lydia R; Wald, Rebecca L; Synowski, Stephen; Garzino-Demo, Alfredo

    2008-06-01

    We review psychoneuroimmunological research linking coping with HIV disease progression and its indicators, as well as with viral and host factors that may mediate or contribute to HIV progression. Our perspective on coping broadly encompasses the attempts of multiple mental and biological systems to adapt to changing internal and environmental conditions and to reestablish homeostasis. Accordingly, we discuss studies within four dimensions of coping: cognitive (appraisals, expectancies, and explanatory style), emotional (the Type C coping pattern and related constructs), active-passive strategies and behavior patterns, and physiological (autonomic reactivity and recovery). Finally, we present a model that integrates key studies linking coping with HIV prognostic indicators and clinical disease progression. Based on empirical evidence, the model suggests plausible mechanisms by which coping may be connected to HIV progression/antiprogression factors and immunopathogenesis to affect HIV clinical progression. PMID:18519884

  7. Coping mediates the influence of personality on life satisfaction in patients with rheumatic diseases.

    PubMed

    Vollmann, Manja; Pukrop, Jörg; Salewski, Christel

    2016-04-01

    A rheumatic disease can severely impair a person's quality of life. The degree of impairment, however, is not closely related to objective indicators of disease severity. This study investigated the influence and the interplay of core psychological factors, i.e., personality and coping, on life satisfaction in patients with rheumatic diseases. Particularly, it was tested whether coping mediates the effects of personality on life satisfaction. In a cross-sectional design, 158 patients diagnosed with a rheumatic disease completed questionnaires assessing the Big 5 personality traits (BFI-10), several disease-related coping strategies (EFK) and life satisfaction (HSWBS). Data were analyzed using a complex multiple mediation analysis with the Big 5 personality traits as predictors, coping strategies as mediators and life satisfaction as outcome. All personality traits and seven of the nine coping strategies were associated with life satisfaction (rs > |0.16|, ps ≤ 0.05). The mediation analysis revealed that personality traits had no direct, but rather indirect effects on life satisfaction through coping. Neuroticism had a negative indirect effect on life satisfaction through less active problem solving and more depressive coping (indirect effects > -0.03, ps < 0.05). Extraversion, agreeableness, and conscientiousness had positive indirect effects on life satisfaction through more active problem solving, less depressive coping and/or a more active search for social support (indirect effects > 0.06, ps < 0.05). Personality and coping play a role in adjustment to rheumatic diseases. The interplay of these variables should be considered in psychological interventions for patients with rheumatic diseases. PMID:26898985

  8. Measuring coping behavior in patients with major burn injuries: a psychometric evaluation of the BCOPE.

    PubMed

    Amoyal, Nicole R; Mason, Shawn T; Gould, Neda F; Corry, Nida; Mahfouz, Soad; Barkey, Adam; Fauerbach, James A

    2011-01-01

    Burn injuries involve significant physiological, psychological, and social challenges with which individuals must cope. Although the brief COPE (BCOPE) is frequently used, knowledge of its factor structure and construct validity is limited, thus limiting confidence with interpreting results. This study assessed psychometric properties of the BCOPE in hospitalized patients with burn injury. Participants had a major burn injury (n = 362). Measures assessed coping behavior and physical, psychological, and social functioning. Exploratory factorial analysis was conducted to evaluate patterns of coping strategies. To assess construct validity, the BCOPE scale scores were correlated with the distress measures across time points. Exploratory factorial analysis revealed seven factors accounting for 51% of total variance. The pattern matrix indicated four items loaded onto factor 1 (active coping = 0.47-0.80) and four onto factor 2 (avoidant coping = 0.59-0.73). The remaining factors were consistent with original scale assignments reported by Carver (Int J Behav Med 1997;4:92-100). Construct validity of BCOPE scales (active and avoidant) was demonstrated by their association with the Davidson trauma scale, short form-12, and satisfaction with appearance scale. The results indicate that the BCOPE is valid, reliable, and can be meaningfully interpreted. Research using these factors may improve knowledge about interrelationships among stress, coping, and outcome, thus building the evidence base for managing distress in this population. PMID:21562462

  9. Neuronal Correlates of Maladaptive Coping: An EEG-Study in Tinnitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Vanneste, Sven; Joos, Kathleen; Langguth, Berthold; To, Wing Ting; De Ridder, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    Here we aimed to investigate the neuronal correlates of different coping styles in patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. Adaptive and maladaptive coping styles were determined in 85 tinnitus patients. Based on resting state EEG recordings, coping related differences in brain activity and connectivity were found. Maladaptive coping behavior was related to increases in subjective tinnitus loudness and distress, higher tinnitus severity and higher depression scores. EEG recordings demonstrated increased alpha activity over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) as well as increased connectivity in the default (i.e. resting state) network in tinnitus patients with a maladaptive coping style. Correlation analysis revealed that the changes in the DLPFC correlate primarily with maladaptive coping behavior, whereas the changes in the sgACC correlate with tinnitus severity and depression. Our findings are in line with previous research in the field of depression that during resting state a alpha band hyperconnectivity exists within the default network for patients who use a maladaptive coping style, with the sgACC as the dysfunctional node and that the strength of the connectivity is related to focusing on negative mood and catastrophizing about the consequences of tinnitus. PMID:24558383

  10. Multicultural Mastery Scale for youth: multidimensional assessment of culturally mediated coping strategies.

    PubMed

    Fok, Carlotta Ching Ting; Allen, James; Henry, David; Mohatt, Gerald V

    2012-06-01

    Self-mastery refers to problem-focused coping facilitated through personal agency. Communal mastery describes problem solving through an interwoven social network. This study investigates an adaptation of self- and communal mastery measures for youth. Given the important distinction between family and peers in the lives of youth, these adaptation efforts produced Mastery-Family and Mastery-Friends subscales, along with a Mastery-Self subscale. We tested these measures for psychometric properties and internal structure with 284 predominately Yup'ik Eskimo Alaska Native adolescents (12- to 18-year-olds) from rural, remote communities-a non-Western culturally distinct group hypothesized to display higher levels of collectivism and communal mastery. Results demonstrate a subset of items adapted for youth function satisfactorily, a 3-response alternative format provided meaningful information, and the subscale's underlying structure is best described through 3 distinct first-order factors organized under 1 higher order mastery factor. PMID:21928912

  11. Coping Style, Cognitive Hardiness, & Health Status.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nowack, Kenneth M.

    Much research has examined how individuals cope with work and life stress. Findings have suggested that stress, generally measured as major life events or daily hassles, may be less important to both physical and psychological well-being than are other individual appraisal and coping processes. This study was conducted to examine the effects of…

  12. Childlessness: Strategies for Coping with Infertility.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woollett, Anne

    1985-01-01

    Examines the coping strategies adopted by 50 infertile men and women. All interviewed had sought medical help, and many became knowledgeable about reproduction and infertility. Redefining the problem and managing negative concepts about infertility were other coping strategies. Seeking social support, positive identities, and other ways of meeting…

  13. Coping with Demotivation: EFL Learners' Remotivation Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Falout, Joseph

    2012-01-01

    When foreign language education is compulsory, competitive, or coercive, how learners cope with stress can determine outcomes, including value of the subject, persistence on task, and level of proficiency. The development of adaptive or maladaptive coping processes toward situated learning goals is influenced by learners' beliefs about themselves…

  14. Patterns of Coping, Patterns of Response.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Franzen, Michael D.; Heffernan, William

    Both behavioral and cognitive coping strategies are determined by an individual's perception of the stressful stimuli. To investigate the relationship of an individual's usual coping style to differential responses to a behavioral or cognitive stressor in four response systems (heart rate, muscle tension, galvanic skin response, and subjective…

  15. Coping Power. What Works Clearinghouse Intervention Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2011

    2011-01-01

    "Coping Power" is based on the earlier "Anger Coping Power" program. It emphasizes social and emotional skills that are needed during the transition to middle school. The program incorporates child and parent components. The child component consists of thirty-four 50-minute group sessions and periodic individual sessions over the course of 15-18…

  16. Coping with Mental Illness in the Family.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hatfield, Agnes B.

    Utilizing the conceptual framework of coping theory, 30 family care-givers of mentally ill family members were interviewed to determine the relationship between coping effectiveness and such variables as patient characteristics, factors of the care-givers life situation, and the availability and adequacy of community supports. Care-givers were…

  17. Interpersonal Coping among Boys with ADHD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Roos, Thomas; Desman, Christiane

    2008-01-01

    Objective: The authors investigate self-reported coping with interpersonal stressors among boys with and without ADHD in two studies and provide initial evidence for effects of different subgroups of ADHD on coping in Study 2. Method: In Study 1, 20 Austrian adolescents with ADHD were compared to 20 healthy controls. In Study 2, 44 German children…

  18. Novice Teachers and How They Cope

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caspersen, Joakim; Raaen, Finn Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Teachers often describe their first teaching job following graduation as a shocking experience. This description raises several questions: Do novice teachers actually have a lower level of coping than experienced teachers? Are there factors in the work environment that make coping difficult for all teachers at a school? This paper compares the…

  19. Coping Strategies of Caribbean "Problem Students"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maynard, Donna-Maria B.; Welch, Patricia L.

    2009-01-01

    The coping strategies of middle adolescents (14-16 years) generate interest amongst educators, parents, school psychologists and school counsellors. This study, using a phenomenological approach, examined the coping strategies of "problem" adolescents in the Caribbean in regard to their interactions with peers and teachers. Data were collected…

  20. Coping with Relationship Stressors: A Decade Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seiffge-Krenke, Inge

    2011-01-01

    This review identifies key issues in research on adolescent coping with stress with parents, friends, and romantic partners during the past decade. An analysis of 78 studies revealed findings on relationship stressors and the potential links between the use of different coping styles for different relationship types. Research has confirmed…

  1. Pain Coping Strategies in Osteoarthritis Patients.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keefe, Francis J.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Investigated the relation of pain coping strategies to pain, health status, and psychological distress in a group of osteoarthritis patients with chronic pain. Patients completed various questionnaires. Medical status variables were also used. The Pain Control and Rational Thinking factor derived from the Coping Strategies Questionnaire proved to…

  2. Mindfulness, Stress, and Coping among University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Angele; Rodger, Susan

    2009-01-01

    A sample of 135 first-year university students living in residence completed questionnaires that measured individual differences in mindfulness, coping styles, and perceived stress. Findings revealed significant positive relationships between mindfulness and rational coping, and significant negative relationships with emotional and avoidant coping…

  3. Family Stress: A Coping Model for Intervention.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zeitlin, Shirley; Rosenblatt, William P.

    A support program was developed at the John F. Kennedy Medical Center in Edison, New Jersey for families of handicapped children (from birth to the age of 3) who are involved in an early intervention program. A cognitive-behavioral model (the Coping with Stress Model) was designed to help families assess coping effectiveness. The process, which…

  4. Adolescents' Attachment and Coping with Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Michelle S.; Medway, Frederic J.

    2004-01-01

    This study examined how high school students cope with stress as a function of their attachment style. Data were gathered from 75 adolescent-parent pairs in Texas and included measures of attachment, coping style, life stress, and whom the respondent would turn to in times of stress. Adolescents' attachment security was positively related to…

  5. Coping with the Impact of Incontinence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gartley, Cheryle

    2008-01-01

    This article presents Part 2 of a multi-part series offering the most timely educational information, innovative approaches, products and technology solutions as well as coping and stigma-fighting approaches available on the subject of incontinence. In this article, the author contends that it is extremely important to teach children coping skills…

  6. Coping with Discrimination among Mexican Descent Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Lisa M.; Romero, Andrea J.

    2008-01-01

    The current research is designed to explore the relationship among discrimination stress, coping strategies, and self-esteem among Mexican descent youth (N = 73, age 11-15 years). Results suggest that primary control engagement and disengagement coping strategies are positively associated with discrimination stress. Furthermore, self-esteem is…

  7. Helping Students Cope with Fears and Crises.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walz, Garry R., Ed.; Bleuer, Jeanne C., Ed.

    This document consists of two modules extracted from a six-module larger work. Module 1 presents six articles on the topic of "helping students to cope with fears and crises." Module 2 contains 17 articles on "programs and practices for helping students cope with fears and crises." Article titles and authors are as follows: (1) "Worries of…

  8. Coping Skills: A Goal of Professional Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendt, Janice C.

    A sense of crisis in public schools is helping to make teaching a stressful occupation. Prospective teachers should develop the capacity to cope with the institution as it changes to meet societal demands. They should have the ability to analyze problems and choose appropriate coping mechanisms. A positive outlook on teaching, with the support of…

  9. Predictors of Coping in Divorced Single Mothers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Propst, L. Rebecca; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Examined the effects of demographic variables, variables specific to marriage and divorce, and coping resources (internal and external) on the adjustment of single mothers. Results indicate that four classes of variables have an effect on the mother's adjustment: phase of divorce and/or separation; numbers and ages of children; style of coping;…

  10. Relationship of Coping Styles with Suicidal Behavior in Hospitalized Asthma and Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease Patients: Substance Abusers versus Non- Substance Abusers

    PubMed Central

    Safa, Mitra; Talischi, Firouzeh; Masjedi, Mohammad Reza

    2014-01-01

    Background Treatment of patients with chronic conditions requiring hospitalization requires patient acceptance and cooperation and adoption of coping strategies. Inappropriate coping strategies such as substance abuse are concerning in the course of treatment. This study sought to explore the association of coping strategies with suicidal behavior in substance abusers and non substance abuser patients with chronic pulmonary diseases namely asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Materials and Methods This comparative study was performed on 100 patients with asthma and COPD selected via convenience sampling. Subjects with and without substance abuse were separated into two groups of 50 patients each. Ways of Coping Questionnaire of Lazarus (WOCQ) and Suicide Behavior Questionnaire-Revised (SBQ-R) were completed by them. Five Persian speaking patients rated this questionnaire to be easily understandable in the pre-test stage. Cronbach's alpha was calculated to measure the internal consistency. Results The mean (±standard deviation) age of participants was 40 (±14) years; 58% of individuals were men; 62% had chosen problem-focused coping. The most abused substances were cigarettes (78%) and opium (42%); 6% of substance abusers had thought about suicide five times or more in the past year; 5% of substance abusers had seriously attempted suicide. Tendency to commit suicide was greater in men, substance abusers and participants who had chosen emotion-focused coping strategies, based on a regression model. Average score of suicide tendency was significantly higher in substance abusers (B=2.196, P =0.007). Conclusion Chronic disease is a crisis and patients need to acquire appropriate coping strategies to deal with it, especially in substance abusers and suicidal patients. Precise recognition of coping strategies in chronic pulmonary patients with substance abuse is necessary via a team cooperation among psychiatrics, psychologists and an internal

  11. Review of Coping in Children Exposed to Mass Trauma: Measurement Tools, Coping Styles, and Clinical Implications.

    PubMed

    Pfefferbaum, Betty; Nitiéma, Pascal; Jacobs, Anne K; Noffsinger, Mary A; Wind, Leslie H; Allen, Sandra F

    2016-04-01

    Evidence-based practice requires the use of data grounded in theory with clear conceptualization and reliable and valid measurement. Unfortunately, developing a knowledge base regarding children's coping in the context of disasters, terrorism, and war has been hampered by a lack of theoretical consensus and a virtual absence of rigorous test construction, implementation, and evaluation. This report presents a comprehensive review of measurement tools assessing child and adolescent coping in the aftermath of mass trauma, with a particular emphasis on coping dimensions identified through factor analytic procedures. Coping measurement and issues related to the assessment of coping are reviewed. Concepts important in instrument development and psychometric features of coping measures used in disasters, terrorism, and war are presented. The relationships between coping dimensions and both youth characteristics and clinical outcomes also are presented. A discussion of the reviewed findings highlights the difficulty clinicians may experience when trying to integrate the inconsistencies in coping dimensions across studies. Incorporating the need for multiple informants and the difference between general and context-specific coping measures suggests the importance of a multilevel, theoretical conceptualization of coping and thus, the use of more advanced statistical measures. Attention also is given to issues deemed important for further exploration in child disaster coping research. PMID:26887259

  12. Coping and coping assistance among children with sickle cell disease and their parents

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Lamia P.; Alderfer, Melissa A.; Marsac, Meghan L.

    2014-01-01

    The ways in which a family copes with the physical and psychosocial burdens of sickle cell disease (SCD) can influence child and family functioning. However, few studies have examined SCD-related stressors beyond pain or how children and parents cope with these stressors. This study aimed to describe child coping and parent attempts to help their children cope (i.e., coping assistance) with a range of SCD stressors by using a triangulated mixed methods design. We also explored convergence between findings from qualitative interviews and quantitative coping inventories. Fifteen children (aged 6 – 14) with SCD and their parents (N = 15) completed semi-structured interviews and self-report measures to assess SCD-related stressors, coping, and coping assistance strategies. Findings indicate that children experience numerous stressors related to SCD and its treatment, including but not limited to pain. To manage these stressors, families employ a range of approach- and avoidance-oriented coping strategies. Quantitative and qualitative assessments provided complementary and unique contributions to understanding coping processes among children with SCD and their parents. Examining a broad range of stressors and integrating multiple assessment methods helps improve our understanding of coping with pediatric SCD, which may inform clinical practice and family-focused intervention development. PMID:24327131

  13. Acculturation strategies, coping process and acculturative stress.

    PubMed

    Kosic, Ankica

    2004-09-01

    Using structural equation modeling, this study examines the influences of motivational factors (Need for Cognitive Closure--NCC--and Decisiveness), coping strategies and acculturation strategies on levels of acculturative stress. Two groups of immigrants in Rome (Croatians n= 156 and Poles n= 179) completed a questionnaire that included scales for the various factors. Although our initial hypothesized model was not confirmed, a modified model showed that the motivational factors of NCC and Decisiveness indirectly influence acculturative stress. The modified model with good fit indices indicated that the relationship between NCC and Decisiveness are mediated by coping strategies and acculturation strategies. Specifically, NCC is associated positively with avoidance coping, which in turn is negatively associated with the host group relationships and positively with the original culture maintenance. The last two dimensions predicted lower levels of acculturative stress. Decisiveness was positively associated with the problem-oriented coping and, negatively, with emotional and avoidance coping. PMID:15281915

  14. Coping styles of Chicago adults: effectiveness.

    PubMed

    Ilfeld, F W

    1980-11-01

    With a sample of 2,299 Chicago adults, a quantitive exploration is made of the effectiveness of different coping styles in dealing with stressor situations and feelings of distress associated with marriage, parenting, finances, and job; psychiatric symptomatology; and feelings of low self-efficacy. The specific measure of effectiveness is the extent to which one or more coping styles predicts a given dependent variable in a multiple regression analysis. As a group. coping strategies are more predictive of the stressor situation and feelings of personal distress than of psychiatric symptomatology or feelings of low self-efficacy. Also, coping styles relate differentially among the four life areas; they are more predictive of levels of stressors in marriage and parenting than in finances or job. Some coping styles are strongly predictive of low amounts of stressors; this is particularly true of the use of strategies that invoke direct action. PMID:7436686

  15. Involuntary coping mechanisms: a psychodynamic perspective

    PubMed Central

    Vaillant, George E.

    2011-01-01

    Coping responses to stress can be divided into three broad categories. The first coping category involves voluntarily mobilizing social supports. The second category involves voluntary coping strategies like rehearsing responses to danger. The third coping category, like fever and leukocytosis, is involuntary. It entails deploying unconscious homeostatic mechanisms that reduce the disorganizing effects of sudden stress, DSM-5 offers a tentative hierarchy of defenses, from psychotic to immature to mature. The 70-year prospective Study of Development at Harvard provides a clinical validation of this hierarchy Maturity of coping predicted psychosocial adjustment to aging 25 years later, and was associated with not developing symptoms of post-traumatic stress disorder after very severe WWII combat. PMID:22034454

  16. The effects of anandamide signaling enhanced by the FAAH inhibitor URB597 on coping styles in rats

    PubMed Central

    Haller, Jozsef; Goldberg, Steven R.; Pelczer, Katalin Gyimesine; Aliczki, Mano; Panlilio, Leigh V.

    2013-01-01

    Rationale Coping styles are fundamental characteristics of behavior that affect susceptibility to, and resilience during, mental and physical illness. Shifts from passive to active coping are considered therapeutic goals in many stress-related disorders, but the neural control of coping is poorly understood. Based on earlier findings we hypothesized that coping styles are influenced by endocannabinoids. Objectives Here we tested whether FAAH inhibition by URB597 affects behaviors aimed at controlling a critical situation and the degree to which environmental stimuli influence behavior i.e. we studied the impact of URB597 on the two main attributes of coping styles. Methods Rats were tested in the tail-pinch test of coping and in the elevated plus-maze test that was performed under highly divergent conditions. Results Under the effects of URB597, rats focused their behavior more on the discomfort-inducing clamp in the tail pinch test, i.e. they coped with the challenge more actively. In the elevated plus-maze, URB597-treated rats demonstrated an autonomous behavioral control by reducing both "wariness" induced by aversive conditions and "carelessness" resulting from favorable conditions. Conclusions URB597 treatment induced behavioral changes indicative of a shift towards active coping with challenges. This behavioral change appears compatible with the previously suggested role of endocannabinoids in emotional homeostasis. Albeit further studies are required to characterize the role of endocannabinoids in coping, these findings suggest that the enhancement of endocannabinoid signaling may become a therapeutic option in emotional disorders characterized by passive coping (e.g. anxiety and depression) and in physical diseases where active coping is therapeutically desirable. PMID:23743650

  17. Strategies for Coping with Chronic Lower Back Pain in Patients with Long Physiotherapy Wait Time.

    PubMed

    Cabak, Anna; Dąbrowska-Zimakowska, Anna; Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Rogala, Patryk; Laprus, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND Treatment efficacy for the increasing prevalence of back pain is a great challenge for both health care providers and individuals coping with this problem. This study aimed to evaluate pain coping strategies used by primary care patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP) as a supplementation of medical diagnosis before a physiotherapy programme. MATERIAL AND METHODS A total of 88 people were divided into 3 age groups: young adults (21-40 years old), middle-aged adults (41-60 years old), and the elderly (over 60 years old). Data was gathered from rehabilitation centers and primary medical care facilities. A cross-sectional design was used. The Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) was completed before the physiotherapy course. RESULTS Patients complained of CLBP for 11.32±6.81 years on average. The most common strategies to cope with back pain included declaring that the pain is manageable, praying and hoping, as well as increased behavioral activity. Statistically significant differences in coping strategies were found between age groups. The elderly patients were more likely to "declare coping with pain" in comparison to the younger age groups (p<0.01). People over 60 years of age were more likely to declare active coping with pain, while young people reported catastrophizing. CONCLUSIONS Patients in different age groups had various difficulties in pain coping. Most of them required support in self-management of pain in addition to physiotherapy. The basic assessment of pain coping strategies should be consistently taken into account and included in rehabilitation protocols in chronic pain treatment. PMID:26670743

  18. Strategies for Coping with Chronic Lower Back Pain in Patients with Long Physiotherapy Wait Time

    PubMed Central

    Cabak, Anna; Dąbrowska-Zimakowska, Anna; Truszczyńska, Aleksandra; Rogala, Patryk; Laprus, Katarzyna; Tomaszewski, Wiesław

    2015-01-01

    Background Treatment efficacy for the increasing prevalence of back pain is a great challenge for both health care providers and individuals coping with this problem. This study aimed to evaluate pain coping strategies used by primary care patients with chronic lower back pain (CLBP) as a supplementation of medical diagnosis before a physiotherapy programme. Material/Methods A total of 88 people were divided into 3 age groups: young adults (21–40 years old), middle-aged adults (41–60 years old), and the elderly (over 60 years old). Data was gathered from rehabilitation centers and primary medical care facilities. A cross-sectional design was used. The Coping Strategies Questionnaire (CSQ) was completed before the physiotherapy course. Results Patients complained of CLBP for 11.32±6.81 years on average. The most common strategies to cope with back pain included declaring that the pain is manageable, praying and hoping, as well as increased behavioral activity. Statistically significant differences in coping strategies were found between age groups. The elderly patients were more likely to “declare coping with pain” in comparison to the younger age groups (p<0.01). People over 60 years of age were more likely to declare active coping with pain, while young people reported catastrophizing. Conclusions Patients in different age groups had various difficulties in pain coping. Most of them required support in self-management of pain in addition to physiotherapy. The basic assessment of pain coping strategies should be consistently taken into account and included in rehabilitation protocols in chronic pain treatment. PMID:26670743

  19. The Impact of Resources on Women's Strategies for Coping with Work-Home Conflict: Does Sociocultural Context Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kulik, Liat

    2012-01-01

    The study examined differences in the impact of resources on strategies for coping with work-home conflict (WHC) among Jewish (n = 59) and Muslim Arab (n = 87) women from dual-earner families in Israel. A distinction was made between three main types of coping strategies: taking initiative, help seeking (active strategies), and redefinition (a…

  20. Personality and coping in first episode psychosis linked to mental health care use.

    PubMed

    Scholte-Stalenhoef, Anne Neeltje; la Bastide-van Gemert, Sacha; van de Willige, Gerard; Dost-Otter, Rianne; Visser, Ellen; Liemburg, Edith J; Knegtering, Henderikus; van den Heuvel, Edwin R; Schoevers, Robert A; Pijnenborg, Gerdina H M; Bruggeman, Richard

    2016-04-30

    A body of literature focuses on associations of neuroticism, extraversion, passive coping and active coping with the course of psychotic illness. Less is known about other personality and coping variables - and underlying causal mechanisms between variables remain unclear. We explored causal effects from personality, coping and symptoms on mental health care consumption over two years in 208 first episode patients. Causal inference search algorithms lead to formation of a hypothetical causal model based on presumptions on (non-)mutuality between variables and consistent with data. Structural equation modelling estimated effect sizes conditionally on the causal model. Our observed model implies that none of the coping or personality variables have any effect on the number of days of hospitalisation, whereas general psychopathology symptoms do have a direct positive effect. For ambulatory care it is proposed that openness to experience, depressive symptoms and age have direct positive effects. Reassuring thoughts as a coping strategy seems to have a direct negative effect on the use of ambulatory care and mediates indirect effects of other personality and coping variables on ambulatory care. Furthermore, while previously established relations between personality and symptoms are confirmed by our model, it challenges traditional ideas about causation between personality and symptoms. PMID:27086236

  1. Coping styles in adults with cystic fibrosis: implications for emotional and social quality of life.

    PubMed

    Mc Hugh, Rachel; Mc Feeters, Danielle; Boyda, David; O'Neill, Siobhan

    2016-01-01

    As life expectancy increases, interest has grown surrounding the factors that may influence quality of life (QOL) for people with cystic fibrosis (CF). The aim of the current study was to examine which specific coping styles were positively or negatively associated with social and emotional QOL in a CF sample. One hundred and twenty-two respondents aged 18 and over were recruited through an online support group. Respondents completed the 'CF Questionnaire-Revised (CFQ-R)' and the 'Brief COPE'. The CFQ-R is a disease-specific instrument designed to measure the impact of CF on nine QOL domains and the Brief COPE is a 28 item questionnaire which assesses 14 coping scales. A multivariate regression model revealed that higher substance abuse and disengagement was associated with lower emotional QOL whereas greater use of religion, instrumental coping and acceptance was positively associated with emotional QOL. Active coping was linked to better social QOL and a negative association was reported between distraction coping with both emotional and social domains. Given the burden of CF, ascertaining which factors enhance or diminish emotion and social well-being is now an integral component of QOL research. The current findings may therefore have value in informing clinical interventions which aim to cater for the psychological needs of individuals with CF. PMID:25783850

  2. Endogenous opioids regulate glucocorticoid-dependent stress-coping strategies in mice.

    PubMed

    Szklarczyk, Klaudia; Korostynski, Michal; Golda, Slawomir; Piechota, Marcin; Ficek, Joanna; Przewlocki, Ryszard

    2016-08-25

    Coping skills are essential in determining the outcomes of aversive life events. Our research was aimed to elucidate the molecular underpinnings of different coping styles in two inbred mouse strains, C57BL/6J and SWR/J. We compared the influence of a preceding stressor (0.5h of restraint) on behavioral and gene expression profiles between these two strains. The C57BL/6J strain exhibited increased conditioned fear and high immobility (passive coping). Oppositely, the SWR/J mice demonstrated low freezing and immobility, low post-restraint anxiety and considerable struggling during the forced swim test (active coping). Gene profiling in the amygdala revealed transcriptional patterns that were related to the differential stress reactivity, such as the activation of glucocorticoid-dependent genes specifically in the C57BL/6J mice. Post-restraint blood sampling for corticosterone levels confirmed the association of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) activation with a passive coping style. Pharmacological tools were used to modulate the stress-coping strategies. The blockade of opioid receptors (ORs) before the aversive event caused transcriptional and neuroendocrine changes in the SWR/J mice that were characteristic of the passive coping strategy. We found that treatment with a glucocorticoid receptor (GR) agonist (dexamethasone (DEX), 4mg/kg) impaired the consolidation of fear memory in the C57BL/6J mice and that this effect was reversed by OR blockade (naltrexone (NTX), 2mg/kg). In parallel, a glucocorticoid receptor antagonist (mifepristone (MIF), 20mg/kg) reversed the effect of morphine (20mg/kg) on conditioned fear in the C57BL/6J mice. Our results suggest that in mice, stress-coping strategies are determined by opioid-dependent mechanisms that modulate activity of the HPA axis. PMID:27235740

  3. Coping and adaptation process during puerperium

    PubMed Central

    Muñoz de Rodríguez, Lucy; Ruiz de Cárdenas, Carmen Helena

    2012-01-01

    Introduction: The puerperium is a stage that produces changes and adaptations in women, couples and family. Effective coping, during this stage, depends on the relationship between the demands of stressful or difficult situations and the recourses that the puerperal individual has. Roy (2004), in her Middle Range Theory about the Coping and Adaptation Processing, defines Coping as the ''behavioral and cognitive efforts that a person makes to meet the environment demands''. For the puerperal individual, the correct coping is necessary to maintain her physical and mental well being, especially against situations that can be stressful like breastfeeding and return to work. According to Lazarus and Folkman (1986), a resource for coping is to have someone who receives emotional support, informative and / or tangible. Objective: To review the issue of women coping and adaptation during the puerperium stage and the strategies that enhance this adaptation. Methods: search and selection of database articles: Cochrane, Medline, Ovid, ProQuest, Scielo, and Blackwell Synergy. Other sources: unpublished documents by Roy, published books on Roy´s Model, Websites from of international health organizations. Results: the need to recognize the puerperium as a stage that requires comprehensive care is evident, where nurses must be protagonist with the care offered to women and their families, considering the specific demands of this situation and recourses that promote effective coping and the family, education and health services. PMID:24893059

  4. Ways of coping with premenstrual change: development and validation of a premenstrual coping measure

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Negative premenstrual change can result in distress for a significant proportion of women. Previous research has suggested that women employ a range of coping strategies and behaviours in order to manage and reduce premenstrual distress. However, as yet there has been no specific scale available to measure premenstrual coping. This research aimed to develop and validate a measure of premenstrual coping which can be used in future investigations of negative premenstrual experience. Methods A sample of 250 women living in Australia, reporting mild to severe premenstrual distress, completed an online survey containing 64 items related to premenstrual coping. The items were generated by reviewing past literature related to premenstrual experience, in particular recent qualitative research on premenstrual coping. A principal components factor analysis with varimax rotation was conducted to determine item clusters that would form a measure. Reliability and validity were tested using calculations of Cronbach alphas, correlational analysis with psychological coping scales and a content analysis of participant reports of coping strategies. Results The factor analysis, which involved two principal component analyses, resulted in five factors containing 32 premenstrual coping behaviours. Interpretation of the factor solution drew on empirical and theoretical accounts of premenstrual coping and the emergent factors were labelled Avoiding Harm, Awareness and Acceptance of Premenstrual Change, Adjusting Energy, Self-Care, and Communicating. These factors form the subscales of the Premenstrual Coping Measure (PMCM). The subscales demonstrated acceptable to very good reliability and tests of construct, concurrent and content validity were supportive of sound validity. Conclusions The PMCM provides a valid and reliable scale for quantifying ways of coping specific to negative premenstrual change. Conceptual similarity was found between some coping behaviours and

  5. Negative life events and depression in adolescents with HIV: a stress and coping analysis.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Jennifer V; Abramowitz, Susan; Koenig, Linda J; Chandwani, Sulachni; Orban, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    The prevalence of negative life events (NLE) and daily hassles, and their direct and moderated associations with depression, were examined among HIV-infected adolescents. Specifically, we examined whether the negative association with depression of NLE, daily hassles, and/or passive coping were moderated by social support or active coping strategies. Demographic characteristics, depression, coping, social support, NLE, and daily hassles were collected at baseline as part of the Adolescent Impact intervention via face-to-face and computer-assisted interviews. Of 166 HIV-infected adolescents, 53% were female, 72.9% black, 59.6% with perinatally acquired HIV (PIY), the most commonly reported NLE were death in family (81%), violence exposure (68%), school relocation (67%), and hospitalization (61%); and for daily hassles "not having enough money (65%)". Behaviorally infected youth (BIY--acquired HIV later in life) were significantly more likely to experience extensive (14-21) lifetime NLE (38.8% vs. 16.3%, p < .012) than PIY. In multiple stepwise regression analysis, the model accounting for the greatest variability in depression scores (32%) included (in order of entry): daily hassles, low social support, behaviorally acquired HIV, minority sexual orientation, and passive coping. A significant passive coping-by-social support interaction revealed that the association between passive coping and depression was exacerbated when social support was low. Social support moderated the effect of NLE, such that NLE were associated with greater depression when social support was low, although the effect did not remain statistically significant when main effects of other variables were accounted for. Daily hassles, poor coping, and limited social support can adversely affect the psychological well-being of HIV-infected adolescents, particularly sexual minority youth with behaviorally acquired HIV. Multimodal interventions that enhance social support and teach adaptive coping

  6. Coping and Psychological Health of Aging Parents of Adult Children With Developmental Disabilities

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, Vivian E.; Floyd, Frank J.; Mailick, Marsha R.; Greenberg, Jan S.

    2015-01-01

    Among aging parents (mean age = 65, N = 139) of adults with developmental disabilities, we examined the effectiveness of multiple forms of coping with caregiver burden. As expected, accommodative strategies of adapting to stress (secondary engagement), used frequently in later life, buffered the impact of caregiver burden, whereas disengagement and distraction strategies exacerbated the effects of burden on depression symptoms. Most effects were similar for mothers and fathers, and all coping strategies, including active strategies to reduce stress (primary engagement), had greater effects for the parents with co-resident children. Vulnerability to caregiver burden was greatest when the aging parents with co-resident children used disengagement and distraction coping, but those who used engagement coping were resilient. PMID:24679353

  7. Coping and psychological health of aging parents of adult children with developmental disabilities.

    PubMed

    Piazza, Vivian E; Floyd, Frank J; Mailick, Marsha R; Greenberg, Jan S

    2014-03-01

    Among aging parents (mean age  =  65, N  =  139) of adults with developmental disabilities, we examined the effectiveness of multiple forms of coping with caregiver burden. As expected, accommodative strategies of adapting to stress (secondary engagement), used frequently in later life, buffered the impact of caregiver burden, whereas disengagement and distraction strategies exacerbated the effects of burden on depression symptoms. Most effects were similar for mothers and fathers, and all coping strategies, including active strategies to reduce stress (primary engagement), had greater effects for the parents with co-resident children. Vulnerability to caregiver burden was greatest when the aging parents with co-resident children used disengagement and distraction coping, but those who used engagement coping were resilient. PMID:24679353

  8. Coping With Antigay Violence: In-Depth Interviews With Flemish LGB Adults.

    PubMed

    D'haese, Lies; Dewaele, Alexis; Van Houtte, Mieke

    2015-01-01

    In view of the possible negative mental health outcomes of antigay violence and the limited understanding of how lesbian, gay, and bisexual (LGB) men and women cope with such experiences, this study examined the coping and social support-seeking strategies that victims adopt. In 2012, in-depth interviews were conducted with 19 Flemish sexual minority victims of violence. These in-depth interviews show that antigay violence can generate profound negative outcomes. However, the respondents employed a range of coping strategies, of which four were discerned: (1) avoidance strategies, (2) assertiveness and confrontation, (3) cognitive change, and (4) social support. Applying a diverse set of coping strategies and actively attaching meaning to negative experiences helps victims of antigay violence to overcome negative effects such as fear, embarrassment, or depressive feelings. However, the presence of a supportive network seems an important condition in order for these positive outcomes to occur. PMID:26010740

  9. Coping patterns as a valid presentation of the diversity of coping responses in schizophrenia patients.

    PubMed

    Ritsner, Michael S; Gibel, Anatoly; Ponizovsky, Alexander M; Shinkarenko, Evgeny; Ratner, Yael; Kurs, Rena

    2006-11-15

    This study aimed to identify coping patterns used by schizophrenia inpatients in comparison with those used by healthy individuals, and to explore their association with selected clinical and psychosocial variables. The Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) was used to assess coping strategies among 237 inpatients who met DSM-IV criteria for schizophrenia and 175 healthy individuals. Severity of psychopathology and distress, insight into illness, feelings of self-efficacy and self-esteem (self-construct variables), social support, and quality of life were also examined. Factor analysis, analysis of covariance and correlations were used to examine the relationships between the parameters of interest. Using dimensional measures, we found that emotion-oriented coping style and emotional distress were significantly higher in the schizophrenia group, whereas the task-oriented coping style, self-efficacy, perceived social support and satisfaction with quality of life were lower compared with controls. When eight CISS coping patterns were defined, the results revealed that patients used emotion coping patterns 5.5 times more frequently, and task and task-avoidance coping patterns significantly less often than healthy subjects. Coping patterns have different associations with current levels of dysphoric mood and emotional distress, self-construct variables, and satisfaction with quality of life. Thus, the identified coping patterns may be an additional useful presentation of the diversity of coping strategies used by schizophrenia patients. Coping patterns may be considered an important source of knowledge for patients who struggle with the illness and for mental health professionals who work with schizophrenia patients. PMID:17011633

  10. Coping with Cancer in Everyday Life

    MedlinePlus

    ... Articles » My ACS » Coping With Cancer in Everyday Life Download Printable Version [PDF] » ( En español ) Nearly 14. ... cancer For spouses, families, and friends Finding support Life after cancer treatment Finding hope To learn more ...

  11. Stress and Coping with Discrimination and Stigmatization

    PubMed Central

    Berjot, Sophie; Gillet, Nicolas

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this article is to briefly review the literature on stigmatization and more generally identity threats, to focus more specifically of the way people appraise and cope with those threatening situations. Based on the transactional model of stress and coping of Lazarus and Folkman (1984), we propose a model of coping with identity threats that takes into accounts the principle characteristic of stigma, its devaluing aspect. We present a model with specific antecedents, a refined appraisal phase and a new classification of coping strategies based on the motives that may be elicited by the threatening situation, those of protecting and/or enhancing the personal and/or social identity. PMID:21713247

  12. Self-Compassion, Stress, and Coping

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Ashley Batts; Leary, Mark R.

    2010-01-01

    People who are high in self-compassion treat themselves with kindness and concern when they experience negative events. The present article examines the construct of self-compassion from the standpoint of research on coping in an effort to understand the ways in which people who are high in self-compassion cope with stressful events. Self-compassionate people tend to rely heavily on positive cognitive restructuring but do not appear to differ from less self-compassionate people in the degree to which they cope through problem-solving and distraction. Existing evidence does not show clear differences in the degree to which people who are low vs. high in self-compassion seek support as a coping strategy, but more research is needed. PMID:20686629

  13. Divorce Matters: Coping with Stress and Change

    MedlinePlus

    ... familiar with your sources of stress and your style of coping. Take time to think about ways ... Persons with disabilities who require alternative means for communication of program information (Braille, large print, audiotape, etc.) ...

  14. Coping with Cosmetic Effects of Cancer Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... coping with the most common cosmetic side effects. Hair Loss Hair thinning or hair loss is often one of the first real ... chemotherapy or radiation treatment. Although some kids take hair loss in stride, others find it very traumatic. ...

  15. Coping Behavior of Elderly Flood Victims.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huerta, Faye; Horton, Robert

    1978-01-01

    A study of the effects of the Teton Dam Disaster in 1976 suggests that elderly persons cope quite well with disaster situations and tend to report fewer adverse emotional effects and feelings of relative deprivation than younger victims. (Author)

  16. Coping with Stress during Infectious Disease Outbreaks

    MedlinePlus

    · Coping With Stress During Infectious Disease Outbreaks What You Should Know When you hear, read, or watch news about an outbreak ... you may feel anxious and show signs of stress. These signs of stress are normal, and may ...

  17. The Relationship of Mild Depression to Stress and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kolenc, Koleen M.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Investigated relationship of mild depression, stress, and coping based on Lazarus's model of stress and coping. Examined two coping styles (problem and emotion focused), two measures of stress, and mild depression in college students (N=227). Found mildly depressed persons relied more on emotion-focused coping and experience more stress than did…

  18. Proactive and Preventive Coping in Adjustment to College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gan, Yiqun; Hu, Yueqin; Zhang, Yiwen

    2010-01-01

    The current study compared the relative importance of proactive coping and preventive coping in the adjustment to university life among 403 freshmen at a Chinese university and evaluated the function of proactive coping in the stress process. Participants completed the Future-Oriented Coping Inventory (Gan, Yang, Zhou, & Zhang, 2007), the…

  19. Perceived Discrimination, Coping, and Quality of Life for African-American and Caucasian Persons with Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Merluzzi, Thomas V.; Philip, Errol J.; Zhang, Zhiyong; Sullivan, Courtney

    2016-01-01

    In racial disparities research, perceived discrimination is a proposed risk factor for unfavorable health outcomes. In a proposed “threshold-constraint” theory, discrimination intensity may exceed a threshold and require coping strategies, but social constraint limits coping options for African Americans, who may react to perceived racial discrimination with disengagement, because active strategies are not viable under this social constraint. Caucasian Americans may experience less discrimination and lower social constraint, and thus may use more active coping strategies. 213 African Americans and 121 Caucasian Americans with cancer participated by completing measures of mistreatment, coping, and quality of life. African Americans reported more mistreatment than Caucasian Americans (p< 001) and attributed mistreatment more to race/ethnicity (p < .001). In the mistreatment-quality of life relationship, disengagement was a significant mediator for Caucasians (B = −.39;CI .13–.83) and African Americans (B = −.20;CI .07–.43). Agentic coping was a significant mediator only for Caucasians (B = −.48;CI .18–.81). Discrimination may exceed threshold more often for African Americans than for Caucasians and social constraint may exert greater limits for African Americans. Results suggest that perceived discrimination affects quality of life for African Americans with cancer because their coping options to counter mistreatment, which is racially based, are limited. This process may also affect treatment, recovery, and survivorship. PMID:25090144

  20. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness

    PubMed Central

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of 72 Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit) using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations) as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit). Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:25699003

  1. Coping with early stage breast cancer: examining the influence of personality traits and interpersonal closeness.

    PubMed

    Saita, Emanuela; Acquati, Chiara; Kayser, Karen

    2015-01-01

    The study examines the influence of personality traits and close relationships on the coping style of women with breast cancer. A sample of 72 Italian patients receiving treatment for early stage breast cancer was recruited. Participants completed questionnaires measuring personality traits (Interpersonal Adaptation Questionnaire), interpersonal closeness (Inclusion of the Other in the Self Scale), and adjustment to cancer (Mini-Mental Adjustment to Cancer Scale). We hypothesized that diverse personality traits and degrees of closeness contribute to determine the coping styles shown by participants. Multiple regression analyses were conducted for each of the five coping styles (Helplessness/Hopelessness, Anxious Preoccupation, Avoidance, Fatalism, and Fighting Spirit) using personality traits and interpersonal closeness variables (Strength of Support Relations, and Number of Support Relations) as predictors. Women who rated high on assertiveness and social anxiety were more likely to utilize active coping strategies (Fighting Spirit). Perceived strength of relationships was predictive of using an active coping style while the number of supportive relationships did not correlate with any of the coping styles. Implications for assessment of breast cancer patients at risk for negative adaptation to the illness and the development of psychosocial interventions are discussed. PMID:25699003

  2. Cooperative Group Performance in Graduate Research Methodology Courses: The Role of Study Coping and Examination-Taking Coping Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jiao, Qun G.; Collins, Kathleen M. T.; Onwuegbuzie, Anthony J.

    2013-01-01

    This study seeks to examine the extent to which cooperative group members' levels of coping strategies (study and examination-taking coping strategies) and the degree that heterogeneity (variability of study coping strategies and examination-taking coping strategies) predict cooperative groups' levels of achievement in research…

  3. Personality and coping traits: A joint factor analysis.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Eamonn

    2001-11-01

    OBJECTIVES: The main objective of this paper is to explore the structural similarities between Eysenck's model of personality and the dimensions of the dispositional COPE. Costa et al. {Costa P., Somerfield, M., & McCrae, R. (1996). Personality and coping: A reconceptualisation. In (pp. 44-61) Handbook of coping: Theory, research and applications. New York: Wiley} suggest that personality and coping behaviour are part of a continuum based on adaptation. If this is the case, there should be structural similarities between measures of personality and coping behaviour. This is tested using a joint factor analysis of personality and coping measures. DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey. METHODS: The EPQ-R and the dispositional COPE were administered to 154 participants, and the data were analysed using joint factor analysis and bivariate associations. RESULTS: The joint factor analysis indicated that these data were best explained by a four-factor model. One factor was primarily unrelated to personality. There was a COPE-neurotic-introvert factor (NI-COPE) containing coping behaviours such as denial, a COPE-extroversion (E-COPE) factor containing behaviours such as seeking social support and a COPE-psychoticism factor (P-COPE) containing behaviours such as alcohol use. This factor pattern, especially for NI- and E-COPE, was interpreted in terms of Gray's model of personality {Gray, J. A. (1987) The psychology of fear and stress. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press}. NI-, E-, and P-COPE were shown to be related, in a theoretically consistent manner, to perceived coping success and perceived coping functions. CONCLUSIONS: The results indicate that there are indeed conceptual links between models of personality and coping. It is argued that future research should focus on identifying coping 'trait complexes'. Implications for practice are discussed. PMID:12614507

  4. Psychometric Properties of the Coping Self-Efficacy Scale Among HIV-Infected Iranian Patients

    PubMed Central

    Mahmoudi, Maryam; Shojaezadeh, Davoud; Dehdari, Tahereh; Hajizadeh, Ebrahim; Taghdisi, Mohammad Hossein; Abbasian, Ladan; Roohi, Mahdiyeh

    2015-01-01

    Background: Self-efficacy is an important predicator of coping with stress. Objectives: This study aimed to determine the psychometric characteristics of the coping self-efficacy (CSE) scale among HIV-infected Iranian patients. Patients and Methods: Psychometric properties of the CSE scale were examined by using a cross-sectional study design. One hundred and twenty HIV-infected Iranian patients that had been referred to the Counseling of Behavioral Diseases Center at Imam Khomeini Hospital in Tehran, Iran in 2014 were selected through simple random sampling method. To determine the Content Validity Index (CVI) and the content validity ratio (CVR), a panel of experts (n = 20) reviewed items of CSE scale. Reliability was estimated through the internal consistency (n = 30) and the conformity factor analysis was performed. Results: Iranian version of the CSE scale contained 16 items, including 7 items on the “use of problem-focused coping” method, 5 items on “stopping unpleasant emotions and thoughts”, and 4 items on “getting support from friends and family”. CVI and CVR scores were 0.79, 0.42 and more, respectively. Internal consistencies (range, 0.64 to 0.84) of 3 subscales were acceptable. Confirmatory factor analysis showed that comparative indices of the model, including CFI, IFI, GFI, RMSEA, and Chi-square (χ2/df) were 0.96, 0.95, 0.84, 0.83, and 1.82, respectively, which indicated a good fit for the data. Conclusions: The Iranian version of the CSE scale is a valid instrument to measure the coping self-efficacy among people living with HIV in research and community settings in Iran. PMID:25793120

  5. Empowerment and Coping Strategies in Menopause Women: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Yazdkhasti, Mansoureh; Simbar, Masoumeh; Abdi, Fatemeh

    2015-01-01

    Context: Menopause is described as a period of psychological difficulties that changes the lifestyle of women in multiple ways. Menopausal women require more information about their physical and psychosocial needs. Empowerment during the menopause can contribute to improving the perception of this stage and the importance of self-care. It is essential to increase women’s awareness and adaptation to menopause, using empowerment programs. The aim of this study was to review the empowerment and coping strategies in menopause women. Evidence Acquisition: In this review, PubMed, EMBASE, ISI, and Iranian databases were scanned for relevant literature. A comprehensive search was performed, using the combinations of the keywords "empowerment, menopause, coping with" to review relevant literature and higher education journals. Results: Most interventions for menopause women have focused on educational intervention, physical activity/exercise, healthy diet, stress management, healthy behaviors, preventing certain diseases and osteoporosis. Health education intervention strategy is one of the alternative strategies for improving women's attitudes and coping with menopause symptoms, identified as severalof the subcategories of health promotion programs. Conclusions: Empowerment of menopausal women will guarantee their health during the last third of their life. It will also help them benefit from their final years of reproductive life. The results of the present study can pave the way for future research about women’s health promotion and empowerment. PMID:26019897

  6. [Parents' coping with a diabetic child].

    PubMed

    Seppänen, S; Kyngäs, H; Nikkonen, M

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to describe and understand the process of parental coping with diabetic children in early childhood. The parental coping process was followed for a four-week period after the diagnosis of diabetes. The parents of two girls whose diabetes was diagnosed in early childhood served as study subjects. The data were collected by interviewing and observing the parents over four separate periods, first in hospital and later at home. The data were analyzed by the timeseries and content analysis methods. The main categories were formulated on the basis of coping theories. The subcategories were developed inductively from the data. Six phases of the parental coping were identified, which were named: 1). Disbelief, 2). Lack of information and Guilt, 3). Learning of Care, 4). Normalization, 5). Uncertainty and 6). Reorganization. In the different phases of parental coping the parents' experience of stress, coping strategies and sense of control varied. In the phase of Disbelief, parents tried to explain away the child's diabetes by questioning the diagnosis. The initial information given to the parents regarding their child's diabetes proved to be very important for parental coping. In the second phase of Lacking Information and Guilt, the parents sought for a reason for their child's diabetes and they felt guilty about it. As coping responses, the parents sought support from each other and from people who have undergone the same experience. In the Learning of Care phase, they recognized the demands caused by diabetes and took responsibility for the child's care. The parents responded that supervision based on their problems was the best. In the Normalization phase, the parents prepared to go home with the diabetic child. Getting back to normal life was one of the most effective parental coping responses. In the Uncertainty phase, the care to be given to the diabetic child changed the daily routines of the family. In the Reorganization phase, the

  7. The possibility of nuclear war: Appraisal, coping and emotional response

    SciTech Connect

    Kanofsky, S.

    1989-01-01

    This study used Lazarus and Folkman's (1984) model of appraisal and coping to explore people's emotional response to the possibility of nuclear war. Sixty-seven women and 49 men participated in a questionnaire study. The sample represented a cross-section of Americans by age and ethnic group but had more education and higher occupational status scores than is typical for the greater population. Sampling limitations and the political climate at the time of questionnaire administration suggested that the present findings be interpreted cautiously. Nevertheless, results suggested the importance of appraisal, defined in this study as the estimated probability of nuclear war and beliefs that citizen efforts to reduce the likelihood of nuclear war can be effective, and coping as factors in people's nuclear threat related emotional response. Six of the study's 11 hypotheses received at least partial confirmation. One or more measures of nuclear threat-related emotional distress were positively correlated with probability estimates of nuclear war, individual and collective response efficacy beliefs, and seeking social support in regard to the nuclear threat. Negative correlations were found between measures of threat-related distress and both trust in political leaders and distancing. Statistically significant relationships contrary to the other five hypotheses were also obtained. Measures of threat-related distress were positively, rather than negatively, correlated with escape avoidance and positive reappraisal coping efforts. Appraisal, coping, and emotion variables, acting together, predicted the extent of political activism regarding the nuclear arms race. It is useful to consider attitudes toward the nuclear arms race, distinguishing between intensity and frequency of emotional distress, and between measures of trait, state, and concept-specific emotionality in understanding emotional responses.

  8. Needs, Coping Strategies and Coping Outcomes Associated with Long-Distance Relationships.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holt, Paul A.; Stone, Gerald L.

    1988-01-01

    Investigated needs and coping strategies of 124 university students, five university staff, and five other persons involved in long-distance relationships. Most effective coping strategies appeared to be frequency of visits and quality of verbal communication. Results support the importance of relationship subtypes and frequent visits. (Author/NB)

  9. Sexual Coping, General Coping and Cognitive Distortions in Incarcerated Rapists and Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Feelgood, Steven; Cortoni, Franca; Thompson, Anthony

    2005-01-01

    Sexual coping, general coping and cognitive distortions were investigated in 25 rapists, 36 child molesters and 25 violent offenders. Rapists did not report more support for rape-supportive distortions than the violent offender comparison group. Child molesters scored higher than the other groups on the measure of molestation-supportive…

  10. Coping with occupational stress: the role of optimism and coping flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Reed, Daniel J

    2016-01-01

    The current study aimed at measuring whether coping flexibility is a reliable and valid construct in a UK sample and subsequently investigating the association between coping flexibility, optimism, and psychological health – measured by perceived stress and life satisfaction. A UK university undergraduate student sample (N=95) completed an online questionnaire. The study is among the first to examine the validity and reliability of the English version of a scale measuring coping flexibility in a Western population and is also the first to investigate the association between optimism and coping flexibility. The results revealed that the scale had good reliability overall; however, factor analysis revealed no support for the existing two-factor structure of the scale. Coping flexibility and optimism were found to be strongly correlated, and hierarchical regression analyses revealed that the interaction between them predicted a large proportion of the variance in both perceived stress and life satisfaction. In addition, structural equation modeling revealed that optimism completely mediated the relationship between coping flexibility and both perceived stress and life satisfaction. The findings add to the occupational stress literature to further our understanding of how optimism is important in psychological health. Furthermore, given that optimism is a personality trait, and consequently relatively stable, the study also provides preliminary support for the potential of targeting coping flexibility to improve psychological health in Western populations. These findings must be replicated, and further analyses of the English version of the Coping Flexibility Scale are needed. PMID:27186146

  11. Adolescents Coping with Poverty-Related Family Stress: Prospective Predictors of Coping and Psychological Symptoms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Berger, Lauren E.

    2006-01-01

    Examined prospective associations among poverty-related family stress, coping, involuntary stress reactivity, and psychological symptoms in a sample of 79 rural, low-income adolescents. Poverty-related family stress predicted adolescents' anxious/depressed and aggressive behavior 8 months later, controlling for prior symptoms. Coping interacted…

  12. Development and Validation of an Exploratory Measure to Assess Student Coping: The Student Coping Scale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boujut, Emile

    2013-01-01

    Students is a very specific population according to their manner to cope with stress. A coping questionnaire for students was developed and administered to 1100 French students at the beginning of the term (T1). Principal Component Analysis of responses, followed by varimax rotations, yielded three factors accounting for 50.5% of the total…

  13. Stressors and coping strategies among successful female African American baccalaureate nursing students.

    PubMed

    Kirkland, M L

    1998-01-01

    Interview and descriptive methods were used to investigate the stressors and coping strategies of academically successful African American female baccalaureate nursing students (N = 23) in the three predominantly Caucasian universities in South Carolina. The study addressed three questions: 1) What are major stressors for African American female students? 2) Which coping strategies do these students use? and 3) Which coping strategies do these students find to be most successful? Major stressors identified, both by priority and frequency of occurrence, were academic in nature, followed in descending order by environmental, financial, interpersonal, and personal stressors. Coping strategies used with the greatest regularity and success were active coping (taking action to remove or circumvent the stressor), seeking social support for instrumental reasons (seeking assistance, information, or advice about what to do from someone in a position to help), and seeking social support for emotional reasons (getting sympathy or emotional support from someone). Behavioral disengagement, denial, and alcohol-drug disengagement were reported to be unsuccessful coping strategies in the majority of instances. PMID:9476729

  14. Responsibility attribution of HIV infection and coping among injection drug users in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Chou, Chih-Chin; Chronister, Julie; Chou, Chih-Hung; Tan, Sooyin; Macewicz, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    This study explored responsibility attribution (RA) of HIV/AIDS infection (i.e., how an individual perceives the cause of their HIV/AIDS infection) and its relationship to coping styles among injection drug users (IDUs) with HIV/AIDS. In addition, this study investigated whether self-esteem, social support, and religiosity mediate the relationship between RA and coping styles of IDUs with HIV/AIDS. Participants were 201 adult IDUs with HIV/AIDS participating in the National Drug Rehabilitation Center in Malaysia. Five measures were used to assess the above constructs. Cluster analysis, analysis of variance, and mediation analyses were conducted. Results of this study indicated that IDUs with HIV/AIDS in Malaysia can be classified into four homogenous attribution groups: external, fatalistic, internal, and indeterminate. Mediator analyses revealed that combination of self-esteem, social support, and religiosity mediate the relationship between RA and coping behaviors. Clinicians working with IDUs with HIV/AIDS need to address the role of RA, self-esteem, religiosity, and social support as these psychosocial constructs are linked to coping with HIV/AIDS. Future researchers should investigate whether enhancing self-esteem, social support, and religiosity can promote active problem-solving coping and reduce the use of avoidance coping behaviors. PMID:23713718

  15. The association of personality traits and coping styles according to stress level

    PubMed Central

    Afshar, Hamid; Roohafza, Hamid Reza; Keshteli, Ammar Hassanzadeh; Mazaheri, Mina; Feizi, Awat; Adibi, Peyman

    2015-01-01

    Background: Some personality traits and coping styles could be as risk factors in stressful situations. This study aimed to investigate the association of personality traits and coping styles according to the stress level. Meterials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was performed in 2011. A total of 4628 individuals over 20 years were selected by random sampling from nonacademic employees that working in 50 different centers across Isfahan province. Data were collected using 12-item General Health Questionnaire (GHQ-12), Big Five Personality Inventory Short Form and coping strategies scale, and individuals were divided into high and low-stress groups in term of GHQ-12. To analyze the data, a binary logistic regression analysis was conducted. Results: Mean age of participants was 36.3 ± 7.91 years and 56.26% (2604) of them were female. Neuroticism with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of personality traits was a risk factor for stress level with odds ratios (OR) OR:1.24; but other personality traits were protective. Also, active coping styles were protective factors for OR of stress level with adjusting covariates of demographic characteristics and the rest of coping styles, and positive reinterpretation and growth was the most effective of coping style with OR:0.84. Conclusion: Some personality traits are associated with passive copings and cause high-stress level. So, it could be concluded that improve and strengthen effective coping strategies in individual with maladaptive traits should be considered as a crucial component of prevention and control programs of stress. PMID:26109990

  16. Soft-computing base analyses of the relationship between annoyance and coping with noise and odor.

    PubMed

    Botteldooren, Dick; Lercher, Peter

    2004-06-01

    The majority of research on annoyance as an important impact of noise, odor, and other stressors on man, has regarded the person as a passive receptor. It was however recognized that this person is an active participant trying to alter a troubled person-environment relationship or to sustain a desirable one. Coping has to be incorporated. This is of particular importance in changing exposure situations. For large populations a lot of insight can be gained by looking at average effects only. To investigate changes in annoyance and effects of coping, the individual or small group has to be studied. Then it becomes imperative to recognize the inherent vagueness in perception and human behavior. Fortunately, tools have been developed over the past decades that allow doing this in a mathematically precise way. These tools are sometimes referred to by the common label: soft-computing, hence the title of this paper. This work revealed different styles of coping both by blind clustering and by (fuzzy) logical aggregation of different actions reported in a survey. The relationship between annoyance and the intensity of coping it generates was quantified after it was recognized that the possibility for coping is created by the presence of the stressor rather than the actual fact of coping. It was further proven that refinement of this relationship is possible if a person can be identified as a coper. This personal factor can be extracted from a known reaction to one stressor and be used for predicting coping intensity and style in another situation. The effect of coping on a perceived change in annoyance is quantified by a set of fuzzy linguistic rules. This closes the loop that is responsible for at least some of the dynamics of the response to a stressor. This work thus provides all essential building blocks for designing models for annoyance in changing environments. PMID:15237822

  17. Social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms: A latent profile analysis of adolescents in military families.

    PubMed

    Okafor, Ebony; Lucier-Greer, Mallory; Mancini, Jay A

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the relationship between context-specific social stressors, coping behaviors, and depressive symptoms among adolescents in active duty military families across seven installations (three of which were in Europe) (N = 1036) using a person-centered approach and a stress process theoretical framework. Results of the exploratory latent profile analysis revealed four distinct coping profiles: Disengaged Copers, Troubled Copers, Humor-intensive Copers, and Active Copers. Multinomial logistic regressions found no relationship between military-related stressors (parental separation, frequent relocations, and parental rank) and profile membership. Analysis of variance results revealed significant and meaningful differences between the coping profiles and depressive symptomology, specifically somatic symptoms, depressive affect, positive affect, and interpersonal problems. Post-hoc analyses revealed that Active Copers, the largest profile, reported the fewest depressive symptoms. Accordingly, frequent use of diverse, active coping behaviors was associated with enhanced resilience. Discussion is provided regarding the promotion of adaptive coping behaviors within this developmental period and the context of military family life. PMID:27372508

  18. Testing of the coping flexibility hypothesis based on the dual-process theory: Relationships between coping flexibility and depressive Symptoms.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tsukasa

    2015-12-15

    According to the dual-process theory of coping flexibility (Kato, 2012), coping flexibility is the ability to discontinue an ineffective coping strategy (i.e., evaluation coping process) and implement an alternative strategy (i.e., adaptive coping process). The coping flexibility hypothesis (CFH) proposes that the ability to engage in flexible coping is related to better psychological functioning and physical health, including less depression. I the present study, participants were 393 American Whites, 429 Australian Whites, and 496 Chinese, selected from the data pool of the 2013 Coping and Health Survey (see Kato, 2014b). They completed both the Coping Flexibility Scale (Kato, 2012), which is based on the dual-process theory of coping flexibility, and the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). For all nationalities and genders, evaluation coping and adaptive coping were significantly correlated with lower levels of depressive symptoms. Structural equation modeling revealed that evaluation coping was associated with lower depressive symptoms for all nationalities and genders, whereas no significant relationships between adaptive coping and depressive symptoms were found for any nationalities. Our results partially supported that the CFH fits with the dual-process theory of coping flexibility. PMID:26342281

  19. Repressive coping style and autonomic reactions to two experimental stressors in healthy men and women.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Michael Martini; Zachariae, Robert

    2006-04-01

    Autonomic and affective responses to two different stress tasks were measured in 45 males and 74 females, categorized as repressive, true low-anxious, true high-anxious, and defensive high-anxious. Electrodermal activity (EDA) was used as a measure of sympathetic activity and the high frequency (HF) spectral component of heart rate variability as a measure of parasympathetic activity. Contrary to our predictions, reactivity of repressors did not differ from the reactivity of true low-anxious participants. The results draw attention to previous inconsistent findings within the literature on repressive coping style and autonomic nervous system dysregulation. It is suggested that future research could benefit from the use of more consistent operationalizations of the repressive coping construct and from comparing alternative measures of repressive coping within the same study. PMID:16542356

  20. Combat health care providers and resiliency: adaptive coping mechanisms during and after deployment.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Susanne W; Shafer, Michaela; Aramanda, Larry; Hickling, Edward J; Benedek, David M

    2014-05-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to understand the varied health care provider responses to traumas by identifying perceptions of control and self-efficacy, appraisal styles, and postevent coping strategies in active duty military nurses and physicians deployed to combat/terrorist regions. Twenty purposively sampled military health care providers completed a descriptive questionnaire, the Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Checklist, the General Self-Efficacy Scale, and a recorded semistructured interview that was later transcribed and content analyzed. Cognitive-behavioral determinants of healthy response to trauma were used to frame this descriptive interpretive study and to assist with developing a model for healthy adaptation in trauma-exposed health care providers. Participants felt they had the greatest control over their health care provider role in theater, and most expressed a belief that a sense of control and a sense of purpose were important to their coping. All used some form of social support to cope and many found calming activities that allowed for self-reflection to be helpful. Results from this analysis can be used to inform interventions and promote postevent coping behaviors that increase social support, strengthen important bonds, and enhance involvement in activities that elicit positive emotions. Health care providers experienced positive outcomes despite considerable traumatic exposure by using coping strategies that map closely to several principles of psychological first aid. This suggests a need to train all medical personnel in these concepts as they appear helpful in mitigating responses to the stress of combat-related exposures. PMID:23855421

  1. A mixed methods assessment of coping with pediatric cancer

    PubMed Central

    Alderfer, Melissa A.; Deatrick, Janet A.; Marsac, Meghan L.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe child coping and parent coping assistance with cancer-related stressors during treatment. Fifteen children (aged 6-12) with cancer and their parents (N = 17) completed semi-structured interviews and self-report measures to assess coping and coping assistance. Results suggest families utilized a broad array of approach and avoidance strategies to manage cancer and its treatment. Quantitative and qualitative assessments provided complementary and unique contributions to understanding coping among children with cancer and their parents. Using a mixed methods approach to assess coping provides a richer understanding of families’ experiences, which can better inform clinical practice. PMID:24428250

  2. Older adults coping with vision loss.

    PubMed

    Weber, Joseph A; Wong, Karen B

    2010-07-01

    Age-related vision loss is one of the most commonly cited disabling impairments of adult life. Stressors presented by vision loss can create barriers, threatening the well-being of the individual. This qualitative study of 30 older adults (65 to 95 years of age) investigated vision loss and coping strategies. All participants experienced unexpected sight loss during their adult years. The Adaptation to Age-Related Vision Loss (AVL) Scale was used in this study to examine psychosocial adaptation to vision impairment. The coping strategies of vision impairment were assessed by collecting self-reported reflections toward vision loss and how the change impacted the participant's life. Given the correct balance of support, confidence, and acceptance, older adults can confront the existing barriers and focus on the ability to optimize function with vision loss. Health care service providers and practitioners can provide needed assistance and a helpful guide to assist older adults in successfully coping with vision impairment. PMID:20845173

  3. Nonreligious coping and religious coping as predictors of expressed emotion in relatives of patients with schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Wasserman, Stephanie; Weisman, Amy; Suro, Giulia

    2012-01-01

    Expressed emotion (EE) is a measure of the amount of criticism and emotional over involvement expressed by a key relative towards a relative with a disorder or illness (Hooley, 2007). Research has established that living in a high EE environment, which is characterized by increased levels of critical and emotionally exaggerated communication, leads to a poorer prognosis for patients with a mental illness when compared to low EE environments. Despite evidence that EE is a strong predictor of course of illness, there continue to be questions concerning why some family members express excessive levels of high EE attitudes about their mentally ill relatives while others do not. Based on indirect evidence from previous research, the current study tested whether religious and nonreligious coping serve as predictors of EE. A sample of 72 family members of patients with schizophrenia completed an EE interview, along with questionnaires assessing situational nonreligious coping and religious coping. In line with hypotheses, results indicated that nonreligious coping predicted EE. Specifically, less use of adaptive emotion-focused coping predicted high EE. Also consistent with predictions, maladaptive religious coping predicted high EE above and beyond nonreligious coping. PMID:23393424

  4. Repressive coping style: relationships with depression, pain, and pain coping strategies in lung cancer outpatients.

    PubMed

    Prasertsri, Nusara; Holden, Janean; Keefe, Francis J; Wilkie, Diana J

    2011-02-01

    Researchers have shown that coping style is related to pain and adjustment in people with chronic illness. This study was the first to examine how coping style related to pain, pain coping strategies, and depression in lung cancer outpatients. We conducted a comparative, secondary data analysis of 107 lung cancer patients (73% male, mean age 61.4±10.43 years, 88% Caucasian). As in prior studies, we classified patients into four coping style groups based on Marlowe-Crowne Social Desirability Scale and trait anxiety scores. The coping style groups were low-anxious (n=25); high-anxious (n=31); defensive high-anxious (n=21); and repressive (n=30). Compared to other coping style groups, the repressive group reported statistically significant lower mean scores for pain quality, pain catastrophizing, and depression. Assessing coping style by measuring personal characteristics such as social desirability and trait anxiety may help clinicians to identify vulnerable individuals with lung cancer who may be candidates for early and timely intervention efforts to enhance adjustment to pain. PMID:20557973

  5. Internet Addiction and Psychosocial Maladjustment: Avoidant Coping and Coping Inflexibility as Psychological Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Cecilia; Sun, Peizhen; Mak, Kwok-Kei

    2015-09-01

    This 6 month prospective study systematically tested some multivariate models that advanced the understanding of the psychological mechanisms underlying Internet addiction and psychosocial maladjustment. On the basis of previous theories, avoidant coping and coping inflexibility were proposed as underlying mechanisms. Participants were 271 Chinese undergraduates (75% women, Mage=20.49) who took part in both phases of this study. Structural equation modeling was performed to obtain the best fit models for both the cross-sectional and the prospective data. The cross-sectional model testing revealed statistically significant mediating effects for both avoidant coping (β=0.149 [95% CI 0.071-0.226], p=0.002) and coping flexibility (β=0.048 [95% CI 0.013-0.081], p=0.032). The prospective model testing further showed that avoidant coping mediated the relationship between Internet addiction and Time 2 psychosocial maladjustment (β=0.141 [95% CI 0.065-0.216], p=0.005), as well as that between coping flexibility and Time 2 psychosocial maladjustment (β=-0.096 [95% CI -0.161 to -0.031], p=0.015). This study was the first to establish theory-driven models, which unveiled an inflexible, avoidant coping style as psychological mechanisms that explained the link between Internet addiction and psychosocial maladjustment. PMID:26348815

  6. Coping with hearing voices: an emancipatory approach.

    PubMed

    Romme, M A; Honig, A; Noorthoorn, E O; Escher, A D

    1992-07-01

    A questionnaire comprising 30 open-ended questions was sent to 450 people with chronic hallucinations of hearing voices who had responded to a request on television. Of the 254 replies, 186 could be used for analysis. It was doubtful whether 13 of these respondents were experiencing true hallucinations. Of the remaining 173 subjects, 115 reported an inability to cope with the voices. Ninety-seven respondents were in psychiatric care, and copers were significantly less often in psychiatric care (24%) than non-copers (49%). Four coping strategies were apparent: distraction, ignoring the voices, selective listening to them, and setting limits on their influence. PMID:1638338

  7. Stress coping strategies in commercial airline pilots.

    PubMed

    Sloan, S J; Cooper, C L

    1986-01-01

    The literature reveals a clear deficiency in knowledge of how aircraft pilots cope with psychosocial stress. The subject is not only of intrinsic interest, but because of the nature of the pilots' personality and their work, the subject is also relevant to other occupations. In a study of the coping strategies of 442 commercial aircraft pilots, four factors were identified: stability of relationships and home life, reason and logic, social support, and wife's involvement. Implications for the study of other occupations are also highlighted. PMID:3950782

  8. Affecting coping: does neurocognition predict approach and avoidant coping strategies within schizophrenia spectrum disorders?

    PubMed

    MacAulay, Rebecca; Cohen, Alex S

    2013-09-30

    According to various diathesis-stress models of schizophrenia, life stress plays a defining role in the onset and course of schizophrenia-spectrum disorders. In this regard, individual differences in coping strategies and affective traits, variables related to the management and experience of stress, may play a large role in susceptibility to the disorder and symptom exacerbation. Furthermore, it has been posited that cognitive deficits may limit an individuals' ability to effectively respond to stressful situations. We investigated the relationships between attention, immediate memory, trait negative affect (NA), trait positive affect (PA) and specific coping strategies within three groups: chronic schizophrenia patients (n=27), psychometrically-defined schizotypy (n=89), and schizotypy demographically-matched controls (n=26). As hypothesized affective traits displayed predictable relationships with specific coping strategies, such that NA was associated with the greater use of avoidant coping strategies within the schizophrenia and schizotypy group, while PA was associated with greater use of approach coping styles within all groups. The schizotypy group reported significantly higher levels of NA and also greater use of avoidant coping strategies than both the control and schizophrenia group. As expected group differences were found in trait affect, coping strategies, and cognitive functioning. Importantly, these group differences remained significant even when demographic variables were entered as covariates. Contrary to our expectations, cognitive functioning displayed only a few tenuous relationships with coping strategies within the schizophrenia and schizotypy groups. Overall, results support the notion that affective traits and not cognitive functioning is the best predictor of approach and avoidant coping strategies. PMID:23680466

  9. Religious Coping and Quality of LifefAmong Individuals Living With Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Nolan, Jennifer A.; McEvoy, Joseph P.; Koenig, Harold G.; Hooten, Elizabeth G.; Whetten, Kathryn; Pieper, Carl F.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This study investigated the relationship between positive and negative religious coping and quality of life among outpatients with schizophrenia. Methods Interviews were conducted with 63 adults in the southeastern United States. Religious coping was measured by the 14-item RCOPE and quality of life by the World Health Organization Quality of Life–BREF. Data were examined via descriptive bivariate statistics and controlled analyses. Results Most participants reported participation in private religious or spiritual activities (91%) and participation in public religious services or activities (68%). Positive religious coping was related to the quality-of-life facet of psychological health (r=.28, p=.03). Negative religious coping and quality of life were inversely related (r=−.30, p=.02). Positive religious coping was associated with psychological health in the reduced univariate general linear model (B=.72, p=.03, adjusted R2=.08). Conclusions Greater awareness of the importance of religion in this population may improve cultural competence in treatment and community support. PMID:23032680

  10. Optimism, Coping, and Posttraumatic Stress Severity in Women in the Childbearing Year

    PubMed Central

    Rauch, Sheila A.M.; Defever, Erin; Oetting, Stephanie; Graham-Bermann, Sandra A.; Seng, Julia S.

    2015-01-01

    PTSD symptoms in pregnancy may cause adverse effects on both mother and infant child. Identifying and addressing PTSD in pregnancy may help to alleviate the impact of PTSD on pregnancy. Optimism has been examined as a protective factor in the development of PTSD; however no study to date has looked at the relationship between optimism and PTSD in pregnant women. The current study examined the role of optimism on PTSD symptom severity, coping and somatization among women in the childbearing year. We examined data from 1581 completed interviews with nulliparous, pregnant women from the first wave telephone interview conducted as part of a longitudinal outcomes study, “Psychobiology of PTSD & Adverse Outcomes of Childbearing” (NIH NR008767; common name “the STACY project”). Four trauma exposure group cohorts (PTSD-positive, trauma-positive, non-exposed, and partial PTSD) were differentiated and two coping variables (active and avoidant) were examined. The relationships between demographics, trauma exposure groups, optimism and PTSD were examined. In addition, we examined the impact of these factors on coping and somatization. In general, the PTSD-positive group reported significantly less optimism than the trauma-positive and non-exposed groups. SES and number of reported traumas contributed to PTSD severity, as well as optimism. For those women reporting more optimism, they reported more use of active coping, less engagement in avoidant coping, and less somatization. PMID:25664143

  11. Coping with perturbations to a layout somersault in tumbling.

    PubMed

    King, M A; Yeadon, M R

    2003-07-01

    Tumbling is a dynamic movement requiring control of the linear and angular momenta generated during the approach and takeoff phases. Both of these phases are subject to some variability even when the gymnast is trying to perform a given movement repeatedly. This paper used a simulation model of tumbling takeoff to establish how well gymnasts can cope with perturbations of the approach and takeoff phases. A five segment planar simulation model with torque generators at each joint was developed to simulate tumbling takeoffs. The model was customised to an elite gymnast by determining subject specific inertia and torque parameters and a simulation was produced which closely matched a performance of a layout somersault by the gymnast. The performance of a layout somersault was found to be sensitive to the approach characteristics and the activation timings but relatively insensitive to the elasticity of the track and maximum muscle strength. Appropriate variation of the activation timings used during the takeoff phase was capable of coping with moderate perturbations of the approach characteristics. A model of aerial movement established that variation of body configuration in the flight phase was capable of adjusting for takeoff perturbations that would lead to rotation errors of up to 8%. Providing the errors in perceiving approach characteristics are less than 5% or 5 degrees and the errors in timing activations are less than 7ms, perturbations in the approach can be accommodated using adjustments during takeoff and flight. PMID:12757800

  12. How to Help a Loved One Cope with Diabetes

    MedlinePlus

    ... Language URL Español How to Help a Loved One Cope with Diabetes Page Content When people have ... learn more about managing diabetes. Ask your loved one about coping with diabetes and how you can ...

  13. Coping in Women College Students: The Influence of Experience.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cooley, Eric; Toray, Tamina

    1998-01-01

    Examines coping responses in a female college population by focusing on a common definable stressful situation experienced by all students: final exam week. Identifies the coping responses that differentiate between freshmen students and the more experienced juniors and seniors. (MKA)

  14. Komen Kids: Coping With Cancer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hill, Kelly

    1995-01-01

    This article tells the story of a 12-year old girl who started the support group Komen Kids for children with parents who have cancer. The philosophy and activities of the now national program are described. (LZ)

  15. Economic uncertainty: helping employees cope.

    PubMed

    Hughes, K H

    1993-08-01

    1. The loss or threat of losing a job may have profound physiological, psychological, and behavioral effects on employees. 2. Middle aged men deteriorate more in the first year after losing a job than younger or older men. 3. It is important that unemployed people make a commitment to purposeful activity and see work in a broader definition. 4. Parents may need reminding to praise their children more than usual and continue positive family activities and routines during times of unemployment. PMID:8397552

  16. Prognostic Value of Preoperative Coping Strategies for Pain in Patients with Residual Neuropathic Pain after Laminoplasty for Compressive Cervical Myelopathy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Study Design Single-center retrospective cohort study. Purpose To clarify the prognostic value of preoperative coping strategies for pain due to compressive cervical myelopathy. Overview of Literature Preoperative physical function, imaging and electrophysiological findings are known predictors of surgical outcomes. However, coping strategies for pain have not been considered. Methods Postoperative questionnaires, concerning health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and daily living activities, were sent to 78 patients with compressive cervical myelopathy who had suffered from neuropathic pain before laminoplasty, and been preoperatively assessed with respect to their physical and mental status and coping strategies for pain. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was performed to clarify the extent to which the patient's preoperative coping strategies could explain the variance in postoperative HRQOL and activity levels. Results Forty-two patients with residual neuropathic pain after laminoplasty were analyzed by questionnaires (28 men, 14 women; mean age, 62.7±10.2 years; symptom duration, 48.0±66.0 months). The valid response rate was 53.8%. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis showed that preoperative coping strategies, which involved coping self-statements, diverting attention, and catastrophizing, were independently associated with postoperative HRQOL and activity level, and could explain 7% to 11% of their variance. Combinations of the coping strategies for pain and upper/lower motor functions could explain 26% to 36% of the variance in postoperative HRQOL and activity level. Conclusions Preoperative coping strategies for pain are good predictors of postoperative HRQOL and activities of daily living in patients with postoperative residual neuropathic pain due to compressive cervical myelopathy. PMID:26435783

  17. Neural Correlates of Self-Focused and Other-Focused Strategies for Coping with Cigarette Cue Exposure

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, Stephen J.; Sayette, Michael A.; Fiez, Julie A.

    2013-01-01

    Brain imaging research has begun to characterize the neurocognitive processes that cigarette smokers utilize to cope with cue-elicited craving. Presently, however, it remains unclear whether distinct neural substrates support different types of coping. We sought to address this knowledge gap by examining neural responses associated with self-focused and other-focused coping techniques. Fifty-seven treatment-seeking male cigarette smokers initiated an attempt to quit smoking and subsequently underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging, during which they were asked to hold and view neutral cues and a cigarette. Participants were instructed to engage in either self-focused or other-focused coping while being presented with the cigarette and an opportunity to smoke. Those who were told to engage in self-focused coping, but not those told to utilize other-focused coping, exhibited significant activation of several regions previously implicated in self-referential processing, including the medial PFC, precuneus, and insula. In addition, coping strategy modulated the relationship between cigarette-related brain activation and self-reported craving in a subset of these regions. These findings indicate that coping strategies that entail the generation and maintenance of self-relevant information rely upon different psychological and neurobiological mechanisms than those that are not self-focused, even when the latter incorporate information that is very similar in content. Results extend previous work examining the neural substrates of coping with craving. Given the potential mnemonic and motivational advantages associated with self-related processing, findings may have significant implications for selecting and improving techniques for helping quitting smokers resist the urge to smoke. PMID:22288977

  18. Coping Skills Program for Individuals with Alcoholism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carruthers, Cynthia P.; Hood, Colleen Deyell

    2002-01-01

    Describes the development, implementation, and evaluation of a theory based coping skills program for people with alcoholism. Based on Shiffman and Wills' (1985) Stress Program Process model, it helped clients effectively respond to conditions that contributed to negative affect and create life- enhancing experiences. Evaluation involved social…

  19. Coping with Loneliness among the Terminally Ill

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami

    2007-01-01

    Loneliness is a universal phenomenon, and its pain is intensified by a diagnosis of a terminal illness. The present study is an investigation of the strategies used by patients with Multiple sclerosis (MS), by individuals diagnosed with cancer, and by the general population to cope with loneliness. Three hundred and twenty nine MS patients, 315…

  20. Process of Coping with Radiation Therapy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Jean E.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated ability of self-regulation and emotional-drive theories to explain effects of informational intervention entailing objective descriptions of experience on outcomes of coping with radiation therapy among 84 men with prostate cancer. Consistent with self-regulation theory, similarity between expectations and experience and degree of…

  1. Children of Torture Victims: Reactions and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Montgomery, Edith; And Others

    1992-01-01

    Evaluation of 11 children from 5 exile families with at least 1 parent having been subjected to torture found children were anxious, depressive, and regressive with psychosomatic symptoms, sleep disorders, and family and school problems. Coping strategies including isolation and withdrawal, mental flight, eagerness to acclimatize, and strength of…

  2. Adolescents Coping with Stress: Development and Diversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zimmer-Gembeck, Melanie J.; Skinner, Ellen A.

    2008-01-01

    This article summarizes what is known about stress, stress reactions, and coping among adolescents. Throughout, it focuses on typical developmental patterns by highlighting the emerging experiences of adolescents and how they differ from children and adults. It also briefly discusses differences between individuals, boys and girls, and…

  3. Coping Strategies of Farm and Ranch Men.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Light, Harriet K.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Among 258 Midwestern male farmers and ranchers (average age 49), 87 percent coped with problems and difficulties by having faith in God. Respondents generally were reluctant to accept help from professionals, neighbors, or relatives, and were confident in their own abilities to solve their difficulties independently. Contains 22 references.…

  4. Working Together: Coping with College Politics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reisser, Linda

    Suggestions are made for creating healthy working relationships within a college administration and for improving the administrator's ability to cope with college politics. After introductory material examining the difficulty some educators, especially women, experience in utilizing power and politics to achieve desired goals, the report discusses…

  5. Coping and Mental Health in Early Adolescence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plancherel, Bernard; Bolognini, Monique

    1995-01-01

    Focused on mental health and protective factors in early adolescence. Significant relations between coping strategies and mental health were found, which are different according to gender: girls invest in more social relations, negative feelings, and consumption habits; boys often use sense of humor, or practice a hobby or sport. (JBJ)

  6. Coping & Caring: Living with Alzheimer's Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leroux, Charles

    This guide on Alzheimer's disease is for those who care for Alzheimer's patients, as well as those who want to learn more about the disease. It answers these questions: (1) what is Alzheimer's? (2) how does the disease progress and how long does it last? (3) how do families cope? and (4) who can provide assistance and information? The guide also…

  7. AAMC Speaks on Coping with Fraud.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Culliton, Barbara J.

    1982-01-01

    In wake of a number of highly publicized incidents of research fraud at some of the nation's most prestigious medical schools, the Association of American Medical Colleges (AAMC) has developed guidelines for coping with dishonesty in science. Highlights of these guidelines are reviewed. (Author/JN)

  8. Coping with Anger--Yours, Your Child's.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caruso, Saf Lerman

    1989-01-01

    Children's feelings of anger, jealousy, and even hatred need to be acknowledged and accepted by parents. This article suggests methods for teaching acceptable ways to express strong feelings. Because parents are role models for children, guidelines are also provided for parents on coping with their own anger. (IAH)

  9. Coping with Loneliness: Young Adult Drug Users.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami; Orzeck, Tricia

    Since there appears to be a connection between substance use (and abuse) and loneliness it is of theoretical and clinical interest to explore the differences of coping with loneliness which drug users employ. The present study examined the manner in which MDMA (Ecstasy) users in comparison with non-MDMA (Non-Ecstasy) users and the general…

  10. Healing Art: Young Children Coping With Stress.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hale, Judy Ann

    Helping young children to cope with stress plays a vital role in today's classroom. It is normal for children to experience stress, which comes from pressures such as family, friends, and school. Some of the indicators of stress in young children are behavioral changes (e.g., mood swings, changes in sleep patterns, and incontinence) and physical…

  11. Coping with the Experience of Rape

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Littleton, Heather; Breitkopf, Carmen Radecki

    2006-01-01

    The coping strategies that a victim of a rape engages in can have a strong impact on the development and persistence of psychological symptoms. Research provides evidence that victims who rely heavily on avoidance strategies, such as suppression, are less likely to recover successfully than those who rely less heavily on these strategies. The…

  12. Emotional and Cognitive Coping in Relationship Dissolution

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wrape, Elizabeth R.; Jenkins, Sharon Rae; Callahan, Jennifer L.; Nowlin, Rachel B.

    2016-01-01

    Dissolution of a romantic relationship can adversely affect functioning among college students and represents one primary reason for seeking campus counseling. This study examined the associations among common coping strategies and distress following relationship dissolution. Avoidance and repetitive negative thinking (RNT) were significantly…

  13. Stress in College Athletics: Causes, Consequences, Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Humphrey, James H.; Yow, Deborah A.; Bowden, William W.

    This book addresses the causes and consequences of stress in college sports and offers effective coping mechanisms to help individuals understand and control stressors and emotions in their environment. The chapters are: (1) "Understanding Stress"; (2) "Perceptions of Stress in College Athletics"; (3) "Stress among College Athletes"; (4) "Stress…

  14. Adolescent Coping with Poverty-Related Stress

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wadsworth, Martha E.; Wolff, Brian; Santiago, Catherine DeCarlo; Moran, Erica G.

    2008-01-01

    Adolescents living in poverty face numerous stressors that are toxic for their mental health and well-being. There are effective strategies for coping with poverty-related stress that have been shown to reduce psychological symptoms in the face of this stress. However, stress itself weakens an adolescent's ability to use these cognitively…

  15. Coping Mechanisms of Part-Time Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yum, Jessie C. K.; Kember, David; Siaw, Irene

    2005-01-01

    A characteristic shared by the majority of adult students is that they are undertaking part-time study. For these adult learners one of the major difficulties is how to find time for their study. This paper reports the coping mechanisms that part-time adult students adopt to meet the additional demands that study puts on their existing commitments…

  16. Integrating Coping Behavior in Family Stress Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCubbin, Hamilton I.

    1979-01-01

    Reveals the tripartite aspect of coping behavior in the face of family separation: the management of family stability and individual anxiety; the procurement of social support from community, interpersonal relationships, and extended family; and direct attack on the stressor event through individual and collective family efforts. (Author/BEF)

  17. Cognitive Coping in Anxiety-Disordered Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Legerstee, Jeroen S.; Garnefski, Nadia; Verhulst, Frank C.; Utens, Elisabeth M. W. J.

    2011-01-01

    The present study investigated differences in cognitive coping strategies between anxiety-disordered and non-anxious adolescents. In addition, the interaction effect with gender as well as differences between specific anxiety diagnoses was examined. A clinical sample of 159 anxiety-disordered adolescents and a general community sample of 370…

  18. Relapse Crises and Coping among Dieters.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grilo, Carlos M.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined situational antecedents of dieting relapse crises and dieters'attempts to cope with temptations to overeat among obese type II diabetics (N=57). Found three categories of relapse crises: mealtime, low-arousal, and emotional upset situations. Found upset situations most frequently produced negative outcome while strong cognitive and…

  19. Strengths for Coping with Family Conflict

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jamie C.

    2005-01-01

    Maltreatment in the family occurs through a variety of forms of abuse and neglect. These risks are particularly prevalent in families with parents who abuse substances. The author describes connections between parental addiction and coping behaviors used by the children in these high-risk families. Strength-based strategies enable these youth to…

  20. Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort, and Anxiety

    MedlinePlus

    ... services. Advertising & Sponsorship: Policy | Opportunities PLEASE NOTE: Your web browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Unless you enable Javascript , your ability to navigate and access the features of this website will ... Coping with Test Pain, Discomfort, and Anxiety Share this page: Was ...

  1. Working Lesbians: Role Conflicts and Coping Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shachar, Sandra A.; Gilbert, Lucia A.

    1983-01-01

    Investigated interrole and intrarole conflict reported by lesbian working women (N=79) and factors influencing the types of coping strategies these women used. Responses to a questionnaire showed most interrole conflicts were between the work and lover roles, and intrarole conflicts involved the work and daughter roles. (Author/JAC)

  2. Coping with Your Loss and Grief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Univ., Corvallis. Cooperative Extension Service.

    This guide offers advice to help people cope with a variety of losses, including losses associated with divorce, retirement, relocation, disability, or illness, and the loss of a pet, financial security, independence, or control and decision making. It discusses what one can expect when one suffers a loss and how to handle grief. Common reactions…

  3. Social Coping of Gifted and LGBTQ Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hutcheson, Virginia H.; Tieso, Carol L.

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study used critical ethnography as a theoretical framework to investigate the social coping strategies of gifted and lesbian, gay, bisexual, transgender, and queer (LGBTQ) students in middle and high school. Twelve LGBTQ college students from a selective Southeastern university were interviewed and asked to retrospectively…

  4. GROUP ASPIRATIONS AND GROUP COPING BEHAVIOR.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MEDOW, HERMAN; ZANDER, ALVIN

    THIS RESEARCH PROJECT WAS CONCERNED WITH THE EFFECTS OF CERTAIN INTERNAL AND EXTERNAL CONDITIONS UPON THE SELECTION OF A GROUP'S LEVEL OF ASPIRATION AND THE EFFECTS OF THESE CONDITIONS ON MEMBERS' COPING BEHAVIOR. SEVEN EXPERIMENTS WERE DESIGNED WHICH UTILIZED MALE HIGH SCHOOL STUDENTS OF SUBURBAN SCHOOLS AS SUBJECTS. RESULTS OBTAINED FROM THE…

  5. Coping With Pain: Studies in Stress Inoculation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horan, John J.; And Others

    The stress-inoculation paradigm for helping clients deal with pain consists of education about the psychological dimensions of pain, training in a number of coping skills relevant to each dimension, and practice in applying these skills to the noxious stimulus. Presented are two studies, the first of which represents a component analysis of stress…

  6. Coping with uncertainties of mercury regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Reich, K.

    2006-09-15

    The thermometer is rising as coal-fired plants cope with the uncertainties of mercury regulation. The paper deals with a diagnosis and a suggested cure. It describes the state of mercury emission rules in the different US states, many of which had laws or rules in place before the Clean Air Mercury Rule (CAMR) was promulgated.

  7. Drug Withdrawal and Coping with Loneliness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rokach, Ami

    2005-01-01

    Loneliness is a prevailing experience which is particularly familiar to adolescents and young adults. It is a subjective experience which is influenced by one's personality, life experiences, and situational variables. The present study examined the influence of drug cessation on coping with loneliness. Drug abusers, during their stay in detox…

  8. Suppressor Effects of Coping Strategies on Resilience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yoon, Jae ho; Lee, Ji hae; Lee, Chae Yeon; Cho, Minhee; Lee, Sang Min

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the current study is to demonstrate a significant suppressor effect among coping strategies on resilience. Two different samples were used to replicate the suppressor effect. Participants in the first example were 391 adolescents (middle school students) in Korea, and participants in the second example were 282 young adults…

  9. Attributions and Coping Styles in Reducing Victimization

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shelley, Danielle; Craig, Wendy M.

    2010-01-01

    To examine the role of attributions and coping on children's victimization over time, 220 children completed questionnaires twice over a 6-month period. Direct and mediational models were tested using regressions, cross-sectionally and longitudinally. Characterological self-blame was positively related to victimization within and across time for…

  10. ‘Elastic band strategy’: women's lived experiences of coping with domestic violence in rural Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Hayati, Elli Nur; Eriksson, Malin; Hakimi, Mohammad; Högberg, Ulf; Emmelin, Maria

    2013-01-01

    Background Experiencing domestic violence is considered a chronic and stressful life event. A theoretical framework of coping strategies can be used to understand how women deal with domestic violence. Traditional values strongly influenced by religious teachings that interpret men as the leaders of women play an important role in the lives of Javanese women, where women are obliged to obey their husbands. Little is known about how sociocultural and psychosocial contexts influence the ways in which women cope with domestic violence. Objective Our study aimed to deepen our understanding of how rural Javanese women cope with domestic violence. Our objective was to explore how the sociocultural context influences coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence in rural Purworejo. Design A phenomenological approach was used to transform lived experiences into textual expressions of the coping dynamics of women survivors of domestic violence. Results Experiencing chronic violence ruined the women's personal lives because of the associated physical, mental, psychosocial, and financial impairments. These chronic stressors led women to access external and internal resources to form coping strategies. Both external and internal factors prompted conflicting impulses to seek support, that is, to escape versus remain in the relationship. This strong tension led to a coping strategy that implied a long-term process of moving between actively opposing the violence and surrendering or tolerating the situation, resembling an elastic band that stretches in and out. Conclusions Women survivors in Purworejo face a lack of institutional support and tend to have traditional beliefs that hamper their potential to stop the abuse. Although the women in this study were educated and economically independent, they still had difficulty mobilizing internal and external support to end the abuse, partly due to internalized gender norms. PMID:23336615

  11. Burnout and Coping Strategies in Male Staff from National Police in Valparaíso, Chile

    PubMed Central

    BRIONES MELLA, Daniel; KINKEAD BOUTIN, Ana P.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Background This cross-sectional study aimed to examine the relationship between several dimensions of the burnout syndrome with certain stress-coping strategies, seniority level and marital status in male staff from National Police in Vaparaíso, Chile. Methods The sample collected in 2010 was composed of 338 male officers coming from various special units of a National Police in Valparaíso. Burnout and Coping Strategies were assessed and classified according Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and COPE Inventory, respectively. Data was analyzed using Pearson product-moment correlation, t-test for independent measures and Multiple Linear Regression to generate a predictive model. Results The prevalence of the burnout syndrome disaggregated by grouping criteria, the dimensions concentrated in middle levels for emotional exhaustion with a 52.1%, a 51.8% for depersonalization and finally, personal achievement with a 48.8%. Only 28% of participants showed more exacerbated dimensions of the burnout syndrome. There was a weak and direct yet statistically significant relationship between personal achievement and active coping. Mental disconnection had a weak direct relationship between both coping strategies and emotional exhaustion also existed. Certain correlations between burnout dimensions and coping strategies focused on emotion as predictor variables over the criterion variable corresponding to emotional exhaustion were mental disconnection in first place, secondly, focusing on emotions, and emotional social support. Conclusions Burnout dimensions scored medium values ​​focusing mainly on emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment. Coping strategies are used in parallel and in general are not mutually exclusive. Finally, there were not any relationship between variables seniority level and marital status. PMID:26060656

  12. The Interrelationships of Coping Styles and Professional Burnout Among Physiotherapists: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Nowakowska-Domagala, Katarzyna; Jablkowska-Górecka, Karolina; Kostrzanowska-Jarmakowska, Lilianna; Mortoń, Marta; Stecz, Patryk

    2015-06-01

    Burnout is a pathological syndrome in which emotional exhaustion (EE), depersonalization (DEP), and a reduced sense of personal accomplishment (PA) develop in response to prolonged occupational stress. Those working in the physiotherapy profession appear to be at risk for professional burnout brought on by the specific character of the medical professions, involving continuous contact with patients and associated stress, as well as poor working conditions. However, literature data concerning the scale of professional burnout and its psychosocial correlates remain scarce. The aim of the present study was to assess the scale of professional burnout among physiotherapists and to determine the interrelationships between coping styles and burnout symptoms. The sample consisted of 117 professionally active physiotherapists (90 women and 27 men) aged 21 to 55 years (mean [M] 31.88, standard deviation [SD] = 9.14, responsiveness rate of 80.6%) from randomly selected medical institutions of the Lodz Region. The study was conducted using the Maslach Burnout Inventory (MBI) and Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) by Endler and Parker. Demographic and job-related data on the respondents were also collected. Task-oriented coping correlated negatively with DEP, EE, and low PA, in contrast to emotion-oriented coping. No correlation was found between avoidance-oriented coping and burnout symptoms. Similarly, no interactive correlations between coping styles and particular burnout symptoms were confirmed. Coping styles correlate independently with professional burnout, without any mutual correlations. Physiotherapists employing a wider spectrum of task-oriented strategies are slightly more satisfied with their job. The incidence of burnout syndrome in the analyzed group is similar to that observed in other medical professions and requires the adoption of preventive measures. PMID:26091455

  13. Coping strategies as psychological risk factor for antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression among Greek women.

    PubMed

    Gourounti, Kleanthi; Anagnostopoulos, Fotios; Lykeridou, Katerina

    2013-10-01

    A range of psychosocial, medical, and demographic variables may influence pregnant women's psychological status. However the association between coping strategies, anxiety, worries, and depression during pregnancy is a relatively neglected area of research. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the relationship between coping strategies, antenatal anxiety, pregnancy worries, and depressive symptomatology after controlling for the effects of background variables. The study sample consisted of 163 pregnant women, with gestational age ranging from 11 to 26 weeks, attending antenatal screening at a Greek public hospital. Coping strategies were measured with Brief COPE, pregnancy worries were measured with Cambridge Worry Scale (CWS), anxiety was assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-X version), and depression was measured with Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression scale (CES-D). Pearson's correlation coefficients were calculated among all study variables, followed by hierarchical multiple linear regression. In the univariate analysis, low annual income, unemployment, conception after an IVF treatment, and a previous history of miscarriage were associated with anxiety, depression, and worries. Additionally, almost all coping strategies (denial, behavioral disengagement, self-blame, self-distraction, substance use, acceptance, positive reframing, active coping, and seeking emotional support) were significantly associated with antenatal anxiety, worries, and depression. Linear regression analysis showed that only previous history of miscarriage, conception after IVF, as well as denial, behavioral disengagement and acceptance coping strategies were significantly related to anxiety, worries and depressive symptomatology. The risk factors found in this study could help clinicians target anxiety and depression screening to high-risk populations of pregnant women. Provision of adequate training for obstetricians and midwives in the detection and

  14. Restoring integrity—A grounded theory of coping with a fast track surgery programme

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, Lene Bastrup; Fridlund, Bengt

    2016-01-01

    Aims and objectives The aim of this study was to generate a theory conceptualizing and explaining behavioural processes involved in coping in order to identify the predominant coping types and coping type-specific features. Background Patients undergoing fast track procedures do not experience a higher risk of complications, readmission, or mortality. However, such programmes presuppose an increasing degree of patient involvement, placing high educational, physical, and mental demands on the patients. There is a lack of knowledge about how patients understand and cope with fast track programmes. Design The study design used classical grounded theory. Methods The study used a multimodal approach with qualitative and quantitative data sets from 14 patients. Results Four predominant types of coping, with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features, existed among patients going through a fast track total hip replacement programme. These patients’ main concern was to restore their physical and psychosocial integrity, which had been compromised by reduced function and mobility in daily life. To restore integrity they economized their mental resources, while striving to fulfil the expectations of the fast track programme. This goal was achieved by being mentally proactive and physically active. Three out of the four predominant types of coping matched the expectations expressed in the fast track programme. The non-matching behaviour was seen among the most nervous patients, who claimed the right to diverge from the programme. Conclusion In theory, four predominant types of coping with distinct physiological, cognitive, affective, and psychosocial features occur among patients going through a fast track total hip arthroplasty programme. PMID:26751199

  15. Coping and Late-Deafness: An Examination of Two Measures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meyer, Jill M.; Kashubeck-West, Susan

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the psychometric properties of two measures of coping in a sample of individuals with acquired hearing loss, specifically late-deafness. Methods: Using a quantitative descriptive design, coping of participants (N = 277) with late-deafness was measured to examine the reliability and validity of the Ways of Coping Questionnaire…

  16. Coping Styles in Youths with Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Cindy L.; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Evaluated relationships between two coping styles and two health outcomes in 135 youth with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). Found that poor adherence to treatment, older adolescent age, and long duration of IDDM correlated with ventilation and avoidance coping. High ventilation and avoidance coping was predicted by high stress, low…

  17. Coping with Boredom in School: An Experience Sampling Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nett, Ulrike E.; Goetz, Thomas; Hall, Nathan C.

    2011-01-01

    The present study explored students' use of boredom-related coping strategies at trait and state levels. Two trait-based dimensions of coping relevant to boredom were considered, namely approach--versus avoidance-oriented and cognitively--versus behaviorally-oriented coping strategies. The two dimensions were assessed in a self-report…

  18. The Role of Spirituality in Coping with Visual Impairment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yampolsky, Maya A.; Wittich, Walter; Webb, Gail; Overbury, Olga

    2008-01-01

    Spirituality and coping behaviors were measured in 85 individuals with visual impairments aged 23 to 97. A regression analysis indicated that the religious well-being subscale of the Spiritual Well-Being Scale is a significant predictor of adaptive coping behaviors, indicating that higher religious well-being facilitates adaptive coping. (Contains…

  19. Dyadic Coping and Interpersonal Trust in Student-Teacher Interactions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schwarzer, Christine; Buchwald, Petra

    A longitudinal study was undertaken to determine whether interpersonal competence of teachers and students was related to coping strategies of students during an oral examination. The main research question was to find out whether expected supportive dyadic coping, the wish to delegate coping and interpersonal trust, assessed 8 weeks before an…

  20. Coping Strategies for Living in Student Residential Facilities in Nigeria

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amole, Dolapo

    2005-01-01

    This article examines coping strategies used by students in high-density living. It uses the questionnaire survey method in 20 university halls-of-residence in southwestern Nigeria. The study focused on students' cognitive responses to the bedroom, the coping strategies that they used, gender differences in coping styles, and the influence of…

  1. Coping Styles among Mothers of Adults with Mental Retardation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Krauss, Marty Wyngaarden

    This paper describes the use of various coping strategies of mothers of adult children with mental retardation, and examines whether there is a relation between specific styles of coping and maternal characteristics and personal well-being. A group of 349 mothers completed the "Coping Orientations to Problems Experienced" scale. On average,…

  2. Religious Coping in Families of Children with Autism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarakeshwar, Nalini; Pargament, Kenneth I.

    2001-01-01

    This study assessed the role of religion in the coping of 45 parents of children with autism. All parents completed a questionnaire and 21 parents were interviewed. Positive religious coping was associated with better religious outcome and greater stress-related growth, whereas negative religious coping was associated with greater depressive…

  3. Bugen's Coping with Death Scale: Reliability and Further Validation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Rosemary A.

    1991-01-01

    Tested Bugen's Coping with Death Scale. Individuals who had written wills, planned estates and funerals, and signed organ donor cards scored higher on the Coping with Death Scale. Because Coping with Death scores were more consistently different in those who prepared for death, this scale may help in efforts to predict those who will engage in…

  4. Changes in Coping Following Treatment for Child Molesters

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Serran, Geris A.; Moulden, Heather; Firestone, Philip; Marshall, W. L.

    2007-01-01

    Relapse prevention theory assumes that specific coping skills deficits contribute to sexual reoffending. Recent research suggests that the general coping style of sexual offenders is also ineffective. In this study changes were examined in specific and general coping deficits following a treatment program that incorporated specific skills training…

  5. Future-Oriented Coping and Job Hunting among College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hu, Yueqin; Gan, Yiqun

    2011-01-01

    Using a sample of Chinese college students (n = 216), the present study showed that future-oriented coping negatively correlated with perceived pressure and positively correlated with successful job hunting. The relationship between proactive coping and preventive coping was also explored. Structural equation modeling suggested that a sequence…

  6. Coping with Stress in a Family with an Alcoholic Parent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Easley, Margaret J.; Epstein, Norman

    1991-01-01

    Investigated the degree to which current alcohol abuse and psychopathology in adult children of alcoholics (COAs) are associated with the COAs' reports of family disruption, family coping, and individual child coping when the child lived with the parent. Family disruption and coping strategies were found to influence the subsequent adult…

  7. Validation of the English Version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levesque, Christine; Lafontaine, Marie-France; Caron, Angela; Fitzpatrick, Josée

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the English version of the original German Dyadic Coping Inventory. Results indicated that the English version of the Dyadic Coping Inventory is a valid and reliable measure of dyadic coping in a sample of 709 heterosexual university students.

  8. Assessing the Process of Marital Adaptation: The Marital Coping Inventory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zborowski, Lydia L.; Berman, William H.

    Studies on coping with life events identify marriage as a distinct situational stressor, in which a wide range of coping strategies specific to the marital relationship are employed. This study examined the process of martial adaptation, identified as a style of coping, in 116 married volunteers. Subjects completed a demographic questionnaire, the…

  9. Coping zone construction and mapping: an exploratory study of contextual coping, PTSD, and childhood violence exposure in urban areas.

    PubMed

    Sloan-Power, Elizabeth M; Boxer, Paul; McGuirl, Colleen; Church, Ruslana

    2013-06-01

    This mixed-method study explored how urban children aged 11 to 14 cope with multicontextual violence exposures simultaneously and analyzed the immediate action steps these children took when faced with such violence over time. Participants' (N = 12) narratives were initially analyzed utilizing a grounded theory framework as 68 violent incidents were coded for perceived threat and coping levels. Coping strategies were examined from a Transactional Model of Stress and Coping perspective taking into account the context and severity of each violent exposure itself. A comprehensive assessment map was developed to plot and visually reveal participants (N = 12) overall contextualized coping responses. Overall "coping zone" scores were generated to index perceived threat and coping responses associated with each violent incident described. These scores were then correlated with indicators of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results indicated that urban children with less optimal coping zone scores across context have a greater likelihood of PTSD than do children who do not. PMID:23266997

  10. Coping skills of olympic developmental soccer athletes.

    PubMed

    Meyers, M C; Stewart, C C; Laurent, C M; Leunes, A D; Bourgeois, A E

    2008-12-01

    Athletes at Olympic Developmental Program (ODP) camps experience unusually high levels of expectations and inherent mental and physical challenges within such a short span of time. With the increasing emphasis on talent development, there has been consensus by the ODP staff to more clearly define present levels of coping skills, in order to enhance athletic prediction, maximize training efforts, identify the predisposition to injury, and focus on areas pertinent to successful performance. This study examined athletic and pain coping skills of U. S. ODP soccer athletes not previously investigated. Following written informed consent, 70 males completed the Athletic Coping Skills Inventory and the Sports Inventory for Pain. Data were analyzed by competitive level (U-14, U-15), and skill position (goalkeeper/defense, midfield/foward). MANOVA indicated a significant main effect across competitive level (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 2.27; p = 0.02; n-beta = 0.915) but no significant effect by skill position (Wilks' Lambda F(12,57) = 0.931; p = 0.523; n-beta = 0.457). Post hoc analyses indicated that U-15 athletes scored significantly higher in concentration (p = 0.01) and body awareness (p = 0.03), but lower in avoidance (p = 0.01) than U-14 competitors. In conclusion, older, more experienced athletes revealed more positive athletic and pain coping skills than younger, less experienced athletes, although athletes in skill positions requiring spontaneous decision-making skills and split-second adjustment in a constantly changing sport environment (forwards, midfielders) did not exhibit more positive athletic and pain coping skills than those positions requiring reaction and protection (defenders, goalkeepers). PMID:18548363

  11. Relations of SARS-related stressors and coping to Chinese college students' psychological adjustment during the 2003 Beijing SARS epidemic.

    PubMed

    Main, Alexandra; Zhou, Qing; Ma, Yue; Luecken, Linda J; Liu, Xin

    2011-07-01

    This study examined the main and interactive relations of stressors and coping related to severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) with Chinese college students' psychological adjustment (psychological symptoms, perceived general health, and life satisfaction) during the 2003 Beijing SARS epidemic. All the constructs were assessed by self-report in an anonymous survey during the final period of the outbreak. Results showed that the relations of stressors and coping to psychological adjustment varied by domain of adjustment. Regression analyses suggested that the number of stressors and use of avoidant coping strategies positively predicted psychological symptoms. Active coping positively predicted life satisfaction when controlling for stressors. Moreover, all types of coping served as a buffer against the negative impact of stressors on perceived general health. These findings hold implications for university counseling services during times of acute, large-scale stressors. In particular, effective screening procedures should be developed to identify students who experience a large number of stressors and thus are at high risk for developing mental health problems. Intervention efforts that target coping should be adapted to take account of the uncontrollability of stressors and clients' cultural preferences for certain coping strategies. A multidimensional battery of psychological adjustment should be used to monitor clients' psychological adjustment to stressors and evaluate the efficacy of intervention. PMID:21574694

  12. Evaluations of the quality of coping reported by prisoners who have self-harmed and those who have not.

    PubMed

    Dear, G E; Slattery, J L; Hillan, R J

    2001-01-01

    Yufit and Bongar (1992) argued that a deficiency in coping skills is an important risk factor for suicidal behavior. Dear, Thomson, Hall, and Howells (1998) found that prisoners who had self-harmed in the past 3 days were less likely than a comparison group to have used problem-solving or active cognitive coping strategies to handle the most significant stressor of the past week, but it was not clear whether this represented a difference in the quality of coping responses used. In this study, three groups of blind raters (prisoners, prison officers, and forensic psychologists) rated the coping responses of the participants in Dear et al.'s study. The coping responses of self-harmers were judged less beneficial and more risky. Problem-solving strategies were most often cited as contributing to beneficial outcomes and the catharsis strategies employed by self-harmers were most often judged to be counterproductive. It remains unclear whether prisoners who self-harmed routinely employ poor quality coping strategies or if they simply used poor quality coping on this occasion. PMID:11775719

  13. Parenting with bipolar disorder: coping with risk of mood disorders to children.

    PubMed

    Peay, Holly Landrum; Rosenstein, Donald L; Biesecker, Barbara Bowles

    2014-03-01

    Children of individuals with bipolar disorder (BPD) have increased risk for mood disorders and other adverse psychosocial outcomes due to genetic and environmental risk. Though parents with BPD are aware of increased risk to children, little is known about efforts undertaken in response or their perceived utility. Among parents who self-report with BPD, this study identifies key variables associated with parental coping with children's risk of mood disorders; and explores the relationship between monitoring children's moods and perceived coping efficacy. In this U.S. study, active parental coping with, and cognitive distancing from, child's risk were measured using novel scales. Parents (n = 266) who self-identified as having BPD completed a web-based survey. They had at least one unaffected child. Most participants endorsed monitoring their children's moods. Monitoring was associated with increased perceived control over the child's well-being (p < 0.005), but not feeling less worried. Active parental coping with risk to children was positively associated with active coping with own illness (β = 0.25, p = 0.001), family history (β = 0.24, p = 0.001), and self-report of current depression (β = 0.16, p = 0.037), explaining 13.8% of the variance (F = 8.81, p < 0.001). Cognitive distancing from the child's risk was positively associated with confidence in diagnosis (β = 0.25, p = 0.001), and negatively associated with self-report of current mania (β = -0.19, p = 0.007), perceiving BPD as genetic (β = -0.26, p < 0.001) and having more children (β = -0.20, p = 0.004); explaining 16.2% of the variance (F = 8.63, p < 0.001). Parents' adaptation to their own BPD was modestly correlated with active coping with child's risk (r = 0.15, p < 0.05) but not with cognitive distancing. The findings support the importance of understanding causal attributions and the value of genetic education and counseling for parents with BPD

  14. Inflammatory factors mediate vulnerability to a social stress-induced depressive-like phenotype in passive coping rats

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Susan K.; Wood, Christopher S.; Lombard, Calliandra M.; Lee, Catherine S.; Zhang, Xiao-Yan; Finnell, Julie E.; Valentino, Rita J.

    2014-01-01

    Background Coping strategy impacts susceptibility to psychosocial stress. The locus coeruleus (LC) and dorsal raphe (DR) are monoamine nuclei that are implicated in stress-related disorders. This study was designed to identify genes in these nuclei that distinguish active and passive coping strategies in response to social stress. Methods Rats were exposed to repeated resident-intruder stress and coping strategy determined. Gene and protein expression in the LC and DR were determined by PCR array, ELISA, and compared between active and passive stress coping and unstressed rats. The effect of daily IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra, ICV) prior to stress on anhedonia was also determined. Results Rats exhibited passive or active coping strategies based on a short (SL) or longer latency (LL) to assume a defeat posture, respectively. Stress differentially regulated 19 and 26 genes in the LC and DR of SL and LL rats, respectively, many of which encoded for inflammatory factors. Notably, IL1β was increased in SL and decreased in LL rats in both the LC and DR. Protein changes were generally consistent with a proinflammatory response to stress in SL rats selectively. Stress produced anhedonia selectively in SL rats and this was prevented by IL-1ra, consistent with a role for IL1β in stress vulnerability. Conclusions This study highlighted distinctions in gene expression related to coping strategy in response to social stress. Passive coping was associated with a bias towards pro-inflammatory processes, particularly IL1β, whereas active coping and resistance to stress-related pathology was associated with suppression of inflammatory processes. PMID:25676490

  15. LLNL data collection during NOAA/ETL COPE experiment

    SciTech Connect

    Mantrom, D.D.

    1995-09-06

    COPE is the acronym for the Coastal Ocean Probe Experiment, to be conducted by NOAA/ETL off the northern Oregon coast in September--October 1995. In general terms, ETL desires to collect data on how various types of microwave sensors including radar would respond to internal wave-induced modulations to the ocean surface, and what effects propagation through the atmosphere might have on the data collected. In COPE, ETL will field a broad suite of microwave sensors, and a variety of sea-truth and atmospheric-truth instruments. These will include a land-based, high power, X and Ka-band real aperture radar (RAR) located atop a 3,000 ft high coastal peak, various water column, surface wave, air-sea interface, and atmospheric sensors on the FLIP measurement platform to be moored approximately 15 miles offshore, various active and passive microwave devices onboard a blimp which will fly at 6,000--8,000 ft altitude, two ground-based CODARs that measure large-scale surface currents, various wind profilers, and others. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory`s Imaging and Detection Program will take advantage of this unique site and opportunity to collect imagery with the radar that will be well ground-truthed with subsurface, surface, and above-water environmental data and possibly be compared to radar image data collected simultaneously or nearly simultaneously with another radar. Specifically, the authors are planning to conduct a short data collection with their Airborne Experimental Test Bed (AETB) jet aircraft-based X-band, HH-polarization synthetic aperture radar (SAR) as a piggyback to the planned COPE operation.

  16. Primary and Secondary Control among Children Undergoing Medical Procedures: Adjustment as a Function of Coping Style.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weisz, John R.; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Obtained reports of coping and goals from 33 children being treated for leukemia. Coping strategies were classified as primary control coping (attempts to alter objective conditions), secondary control coping (attempts to adjust to objective conditions), or relinquished control (no attempt to cope). Secondary control coping was positively…

  17. Cultural adaptation of the Brief COPE for persons living with HIV/AIDS in southern India.

    PubMed

    Mohanraj, Rani; Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Kumar, Shuba; Mani, Thenmozhi; Rao, Deepa; Murray, Katherine R; Manhart, Lisa E

    2015-02-01

    Physical and psychological stressors of HIV infection demand adequate coping responses from persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and coping strategies may vary by cultural context. The Brief COPE is a well validated scale that has been used extensively to assess coping with cancer, depression, and HIV infection in other settings, but never in India. In this study we translated and validated the 28 item Brief COPE among 299 PLHA in South India, assessing reliability, validity, and cultural appropriateness. Although the original scale demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (alpha = 0.70) and good convergent validity with depression, the test-retest reliability was marginal (test-retest = 0.6) and the original factor structure demonstrated poor fit in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). An exploratory factor analysis yielded a 16 item scale with five factors (active planning, social support, avoidant emotions, substance use, religion). A second CFA demonstrated good model fit and acceptable reliability (alpha = 0.61) of the adapted scale. PMID:25096895

  18. Behavioral and physiological indicators of stress coping styles in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Tudorache, Christian; ter Braake, Anique; Tromp, Mara; Slabbekoorn, Hans; Schaaf, Marcel J M

    2015-01-01

    Different individuals cope with stressors in different ways. Stress coping styles are defined as a coherent set of individual behavioral and physiological differences in the response to a stressor which remain consistent across time and context. In the present study, we have investigated coping styles in larval zebrafish (Danio rerio) at 8 days post-fertilization. Larvae were separated into two groups, according to the emergence sequence from a darkened into a novel well-lit environment, early (EE) and late (LE) emergers. We used brief periods of netting as a stressor. Swimming behavior and kinematics before and after netting stress were analyzed, as were whole-body cortisol levels before and at 10, 30 and 60 min after the stress event. The results show that general swimming activity was different between EE and LE larvae, with lower baseline cumulative distance and more erratic swimming movements in EE than in LE larvae. EE larvae showed a faster recovery to baseline levels after stress than LE larvae. Cortisol baseline levels were not different between EE and LE larvae, but peak levels after stress were higher and the recovery towards basal levels was faster in EE than in LE larvae. This study shows that coping styles are manifest in zebrafish larvae, and that behavior and swimming kinematics are associated with different cortisol responses to stress. A better understanding of the expression of coping styles may be of great value for medical applications, animal welfare issues and conservation. PMID:25407298

  19. Personality profiles and coping styles in migraine patients with fibromyalgia comorbidity.

    PubMed

    de Tommaso, Marina; Federici, Antonio; Loiacono, Anna; Delussi, Marianna; Todarello, Orlando

    2014-01-01

    Fibromyalgia syndrome (FM) is frequently associated with migraine. In this study we aimed to compare personality profiles and coping styles across 23 migraine without aura patients sharing FM comorbidity (MWA-FM), 28 migraine without aura patients without FM symptoms (MWA) and 51 age- and sex-matched controls, by means of Big Five Questionnaire (BFQ) and Coping Orientation to Problem Experienced (COPE), and to correlate main results with clinical features. The "Energy" personality factor was significantly reduced in patients presenting with FM symptoms, compared to both migraine without aura patients and controls. A low score in "Dynamism" sub-item with a high score in denial coping style was able to distinguish MWA from MW-FM groups with an accuracy of 82.35% (Wilks lambda=0.98; chi-square=8.99, DF=1, p=0.005). In particular, lower "Dynamism" scores corresponded to a major expression of allodynia, fatigue, anxiety, depression, headache frequency and poor quality of sleep and life. Avoidance from active coping with stressful events may facilitate worsening of migraine and fibromyalgia comorbidity. PMID:24138956

  20. Cultural adaptation of the Brief COPE for Persons Living with HIV/AIDS in Southern India

    PubMed Central

    Mohanraj, Rani; Jeyaseelan, Visalakshi; Kumar, Shuba; Mani, Thenmozhi; Rao, Deepa; Murray, Katherine R.; Manhart, Lisa E.

    2014-01-01

    Physical and psychological stressors of HIV infection demand adequate coping responses from persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLHA) and coping strategies may vary by cultural context. The Brief COPE is a well validated scale that has been used extensively to assess coping with cancer, depression, and HIV infection in other settings, but never in India. In this study we translated and validated the 28 item Brief COPE among 299 PLHA in South India, assessing reliability, validity, and cultural appropriateness. Although the original scale demonstrated acceptable internal consistency (alpha=0.70) and good convergent validity with depression, the test-retest reliability was marginal (test-retest=0.6) and the original factor structure demonstrated poor fit in a confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). An exploratory factor analysis (EFA) yielded a 16 item scale with 5 factors (active planning, social support, avoidant emotions, substance use, religion). A second CFA demonstrated good model fit and acceptable reliability (alpha=0.61) of the adapted scale. PMID:25096895

  1. Associations Between Academic Stressors, Reaction to Stress, Coping Strategies and Musculoskeletal Disorders Among College Students

    PubMed Central

    Ekpenyong, Christopher E; Daniel, Nyebuk E; Aribo, Ekpe O

    2013-01-01

    Background The adverse health effects of stress are enormous, and vary among people, probably because of differences in how stress is appraised and the strategies individuals use to cope with it. This study assessed the association between academic stress and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) among 1365 undergraduates. Methods This was a cross-sectional study conducted in a Nigerian university at the beginning of the 2010/2011 academic session with the same group of participants. The Life Stress Assessment Inventory, Coping Strategies Questionnaire, and Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment were administered as tools of data gathering. Results Students' stress level and associated MSDs were higher during the examination period than the pre-examination periods. Stressors were significantly associated with increased risk of MSDs in both sexes were those related to changes (odds ratio (OR) = 1.7, p = 0.002) and pressures (OR = 2.09, p = 0.001). Emotional and physiological reactions to stress were significantly associated with MSDs in both sexes, with higher odds for MSDs in females, whereas cognitive and behavioral reactions showed higher odds (though non-significant) in males. The risk of MSDs was higher in respondents who adopted avoidance and religious coping strategies compared with those who adopted active practical and distracting coping strategies. Conclusions Stress among students could be significantly associated with MSDs depending on individuals' demographics, stressors, reactions to stress, and coping methods. Interventions to reduce stress-induced MSDs among students should consider these factors among others. PMID:23950626

  2. Entering exile: trauma, mental health, and coping among Tibetan refugees arriving in Dharamsala, India.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Emily; Rosenfeld, Barry; Lhewa, Dechen; Rasmussen, Andrew; Keller, Allen

    2008-04-01

    Each year thousands of Tibetans escape Chinese-controlled Tibet. The authors present findings on the experiences, coping strategies, and psychological distress (depression, anxiety, somatization, and posttraumatic stress disorder) of 769 Tibetan refugees arriving in Dharamsala, India (2003-2004). Distress increased significantly with greater trauma exposure. However, despite a high prevalence of potentially traumatizing events, levels of psychological distress were extremely low. Coping activity (primarily religious) and subjective appraisals of trauma severity appeared to mediate the psychological effects of trauma exposure. The potential impact of other variables, including culturally determined attitudes about trauma and timing of assessment, are discussed. PMID:18404641

  3. Religious Coping and Behavioral Disengagement: Opposing Influences on Advance Care Planning and Receipt of Intensive Care Near Death

    PubMed Central

    Maciejewski, Paul K.; Phelps, Andrea C.; Kacel, Elizabeth L.; Balboni, Tracy A.; Balboni, Michael; Wright, Alexi A.; Pirl, William; Prigerson, Holly G.

    2011-01-01

    Objective This study examines the relationships between methods of coping with advanced cancer, completion of advance care directives, and receipt of intensive, life-prolonging care near death. Methods The analysis is based on a sample of 345 patients interviewed between January 1, 2003, and August 31, 2007, and followed until death as part of the Coping with Cancer Study, an NCI/NIMH-funded, multi-site, prospective, longitudinal, cohort study of patients with advanced cancer. The Brief COPE was used to assess active coping, use of emotional-support, and behavioral disengagement. The Brief RCOPE was used to assess positive and negative religious coping. The main outcome was intensive, life-prolonging care near death, defined as receipt of ventilation or resuscitation in the last week of life. Results Positive religious coping was associated with lower rates of having a living will (AOR=0.39, p=0.003) and predicted higher rates of intensive, life-prolonging care near death (AOR, 5.43; p<0.001), adjusting for other coping methods and potential socio-demographic and health status confounds. Behavioral disengagement was associated with higher rates of DNR order completion (AOR, 2.78; p=0.003) and predicted lower rates of intensive life-prolonging care near death (AOR, 0.20; p=0.036). Not having a living will partially mediated the influence of positive religious coping on receipt of intensive, life-prolonging care near death. Conclusion Positive religious coping and behavioral disengagement are important determinants of completion of advance care directives and receipt of intensive, life-prolonging care near death. PMID:21449037

  4. Women's coping experiences in the spectrum of domestic violence abuse.

    PubMed

    Haeseler, Lisa Ann

    2013-01-01

    Through this phenomenological case study the author investigates the experience of coping by women in the spectrum of domestic violence abuse. An ecological view of women's coping is critically reviewed. Women of abuse cope with many factors simultaneously in their lives as there are numerous, multifaceted, and diverse issues that comprise and contribute to an abusive situation. Eight providers from four different agencies, two providers per agency, describe the coping experiences of women both in and out of the abusive situation. Study results corroborate with research and demonstrate that women's coping, both in and out of the abusive relationship is unique and complex. PMID:23368993

  5. Religious Coping and Psychological and Behavioral Adjustment After Hurricane Katrina.

    PubMed

    Henslee, Amber M; Coffey, Scott F; Schumacher, Julie A; Tracy, Melissa; Norris, Fran H; Galea, Sandro

    2015-01-01

    Positive and negative religious coping are related to positive and negative psychological adjustment, respectively. The current study examined the relation between religious coping and PTSD, major depression, quality of life, and substance use among residents residing in Mississippi at the time of Hurricane Katrina. Results indicated that negative religious coping was positively associated with major depression and poorer quality of life and positive religious coping was negatively associated with PTSD, depression, poorer quality of life, and increased alcohol use. These results suggest that mental health providers should be mindful of the role of religious coping after traumatic events such as natural disasters. PMID:25275223

  6. A moderated mediation model: racial discrimination, coping strategies, and racial identity among Black adolescents.

    PubMed

    Seaton, Eleanor K; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies) as moderators of the relation between perceived racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. Moderated mediation examined if the relation between perceived racial discrimination and depressive symptoms varied by the mediators and moderators. Results revealed that avoidant coping strategies mediated the relation between perceptions of racial discrimination and depressive symptoms. The results indicated that avoidant coping strategies mediated the relation between perceived racial discrimination and depressive symptoms among youth with high levels of the minority/oppressive ideology. PMID:23668685

  7. Psychological Impact of Negotiating Two Cultures: Latino Coping and Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torres, Lucas; Rollock, David

    2009-01-01

    Among 96 Latino adults, active coping accounted for variance in global self-esteem beyond that of biculturalism and sociodemographic indicators. The findings highlight the importance of accounting for the way Latino adults approach negotiating multiple cultural contexts. Extending acculturation research to integrate competence-based formulations…

  8. Direct and Relational Bullying among Children and Adolescents: Coping and Psychological Adjustment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hampel, Petra; Manhal, Simone; Hayer, Tobias

    2009-01-01

    Previous research highlighted that pupils actively involved in bullying and victimization are prone to develop diverse psychological problems. The overall aim of our study was to investigate effects of different forms of bullying and victimization on coping with interpersonal stressors and psychological adjustment among children and adolescents.…

  9. Coping with Pressures from Significant Others. Single Parent/Homemaker Project. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewis, Elaine; And Others

    This document provides a rationale for developing in adults enrolled in education and training reentry programs the skills to cope with pressures from their "significant others." It also includes instructional activities designed to develop those skills. The first four sections of the report provide an overview, a literature review, a booklet…

  10. Relationships among Stress Coping, Secure Attachment, and the Trait of Resilience among Taiwanese College Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Ming-hui

    2008-01-01

    College students often live stressful lives, yet some college students appear to adapt better than their peers in similar situations. Active coping appears to be a vital factor that contributes to a successful adaptation. This study explored relative effectiveness among stress, secure attachment, and the trait of resilience in predicting active…

  11. A Moderated Mediation Model: Racial Discrimination, Coping Strategies, and Racial Identity among Black Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seaton, Eleanor K.; Upton, Rachel; Gilbert, Adrianne; Volpe, Vanessa

    2014-01-01

    This study examined a moderated mediation model among 314 Black adolescents aged 13-18. The model included general coping strategies (e.g., active, distracting, avoidant, and support-seeking strategies) as mediators and racial identity dimensions (racial centrality, private regard, public regard, minority, assimilationist, and humanist ideologies)…

  12. Public School Superintendents in Western Pennsylvania: An Assessment of Conflict and Coping.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindle, Jane Clark; And Others

    This paper reports on a study designed to investigate the perceptions of conflict and coping by superintendents in Western Pennsylvania. Twenty-eight superintendents (13 former superintendents and 15 currently active superintendents) were interviewed. Triangulation was utilized to determine the credibility of the interview data. Common themes of…

  13. Assessment of pain coping styles: development of an inventory.

    PubMed

    Crow, C S; Olivet, L W; Burry-Stock, J; VanderMeer, J L

    1996-11-01

    The Pain Coping Style Inventory (PCSI) is an instrument designed to measure the pain coping style of individuals. It is based on the pain coping model and typology described by Copp. A study with a convenience sample of 145 university graduates, undergraduates, and faculty revealed a Cronbach's alpha reliability coefficient of 0.90, adequate stability, and a nine factor analysis solution representing 57% of the variance. Four of Copp's five coping styles are clearly defined by the factor analysis: interactive, reactive, combatant, and victim. Five more coping styles are named: contractor, distractor, spiritual coping, substance users, and mind over matter. The development and piloting of the PCSI is a step towards empowering the nurse with the ability to provide patients with individualized pain coping strategies. PMID:8933247

  14. Defensive coping and blood pressure reactivity in medical patients.

    PubMed

    Warrenburg, S; Levine, J; Schwartz, G E; Fontana, A F; Kerns, R D; Delaney, R; Mattson, R

    1989-10-01

    Two defensive coping styles, denial of illness and repressive coping, were studied in two groups of medical patients whose blood pressure (BP) was measured during a stress interview. Denial of illness was measured using the Levine Denial of Illness Scale (LDIS), and repressive coping was measured using a combination of the Marlowe-Crowne (MC) Social Desirability Scale and the SCL-90R anxiety subscale (ANX). Consistent with our prior research indicating that LDIS was associated with adaptive outcomes in the short run, high deniers manifested reduced systolic BP reactivity compared to low deniers. Although not related to repressive coping, systolic BP reactivity was correlated positively with MC and ANX separately. The results demonstrate that LDIS and MC measure different types of defensive coping. Current theories of the MC scale suggest two possible interpretations of the MC findings, one that focuses on avoidant coping and the second on attentional coping in high MC scorers. PMID:2614819

  15. Helping adolescents cope with stress during stressful times.

    PubMed

    Bonica, Cheryl; Daniel, Jessica Henderson

    2003-08-01

    Increasing levels of stress in the daily lives of adolescents is an important health concern. Adolescents experience a variety of stressful situations and use a wide range of coping strategies to help effectively manage stress. Recent research on adolescent coping with stressful situations is reviewed. Findings support an association between coping and adolescent health problems, chronic physical illness, and mental health. More research is needed to investigate the long-term benefits of coping with stress on adolescent health and well-being. Specific recommendations for helping adolescents cope with stressful situations are discussed. Health care providers are encouraged to assess how adolescents cope with acute and chronic stressors and provide adolescents with information about coping with stressful situations. PMID:12891050

  16. [Coping with stress by children and adolescents with cancer].

    PubMed

    Rudolph, Hiltrud; Petermann, Franz; Lass-Lentzsch, Ankatrin; Warnken, Angelika; Hampel, Petra

    2002-01-01

    Children and adolescents with cancer not only have to cope with everyday stressors and developmental tasks, as do their healthy peers, but also with illness-related stressors. Thus, it can be assumed, that children and adolescents with cancer differ from healthy peers in coping. Stress reactions and adjustment have been investigated in recent studies. In contrast, coping styles have not often been in the focus of research. In this study, the coping of children and adolescents with cancer (n = 60, 8-13 years of age) was compared to the norm, measured by the German Coping Questionnaire for Children and Adolescents (SVF-KJ; Hampel et al. 2001). The results indicated that the subjects with cancer used more positive and less negative coping strategies when confronted with school-related or social stressors. The results are discussed with respect to the experience with disease-related stress and the possibility of repressive coping. PMID:12136695

  17. Pre-competitive confidence, coping, and subjective performance in sport.

    PubMed

    Levy, A R; Nicholls, A R; Polman, R C J

    2011-10-01

    The primary aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between confidence and subjective performance in addition to exploring whether coping mediated this relationship. A sample of 414 athletes completed a measure of confidence before performance. Athletes also completed a measure of coping and subjective performance after competing. Correlational findings revealed that confidence was positively and significantly associated with subjective performance. Furthermore, mediational analysis found that coping partly mediated this relationship. In particular, task-oriented coping (i.e., mental imagery) and disengagement-oriented coping (i.e., resignation) had positive and negative mediational effects, respectively. Additionally, athletes who employed mental imagery generally coped more effectively than those using resignation. These findings imply mental imagery has the potential not only to improve confidence, but also subsequent performance, while resignation coping may have the opposite effect. Overall, these results lend some credence to Vealey's integrated sports confidence model. PMID:20459476

  18. Indian Ocean tsunami: relationships among posttraumatic stress, posttraumatic growth, resource loss, and coping at 3 and 15 months.

    PubMed

    Sattler, David N; Assanangkornchai, Sawitri; Moller, Adam M; Kesavatana-Dohrs, Wiworn; Graham, James M

    2014-01-01

    This study examines variables associated with posttraumatic stress symptoms (PTS) and posttraumatic growth among 2 independent samples of survivors following the Indian Ocean tsunami in Khao Lak, Thailand. Participants were exposed to unprecedented horror and loss of life and property. At 3 months participants (N = 248) were living in temporary shelters, and at 15 months a second sample (N = 255) was living in homes built after the tsunami. Prior traumatic experiences, life threat, loss of personal characteristic resources and condition resources, somatic problems, and social support accounted for close to half of the variance in PTS in each sample. At 3 months, emotion-focused coping and concerns about government favoritism also contributed to PTS. At 15 months, lack of prior disaster experience and loss of energy resources also contributed to PTS. Distress was higher among participants surveyed at 3 months than among those surveyed at 15 months. Posttraumatic growth was positively associated with social support and problem-focused coping in both samples. The findings support conservation of resources stress theory ( Hobfoll, 2012 ) and underscore how systemic issues affect mental health. The implications of the findings are discussed, as is the educational International Tsunami Museum designed by the first author to address systemic stressors. PMID:24410331

  19. Effect of Group Mindfulness-Based Stress-Reduction Program and Conscious Yoga on Lifestyle, Coping Strategies, and Systolic and Diastolic Blood Pressures in Patients with Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Nejati, Somayeh; Zahiroddin, Alireza; Afrookhteh, Gita; Rahmani, Soheila; Hoveida, Shahrzad

    2015-01-01

    Background: Healthy lifestyle and ineffective coping strategies are deemed significant variables among patients with hypertension. This study attempted to determine the status of these variables following intervention via the mindfulness-based stress-reduction program (MBSRP) in patients with hypertension. Method: This study was a randomized clinical trial. The study sample, consisting of 30 patients referring to the Hypertension Clinic of Imam Hossein Hospital in 2013, was assigned either to the intervention (recipient of the MBSRP and conscious yoga) or to the control group (recipient of yoga training). The intervention group had 8 training sessions over 8 weeks. Lifestyle and coping strategies as well as blood pressure were measured in the intervention group before intervention and then immediately thereafter and at 2 months' follow-up and were compared to those in the control group at the same time points. Result: The mean age of the patients in the intervention (40% women) and control (53% women) groups was 43.66 ± 5.14 and 43.13 ± 5.04 years, respectively. The results showed that the mean scores of lifestyle (p value < 0.05), emotion-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001), problem-focused coping strategies (p value < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001), and systolic blood pressure (p value < 0.001) were significantly different between the intervention and control groups after the intervention. Conclusion: Applying an intervention based on the MBSRP may further improve the lifestyle and coping strategies of patients with hypertension. PMID:26697087

  20. The Cope startup: Methods to increase efficiency

    SciTech Connect

    Pritchard, J.F.

    1995-12-31

    Cope Unit 1 is a coal-fired electric generating facility with a minimum net electric generating capacity of 385 MW. The plant is located in Orangeburg County, South Carolina, near the town of Cope, and is owned by the South Carolina Electric and Gas Company. Duke/Fluor Daniel is responsible for environmental permitting, engineering, procurement, construction and start-up. The facility includes an ABB-CE tangentially-fired furnace designed for pulverized coal and natural gas firing, a General Electric turbine-generator, ABB/ES dry scrubber and baghouse, and a Foxboro I/A Distributed Control System. At the time of this writing (9/17/95) Construction is about 92% complete and Start-Up is 82% complete. We are blowing the main steam lines at this time. While contractually required to achieve continuous operation by May of `96, we are currently ahead of schedule and plan to be in performance testing during December of `95.

  1. Variations in coping stages for individuals with chronic kidney disease: Results from an exploratory study with patient navigators.

    PubMed

    Marlow, Nicole M; Simpson, Kit N; Kazley, Abby S; Balliet, Wendy E; Chavin, Kenneth D; Baliga, Prabhakar K

    2016-07-01

    Using a cross-sectional design, we examined coping stages (Kübler-Ross) among patients with end-stage renal disease at nephrology practices incorporating professional social workers as patient navigators, providing person-centered education and support (N = 420). We evaluated associations with behavioral counseling constructs (assess-advise-agree-assist-arrange). Coping stages comprised denial = 35.24 percent, acceptance = 24.05 percent, depression = 21.43 percent, bargaining = 12.86 percent, and anger = 6.43 percent. Compared to denial, other coping stages showed increased odds ratios for transplant referral agreement, transplant referral evaluations, understanding treatments, understanding donation procedures, plans to recruit donors, active donor recruitment, and potential living donor(s). Assessment of coping stages, and strategies to influence these, may be key factors in guiding patients to living donor kidney transplantation. PMID:25293971

  2. Mentoring, Type, and Coping with Change

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fairhurst, A.; Garcia, M.

    1994-01-01

    Formal mentoring programs can help meet organizational goals. A case study at JPL illustrates the dey elements of a successful mentoring program. In the full-day training session, interpretation of two tools (the Meyers-Brigg Type Indicator and Invest in Your Values) helps participants to understand and appreciate the wide range of human norms. Career training within the program helps individuals cope with change.

  3. Coping with anxiety in later life.

    PubMed

    Frazier, Leslie D; Waid, Lisa D; Fincke, Candy

    2002-12-01

    The goal of this study was to determine how older adults cope with three forms of anxiety, and potential avenues for applied interventions. Although the findings shed light on some interesting findings with potential psychosocial applications, several limitations need to be noted. First, this study was based on two assumptions. The assumption, based on earlier work (Carver et al., 1989; Lazarus & Folkman, 1984; Zeidner & Saklofske, 1996), that certain coping strategies are more effective than others, and an assumption of the direction of influence in which anxiety is a precursor of coping strategies. Because this was an exploratory study, the research questions did not directly test these assumptions. Second, this study is correlational in nature. Therefore, conclusions cannot be drawn about the causality of these associations. Third, as with any self-report data and self-selected sample, one needs to interpret the findings with caution. Similarly, for the purposes of the study, a non-clinical sample of older adults was examined using three distinct conceptualizations of anxiety. Suggestions for future research include: Replication of this study using a multidimensional measure of anxiety appropriate for clinical samples. A longitudinal replication of this study identifying patterns of coping that facilitate adjustment over time. Finally, a more general purpose of this study was to focus attention on a neglected issue in gerontology--the experience of anxietY in later life (Frazier & Waid, 1999; Gatz, 1995; Rabins, 1992; Shamoian, 1991; Sheikh, 1992; Smyer, 1995; Stanley & Beck, 1998), and, most importantly, the role of gerontological nurses in early assessment and intervention for successful treatment of anxiety in older adults. PMID:12567825

  4. Shopping with Acquired Brain Injuries, Coping Strategies and Maslowian Principles.

    PubMed

    Andersson, Jonas E; Skehan, Terry; Rydén, Monica; Lagerkrans, Elisabeth

    2016-01-01

    A positive outcome of the modern welfare state is prolonged life expectancy. In Sweden, the expected life span has increased with approximatively 25 years during the 20th century [Statistics Sweden]. However, ageing is associated with an increased risk for acquiring cognitive and physical disabilities. This study is based on anonymized interviews with groups of older persons who experience cognitive problems and relatives. The interviewees were asked about everyday activities like shopping groceries, clothes or other necessities. The interviewees identified problems and described a series of strategies for coping. This paper uses fictionalized characters to present problems and coping strategies that the interviewees use to overcome cognitive challenges when shopping groceries. The strategies range from complete withdrawal, an increased dependency on proxies to the development of elaborate techniques to mask their problem and obtain assistance. Following the current trend in the design of the Swedish sales environment - large scale, abundance of goods and Maslowian strategies for making people stay longer (and spend more money) - accessibility in the built environment is often an absent friend. PMID:27534318

  5. Controversies Regarding the Psychometric Properties of the Brief COPE: The Case of the Brazilian-Portuguese Version "COPE Breve".

    PubMed

    Brasileiro, Sarah V; Orsini, Mara R C A; Cavalcante, Julianna A; Bartholomeu, Daniel; Montiel, José M; Costa, Paulo S S; Costa, Luciane R

    2016-01-01

    The Brief Coping Orientation to Problems Experienced (COPE) inventory investigates the different ways in which people respond to stressful situations. Knowledge is lacking regarding the coping strategies and styles of people in developing countries, including Brazil. This study aimed to adapt and validate the Brief COPE to Brazilian Portuguese (named COPE Breve) by focusing on dispositional coping. For the cross-cultural adaptation, the original Brief COPE in English (28 items grouped into 14 subscales) was adapted according to a universalistic approach, following these steps: translation, synthesis, back-translation, analysis by an expert panel, and pretest with 30 participants. Then, 237 adults from the community health service responded to the COPE Breve. Psychometric analyses included reliability and exploratory factor analysis. Most of the 14 subscales from the original Brief COPE exhibited problems related to internal consistency. A Velicer's minimum average partial test (MAP) was performed and pointed out 3 factors. Exploratory factor analysis produced a revised 20-item version with a 3-factor solution: religion and positive reframing, distraction and external support. The psychometric properties of the COPE Breve with three factors were appropriate. Limitations of this study as well as suggestions for future studies are presented. The COPE Breve should be used in Brazilian clinics and investigations, but divergences in its psychometrics should be further explored in other contexts. PMID:27007646

  6. Adaptedness and coping in dysphagic students.

    PubMed

    Gustafsson, B; Theorell, T

    1995-01-01

    Using a definition based on Bowlby and Pörn, an effort is made to interpret adaptedness and coping in 87 dysphagic students (corresponding to a prevalence of dysphagia in 9% of the boys and 12% of the girls) found in a screening study utilizing a questionnaire. Coping patterns and methods of adaptation were explored in a telephone interview with dysphagic students. Those who stated that their dysphagia influenced their daily living were classified as subjectively maladapted (S-maladapted; n = 9). Compared with the S-adapted students, the S-maladapted students reported more defects in ability to eat, more inappropriate beliefs about the causes and management of dysphagia, and greater desires regarding eating than S-adapted students (p < 0.05). The environmental conditions more often impaired the eating ability in S-maladapted students (p < 0.05). Anxiety at mealtime was reported more frequently than in S-adapted students (p < 0.05). Every second S-maladapted student had reduced self-esteem because of dysphagia (p < 0.05). The S-maladapted students had talked about their dysphagia with parents and/or friends and visited a school physician because of dysphagia more often than S-adapted students (p < 0.05). Two of 9 students felt confirmed by the physician and experienced help. There was concordance between the students' own beliefs regarding the causes of dysphagia and corresponding coping strategy. PMID:7600858

  7. Work-related stress and well-being: the roles of direct action coping and palliative coping.

    PubMed

    Fortes-Ferreira, Lina; Peiró, José M; González-Morales, M Gloria; Martín, Isabel

    2006-08-01

    The purpose of the present study is to analyze the roles of direct action coping and palliative coping in the relationship between work stressors and psychological well-being, as well as their possible interactions, in a sample of 464 bank employees. Hierarchical regression analyses showed main effects of direct action coping on well-being. Palliative coping predicts higher levels of psychological distress. Contrary to what was expected, the interactions between work stressors and direct action coping were not significant. Palliative coping interacted with work stressors when predicting psychosomatic complaints. The interaction between the two types of coping was significant on psychosomatic complaints and psychological distress, but not on job satisfaction. The paper discusses theoretical and practical implications of these results, in order to design intervention strategies to prevent and manage job stress. PMID:16869862

  8. How groups cope with collective responsibility for ecological problems: Symbolic coping and collective emotions.

    PubMed

    Caillaud, Sabine; Bonnot, Virginie; Ratiu, Eugenia; Krauth-Gruber, Silvia

    2016-06-01

    This study explores the way groups cope with collective responsibility for ecological problems. The social representations approach was adopted, and the collective symbolic coping model was used as a frame of analysis, integrating collective emotions to enhance the understanding of coping processes. The original feature of this study is that the analysis is at group level. Seven focus groups were conducted with French students. An original use of focus groups was proposed: Discussions were structured to induce feelings of collective responsibility and enable observation of how groups cope with such feelings at various levels (social knowledge; social identities; group dynamics). Two analyses were conducted: Qualitative analysis of participants' use of various kinds of knowledge, social categories and the group dynamics, and lexicometric analysis to reveal how emotions varied during the different discussion phases. Results showed that groups' emotional states moved from negative to positive: They used specific social categories and resorted to shared stereotypes to cope with collective responsibility and maintain the integrity of their worldview. Only then did debate become possible again; it was anchored in the nature-culture dichotomy such that groups switched from group-based to system-based emotions. PMID:26342529

  9. Maladaptive coping strategies and glaucoma progression.

    PubMed

    Freeman, Ellen E; Lesk, Mark R; Harasymowycz, Paul; Desjardins, Daniel; Flores, Veronica; Kamga, Hortence; Li, Gisèle

    2016-08-01

    The identification of modifiable risk factors for glaucoma progression is needed. Our objective was to determine whether maladaptive coping styles are associated with recent glaucoma progression or worse visual field mean deviation.A hospital-based case-control study was conducted in the Glaucoma Service of Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal, Canada. Patients with primary open angle glaucoma or normal tension glaucoma with ≥4 years of follow-up and ≥5 Humphrey visual fields were included. Cases had recent visual field progression as defined according to the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial pattern change probability maps. Controls had stable visual fields. The Brief Cope questionnaire, a 28-item questionnaire about 14 different ways of coping with the stress of a chronic disease, was asked. Questions were also asked about demographic and medical factors, and the medical chart was examined. Outcomes included glaucoma progression (yes, no) and visual field mean deviation. Logistic and linear regressions were used.A total of 180 patients were included (82 progressors and 98 nonprogressors). Although none of the 14 coping scales were associated with glaucoma progression (P > 0.05), higher denial was correlated with worse visual field mean deviation (r = -0.173, P = 0.024). In a linear regression model including age, sex, education, depression, intraocular pressure, and family history of glaucoma, greater levels of denial (β = -1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] -2.32, -0.41), Haitian ethnicity (β = -7.78, 95% CI -12.52, -3.04), and the number of glaucoma medications (β = -1.20, 95% CI -2.00, -0.38) were statistically significantly associated with visual field mean deviation.The maladaptive coping mechanism of denial was a risk factor for worse visual field mean deviation. Further prospective research will be required to verify the pathways by which denial may exert an effect on glaucomatous visual field loss. PMID:27583929

  10. Maladaptive coping strategies and glaucoma progression

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, Ellen E.; Lesk, Mark R.; Harasymowycz, Paul; Desjardins, Daniel; Flores, Veronica; Kamga, Hortence; Li, Gisèle

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The identification of modifiable risk factors for glaucoma progression is needed. Our objective was to determine whether maladaptive coping styles are associated with recent glaucoma progression or worse visual field mean deviation. A hospital-based case–control study was conducted in the Glaucoma Service of Maisonneuve-Rosemont Hospital in Montreal, Canada. Patients with primary open angle glaucoma or normal tension glaucoma with ≥4 years of follow-up and ≥5 Humphrey visual fields were included. Cases had recent visual field progression as defined according to the Early Manifest Glaucoma Trial pattern change probability maps. Controls had stable visual fields. The Brief Cope questionnaire, a 28-item questionnaire about 14 different ways of coping with the stress of a chronic disease, was asked. Questions were also asked about demographic and medical factors, and the medical chart was examined. Outcomes included glaucoma progression (yes, no) and visual field mean deviation. Logistic and linear regressions were used. A total of 180 patients were included (82 progressors and 98 nonprogressors). Although none of the 14 coping scales were associated with glaucoma progression (P > 0.05), higher denial was correlated with worse visual field mean deviation (r = −0.173, P = 0.024). In a linear regression model including age, sex, education, depression, intraocular pressure, and family history of glaucoma, greater levels of denial (β = −1.37, 95% confidence interval [CI] −2.32, −0.41), Haitian ethnicity (β = −7.78, 95% CI −12.52, −3.04), and the number of glaucoma medications (β = −1.20, 95% CI −2.00, −0.38) were statistically significantly associated with visual field mean deviation. The maladaptive coping mechanism of denial was a risk factor for worse visual field mean deviation. Further prospective research will be required to verify the pathways by which denial may exert an effect on glaucomatous visual

  11. Religious coping among women with obstetric fistula in Tanzania

    PubMed Central

    Watt, Melissa H.; Wilson, Sarah M.; Joseph, Mercykutty; Masenga, Gileard; MacFarlane, Jessica C.; Oneko, Olola; Sikkema, Kathleen J.

    2014-01-01

    Religion is an important aspect of Tanzanian culture, and is often used to cope with adversity and distress. This study aimed to examine religious coping among women with obstetric fistulae. Fifty-four women receiving fistula repair at a Tanzanian hospital completed a structured survey. RCOPE assessed positive and negative religious coping strategies. Analyses included associations between negative religious coping and key variables (demographics, religiosity, depression, social support and stigma). Forty-five women also completed individual in-depth interviews where religion was discussed. Although participants utilised positive religious coping strategies more frequently than negative strategies (p<.001), 76% reported at least one form of negative religious coping. In univariate analysis, negative religious coping was associated with stigma, depression and low social support. In multivariate analysis, only depression remained significant, explaining 42% of the variance in coping. Qualitative data confirmed reliance upon religion to deal with fistula-related distress, and suggested that negative forms of religious coping may be an expression of depressive symptoms. Results suggest that negative religious coping could reflect cognitive distortions and negative emotionality, characteristic of depression. Religious leaders should be engaged to recognise signs of depression and provide appropriate pastoral/spiritual counseling and general psychosocial support for this population. PMID:24735435

  12. Comparative Study of Teachers in Regular Schools and Teachers in Specialized Schools in France, Working with Students with an Autism Spectrum Disorder: Stress, Social Support, Coping Strategies and Burnout.

    PubMed

    Boujut, Emilie; Dean, Annika; Grouselle, Amélie; Cappe, Emilie

    2016-09-01

    The inclusion of students with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) in schools is a source of stress for teachers. Specialized teachers have, in theory, received special training. To compare the experiences of teachers dealing with students with ASD in different classroom environments. A total of 245 teachers filled out four self-report questionnaires measuring perceived stress, social support, coping strategies, and burnout. Specialized teachers perceive their teaching as a challenge, can count on receiving help from colleagues, use more problem-focused coping strategies and social support seeking behavior, and are less emotionally exhausted than teachers in regular classes. This study highlights that teachers in specialized schools and classes have better adjustment, probably due to their training, experience, and tailored classroom conditions. PMID:27282858

  13. The Coexistence of Coping Resources and Specific Coping Styles in Stress: Evidence from Full Information Item Bifactor Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Meng; Wu, Qing; Zhu, Xia; Miao, Danmin; Zhang, Yan; Feng, Xi; Xiao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Background Knowledge of coping styles is useful in clinical diagnosis and suggesting specific therapeutic interventions. However, the latent structures and relationships between different aspects of coping styles have not been fully clarified. A full information item bifactor model will be beneficial to future research. Objective One goal of this study is identification of the best fit statistical model of coping styles. A second goal is entails extended analyses of latent relationships among different coping styles. In general, such research should offer greater understanding of the mechanisms of coping styles and provide insights into coping with stress. Methods Coping Styles Questionnaire (CSQ) and Generalized Self-Efficacy Scale (GSES) were administrated to officers suffering from military stress. Confirmatory Factor Analyses was performed to indentify the best fit model. A hierarchical item response model (bifactor model) was adopted to analyze the data. Additionally, correlations among coping styles and self-efficacy were compared using both original and bifactor models. Results Results showed a bifactor model best fit the data. Item loadings on general and specific factors varied among different coping styles. All items loaded significantly on the general factor, and most items also had moderate to large loadings on specific factors. The correlation between coping styles and self-efficacy and the correlation among different coping styles changed significantly after extracting the general factor of coping stress using bifactor analysis. This was seen in changes from positive (r = 0.714, p<0.01) correlation to negative (r = −0.335, p<0.01) and also from negative (r = −0.296, p<0.01) to positive (r = 0.331, p<0.01). Conclusion Our results reveal that coping styles have a bifactor structure. They also provide direct evidence of coexisting coping resources and styles. This further clarifies that dimensions of coping styles should include

  14. Similar serotonin-2A receptor binding in rats with different coping styles or levels of aggression.

    PubMed

    Visser, Anniek K D; Ettrup, Anders; Klein, Anders B; van Waarde, Aren; Bosker, Fokko J; Meerlo, Peter; Knudsen, Gitte M; de Boer, Sietse F

    2015-04-01

    Individual differences in coping style emerge as a function of underlying variability in the activation of a mesocorticolimbic brain circuitry. Particularly serotonin seems to play an important role. For this reason, we assessed serotonin-2A receptor (5-HT2A R) binding in the brain of rats with different coping styles. We compared proactive and reactive males of two rat strains, Wild-type Groningen (WTG) and Roman high- and low avoidance (RHA, RLA). 5-HT2A R binding in (pre)frontal cortex (FC) and hippocampus was investigated using a radiolabeled antagonist ([(3) H]MDL-100907) and agonist ([(3) H]Cimbi-36) in binding assays. No differences in 5-HT2A R binding were observed in male animals with different coping styles. [(3) H]MDL-100907 displayed a higher specific-to-nonspecific binding ratio than [(3) H]Cimbi-36. Our findings suggest that in these particular rat strains, 5-HT2A R binding is not an important molecular marker for coping style. Because neither an antagonist nor an agonist tracer showed any binding differences, it is unlikely that the affinity state of the 5-HT2A R is co-varying with levels of aggression or active avoidance in WTG, RHA and RLA. PMID:25684736

  15. Emotionality and self-regulation, threat appraisal, and coping in children of divorce.

    PubMed

    Lengua, L J; Sandler, I N; West, S G; Wolchik, S A; Curran, P J

    1999-01-01

    A model of the effects of children's temperament (negative and positive emotionality, impulsivity and attention focusing) on post-divorce threat appraisals, coping (active and avoidant), and psychological symptoms (depression and conduct problems) was investigated. The study utilized a sample of 223 mothers and children (ages 9 to 12 years) who had experienced divorce within the last two years. Evidence was found of direct effects of child-report negative emotionality on children's threat perceptions and of child-report positive emotionality and impulsivity on children's coping. Indirect effects of negative emotionality on active and avoidant coping through threat appraisal were found. Direct effects of the temperament variables on symptoms were also found. Cross group analyses indicated that the models were robust to age differences, but gender differences were found in the relation between negative emotionality and depression. The results of this study indicate that temperament and threat appraisals are important predictors of children's post-divorce symptoms, and that temperament is a predictor of children's appraisal and coping process. PMID:10208354

  16. Methadone maintenance treatment versus methadone maintenance treatment plus auricular acupuncture: impacts on patient satisfaction and coping mechanism.

    PubMed

    Lua, Pei Lin; Talib, Nor Samira; Ismail, Zabidah

    2013-12-01

    This study intended to (1) describe the baseline patient satisfaction level and preferred coping strategies and (2) assess patient satisfaction and coping mechanisms pre- and postintervention. Patients on methadone maintenance treatment (MMT) in Terengganu, Malaysia, were randomized into either MMT or MMT plus auricular acupuncture (MMT + AA) groups. All received the standard MMT, while participants on MMT + AA underwent concurrent AA session thrice weekly for 2 months (each session = 30 minutes). Data analysis was carried out using SPSS 16.0, employing descriptive and nonparametric statistics. Participations were received from 97 eligible male patients (median age = 36.0 years; Malay = 97.9%). After screening for dropouts, only 69 patients were considered for subsequent analysis (MMT = 40; MMT + AA = 29). At preintervention, both groups did not differ significantly in the parameters investigated. During postintervention, no significant difference was detected for satisfaction level but coping-wise, substance use was significantly and frequently adopted by MMT + AA patients compared to MMT respondents (P < .05). On separate analysis, those who received MMT alone adopted active coping, venting, and self-blame significantly more frequently postintervention (P < .05). Nevertheless, no significant difference for coping styles of MMT + AA patients was exhibited over time (P >.05). The addition of AA therapy into the standard MMT treatment did not seem to influence patient satisfaction and their coping ways. PMID:23764566

  17. Reaction to and Coping With Domestic Violence by Iranian Women Victims: A Qualitative Approach

    PubMed Central

    Bahrami, Masoud; Shokrollahi, Paymaneh; Kohan, Shahnaz; Momeni, Ghodratollah; Rivaz, Mozhgan

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Domestic violence is a continual stressor that motivates its victim to react. The way a woman deals with her husband’s violence determine the consequence of the violent relationship. In the present study, a qualitative approach was employed to investigate women’s reactions to and ways of coping with domestic violence. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted in 2014 with 18 women who experienced domestic violence in an attempt to explain how women deal with domestic violence. After the interviews were transcribed word by word, they were explored in the form of meaningful units and encoded as subcategories and categories through inductive content analysis. The reliability and validity of the interviews were measured by an external supervisor. Results: Two categories of reaction and coping were identified through content analysis: passive and non-normative measures and active measures. Passive and non-normative measures included the subcategories of harmful behaviors, retaliation, tolerance, and silence. Active measures included seeking help and advice, legal measures, leaving the spouse, positive and health promoting measures. Conclusion: In the present study, ways of coping with a husband’s violence among women experiencing domestic violence were divided into two categories: passive and non-normative measures and active measures. These categories confirmed the models of coping with stress in previous studies. Adopting an appropriate approach to dealing with domestic violence is affected by a woman’s capacity and beliefs, the dominant culture, intensity of the violence, available social and legal supports, and effectiveness of evaluation measures. To generalize service provision to victimized women, the type of coping and the reason for adopting the chosen approach need to be taken into account. PMID:26925908

  18. [Unemployment as psychological stress and coping methods].

    PubMed

    Szabóné Kapuvári, Virág

    2013-01-01

    The present article focuses on unemployment as a stressor and a crisis situation as well. Both the definition and theories about this phenomenon are analyzed. The author tries to explore unemployment like a stressor and a special crisis situation afterwards illustrating it by several Hungarian results of the unemployment research. The author tries to emphasize coping methods of personality. Last but not least unemployment is presented like a special problem that could be solved by some practical aspects recommended for the professionals. PMID:24443576

  19. Coping strategies of female adolescents with HIV/AIDS.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Carolyn L; Brown, Sandra C

    2002-01-01

    This descriptive study was designed to assess coping strategies of female adolescents infected with Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) or the Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) (N = 30). Results from the Adolescent Coping Orientation for Problem Experiences Questionnaire (ACOPES) revealed that the most often utilized coping strategies identified by the adolescents were: listening to music, thinking about good things, making your own decisions, being close to someone you care about, sleeping, trying on your own to deal with problems, eating, watching television, daydreaming and praying. The adolescents also reported low utilization of certain maladaptive coping strategies such as alcohol and illicit drug usage. Chronic illnesses such as HIV, cancer and diabetes are difficult for adolescents because of the unique developmental tasks needed to understand the psychological and social impact caused by chronic illnesses. The research presented illustrates the complexities of stress and the effects of coping on psychological well-being, health behavior, and health. This research explores specific coping strategies used by HIV-infected adolescents. Findings provided baseline data of the various coping strategies of female adolescents infected with HIV in an outpatient setting. These findings may serve as a foundation for future studies on coping strategies among females infected with HIV. Furthermore, the findings may also be useful in developing an outpatient behavior-modification/coping effectiveness training program that is both gender-specific and culturally appropriate. PMID:12244842

  20. Executive Function Moderates the Relation between Coping and Depressive Symptoms

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Matthew C.; Evans, Lindsay D.; Rao, Uma; Garber, Judy

    2014-01-01

    Background and Objectives Identifying risk factors early in the course of depression has important implications for prevention, given that the likelihood of recurrence increases with each successive episode. Design This study examined relations among coping, executive functioning, and depressive symptom trajectories in a sample of remitted-depressed (n = 32) and never-depressed (n = 36) young adults (ages 18 to 31). Methods Participants completed a clinical interview, a measure of coping, and tasks assessing two components of executive function -- inhibition and cognitive flexibility. Participants were re-assessed regarding the timing and severity of depressive symptoms that had occurred during the interval period (mean = 35.16 weeks, SD = 9.03). Results Among never-depressed individuals, less primary control coping (e.g., problem-solving) and greater disengagement coping (e.g., avoidance) predicted increases in depressive symptoms. Greater secondary control coping (e.g., acceptance) predicted decreases in depressive symptoms and was unrelated to depression history. Higher inhibition scores predicted less increase in depressive symptoms for individuals reporting less primary control coping or more disengagement coping. Higher cognitive flexibility scores predicted less increase in depressive symptoms among individuals reporting less secondary control coping. Conclusions Interventions aiming to enhance either coping strategies or executive functions may reduce risk for depression recurrence. PMID:24866556