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Sample records for active process involving

  1. Anticancer Activity of Metal Complexes: Involvement of Redox Processes

    PubMed Central

    Jungwirth, Ute; Kowol, Christian R.; Keppler, Bernhard K.; Hartinger, Christian G.; Berger, Walter; Heffeter, Petra

    2012-01-01

    Cells require tight regulation of the intracellular redox balance and consequently of reactive oxygen species for proper redox signaling and maintenance of metal (e.g., of iron and copper) homeostasis. In several diseases, including cancer, this balance is disturbed. Therefore, anticancer drugs targeting the redox systems, for example, glutathione and thioredoxin, have entered focus of interest. Anticancer metal complexes (platinum, gold, arsenic, ruthenium, rhodium, copper, vanadium, cobalt, manganese, gadolinium, and molybdenum) have been shown to strongly interact with or even disturb cellular redox homeostasis. In this context, especially the hypothesis of “activation by reduction” as well as the “hard and soft acids and bases” theory with respect to coordination of metal ions to cellular ligands represent important concepts to understand the molecular modes of action of anticancer metal drugs. The aim of this review is to highlight specific interactions of metal-based anticancer drugs with the cellular redox homeostasis and to explain this behavior by considering chemical properties of the respective anticancer metal complexes currently either in (pre)clinical development or in daily clinical routine in oncology. PMID:21275772

  2. The Theory of Active Involvement: Processes Underlying Interventions that Engage Adolescents in Message Planning and/or Production

    PubMed Central

    Greene, Kathryn

    2013-01-01

    Adolescence is a time of increased risk-taking and recent intervention strategies have included adolescents planning or producing anti-risk messages for their peers. Although these projects may generate enthusiasm, we know little about message planning or production as a strategy for changing adolescent decision-making and behavior. The paper articulates the Theory of Active Involvement (TAI) to describe and explain the processes through which these active involvement interventions influence adolescents. TAI is based on social cognitive theory’s notion of self-regulation and examines multiple perspective-taking and activating the self-reflection processes. The theory specifically describes the process of cognitive changes experienced by participants in active involvement interventions. The sequence is conceptualized as starting when engagement with the intervention (arousal and involvement) produces skill and knowledge gains (immediate outcomes) that lead to reflection (perceived discrepancy) and then other cognitions (expectancies, norms, intentions), with the ultimate outcome being behavior change. Engaging the target audience in a process of self-reflection is conceptualized as the crucial ingredient for meaningful and sustainable change in cognitions and behavior. This paper provides valuable insight into how active involvement strategies function and how to best design these interventions, particularly those targeting adolescents. PMID:23980581

  3. Fantasy Activity and the Televiewing Event: Considerations for an Information Processing Construct of Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindlof, Thomas R.

    The similarities between television viewing and fantasy activity (daydreaming, reverie, mind-wandering, internal dialogue) more than warrant the building of a theoretical construct, especially in the context of recent empirical research on television viewing consequences. A construct of the television viewing process, based on cognitive theories…

  4. Activation of the IL-1beta-processing inflammasome is involved in contact hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hideki; Gaide, Olivier; Pétrilli, Virginie; Martinon, Fabio; Contassot, Emmanuel; Roques, Stéphanie; Kummer, Jean A; Tschopp, Jürg; French, Lars E

    2007-08-01

    The inflammasome is a cytosolic protein complex regulating the activation of caspase-1, which cleaves the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and IL-18 into their active form. The inflammasome is composed of a NACHT-, LRR- and pyrin (NALP) family member that acts as a sensor for danger signals and the adaptor protein apoptosis-associated speck-like protein containing a CARD domain (ASC), which allows the recruitment of caspase-1 in the complex. In the skin, exposure to contact sensitizers (CS) such as trinitro-chlorobenzene causes an immune response called contact hypersensitivity (CHS) or eczema. In this delayed-type hypersensitivity response, efficient priming of the adaptive immunity depends on the concomitant activation of the innate immune system, including IL-1beta/IL-18 activation in the skin. To determine if the inflammasome contributes to CHS, we have analyzed its capacity to react to CS in vitro and in vivo. We show here that key components of the inflammasome are present in human keratinocytes and that CS like trinitro-chlorobenzene induce caspase-1/ASC dependent IL-1beta and IL-18 processing and secretion. We also show that ASC- and NALP3-deficient mice display an impaired response to CS. These findings suggest that CS act as danger signals that activate the inflammasome in the skin, and reveal a new role of NALP3 and ASC as regulators of innate immunity in CHS.

  5. Active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) production involving continuous processes--a process system engineering (PSE)-assisted design framework.

    PubMed

    Cervera-Padrell, Albert E; Skovby, Tommy; Kiil, Søren; Gani, Rafiqul; Gernaey, Krist V

    2012-10-01

    A systematic framework is proposed for the design of continuous pharmaceutical manufacturing processes. Specifically, the design framework focuses on organic chemistry based, active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) synthetic processes, but could potentially be extended to biocatalytic and fermentation-based products. The method exploits the synergic combination of continuous flow technologies (e.g., microfluidic techniques) and process systems engineering (PSE) methods and tools for faster process design and increased process understanding throughout the whole drug product and process development cycle. The design framework structures the many different and challenging design problems (e.g., solvent selection, reactor design, and design of separation and purification operations), driving the user from the initial drug discovery steps--where process knowledge is very limited--toward the detailed design and analysis. Examples from the literature of PSE methods and tools applied to pharmaceutical process design and novel pharmaceutical production technologies are provided along the text, assisting in the accumulation and interpretation of process knowledge. Different criteria are suggested for the selection of batch and continuous processes so that the whole design results in low capital and operational costs as well as low environmental footprint. The design framework has been applied to the retrofit of an existing batch-wise process used by H. Lundbeck A/S to produce an API: zuclopenthixol. Some of its batch operations were successfully converted into continuous mode, obtaining higher yields that allowed a significant simplification of the whole process. The material and environmental footprint of the process--evaluated through the process mass intensity index, that is, kg of material used per kg of product--was reduced to half of its initial value, with potential for further reduction. The case-study includes reaction steps typically used by the pharmaceutical

  6. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng -han; Harrison, Oliver J.; Song, Hang; Smith, Adam W.; Huang, William Y. C.; Lin, Wan -Chen; Guo, Zhenhuan; Padmanabhan, Anup; Troyanovsky, Sergey M.; Dustin, Michael L.; Shapiro, Lawrence; Honig, Barry; Zaidel-Bar, Ronen; Groves, Jay T.

    2015-08-19

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell–cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit α-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest that the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role.

  7. E-cadherin junction formation involves an active kinetic nucleation process

    DOE PAGES

    Biswas, Kabir H.; Hartman, Kevin L.; Yu, Cheng -han; ...

    2015-08-19

    Epithelial (E)-cadherin-mediated cell–cell junctions play important roles in the development and maintenance of tissue structure in multicellular organisms. E-cadherin adhesion is thus a key element of the cellular microenvironment that provides both mechanical and biochemical signaling inputs. Here, we report in vitro reconstitution of junction-like structures between native E-cadherin in living cells and the extracellular domain of E-cadherin in a supported membrane. Junction formation in this hybrid live cell-supported membrane configuration requires both active processes within the living cell and a supported membrane with low E-cad-ECD mobility. The hybrid junctions recruit α-catenin and exhibit remodeled cortical actin. Observations suggest thatmore » the initial stages of junction formation in this hybrid system depend on the trans but not the cis interactions between E-cadherin molecules, and proceed via a nucleation process in which protrusion and retraction of filopodia play a key role.« less

  8. The Orosomucoid 1 protein is involved in the vitamin D – mediated macrophage de-activation process

    SciTech Connect

    Gemelli, Claudia; Martello, Andrea; Montanari, Monica; Zanocco Marani, Tommaso; Salsi, Valentina; Zappavigna, Vincenzo; Parenti, Sandra; Vignudelli, Tatiana; Selmi, Tommaso; Ferrari, Sergio; Grande, Alexis

    2013-12-10

    Orosomucoid 1 (ORM1), also named Alpha 1 acid glycoprotein A (AGP-A), is an abundant plasma protein characterized by anti-inflammatory and immune-modulating properties. The present study was designed to identify a possible correlation between ORM1 and Vitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3), a hormone exerting a widespread effect on cell proliferation, differentiation and regulation of the immune system. In particular, the data described here indicated that ORM1 is a 1,25(OH)2D3 primary response gene, characterized by the presence of a VDRE element inside the 1 kb sequence of its proximal promoter region. This finding was demonstrated with gene expression studies, Chromatin Immunoprecipitation and luciferase transactivation experiments and confirmed by VDR full length and dominant negative over-expression. In addition, several experiments carried out in human normal monocytes demonstrated that the 1,25(OH)2D3 – VDR – ORM1 pathway plays a functional role inside the macrophage de-activation process and that ORM1 may be considered as a signaling molecule involved in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and remodeling. - Highlights: • ORM1 is a Vitamin D primary response gene. • VD and its receptor VDR are involved in the de-activation process mediated by human resident macrophages. • The signaling pathway VD-VDR-ORM1 plays an important role in the control of macrophage de-activation process. • ORM1 may be defined as a signaling molecule implicated in the maintenance of tissue homeostasis and remodeling.

  9. Activation of circulated immune cells and inflammatory immune adherence are involved in the whole process of acute venous thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Le-Min; Duan, Qiang-Lin; Yang, Fan; Yi, Xiang-Hua; Zeng, Yu; Tian, Hong-Yan; Lv, Wei; Jin, Yun

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To investigate localization and distribution of integrin subunit β1, β2 and β3 and morphological changes of ligand-recepter binding in thrombi of acute pulmonary embolism (PE) patients and explore activation of circulated immune cells, inflammatory immune adherence and coagulation response in acute venous thrombosis. Methods: Thrombi were collected from patients with acute PE. Immunohistochemistry was done to detect the expression and distribution of integrin β1, β2 and β3 in cells within thrombi, and ligands of integrin subunit β1, β2 and β3 were also determined by immunohistochemistry within the thrombi. Results: 1) Acute venous thrombi were red thrombi composed of skeletons and filamentous mesh containing large amounts of red blood cells and white blood cells; 2) Integrin subunit β1, β2 and β3 were expressed on lymphocytes, neutrophils and platelets; 3) No expression of integrin β1 ligands: Laminin, Fibronectin, Collagen I or Collagen-II on lymphocytes; integrin β2 ligands including ICAM, factor X and iC3b are distributed on neutrophils, and ligand fibrinogen bound to neutrophils; integrin β3 was expressed on platelets which form the skeleton of thrombi and bound to fibrinogen to construct mesh structure; 4) Factor Xa was expressed on the filamentous mesh; 5) Filamentous mesh was fully filled with red blood cell dominant blood cells. Conclusion: Acute venous thrombosis is an activation process of circulated lymphocytes, neutrophils and platelets mainly, and a whole process including integrin subunit β2 and β3 binding with their ligands. Activation of immune cells, inflammatory immune adherence and coagulation response are involved in the acute venous thrombosis. PMID:24753749

  10. Public Involvement in BOSC Activities

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA policy and the Federal Advisory Committee Act provide for public involvement in committee activities primarily by open access to meetings and records and by providing the public an opportunity to submit comments to the committee.

  11. Promoting Active Involvement in Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Bresnahan, Val; Hedin, Laura

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a rationale for using active involvement techniques, describes large- and small-group methods based on their documented effectiveness and applicability to K-12 classrooms, and illustrates their use. These approaches include ways of engaging students in large groups (e.g., unison responses, response cards, dry-erase boards,…

  12. [Study of possible involvement of MEK mitogen-activated protein kinase and TGF-β receptor in planarian regeneration processes using pharmacological inhibition analysis].

    PubMed

    Ermakov, A M; Ermakova, O N; Ermolaeva, S A

    2014-01-01

    Possible involvement of MEK mitogen-activated protein kinase and TGF-β receptor in the processes of regeneration and morphogenesis in freshwater planarian flatworms Schmidtea mediterranea was studied using a pharmacological inhibitor analysis. It was found that pharmacological inhibitors of these kinases significantly inhibit the regeneration of the head end of the animals and that this effect is realized due to inhibition of proliferative activity of neoblasts, planarian stem cells. It is shown that that the inhibition of the studied protein kinases in regenerating planarians markedly disturbs stem cell differentiation and morphogenesis.

  13. Processing and MHC class II presentation of exogenous soluble antigen involving a proteasome-dependent cytosolic pathway in CD40-activated B cells.

    PubMed

    Becker, Hans Jiro; Kondo, Eisei; Shimabukuro-Vornhagen, Alexander; Theurich, Sebastian; von Bergwelt-Baildon, Michael S

    2016-08-01

    Activated B cells have the capacity to present antigen and induce immune responses as potent antigen-presenting cells (APCs). As in other APCs, antigen presentation by B cells involves antigen internalization, antigen processing, and peptide loading onto MHC molecules. However, while the mechanism of antigen processing has been studied extensively in other APCs, this pathway remains elusive in B cells. The aim of this study was to investigate the MHC class II processing pathway in CD40-activated B cells (CD40Bs), as a model for activated, antigen-presenting B cells. Using CMV pp65 as a model antigen, we evaluated processing and presentation of the CD4 + T-cell epitope 509-523 (K509) by human CD40Bs in ELISPOT assays. As expected, stimulation of specific CD4 + T-cell clones was attenuated after pretreatment of CD40Bs with inhibitors of classic class II pathway components. However, proteasome inhibitors such as epoxomicin limited antigen presentation as well. This suggests that the antigen is processed in a non-classical, cytosolic MHC class II pathway. Further experiments with truncated protein variants revealed involvement of the proteasome in processing of the N and C extensions of the epitope. Access to the cytosol was shown to be size dependent. Epoxomicin sensitivity exclusively in CD40B cells, but not in dendritic cells, suggests a novel processing mechanism unique to this APC. Our data suggest that B cells process antigen using a distinct, non-classical class II pathway.

  14. Involvement of norepinephrine in the control of activity and attentive processes in animal models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Viggiano, D; Ruocco, L A; Arcieri, S; Sadile, A G

    2004-01-01

    Functional and morphological studies in children affected by Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) suggest a prefrontal cortex (PFc) dysfunction. This cortical region is regulated by subcortical systems including noradrenergic (NEergic), dopaminergic (DAergic), cholinergic, serotonergic, and histaminergic pathways. A wealth of data in humans and in animal models demonstrates altered dopamine (DA) regulation. Drugs that modulate norepinephrine (NE) transmission are also effective in ADHD patients, thus leading to the hypothesis of a NEergic disorder. This review covers the regulation of PFc functions by NE and the interaction between the NE and DA systems, as suggested by pharmacological, electrophysiological, morphological, and gene knock out (KO) studies. A negative feedback between NE and DA neurons emerges from KO studies because KO mice showing increased (NE transporter (NET) KO) or decreased (DBH and VMAT2 KO) NE levels are respectively associated with lower and higher DA levels. Locomotor activity can be generally predicted by the DA level, whereas sensitivity to amphetamines is by NE/DA balance. Some animal models of ADHD, such as spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), show alterations in the PFc and in the DA system. Evidence about a correlation between the NE system and hyper-locomotion activity in such animals has not yet been clarified. Therefore, this review also includes recent evidence on the behavioral effects of two NET blockers, reboxetine and atomoxetine, in two animal models of ADHD: SHR and Naples High Excitability rats. As these drugs modulate the DA level in the PFc, certain effects are likely to be due to a rebalanced DA system. We discuss the significance of the results for theories of ADHD and make suggestions for future experimentation.

  15. Getting Involved in the IEP Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kowalski, Ellen; Lieberman, Lauren J.; Daggett, Sara

    2006-01-01

    Although, in many districts, physical educators are integral members of the Individualized Education Program (designed for students with disabilities such as Down syndrome and autism), in other districts, physical educators are only partially involved in the process or are not given the opportunity to be involved at all. However, the physical…

  16. Nitrate transport in cucumber leaves is an inducible process involving an increase in plasma membrane H+-ATPase activity and abundance

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The mechanisms by which nitrate is transported into the roots have been characterized both at physiological and molecular levels. It has been demonstrated that nitrate is taken up in an energy-dependent way by a four-component uptake machinery involving high- and low- affinity transport systems. In contrast very little is known about the physiology of nitrate transport towards different plant tissues and in particular at the leaf level. Results The mechanism of nitrate uptake in leaves of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Chinese long) plants was studied and compared with that of the root. Net nitrate uptake by roots of nitrate-depleted cucumber plants proved to be substrate-inducible and biphasic showing a saturable kinetics with a clear linear non saturable component at an anion concentration higher than 2 mM. Nitrate uptake by leaf discs of cucumber plants showed some similarities with that operating in the roots (e.g. electrogenic H+ dependence via involvement of proton pump, a certain degree of induction). However, it did not exhibit typical biphasic kinetics and was characterized by a higher Km with values out of the range usually recorded in roots of several different plant species. The quantity and activity of plasma membrane (PM) H+-ATPase of the vesicles isolated from leaf tissues of nitrate-treated plants for 12 h (peak of nitrate foliar uptake rate) increased with respect to that observed in the vesicles isolated from N-deprived control plants, thus suggesting an involvement of this enzyme in the leaf nitrate uptake process similar to that described in roots. Molecular analyses suggest the involvement of a specific isoform of PM H+-ATPase (CsHA1) and NRT2 transporter (CsNRT2) in root nitrate uptake. At the leaf level, nitrate treatment modulated the expression of CsHA2, highlighting a main putative role of this isogene in the process. Conclusions Obtained results provide for the first time evidence that a saturable and substrate

  17. Brain mechanisms involved in processing unreal perceptions.

    PubMed

    Ku, Jeonghun; Kim, Jae-Jin; Jung, Young Chul; Park, Il Ho; Lee, Hyeongrae; Han, Kiwan; Yoon, Kang Jun; Kim, In Young; Kim, Sun I

    2008-12-01

    Individuals sometimes experience an illusory or hallucinatory perception. This unreal perception is usually resolved after the individual recognizes that the perception was not real. In this study, we investigated the brain mechanisms involved in the process to an illusory or hallucinatory perception through 'obtaining insight into unreality'. We used a novel and intuitive paradigm designed by combining functional magnetic resonance imaging and augmented reality technology to simulate visual illusory stimuli that mimic hallucinations during brain scanning. The results showed various brain activations, predominantly in the amygdala in the early phase, the medial frontal cortex and the occipitotemporal junction in the middle phase, and the thalamus in the late phase, which correlated with a subject's proneness to hallucinating. These activations may correspond to a 'responding stage' for a perception-based immediate emotional reaction, a 'monitoring stage' for integration and recalibration to ascertain that the perception was not real, and a 'resolving stage' for controlling the information and finally settling it, respectively. Our paradigm and findings may be useful in understanding the mechanisms for discriminating and coping with hallucinatory perceptions.

  18. Processes Involved in Acquisition of Cognitive Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christensen, Carol A.; Bain, John

    Processes involved in the acquisition of cognitive skills were studied through an investigation of the efficacy of initially encoding knowledge of a cognitive skill in either declarative or procedural form. Subjects were 80 university students. The cognitive skill, learning the steps to program a simulated video cassette recorder (VCR), was taught…

  19. Democratizing Process Innovation? On Citizen Involvement in Public Sector BPM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niehaves, Björn; Malsch, Robert

    ‘Open Innovation’ has been heavily discussed for product innovations; however, an information systems (IS) perspective on ‘process innovation’ has not yet been taken. Analyzing the example of the public sector in Germany, the paper seeks to investigate the factors that hinder and support ‘open process innovation’, a concept we define as the involvement of citizens in business process management (BPM) activities. With the help of a quantitative study (n=358), six factors are examined for their impact on citizen involvement in local government BPM initiatives. The results show that citizen involvement in reform processes is not primarily motivated by the aim of cost reduction, but rather related to legitimacy reasons and the intent to increase employee motivation. Based on these findings, implications for (design) theory and practice are discussed: Instead of detailed collaborative business processes modeling, the key of citizen involvement in public sector BPM lies in communication and mutual understanding.

  20. A Model for the Active-Site Formation Process in DMSO Reductase Family Molybdenum Enzymes Involving Oxido-Alcoholato and Oxido-Thiolato Molybdenum(VI) Core Structures.

    PubMed

    Sugimoto, Hideki; Sato, Masanori; Asano, Kaori; Suzuki, Takeyuki; Mieda, Kaoru; Ogura, Takashi; Matsumoto, Takashi; Giles, Logan J; Pokhrel, Amrit; Kirk, Martin L; Itoh, Shinobu

    2016-02-15

    New bis(ene-1,2-dithiolato)-oxido-alcoholato molybdenum(VI) and -oxido-thiolato molybdenum(VI) anionic complexes, denoted as [Mo(VI)O(ER)L2](-) (E = O, S; L = dimethoxycarboxylate-1,2-ethylenedithiolate), were obtained from the reaction of the corresponding dioxido-molybdenum(VI) precursor complex with either an alcohol or a thiol in the presence of an organic acid (e.g., 10-camphorsulfonic acid) at low temperature. The [Mo(VI)O(ER)L2](-) complexes were isolated and characterized, and the structure of [Mo(VI)O(OEt)L2](-) was determined by X-ray crystallography. The Mo(VI) center in [Mo(VI)O(OEt)L2](-) exhibits a distorted octahedral geometry with the two ene-1,2-dithiolate ligands being symmetry inequivalent. The computed structure of [Mo(VI)O(SR)L2](-) is essentially identical to that of [Mo(VI)O(OR)L2](-). The electronic structures of the resulting molybdenum(VI) complexes were evaluated using electronic absorption spectroscopy and bonding calculations. The nature of the distorted O(h) geometry in these [Mo(VI)O(EEt)L2](-) complexes results in a lowest unoccupied molecular orbital wave function that possesses strong π* interactions between the Mo(d(xy)) orbital and the cis S(p(z)) orbital localized on one sulfur donor from a single ene-1,2-dithiolate ligand. The presence of a covalent Mo-S(dithiolene) bonding interaction in these monooxido Mo(VI) compounds contributes to their low-energy ligand-to-metal charge transfer transitions. A second important d-p π bonding interaction derives from the ∼180° O(oxo)-Mo-E-C dihedral angle involving the alcoholate and thiolate donors, and this contributes to ancillary ligand contributions to the electronic structure of these species. The formation of [Mo(VI)O(OEt)L2](-) and [Mo(VI)O(SEt)L2](-) from the dioxidomolybdenum(VI) precursor may be regarded as a model for the active-site formation process that occurs in the dimethyl sulfoxide reductase family of pyranopterin molybdenum enzymes.

  1. Promoting Active Involvement in Today's Classrooms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conderman, Greg; Bresnahan, Val; Hedin, Laura

    2011-01-01

    In today's diverse classrooms and age of accountability, teachers need to use efficient, research-based instructional approaches that engage all students, promote interest and variety in learning and teaching, and provide immediate and continuous informal assessment data. This article presents a rationale for using active involvement techniques,…

  2. Stimulation of non-amyloidogenic processing of amyloid-β protein precursor by cryptotanshinone involves activation and translocation of ADAM10 and PKC-α.

    PubMed

    Durairajan, Siva Sundara Kumar; Liu, Liang-Feng; Lu, Jia-Hong; Koo, Irene; Maruyama, Kei; Chung, Sookja K; Huang, Jian-Dong; Li, Min

    2011-01-01

    Cerebral deposition of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) plaques is now considered the central feature of Alzheimer's disease. Recent studies suggest that cryptotanshinone (CTS) extracted from the root of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge could be used for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer's disease. In this study, we investigated the role of CTS on non-amyloidogenic processing of amyloid-β protein precursor (AβPP) as well as its regulation by protein kinase C (PKC). Treatment with CTS dose-dependently and significantly reduced both intracellular and secreted levels of Aβ40 and Aβ42 in N2a mouse neuroblastoma cells stably expressing human SwedishAβPP (N2a-SwedAβPP). Using N2a-SwedAβPP and human neuroblastoma SHSY5Y cells, it was demonstrated that CTS significantly and dose-dependently increased the production of sAβPPα and C-terminal fragment-α (CTF-α) from AβPP. At the same time, CTS specifically increased the maturation of "a disintegrin and metalloproteinase-10" (ADAM10), an α-secretase candidate. The increase of sAβPPα secretion by CTS was blocked by the hydroxamate-based inhibitors GI254023X and GW280264X, and by the PKC-α inhibitor GÖ6976, suggesting involvement of the ADAM10 and PKC-α in CTS-induced α-secretase cleavage. In other experiments, CTS induced the phosphorylation of PKC-α indicating that PKC-α is involved in CTS-induced sAβPPα secretion. Furthermore, treatment of neuroblastoma cells with CTS induced the co-translocation of ADAM10 and PKC-α to the cell membrane, the site at which AβPP was cleaved, and this translocation was significantly reduced by GÖ6976. These results suggest that CTS-induced sAβPPα secretion is regulated by a PKC-α and ADAM10 cascade in neuroblastoma cells and may be involved in the lowering of Aβ production.

  3. The Processes Involved in Designing Software.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-01

    compiler’s task was to derive the sequence of IPL instructions that brought about that transformation. The other form of deflnillons was In terms of...used suitably generalized forms of means-ends analysis to generate sequences of IPL instructions that would meet the Input specifications. One branch...processes called critics are used to reorganize this more detailed plan Into an Internally consistent and efficient sequence of actions. The process

  4. Meningiomas involving the anterior clinoid process.

    PubMed

    Risi, P; Uske, A; de Tribolet, N

    1994-01-01

    We report a series of 34 clinoidal meningiomas treated surgically and analyse the results according to cavernous sinus involvement. Fifteen tumours extended into the cavernous sinus. Only four of these could be resected completely, and global outcome was improved or stable in 10 cases. Overall, 20 tumours had a total resection and 14 had a partial resection. Complete removal of the sphenoid wing, including the anterior clinoid and part of the planum sphenoidale, allows early devascularization of the tumour and minimizes brain retraction when associated with resection of the zygomatic arch. The most frequent postoperative complication was transient CSF leak, occurring in three patients. Two patients died postoperatively, and three suffered permanent complications. There was no recurrence after total removal, but five patients showed signs of progressive tumour growth after partial removal, treated by radiotherapy in three and by surgery in two cases. Twenty patients showed preoperative visual impairment. Outcome of vision was improved or stable in 13 (68%) and worse in six cases (32%). We suggest that progressive visual impairment should lead to aggressive surgical treatment, especially when complete resection of cavernous sinus involvement can be performed.

  5. Artificial concurrent catalytic processes involving enzymes.

    PubMed

    Köhler, Valentin; Turner, Nicholas J

    2015-01-11

    The concurrent operation of multiple catalysts can lead to enhanced reaction features including (i) simultaneous linear multi-step transformations in a single reaction flask (ii) the control of intermediate equilibria (iii) stereoconvergent transformations (iv) rapid processing of labile reaction products. Enzymes occupy a prominent position for the development of such processes, due to their high potential compatibility with other biocatalysts. Genes for different enzymes can be co-expressed to reconstruct natural or construct artificial pathways and applied in the form of engineered whole cell biocatalysts to carry out complex transformations or, alternatively, the enzymes can be combined in vitro after isolation. Moreover, enzyme variants provide a wider substrate scope for a given reaction and often display altered selectivities and specificities. Man-made transition metal catalysts and engineered or artificial metalloenzymes also widen the range of reactivities and catalysed reactions that are potentially employable. Cascades for simultaneous cofactor or co-substrate regeneration or co-product removal are now firmly established. Many applications of more ambitious concurrent cascade catalysis are only just beginning to appear in the literature. The current review presents some of the most recent examples, with an emphasis on the combination of transition metal with enzymatic catalysis and aims to encourage researchers to contribute to this emerging field.

  6. Cooperative neural processes involved in stereoscopic acuity.

    PubMed

    Westheimer, G

    1979-08-01

    Results of psychophysical experiments are reported showing that synchrony, appropriate relative placement, and absence of standing disparity are important conditions to be met by members of a target configuration if they are to participate in the cooperative neural processes leading to the best disparity discrimination. Consecutive binocular presentation of the members of a stereo target decreases stereoacuity by a factor of about 10, and a step disparity displacement of a single line target needs to be larger still to be detected as a depth stimulus. A standing disaprity of even one minute of arc at least doubles the disaprity disxrimination threshold. It is postulated that a differencing mechanism operates on the depth signal of individual features; the temporal and spatial optima of target presentation for stereoscopic acuity outline the character of the concerned operations.

  7. Trypsin activity is not involved in premature, intrapancreatic trypsinogen activation.

    PubMed

    Halangk, Walter; Krüger, Burkhard; Ruthenbürger, Manuel; Stürzebecher, Jörg; Albrecht, Elke; Lippert, Hans; Lerch, Markus M

    2002-02-01

    A premature and intracellular activation of digestive zymogens is thought to be responsible for the onset of pancreatitis. Because trypsin has a critical role in initiating the activation cascade of digestive enzymes in the gut, it has been assumed that trypsin also initiates intracellular zymogen activation in the pancreas. We have tested this hypothesis in isolated acini and lobules from rat pancreas. Intracellular trypsinogen activation was induced by supramaximal secretagogue stimulation and measured using either specific trypsin substrates or immunoreactivity of the trypsinogen activation peptide (TAP). To prevent a trypsin-induced trypsinogen activation, we used the cell-permeant, highly specific, and reversible inhibitor Nalpha-(2-naphthylsulfonyl)-3-amidinophenylalanine-carboxymethylpiperazide (S124), and to prevent cathepsin-induced trypsinogen activation, we used the cysteine protease inhibitor E-64d. Incubation of acini or lobules in the presence of S124 completely prevented the generation of trypsin activity in response to supramaximal caerulein but had no effect whatsoever on the generation of TAP. Conversely, when trypsin activity was recovered at the end of the experiment by either washout of S124 from acini or extensive dilution of lobule homogenates, it was up to 400% higher than after caerulein alone and corresponded, in molar terms, to the generation of TAP. Both trypsin activity and TAP release were inhibited in parallel by E-64d. We conclude that caerulein-induced trypsinogen activation in the pancreas is caused by an E-64d-inhibitable mechanism such as cathepsin-induced trypsinogen activation, and neither involves nor requires intracellular trypsin activity. Specific trypsin inhibition, on the other hand, prevents 80% of trypsin inactivation or autodegradation in the pancreas.

  8. [Proteins of human milk involved in immunological processes].

    PubMed

    Lis, Jolanta; Orczyk-Pawiłowicz, Magdalena; Kątnik-Prastowska, Iwona

    2013-05-31

    Human milk contains a lot of components (i.e. proteins, carbohydrates, lipids, inorganic elements) which provide basic nutrients for infants during the first period of their lives. Qualitative composition of milk components of healthy mothers is similar, but their levels change during lactation stages. Colostrum is the fluid secreted during the first days postpartum by mammary epithelial cells. Colostrum is replaced by transitional milk during 5-15 days postpartum and from 15 days postpartum mature milk is produced. Human milk, apart from nutritional components, is a source of biologically active molecules, i.e. immunoglobulins, growth factors, cytokines, acute phase proteins, antiviral and antibacterial proteins. Such components of human milk are responsible for specific biological activities of human milk. This secretion plays an important role in growth and development of newborns. Bioactive molecules present in the milk support the immature immune system of the newborn and also protect against the development of infection. In this article we describe the pathways involved in the production and secretion of human milk, the state of knowledge on the proteome of human milk, and the contents of components of milk during lactation. Moreover, some growth factors and proteins involved in innate and specific immunity, intercellular communication, immunomodulation, and inflammatory processes have been characterized.

  9. Active braze process

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, I.L.; Pike, R.A.

    1990-11-02

    Active metal bonding using Cusil (silver-copper) braze alloys is a well established method used at GE Neutron Devices (GEND) for bonding metal to metal, metal to ceramics, and ceramics to ceramics. However, there are many instances in which using a silver alloy for bonding is undesirable (e.g., in vacuum tube envelopes, or where sequential braze steps at different temperatures are required to complete an assembly). The Material and Processes Laboratory at GEND has discovered a new method of active brazing with non-silver alloys which has proved especially successful in ceramic-to-ceramic joints. This method has the added advantage of eliminating several steps which are required in conventional bonding techniques. 2 figs., 10 tabs.

  10. Collisional and dissociative processes involving molecular free radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagdigian, Paul J.; Alexander, Millard H.

    1995-04-01

    A collaborative experimental and theoretical study of a number of elementary collisional processes involving small molecular free radicals of importance in combustion and in the decomposition of propellants has been carried out. These have involved chemical reactions and photodissociation, as well as nonreactive collision-induced rotational and electronic transitions. Information on non-bonding interactions involving free radicals was also obtained from analysis of the electronic spectrum of van der Waals complexes of these species.

  11. Kenyan Nurses Involvement in National Policy Development Processes

    PubMed Central

    Juma, Pamela Atieno

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to critically examine how nurses have been involved in national policy processes in the Kenyan health sector. The paper reports qualitative results from a larger mixed method study. National nonnursing decision-makers and nurse leaders, and provincial managers as well as frontline nurse managers from two Kenyan districts were purposefully selected for interviews. Interviews dealt with nurses' involvement in national policy processes, factors hindering nurses' engagement in policy processes, and ways to enhance nurses' involvement in policy processes. Critical theory and feminist perspectives guided the study process. Content analysis of data was conducted. Findings revealed that nurses' involvement in policy processes in Kenya was limited. Only a few nurse leaders were involved in national policy committees as a result of their positions in the sector. Critical analysis of the findings revealed that hierarchies and structural factors as well as nursing professional issues were the primary barriers constraining nurses' involvement in policy processes. Thus, there is need to address these factors both by nurses themselves and by nonnursing decision makers, in order to enhance nurses engagement in policy making and further the contribution to quality of services to the communities. PMID:25349731

  12. Kenyan nurses involvement in national policy development processes.

    PubMed

    Juma, Pamela Atieno; Edwards, Nancy; Spitzer, Denise

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to critically examine how nurses have been involved in national policy processes in the Kenyan health sector. The paper reports qualitative results from a larger mixed method study. National nonnursing decision-makers and nurse leaders, and provincial managers as well as frontline nurse managers from two Kenyan districts were purposefully selected for interviews. Interviews dealt with nurses' involvement in national policy processes, factors hindering nurses' engagement in policy processes, and ways to enhance nurses' involvement in policy processes. Critical theory and feminist perspectives guided the study process. Content analysis of data was conducted. Findings revealed that nurses' involvement in policy processes in Kenya was limited. Only a few nurse leaders were involved in national policy committees as a result of their positions in the sector. Critical analysis of the findings revealed that hierarchies and structural factors as well as nursing professional issues were the primary barriers constraining nurses' involvement in policy processes. Thus, there is need to address these factors both by nurses themselves and by nonnursing decision makers, in order to enhance nurses engagement in policy making and further the contribution to quality of services to the communities.

  13. Parental Involvement in the Prereferral Process: Implications for Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wei-Bing; Gregory, Anne

    2011-01-01

    Little is known about parental involvement in the prereferral intervention team (PIT) process. To shed light on the role of parental involvement in PIT meetings and referred student outcomes, this study used a stratified sample of 88 PIT student records from 14 elementary schools within one district. The records were randomly selected and reliably…

  14. Computational Insights on the Mechanism of H2 Activation at Ir2S2(PPh3)4: A Combination of Multiple Reaction Pathways Involving Facile H Migration Processes.

    PubMed

    Algarra, Andrés G

    2017-01-03

    The complex Ir2S2(PPh3)4 (1) is known to react with 1 and 2 equivalents of H2 leading to [Ir(H)(PPh3)2]2(μ-S)2 (2) and Ir2(μ-S)(μ-SH)(μ-H)H2(PPh3)4 (4), respectively ( Linck , R. C. ; Pafford , R. J. ; Rauchfuss , T. B. J. Am. Chem. Soc. 2001 , 123 , 8856 - 8857 ). Herein, the results of a thorough computational (DFT) study of these formally homo- and heterolytic H2 activation processes, respectively, are presented. These indicate that 2 is formed in a two-step process whereby the oxidative addition of H2 at a single Ir(II) center of 1 generates an intermediate (A) that rearranges into 2 by means of a facile H migration to the neighboring Ir center. Activation of the second equivalent of H2 most likely occurs at the bridging sulfur ligands of 2 leading to a reaction intermediate (3aa) that features two (μ-SH) ligands. Intermediate 3aa present two isomers that differ only on the stereochemistry of the (μ-SH) ligands, and both of them can further evolve into 4 via H migration from (μ-SH) to bridging (μ-H). Nevertheless, an alternative mechanism based on the initial isomerization of 2 into A, and followed by H2 coordination and activation steps at a single Ir center cannot be completely ruled out. In general, the results herein show that the mechanisms for the activation of H2 at 1 and 2 involve facile H migration processes, in agreement with the experimentally observed intermetallic hydride exchange in 2 and the exchange between IrH and SH centers in 4, which proceed with computed free energy barriers of ca. 19-23 kcal mol(-1).

  15. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS (PRESENTATION)

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  16. DESIGN CONSIDERATION INVOLVING ACTIVE SEDIMENT CAPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    When contaminated sediments pose unacceptable risks to human health and the environment, management activities such as removal, treatment, or isolation of contaminated sediments may be required. Various capping designs are being considered for isolating contaminated sediment are...

  17. Involving Parents in the Schools: A Process of Empowerment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Delgado-Gaitan, Concha

    A 4-year ethnographic study in Carpinteria, California, examined the school district's parental involvement activities for their effectiveness with lower-class Spanish-speaking parents. Research at three elementary schools included observations of traditional activities, such as parent-teacher conferences and open house, and non-conventional…

  18. Political Advocacy Handbook: Activating Grassroots Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bootel, Jaclyn A.; Warger, Cynthia L.

    This handbook is designed to assist special education advocates in developing the capacity to mount an effective advocacy campaign at the state and federal levels. It is divided into the following four separate training modules: (1) "Introduction to Advocacy"; (2) "Understanding the Governmental Process"; (3) "Changing Public Policy"; and (4)…

  19. Analysis and computer tools for separation processes involving nonideal mixtures

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, A.

    1992-05-01

    The objectives of this research, were to continue to further both the theoretical understanding of and the development of computer tools (algorithms) for separation processes involving nonideal mixtures. These objectives were divided into three interrelated major areas -- the mathematical analysis of the number of steady-state solutions to multistage separation processes, the numerical analysis of general, related fixed-point methods, and the development and implementation of computer tools for process simulation.

  20. Measuring psychological engagement in youth activity involvement.

    PubMed

    Ramey, Heather L; Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Busseri, Michael A; Gadbois, Shannon; Bowker, Anne; Findlay, Leanne

    2015-12-01

    Although psychological engagement (e.g., enjoyment, concentration) may be critical in fostering positive outcomes of youth activity participation, too few studies have been conducted to establish its role in development. Furthermore, an established measurement tool is lacking. In the current study, we evaluated a brief engagement measure with two Canadian samples of youth (Sample 1, N = 290, mean age = 16.9 years, 62% female; Sample 2, N = 1827, mean age = 13.1 years, 54% female). We conducted a confirmatory factor analysis with structural equation modeling to examine the hypothesized structure of the model. We also assessed the measure's validity by testing relations between engagement and both perceived outcomes and positive features of activity settings. Psychological engagement was best captured by three latent cognitive, affective, and relational/spiritual factors and a second-order latent factor. Also, as anticipated, psychological engagement was associated with features of the activity setting and perceived impact.

  1. Involvement of nitric oxide in learning & memory processes

    PubMed Central

    Paul, Vanaja; Ekambaram, Perumal

    2011-01-01

    Nitric oxide (NO), synthesized from the amino acid, L-arginine by nitric oxide synthase (NOS) has received attention as a neurotransmitter in the brain. NO has been found to induce cognitive behaviour in experimental animals. In order to show evidence for the involvement of NO in learning and memory processes, the reports indicating the effects of its precursor, donors, and inhibitors of its synthesis in mammals, birds, fishes and invertebrates have been reviewed. Further, learning and memory impairment occurring in man and animals due to defective NO activity in the brain due to pathological conditions such as epilepsy, stress, diabetes and side effects of therapeutic agents and reversal of this condition by L-arginine and NO donors have been included. In addition, the reports that indicate ageing-induced impairment of cognition that is known to occur in Alzheimer's disease due to deposition of the toxic protein, beta amyloid and the effect of L-arginine and NO donors in preventing dementia in these patients have been reviewed. PMID:21623030

  2. Systems engineering and integration processes involved with manned mission operations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kranz, Eugene F.; Kraft, Christopher C.

    1993-01-01

    This paper will discuss three mission operations functions that are illustrative of the key principles of operations SE&I and of the processes and products involved. The flight systems process was selected to illustrate the role of the systems product line in developing the depth and cross disciplinary skills needed for SE&I and providing the foundation for dialogue between participating elements. FDDD was selected to illustrate the need for a structured process to assure that SE&I provides complete and accurate results that consistently support program needs. The flight director's role in mission operations was selected to illustrate the complexity of the risk/gain tradeoffs involved in the development of the flight techniques and flight rules process as well as the absolute importance of the leadership role in developing the technical, operational, and political trades.

  3. Mucocele involving the anterior clinoid process: MR and CT findings.

    PubMed

    Lim, C C; Dillon, W P; McDermott, M W

    1999-02-01

    We report two patients with surgically proved mucoceles involving the anterior clinoid process. One patient had a mucocele of an Onodi cell and the other had a mucocele isolated to the anterior clinoid process. The MR signal was increased on both T1- and T2-weighted images in the first patient but was isointense on both sequences in the second patient, a finding that resulted in misdiagnosis. The developmental and anatomic features, as well as the diagnostic pitfalls, are discussed.

  4. Analysis of bilinear stochastic systems. [involving multiplicative noise processes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willsky, A. S.; Marcus, S. I.; Martin, D. N.

    1974-01-01

    Analysis of stochastic dynamical systems that involve multiplicative (bilinear) noise processes is considered. After defining the systems of interest, the evolution of the moments of such systems, the question of stochastic stability, and estimation for bilinear stochastic systems are discussed. Both exact and approximate methods of analysis are introduced, and, in particular, the uses of Lie-theoretic concepts and harmonic analysis are discussed.

  5. Negotiated Evaluation: Involving Children and Parents in the Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woodward, Helen

    Based on the idea that assessment and evaluation have become major concerns in elementary education, this book offers a solution for involving both children and parents in the processes of evaluation. Arguing for a program known as "negotiated evaluation," the book gives practical suggestions for implementing the program; looks at…

  6. Trust, the Democratic Process, and Involvement in a Rural Community

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marquart-Pyatt, Sandra T.; Petrzelka, Peggy

    2008-01-01

    A number of dimensions of the democratic political process are important for understanding civic communities and civic engagement. While many of these aspects have been examined at the federal level, less is known about how these dynamics operate at the local level, especially in rural communities, and that, moreover, involve a specific issue. In…

  7. A Process Model of Organizational Commitment and Job Involvement.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-09-01

    AD-A123 043 A PROCESS MODEL OF ORGANIZATIONAL COMMITMENT AND JOB I INVOLVEMENT(U) AIR FORCE INST OF TECH WR IGHT PATTERSON AFB OH SCHOL OF SYSTEMS...Appo @1 inu pubo 01004 Aocesston For NTIS CRA&I DTIC TAB Unannounced 0I Justfication - gI, Distr" ’ut ioi / Af t A PROCESS MODEL OF ORGANIZATIONAL...GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3. RECIPIENT’S CATALOG NUMBER LSSR 76-82 1,3b - 4. TITLE (and Subtitle) S. TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED A PROCESS MODEL OF

  8. Exploring Extension Involvement in Farm to School Program Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Matthew C.

    2014-01-01

    The study reported here examined Extension professionals' involvement in farm-to-school program activities. Results of an online survey distributed to eight state Extension systems indicate that on average, Extension professionals are involved with one farm to school program activity, with most supporting school or community garden programs.…

  9. Involvement in Extracurricular Activities and Adjustment to College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woo, Tae O.; Bilynsky, Julie

    Past research has supported the idea that involvement in extracurricular activities has a positive impact on students' evaluation of their college lives. This study investigated whether involvement, as measured by time commitment to campus activities, had a differential impact on the students' adjustment to various aspects of college life,…

  10. Basic Business and Economics: Varied Activities Encourage Active Student Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker, Robert Lee, Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Describes a variety of activities for the basic business classroom, such as having guest speakers, question-and-answer sessions, simulations, role playing, debates, small group work, field trips, games, and individualized instruction. Includes a report of business teachers' knowledge of and attitudes toward these activities. (MF)

  11. Predicting involvement in prison gang activity: street gang membership, social and psychological factors.

    PubMed

    Wood, Jane L; Alleyne, Emma; Mozova, Katarina; James, Mark

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether street gang membership, psychological factors, and social factors such as preprison experiences could predict young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Data were collected via individual interviews with 188 young offenders held in a Young Offenders Institution in the United Kingdom. Results showed that psychological factors such as the value individuals attached to social status, a social dominance orientation, and antiauthority attitudes were important in predicting young offenders' involvement in prison gang activity. Further important predictors included preimprisonment events such as levels of threat, levels of individual delinquency, and levels of involvement in group crime. Longer current sentences also predicted involvement in prison gang activity. However, street gang membership was not an important predictor of involvement in prison gang activity. These findings have implications for identifying prisoners involved in prison gang activity and for considering the role of psychological factors and group processes in gang research.

  12. Empirical Evidence or Intuition? An Activity Involving the Scientific Method

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Overway, Ken

    2007-01-01

    Students need to have basic understanding of scientific method during their introductory science classes and for this purpose an activity was devised which involved a game based on famous Monty Hall game problem. This particular activity allowed students to banish or confirm their intuition based on empirical evidence.

  13. Pathogenic Leptospira interrogans Exoproteins Are Primarily Involved in Heterotrophic Processes

    PubMed Central

    Eshghi, Azad; Pappalardo, Elisa; Hester, Svenja; Thomas, Benjamin; Pretre, Gabriela

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a life-threatening and emerging zoonotic disease with a worldwide annual occurrence of more than 1 million cases. Leptospirosis is caused by spirochetes belonging to the genus Leptospira. The mechanisms of disease manifestation in the host remain elusive, and the roles of leptospiral exoproteins in these processes have yet to be determined. Our aim in this study was to assess the composition and quantity of exoproteins of pathogenic Leptospira interrogans and to construe how these proteins contribute to disease pathogenesis. Label-free quantitative mass spectrometry of proteins obtained from Leptospira spirochetes cultured in vitro under conditions mimicking infection identified 325 exoproteins. The majority of these proteins are conserved in the nonpathogenic species Leptospira biflexa, and proteins involved in metabolism and energy-generating functions were overrepresented and displayed the highest relative abundance in culture supernatants. Conversely, proteins of unknown function, which represent the majority of pathogen-specific proteins (presumably involved in virulence mechanisms), were underrepresented. Characterization of various L. interrogans exoprotein mutants in the animal infection model revealed host mortality rates similar to those of hosts infected with wild-type L. interrogans. Collectively, these results indicate that pathogenic Leptospira exoproteins primarily function in heterotrophic processes (the processes by which organisms utilize organic substances as nutrient sources) to maintain the saprophytic lifestyle rather than the virulence of the bacteria. The underrepresentation of proteins homologous to known virulence factors, such as toxins and effectors in the exoproteome, also suggests that disease manifesting from Leptospira infection is likely caused by a combination of the primary and potentially moonlight functioning of exoproteins. PMID:25987703

  14. Cognitive processes involved in smooth pursuit eye movements.

    PubMed

    Barnes, G R

    2008-12-01

    Ocular pursuit movements allow moving objects to be tracked with a combination of smooth movements and saccades. The principal objective is to maintain smooth eye velocity close to object velocity, thus minimising retinal image motion and maintaining acuity. Saccadic movements serve to realign the image if it falls outside the fovea, the area of highest acuity. Pursuit movements are often portrayed as voluntary but their basis lies in processes that sense retinal motion and can induce eye movements without active participation. The factor distinguishing pursuit from such reflexive movements is the ability to select and track a single object when presented with multiple stimuli. The selective process requires attention, which appears to raise the gain for the selected object and/or suppress that associated with other stimuli, the resulting competition often reducing pursuit velocity. Although pursuit is essentially a feedback process, delays in motion processing create problems of stability and speed of response. This is countered by predictive processes, probably operating through internal efference copy (extra-retinal) mechanisms using short-term memory to store velocity and timing information from prior stimulation. In response to constant velocity motion, the initial response is visually driven, but extra-retinal mechanisms rapidly take over and sustain pursuit. The same extra-retinal mechanisms may also be responsible for generating anticipatory smooth pursuit movements when past experience creates expectancy of impending object motion. Similar, but more complex, processes appear to operate during periodic pursuit, where partial trajectory information is stored and released in anticipation of expected future motion, thus minimising phase errors associated with motion processing delays.

  15. The timing of anterior temporal lobe involvement in semantic processing.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Rebecca L; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A; Pobric, Gorana

    2015-07-01

    Despite indications that regions within the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) might make a crucial contribution to pan-modal semantic representation, to date there have been no investigations of when during semantic processing the ATL plays a critical role. To test the timing of the ATL involvement in semantic processing, we studied the effect of double-pulse TMS on behavioral responses in semantic and difficulty-matched control tasks. Chronometric TMS was delivered over the left ATL (10 mm from the tip of the temporal pole along the middle temporal gyrus). During each trial, two pulses of TMS (40 msec apart) were delivered either at baseline (before stimulus presentation) or at one of the experimental time points 100, 250, 400, and 800 msec poststimulus onset. A significant disruption to performance was identified from 400 msec on the semantic task but not on the control assessment. Our results not only reinforce the key role of the left ATL in semantic representation but also indicate that its contribution is especially important around 400 msec poststimulus onset. Together, these facts suggest that the ATL may be one of the neural sources of the N400 ERP component.

  16. Bringing Person-Centeredness and Active Involvement into Reality

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Torenholt, Rikke; Engelund, Gitte; Willaing, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the use and applicability of cultural probes--an explorative participatory method to gain insights into a person's life and thoughts--to achieve person-centeredness and active involvement in self-management education for people with chronic illness. Design/methodology/approach: An education toolkit…

  17. Identifying Associations between Student Achievement and Parental Involvement Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waddle, Ann R.

    2011-01-01

    The revision and renewal of the Elementary and Secondary Education Act of 1965 will likely expand its parental involvement component to engage educators, parents, and community partners in supporting public education for children. This revisions call for best practices, but current literature fails to identify specific activities associated…

  18. Moon Watch: A Parental-Involvement Homework Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rillero, Peter; Gonzalez-Jensen, Margarita; Moy, Tracy

    2000-01-01

    Presents the goals, philosophy, and methods of the SPLASH (Student-Parent Laboratories Achieving Science at Home) program. Describes an at-home, parental-involvement activity called Moon Watch in which students and their parents observe how the phases of the moon and the moon's position in the sky change over a two-week period. (WRM)

  19. [Medical certification in workers involved in logging and wood-processing].

    PubMed

    Romankow, Jacek

    2007-01-01

    Activities involved in forestry and woodworking industry are associated with workers being exposed to numerous environmental and technology-related factors that are detrimental to their health. Such hazards include working in changeable climatic conditions, in the vicinity of heavy equipment, exposure to noise, chainsaw vibrations, enforced body positioning, hard physical work, the effect of exhaust gases, potential effects of biological factors, including epizootic diseases. Wood processing involves performing mechanical activities employing tools and machines, as well as processes utilizing various chemical substances. Forestry and woodworking industry workers may deal both with timber and with wood products. In medical certification, the following issues are of significance: work in the vicinity of rotational elements, noise, effects of chemicals or biological factors, including carcinogenic substances. For this reason, the procedures involved in medical examinations of such workers are complex.

  20. A voice from the high wire: Public involvement in a co-operative siting process

    SciTech Connect

    Oates, D.J.L.

    1995-05-01

    The author is a public consultation and communications consultant to the Siting Task Force (STF), Low level Radioactive Waste Management. The STF is a Canadian government-appointed yet independent body implementing a voluntary, co-operative siting process for a long term storage or disposal facility for 1 million cubic metres of LLRW. The presentation will document the experiences of and lessons learned by the author during her role developing and implementing a public involvement program for the process. The Co-operative Siting Process is a new approach to siting controversial facilities. It is based on the belief that communities should accept such a facility in their backyard and not be forced against their will on technical or political grounds. A formal `ground rules-up-front` process was developed and is now being carried out, with completion slated for April, 1995. Putting these rules and theories into practice has resulted in significant changes being made to the work plan for technical activities, and in a sober second look at the intricacies involved in planning and carrying out a thorough and efficient public involvement program that remain practical and cost-effective. There is a delicate balancing act between meaningful public participation that lays the foundation for trust, confidence and consensus, and public involvement that can result in the process being side-tracked and legitimate solutions and technical activities becoming mired in political and personal agendas.

  1. Drowning unconformities: Palaeoenvironmental significance and involvement of global processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Godet, Alexis

    2013-07-01

    Drowning unconformities are stratigraphic key surfaces in the history of carbonate platforms. They mostly consist in the deposition of deep marine facies on top of shallow marine limestones. Although large-scale depositional geometries mimic lowstand systems track architecture, these sedimentary turnovers are developed in relation with major sea level rise, inducing an increase in the rate of creation of accommodation space that outpaces the capacity of carbonate to keep up. This so-called paradox of carbonate platform drowning implies that parameters other than purely eustatic fluctuations are involved in the demise of shallow marine ecosystems. Worldwide and at different times during Earth history, in-depth studies of drowning unconformities revealed that changes in nutrient input, clastic delivery, temperature, or a combination of them may be responsible for a decrease in light penetration in the water column and the progressive suffocation and poisoning of photosynthetic carbonate producers. The examination of such case examples from various stratigraphic intervals and palaeogeographical settings thus helps in identifying and hierarchizing potential triggering mechanisms for drowning unconformities. This is complemented by new data from Early Cretaceous successions from the Helvetic Alps. During this time period, the Helvetic carbonate platform developed along the northern Tethyan margin using both photozoan and heterozoan communities. Phases of healthy production were interrupted by several drowning episodes. The latter are marked in the sedimentary record by condensation and associated phosphogenesis and glauconitisation. From the earliest Valanginian to the early to late Barremian, three drowning unconformities reflect the intermittent installation of a more humid climate and subsequent enhanced trophic conditions, which first induced a switch from photozoan to heterozoan communities and then to long-lasting drowning phases. The latter encompass several sea

  2. Active Inference: A Process Theory.

    PubMed

    Friston, Karl; FitzGerald, Thomas; Rigoli, Francesco; Schwartenbeck, Philipp; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2017-01-01

    This article describes a process theory based on active inference and belief propagation. Starting from the premise that all neuronal processing (and action selection) can be explained by maximizing Bayesian model evidence-or minimizing variational free energy-we ask whether neuronal responses can be described as a gradient descent on variational free energy. Using a standard (Markov decision process) generative model, we derive the neuronal dynamics implicit in this description and reproduce a remarkable range of well-characterized neuronal phenomena. These include repetition suppression, mismatch negativity, violation responses, place-cell activity, phase precession, theta sequences, theta-gamma coupling, evidence accumulation, race-to-bound dynamics, and transfer of dopamine responses. Furthermore, the (approximately Bayes' optimal) behavior prescribed by these dynamics has a degree of face validity, providing a formal explanation for reward seeking, context learning, and epistemic foraging. Technically, the fact that a gradient descent appears to be a valid description of neuronal activity means that variational free energy is a Lyapunov function for neuronal dynamics, which therefore conform to Hamilton's principle of least action.

  3. Public Involvement in the Corps of Engineers Planning Process

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1975-10-01

    obtaining citizen input, guidelines for developing public information programs, monitoring and evaluation of programs, and staff organization and...Information Media 25 Chapter IV DETERMINING THE EFFECTIVENESS OF PUBLIC INVOLVEMENT: MONITORING AND EVALUATION 27 Public Checkpoint Meetings...27 The Checkpoint Conferences 28 The Role of the Public in Monitoring and Evaluation 28 Formal Methods for Monitoring and Evaluation 29

  4. Parental Involvement and Children's School Achievement: Evidence for Mediating Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rogers, Maria A.; Theule, Jennifer; Ryan, Bruce A.; Adams, Gerald R.; Keating, Leo

    2009-01-01

    This study used path analytic techniques and an ecological framework to examine the association between children's perceptions of their parents' educational involvement, children's personal characteristics, and their school achievement. Fathers' academic pressure was predictive of lower achievement, whereas mothers' encouragement and support…

  5. Process Guide for Student Involvement in Historical Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Charles; Lenihan, J. Michael

    The booklet describes the local history component of an interdisciplinary high school course on American Studies. The program involves students over a three-year period in collecting, recording, organizing, interpreting, and disseminating the history, culture, and tradition of Scituate, Rhode Island. The booklet is presented in six chapters.…

  6. Dissociations in Processing Derivational Morphology: The Right Basal Ganglia Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marangolo, Paola; Piras, Fabrizio

    2008-01-01

    In the neuropsychological literature, there is converging evidence for a dominant role of the left hemisphere in morphological processing. However, two right hemisphere patients were described with a clear dissociation between impaired derivational morphology and preserved inflectional processing. A recent fMRI experiment confirmed the involvement…

  7. Active stream segregation specifically involves the left human auditory cortex.

    PubMed

    Deike, Susann; Scheich, Henning; Brechmann, André

    2010-06-14

    An important aspect of auditory scene analysis is the sequential grouping of similar sounds into one "auditory stream" while keeping competing streams separate. In the present low-noise fMRI study we presented sequences of alternating high-pitch (A) and low-pitch (B) complex harmonic tones using acoustic parameters that allow the perception of either two separate streams or one alternating stream. However, the subjects were instructed to actively and continuously segregate the A from the B stream. This was controlled by the additional instruction to listen for rare level deviants only in the low-pitch stream. Compared to the control condition in which only one non-separable stream was presented the active segregation of the A from the B stream led to a selective increase of activation in the left auditory cortex (AC). Together with a similar finding from a previous study using a different acoustic cue for streaming, namely timbre, this suggests that the left auditory cortex plays a dominant role in active sequential stream segregation. However, we found cue differences within the left AC: Whereas in the posterior areas, including the planum temporale, activation increased for both acoustic cues, the anterior areas, including Heschl's gyrus, are only involved in stream segregation based on pitch.

  8. Domain General Sequence Operations Contribute to Pre-SMA Involvement in Visuo-spatial Processing.

    PubMed

    Leek, E Charles; Yuen, Kenneth S L; Johnston, Stephen J

    2016-01-01

    This study used 3T MRI to elucidate the functional role of supplementary motor area (SMA) in relation to visuo-spatial processing. A localizer task contrasting sequential number subtraction and repetitive button pressing was used to functionally delineate non-motor sequence processing in pre-SMA, and activity in SMA-proper associated with motor sequencing. Patterns of BOLD responses in these regions were then contrasted to those from two tasks of visuo-spatial processing. In one task participants performed Mental Rotation (MR) in which recognition memory judgments were made to previously memorized 2D novel patterns across image-plane rotations. The other task involved abstract grid navigation (GN) in which observers computed a series of imagined location shifts in response to directional (arrow) cues around a mental grid. The results showed overlapping activation in pre-SMA for sequential subtraction and both visuo-spatial tasks. These results suggest that visuo-spatial processing is supported by non-motor sequence operations that involve pre-SMA. More broadly, these data further highlight the functional heterogeneity of pre-SMA, and show that its role extends to processes beyond the planning and online control of movement.

  9. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county's future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  10. Final report on the public involvement process phase 1, Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility Feasibility Study

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, L.; Shanteau, C.

    1992-12-01

    This report summarizes the pubic involvement component of Phase 1 of the Monitored Retrievable Storage Facility (NM) Feasibility Study in San Juan County, Utah. Part of this summary includes background information on the federal effort to locate a voluntary site for temporary storage of nuclear waste, how San Juan County came to be involved, and a profile of the county. The heart of the report, however, summarizes the activities within the public involvement process, and the issues raised in those various forums. The authors have made every effort to reflect accurately and thoroughly all the concerns and suggestions expressed to us during the five month process. We hope that this report itself is a successful model of partnership with the citizens of the county -- the same kind of partnership the county is seeking to develop with its constituents. Finally, this report offers some suggestions to both county officials and residents alike. These suggestions concern how decision-making about the county`s future can be done by a partnership of informed citizens and listening decision-makers. In the Appendix are materials relating to the public involvement process in San Juan County.

  11. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F [Laramie, WY; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2012-09-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  12. Processing and analysis techniques involving in-vessel material generation

    DOEpatents

    Schabron, John F.; Rovani, Jr., Joseph F.

    2011-01-25

    In at least one embodiment, the inventive technology relates to in-vessel generation of a material from a solution of interest as part of a processing and/or analysis operation. Preferred embodiments of the in-vessel material generation (e.g., in-vessel solid material generation) include precipitation; in certain embodiments, analysis and/or processing of the solution of interest may include dissolution of the material, perhaps as part of a successive dissolution protocol using solvents of increasing ability to dissolve. Applications include, but are by no means limited to estimation of a coking onset and solution (e.g., oil) fractionating.

  13. Resources for Involving Students in Their IEP Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Uphold, Nicole M.; Walker, Allison R.; Test, David W.

    2007-01-01

    Research continues to document the lack of widespread classroom implementation of self-determination instruction. One reason given for why self-determination skills are not being taught is the lack of readily available and affordable instructional resources. The IEP process is one vehicle that all teachers can use to teach self-determination.…

  14. Involvement of novel autophosphorylation sites in ATM activation.

    PubMed

    Kozlov, Sergei V; Graham, Mark E; Peng, Cheng; Chen, Philip; Robinson, Phillip J; Lavin, Martin F

    2006-08-09

    ATM kinase plays a central role in signaling DNA double-strand breaks to cell cycle checkpoints and to the DNA repair machinery. Although the exact mechanism of ATM activation remains unknown, efficient activation requires the Mre11 complex, autophosphorylation on S1981 and the involvement of protein phosphatases and acetylases. We report here the identification of several additional phosphorylation sites on ATM in response to DNA damage, including autophosphorylation on pS367 and pS1893. ATM autophosphorylates all these sites in vitro in response to DNA damage. Antibodies against phosphoserine 1893 revealed rapid and persistent phosphorylation at this site after in vivo activation of ATM kinase by ionizing radiation, paralleling that observed for S1981 phosphorylation. Phosphorylation was dependent on functional ATM and on the Mre11 complex. All three autophosphorylation sites are physiologically important parts of the DNA damage response, as phosphorylation site mutants (S367A, S1893A and S1981A) were each defective in ATM signaling in vivo and each failed to correct radiosensitivity, genome instability and cell cycle checkpoint defects in ataxia-telangiectasia cells. We conclude that there are at least three functionally important radiation-induced autophosphorylation events in ATM.

  15. Cognitive Control of Language Production in Bilinguals Involves a Partly Independent Process within the Domain-General Cognitive Control Network: Evidence from Task-switching and Electrical Brain Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Magezi, David A.; Khateb, Asaid; Mouthon, Michael; Spierer, Lucas; Annoni, Jean-Marie

    2012-01-01

    In highly proficient, early bilinguals, behavioural studies of the cost of switching language or task suggest qualitative differences between language control and domain-general cognitive control. By contrast, several neuroimaging studies have shown an overlap of the brain areas involved in language control and domain-general cognitive control.…

  16. Issues involved in the process of developing a medical food.

    PubMed

    Ochoa, Juan B; McClave, Stephen A; Saavedra, Jose

    2011-09-01

    The creation of a medical food with potential health benefits for a particular patient population is a surprisingly complex process. Fortunately, the developmental process for a specific medical food is not as rigorous or as tightly regulated as that of a pharmaceutical agent. However, numerous factors unique to the enteral formulation of a new product come into play, such as physical/chemical compatibility, pH, stability, bioavailability, decay, and even palatability. Additional considerations such as strength of health benefit claims, packaging or presentation, and marketability determine the ultimate commercialization and whether a product ends up being released to the public. A full understanding of the development, substantiation, and commercialization of a medical food is necessary for important physiologic concepts in nutrition therapy to end up as part of the therapeutic regimen at the bedside of the critically ill obese patient.

  17. Physical Processes Involved In Yellow Sea Solitary Waves

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warn-Varnas, A.; Chin-Bing, S.; King, D.; Lamb, K.; Hawkins, J.; Teixeira, M.

    The study area is located south of the Shandong peninsula. In this area, soliton gener- ation and propagation studies are per formed with the Lamb(1994) model. The model is nonhydrostatic and is formulated in 2 1/2 dimensions for terrain following c oordi- nates. In the area, 20 to 30 m topographic variations over distances of 10 to 20 km are found to occur in the digit al atlas of Choi (1999). The area is shallow with maximum depths ranging from 40 m to 70 m. Along the southern boundary of the region the semi-diurnal tidal strength magnitude varies from .6 m/sec to 1.2 m/sec, Fang(1994). We show that, for sum mer conditions, the existing physical processes associated with the semi-diurnal tidal flow over the topographic variations , in the shelfbreak region, lead to the formation of internal bores in the model simulations. Through acting phys- ical proce sses, the internal bores propagate on and off the shelf. A disintegration process of internal bores into solitary waves occ urs through frequency and ampli- tude dispersion. SAR observations of the area show images containing six events con- sisting of internal bores and solitary waves that travel in a well-defined direction for two and a half days. The origin of the trains appeared to be at a point along a steep topo graphic drop. The SAR observations are used for guiding and tuning the model simulations, by comparing spectra of observed and modeled wavelengths. The tuned model yields wavelengths that are within a factor of 2 of the SAR data. The modeled amp litudes are within a factor of 2 of amplitudes obtained with a two-layer model and the SAR data The signature on the acoustical field of ongoing physical processes through the interaction of the resultant oceanic struct ure with the acoustical field is pursued. Internal bore and solitary wave structures interact with the acoustic field. A re distribution of acoustical energy to higher acoustical modes occurs at some fre- quencies. Mode decomposition of the

  18. Pontine respiratory activity involved in inspiratory/expiratory phase transition

    PubMed Central

    Mörschel, Michael; Dutschmann, Mathias

    2009-01-01

    Control of the timing of the inspiratory/expiratory (IE) phase transition is a hallmark of respiratory pattern formation. In principle, sensory feedback from pulmonary stretch receptors (Breuer–Hering reflex, BHR) is seen as the major controller for the IE phase transition, while pontine-based control of IE phase transition by both the pontine Kölliker–Fuse nucleus (KF) and parabrachial complex is seen as a secondary or backup mechanism. However, previous studies have shown that the BHR can habituate in vivo. Thus, habituation reduces sensory feedback, so the role of the pons, and specifically the KF, for IE phase transition may increase dramatically. Pontine-mediated control of the IE phase transition is not completely understood. In the present review, we discuss existing models for ponto-medullary interaction that may be involved in the control of inspiratory duration and IE transition. We also present intracellular recordings of pontine respiratory units derived from an in situ intra-arterially perfused brainstem preparation of rats. With the absence of lung inflation, this preparation generates a normal respiratory pattern and many of the recorded pontine units demonstrated phasic respiratory-related activity. The analysis of changes in membrane potentials of pontine respiratory neurons has allowed us to propose a number of pontine-medullary interactions not considered before. The involvement of these putative interactions in pontine-mediated control of IE phase transitions is discussed. PMID:19651653

  19. Kinetic processes in solid helium involving impurities and vacancies (Review)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maidanov, V. A.; Rudavskii, E. Ya.; Sokolov, S. S.

    2017-01-01

    A brief review is given of the kinetic behavior of impurities and vacancies in solid helium, which Andreev and Lifshitz predicted should be delocalized and converted into unique quasiparticles. Primary attention is devoted to the unusual diffusion processes in solid 3He-4He solutions as they undergo phase separation. Because mechanical stresses develop in the crystal during separation, the diffusive flow is substantially reduced and the effective diffusion coefficient becomes smaller than the coherent quantum diffusion coefficient. During the inverse transition from a separated mixture into the homogeneous state, anomalously rapid mass transfer is observed which can be explained qualitatively in terms of a model in which 3He inclusions are dissolved in three stages. Experimental data on the kinetics of phase separation are compared with a diffusive description of the process that takes into account the difference between diffusion processes outside and inside a nucleus of the new phase. Good agreement is obtained between a theoretical calculation and the experimental data. A homogeneous nucleation model is used to estimate the concentration of nuclei. For the first time, the coefficient of mass diffusion is estimated over the entire range of the concentration of the solutions. The behavior of delocalized vacancies in 4He and 3He solid solutions is studied near the separation temperature. The observed features of the pressure in this kind of system during repeated temperature cycling are explained by the formation of pure 4He vacancy clusters. Although the crystal itself has no strict periodicity owing to the random separation of 3He and 4He atoms at the lattice sites, a periodic structure is realized within a cluster and vacancies become delocalized.

  20. Processing of laminin α chains generates peptides involved in wound healing and host defense.

    PubMed

    Senyürek, Ilknur; Kempf, Wolfgang E; Klein, Gerd; Maurer, Andreas; Kalbacher, Hubert; Schäfer, Luisa; Wanke, Ines; Christ, Christina; Stevanovic, Stefan; Schaller, Martin; Rousselle, Patricia; Garbe, Claus; Biedermann, Tilo; Schittek, Birgit

    2014-01-01

    Laminins play a fundamental role in basement membrane architecture and function in human skin. The C-terminal laminin G domain-like (LG) modules of laminin α chains are modified by proteolysis to generate LG1-3 and secreted LG4-5 tandem modules. In this study, we provide evidence that skin-derived cells process and secrete biologically active peptides from the LG4-5 module of the laminin α3, α4 and α5 chain in vitro and in vivo. We show enhanced expression and processing of the LG4-5 module of laminin α3 in keratinocytes after infection and in chronic wounds in which the level of expression and further processing of the LG4-5 module correlated with the speed of wound healing. Furthermore, bacterial or host-derived proteases promote processing of laminin α3 LG4-5. On a functional level, we show that LG4-5-derived peptides play a role in wound healing. Moreover, we demonstrate that LG4-derived peptides from the α3, α4 and α5 chains have broad antimicrobial activity and possess strong chemotactic activity to mononuclear cells. Thus, the data strongly suggest a novel multifunctional role for laminin LG4-5-derived peptides in human skin and its involvement in physiological processes and pathological conditions such as inflammation, chronic wounds and skin infection.

  1. Artificial masculinization in tilapia involves androgen receptor activation.

    PubMed

    Golan, Matan; Levavi-Sivan, Berta

    2014-10-01

    Estrogens have a pivotal role in natural female sexual differentiation of tilapia while lack of steroids results in testicular development. Despite the fact that androgens do not participate in natural sex differentiation, synthetic androgens, mainly 17-α-methyltestosterone (MT) are effective in the production of all-male fish in aquaculture. The sex inversion potency of synthetic androgens may arise from their androgenic activity or else as inhibitors of aromatase activity. The current study is an attempt to differentiate between the two alleged activities in order to evaluate their contribution to the sex inversion process and aid the search for novel sex inversion agents. In the present study, MT inhibited aromatase activity, when applied in vitro as did the non-aromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone (DHT). In comparison, exposure to fadrozole, a specific aromatase inhibitor, was considerably more effective. Androgenic activity of MT was evaluated by exposure of Sciaenochromis fryeri fry to the substance and testing for the appearance of blue color. Flutamide, an androgen antagonist, administered concomitantly with MT, reduced the appearance of the blue color and the sex inversion potency of MT in a dose-dependent manner. In tilapia, administration of MT, fadrozole or DHT resulted in efficient sex inversion while flutamide reduced the sex inversion potency of all three compounds. In the case of MT and DHT the decrease in sex inversion efficiency caused by flutamide is most likely due to the direct blocking of the androgen binding to its cognate receptor. The negative effect of flutamide on the efficiency of the fadrozole treatment may indicate that the masculinizing activity of fadrozole may be attributed to excess, un-aromatized, androgens accumulated in the differentiating gonad. The present study shows that when androgen receptors are blocked, there is a reduction in the efficiency of sex inversion treatments. Our results suggest that in contrast to

  2. [Changing in process that involves rest scales of nursing assistant].

    PubMed

    Keretzky, Kátia Bica; Vargas, Adriano Silveira; do Nascimento, Márcia Elaine Costa; Echer, Isabel Cristina; Kruse, Maria Henriqueta Luce

    2009-12-01

    Describe the implantation of a new process of management of the nursing assistant rest scale of a hospitalization unit of a universitarian hospital. It is presented the reality before the proposal, when the rests were distributed along the week; the reasons that took to the proposition of the new method and the working of the new scale, with rests in weekends and holidays. Among the benefits already seen include: bigger number of professionals working during the days of bigger work flow; more time of leisure of the workers with their families; bigger personal integration and professional of the group; scales organized for a year, which allows the employee plan his vacation, rests and studies; and bigger satisfaction with the work, with the new scale being considered a professional conquest.

  3. School Involvement Leave: Providing Leave for Parental Involvement in School Activities. Policy Briefing Series. Issue 18

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curlew, Mary; Weber, Julie

    2009-01-01

    One of the most important factors in school performance is parental involvement. However, many parents do not have the flexibility in their work schedules or the leave policies necessary to attend school functions. As a result, legislators are creating policies to address this issue. School involvement leave policies provide parents with…

  4. Parallel Activation in Bilingual Phonological Processing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Su-Yeon

    2011-01-01

    In bilingual language processing, the parallel activation hypothesis suggests that bilinguals activate their two languages simultaneously during language processing. Support for the parallel activation mainly comes from studies of lexical (word-form) processing, with relatively less attention to phonological (sound) processing. According to…

  5. Hemispheric involvement in the processing of Chinese idioms: An fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jie; Li, Ping; Fang, Xiaoping; Shu, Hua; Liu, Youyi; Chen, Lang

    2016-07-01

    Although the left hemisphere is believed to handle major language functions, the role of the right hemisphere in language comprehension remains controversial. Recently researchers have investigated hemispheric language processing with figurative language materials (e.g., metaphors, jokes, and idioms). The current study capitalizes on the pervasiveness and distinct features of Chinese idioms to examine the brain mechanism of figurative language processing. Native Chinese speakers performed a non-semantic task while reading opaque idioms, transparent idioms, and non-idiomatic literal phrases. Whole-brain analyses indicated strong activations for all three conditions in an overlapping brain network that includes the bilateral inferior/middle frontal gyrus and the temporo-parietal and occipital-temporal regions. The two idiom conditions elicited additional activations in the right superior parietal lobule and right precuneus. Item-based modulation analyses further demonstrated that activation amplitudes in the right angular gyrus, right superior parietal lobule and right precuneus, as well as left inferior temporo-occipital cortex, are negatively correlated with the semantic transparency of the idioms. These results suggest that both hemispheres are involved in idiom processing but they play different roles. Implications of the findings are discussed in light of theories of figurative language processing and hemispheric functions.

  6. APP processing and the APP-KPI domain involvement in the amyloid cascade.

    PubMed

    Menéndez-González, M; Pérez-Pinera, P; Martínez-Rivera, M; Calatayud, M T; Blázquez Menes, B

    2005-01-01

    Alternative APP mRNA splicing can generate isoforms of APP containing a Kunitz protease inhibitor (KPI) domain. KPI is one of the main serine protease inhibitors. Protein and mRNA KPI(+)APP levels are elevated in Alzheimer's disease (AD) brain and are associated with increased amyloid beta deposition. In the last years increasing evidence on multiple points in the amyloid cascade where KPI(+)APP is involved has been accumulated, admitting an outstanding position in the pathogenesis of AD to the KPI domain. This review focuses on the APP processing, the molecular activity of KPI and its physiological and pathological roles and the KPI involvement in the amyloid cascade through the nerve growth factor, the lipoprotein receptor-related protein, the tumor necrosis factor-alpha converting enzyme and the Notch1 protein.

  7. Active voltammetric microsensors with neural signal processing.

    SciTech Connect

    Vogt, M. C.

    1998-12-11

    Many industrial and environmental processes, including bioremediation, would benefit from the feedback and control information provided by a local multi-analyte chemical sensor. For most processes, such a sensor would need to be rugged enough to be placed in situ for long-term remote monitoring, and inexpensive enough to be fielded in useful numbers. The multi-analyte capability is difficult to obtain from common passive sensors, but can be provided by an active device that produces a spectrum-type response. Such new active gas microsensor technology has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The technology couples an electrocatalytic ceramic-metallic (cermet) microsensor with a voltammetric measurement technique and advanced neural signal processing. It has been demonstrated to be flexible, rugged, and very economical to produce and deploy. Both narrow interest detectors and wide spectrum instruments have been developed around this technology. Much of this technology's strength lies in the active measurement technique employed. The technique involves applying voltammetry to a miniature electrocatalytic cell to produce unique chemical ''signatures'' from the analytes. These signatures are processed with neural pattern recognition algorithms to identify and quantify the components in the analyte. The neural signal processing allows for innovative sampling and analysis strategies to be employed with the microsensor. In most situations, the whole response signature from the voltammogram can be used to identify, classify, and quantify an analyte, without dissecting it into component parts. This allows an instrument to be calibrated once for a specific gas or mixture of gases by simple exposure to a multi-component standard rather than by a series of individual gases. The sampled unknown analytes can vary in composition or in concentration, the calibration, sensing, and processing methods of these active voltammetric microsensors can detect, recognize, and

  8. Head Start Parent Involvement Activities: Measuring the Effect of School Based Parent Involvement Activities on Parent Efficacy in Early Childhood Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quadri, Khadijat O.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this position paper was to examine the impact of school based parent involvement activities on parent efficacy. Methodology: The paper explores research studies into school based activities on long term parent efficacy. Conclusions: Most schools are involving parents in school-based activities in a variety of ways but the…

  9. Hemolysis-induced lethality involves inflammasome activation by heme

    PubMed Central

    Dutra, Fabianno F.; Alves, Letícia S.; Rodrigues, Danielle; Fernandez, Patricia L.; de Oliveira, Rosane B.; Golenbock, Douglas T.; Zamboni, Dario S.; Bozza, Marcelo T.

    2014-01-01

    The increase of extracellular heme is a hallmark of hemolysis or extensive cell damage. Heme has prooxidant, cytotoxic, and inflammatory effects, playing a central role in the pathogenesis of malaria, sepsis, and sickle cell disease. However, the mechanisms by which heme is sensed by innate immune cells contributing to these diseases are not fully characterized. We found that heme, but not porphyrins without iron, activated LPS-primed macrophages promoting the processing of IL-1β dependent on nucleotide-binding domain and leucine rich repeat containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3). The activation of NLRP3 by heme required spleen tyrosine kinase, NADPH oxidase-2, mitochondrial reactive oxygen species, and K+ efflux, whereas it was independent of heme internalization, lysosomal damage, ATP release, the purinergic receptor P2X7, and cell death. Importantly, our results indicated the participation of macrophages, NLRP3 inflammasome components, and IL-1R in the lethality caused by sterile hemolysis. Thus, understanding the molecular pathways affected by heme in innate immune cells might prove useful to identify new therapeutic targets for diseases that have heme release. PMID:25225402

  10. Consumer involvement in research projects: the activities of research funders.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Máire; Entwistle, Vikki

    2004-08-01

    This paper reports findings from a postal questionnaire survey and in-depth interviews with UK funders of health-related research that explored whether, why and how they promote consumer involvement in research projects. Many UK funders of health-related research are adopting a policy of promoting consumer involvement in research projects. Telephone interviews revealed they have several reasons for doing so, and that they vary in the ways they encourage and support researchers to involve consumers. For some, descriptions of consumer involvement in a research proposal are important for project funding decisions. They recognized a need for flexibility when assessing consumer involvement in different contexts. We suggest that funders should continue to work to clarify what they consider to be the parameters of acceptability in terms of consumer involvement and ensure that 'flexible' criteria are fairly applied. Researchers should be aware of particular funders' views when applying for project funding.

  11. Streptomyces lunalinharesii Strain 235 Shows the Potential to Inhibit Bacteria Involved in Biocorrosion Processes

    PubMed Central

    Pacheco da Rosa, Juliana; Korenblum, Elisa; Franco-Cirigliano, Marcella Novaes; Abreu, Fernanda; Lins, Ulysses; Soares, Rosângela M. A.; Macrae, Andrew; Seldin, Lucy; Coelho, Rosalie R. R.

    2013-01-01

    Four actinomycete strains previously isolated from Brazilian soils were tested for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus pumilus LF-4 and Desulfovibrio alaskensis NCIMB 13491, bacteria that are well known to be involved in biofilm formation and biocorrosion. Strain 235, belonging to the species Streptomyces lunalinharesii, inhibited the growth of both bacteria. The antimicrobial activity was seen over a wide range of pH, and after treatment with several chemicals and heat but not with proteinase K and trypsin. The antimicrobial substances present in the concentrated supernatant from growth media were partially characterized by SDS-PAGE and extracellular polypeptides were seen. Bands in the size range of 12 to 14.4 kDa caused antimicrobial activity. Transmission electron microscopy of D. alaskensis cells treated with the concentrated supernatant containing the antimicrobial substances revealed the formation of prominent bubbles, the spherical double-layered structures on the cell membrane, and the periplasmic space completely filled with electron-dense material. This is the first report on the production of antimicrobial substances by actinomycetes against bacteria involved in biocorrosion processes, and these findings may be of great relevance as an alternative source of biocides to those currently employed in the petroleum industry. PMID:23484107

  12. Modeling and Compensatory Processes Underlying Involvement in Child Care among Kibbutz-Reared Fathers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaunt, Ruth; Bassi, Liat

    2012-01-01

    This study examined modeling and compensatory processes underlying the effects of an early paternal model on father involvement in child care. Drawing on social learning theory, it was hypothesized that father-son relationships would moderate the association between a father's involvement and his own father's involvement. A sample of 136 kibbutz…

  13. Stakeholders and public involvement in river management: heterogeneous acceptance of participatory processes among Swiss institutions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buletti, Nora; Utz, Stephan; Ejderyan, Olivier; Graefe, Olivier; Lane, Stuart; Reynard, Emmanuel

    2014-05-01

    This research explores participatory processes in the domain of river management in Switzerland. The main objective is to better understand how participatory processes are incorporated into river management practice. Switzerland being a federal state, river management is a cantonal (regional) responsibility, under the supervision (and co-funding) of the State (a Confederation). The federal funding includes the opportunity to fund additional participatory activities to aid river management, not least because the federal authorities consider the involvement of wider stakeholders and the public in decision-making as a means of aiding the progression of projects. This is a particularly important goal in a Swiss setting where direct democracy (the possibility of calling the decision of any level of government into question through a popular vote) means that a reasonable level of project acceptance is a necessary element of project progression. River management in Switzerland now includes both flood protection and river restoration objectives, which has served to increase its controversy: river corridors contain competing interests with different objectives (e.g. ecological enhancement, protection of agricultural land, flood risk reduction). We were asked by the Confederation to evaluate participatory processes it sponsored and one element of this evaluation aimed to develop a typology of stakeholder participation. We conducted interviews with the 26 cantonal officers in charge of river management. These interviews were based upon thematically structured open ended questions, with the responses analyzed qualitatively. We have identified significant divergence in the implementation of participatory processes between the cantons. These appear to be related to two factors: (1) the canton's historical experience of river management; and (2) the methods used to select stakeholders for inclusion in the decisional process. Cantons that refer to guidelines or pre

  14. 31 CFR 576.508 - Judicial process in legal proceedings involving ecological accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Judicial process in legal proceedings involving ecological accidents. 576.508 Section 576.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... § 576.508 Judicial process in legal proceedings involving ecological accidents. The Office of...

  15. 31 CFR 576.508 - Judicial process in legal proceedings involving ecological accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Judicial process in legal proceedings involving ecological accidents. 576.508 Section 576.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... § 576.508 Judicial process in legal proceedings involving ecological accidents. The Office of...

  16. 71 FR 56344 - Facility Change Process Involving Items Relied on for Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-09-27

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 70 RIN 3150-AH96 Facility Change Process Involving Items Relied on for Safety AGENCY... facility change process involving items relied on for safety. Additionally, the 10 CFR part 70 subpart H...) is amending its regulations to clarify a requirement pertaining to items relied on for safety...

  17. Signalling processes involved in C-peptide-induced chemotaxis of CD4-positive lymphocytes.

    PubMed

    Aleksic, M; Walcher, D; Giehl, K; Bach, H; Grüb, M; Durst, R; Hombach, V; Marx, N

    2009-06-01

    Previous data from our group demonstrated that C-peptide induces chemotaxis of CD4-positive lymphocytes in-vitro, mediated by activation of G-protein and PI 3-kinase gamma, but additional signalling pathways involved in this process remained unexplored. In the present study we further analyze intracellular signalling pathways which lead to C-peptide-induced CD4-positive lymphocyte migration. We provide evidence that C-peptide-induced chemotaxis of CD4-positive lymphocytes is critically dependent on activation of Src-kinase and RhoA, Rac-1 and Cdc42 GTPases. Furthermore, C-peptide stimulates phosphorylation of PAK, LIMK and cofilin downstream of Rac-1 and Cdc42, leading to cofilin inactivation and actin filament stabilization. In addition, C-peptide induces ROCK kinase activity and MLC phosphorylation downstream of RhoA, thereby stimulating myosin mediated cell contraction. In contrast, C-peptide does not activate ERK1/2, p38 or Akt in CD4-positive lymphocytes. Our data support an active role of C-peptide in CD4-positive lymphocyte chemotaxis and elucidate molecular mechanisms in C-peptide-induced cell migration.

  18. Involvement of O-glycosylation defining oncofetal fibronectin in epithelial-mesenchymal transition process

    PubMed Central

    Freire-de-Lima, Leonardo; Gelfenbeyn, Kirill; Ding, Yao; Mandel, Ulla; Clausen, Henrik; Handa, Kazuko; Hakomori, Sen-itiroh

    2011-01-01

    The process termed “epithelial–mesenchymal transition” (EMT) was originally discovered in ontogenic development, and has been shown to be one of the key steps in tumor cell progression and metastasis. Recently, we showed that the expression of some glycosphingolipids (GSLs) is down-regulated during EMT in human and mouse cell lines. Here, we demonstrate the involvement of GalNAc-type (or mucin-type) O-glycosylation in EMT process, induced with transforming growth factor β (TGF-β) in human prostate epithelial cell lines. We found that: (i) TGF-β treatment caused up-regulation of oncofetal fibronectin (onfFN), which is defined by mAb FDC6, and expressed in cancer or fetal cells/tissues, but not in normal adult cells/tissues. The reactivity of mAb FDC6 requires the addition of an O-glycan at a specific threonine, inside the type III homology connective segment (IIICS) domain of FN. (ii) This change is associated with typical EMT characteristics; i.e., change from epithelial to fibroblastic morphology, enhanced cell motility, decreased expression of a typical epithelial cell marker, E-cadherin, and enhanced expression of mesenchymal markers. (iii) TGF-β treatment up-regulated mRNA level of FN containing the IIICS domain and GalNAc-T activity for the IIICS domain peptide substrate containing the FDC6 onfFN epitope. (iv) Knockdown of GalNAc-T6 and T3 inhibited TGF-β–induced up-regulation of onfFN and EMT process. (v) Involvement of GSLs was not detectable with the EMT process in these cell lines. These findings indicate the important functional role of expression of onfFN, defined by site-specific O-glycosylation at IIICS domain, in the EMT process. PMID:22006308

  19. Organized Activity Involvement among Rural Youth: Gender Differences in Associations between Activity Type and Developmental Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ferris, Kaitlyn A.; Oosterhoff, Benjamin; Metzger, Aaron

    2013-01-01

    The current study examined associations between organized activity involvement, academic achievement, and problem behavior in a sample of youth from a non-agricultural based rural community (M[subscript age] = 15.26, Age range = 11-19 years, N = 456). Analyses examined whether associations varied as a function of adolescent gender and age.…

  20. Labdane diterpenes protect against anoxia/reperfusion injury in cardiomyocytes: involvement of AKT activation

    PubMed Central

    Cuadrado, I; Fernández-Velasco, M; Boscá, L; de las Heras, B

    2011-01-01

    Several labdane diterpenes exert anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective actions; therefore, we have investigated whether these molecules protect cardiomyocytes in an anoxia/reperfusion (A/R) model, establishing the molecular mechanisms involved in the process. The cardioprotective activity of three diterpenes (T1, T2 and T3) was studied in the H9c2 cell line and in isolated rat cardiomyocyte subjected to A/R injury. In both cases, treatment with diterpenes T1 and T2 protected from A/R-induced apoptosis, as deduced by a decrease in the percentage of apoptotic and caspase-3 active positive cells, a decrease in the Bcl-2/Bax ratio and an increase in the expression of antiapoptotic proteins. Analysis of cell survival signaling pathways showed that diterpenes T1 and T2 added after A/R increased phospho-AKT and phospho-ERK 1/2 levels. These cardioprotective effects were lost when AKT activity was pharmacologically inhibited. Moreover, the labdane-induced cardioprotection involves activation of AMPK, suggesting a role for energy homeostasis in their mechanism of action. Labdane diterpenes (T1 and T2) also exerted cardioprotective effects against A/R-induced injury in isolated cardiomyocytes and the mechanisms involved activation of specific survival signals (PI3K/AKT pathways, ERK1/2 and AMPK) and inhibition of apoptosis. PMID:22071634

  1. 48 CFR 3452.224-71 - Notice about research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... activities involving human subjects. 3452.224-71 Section 3452.224-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 3452.224-71 Notice about research activities involving human subjects... contract will include, or is likely to include, research activities involving human subjects covered...

  2. Decision process involved in preparing the Shippingport reactor pressure vessel for transport

    SciTech Connect

    Murphie, W.E.

    1989-01-01

    The most significant part of the Shippingport Station Decommissioning Project was the one-piece removal and shipment of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV). Implicit in the RPV transport was the task of qualifying the RPV as a waste package acceptable for shipment. Soon after physical decommissioning began on September 1985, questions regarding the packaging certification and transport of the RPV from Shippingport, Pennsylvania to the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Waste Burial Site necessitated reexamination of several planning assumptions. A complete reassessment of the regulatory requirements governing the RPV shipment resulted in a programmatic decision to obtain a type B(U) Certificate of Compliance and abandon the originally planned US Department of Transportation (DOT) low specific activity (LSA) shipment. The decision process resulting in this conclusion was extensive and involved many organizations and agencies. Incidental to this process, several subtle certification issues were identified that required resolution. Some of these issues involved the definition of LSA material for large packages; interpretation and compliance with DOE, DOT and US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) regulations for the transport of radioactive material; incorporation of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) regulations by the Panama Canal; and DOE policy requiring advance notification to states of radioactive waste shipments. 2 figs.

  3. Colorado court involvement in chemical spill clean-up activities.

    PubMed Central

    Rice, D

    1981-01-01

    Judicial involvement was utilized to force the owners of a pesticide formulation plant to decontaminate property that had been covered with toxic pesticides having the potential to contaminate both surface and groundwater supplies in the East Denver metropolitan area. This case represented the first use of the Colorado state court system in dealing with a hazardous waste "spill." In this case, judicial intervention was unsatisfactory because of the delays involved. Other courses of action will be considered in future cases of a similar nature. PMID:7270771

  4. Colorado court involvement in chemical spill clean-up activities.

    PubMed

    Rice, D

    1981-09-01

    Judicial involvement was utilized to force the owners of a pesticide formulation plant to decontaminate property that had been covered with toxic pesticides having the potential to contaminate both surface and groundwater supplies in the East Denver metropolitan area. This case represented the first use of the Colorado state court system in dealing with a hazardous waste "spill." In this case, judicial intervention was unsatisfactory because of the delays involved. Other courses of action will be considered in future cases of a similar nature.

  5. Separate cortical networks involved in music perception: preliminary functional MRI evidence for modularity of music processing.

    PubMed

    Schmithorst, Vincent J

    2005-04-01

    Music perception is a quite complex cognitive task, involving the perception and integration of various elements including melody, harmony, pitch, rhythm, and timbre. A preliminary functional MRI investigation of music perception was performed, using a simplified passive listening task. Group independent component analysis (ICA) was used to separate out various components involved in music processing, as the hemodynamic responses are not known a priori. Various components consistent with auditory processing, expressive language, syntactic processing, and visual association were found. The results are discussed in light of various hypotheses regarding modularity of music processing and its overlap with language processing. The results suggest that, while some networks overlap with ones used for language processing, music processing may involve its own domain-specific processing subsystems.

  6. Involvement of the plasminogen activation system in cow endometritis.

    PubMed

    Moraitis, S; Taitzoglou, I A; Tsantarliotou, M P; Boscos, C M; Kaldrimidou, E; Saratsis, Ph

    2004-01-15

    The objectives of this study were to investigate the: (a) presence and activity of components of the "plasminogen activators/plasmin" system in dairy cows with or without endometritis; (b) variations in enzyme activity according to the degree of endometritis; and (c) associations between these enzymes and changes in endometrial histology after intrauterine antibiotic treatment. Endometrial biopsies were collected from anestrus (no palpable ovarian structures and milk progesterone <1 ng/ml) Holstein cows, 30-40 days postpartum. On the basis of a vaginoscopic examination, rectal palpation of the cervix and uterus, and endometrial histology, there were 92 cows with endometritis and 20 cows without endometritis. After biopsy collection, each cow was given an intrauterine infusion of 1.5x10(6) IU of procaine penicillin G. In cows with endometritis, genital tract examinations and biopsies were repeated 2 weeks later. Both plasminogen activators (PAs), tissue type (t-PA) and urokinase (u-PA), were immunologically identified in all uterine biopsies. Plasminogen activator activity (PAA) increased, whereas plasminogen activator inhibition (PAI) and plasmin inhibition (PI) decreased in proportion to the degree of inflammation. Two weeks after intrauterine treatment, PAA had decreased significantly in all cows that had reduced severity of endometrial inflammation and had increased significantly in all cows with increased severity of inflammation. The change in the degree of inflammation depended upon plasminogen activator activity; cows with higher PAA were more likely to improve. In conclusion, there was evidence for a role of the plasminogen activation proteolytic system in bovine endometritis.

  7. Subcellular localization of glycosidases and glycosyltransferases involved in the processing of N-linked oligosaccharides

    SciTech Connect

    Sturm, A.; Johnson, K.D.; Szumilo, T.; Elbein, A.D.; Chrispeels, M.J.

    1987-11-01

    Using isopycnic sucrose gradients, we have ascertained the subcellular location of several enzymes involved in the processing of the N-linked oligosaccharides of glycoproteins in developing cotyledons of the common bean, Phaseolus vulgaris. All are localized in the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) or Golgi complex as determined by co-sedimentation with the ER marker, NADH-cytochrome c reductase, or the Golgi marker, glucan synthase I. Glucosidase activity, which removes glucose residues from Glc/sub 3/Man/sub 9/(GlcNAc)/sub 2/, was found exclusively in the ER. All other processing enzymes, which act subsequent to the glucose trimming steps, are associates with Golgi. These include mannosidase I (removes 1-2 mannose residues from Man/sub 6-9/(GlcNAc)/sub 2/), mannosidase II (removes mannose residues from GlcNAcMan/sub 5/(GlcNAc)/sub 2/), and fucosyltransferase (transfers a fucose residue to the Asn-linked GlcNAc of appropriate glycans). The authors have previously reported the localization of two other glycan modifying enzymes (GlcNAc-transferase and xylosyltranferase activities) in the Golgi complex. Attempts at subfractionation of the Golgi fraction on shallow sucrose gradients yielded similar patterns of distribution for all the Golgi processing enzymes. Subfractionation on Percoll gradients resulted in two peaks of the Golgi marker enzyme inosine diphosphatase, whereas the glycan processing enzymes were all enriched in the peak of lower density. These results do not lend support to the hypothesis that N-linked oligosaccharide processing enzymes are associated with Golgi cisternae of different densities.

  8. Radiation protection in radiologic technology: Apathy versus active involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, K.H.

    1982-11-01

    The lack of active participation in radiation protection is a serious problem in Radiologic Technology today. Underlying the problem is professional apathy. An overview of the historical changes, as well as various recent developments in radiology, accentuate the importance of necessary changes in technologists' attitudes and activities. 22 references.

  9. 101 Activities for Building More Effective School-Community Involvement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rich, Dorothy; Mattox, Beverly

    This booklet contains a collection of more than 100 activities designed to promote school-home and school-community relations. Activities are organized into seven categories: (1) communicating word from home to school, (2) people to people, (3) educational events, (4) volunteers--hands on in the classroom, (5) utilizing community resources, (6)…

  10. Extracurricular Activity Involvement and Adolescent Self-Esteem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kort-Butler, Lisa A.

    2012-01-01

    Structured extracurricular activity participation has been linked to self-esteem and other indicators of positive youth development. This article describes the theoretical basis for this relationship, centering on extracurricular activities as a location for identity development. A summary of the empirical evidence points to the importance of…

  11. Involvement of surface cysteines in activity and multimer formation of thimet oligopeptidase.

    PubMed

    Sigman, J A; Sharky, M L; Walsh, S T; Pabon, A; Glucksman, M J; Wolfson, A J

    2003-08-01

    Thimet oligopeptidase is a metalloenzyme involved in regulating neuropeptide processing. Three cysteine residues (246, 248, 253) are known to be involved in thiol activation of the enzyme. In contrast to the wild-type enzyme, the triple mutant (C246S/C248S/C253S) displays increased activity in the absence of dithiothreitol. Dimers, purportedly formed through cysteines 246, 248 and 253, have been thought to be inactive. However, analysis of the triple mutant by native gel electrophoresis reveals the existence of dimers and multimers, implying that oligomer formation is mediated by other cysteines, probably on the surface, and that some of these forms are enzymatically active. Isolation and characterization of iodoacetate-modified monomers and dimers of the triple mutant revealed that, indeed, certain dimeric forms of the enzyme are still fully active, whereas others show reduced activity. Cysteine residues potentially involved in dimerization were identified by modeling of thimet oliogopeptidase to its homolog, neurolysin. Five mutants were constructed; all contained the triple mutation C246S/C248S/C253S and additional substitutions. Substitutions at C46 or C682 and C687 prevented multimer formation and inhibited dimer formation. The C46S mutant had enzymatic activity comparable to the parent triple mutant, whereas that of C682S/C687S was reduced. Thus, the location of intermolecular disulfide bonds, rather than their existence per se, is relevant to activity. Dimerization close to the N-terminus is detrimental to activity, whereas dimerization near the C-terminus has little effect. Altering disulfide bond formation is a potential regulatory factor in the cell owing to the varying oxidation states in subcellular compartments and the different compartmental locations and functions of the enzyme.

  12. LAMMER kinase Kic1 is involved in pre-mRNA processing

    SciTech Connect

    Tang, Zhaohua; Luca, Maria; Portillio, Jessica; Ngo, Benson; Chang, Cathey; Wen, Teresa; Murray, Johanne; Carr, Antony

    2011-10-01

    The LAMMER kinases are conserved through evolution. They play vital roles in cell growth/differentiation, development, and metabolism. One of the best known functions of the kinases in animal cells is the regulation of pre-mRNA splicing. Kic1 is the LAMMER kinase in fission yeast Schizosaccharomyces pombe. Despite the reported pleiotropic effects of kic1{sup +} deletion/overexpression on various cellular processes the involvement of Kic1 in splicing remains elusive. In this study, we demonstrate for the first time that Kic1 not only is required for efficient splicing but also affects mRNA export, providing evidence for the conserved roles of LAMMER kinases in the unicellular context of fission yeast. Consistent with the hypothesis of its direct participation in multiple steps of pre-mRNA processing, Kic1 is predominantly present in the nucleus during interphase. In addition, the kinase activity of Kic1 plays a role in modulating its own cellular partitioning. Interestingly, Kic1 expression oscillates in a cell cycle-dependent manner and the peak level coincides with mitosis and cytokinesis, revealing a potential mechanism for controlling the kinase activity during the cell cycle. The novel information about the in vivo functions and regulation of Kic1 offers insights into the conserved biological roles fundamental to LAMMER kinases in eukaryotes.

  13. PCNA is involved in the EndoQ-mediated DNA repair process in Thermococcales

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Miyako; Ishino, Sonoko; Yoshida, Kotaro; Yamagami, Takeshi; Cann, Isaac; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2016-01-01

    To maintain genome integrity for transfer to their offspring, and to maintain order in cellular processes, all living organisms have DNA repair systems. Besides the well-conserved DNA repair machineries, organisms thriving in extreme environments are expected to have developed efficient repair systems. We recently discovered a novel endonuclease, which cleaves the 5′ side of deoxyinosine, from the hyperthermophilic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus. The novel endonuclease, designated as Endonulcease Q (EndoQ), recognizes uracil, abasic site and xanthine, as well as hypoxanthine, and cuts the phosphodiester bond at their 5′ sides. To understand the functional process involving EndoQ, we searched for interacting partners of EndoQ and identified Proliferating Cell Nuclear Angigen (PCNA). The EndoQ activity was clearly enhanced by addition of PCNA in vitro. The physical interaction between the two proteins through a PIP-motif of EndoQ and the toroidal structure of PCNA are critical for the stimulation of the endonuclease activity. These findings provide us a clue to elucidate a unique DNA repair system in Archaea. PMID:27150116

  14. Neural responses to ambiguity involve domain-general and domain-specific emotion processing systems.

    PubMed

    Neta, Maital; Kelley, William M; Whalen, Paul J

    2013-04-01

    Extant research has examined the process of decision making under uncertainty, specifically in situations of ambiguity. However, much of this work has been conducted in the context of semantic and low-level visual processing. An open question is whether ambiguity in social signals (e.g., emotional facial expressions) is processed similarly or whether a unique set of processors come on-line to resolve ambiguity in a social context. Our work has examined ambiguity using surprised facial expressions, as they have predicted both positive and negative outcomes in the past. Specifically, whereas some people tended to interpret surprise as negatively valenced, others tended toward a more positive interpretation. Here, we examined neural responses to social ambiguity using faces (surprise) and nonface emotional scenes (International Affective Picture System). Moreover, we examined whether these effects are specific to ambiguity resolution (i.e., judgments about the ambiguity) or whether similar effects would be demonstrated for incidental judgments (e.g., nonvalence judgments about ambiguously valenced stimuli). We found that a distinct task control (i.e., cingulo-opercular) network was more active when resolving ambiguity. We also found that activity in the ventral amygdala was greater to faces and scenes that were rated explicitly along the dimension of valence, consistent with findings that the ventral amygdala tracks valence. Taken together, there is a complex neural architecture that supports decision making in the presence of ambiguity: (a) a core set of cortical structures engaged for explicit ambiguity processing across stimulus boundaries and (b) other dedicated circuits for biologically relevant learning situations involving faces.

  15. The propeptide precursor proSAAS is involved in fetal neuropeptide processing and body weight regulation.

    PubMed

    Morgan, Daniel J; Wei, Suwen; Gomes, Ivone; Czyzyk, Traci; Mzhavia, Nino; Pan, Hui; Devi, Lakshmi A; Fricker, Lloyd D; Pintar, John E

    2010-06-01

    Mice with a targeted mutation in proSAAS have been generated to investigate whether peptides derived from this precursor could function as an inhibitor of prohormone convertase 1/3 (PC1/3) in vivo as well as to determine any alternate roles for proSAAS in nervous and endocrine tissues. Fetal mice lacking proSAAS exhibit complete, adult-like processing of prodynorphin in the prenatal brain instead of the incomplete processing seen in the brains of wild-type fetal mice where inhibitory proSAAS intermediates are transiently accumulated. This study provides evidence that proSAAS is directly involved in the prenatal regulation of neuropeptide processing in vivo. However, adult mice lacking proSAAS have normal levels of all peptides detected using a peptidomics approach, suggesting that PC1/3 activity is not affected by the absence of proSAAS in adult mice. ProSAAS knockout mice exhibit decreased locomotion and a male-specific 10-15% decrease in body weight, but maintain normal fasting blood glucose levels and are able to efficiently clear glucose from the blood in response to a glucose challenge. This work suggests that proSAAS-derived peptides can inhibit PC1/3 in embryonic brain, but in the adult brain proSAAS peptides may function as neuropeptides that regulate body weight and potentially other behaviors.

  16. The Nature of Parental Involvement in the Schooling Process in Katsina State

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ibrahim, Ahmed Tijjani; Jamil, Hazri Bin

    2012-01-01

    Parental involvement in the schooling process of their children seems to be a neglected research area especially in primary schools of Katsina state in Nigeria. Parental involvement as envisaged by Donald, Lazarus and Lolwana (2006) for purposes of transformation cannot be overemphasized by both parents and teachers in schools. Therefore, parents…

  17. Reading for Repetition and Reading for Translation: Do They Involve the Same Processes?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Macizo, Pedro; Bajo, M. Teresa

    2006-01-01

    Theories of translation differ in the role assigned to the reformulation process. One view, the ''horizontal'' approach, considers that translation involves on-line searches for matches between linguistic entries in the two languages involved [Gerver, D. (1976). Empirical studies of simultaneous interpretation: A review and a model. In R. W.…

  18. 31 CFR 576.508 - Judicial process in legal proceedings involving ecological accidents.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... involving ecological accidents. 576.508 Section 576.508 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to... § 576.508 Judicial process in legal proceedings involving ecological accidents. The Office of Foreign... accident (including an oil spill) that occurred after May 22, 2003....

  19. CALIBRATION OF SUBSURFACE BATCH AND REACTIVE-TRANSPORT MODELS INVOLVING COMPLEX BIOGEOCHEMICAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    In this study, the calibration of subsurface batch and reactive-transport models involving complex biogeochemical processes was systematically evaluated. Two hypothetical nitrate biodegradation scenarios were developed and simulated in numerical experiments to evaluate the perfor...

  20. Energetics of active transport processes.

    PubMed

    Essig, A; Caplan, S R

    1968-12-01

    Discussions of active transport usually assume stoichiometry between the rate of transport J(+) and the metabolic rate J(r). However, the observation of a linear relationship between J(+) and J(r) does not imply a stoichiometric relationship, i.e., complete coupling. Since coupling may possibly be incomplete, we examine systems of an arbitrary degree of coupling q, regarding stoichiometry as a limiting case. We consider a sodium pump, with J(+) and J(r) linear functions of the electrochemical potential difference, -X(+), and the chemical affinity of the metabolic driving reaction, A. The affinity is well defined even for various complex reaction pathways. Incorporation of a series barrier and a parallel leak does not affect the linearity of the composite observable system. The affinity of some region of the metabolic chain may be maintained constant, either by large pools of reactants or by regulation. If so, this affinity can be evaluated by two independent methods. Sodium transport is conveniently characterized by the open-circuit potential (Deltapsi)(I=0) and the natural limits, level flow (J(+))(X+=0), and static head X(0) (+) = (X(+))(J+=0). With high degrees of coupling -X(0) (+)/F approaches the electromotive force E(Na) (Ussing); -X(0) (+)/F cannot be identified with ((RT/F) ln f)(X+=0), where f is the flux ratio. The efficiency eta = -J(+)X(+)/J(r)A is of significance only when appreciable energy is being converted from one form to another. When either J(+) or -X(+) is small eta is low; the significant parameters are then the efficacies epsilon(J+) = J(+)/J(r)A and epsilon(X+) = -X(+)/J(r)A, respectively maximal at level flow and static head. Leak increases both J(+) and epsilon(J+) for isotonic saline reabsorption, but diminishes -X(0) (+) and epsilon(Xfemale symbol). Electrical resistance reflects both passive parameters and metabolism. Various fundamental relations are preserved despite coupling of passive ion and water flows.

  1. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 3452.224-72 Section 3452.224-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... Text of Provisions and Clauses 3452.224-72 Research activities involving human subjects. As prescribed... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97: Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011)...

  2. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 3452.224-72 Section 3452.224-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... Text of Provisions and Clauses 3452.224-72 Research activities involving human subjects. As prescribed... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97: Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011)...

  3. 45 CFR 1177.4 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1177.4 Section 1177.4 Public Welfare Regulations Relating to Public Welfare (Continued) NATIONAL... Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. (a) A debtor whose indebtedness involves...

  4. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... involving human subjects. 3452.224-72 Section 3452.224-72 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT... Text of Provisions and Clauses 3452.224-72 Research activities involving human subjects. As prescribed... human subjects covered under 34 CFR part 97: Research Activities Involving Human Subjects (MAR 2011)...

  5. Social Work with Religious Volunteers: Activating and Sustaining Community Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garland, Diana R.; Myers, Dennis M.; Wolfer, Terry A.

    2008-01-01

    Social workers in diverse community practice settings recruit and work with volunteers from religious congregations. This article reports findings from two surveys: 7,405 congregants in 35 Protestant congregations, including 2,570 who were actively volunteering, and a follow-up survey of 946 volunteers. It compares characteristics of congregation…

  6. Transportation as a "Related Service": Issues that Involve Transition Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Missouri Univ., Columbia. Missouri LINC.

    The paper discusses transportation as a related service for students with disabilities expecially as related to school-to-work transition activities. First, the legislative and legal basis for providing transportation services is discussed in the form of answers to frequently asked questions: why provide transportation? what is the basis for…

  7. NLRP3 inflammasome activation is involved in Ang II-induced kidney damage via mitochondrial dysfunction

    PubMed Central

    Wen, Yi; Liu, Yiran; Tang, Taotao; Lv, Linli; Liu, Hong; Ma, Kunling; Liu, Bicheng

    2016-01-01

    Growing evidence has shown that NLRP3 inflammasome activation promotes the development of tubulointerstitial inflammation and progression of renal injury. We previously found that mitochondrial dysfunction is a critical determinant for the activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in albumin-overload rats. Angiotensin (Ang) II plays an important role in mitochondrial homeostasis. Here, we investigated the role of Ang II in NLRP3 inflammasome activation and the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction in this process. In vitro, Ang II triggered NLRP3 inflammasome activation in a dose- and time-dependent manner, and this effect is mediated by AT1 receptor rather than AT2 receptor. MitoTEMPO, a mitochondrial targeted antioxidant, attenuated Ang II induced mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (mROS) production and NLRP3 inflammation activation. Following chronic Ang II infusion for 28 days, we observed remarkable tubular epithelial cells (TECs) injury, mitochondrial damage, and albuminuria in WT mice. However, these abnormalities were significantly attenuated in AT1 receptor KO mice. Then, we examined the role of mitochondria in Ang II-infused mice with or without mitoTEMPO treatment. As expected, Ang II-induced mitochondrial dysfunction and NLRP3 inflammasome activation was markedly inhibited by mitoTEMPO. Notably, NLRP3 deletion signally protected TECs from Ang II-triggered mitochondrial dysfunction and NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Taken together, these data demonstrate that Ang II induces NLRP3 inflammasome activation in TECs which is mediated by mitochondrial dysfunction. PMID:27509058

  8. Involvement of hypothalamic AMP-activated protein kinase in leptin-induced sympathetic nerve activation.

    PubMed

    Tanida, Mamoru; Yamamoto, Naoki; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Rahmouni, Kamal

    2013-01-01

    In mammals, leptin released from the white adipose tissue acts on the central nervous system to control feeding behavior, cardiovascular function, and energy metabolism. Central leptin activates sympathetic nerves that innervate the kidney, adipose tissue, and some abdominal organs in rats. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is essential in the intracellular signaling pathway involving the activation of leptin receptors (ObRb). We investigated the potential of AMPKα2 in the sympathetic effects of leptin using in vivo siRNA injection to knockdown AMPKα2 in rats, to produce reduced hypothalamic AMPKα2 expression. Leptin effects on body weight, food intake, and blood FFA levels were eliminated in AMPKα2 siRNA-treated rats. Leptin-evoked enhancements of the sympathetic nerve outflows to the kidney, brown and white adipose tissues were attenuated in AMPKα2 siRNA-treated rats. To check whether AMPKα2 was specific to sympathetic changes induced by leptin, we examined the effects of injecting MT-II, a melanocortin-3 and -4 receptor agonist, on the sympathetic nerve outflows to the kidney and adipose tissue. MT-II-induced sympatho-excitation in the kidney was unchanged in AMPKα2 siRNA-treated rats. However, responses of neural activities involving adipose tissue to MT-II were attenuated in AMPKα2 siRNA-treated rats. These results suggest that hypothalamic AMPKα2 is involved not only in appetite and body weight regulation but also in the regulation of sympathetic nerve discharges to the kidney and adipose tissue. Thus, AMPK might function not only as an energy sensor, but as a key molecule in the cardiovascular, thermogenic, and lipolytic effects of leptin through the sympathetic nervous system.

  9. Fathers Matter: Involving and Engaging Fathers in the Child Welfare System Process

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, Christian A; Howard, Douglas; Rayford, Brett S; Gordon, Derrick M

    2015-01-01

    Research suggests that children with involved and engaged fathers tend to have more positive outcomes relative to physical, cognitive, and social emotional health. Of children who become involved in the child welfare system, involving multiple parents in the case (e.g. mother and father) often results in a greater chance of a child returning home, fewer placement episodes, and reduced trauma that may be caused by separation anxiety. With the rise of single parenting homes (which are mostly maternal) in the United States, child welfare agencies are examining the efficacy of engaging multiple caregivers (esp. fathers) in the child welfare process. Research suggests that in order to involve fathers in child welfare processes, practices and policies must be intentional in implementing systems and protocols that encourage involvement of all parents regardless of relationship status of the parents. However, few child welfare agencies are required to inquire about fathers or involve fathers in the child's case. The purpose of this paper is to highlight efforts of the Connecticut Comprehensive Outcome Review (CCOR) process and discuss challenges and lessons learned from interviews and listening forums/focus groups that included social workers and fathers who are involved in the child welfare system in the state of Connecticut. Recommendations and considerations on engaging and involving fathers are discussed. PMID:25866428

  10. Fathers Matter: Involving and Engaging Fathers in the Child Welfare System Process.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Christian A; Howard, Douglas; Rayford, Brett S; Gordon, Derrick M

    2015-06-01

    Research suggests that children with involved and engaged fathers tend to have more positive outcomes relative to physical, cognitive, and social emotional health. Of children who become involved in the child welfare system, involving multiple parents in the case (e.g. mother and father) often results in a greater chance of a child returning home, fewer placement episodes, and reduced trauma that may be caused by separation anxiety. With the rise of single parenting homes (which are mostly maternal) in the United States, child welfare agencies are examining the efficacy of engaging multiple caregivers (esp. fathers) in the child welfare process. Research suggests that in order to involve fathers in child welfare processes, practices and policies must be intentional in implementing systems and protocols that encourage involvement of all parents regardless of relationship status of the parents. However, few child welfare agencies are required to inquire about fathers or involve fathers in the child's case. The purpose of this paper is to highlight efforts of the Connecticut Comprehensive Outcome Review (CCOR) process and discuss challenges and lessons learned from interviews and listening forums/focus groups that included social workers and fathers who are involved in the child welfare system in the state of Connecticut. Recommendations and considerations on engaging and involving fathers are discussed.

  11. Involving postgraduate's students in undergraduate small group teaching promotes active learning in both

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Ruchi; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Vyas, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lecture is a common traditional method for teaching, but it may not stimulate higher order thinking and students may also be hesitant to express and interact. The postgraduate (PG) students are less involved with undergraduate (UG) teaching. Team based small group active learning method can contribute to better learning experience. Aim: To-promote active learning skills among the UG students using small group teaching methods involving PG students as facilitators to impart hands-on supervised training in teaching and managerial skills. Methodology: After Institutional approval under faculty supervision 92 UGs and 8 PGs participated in 6 small group sessions utilizing the jigsaw technique. Feedback was collected from both. Observations: Undergraduate Feedback (Percentage of Students Agreed): Learning in small groups was a good experience as it helped in better understanding of the subject (72%), students explored multiple reading resources (79%), they were actively involved in self-learning (88%), students reported initial apprehension of performance (71%), identified their learning gaps (86%), team enhanced their learning process (71%), informal learning in place of lecture was a welcome change (86%), it improved their communication skills (82%), small group learning can be useful for future self-learning (75%). Postgraduate Feedback: Majority performed facilitation for first time, perceived their performance as good (75%), it was helpful in self-learning (100%), felt confident of managing students in small groups (100%), as facilitator they improved their teaching skills, found it more useful and better identified own learning gaps (87.5%). Conclusions: Learning in small groups adopting team based approach involving both UGs and PGs promoted active learning in both and enhanced the teaching skills of the PGs. PMID:26380201

  12. 29 CFR 570.61 - Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat-processing machines and occupations involving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-processing machines and occupations involving slaughtering, meat and poultry packing, processing, or... machines and occupations involving slaughtering, meat and poultry packing, processing, or rendering (Order... by these machines (including, for example, the slicing in a retail delicatessen of meat,...

  13. Axillary bud and pericycle involved in the thickening process of the rhizophore nodes in Smilax species.

    PubMed

    Appezzato-da-Glória, B; Silva, J M; Soares, M K M; Soares, A N; Martins, A R

    2015-08-01

    The species of the genus Smilax, popularly known as sarsaparilla, are widely used in folk medicine due to the antirheumatic properties of its underground structures. Smilax fluminensis and S. syphilitica occur in forested areas and form thickened stems called rhizophores from which adventitious roots grow. To provide information for more accurate identification of the commercialised product and for elucidating the process of stem thickening, a morphology and anatomy study of the underground organs of the two species was conducted. The adventitious roots differ in colour and diameter depending on the stage of development. They are white and have a larger diameter in the early stages of development, but as they grow, the adventitious roots become brown and have a smaller diameter due to the disintegration of the epidermis and virtually the entire cortex. In brown roots, the covering function is then performed by the lignified endodermis and the remaining walls of the cells from the last parenchyma cortical layer. These results are similar to those found in studies of other Smilax and suggest that the anatomy of the roots can be useful for identifying fraud in commercialised materials. The thickening process of the nodal regions of the rhizophores in both species involves the activity of axillary buds and pericyclic layers.

  14. Constituent Integration during the Processing of Compound Words: Does It Involve the Use of Relational Structures?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagne, Christina L.; Spalding, Thomas L.

    2009-01-01

    Although previous research has suggested that the processing of compound words involves the integration of the constituents, not much is known about what integration entails. Three experiments suggest that integration draws on both linguistic and conceptual knowledge about the constituents and the compound word; ease of processing (as reflected by…

  15. How Involved Are American L2 Learners of Spanish in Lexical Input Processing Tasks during Reading?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pulido, Diana

    2009-01-01

    This study examines the nature of the involvement load (Laufer & Hulstijn, 2001) in second language (L2) lexical input processing through reading by considering the effects of the reader-based factors of L2 reading proficiency and background knowledge. The lexical input processing aspects investigated were lexical inferencing (search), attentional…

  16. Organized activity involvement, depressive symptoms, and social adjustment in adolescents: ethnicity and socioeconomic status as moderators.

    PubMed

    Randall, Edin T; Bohnert, Amy M

    2009-10-01

    The current cross-sectional study investigated the links between various dimensions of organized activity involvement and depressive symptoms, loneliness, and peer victimization in an ethnically and economically diverse sample of adolescents (N = 152; 58% female). Results indicate that adolescents who were involved in organized activities for more years also reported lower levels of loneliness. There was evidence of diminishing returns when adolescents were very highly involved in organized activities; those who were either under- or over-involved reported the highest levels of depressive symptoms. Conversely, findings indicate that adolescents who participated in a narrow or wide range of activity contexts reported the lowest levels of depressive symptoms. In addition, results suggested that the relation between organized activity involvement and adjustment differs among adolescents from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds. Findings from the current study also underscore the importance of considering multiple indices of activity involvement when assessing its association with adjustment.

  17. Laboratory activities involving transmissible spongiform encephalopathy causing agents

    PubMed Central

    Leunda, Amaya; Van Vaerenbergh, Bernadette; Baldo, Aline; Roels, Stefan; Herman, Philippe

    2013-01-01

    Since the appearance in 1986 of epidemic of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), a new form of neurological disease in cattle which also affected human beings, many diagnostic and research activities have been performed to develop detection and therapeutic tools. A lot of progress was made in better identifying, understanding and controlling the spread of the disease by appropriate monitoring and control programs in European countries. This paper reviews the recent knowledge on pathogenesis, transmission and persistence outside the host of prion, the causative agent of transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSE) in mammals with a particular focus on risk (re)assessment and management of biosafety measures to be implemented in diagnostic and research laboratories in Belgium. Also, in response to the need of an increasing number of European diagnostic laboratories stopping TSE diagnosis due to a decreasing number of TSE cases reported in the last years, decontamination procedures and a protocol for decommissioning TSE diagnostic laboratories is proposed. PMID:24055928

  18. The Longitudinal Process of Early Parent Involvement on Student Achievement: A Path Analysis.

    PubMed

    Hayakawa, Momoko; Englund, Michelle M; Warner-Richter, Mallory N; Reynolds, Arthur J

    2013-01-01

    This longitudinal study investigated the process whereby early parent involvement in preschool effects student achievement from kindergarten through 6(th) grade. Participants were 1,539 low-income, mainly African American children and their mothers, in the Chicago Longitudinal Study. Program children (N = 989) received one or two years of the Child-Parent Center (CPC) program - a preschool intervention that strongly promoted parents' development of parent involvement skills within the school and at home. Children from similar backgrounds who did not attend the CPC, but participated in available local resources (e.g. day care), were obtained as a comparison group (N = 550). Path analysis revealed an interactive process between parent involvement, academic achievement, and children's motivation. Early parent involvement directly influenced kindergarten achievement, which in turn influenced first grade student motivation. Highly motivated children then encouraged parents to continue involvement. The cyclic nature of this process across elementary school was observed. The model accounted for 61% of the variance in 6(th) grade achievement. Findings suggest that early parent involvement promoted in the CPC program, sets the stage for subsequent parent involvement, student motivation, and academic achievement throughout early and middle childhood.

  19. Impaired enzymatic defensive activity, mitochondrial dysfunction and proteasome activation are involved in RTT cell oxidative damage.

    PubMed

    Cervellati, Carlo; Sticozzi, Claudia; Romani, Arianna; Belmonte, Giuseppe; De Rasmo, Domenico; Signorile, Anna; Cervellati, Franco; Milanese, Chiara; Mastroberardino, Pier Giorgio; Pecorelli, Alessandra; Savelli, Vinno; Forman, Henry J; Hayek, Joussef; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2015-10-01

    A strong correlation between oxidative stress (OS) and Rett syndrome (RTT), a rare neurodevelopmental disorder affecting females in the 95% of the cases, has been well documented although the source of OS and the effect of a redox imbalance in this pathology has not been yet investigated. Using freshly isolated skin fibroblasts from RTT patients and healthy subjects, we have demonstrated in RTT cells high levels of H2O2 and HNE protein adducts. These findings correlated with the constitutive activation of NADPH-oxidase (NOX) and that was prevented by a NOX inhibitor and iron chelator pre-treatment, showing its direct involvement. In parallel, we demonstrated an increase in mitochondrial oxidant production, altered mitochondrial biogenesis and impaired proteasome activity in RTT samples. Further, we found that the key cellular defensive enzymes: glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase and thioredoxin reductases activities were also significantly lower in RTT. Taken all together, our findings suggest that the systemic OS levels in RTT can be a consequence of both: increased endogenous oxidants as well as altered mitochondrial biogenesis with a decreased activity of defensive enzymes that leads to posttranslational oxidant protein modification and a proteasome activity impairment.

  20. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    PubMed Central

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2010-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1,040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model tested longitudinal paths between three categories of involvement (team sports, school clubs and activities, and religious activities, measured at baseline and 15 months), problem peer associations (baseline and 15 months), and cigarette smoking behavior (baseline and 24 months). Multi-group analyses indicated pathways differed by type of activity and adolescent gender. Boys’ baseline team sports and religious involvement predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via continued activity involvement at 15 months. Girls’ involvement in school clubs and activities and religious activities indirectly predicted lower levels of smoking at 24 months via reduced exposure to problem peers at 15 months. PMID:21603061

  1. The amount of ergonomics and user involvement in 151 design processes.

    PubMed

    Kok, Barbara N E; Slegers, Karin; Vink, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Ergonomics, usability and user-centered design are terms that are well known among designers. Yet, products often seem to fail to meet the users' needs, resulting in a gap between expected and experienced usability. To understand the possible causes of this gap the actions taken by the designer during the design process are studied in this paper. This can show whether and how certain actions influence the user-friendliness of the design products. The aim of this research was to understand whether ergonomic principles and methods are included in the design process, whether users are involved in this process and whether the experience of the designer (in ergonomics/user involvement) has an effect on the end product usability. In this study the design processes of 151 tangible products of students in design were analyzed. It showed that in 75% of the cases some ergonomic principles were applied. User involvement was performed in only 1/3 of the design cases. Hardly any correlation was found between the designers' experience in ergonomic principles and the way they applied it and no correlations were found between the designers' experience in user involvement and the users' involvement in the design process.

  2. Evidence that intramolecular interactions are involved in masking the activation domain of transcriptional activator Leu3p.

    PubMed

    Wang, D; Hu, Y; Zheng, F; Zhou, K; Kohlhaw, G B

    1997-08-01

    The Leu3 protein of Saccharomyces cerevisiae regulates the expression of genes involved in branched chain amino acid biosynthesis and in ammonia assimilation. It is modulated by alpha-isopropylmalate, an intermediate in leucine biosynthesis. In the presence of alpha-isopropylmalate, Leu3p is a transcriptional activator. In the absence of the signal molecule, the activation domain is masked, and Leu3p acts as a repressor. The recent discovery that Leu3p retains its regulatory properties when expressed in mammalian cells (Guo, H., and Kohlhaw, G. B. (1996) FEBS Lett. 390, 191-195) suggests that masking and unmasking of the activation domain occur without the participation of auxiliary proteins. Here we present experimental support for this notion and address the mechanism of masking. We show that modulation of Leu3p is exceedingly sensitive to mutations in the activation domain. An activation domain double mutant (D872N/D874N; designated Leu3-dd) was constructed that has the characteristics of a permanently masked activator. Using separately expressed segments containing either the DNA binding domain-middle region or the activation domain of wild type Leu3p (or Leu3-dd) in a modified yeast two-hybrid system, we provide direct evidence for alpha-isopropylmalate-dependent interaction between these segments. Finally, we use the phenotype of Leu3-dd-containing cells (slow growth in the absence of added leucine) to select for suppressor mutations that map to the middle region of Leu3-dd. The properties of nine such suppressors further support the idea that masking is an intramolecular process and suggest a means for mapping the surface involved in masking.

  3. Age-related differences in effective connectivity of brain regions involved in Japanese kanji processing with homophone judgment task.

    PubMed

    Wu, Chiao-Yi; Koh, Jia Ying Serene; Ho, Moon-Ho Ringo; Miyakoshi, Makoto; Nakai, Toshiharu; Chen, Shen-Hsing Annabel

    2014-08-01

    Reading is a complex process involving neural networks in which connections may be influenced by task demands and other factors. We employed functional magnetic resonance imaging and dynamic causal modeling to examine age-related influences on left-hemispheric kanji reading networks. During a homophone judgment task, activation in the middle frontal gyrus, and dorsal and ventral inferior frontal gyri were identified, representing areas involved in orthographic, phonological, and semantic processing, respectively. The young adults showed a preference for a semantically-mediated pathway from orthographic inputs to the retrieval of phonological representations, whereas the elderly preferred a direct connection from orthographic inputs to phonological lexicons prior to the activation of semantic representations. These sequential pathways are in line with the lexical semantic and non-semantic routes in the dual-route cascaded model. The shift in reading pathways accompanied by slowed reaction time for the elderly might suggest age-related declines in the efficiency of network connectivity.

  4. Improving the active involvement of stakeholders and the public in flood risk management - tools of an involvement strategy and case study results from Austria, Germany and Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleischhauer, M.; Greiving, S.; Flex, F.; Scheibel, M.; Stickler, T.; Sereinig, N.; Koboltschnig, G.; Malvati, P.; Vitale, V.; Grifoni, P.; Firus, K.

    2012-09-01

    The EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC aims at an active involvement of interested parties in the setting up of flood risk management plans and thus calls for more governance-related decision-making. This requirement has two perspectives. On the one hand, there is (1) the question of how decision-makers can improve the quality of their governance process. On the other hand, there is (2) the question of how the public shall be appropriately informed and involved. These questions were the centre of the ERA-Net CRUE-funded project IMRA (integrative flood risk governance approach for improvement of risk awareness) that aimed at an optimisation of the flood risk management process by increasing procedural efficiency with an explicit involvement strategy. To reach this goal, the IMRA project partners developed two new approaches that were implemented in three case study areas for the first time in flood risk management: 1. risk governance assessment tool: An indicator-based benchmarking and monitoring tool was used to evaluate the performance of a flood risk management system in regard to ideal risk governance principles; 2. social milieu approach: The concept of social milieus was used to gain a picture of the people living in the case study regions to learn more about their lifestyles, attitudes and values and to use this knowledge to plan custom-made information and participation activities for the broad public. This paper presents basic elements and the application of two innovative approaches as a part of an "involvement strategy" that aims at the active involvement of all interested parties (stakeholders) for assessing, reviewing and updating flood risk management plans, as formulated in the EU Flood Risk Management Directive 2007/60/EC.

  5. 16 CFR 1031.5 - Criteria for Commission involvement in voluntary standards activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... ACTIVITIES General Policies § 1031.5 Criteria for Commission involvement in voluntary standards activities... share of product production. (g) Provisions in the standard for marking products conforming to...

  6. 75 FR 69630 - Impact of Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention on Commercial Activities Involving...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-15

    ...-0543-02] Impact of Implementation of the Chemical Weapons Convention on Commercial Activities Involving... Chemical Weapons Convention (CWC), through the Chemical Weapons Convention Implementation Act (CWCIA) and the Chemical Weapons Convention Regulations (CWCR), has had on commercial activities...

  7. Multiple allosteric sites are involved in the modulation of insulin-degrading-enzyme activity by somatostatin.

    PubMed

    Tundo, Grazia R; Di Muzio, Elena; Ciaccio, Chiara; Sbardella, Diego; Di Pierro, Donato; Polticelli, Fabio; Coletta, Massimo; Marini, Stefano

    2016-10-01

    Somatostatin is a cyclic peptide, released in the gastrointestinal system and the central nervous system, where it is involved in the regulation of cognitive and sensory functions, motor activity and sleep. It is a substrate of insulin-degrading enzyme (IDE), as well as a modulator of its activity and expression. In the present study, we have investigated the modulatory role of somatostatin on IDE activity at 37 °C and pH 7.3 for various substrates [i.e. insulin, β-amyloid (Aβ)1-40 and bradykinin], aiming to quantitatively characterize the correlation between the specific features of the substrates and the regulatory mechanism. Functional data indicate that somatostatin, in addition to the catalytic site of IDE (being a substrate), is also able to bind to two additional exosites, which play different roles according to the size of the substrate and its binding mode to the IDE catalytic cleft. In particular, one exosite, which displays high affinity for somatostatin, regulates only the interaction of IDE with larger substrates (such as insulin and Aβ1-40 ) in a differing fashion according to their various modes of binding to the enzyme. A second exosite, which is involved in the regulation of enzymatic processing by IDE of all substrates investigated (including a 10-25 amino acid long amyloid-like peptide, bradykinin and somatostatin itself, which had been studied previously), probably acts through the alteration of an 'open-closed' equilibrium.

  8. Problem Solving Process Research of Everyone Involved in Innovation Based on CAI Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Tao; Shao, Yunfei; Tang, Xiaowo

    It is very important that non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee serve as innovators under the requirements of everyone involved in innovation. According the view of this paper, it is feasible and necessary to build everyone involved in innovation problem solving process under Total Innovation Management (TIM) based on the Theory of Inventive Problem Solving (TRIZ). The tools under the CAI technology: How TO mode and science effects database could be very useful for all employee especially non-technical department and bottom line for innovation. The problem solving process put forward in the paper focus on non-technical department personnel especially bottom line employee for innovation.

  9. Comparable ecological dynamics underlie early cancer invasion and species dispersal, involving self-organizing processes

    PubMed Central

    Marco, Diana E.; Cannas, Sergio A.; Montemurro, Marcelo A.; Hu, Bo; Cheng, Shi-Yuan

    2010-01-01

    Occupancy of new habitats through dispersion is a central process in nature. In particular, long-distance dispersal is involved in the spread of species and epidemics, although it has not been previously related with cancer invasion, a process that involves cell spreading to tissues far away from the primary tumour. Using simulations and real data we show that the early spread of cancer cells is similar to the species individuals spread and we suggest that both processes are represented by a common spatio-temporal signature of long-distance dispersal and subsequent local proliferation. This signature is characterized by a particular fractal geometry of the boundaries of patches generated, and a power-law scaled, disrupted patch size distribution. In contrast, invasions involving only dispersal but not subsequent proliferation (“physiological invasions”) like trophoblast cells invasion during normal human placentation did not show the patch size power-law pattern. Our results are consistent under different temporal and spatial scales, and under different resolution levels of analysis. We conclude that the scaling properties are a hallmark and a direct result of long-distance dispersal and proliferation, and that they could reflect homologous ecological processes of population self-organization during cancer and species spread. Our results are significant for the detection of processes involving long-range dispersal and proliferation like cancer local invasion and metastasis, biological invasions and epidemics, and for the formulation of new cancer therapeutical approaches. PMID:18930739

  10. 5 CFR 1215.24 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1215.24 Section 1215.24 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES DEBT MANAGEMENT Claims Collection § 1215.24 Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct....

  11. 5 CFR 1215.24 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1215.24 Section 1215.24 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES DEBT MANAGEMENT Claims Collection § 1215.24 Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct....

  12. Breadth and Intensity of Youth Activity Involvement as Contexts for Positive Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose-Krasnor, Linda; Busseri, Michael A.; Willoughby, Teena; Chalmers, Heather

    2006-01-01

    Research has linked youth activity involvement to positive development. However, past studies have confounded at least two separable dimensions of involvement: breadth (number of activities) and intensity (participation frequency). Theory and the limited available evidence suggest that these dimensions may make independent contributions to…

  13. Ego Strength Development of Adolescents Involved in Adult-Sponsored Structured Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Markstrom, Carol A.; Li, Xaioming; Blackshire, Shana L.; Wilfong, Juanita J.

    2005-01-01

    A psychosocial conception of ego strengths is presented in relation to adolescent involvement in adult-sponsored structured youth activities. Five-hundred and seventeen high school students completed measures on their involvement in structured activities and on 8 ego strengths. Gender, age, and SES were controlled in a MANCOVA procedure and it was…

  14. 48 CFR 3452.224-71 - Notice about research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... about the regulations for the protection of human subjects and related policies and guidelines... activities involving human subjects. 3452.224-71 Section 3452.224-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Text of Provisions and Clauses 3452.224-71 Notice about research activities involving human...

  15. 5 CFR 1215.24 - Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct. 1215.24 Section 1215.24 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES DEBT MANAGEMENT Claims Collection § 1215.24 Claims involving criminal activity or misconduct....

  16. Breadth and Intensity: Salient, Separable, and Developmentally Significant Dimensions of Structured Youth Activity Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Busseri, Michael A.; Rose-Krasnor, Linda

    2009-01-01

    In recent years, an impressive volume of evidence has accumulated demonstrating that youth involvement in structured, organized activities (e.g. school sports, community clubs) may facilitate positive youth development. We present a theory-based framework for studying structured activity involvement (SAI) as a context for positive youth…

  17. NRF2 activation is involved in ozonated human serum upregulation of HO-1 in endothelial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Pecorelli, Alessandra; Bocci, Velio; Acquaviva, Alessandra; Belmonte, Giuseppe; Gardi, Concetta; Virgili, Fabio; Ciccoli, Lucia; Valacchi, Giuseppe

    2013-02-15

    During the last decade, it has been shown that the activation of NRF2 and the binding to electrophile-responsive element (EpREs), stimulates the expression of a great number of genes responsible for the synthesis of phase I and phase II proteins, including antioxidants enzymes and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1). This critical cell response occurs in cardiovascular, degenerative and chronic infective diseases aggravated by a chronic oxidative stress. In our previous reports we have shown that ozonated plasma is able to up-regulate HO-1 expression in endothelial cells. In the present work we investigated a candidate mechanism involved in this process. After treatment with increasing doses of ozonated serum (20, 40 and 80 μg/mL O{sub 3} per mL of serum), a clear dose dependent activation of NRF2 and the subsequent induction of HO-1 and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1(NQO1) was observed. This effect was also present when cells were treated with serum and hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) or serum and 4-hydroxynonenal (4HNE). Moreover, the treatment with ozonated serum was associated with a dose-dependent activation of extracellular-signal-regulated kinases (ERK1/2) and p38 MAP kinases (p38), not directly involved in NRF2 activation. These data, provide a new insight on the mechanism responsible for the induction of HO-1 expression by ozonated serum in the endothelium, and have a practical importance as an expedient approach to the treatment of patients with both effective orthodox drugs and ozonated autohemotherapy, targeted to the restoration of redox homeostasis. - Highlights: ► Endothelial HO1 is upregulated by ozonated plasma ► This activation is induced by NRF2 and it is ERK independent. ► 4HNE and H{sub 2}O{sub 2} are the main molecules involved in this process. ► Ozonated plasma induced a hormetic effect ► Combination of orthodox medicine and ozonated plasma can be a useful treatment.

  18. Involvement of TACE in colon inflammation: a novel mechanism of regulation via SIRT-1 activation.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Manoranjan; Mohapatra, Jogeswar; Wagh, Akshaya; Patel, Hiren M; Pandey, Dheerendra; Kadam, Shekhar; Argade, Anil; Deshpande, Shrikalp S; Shah, Gourang B; Chatterjee, Abhijit; Jain, Mukul R

    2014-03-01

    TNF-α converting enzyme (TACE) processes the membrane TNF-α to release the bioactive soluble TNF-α. Several evidences suggest the involvement of TNF-α and TACE in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase (TIMP)-3, an endogenous inhibitor of TACE, is positively associated with silent information regulator (SIRT)-1. We aimed to study the expression of TACE, TIMP-3 and SIRT-1 at different stages of colitis and how TACE is regulated in response to SIRT-1 activation. Acute colitis was induced by 3.5% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water for 5days and levels of cytokines and mRNA expression of TACE, TIMP-3 and SIRT-1 were measured in colon at different time intervals. Next, the effect of SIRT-1 activator (resveratrol) or a selective TACE inhibitor (compound 11p) treatment was evaluated. Elevated levels of TNF-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1β, interferon (IFN)-γ and IL-17 were observed during DSS exposure phase which restored to the normal level after DSS removal. A significant increase in TACE and suppression in TIMP-3 and SIRT-1 mRNA level was observed during DSS exposure phase which reverts back to normal towards the remission phase. Treatment with resveratrol significantly elevated SIRT-1 and TIMP-3 and suppressed TACE mRNA expression and was associated with amelioration of disease. Furthermore, treatment with selective TACE inhibitor significantly suppressed body weight loss, disease activity index, colonic myeloperoxidase activity and the elevated levels of cytokines after DSS challenge. These results strongly emphasize the involvement of TACE in colon inflammation and inhibition of TACE directly or indirectly via SIRT-1 activation ameliorates colitis.

  19. Maturation of Fibrinolytic Bacillopeptidase F Involves both Hetero- and Autocatalytic Processes.

    PubMed

    Meng, Dongheng; Dai, Meihong; Xu, Bi-Lin; Zhao, Zhong-Shu; Liang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Mingqiu; Tang, Xiao-Feng; Tang, Bing

    2015-10-23

    Bacillopeptidase F (Bpr) is a fibrinolytic serine protease produced by Bacillus subtilis. Its precursor is composed of a signal peptide, an N-terminal propeptide, a catalytic domain, and a long C-terminal extension (CTE). Several active forms of Bpr have been previously reported, but little is known about the maturation of this enzyme. Here, a gene encoding a Bpr (BprL) was cloned from B. subtilis LZW and expressed in B. subtilis WB700, and three fibrinolytic mature forms with apparent molecular masses of 45, 75, and 85 kDa were identified in the culture supernatant. After treatment with urea, the 75-kDa mature form had the same molecular mass as the 85-kDa mature form, from which we infer that they adopt different conformations. Mutational analysis revealed that while the 85-kDa mature form is generated via heterocatalytic processing of a BprL proform by an unidentified protease of B. subtilis, the production of the 75- and 45-kDa mature forms involves both hetero- and autocatalytic events. From in vitro analysis of BprL and its sequential C-terminal truncation variants, it appears that partial removal of the CTE is required for the initiation of autoprocessing of the N-terminal propeptide, which is composed of a core domain (N*) and a 15-residue linker peptide, thereby yielding the 45-kDa mature form. These data suggest that the differential processing of BprL, either heterocatalytically or autocatalytically, leads to the formation of multiple mature forms with different molecular masses or conformations.

  20. Maturation of Fibrinolytic Bacillopeptidase F Involves both Hetero- and Autocatalytic Processes

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Dongheng; Dai, Meihong; Xu, Bi-Lin; Zhao, Zhong-Shu; Liang, Xiaoliang; Wang, Mingqiu; Tang, Xiao-Feng

    2015-01-01

    Bacillopeptidase F (Bpr) is a fibrinolytic serine protease produced by Bacillus subtilis. Its precursor is composed of a signal peptide, an N-terminal propeptide, a catalytic domain, and a long C-terminal extension (CTE). Several active forms of Bpr have been previously reported, but little is known about the maturation of this enzyme. Here, a gene encoding a Bpr (BprL) was cloned from B. subtilis LZW and expressed in B. subtilis WB700, and three fibrinolytic mature forms with apparent molecular masses of 45, 75, and 85 kDa were identified in the culture supernatant. After treatment with urea, the 75-kDa mature form had the same molecular mass as the 85-kDa mature form, from which we infer that they adopt different conformations. Mutational analysis revealed that while the 85-kDa mature form is generated via heterocatalytic processing of a BprL proform by an unidentified protease of B. subtilis, the production of the 75- and 45-kDa mature forms involves both hetero- and autocatalytic events. From in vitro analysis of BprL and its sequential C-terminal truncation variants, it appears that partial removal of the CTE is required for the initiation of autoprocessing of the N-terminal propeptide, which is composed of a core domain (N*) and a 15-residue linker peptide, thereby yielding the 45-kDa mature form. These data suggest that the differential processing of BprL, either heterocatalytically or autocatalytically, leads to the formation of multiple mature forms with different molecular masses or conformations. PMID:26497454

  1. Consumer involvement: effects on information processing from over-the-counter medication labels.

    PubMed

    Sansgiry, S S; Cady, P S; Sansgiry, S

    2001-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of consumer involvement on information processing from over-the-counter (OTC) medication labels. A sample of 256 students evaluated simulated OTC product labels for two product categories (headache and cold) in random order. Each participant evaluated labels after reading a scenario to simulate high and low involvement respectively. A questionnaire was used to collect data on variables such as label comprehension, attitude-towards-product label, product evaluation, and purchase intention. The results indicate that when consumers are involved in their purchase of OTC medications they are significantly more likely to understand information from the label and evaluate it accordingly. However, involvement does not affect attitude-towards-product label nor does it enhance purchase intention.

  2. 44 CFR 5.8 - Records involved in litigation or other judicial process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 44 Emergency Management and Assistance 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Records involved in litigation or other judicial process. 5.8 Section 5.8 Emergency Management and Assistance FEDERAL EMERGENCY MANAGEMENT AGENCY, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY GENERAL PRODUCTION OR DISCLOSURE OF INFORMATION...

  3. Tightening the Purchasing Process: Superintendents Get More Involved in Buying Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rivero, Victor

    2009-01-01

    Over the last 18 months, school district purchasing offices across the country have been tightening the reins like never before while more top-level administrators get involved in the budget process. "When the economy really hit the skids, states got hit hard, so a lot of school districts were forced to make severe budget cuts," says John Musso,…

  4. Study of elementary reactions and energy transfer processes involving the NH and CN free radicals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dagdigian, Paul J.; Alexander, Millard H.

    1991-06-01

    Collaborative theoretical and experimental studies of a variety of elementary chemical reactions and collisional energy transfer processes involving small molecular free radicals, with particular emphasis on the NH and CN molecules, have been carried out. Specific topics studied include: molecular free radicals, collisional energy transfer, chemical reactions, excited states, and molecular decomposition.

  5. Decentralisation by Devolution: Reflections on Community Involvement in Planning Process in Tanzania

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Norman, A. S.; Massoi, L.

    2010-01-01

    This paper provides reflections on Decentralization-by-Devolution in planning process at grassroots level by investigating the manner in which grassroots level is involved in preparing the three years strategic plan; and its implications towards solving socio-economic problems at grassroots level. The study employed a combined research design…

  6. 71 FR 56413 - Facility Change Process Involving Items Relied on for Safety

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-09-27

    ...; ] NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 70 RIN 3150-AH96 Facility Change Process Involving Items Relied on for Safety AGENCY: Nuclear Regulatory Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The Nuclear... on for safety (IROFS). This rulemaking corrects an inconsistency in the regulations pertaining...

  7. 71 FR 69430 - Facility Change Process Involving Items Relied on for Safety: Confirmation of Effective Date

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2006-12-01

    ... COMMISSION 10 CFR Part 70 RIN 3150-AH96 Facility Change Process Involving Items Relied on for Safety... requirement pertaining to items relied on for safety (IROFS). This rulemaking corrected an inconsistency in... for safety (IROFS). In the direct final rule, NRC stated that if no significant adverse comments...

  8. Educational Support System for Experiments Involving Construction of Sound Processing Circuits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Takemura, Atsushi

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a novel educational support system for technical experiments involving the production of practical electronic circuits for sound processing. To support circuit design and production, each student uses a computer during the experiments, and can learn circuit design, virtual circuit making, and real circuit making. In the…

  9. Reflections on Practical Approaches to Involving Children and Young People in the Data Analysis Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coad, Jane; Evans, Ruth

    2008-01-01

    This article reflects on key methodological issues emerging from children and young people's involvement in data analysis processes. We outline a pragmatic framework illustrating different approaches to engaging children, using two case studies of children's experiences of participating in data analysis. The article highlights methods of…

  10. Participation As Relational Process: Unpacking Involvement in Social Action and Community Service

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Jeffrey N.; Bench, Joshua H.; Warnaar, Bethany L.; Stroup, John T.

    2013-01-01

    Educators, policymakers, and other concerned adults share an interest in promoting lifelong patterns of community service in youth. Practitioners and researchers alike highlight the importance of youth participation in afterschool service activities so the author's focus in this paper is on youth involved in PeaceJam, an innovative…

  11. Developmental changes in brain activation involved in the production of novel speech sounds in children.

    PubMed

    Hashizume, Hiroshi; Taki, Yasuyuki; Sassa, Yuko; Thyreau, Benjamin; Asano, Michiko; Asano, Kohei; Takeuchi, Hikaru; Nouchi, Rui; Kotozaki, Yuka; Jeong, Hyeonjeong; Sugiura, Motoaki; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-08-01

    Older children are more successful at producing unfamiliar, non-native speech sounds than younger children during the initial stages of learning. To reveal the neuronal underpinning of the age-related increase in the accuracy of non-native speech production, we examined the developmental changes in activation involved in the production of novel speech sounds using functional magnetic resonance imaging. Healthy right-handed children (aged 6-18 years) were scanned while performing an overt repetition task and a perceptual task involving aurally presented non-native and native syllables. Productions of non-native speech sounds were recorded and evaluated by native speakers. The mouth regions in the bilateral primary sensorimotor areas were activated more significantly during the repetition task relative to the perceptual task. The hemodynamic response in the left inferior frontal gyrus pars opercularis (IFG pOp) specific to non-native speech sound production (defined by prior hypothesis) increased with age. Additionally, the accuracy of non-native speech sound production increased with age. These results provide the first evidence of developmental changes in the neural processes underlying the production of novel speech sounds. Our data further suggest that the recruitment of the left IFG pOp during the production of novel speech sounds was possibly enhanced due to the maturation of the neuronal circuits needed for speech motor planning. This, in turn, would lead to improvement in the ability to immediately imitate non-native speech.

  12. CIPK23 is involved in iron acquisition of Arabidopsis by affecting ferric chelate reductase activity.

    PubMed

    Tian, Qiuying; Zhang, Xinxin; Yang, An; Wang, Tianzuo; Zhang, Wen-Hao

    2016-05-01

    Iron deficiency is one of the major limiting factors affecting quality and production of crops in calcareous soils. Numerous signaling molecules and transcription factors have been demonstrated to play a regulatory role in adaptation of plants to iron deficiency. However, the mechanisms underlying the iron deficiency-induced physiological processes remain to be fully dissected. Here, we demonstrated that the protein kinase CIPK23 was involved in iron acquisition. Lesion of CIPK23 rendered Arabidopsis mutants hypersensitive to iron deficiency, as evidenced by stronger chlorosis in young leaves and lower iron concentration than wild-type plants under iron-deficient conditions by down-regulating ferric chelate reductase activity. We found that iron deficiency evoked an increase in cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and the elevated Ca(2+) would bind to CBL1/CBL9, leading to activation of CIPK23. These novel findings highlight the involvement of calcium-dependent CBL-CIPK23 complexes in the regulation of iron acquisition. Moreover, mutation of CIPK23 led to changes in contents of mineral elements, suggesting that CBL-CIPK23 complexes could be as "nutritional sensors" to sense and regulate the mineral homeostasis in Arabisopsis.

  13. The hypotriglyceridemic effect of biotin supplementation involves increased levels of cGMP and AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Aguilera-Méndez, Asdrúbal; Fernández-Mejía, Cristina

    2012-01-01

    In addition to its role as a carboxylase cofactor, biotin modifies gene expression and has manifold effects on systemic processes. Several studies have shown that biotin supplementation reduces hypertriglyceridemia. We have previously reported that this effect is related to decreased expression of lipogenic genes. In the present work, we analyzed signaling pathways and posttranscriptional mechanisms involved in the hypotriglyceridemic effects of biotin. Male BALB/cAnN Hsd mice were fed a control or a biotin-supplemented diet (1.76 or 97.7 mg of free biotin/kg diet, respectively for 8 weeks after weaning. The abundance of mature sterol regulatory element-binding protein (SREBP-1c), fatty-acid synthase (FAS), total acetyl-CoA carboxylase-1 (ACC-1) and its phosphorylated form, and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) were evaluated in the liver. We also determined the serum triglyceride concentrations and the hepatic levels of triglycerides and cyclic GMP (cGMP). Compared to the control group, biotin-supplemented mice had lower serum and hepatic triglyceride concentrations. Biotin supplementation increased the levels of cGMP and the phosphorylated forms of AMPK and ACC-1 and decreased the abundance of the mature form of SREBP-1c and FAS. These data provide evidence that the mechanisms by which biotin supplementation reduces lipogenesis involve increased cGMP content and AMPK activation. In turn, these changes lead to augmented ACC-1 phosphorylation and decreased expression of both the mature form of SREBP-1c and FAS. Our results demonstrate for the first time that AMPK is involved in the effects of biotin supplementation and offer new insights into the mechanisms of biotin-mediated hypotriglyceridemic effects.

  14. Processing of Color Words Activates Color Representations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richter, Tobias; Zwaan, Rolf A.

    2009-01-01

    Two experiments were conducted to investigate whether color representations are routinely activated when color words are processed. Congruency effects of colors and color words were observed in both directions. Lexical decisions on color words were faster when preceding colors matched the color named by the word. Color-discrimination responses…

  15. Mechanisms involved in Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens removal during activated sludge wastewater treatment

    PubMed Central

    Orruño, Maite; Garaizabal, Idoia; Bravo, Zaloa; Parada, Claudia; Barcina, Isabel; Arana, Inés

    2014-01-01

    Wastewater treatment reduces environmental contamination by removing gross solids and mitigating the effects of pollution. Treatment also reduces the number of indicator organisms and pathogens. In this work, the fates of two coliform bacteria, Escherichia coli and Serratia marcescens, were analyzed in an activated sludge process to determine the main mechanisms involved in the reduction of pathogenic microorganisms during wastewater treatment. These bacteria, modified to express green fluorescent protein, were inoculated in an activated sludge unit and in batch systems containing wastewater. The results suggested that, among the different biological factors implied in bacterial removal, bacterivorous protozoa play a key role. Moreover, a representative number of bacteria persisted in the system as free-living or embedded cells, but their distribution into liquid or solid fractions varied depending on the bacterium tested, questioning the real value of bacterial indicators for the control of wastewater treatment process. Additionally, viable but nonculturable cells constituted an important part of the bacterial population adhered to solid fractions, what can be derived from the competition relationships with native bacteria, present in high densities in this environment. These facts, taken together, emphasize the need for reliable quantitative and qualitative analysis tools for the evaluation of pathogenic microbial composition in sludge, which could represent an undefined risk to public health and ecosystem functions when considering its recycling. PMID:25044599

  16. Identification of an ovarian voltage-activated Na+-channel type: hints to involvement in luteolysis.

    PubMed

    Bulling, A; Berg, F D; Berg, U; Duffy, D M; Stouffer, R L; Ojeda, S R; Gratzl, M; Mayerhofer, A

    2000-07-01

    An endocrine type of voltage-activated sodium channel (eNaCh) was identified in the human ovary and human luteinized granulosa cells (GC). Whole-cell patch-clamp studies showed that the eNaCh in GC is functional and tetrodotoxin (TTX) sensitive. The luteotrophic hormone human CG (hCG) was found to decrease the peak amplitude of the sodium current within seconds. Treatment with hCG for 24-48 h suppressed not only eNaCh mRNA levels, but also mean Na+ peak currents and resting membrane potentials. An unexpected role for eNaChs in regulating cell morphology and function was indicated after pharmacological modulation of presumed eNaCh steady-state activity in GC cultures for 24-48 h using TTX (NaCh blocker) and veratridine (NaCh activator). TTX preserved a highly differentiated cellular phenotype. Veratridine not only increased the number of secondary lysosomes but also led to a significantly reduced progesterone production. Importantly, endocrine cells of the nonhuman primate corpus luteum (CL), which represent in vivo counterparts of luteinized GC, also contain eNaCh mRNA. Although the mechanism of channel activity under physiological conditions is not clear, it may include persistent Na+ currents. As observed in GC in culture, abundant secondary lysosomes were particularly evident in the regressing CL, suggesting a functional link between eNaCh activity and this form of cellular regression in vivo. Our results identify eNaCh in ovarian endocrine cells and demonstrate that their expression is under the inhibitory control of hCG. Activation of eNaChs in luteal cells, due to loss of gonadotropin support, may initiate a cascade of events leading to decreased CL function, a process that involves lysosomal activation and autophagy. These results imply that ovarian eNaChs are involved in the physiological demise of the temporary endocrine organ CL in the primate ovary during the menstrual cycle. Because commonly used drugs, including phenytoin, target NaChs, these results

  17. Dark-induced senescence of barley leaves involves activation of plastid transglutaminases.

    PubMed

    Sobieszczuk-Nowicka, E; Zmienko, A; Samelak-Czajka, A; Łuczak, M; Pietrowska-Borek, M; Iorio, R; Del Duca, S; Figlerowicz, M; Legocka, J

    2015-04-01

    Transglutaminases (E.C. 2.3.2.13) catalyze the post-translational modification of proteins by establishing ε-(γ-glutamyl) lysine isopeptide bonds and by the covalent conjugation of polyamines to endo-glutamyl residues of proteins. In light of the confirmed role of transglutaminases in animal cell apoptosis and only limited information on the role of these enzymes in plant senescence, we decided to investigate the activity of chloroplast transglutaminases (ChlTGases) and the fate of chloroplast-associated polyamines in Hordeum vulgare L. 'Nagrad' leaves, where the senescence process was induced by darkness (day 0) and continued until chloroplast degradation (day 12). Using an anti-TGase antibody, we detected on a subcellular level, the ChlTGases that were associated with destacked/degraded thylakoid membranes, and beginning on day 5, were also found in the stroma. Colorimetric and radiometric assays revealed during senescence an increase in ChlTGases enzymatic activity. The MS/MS identification of plastid proteins conjugated with exogenous polyamines had shown that the ChlTGases are engaged in the post-translational modification of proteins involved in photosystem organization, stress response, and oxidation processes. We also computationally identified the cDNA of Hv-Png1-like, a barley homologue of the Arabidopsis AtPng1 gene. Its mRNA level was raised from days 3 to 10, indicating that transcriptional regulation controls the activity of barley ChlTGases. Together, the presented results deepen our knowledge of the mechanisms of the events happened in dark-induced senescence of barley leaves that might be activation of plastid transglutaminases.

  18. Speech perception as an active cognitive process.

    PubMed

    Heald, Shannon L M; Nusbaum, Howard C

    2014-01-01

    One view of speech perception is that acoustic signals are transformed into representations for pattern matching to determine linguistic structure. This process can be taken as a statistical pattern-matching problem, assuming realtively stable linguistic categories are characterized by neural representations related to auditory properties of speech that can be compared to speech input. This kind of pattern matching can be termed a passive process which implies rigidity of processing with few demands on cognitive processing. An alternative view is that speech recognition, even in early stages, is an active process in which speech analysis is attentionally guided. Note that this does not mean consciously guided but that information-contingent changes in early auditory encoding can occur as a function of context and experience. Active processing assumes that attention, plasticity, and listening goals are important in considering how listeners cope with adverse circumstances that impair hearing by masking noise in the environment or hearing loss. Although theories of speech perception have begun to incorporate some active processing, they seldom treat early speech encoding as plastic and attentionally guided. Recent research has suggested that speech perception is the product of both feedforward and feedback interactions between a number of brain regions that include descending projections perhaps as far downstream as the cochlea. It is important to understand how the ambiguity of the speech signal and constraints of context dynamically determine cognitive resources recruited during perception including focused attention, learning, and working memory. Theories of speech perception need to go beyond the current corticocentric approach in order to account for the intrinsic dynamics of the auditory encoding of speech. In doing so, this may provide new insights into ways in which hearing disorders and loss may be treated either through augementation or therapy.

  19. Transmembrane myosin chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation produced in Dictyostelium is active

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenitzer, Veronika; Eichner, Norbert; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Weiss, Ingrid M.

    2011-12-02

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Dictyostelium produces the 264 kDa myosin chitin synthase of bivalve mollusc Atrina. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin synthase activity releases chitin, partly associated with the cell surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Membrane extracts of transgenic slime molds produce radiolabeled chitin in vitro. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Chitin producing Dictyostelium cells can be characterized by atomic force microscopy. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer This model system enables us to study initial processes of chitin biomineralization. -- Abstract: Several mollusc shells contain chitin, which is formed by a transmembrane myosin motor enzyme. This protein could be involved in sensing mechanical and structural changes of the forming, mineralizing extracellular matrix. Here we report the heterologous expression of the transmembrane myosin chitin synthase Ar-CS1 of the bivalve mollusc Atrina rigida (2286 amino acid residues, M.W. 264 kDa/monomer) in Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism for myosin motor proteins. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy (CLSM), chitin binding GFP detection of chitin on cells and released to the cell culture medium, and a radiochemical activity assay of membrane extracts revealed expression and enzymatic activity of the mollusc chitin synthase in transgenic slime mold cells. First high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of Ar-CS1 transformed cellulose synthase deficient D. discoideumdcsA{sup -} cell lines are shown.

  20. Transient neural activation in human amygdala involved in aversive conditioning of face and voice.

    PubMed

    Iidaka, Tetsuya; Saito, Daisuke N; Komeda, Hidetsugu; Mano, Yoko; Kanayama, Noriaki; Osumi, Takahiro; Ozaki, Norio; Sadato, Norihiro

    2010-09-01

    Elucidating the neural mechanisms involved in aversive conditioning helps find effective treatments for psychiatric disorders such as anxiety disorder and phobia. Previous studies using fMRI and human subjects have reported that the amygdala plays a role in this phenomenon. However, the noxious stimuli that were used as unconditioned stimuli in previous studies (e.g., electric shock) might have been ecologically invalid because we seldom encounter such stimuli in daily life. Therefore, we investigated whether a face stimulus could be conditioned by using a voice that had negative emotional valence and was collected from a real-life environment. A skin conductance response showed that healthy subjects were conditioned by using these stimuli. In an fMRI study, there was greater amygdala activation in response to the faces that had been paired with the voice than to those that had not. The right amygdala showed transient activity in the early stage of acquisition. A psychophysiological interaction analysis indicated that the subcortical pathway from the medial geniculate body to the amygdala played a role in conditioning. Modulation of the subcortical pathway by voice stimuli preceded the transient activity in the amygdala. The finding that an ecologically valid stimulus elicited the conditioning and amygdala response suggests that our brain is automatically processing unpleasant stimuli in daily life.

  1. Controlling contagion processes in activity driven networks.

    PubMed

    Liu, Suyu; Perra, Nicola; Karsai, Márton; Vespignani, Alessandro

    2014-03-21

    The vast majority of strategies aimed at controlling contagion processes on networks consider the connectivity pattern of the system either quenched or annealed. However, in the real world, many networks are highly dynamical and evolve, in time, concurrently with the contagion process. Here, we derive an analytical framework for the study of control strategies specifically devised for a class of time-varying networks, namely activity-driven networks. We develop a block variable mean-field approach that allows the derivation of the equations describing the coevolution of the contagion process and the network dynamic. We derive the critical immunization threshold and assess the effectiveness of three different control strategies. Finally, we validate the theoretical picture by simulating numerically the spreading process and control strategies in both synthetic networks and a large-scale, real-world, mobile telephone call data set.

  2. Reform of the EIA process in Indonesia: improving the role of public involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Purnama, Dadang

    2003-07-01

    The implementation of Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) as a planning tool has been utilised for a relatively long time in Indonesia. It was introduced formally through the Act No. 4/1982. Supporting regulation was established in 1986 when Government Regulation No. 29 was enacted. After developing the EIA system for 14 years, Indonesia finally recognized the importance of emphasizing public involvement in the EIA guidelines of 2000. EIA in the previous Indonesian regulations, i.e. Regulation No. 29/1986 and No. 51/1993, did not have provisions for direct public involvement. The Indonesian Government Regulation No. 27/1999 is currently accommodating the above issue. Guidelines for public announcement and public involvement have been introduced in a decree issued by the Head of Indonesia's Environmental Impact Management Agency No. KepDal 08/2000. This was officially enacted on 7 November 2000 in response to the demand for more public involvement, an issue that was ambiguous in the previous legislation. This paper discusses: the implementation of the new guidelines; what has been achieved; and the challenges during implementation. While the paper focuses its review on the Indonesian EIA system, Indonesia's experience is relevant to many other developing countries that are starting to adopt public involvement in their decision-making processes.

  3. Individual reactions to high involvement work processes: investigating the role of empowerment and perceived organizational support.

    PubMed

    Butts, Marcus M; Vandenberg, Robert J; DeJoy, David M; Schaffer, Bryan S; Wilson, Mark G

    2009-04-01

    This study sought to understand how high involvement work processes (HIWP) are processed at the employee level. Using structural equation modeling techniques, the authors tested and supported a model in which psychological empowerment mediated the effects of HIWP on job satisfaction, organizational commitment, job performance, and job stress. Furthermore, perceived organizational support (POS) was hypothesized to moderate the relationships between empowerment and these outcomes. With exception for the empowerment-job satisfaction association, support was found for our predictions. Future directions for research and the practical implications of our findings for both employees and organizations are discussed.

  4. Parental involvement in the habilitation process following children's cochlear implantation: an action theory perspective.

    PubMed

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Young, Richard A

    2008-01-01

    Action theory and the qualitative action-project method are used in this study to address and illustrate the complexity of parenting children who have received cochlear implants (CIs) as well as the intentionality of parents engaged in that process. "Action" refers to individual and joint goal-directed and intentional behaviors. Action theory has the advantage of using the perspectives provided by manifest behavior, internal processes, and social meaning in the analysis of action. Two cases are used to describe the individual and joint actions and projects, as related to parents' involvement in the habilitation process of children's postcochlear implantation. These joint projects are described at the levels of meanings/goals, functional processes, behaviors, structural support, and resources. From the rich descriptions and analysis of the cases, we draw potentially illuminative implications for the "current thinking" in relation to parenting children with CIs.

  5. Inhibition of proteasome activity is involved in cobalt-induced apoptosis of human alveolar macrophages.

    PubMed

    Araya, Jun; Maruyama, Muneharu; Inoue, Akira; Fujita, Tadashi; Kawahara, Junko; Sassa, Kazuhiko; Hayashi, Ryuji; Kawagishi, Yukio; Yamashita, Naohiro; Sugiyama, Eiji; Kobayashi, Masashi

    2002-10-01

    Inhalation of particulate cobalt has been known to induce interstitial lung disease. There is growing evidence that apoptosis plays a crucial role in physiological and pathological settings and that the ubiquitin-proteasome system is involved in the regulation of apoptosis. Cadmium, the same transitional heavy metal as cobalt, has been reported to accumulate ubiquitinated proteins in neuronal cells. On the basis of these findings, we hypothesized that cobalt would induce apoptosis in the lung by disturbance of the ubiquitin-proteasome pathway. To evaluate this, we exposed U-937 cells and human alveolar macrophages (AMs) to cobalt chloride (CoCl(2)) and examined their apoptosis by DNA fragmentation assay, 4',6-diamidino-2'-phenylindol dihydrochloride staining, and Western blot analysis. CoCl(2) induced apoptosis and accumulated ubiquitinated proteins. Exposure to CoCl(2) inhibited proteasome activity in U-937 cells. Cobalt-induced apoptosis was mediated via mitochondrial pathway because CoCl(2) released cytochrome c from mitochondria. These results suggest that cobalt-induced apoptosis of AMs may be one of the mechanisms for cobalt-induced lung injury and that the accumulation of ubiquitinated proteins might be involved in this apoptotic process.

  6. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging.

  7. Health benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Yamada, Naoko; Heo, Jinmoo; Han, Areum

    2014-01-01

    The existing literature suggests that serious engagement in leisure activities leads to happiness, life satisfaction, and successful aging among older adults. This qualitative study was used to examine the benefits of serious involvement in leisure activities among older Korean adults who were members of a sports club. Using an analytic data analysis, we identified three main themes associated with the benefits of serious engagement in leisure activities: 1) the experience of psychological benefits, 2) the creation of social support, and 3) the enhancement of physical health. These themes indicate that, through serious involvement in certain physical activities, participants gain various health benefits, which may contribute to successful aging. PMID:25059979

  8. Process for preparing active oxide powders

    DOEpatents

    Berard, Michael F.; Hunter, Jr., Orville; Shiers, Loren E.; Dole, Stephen L.; Scheidecker, Ralph W.

    1979-02-20

    An improved process for preparing active oxide powders in which cation hydroxide gels, prepared in the conventional manner are chemically dried by alternately washing the gels with a liquid organic compound having polar characteristics and a liquid organic compound having nonpolar characteristics until the mechanical water is removed from the gel. The water-free cation hydroxide is then contacted with a final liquid organic wash to remove the previous organic wash and speed drying. The dried hydroxide treated in the conventional manner will form a highly sinterable active oxide powder.

  9. Molecular Genetic Analysis of Activation-tagged Transcription Factors Thought to be Involved in Photomorphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Michael

    2011-06-23

    Plants utilize light as a source of information via families of photoreceptors such as the red/far-red absorbing phytochromes (PHY) and the blue/UVA absorbing cryptochromes (CRY). The main goal of the Neff lab is to use molecular-genetic mutant screens to elucidate signaling components downstream of these photoreceptors. Activation-tagging mutagenesis led to the identification of two putative transcription factors that may be involved in both photomorphogenesis and hormone signaling pathways. sob1-D (suppressor of phyB-dominant) mutant phenotypes are caused by the over-expression of a Dof transcription factor previously named OBP3. Our previous studies indicate that OBP3 is a negative regulator of light-mediated cotyledon expansion and may be involved in modulating responsiveness to the growth-regulating hormone auxin. The sob2-D mutant uncovers a role for LEP, a putative AP2/EREBP-like transcription factor, in seed germination, hypocotyl elongation and responsiveness to the hormone abscisic acid. Based on photobiological and genetic analysis of OBP3-knockdown and LEP-null mutations, we hypothesize that these transcription factors are involved in both light-mediated seedling development and hormone signaling. To examine the role that these genes play in photomorphogenesis we will: 1) Further explore the genetic role of OBP3 in cotyledon/leaf expansion and other photomorphogenic processes as well as examine potential physical interactions between OBP3 and CRY1 or other signaling components that genetically interact with this transcription factor 2) Test the hypothesis that OBP3 is genetically involved in auxin signaling and root development as well as examine the affects of this hormone and light on OBP3 protein accumulation. 3) Test the hypothesis that LEP is involved in seed germination, seedling photomorphogenesis and hormone signaling. Together these experiments will lead to a greater understanding of the complexity of interactions between photoreceptors and DNA

  10. Has patients’ involvement in the decision‐making process changed over time?

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Brink‐Muinen, Atie; Van Dulmen, Sandra M.; De Haes, Hanneke C.J.M.; Visser, Adriaan Ph.; Schellevis, François G.; Bensing, Jozien M.

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Objective  To get insight into the changes over time of patients’ involvement in the decision‐making process, and into the factors contributing to patients’ involvement and general practitioners’ (GPs) communication related to the Medical Treatment Act (MTA) issues: information about treatment, other available treatments and side‐effects; informed decision making; asking consent for treatment. Background  Societal developments have changed the doctor–patient relationship recently. Informed decision making has become a central topic. Patients’ informed consent was legalized by the MTA (1995). Design  Data of two cross‐sectional studies, the First (1987) and Second (2001) Dutch National Survey of General Practice, were compared. Setting and participants  General practice consultations; 16 GPs and 442 patients in 1987; 142 GPs and 2784 patients in 2001. Methods  Consultations were videotaped and rated using Roter's Interaction Analysis System and observer questionnaires; pre‐ and post‐consultation patient questionnaires; and GP questionnaires. Descriptive analyses and multivariate, multilevel analysis were applied. Main results  Most patients reported to have received the information they had considered as important prior to the consultation. There were discrepancies in involvement in treatment decisions and in giving information about other available treatments, side‐effects and risks. GPs who were more affective and gave more information, more often involved their patients, especially younger patients, in decision making. In 2001, more informed decision making was observed and the GPs asked consent for a treatment more often, but they less often asked for the patients’ understanding. Conclusion  Patients’ involvement in decision making has increased over time, but not in every respect. However, this does not apply for all patients, especially the older ones. It should be questioned whether they are willing or capable

  11. Proteolytic Processing Regulates Placental Growth Factor Activities*

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, Daniel C.; Willenborg, Sebastian; Koch, Manuel; Zwolanek, Daniela; Müller, Stefan; Becker, Ann-Kathrin A.; Metzger, Stephanie; Ehrbar, Martin; Kurschat, Peter; Hellmich, Martin; Hubbell, Jeffrey A.; Eming, Sabine A.

    2013-01-01

    Placental growth factor (PlGF) is a critical mediator of blood vessel formation, yet mechanisms of its action and regulation are incompletely understood. Here we demonstrate that proteolytic processing regulates the biological activity of PlGF. Specifically, we show that plasmin processing of PlGF-2 yields a protease-resistant core fragment comprising the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1 binding site but lacking the carboxyl-terminal domain encoding the heparin-binding domain and an 8-amino acid peptide encoded by exon 7. We have identified plasmin cleavage sites, generated a truncated PlGF118 isoform mimicking plasmin-processed PlGF, and explored its biological function in comparison with that of PlGF-1 and -2. The angiogenic responses induced by the diverse PlGF forms were distinct. Whereas PlGF-2 increased endothelial cell chemotaxis, vascular sprouting, and granulation tissue formation upon skin injury, these activities were abrogated following plasmin digestion. Investigation of PlGF/Neuropilin-1 binding and function suggests a critical role for heparin-binding domain/Neuropilin-1 interaction and its regulation by plasmin processing. Collectively, here we provide new mechanistic insights into the regulation of PlGF-2/Neuropilin-1-mediated tissue vascularization and growth. PMID:23645683

  12. Activation of consolidation processes of alumina ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matrenin, S. V.; Zenin, B. S.; Tayukin, R. V.

    2016-02-01

    The methods for activating sintering ceramics based on Al2O3 by mechanical activation in the planetary mill, by adding in the mixture of nanopowders (NP) Al, Al2O3, and submicron powder TiO2, and by applying the technology of spark plasma sintering (SPS) are developed. It has been shown that adding the nanopowder up to 20 wt. % Al2O3 in a coarse powder α-Al2O3 activates the sintering process resulting in increased density and hardness of the sintered alumina ceramics. Substantial effect of increasing density of alumina ceramics due to adding the submicron powder TiO2 in the compound of initial powder mixtures has been established.

  13. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments

    PubMed Central

    Rodrigo, María J.; Alquézar, Berta; Al-Babili, Salim

    2013-01-01

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly β-citraurin (3-hydroxy-β-apo-8′-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of β-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in β-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7′,8′ double bond in zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7′,8′ double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration. PMID:24006419

  14. A novel carotenoid cleavage activity involved in the biosynthesis of Citrus fruit-specific apocarotenoid pigments.

    PubMed

    Rodrigo, María J; Alquézar, Berta; Alós, Enriqueta; Medina, Víctor; Carmona, Lourdes; Bruno, Mark; Al-Babili, Salim; Zacarías, Lorenzo

    2013-11-01

    Citrus is the first tree crop in terms of fruit production. The colour of Citrus fruit is one of the main quality attributes, caused by the accumulation of carotenoids and their derivative C30 apocarotenoids, mainly β-citraurin (3-hydroxy-β-apo-8'-carotenal), which provide an attractive orange-reddish tint to the peel of oranges and Mandarins. Though carotenoid biosynthesis and its regulation have been extensively studied in Citrus fruits, little is known about the formation of C30 apocarotenoids. The aim of this study was to the identify carotenoid cleavage enzyme(s) [CCD(s)] involved in the peel-specific C30 apocarotenoids. In silico data mining revealed a new family of five CCD4-type genes in Citrus. One gene of this family, CCD4b1, was expressed in reproductive and vegetative tissues of different Citrus species in a pattern correlating with the accumulation of C30 apocarotenoids. Moreover, developmental processes and treatments which alter Citrus fruit peel pigmentation led to changes of β-citraurin content and CCD4b1 transcript levels. These results point to the involvement of CCD4b1 in β-citraurin formation and indicate that the accumulation of this compound is determined by the availability of the presumed precursors zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin. Functional analysis of CCD4b1 by in vitro assays unequivocally demonstrated the asymmetric cleavage activity at the 7',8' double bond in zeaxanthin and β-cryptoxanthin, confirming its role in C30 apocarotenoid biosynthesis. Thus, a novel plant carotenoid cleavage activity targeting the 7',8' double bond of cyclic C40 carotenoids has been identified. These results suggest that the presented enzyme is responsible for the biosynthesis of C30 apocarotenoids in Citrus which are key pigments in fruit coloration.

  15. Excited-state annihilation process involving a cyclometalated platinum(II) complex

    SciTech Connect

    Maestri, M.; Sandrini, D. ); von Zelewsky, A.; Deuschel-Cornioley, C. )

    1991-05-29

    The Pt(tpy)(ppz) complex exhibits strong luminescence with a relatively long excited-state lifetime (15.3 {mu}s) in deaerated acetonitrile solution, at room temperature and at low excitation intensity, and can be easily involved in excited-state quenching processes. The {sub 3}CT excited state is, in fact, quenched (1) by oxygen (k{sub q} {congruent} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}), (2) by the ground-state complex (k{sub q} = 5.7 {times} 10{sup 7} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}), and (3) by another {sup 3}CT excited state in an annihilation process, which is practically diffusion controlled (k{sub 3} > 6 {times} 10{sup 9} M{sup {minus}1} s{sup {minus}1}). The ground-state quenching and the annihilation process most probably occur via an excimer formation mechanism. 46 refs., 3 figs.

  16. Modified lignosulfonates as additives in oil recovery processes involving chemical recovery agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1982-08-17

    A process for producing petroleum from subterranean formations is disclosed wherein production from the formation is obtained by driving a fluid from an injection well to a production well. The process involves injecting via the injection well into the formation an aqueous solution of modified lignosulfonate salt as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and/or polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process may best be carried out by injecting the modified lignosulfonates into the formation through the injection well mixed with either a polymer, a surfactant solution and/or a micellar dispersion. This mixture would then be followed by a drive fluid such as water to push the chemicals to the production well. The lignosulfonates may be modified by any combination of any two or more of: reaction with chloroacetic acid, reaction with carbon dioxide, addition of the methylene sulfonate radical to the lignosulfonate molecule and oxidation with oxygen.

  17. Lignosulfonates carboxylated with chloroacetic acid as additives in oil recovery processes involving chemical recovery agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kalfoglou, G.

    1981-05-19

    A process for producing petroleum from subterranean formations is disclosed wherein production from the formation is obtained by driving a fluid from an injection well to a production well. The process involves injecting via the injection well into the formation an aqueous solution of lignosulfonates carboxylated with chloroacetic acid as a sacrificial agent to inhibit the deposition of surfactant and/or polymer on the reservoir matrix. The process may best be carried out by injecting the lignosulfonates carboxylated with chloroacetic acid into the formation through the injection well mixed with either a polymer, a surfactant solution and/or a micellar dispersion. This mixture would then be followed by a drive fluid such as water to push the chemicals to the production well.

  18. Involvement of Kallikrein-Related Peptidases in Normal and Pathologic Processes

    PubMed Central

    Stefanini, Ana Carolina B.; da Cunha, Bianca Rodrigues; Henrique, Tiago; Tajara, Eloiza H.

    2015-01-01

    Human kallikrein-related peptidases (KLKs) are a subgroup of serine proteases that participate in proteolytic pathways and control protein levels in normal physiology as well as in several pathological conditions. Their complex network of stimulatory and inhibitory interactions may induce inflammatory and immune responses and contribute to the neoplastic phenotype through the regulation of several cellular processes, such as proliferation, survival, migration, and invasion. This family of proteases, which includes one of the most useful cancer biomarkers, kallikrein-related peptidase 3 or PSA, also has a protective effect against cancer promoting apoptosis or counteracting angiogenesis and cell proliferation. Therefore, they represent attractive therapeutic targets and may have important applications in clinical oncology. Despite being intensively studied, many gaps in our knowledge on several molecular aspects of KLK functions still exist. This review aims to summarize recent data on their involvement in different processes related to health and disease, in particular those directly or indirectly linked to the neoplastic process. PMID:26783378

  19. Fatty acid transport and activation and the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid trafficking.

    PubMed

    Sandoval, Angel; Fraisl, Peter; Arias-Barrau, Elsa; Dirusso, Concetta C; Singer, Diane; Sealls, Whitney; Black, Paul N

    2008-09-15

    These studies defined the expression patterns of genes involved in fatty acid transport, activation and trafficking using quantitative PCR (qPCR) and established the kinetic constants of fatty acid transport in an effort to define whether vectorial acylation represents a common mechanism in different cell types (3T3-L1 fibroblasts and adipocytes, Caco-2 and HepG2 cells and three endothelial cell lines (b-END3, HAEC, and HMEC)). As expected, fatty acid transport protein (FATP)1 and long-chain acyl CoA synthetase (Acsl)1 were the predominant isoforms expressed in adipocytes consistent with their roles in the transport and activation of exogenous fatty acids destined for storage in the form of triglycerides. In cells involved in fatty acid processing including Caco-2 (intestinal-like) and HepG2 (liver-like), FATP2 was the predominant isoform. The patterns of Acsl expression were distinct between these two cell types with Acsl3 and Acsl5 being predominant in Caco-2 cells and Acsl4 in HepG2 cells. In the endothelial lines, FATP1 and FATP4 were the most highly expressed isoforms; the expression patterns for the different Acsl isoforms were highly variable between the different endothelial cell lines. The transport of the fluorescent long-chain fatty acid C(1)-BODIPY-C(12) in 3T3-L1 fibroblasts and 3T3-L1 adipocytes followed typical Michaelis-Menten kinetics; the apparent efficiency (k(cat)/K(T)) of this process increases over 2-fold (2.1 x 10(6)-4.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)) upon adipocyte differentiation. The V(max) values for fatty acid transport in Caco-2 and HepG2 cells were essentially the same, yet the efficiency was 55% higher in Caco-2 cells (2.3 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1) versus 1.5 x 10(6)s(-1)M(-1)). The kinetic parameters for fatty acid transport in three endothelial cell types demonstrated they were the least efficient cell types for this process giving V(max) values that were nearly 4-fold lower than those defined form 3T3-L1 adipocytes, Caco-2 cells and HepG2 cells. The

  20. FRG1P-mediated aggregation of proteins involved in pre-mRNA processing.

    PubMed

    van Koningsbruggen, Silvana; Straasheijm, Kirsten R; Sterrenburg, Ellen; de Graaf, Natascha; Dauwerse, Hans G; Frants, Rune R; van der Maarel, Silvère M

    2007-02-01

    FRG1 is considered a candidate gene for facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) based on its location at chromosome 4qter and its upregulation in FSHD muscle. The FRG1 protein (FRG1P) localizes to nucleoli, Cajal bodies (and speckles), and has been suggested to be a component of the human spliceosome but its exact function is unknown. Recently, transgenic mice overexpressing high levels of FRG1P in skeletal muscle were described to present with muscular dystrophy. Moreover, upregulation of FRG1P was demonstrated to correlate with missplicing of specific pre-mRNAs. In this study, we have combined colocalization studies with yeast two-hybrid screens to identify proteins that associate with FRG1P. We demonstrate that artificially induced nucleolar aggregates of VSV-FRG1P specifically sequester proteins involved in pre-mRNA processing. In addition, we have identified SMN, PABPN1, and FAM71B, a novel speckle and Cajal body protein, as binding partners of FRG1P. All these proteins are, or seem to be, involved in RNA biogenesis. Our data confirm the presence of FRG1P in protein complexes containing human spliceosomes and support a potential role of FRG1P in either splicing or another step in nuclear RNA biogenesis. Intriguingly, among FRG1P-associated proteins are SMN and PABPN1, both being involved in neuromuscular disorders, possibly through RNA biogenesis-related processes.

  1. Nature of the sites involved in the process of cesium desorption from vermiculite.

    PubMed

    Dzene, Liva; Tertre, Emmanuel; Hubert, Fabien; Ferrage, Eric

    2015-10-01

    Three particle size fractions of sodium-saturated vermiculite (10-20, 1-2 and 0.1-0.2 μm), differing only in their ratios of external-to-total sorption sites, were used to probe the nature of the sites involved in desorption of cesium ions. The sorption was investigated for initial aqueous concentrations of cesium ranging from 5.6×10(-4) to 1.3×10(-2) mol/L, and the cesium desorption was probed by exchange with ammonium ions. The results showed that (1) the amounts of desorbed cesium were strongly dependent on the particle size for a given initial aqueous cesium concentration and (2) the amounts of desorbed cations (Na(+) and Cs(+)) strongly decreased with increasing initial cesium aqueous concentration, irrespective of the particle size investigated. Quantitative analysis of these results suggested that cesium ions sorbed on external (edge+basal) sorption sites can be desorbed by ammonium ions. As a contrast, most of cesium ions sorbed on interlayer sites remain fixed due to the collapse of the structure under aqueous conditions. This study provides important information, such as the nature of the sites involved in the exchange process, when the thermodynamic formalism is considered to describe the ion-exchange process involving cesium and high-charge swelling clay minerals in polluted soil environments.

  2. Getting Involved: Exploring Latino GBT Volunteerism and Activism in AIDS and LGBT Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Ramirez-Valles, Jesus; Kuhns, Lisa M.; Vázquez, Raquel; Benjamin, Gregory D.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the community involvement (e.g., volunteerism, activism) of Latino gay and bisexual men and transgender persons (GBT) in two areas: AIDS/GLBT and other general causes. Drawing from volunteering and identity theories, we explore: Who is likely to get involved? What factors affect variation in the levels of involvement? Where do Latino GBT participate and what do they do? Data come from a cross-sectional sample (N=643) of Latino GBT in Chicago and San Francisco. We find high levels of involvement, but primarily focused on AIDS/GLBT. Involvement appears to be driven by income, early involvement, role modeling, and childhood stigmatization of gender nonconformity. PMID:26451081

  3. Involvement of ER stress and activation of apoptotic pathways in fisetin induced cytotoxicity in human melanoma.

    PubMed

    Syed, Deeba N; Lall, Rahul K; Chamcheu, Jean Christopher; Haidar, Omar; Mukhtar, Hasan

    2014-12-01

    The prognosis of malignant melanoma remains poor in spite of recent advances in therapeutic strategies for the deadly disease. Fisetin, a dietary flavonoid is currently being investigated for its growth inhibitory properties in various cancer models. We previously showed that fisetin inhibited melanoma growth in vitro and in vivo. Here, we evaluated the molecular basis of fisetin induced cytotoxicity in metastatic human melanoma cells. Fisetin treatment induced endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in highly aggressive A375 and 451Lu human melanoma cells, as revealed by up-regulation of ER stress markers including IRE1α, XBP1s, ATF4 and GRP78. Time course analysis indicated that the ER stress was associated with activation of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways. Fisetin treated 2-D melanoma cultures displayed autophagic response concomitant with induction of apoptosis. Prolonged treatment (16days) with fisetin in a 3-D reconstituted melanoma model resulted in inhibition of melanoma progression with significant apoptosis, as evidenced by increased staining of cleaved Caspase-3 in the treated constructs. However, no difference in the expression of autophagic marker LC-3 was noted between treated and control groups. Fisetin treatment to 2-D melanoma cultures resulted in phosphorylation and activation of the multifunctional AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) involved in the regulation of diverse cellular processes, including autophagy and apoptosis. Silencing of AMPK failed to prevent cell death indicating that fisetin induced cytotoxicity is mediated through both AMPK-dependent and -independent mechanisms. Taken together, our studies confirm apoptosis as the primary mechanism through which fisetin inhibits melanoma cell growth and that activation of both extrinsic and intrinsic pathways contributes to fisetin induced cytotoxicity.

  4. Elemental copper nanoparticle toxicity to different trophic groups involved in anaerobic and anoxic wastewater treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez-Estrella, Jorge; Puyol, Daniel; Gallagher, Sara; Sierra-Alvarez, Reyes; Field, Jim A

    2015-04-15

    Elemental copper nanoparticles (Cu(0) NPs) are potentially inhibitory to the different key microbial trophic groups involved in biological wastewater treatment processes. Cu-based NPs are known to be toxic to methanogens at low concentrations. However, very little is known about the toxic effect of Cu(0) NPs on other microbial groups involved in either upper trophic levels of anaerobic digestion or anoxic nitrogen removal processes. This study evaluated the toxicity of Cu(0) NPs to glucose fermentation, syntrophic propionate oxidation and denitrification in shaken batch bioassays with soluble substrates. Batch experiments were also supplemented with CuCl2 to evaluate the inhibitory impact of soluble Cu(II) ions. Syntrophic propionate oxidation and glucose fermentation were the least and most inhibited processes with inhibition constant (Ki) values of 0.202 and 0.047 mM of added Cu(0) NPs, respectively. Further analyses revealed that the Ki values calculated as a function of the free soluble Cu concentration were <0.003 mM for every biological process tested and most of these Ki values were similar in order of magnitude regardless of whether the Cu source was CuCl2 or Cu(0) NPs. The results taken as a whole indicate that Cu(0) NPs are toxic to all the microbial processes studied. Therefore, Cu(0) NPs can potentially be an important inhibitor of anaerobic wastewater treatment processes that rely on these trophic groups. The evidence suggests that the inhibitory impact of Cu(0) NPs was mainly due to the release of toxic Cu(II) ions originating from the corrosion and dissolution of Cu(0) NPs.

  5. Involvement of autophagy in antitumor activity of folate-appended methyl-β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Onodera, Risako; Motoyama, Keiichi; Tanaka, Nao; Ohyama, Ayumu; Okamatsu, Ayaka; Higashi, Taishi; Kariya, Ryusho; Okada, Seiji; Arima, Hidetoshi

    2014-03-20

    Autophagy, the major lysosomal pathway for recycling intracellular components including organelles, is emerging as a key process regulating tumorigenesis and cancer therapy. Most recently, we newly synthesized folate-appended methyl-β-cyclodextrin (FA-M-β-CyD), and demonstrated the potential of FA-M-β-CyD as a new antitumor drug. In this study, we investigated whether anticancer activity of FA-M-β-CyD in folate receptor-α (FR-α)-positive tumor cells is involved in autophagy. In contrast to methyl-β-cyclodextrin (M-β-CyD), FA-M-β-CyD entered KB cells (FR-α (+)) through CLIC/GEEC endocytosis. No significant depression in the DNA content was observed in KB cells after treatment with FA-M-β-CyD. Additionally, the transmembrane potential of mitochondria after treatment with FA-M-β-CyD was drastically elevated. Meanwhile, FA-M-β-CyD induced the formation of autophagic vacuoles, which were partially colocalized with mitochondria, in KB cells. Taken together, these results suggest that FR-α-expressing cell-selective cytotoxic activity of FA-M-β-CyD could be mediated by the regulation of autophagy, rather than the induction of apoptosis.

  6. Unraveling the processing and activation of snake venom metalloproteinases.

    PubMed

    Portes-Junior, José A; Yamanouye, Norma; Carneiro, Sylvia M; Knittel, Paloma S; Sant'Anna, Sávio S; Nogueira, Fabio C S; Junqueira, Magno; Magalhães, Geraldo S; Domont, Gilberto B; Moura-da-Silva, Ana M

    2014-07-03

    Snake venom metalloproteinases (SVMPs) are zinc-dependent enzymes responsible for most symptoms of human envenoming. Like matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) proteins, SVMPs are synthesized as zymogens, and enzyme activation is regulated by hydrolysis of their prodomain, but the processing of SVMPs is still unclear. In this study, we attempted to identify the presence of prodomain in different compartments of snake venom glands as zymogens or in the free form to elucidate some mechanism involved in SVMP activation. Using antibodies obtained by immunization with a recombinant prodomain, bands of zymogen molecular mass and prodomain peptides were detected mostly in gland extracts all along the venom production cycle and in the venom collected from the lumen at the peak of venom production. Prodomain was detected in secretory cells mostly in the secretory vesicles near the Golgi. We hypothesize that the processing of SVMPs starts within secretory vesicles and continues in the lumen of the venom gland just after enzyme secretion and involves different steps compared to ADAMs and MMPs but can be used as a model for studying the relevance of peptides resulting from prodomain processing and degradation for controlling the activity of metalloproteinases.

  7. A Study of Lipscomb University Students' Internet Use and Involvement in Extracurricular Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Samuel Aarron

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze Lipscomb University students' Internet use and involvement in extracurricular activities. A survey of students at Lipscomb University was conducted. As confirmed by the data the research was able to determine that the type of extracurricular activity a student participates in most often is related to the…

  8. 15 CFR 712.2 - Restrictions on activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.2 Section 712.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.2 Restrictions on activities...

  9. 15 CFR 712.2 - Restrictions on activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.2 Section 712.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.2 Restrictions on activities...

  10. Middle-Class Parental Involvement in the Summer Activities of Four Elementary Students: A Qualitative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ballard, Iva B.; Chappell, Manya; Johnson, Susan; Ngassam, Marlise DePaul

    2013-01-01

    In this study, we explore middle-class parental involvement in summer activities of four elementary students. Many researchers discuss summer programs initiated by institutions, but fail to explain how parents' availability, experiences, and related criteria affect student summer activities. From our interviews, observations, and artifacts, we…

  11. 15 CFR 712.2 - Restrictions on activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.2 Section 712.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.2 Restrictions on activities...

  12. 40 CFR 13.5 - Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... misconduct. 13.5 Section 13.5 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION STANDARDS General § 13.5 Claims involving criminal activities or misconduct. (a) The Administrator will refer cases of suspected criminal activity or misconduct to the EPA Office of Inspector...

  13. Understanding Threshold Effects of Organized Activity Involvement in Adolescents: Sex and Family Income as Moderators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Randall, Edin T.; Bohnert, Amy M.

    2012-01-01

    The current study examined the curvilinear links between involvement in organized activities (OA) and sport activities specifically and various indicators of psychological and social development. Participants included 150 9th and 10th graders (57% females) from an urban, selective-enrollment high school. Eligibility for admission is based on city…

  14. 48 CFR 3452.224-72 - Research activities involving human subjects.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2013-10-01 2012-10-01 true Research activities... OF EDUCATION ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Text of Provisions and Clauses 3452.224-72 Research activities involving human subjects. As...

  15. 15 CFR 712.2 - Restrictions on activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.2 Section 712.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.2 Restrictions on activities...

  16. Acetylome analysis reveals the involvement of lysine acetylation in diverse biological processes in Phytophthora sojae.

    PubMed

    Li, Delong; Lv, Binna; Tan, Lingling; Yang, Qianqian; Liang, Wenxing

    2016-07-14

    Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and highly conserved post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspects of cell metabolism in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important plant pathogens due to its huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this Phytopthora. Here, we conducted a lysine acetylome in P. sojae. Overall, 2197 lysine acetylation sites in 1150 proteins were identified. The modified proteins are involved in diverse biological processes and are localized to multiple cellular compartments. Importantly, 7 proteins involved in the pathogenicity or the secretion pathway of P. sojae were found to be acetylated. These data provide the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of P. sojae and serve as an important resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in plant pathogens.

  17. Acetylome analysis reveals the involvement of lysine acetylation in diverse biological processes in Phytophthora sojae

    PubMed Central

    Li, Delong; Lv, Binna; Tan, Lingling; Yang, Qianqian; Liang, Wenxing

    2016-01-01

    Lysine acetylation is a dynamic and highly conserved post-translational modification that plays an important regulatory role in almost every aspects of cell metabolism in both eukaryotes and prokaryotes. Phytophthora sojae is one of the most important plant pathogens due to its huge economic impact. However, to date, little is known about the functions of lysine acetylation in this Phytopthora. Here, we conducted a lysine acetylome in P. sojae. Overall, 2197 lysine acetylation sites in 1150 proteins were identified. The modified proteins are involved in diverse biological processes and are localized to multiple cellular compartments. Importantly, 7 proteins involved in the pathogenicity or the secretion pathway of P. sojae were found to be acetylated. These data provide the first comprehensive view of the acetylome of P. sojae and serve as an important resource for functional analysis of lysine acetylation in plant pathogens. PMID:27412925

  18. Genome-Wide Screen Reveals Rhythmic Regulation of Genes Involved in Odor Processing in the Olfactory Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Saleh, Manjana; Jürchott, Karsten; Oberland, Sonja; Neuhaus, Eva M; Kramer, Achim; Abraham, Ute

    2015-12-01

    Odor discrimination behavior displays circadian fluctuations in mice, indicating that mammalian olfactory function is under control of the circadian system. This is further supported by the facts that odor discrimination rhythms depend on the presence of clock genes and that olfactory tissues contain autonomous circadian clocks. However, the molecular link between circadian function and olfactory processing is still unknown. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying this link, we focused on the olfactory epithelium (OE), the primary target of odors and the site of the initial events in olfactory processing. We asked whether olfactory sensory neurons (OSNs) within the OE possess an autonomous circadian clock and whether olfactory pathways are under circadian control. Employing clock gene-driven bioluminescence reporter assays and time-dependent immunohistochemistry on OE samples, we found robust circadian rhythms of core clock genes and their proteins in OSNs, suggesting that the OE indeed contains an autonomous circadian clock. Furthermore, we performed a circadian transcriptome analysis and identified several OSN-specific components that are under circadian control, including those with putative roles in circadian olfactory processing, such as KIRREL2-an established factor involved in short-term OSN activation. The spatiotemporal expression patterns of our candidate proteins suggest that they are involved in short-term anabolic processes to rhythmically prepare the cell for peak performances and to promote circadian function of OSNs.

  19. Patient involvement in a scientific advisory process: setting the research agenda for medical products.

    PubMed

    Elberse, Janneke Elisabeth; Pittens, Carina Anna Cornelia Maria; de Cock Buning, Tjard; Broerse, Jacqueline Elisabeth Willy

    2012-10-01

    Patient involvement in scientific advisory processes could lead to more societally relevant advice. This article describes a case study wherein the Health Council of the Netherlands involved patient groups in an advisory process with a predefined focus: setting a research agenda for medical products development. A four-phase approach was developed to stimulate needs-articulation concerning future medical products for a broad range of patient groups covering 15 disease domains. 119 (expert) patients and 92 non-patient representatives were consulted using interviews and focus groups. In a facilitated way, patients appeared capable and willing to provide input useful for an advisory process. A broad range of medical products was defined serving different purposes. This study showed two dilemmas: first, finding a balance between a predefined focus and being sufficiently broad to enable patients and patient representatives to contribute, and second, finding a balance between relevance for many patients groups and saturation of data for a lower number of patient groups. By taking the context of patients' daily life as starting point patient groups provided new insights. The predefined focus was sometimes perceived as constraining. The GR considered the articulated needs constructive and incorporated patients' input in their advice to the Minister of Health.

  20. Modeling of an Active Tablet Coating Process.

    PubMed

    Toschkoff, Gregor; Just, Sarah; Knop, Klaus; Kleinebudde, Peter; Funke, Adrian; Djuric, Dejan; Scharrer, Georg; Khinast, Johannes G

    2015-12-01

    Tablet coating is a common unit operation in the pharmaceutical industry, during which a coating layer is applied to tablet cores. The coating uniformity of tablets in a batch is especially critical for active coating, that is, coating that contains an active pharmaceutical ingredient. In recent years, discrete element method (DEM) simulations became increasingly common for investigating tablet coating. In this work, DEM was applied to model an active coating process as closely as possible, using measured model parameters and non-spherical particles. We studied how operational conditions (rotation speed, fill level, number of nozzles, and spray rate) influence the coating uniformity. To this end, simulation runs were planned and interpreted according to a statistical design of (simulation) experiments. Our general goal was to achieve a deeper understanding of the process in terms of residence times and dimensionless scaling laws. With that regard, the results were interpreted in light of analytical models. The results were presented at various detail levels, ranging from an overview of all variations to in-depth considerations. It was determined that the biggest uniformity improvement in a realistic setting was achieved by increasing the number of spray nozzles, followed by increasing the rotation speed and decreasing the fill level.

  1. Active PZT fibers: a commercial production process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strock, Harold B.; Pascucci, Marina R.; Parish, Mark V.; Bent, Aaron A.; Shrout, Thomas R.

    1999-07-01

    Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) active fibers, from 80 to 250 micrometers in diameter, are produced for the AFOSR/DARPA funded Active Fiber Composites Consortium (AFCC) Program and commercial customers. CeraNova has developed a proprietary ceramics-based technology to produce PZT mono-filaments of the required purity, composition, straightness, and piezoelectric properties for use in active fiber composite structures. CeraNova's process begins with the extrusion of continuous lengths of mono-filament precursor fiber from a plasticized mix of PZT-5A powder. The care that must be taken to avoid mix contamination is described using illustrations form problems experiences with extruder wear and metallic contamination. Corrective actions are described and example microstructures are shown. The consequences of inadequate lead control are also shown. Sintered mono- filament mechanical strength and piezoelectric properties data approach bulk values but the validity of such a benchmark is questioned based on variable correlation with composite performance measures. Comb-like ceramic preform structures are shown that are being developed to minimize process and handling costs while maintaining the required mono-filament straightness necessary for composite fabrication. Lastly, actuation performance data are presented for composite structures fabricated and tested by Continuum Control Corporation. Free strain actuation in excess of 2000 microstrain are observed.

  2. PRESS40: a project for involving students in active seismic risk mitigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnaba, Carla; Contessi, Elisa; Rosa Girardi, Maria

    2016-04-01

    To memorialize the anniversary of the 1976 Friuli earthquake, the Istituto Statale di Istruzione Superiore "Magrini Marchetti" in Gemona del Friuli (NE Italy), with the collaboration of the Istituto Nazionale di Oceanografia e di Geofisica Sperimentale (OGS), has promoted the PRESS40 Project (Prevenzione Sismica nella Scuola a 40 anni dal terremoto del Friuli, that in English sounds like "Seismic Prevention at School 40 years later the Friuli earthquake"). The project has developed in the 2015-2016 school year, starting from the 40th anniversary of the Friuli earthquake, and it aims to disseminate historical memory, seismic culture and awareness of seismic safety in the young generations, too often unconscious of past experiences, as recent seismic hazard perception tests have demonstrated. The basic idea of the PRESS40 Project is to involve the students in experimental activities to be active part of the seismic mitigation process. The Project is divided into two main parts, the first one in which students learn-receive knowledge from researchers, and the second one in which they teach-bring knowledge to younger students. In the first part of the project, 75 students of the "Magrini Marchetti" school acquired new geophysical data, covering the 23 municipalities from which they come from. These municipalities represent a wide area affected by the 1976 Friuli earthquake. In each locality a significant site was examined, represented by a school area. At least, 127 measurements of ambient noise have been acquired. Data processing and interpretation of all the results are still going on, under the supervision of OGS researchers.The second part of the project is planned for the early spring, when the students will present the results of geophysical survey to the younger ones of the monitored schools and to the citizens in occasion of events to commemorate the 40th anniversary of the Friuli earthquake.

  3. Fibroblasts, glial, and neuronal cells are involved in extravascular prothrombin activation.

    PubMed

    Yamazaki, Y; Shikamoto, Y; Fukudome, K; Kimoto, M; Morita, T

    1999-10-01

    A membrane-associated prothrombin activator (MAPA) was found on various cultured cells derived from non-hematopoietic cells [Sekiya, F. et al. (1994) J. Biol. Chem. 269, 32441-32445]. In this study, we investigated the enzymatic properties of this enzyme using protease inhibitors. While the metalloproteinase inhibitor, o-phenanthroline, had no effect, some Kunitz type serine protease inhibitors attenuated MAPA activity. Recombinant tissue factor pathway inhibitor (rTFPI) also markedly reduced the activity (IC(50), 1. 3+/-0.6 x 10(-10) M). MAPA activity is, therefore, most likely to be due to factor Xa. We evaluated the effect of exogenous factor Xa on MAPA activity. Factor Xa-dependent prothrombin activation was observed on fibroblast cells (apparent K(d), 1.47+/-0.72 nM). Activation was also observed on glial and neuronal cells, which expressed MAPA activity. These results imply that membrane-bound factor Xa results in MAPA activity on these cells. Therefore, we considered the involvement of factor Va, a component of prothrombinase, in this activity. We examined whether or not the prothrombinase complex is assembled on these cells. Prothrombin was activated in a manner dependent on both exogenous factor Xa and factor Va (apparent K(d) of 0.51-1.81 nM for factor Va). These results indicate that the prothrombinase complex forms specifically on various extravascular cells. Although the prothrombinase complex can be assembled on monocytes and lymphocytes, it is not known why these cells can activate prothrombin specifically. These cells which have the capacity for prothrombin activator activity could also activate factor X; i.e. cells with factor X activation activity were able to convert prothrombin. These observations suggest that thrombin was generated via two procoagulant activities; factor X activation and subsequent prothrombinase complex formation on the surface of these cells. This mechanism may explain the various pathological states involving or resulting

  4. Activities involving aeronautical, space science, and technology support for minority institutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1993-01-01

    The Final Report addressed the activities with which the Interracial Council for Business Opportunity (ICBO) was involved over the past 12 months. ICBO was involved in the design and development of a CARES Student Tracking System Software (CARES). Cares is intended to provide an effective means of maintaining relevant current and historical information on NASA-funded students through a range of educational program initiatives. ICBP was extensively involved in the formation of a minority university consortium amd implementation of collaborative research activities by the consortium as part of NASA's Mission to Planet Earth/Earth Observing System. ICBO was involved in the formation of an HBCU/MI Consortium to facilitate technology transfer efforts to the small and minority business community in their respective regions.

  5. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Is Involved in Impaired Bone Repair Associated with Diabetes in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Li; Kawao, Naoyuki; Tamura, Yukinori; Okumoto, Katsumi; Okada, Kiyotaka; Yano, Masato; Matsuo, Osamu; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that fracture healing is impaired in diabetes; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we investigated the roles of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the impaired bone repair process by using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic female wild-type (PAI-1+/+) and PAI-1-deficient (PAI-1−/−) mice. Bone repair and the number of alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-positive cells at the site of a femoral bone damage were comparable in PAI-1+/+ and PAI-1−/− mice without STZ treatment. Although the bone repair process was delayed by STZ treatment in PAI-1+/+ mice, this delayed bone repair was blunted in PAI-1−/− mice. The reduction in the number of ALP-positive cells at the site of bone damage induced by STZ treatment was attenuated in PAI-1−/− mice compared to PAI-1+/+ mice. On the other hand, PAI-1 deficiency increased the levels of ALP and type I collagen mRNA in female mice with or without STZ treatment, and the levels of Osterix and osteocalcin mRNA, suppressed by diabetic state in PAI-1+/+ mice, were partially protected in PAI-1−/− mice. PAI-1 deficiency did not affect formation of the cartilage matrix and the levels of types II and X collagen and aggrecan mRNA suppressed by STZ treatment, although PAI-1 deficiency increased the expression of chondrogenic markers in mice without STZ treatment. The present study indicates that PAI-1 is involved in the impaired bone repair process induced by the diabetic state in part through a decrease in the number of ALP-positive cells. PMID:24651693

  6. Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 is involved in impaired bone repair associated with diabetes in female mice.

    PubMed

    Mao, Li; Kawao, Naoyuki; Tamura, Yukinori; Okumoto, Katsumi; Okada, Kiyotaka; Yano, Masato; Matsuo, Osamu; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that fracture healing is impaired in diabetes; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we investigated the roles of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) in the impaired bone repair process by using streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic female wild-type (PAI-1+/+) and PAI-1-deficient (PAI-1-/-) mice. Bone repair and the number of alkaline phosphatase (ALP)-positive cells at the site of a femoral bone damage were comparable in PAI-1+/+ and PAI-1-/- mice without STZ treatment. Although the bone repair process was delayed by STZ treatment in PAI-1+/+ mice, this delayed bone repair was blunted in PAI-1-/- mice. The reduction in the number of ALP-positive cells at the site of bone damage induced by STZ treatment was attenuated in PAI-1-/- mice compared to PAI-1+/+ mice. On the other hand, PAI-1 deficiency increased the levels of ALP and type I collagen mRNA in female mice with or without STZ treatment, and the levels of Osterix and osteocalcin mRNA, suppressed by diabetic state in PAI-1+/+ mice, were partially protected in PAI-1-/- mice. PAI-1 deficiency did not affect formation of the cartilage matrix and the levels of types II and X collagen and aggrecan mRNA suppressed by STZ treatment, although PAI-1 deficiency increased the expression of chondrogenic markers in mice without STZ treatment. The present study indicates that PAI-1 is involved in the impaired bone repair process induced by the diabetic state in part through a decrease in the number of ALP-positive cells.

  7. Geochemical Considerations Regarding the Processes Involved in Mineral Deposition in Sedimentary Rock-Hosted Veins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morse, J. W.; Gledhill, D. K.

    2005-12-01

    In order for mineral deposition to take place in a vein, first the opposite reaction-dissolution of the mineral must occur from some source rock to place the requisite dissolved components into solution. Then the dissolved components must be transported to the vein either by advective or diffusive means before deposition can ensue. Finally conditions must be such in the vein that a supersaturated solution is produced and conditions are favorable for the nucleation and precipitation of the vein filling mineral. Although these general principles are widely accepted, there are many fundamental questions remaining regarding the chemistry that controls these processes. The controlling parameters are far more complex than simple temperature and pressure variations that are readily dealt with by equilibrium thermodynamic models. Answers for many questions reside, at least in a substantial part, in a better understanding of mineral solubility behavior, and precipitation and dissolution kinetics in high ionic strength solutions (brines) typically found in the subsurface. (Fluid inclusions commonly indicate that vein-filling minerals have precipitated from high ionic strength solutions.) We give as an example of the chemical complexities involving mineral reactions in brines the dissolution of calcite. The good news is that the calcite dissolution reaction is close to first order at high ionic strengths. In addition, common inhibitors, such as magnesium, are not very effective in influencing the rate constant, probably as a result of surface site competition. However, the bad news is that the sensitivity of the rate constant to composition increases with increasing carbon dioxide partial pressure and becomes most strongly influenced by total ionic strength. It is hypothesized that this is the result of a depressed water activity in brines that decreases the rate of cation hydration. We also observed that the inhibitory influence of anionic brine components, such as sulfate

  8. Behavioural asymmetry is involved in regulation of autonomic processes: Left side presentation of food improves reproduction and lactation in cows.

    PubMed

    Rizhova, Larissa Yu; Kokorina, Elvina P

    2005-06-03

    It is known that the right and left brain hemispheres differ in their ability to regulate autonomic processes in the organism. Direct unilateral stimulation of the brain provokes side-dependent endocrine, immune and other visceral reactions. Since brain hemispheres are mainly involved in the regulation of muscles and sensory organs on the contra lateral side of the body the activation of behavioural asymmetry stimulates the contra lateral half of the brain. The important theoretical and practical question of whether autonomic processes can be regulated via the behavioural asymmetry route remains unexplored. In this study, we report that the chronic presentation of an emotionally important stimulus-food-from the left side, improves reproductive performance in animals in a broad range of feeding conditions. The unilateral presentation of food can also influence lactation, but in this case the side-dependent effects are different under varying feeding conditions. This finding opens a simple practical approach to influence basic somatic functions in the organism.

  9. Individual differences in dispositional mindfulness and brain activity involved in reappraisal of emotion

    PubMed Central

    Ormel, Johan; Aleman, André

    2010-01-01

    The regulation of negative emotion through reappraisal has been shown to induce increased prefrontal activity and decreased amygdala activity. Individual differences in dispositional mindfulness reflect differences in typical recognition, detachment and regulation of current experience, thought to also operate as top–down control mechanism. We sought to investigate whether such individual differences would be associated with brain activity elicited during reappraisal of negative emotion. Eighteen healthy participants completed a functional magnetic resonance imaging task that involved attending to or reappraising negative stimuli, and provided emotion experience ratings after each trial. Dispositional mindfulness was assessed with a self-report questionnaire. Reappraisal induced activity in a brain network involving predominantly dorsal portions of the prefrontal cortex, replicating previous studies. A voxelwise regression analysis showed that individual differences in the tendency to be mindful predicted activity in neural regions underlying reappraisal, with dorsomedial prefrontal cortex activation increasing with more mindfulness traits. Notably, this prefrontal activation was inversely correlated with the amygdala response to negative scenes, further supporting its role in down-regulating emotion-generation regions. These findings suggest that individual differences in dispositional mindfulness, which reflect the tendency to recognize and regulate current states, may modulate activity in neural systems involved in the effective cognitive control of negative emotion. PMID:20147457

  10. Signal-dependent Elk-1 target genes involved in transcript processing and cell migration.

    PubMed

    Kasza, Aneta

    2013-10-01

    Elk-1 was regarded as a transcription factor engaged mainly in the regulation of cell growth, differentiation, and survival. Recent findings show the engagement of Elk-1 in the control of expression of genes encoding proteins involved in transcript turnover, such as MCPIP1/ZC3H12A and tristetraprolin (TTP/ZFP36). Thus, Elk-1 plays an important role in the control of gene expression not only through the stimulation of expression of transcription factors, but also through regulation of transcript half-live. Moreover, Elk-1 is engaged in the regulation of expression of genes encoding proteins that control proteolytic activity, such as inhibitor of plasminogen activator-1 (PAI-1) and metalloproteinases-2 and -9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9). This review summarizes the biological roles of proteins with expression regulated by Elk-1, involved in transcripts turnover or in cell migration. The broad range of function of these proteins illustrates the complex role of Elk-1 in the regulation of cancer and inflammation.

  11. Diurnal rhythmicity in biological processes involved in bioavailability of functional food factors.

    PubMed

    Tsurusaki, Takashi; Sakakibara, Hiroyuki; Aoshima, Yoshiki; Yamazaki, Shunsuke; Sakono, Masanobu; Shimoi, Kayoko

    2013-05-01

    In the past few decades, many types of functional factors have been identified in dietary foods; for example, flavonoids are major groups widely distributed in the plant kingdom. However, the absorption rates of the functional food factors are usually low, and many of these are difficult to be absorbed in the intact forms because of metabolization by biological processes during absorption. To gain adequate beneficial effects, it is therefore mandatory to know whether functional food factors are absorbed in sufficient quantity, and then reach target organs while maintaining beneficial effects. These are the reasons why the bioavailability of functional food factors has been well investigated using rodent models. Recently, many of the biological processes have been reported to follow diurnal rhythms recurring every 24 h. Therefore, absorption and metabolism of functional food factors influenced by the biological processes may vary with time of day. Consequently, the evaluation of the bioavailability of functional food factors using rodent models should take into consideration the timing of consumption. In this review, we provide a perspective overview of the diurnal rhythm of biological processes involved in the bioavailability of functional food factors, particularly flavonoids.

  12. Quantitative analysis of the processes and signaling events involved in early HIV-1 infection of T cells.

    PubMed

    Santos, Guido; Valenzuela-Fernández, Agustín; Torres, Néstor V

    2014-01-01

    Lymphocyte invasion by HIV-1 is a complex, highly regulated process involving many different types of molecules that is prompted by the virus's association with viral receptors located at the cell-surface membrane that culminates in the formation of a fusion pore through which the virus enters the cell. A great deal of work has been done to identify the key actors in the process and determine the regulatory interactions; however, there have been no reports to date of attempts being made to fully understand the system dynamics through a systemic, quantitative modeling approach. In this paper, we introduce a dynamic mathematical model that integrates the available information on the molecular events involved in lymphocyte invasion. Our model shows that moesin activation is induced by virus signaling, while filamin-A is mobilized by the receptor capping. Actin disaggregation from the cap is facilitated by cofilin. Cofilin is inactivated by HIV-1 signaling in activated lymphocytes, while in resting lymphocytes another signal is required to activate cofilin in the later stages in order to accelerate the decay of the aggregated actin as a restriction factor for the viral entry. Furthermore, stopping the activation signaling of moesin is sufficient to liberate the actin filaments from the cap. The model also shows the positive effect of gelsolin on actin capping by means of the nucleation effect. These findings allow us to propose novel approaches in the search for new therapeutic strategies. In particular, gelsolin inhibition is seen as a promising target for preventing HIV-1 entry into lymphocytes, due to its role in facilitating the capping needed for the invasion. Also it is shown that HIV-1 should overcome the cortical actin barrier during early infection and predicts the different susceptibility of CD4+ T cells to be infected in terms of actin cytoskeleton dynamics driven by associated cellular factors.

  13. 15 CFR 400.31 - Manufacturing and processing activity; criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Manufacturing and processing activity... ZONES BOARD Manufacturing and Processing Activity-Reviews § 400.31 Manufacturing and processing activity....” When evaluating zone and subzone manufacturing and processing activity, either as proposed in...

  14. 15 CFR 400.31 - Manufacturing and processing activity; criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Manufacturing and processing activity... ZONES BOARD Manufacturing and Processing Activity-Reviews § 400.31 Manufacturing and processing activity....” When evaluating zone and subzone manufacturing and processing activity, either as proposed in...

  15. 15 CFR 400.31 - Manufacturing and processing activity; criteria.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Manufacturing and processing activity... ZONES BOARD Manufacturing and Processing Activity-Reviews § 400.31 Manufacturing and processing activity....” When evaluating zone and subzone manufacturing and processing activity, either as proposed in...

  16. The imaging and modelling of the physical processes involved in digestion and absorption.

    PubMed

    Schulze, K S

    2015-02-01

    The mechanical activity of the gastro-intestinal tract serves to store, propel and digest food. Contractions disperse particles and transform solids and secretions into the two-phase slurry called chyme; movements of the intestine deliver nutrients to mucosal sites of absorption, and from the submucosa into the lymphatic and portal venous circulation. Colonic motor activity helps to extract fluid and electrolytes from chyme and to compound and compact luminal debris into faeces for elimination. We outline how dynamic imaging by ultrasound and magnetic resonance can demonstrate intestinal flow processes critical to digestion like mixing, dilution, swelling, dispersion and elution. Computational fluid mechanics enables a numerical rendition of the forces promoting digestion: pressure and flow fields, the shear stresses dispersing particles or the effectiveness of bolus mixing can be calculated. These technologies provide new insights into the mechanical processes that promote digestion and absorption.

  17. A qualitative study of the activities performed by people involved in clinical decision support: recommended practices for success

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Adam; Ash, Joan S; Erickson, Jessica L; Wasserman, Joe; Bunce, Arwen; Stanescu, Ana; St Hilaire, Daniel; Panzenhagen, Morgan; Gebhardt, Eric; McMullen, Carmit; Middleton, Blackford; Sittig, Dean F

    2014-01-01

    Objective To describe the activities performed by people involved in clinical decision support (CDS) at leading sites. Materials and methods We conducted ethnographic observations at seven diverse sites with a history of excellence in CDS using the Rapid Assessment Process and analyzed the data using a series of card sorts, informed by Linstone's Multiple Perspectives Model. Results We identified 18 activities and grouped them into four areas. Area 1: Fostering relationships across the organization, with activities (a) training and support, (b) visibility/presence on the floor, (c) liaising between people, (d) administration and leadership, (e) project management, (f) cheerleading/buy-in/sponsorship, (g) preparing for CDS implementation. Area 2: Assembling the system with activities (a) providing technical support, (b) CDS content development, (c) purchasing products from vendors (d) knowledge management, (e) system integration. Area 3: Using CDS to achieve the organization's goals with activities (a) reporting, (b) requirements-gathering/specifications, (c) monitoring CDS, (d) linking CDS to goals, (e) managing data. Area 4: Participation in external policy and standards activities (this area consists of only a single activity). We also identified a set of recommendations associated with these 18 activities. Discussion All 18 activities we identified were performed at all sites, although the way they were organized into roles differed substantially. We consider these activities critical to the success of a CDS program. Conclusions A series of activities are performed by sites strong in CDS, and sites adopting CDS should ensure they incorporate these activities into their efforts. PMID:23999670

  18. Factors Involved in Iranian Women Heads of Household's Health Promotion Activities: A Grounded Theory Study.

    PubMed

    Rafii, Forough; Seyedfatemi, Naima; Rezaei, Mahboubeh

    2013-01-01

    We aimed to explore and describe the factors involved in Iranian women heads of household's health promotion activities. Grounded theory was used as the method. Sixteen women heads of household were recruited. Data were generated by semi structured interviews. Our findings indicated that remainder of resources (money, time and energy) alongside perceived severity of health risk were two main factors whereas women's personal and socio-economic characteristics were two contextual factors involved in these women's health promotion activities. To help these women improve their health status, we recommended that the government, non-governmental organizations and health care professionals provide them with required resources and increase their knowledge by holding training sessions.

  19. Activation of Holliday junction recognizing protein involved in the chromosomal stability and immortality of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Kato, Tatsuya; Sato, Nagato; Hayama, Satoshi; Yamabuki, Takumi; Ito, Tomoo; Miyamoto, Masaki; Kondo, Satoshi; Nakamura, Yusuke; Daigo, Yataro

    2007-09-15

    We identified a novel gene HJURP (Holliday junction-recognizing protein) whose activation seemed to play a pivotal role in the immortality of cancer cells. HJURP was considered a possible downstream target for ataxia telangiectasia mutated signaling, and its expression was increased by DNA double-strand breaks (DSB). HJURP was involved in the homologous recombination pathway in the DSB repair process through interaction with hMSH5 and NBS1, which is a part of the MRN protein complex. HJURP formed nuclear foci in cells at S phase and those subjected to DNA damage. In vitro assays implied that HJURP bound directly to the Holliday junction and rDNA arrays. Treatment of cancer cells with small interfering RNA (siRNA) against HJURP caused abnormal chromosomal fusions and led to genomic instability and senescence. In addition, HJURP overexpression was observed in a majority of lung cancers and was associated with poor prognosis as well. We suggest that HJURP is an indispensable factor for chromosomal stability in immortalized cancer cells and is a potential novel therapeutic target for the development of anticancer drugs.

  20. The consent process: Enabling or disabling patients' active participation?

    PubMed

    Doherty, Carole; Stavropoulou, Charitini; Saunders, Mark Nk; Brown, Tracey

    2015-10-20

    Standards expected by doctors' regulatory bodies in respect of the process of consent to treatment have arguably sought to restructure the nature of the doctor-patient relationship from one of the paternalism to that of shared decision-making. Yet, few studies have explored empirically, from patients' perspectives, the extent to which the process of consent to treatment enables or disables patients' participation in medical decision-making. Our article examines patients' attitudes towards the consent process, exploring how and why these attitudes influence patients' active participation in decision-making and considering possible consequent medico-legal issues. Data were collected longitudinally using semi-structured interviews and field observations involving 35 patients and 19 of their caregivers, in an English hospital between February and November 2014. These indicate that generally patients defer to the doctor in respect of treatment decision-making. Although most patients and their caregivers wanted detailed information and discussion, they did not necessarily expect that this would be provided. Furthermore, patients perceived that signing the consent form was an obligatory routine principally to protect doctors from legal action should something go wrong. Our study suggests that patients' predominantly paternalistic perceptions of the consent process can not only undermine attempts by doctors to involve them in decision-making but, as patients are now considered in law as informed actors, their perceptions of the consent form as not being in their interests could be a self-fulfilling prophecy if signing is undertaken without due consideration to the content.

  1. Enzyme activity alteration by cadmium administration to rats: the possibility of iron involvement in lipid peroxidation.

    PubMed

    Casalino, E; Sblano, C; Landriscina, C

    1997-10-15

    The specific activities of D-3-hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase (BDH) and glutamate dehydrogenase (GDH) are reduced in the liver and kidney of rats intoxicated with 2.5 mg Cd/kg body wt and sacrificed after 24 h; conversely ketone-body concentration is strongly increased in both of these organs and blood. In the same animals a great stimulation of antioxidant enzymes glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase occurs. The prooxidant state induced by cadmium in liver mitochondria and microsomes is unaffected by superoxide dismutase, catalase, or mannitol, whereas it is completely blocked by vitamin E thus excluding the involvement of reactive oxygen species in this process. The mechanism by which cadmium induces lipid peroxidation has been investigated by measuring the effect of this metal on liposomes. Ninety-minute treatment of liposomes with CdCl2 does not induce any lipid peroxidation. In contrast, Fe2+ ions under the same conditions cause strong liposome peroxidation. It has also been observed that cadmium promotes a time-dependent iron release from biological membranes. When lipid peroxidation is induced by a low concentration (5 microM) of FeCl2, in place of CdCl2, the characteristics of this process and the sensitivity to the various antioxidants used are similar to those observed with Cd. From these results we conclude that the prooxidative effect of cadmium is an indirect one since it is mediated by iron. With regard to the inhibitory effect on BDH and GDH following cadmium intoxication, it does not appear to be imputable to lipid peroxidation since in vitro investigations indicate that the presence of vitamin E does not remove the inhibition at all.

  2. Left posterior inferior frontal gyrus is causally involved in reordering during sentence processing.

    PubMed

    Kuhnke, Philipp; Meyer, Lars; Friederici, Angela D; Hartwigsen, Gesa

    2017-03-01

    Storage and reordering of incoming information are two core processes required for successful sentence comprehension. Storage is necessary whenever the verb and its arguments (i.e., subject and object) are separated over a long distance, while reordering is necessary whenever the argument order is atypical (e.g., object-first order in German, where subject-first order is typical). Previous neuroimaging work has associated storage with the left planum temporale (PT), and reordering with the left posterior inferior frontal gyrus (pIFG). Here, we tested the causal role of the PT and pIFG in storage and reordering using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). We applied either effective rTMS over PT or pIFG, or sham rTMS, while subjects listened to sentences that independently varied storage demands (short vs. long argument-verb distance) and reordering demands (subject- vs. object-first argument order). We found that rTMS over pIFG, but not PT, selectively affected reordering during the processing of sentences with a long argument-verb distance. Specifically, relative to sham rTMS, rTMS over pIFG significantly increased the performance difference between object- and subject-first long-distance sentences. These results demonstrate a causal involvement of left pIFG in reordering during sentence comprehension and thus contribute to a better understanding of the role of the pIFG in language processing.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA replication proceeds via a ‘bootlace’ mechanism involving the incorporation of processed transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Reyes, Aurelio; Kazak, Lawrence; Wood, Stuart R.; Yasukawa, Takehiro; Jacobs, Howard T.; Holt, Ian J.

    2013-01-01

    The observation that long tracts of RNA are associated with replicating molecules of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) suggests that the mitochondrial genome of mammals is copied by an unorthodox mechanism. Here we show that these RNA-containing species are present in living cells and tissue, based on interstrand cross-linking. Using DNA synthesis in organello, we demonstrate that isolated mitochondria incorporate radiolabeled RNA precursors, as well as DNA precursors, into replicating DNA molecules. RNA-containing replication intermediates are chased into mature mtDNA, to which they are thus in precursor–product relationship. While a DNA chain terminator rapidly blocks the labeling of mitochondrial replication intermediates, an RNA chain terminator does not. Furthermore, processed L-strand transcripts can be recovered from gel-extracted mtDNA replication intermediates. Therefore, instead of concurrent DNA and RNA synthesis, respectively, on the leading and lagging strands, preformed processed RNA is incorporated as a provisional lagging strand during mtDNA replication. These findings indicate that RITOLS is a physiological mechanism of mtDNA replication, and that it involves a ‘bootlace' mechanism, in which processed transcripts are successively hybridized to the lagging-strand template, as the replication fork advances. PMID:23595151

  4. Histochemical location of key enzyme activities involved in receptivity and self-incompatibility in the olive tree (Olea europaea L.).

    PubMed

    Serrano, Irene; Olmedilla, Adela

    2012-12-01

    Stigma-surface and style enzymes are important for pollen reception, selection and germination. This report deals with the histochemical location of the activity of four basic types of enzyme involved in these processes in the olive (Olea europaea L.). The detection of peroxidase, esterase and acid-phosphatase activities at the surface of the stigma provided evidence of early receptivity in olive pistils. The stigma maintained its receptivity until the arrival of pollen. Acid-phosphatase activity appeared in the style at the moment of anthesis and continued until the fertilization of the ovule. RNase activity was detected in the extracellular matrix of the styles of flowers just before pollination and became especially evident in pistils after self-pollination. This activity gradually decreased until it practically disappeared in more advanced stages. RNase activity was also detected in pollen tubes growing in pollinated pistils and appeared after in vitro germination in the presence of self-incompatible pistils. These findings suggest that RNases may well be involved in intraspecific pollen rejection in olive flowers. To the best of our knowledge this is the first time that evidence of enzyme activity in stigma receptivity and pollen selection has been described in this species.

  5. Correlated activity supports efficient cortical processing

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Chou P.; Cui, Ding; Chen, Yueh-peng; Lin, Chia-pei; Levine, Matthew R.

    2015-01-01

    Visual recognition is a computational challenge that is thought to occur via efficient coding. An important concept is sparseness, a measure of coding efficiency. The prevailing view is that sparseness supports efficiency by minimizing redundancy and correlations in spiking populations. Yet, we recently reported that “choristers”, neurons that behave more similarly (have correlated stimulus preferences and spontaneous coincident spiking), carry more generalizable object information than uncorrelated neurons (“soloists”) in macaque inferior temporal (IT) cortex. The rarity of choristers (as low as 6% of IT neurons) indicates that they were likely missed in previous studies. Here, we report that correlation strength is distinct from sparseness (choristers are not simply broadly tuned neurons), that choristers are located in non-granular output layers, and that correlated activity predicts human visual search efficiency. These counterintuitive results suggest that a redundant correlational structure supports efficient processing and behavior. PMID:25610392

  6. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Papaver libanoticum Extract in Mice: Involvement of Opioids Receptors.

    PubMed

    Hijazi, Mohamad Ali; El-Mallah, Ahmed; Aboul-Ela, Maha; Ellakany, Abdalla

    2017-01-01

    Papaver libanoticum is an endemic plant to Lebanese region (family Papaveraceae) that has not been investigated before. The present study aimed to explore the analgesic activity of dried ethanolic extract of Papaver libanoticum (PLE) using tail flick, hot plate, and acetic acid induced writhing models in mice. The involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic mechanism was investigated using naloxone antagonism. Results demonstrated that PLE exhibited a potent dose dependent analgesic activity in all tested models for analgesia. The analgesic effect involved activation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, where both spinal and supraspinal components might be involved. The time course for analgesia revealed maximum activity after three hours in both tail flick and hot plate methods, which was prolonged to 24 hours. Metabolites of PLE could be responsible for activation of opioid receptors. The EC50 of PLE was 79 and 50 mg/kg in tail flick and hot plate tests, respectively. The total coverage of analgesia by PLE was double that of morphine in both tests. In conclusion, PLE proved to have opioid agonistic activity with a novel feature of slow and prolonged effect. The present study could add a potential tool in the armaments of opioid drugs as a natural potent analgesic and for treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome.

  7. Carbohydrate in the mouth enhances activation of brain circuitry involved in motor performance and sensory perception.

    PubMed

    Turner, Clare E; Byblow, Winston D; Stinear, Cathy M; Gant, Nicholas

    2014-09-01

    The presence of carbohydrate in the human mouth has been associated with the facilitation of motor output and improvements in physical performance. Oral receptors have been identified as a potential mode of afferent transduction for this novel form of nutrient signalling that is distinct from taste. In the current study oral exposure to carbohydrate was combined with a motor task in a neuroimaging environment to identify areas of the brain involved in this phenomenon. A mouth-rinsing protocol was conducted whilst carbohydrate (CHO) and taste-matched placebo (PLA) solutions were delivered and recovered from the mouths of 10 healthy volunteers within a double-blind, counterbalanced design. This protocol eliminates post-oral factors and controls for the perceptual qualities of solutions. Functional magnetic resonance imaging of the brain was used to identify cortical areas responsive to oral carbohydrate during rest and activity phases of a hand-grip motor task. Mean blood-oxygen-level dependent signal change experienced in the contralateral primary sensorimotor cortex was larger for CHO compared with PLA during the motor task when contrasted with a control condition. Areas of activation associated with CHO exclusively were observed over the primary taste cortex and regions involved in visual perception. Regions in the limbic system associated with reward were also significantly more active with CHO. This is the first demonstration that oral carbohydrate signalling can increase activation within the primary sensorimotor cortex during physical activity and enhance activation of neural networks involved in sensory perception.

  8. Evaluation of Analgesic Activity of Papaver libanoticum Extract in Mice: Involvement of Opioids Receptors

    PubMed Central

    El-Mallah, Ahmed; Aboul-Ela, Maha; Ellakany, Abdalla

    2017-01-01

    Papaver libanoticum is an endemic plant to Lebanese region (family Papaveraceae) that has not been investigated before. The present study aimed to explore the analgesic activity of dried ethanolic extract of Papaver libanoticum (PLE) using tail flick, hot plate, and acetic acid induced writhing models in mice. The involvement of opioid receptors in the analgesic mechanism was investigated using naloxone antagonism. Results demonstrated that PLE exhibited a potent dose dependent analgesic activity in all tested models for analgesia. The analgesic effect involved activation of opioid receptors in the central nervous system, where both spinal and supraspinal components might be involved. The time course for analgesia revealed maximum activity after three hours in both tail flick and hot plate methods, which was prolonged to 24 hours. Metabolites of PLE could be responsible for activation of opioid receptors. The EC50 of PLE was 79 and 50 mg/kg in tail flick and hot plate tests, respectively. The total coverage of analgesia by PLE was double that of morphine in both tests. In conclusion, PLE proved to have opioid agonistic activity with a novel feature of slow and prolonged effect. The present study could add a potential tool in the armaments of opioid drugs as a natural potent analgesic and for treatment of opioid withdrawal syndrome. PMID:28280516

  9. Microscopic Processes Involved in the Transition from a Disk to a Ring Sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coppi, B.

    2006-10-01

    In a differentially rotating plasma structure, in the prevailing gravity of a central object, it is realistic to consider ɛm=Dm/(HvA)<< 1, where Dm= ηc^2/4 π, η is the plasma resistivity, vA is the Alfvén velocity, and H is the height of the structure. Therefore, the frozen-in- law can be applied when dealing with global scale distances. However, the transition from a disk configuration to a ring sequence configuration in a structure imbedded in an external magnetic field with a ``seed'' vertical component involves the formation of a periodic sequence of new closed magnetic surfaces^1 similar to those characteristic of Field Reverse Configurations. Pairs of counter-streaming (around the axis of rotation) current ``filaments'' form these very large aspect ratio toroidal configurations. The transition occurs when the field produced by the internal currents is equal (and of opposite direction) to that in which the structure is immersed. Then, magnetic reconnection has to be considered. The region in which the poloidal field is null can be viewed as a coalescence of two X-points and two O-points which, after the transition has occurred, tend to separate. The scale distances involved are much smaller than the characteristic global scale distances, such as H, the characteristic values of the collisional mean free paths need to be considered, and relevant microscopic reconnection processes are analyzed. *Sponsored in part by the U.S. DOE. B. Coppi Phys. Plasmas 12, 057301, (2005) B. Coppi and F. Rousseau, Ap. J. 641 (1), 458 (2006). external magnetic field with a ``seed'' vertical component involves the

  10. Molecular genetic analysis of activation-tagged transcription factors thought to be involved in photomorphogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Neff, Michael M.

    2011-06-23

    This is a final report for Department of Energy Grant No. DE-FG02-08ER15927 entitled “Molecular Genetic Analysis of Activation-Tagged Transcription Factors Thought to be Involved in Photomorphogenesis”. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob1-D mutant, we hypothesized that OBP3 is a transcription factor involved in both phytochrome and cryptochrome-mediated signal transduction. In addition, we hypothesized that OBP3 is involved in auxin signaling and root development. Based on our preliminary photobiological and genetic analysis of the sob2-D mutant, we also hypothesized that a related gene, LEP, is involved in hormone signaling and seedling development.

  11. Parent Advocacy: Now More Than Ever Active Involvement in Educational Decisions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ammer, Jerome J.; Littleton, Barbara Rhein

    Questionnaires were completed by 217 parents of handicapped children to determine their present level of involvement and their desired participation in the education process. The sample (a rural population in central West Virginia, a suburban population in affluent school districts on Long Island, New York, and a city population from a mixed set…

  12. An Active Self-Determination Technique: Involving Students in Effective Career Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Denison, Grace L.

    This paper discusses creating story boards to help students with disabilities to develop effective career plans. It describes storyboarding as a technique for project planning which requires active involvement of both hemispheres of the brain. A group of 6-8 people, including students, teachers, counselors, and vocational rehabilitation…

  13. Emotional Creativity and Real-Life Involvement in Different Types of Creative Leisure Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trnka, Radek; Zahradnik, Martin; Kuška, Martin

    2016-01-01

    The role of emotional creativity in practicing creative leisure activities and in the preference of college majors remains unknown. This study aims to explore how emotional creativity measured by the Emotional Creativity Inventory (ECI; Averill, 1999) is interrelated with the real-life involvement in different types of specific creative leisure…

  14. Regrouping: organized activity involvement and social adjustment across the transition to high school.

    PubMed

    Bohnert, Amy M; Aikins, Julie Wargo; Arola, Nicole T

    2013-01-01

    Although organized activities (OAs) have been established as important contexts of development, limited work has examined the role of OAs across the high school transition in buffering adolescents' social adjustment by providing opportunities for visibility and peer affiliation. The transition to high school is characterized by numerous changes and OAs may provide an important setting for establishing and maintaining peer relationships during this tumultuous time. This study included 151 8th grade U.S. students (58% male) who were assessed across the transition to high school (spring of 8th and 9th grade). Continuous involvement in academic activities across the transition and becoming involved (i.e., initiation) in community/service activities following the transition was associated with fewer depressive symptoms in the spring of 9th grade. Continuous involvement in sports and initiation of academic activities was associated with having more friendships. In addition, links between OAs and loneliness were only evident among females. There appear to be significant social benefits for OA involvement.

  15. Beyond the Classroom: Involving Students with Disabilities in Extracurricular Activities at Levy Middle School.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Pam; And Others

    Six students in a special education classroom at Levy Middle School (Syracuse, New York) became involved in a variety of after-school activities with nondisabled students. The students participated in the school computer club, cross-country skiing, volleyball, stage crew, intramural basketball, the Spanish Club, and after-school programs at two…

  16. An Emergent Language Program Framework: Actively Involving Learners in Needs Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Savage, William; Storer, Graeme

    1992-01-01

    Relates the experience of the staff of an aquaculture outreach program in Northeast Thailand in implementing an English for special purposes program. By actively involving learners in both the needs analysis and program design, teachers were able to adapt the program content to the requirements of the students. (15 references) (JL)

  17. Longitudinal Modeling of Adolescents' Activity Involvement, Problem Peer Associations, and Youth Smoking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metzger, Aaron; Dawes, Nickki; Mermelstein, Robin; Wakschlag, Lauren

    2011-01-01

    Longitudinal associations among different types of organized activity involvement, problem peer associations, and cigarette smoking were examined in a sample of 1040 adolescents (mean age = 15.62 at baseline, 16.89 at 15-month assessment, 17.59 at 24 months) enriched for smoking experimentation (83% had tried smoking). A structural equation model…

  18. 15 CFR 712.2 - Restrictions on activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Restrictions on activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.2 Section 712.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL...

  19. Involving Your Child or Teen with ASD in Integrated Community Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKee, Rebecca

    2011-01-01

    Participating in outside activities and community-based endeavors can be tricky for people with special needs, like Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). Families meet more than a few obstacles attempting to integrate their children or teens who have special needs like ASD. Most typical children are highly involved in sports, clubs and camps. If a…

  20. The SMC5/6 complex is involved in crucial processes during human spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Verver, Dideke E; Langedijk, Nathalia S M; Jordan, Philip W; Repping, Sjoerd; Hamer, Geert

    2014-07-01

    Genome integrity is crucial for safe reproduction. Therefore, chromatin structure and dynamics should be tightly regulated during germ cell development. Chromatin structure and function are in large part determined by the structural maintenance of chromosomes (SMC) protein complexes, of which SMC5/6 recently has been shown to be involved in both spermatogonial differentiation and meiosis during mouse spermatogenesis. We therefore investigated the role of this complex in human spermatogenesis. We found SMC6 to be expressed in the human testis and present in a subset of type Adark and type Apale spermatogonia, all spermatocytes, and round spermatids. During human meiosis, SMC5/6 is located at the synaptonemal complex (SC), the XY body, and at the centromeres during meiotic metaphases. However, in contrast to mouse spermatogenesis, SMC6 is not located at pericentromeric heterochromatin in human spermatogenic cells, indicating subtle but perhaps important differences in not only SMC5/6 function but maybe also in maintenance of genomic integrity at the repetitive pericentromeric regions. Nonetheless, our data clearly indicate that the SMC5/6 complex, as shown in mice, is involved in numerous crucial processes during human spermatogenesis, such as in spermatogonial development, on the SC between synapsed chromosomes, and in DNA double-strand break repair on unsynapsed chromosomes during pachynema.

  1. The Arabidopsis chromatin-modifying nuclear siRNA pathway involves a nucleolar RNA processing center.

    PubMed

    Pontes, Olga; Li, Carey Fei; Costa Nunes, Pedro; Haag, Jeremy; Ream, Thomas; Vitins, Alexa; Jacobsen, Steven E; Pikaard, Craig S

    2006-07-14

    In Arabidopsis thaliana, small interfering RNAs (siRNAs) direct cytosine methylation at endogenous DNA repeats in a pathway involving two forms of nuclear RNA polymerase IV (Pol IVa and Pol IVb), RNA-DEPENDENT RNA POLYMERASE 2 (RDR2), DICER-LIKE 3 (DCL3), ARGONAUTE4 (AGO4), the chromatin remodeler DRD1, and the de novo cytosine methyltransferase DRM2. We show that RDR2, DCL3, AGO4, and NRPD1b (the largest subunit of Pol IVb) colocalize with siRNAs within the nucleolus. By contrast, Pol IVa and DRD1 are external to the nucleolus and colocalize with endogenous repeat loci. Mutation-induced loss of pathway proteins causes downstream proteins to mislocalize, revealing their order of action. Pol IVa acts first, and its localization is RNA dependent, suggesting an RNA template. We hypothesize that maintenance of the heterochromatic state involves locus-specific Pol IVa transcription followed by siRNA production and assembly of AGO4- and NRPD1b-containing silencing complexes within nucleolar processing centers.

  2. An overview of the effects of annexin 1 on cells involved in the inflammatory process.

    PubMed

    Kamal, Ahmad M; Flower, Roderick J; Perretti, Mauro

    2005-03-01

    The concept of anti-inflammation is currently evolving with the definition of several endogenous inhibitory circuits that are important in the control of the host inflammatory response. Here we focus on one of these pathways, the annexin 1 (ANXA1) system. Originally identified as a 37 kDa glucocorticoid-inducible protein, ANXA1 has emerged over the last decade as an important endogenous modulator of inflammation. We review the pharmacological effects of ANXA1 on cell types involved in inflammation, from blood-borne leukocytes to resident cells. This review reveals that there is scope for more research, since most of the studies have so far focused on the effects of the protein and its peptido-mimetics on neutrophil recruitment and activation. However, many other cells central to inflammation, e.g. endothelial cells or mast cells, also express ANXA1: it is foreseen that a better definition of the role(s) of the endogenous protein in these cells will open the way to further pharmacological studies. We propose that a more systematic analysis of ANXA1 physio-pharmacology in cells involved in the host inflammatory reaction could aid in the design of novel anti-inflammatory therapeutics based on this endogenous mediator.

  3. Inversion and rotation processes involving non-planar aromatic compounds catalyzed by extended polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karton, Amir

    2014-10-01

    Using accurate quantum chemical calculations, we show that extended planar polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) can efficiently catalyze a range of chemical processes involving non-planar aromatic systems. These include (i) bowl-to-bowl inversion of curved PAHs (e.g. corannulene and sumanene), (ii) 'flip-flop' inversion of helicenes (e.g. benzo[c]phenanthrene), and (iii) rotation about the Phsbnd Ph bond in biphenyls. Non-covalent π-π interactions between the planar catalyst and the substrate stabilize the planar transition structures to a greater extent than they stabilize the non-planar reactants. These result in surprisingly large catalytic enhancements (namely, the reaction barrier heights are reduced by 21-63% of the uncatalyzed reaction barriers).

  4. The chemistry of sodium chloride involvement in processes related to hot corrosion. [in gas turbine engines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stearns, C. A.; Kohl, F. J.; Fryburg, G. C.

    1979-01-01

    Thermodynamic and mass transport calculations, and laboratory experiments elucidating the behavior of sodium chloride in combustion environments, in the deposition process, and in reactions with certain oxides on the surfaces of superalloys are summarized. It was found that some of the ingested salt is separated out of the air stream by the compressor. However, sodium chloride does pass from the compressor to the combustor where numerous chemical reactions take place. Here some of the salt is vaporized to yield gaseous sodium chloride molecules. Hydrogen and oxygen atoms present in the combustion products react with some sodium chloride to yield other gaseous species such as sodium, and a fraction of the salt remains as particulates. Both the gas phase and condensed sodium chloride can lead to sodium sulfate formation by various routes, all of which involve reaction with sulfur oxides and oxygen. In addition to contributing to the formation of sodium sulfate, the sodium chloride can contribute to corrosion directly.

  5. Aeromonas hydrophila induced head kidney macrophage apoptosis in Clarias batrachus involves the activation of calpain and is caspase-3 mediated.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Chaitali; Goswami, Ramansu; Verma, Gaurav; Datta, Malabika; Mazumder, Shibnath

    2012-07-01

    The mechanism of macrophage cytotoxicity induced by Aeromonas hydrophila is yet unresolved. We observed A. hydrophila induces Head Kidney Macrophage (HKM) apoptosis in Clarias batrachus, as evident from Hoechst 33342 and AnnexinV-Propidium Iodide staining and presence of oligonucleosomal DNA ladder. Initiation of apoptosis required the bacteria to be alive, be actively phagocytosed into HKM and was dependent on host proteins. Elevated cytosolic calcium and consequent calpain activity that declined following pre-incubation with EGTA, verapamil and nifedipine implicates the role of calcium influx through voltage gated calcium channels and calpain in A. hydrophila-induced HKM apoptosis. Though, calpain-1 and -2 were involved, calpain-2 appeared to be more important in the process. EGTA, verapamil, nifedipine and calpain-2 inhibitor reduced caspase-3 activity and apoptosis. We conclude that A. hydrophila alters cytosolic calcium homeostasis initiating the activation of calpains, more specifically calpain-2, which leads to caspase-3 mediated HKM apoptosis in C. batrachus.

  6. NIK is involved in constitutive activation of the alternative NF-{kappa}B pathway and proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells

    SciTech Connect

    Nishina, Takashi; Yamaguchi, Noritaka; Gohda, Jin; Semba, Kentaro; Inoue, Jun-ichiro

    2009-10-09

    Pancreatic cancer has one of the poorest prognoses among human neoplasms. Constitutive activation of NF-{kappa}B is frequently observed in pancreatic cancer cells and is involved in their malignancy. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of this constitutive NF-{kappa}B activation. Here, we show that the alternative pathway is constitutively activated and NF-{kappa}B-inducing kinase (NIK), a mediator of the alternative pathway, is significantly expressed in pancreatic cancer cells. siRNA-mediated silencing of NIK expression followed by subcellular fractionation revealed that NIK is constitutively involved in the processing of p100 and nuclear transport of p52 and RelB in pancreatic cancer cells. In addition, NIK silencing significantly suppressed proliferation of pancreatic cancer cells. These results clearly indicate that NIK is involved in the constitutive activation of the alternative pathway and controls cell proliferation in pancreatic cancer cells. Therefore, NIK might be a novel target for the treatment of pancreatic cancer.

  7. FMRI evidence for the involvement of the procedural memory system in morphological processing of a second language.

    PubMed

    Pliatsikas, Christos; Johnstone, Tom; Marinis, Theodoros

    2014-01-01

    Behavioural evidence suggests that English regular past tense forms are automatically decomposed into their stem and affix (played  = play+ed) based on an implicit linguistic rule, which does not apply to the idiosyncratically formed irregular forms (kept). Additionally, regular, but not irregular inflections, are thought to be processed through the procedural memory system (left inferior frontal gyrus, basal ganglia, cerebellum). It has been suggested that this distinction does not to apply to second language (L2) learners of English; however, this has not been tested at the brain level. This fMRI study used a masked-priming task with regular and irregular prime-target pairs (played-play/kept-keep) to investigate morphological processing in native and highly proficient late L2 English speakers. No between-groups differences were revealed. Compared to irregular pairs, regular pairs activated the pars opercularis, bilateral caudate nucleus and the right cerebellum, which are part of the procedural memory network and have been connected with the processing of morphologically complex forms. Our study is the first to provide evidence for native-like involvement of the procedural memory system in processing of regular past tense by late L2 learners of English.

  8. Salamander limb regeneration involves the activation of a multipotent skeletal muscle satellite cell population.

    PubMed

    Morrison, Jamie I; Lööf, Sara; He, Pingping; Simon, András

    2006-01-30

    In contrast to mammals, salamanders can regenerate complex structures after injury, including entire limbs. A central question is whether the generation of progenitor cells during limb regeneration and mammalian tissue repair occur via separate or overlapping mechanisms. Limb regeneration depends on the formation of a blastema, from which the new appendage develops. Dedifferentiation of stump tissues, such as skeletal muscle, precedes blastema formation, but it was not known whether dedifferentiation involves stem cell activation. We describe a multipotent Pax7+ satellite cell population located within the skeletal muscle of the salamander limb. We demonstrate that skeletal muscle dedifferentiation involves satellite cell activation and that these cells can contribute to new limb tissues. Activation of salamander satellite cells occurs in an analogous manner to how the mammalian myofiber mobilizes stem cells during skeletal muscle tissue repair. Thus, limb regeneration and mammalian tissue repair share common cellular and molecular programs. Our findings also identify satellite cells as potential targets in promoting mammalian blastema formation.

  9. The Involvement of Hemocyte Prophenoloxidase in the Shell-Hardening Process of the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus

    PubMed Central

    Alvarez, Javier V.; Chung, J. Sook

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular structures of arthropods undergo dramatic molt-related changes from being soft to becoming hard. The shell-hardening process of decapod crustaceans includes sclerotization and mineralization. Hemocyte PPO plays a central role in melanization and sclerotization particularly in wound healing in crustaceans. However, little is known about its role in the crustacean initial shell-hardening process. The earlier findings of the aggregation of heavily granulated hemocytes beneath the hypodermis during ecdysis imply that the hemocytes may be involved in the shell-hardening process. In order to determine if hemocytes and hemocyte PPO have a role in the shell-hardening of crustaceans, a knockdown study using specific CasPPO-hemo-dsRNA was carried out with juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus. Multiple injections of CasPPO-hemo-dsRNA reduce specifically the levels of CasPPO-hemo expression by 57% and PO activity by 54% in hemocyte lysate at the postmolt, while they have no effect on the total hemocyte numbers. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis using a specific antiserum generated against CasPPO show granulocytes, semigranulocytes and hyaline cells as the cellular sources for PPO at the postmolt. Interestingly, the type of hemocytes, as the cellular sources of PPO, varies by molt stage. The granulocytes always contain PPO throughout the molt cycle. However, semigranulocytes and hyaline cells become CasPPO immune-positive only at early premolt and postmolt, indicating that PPO expression in these cells may be involved in the shell-hardening process of C. sapidus. PMID:26393802

  10. The Involvement of Hemocyte Prophenoloxidase in the Shell-Hardening Process of the Blue Crab, Callinectes sapidus.

    PubMed

    Alvarez, Javier V; Chung, J Sook

    2015-01-01

    Cuticular structures of arthropods undergo dramatic molt-related changes from being soft to becoming hard. The shell-hardening process of decapod crustaceans includes sclerotization and mineralization. Hemocyte PPO plays a central role in melanization and sclerotization particularly in wound healing in crustaceans. However, little is known about its role in the crustacean initial shell-hardening process. The earlier findings of the aggregation of heavily granulated hemocytes beneath the hypodermis during ecdysis imply that the hemocytes may be involved in the shell-hardening process. In order to determine if hemocytes and hemocyte PPO have a role in the shell-hardening of crustaceans, a knockdown study using specific CasPPO-hemo-dsRNA was carried out with juvenile blue crabs, Callinectes sapidus. Multiple injections of CasPPO-hemo-dsRNA reduce specifically the levels of CasPPO-hemo expression by 57% and PO activity by 54% in hemocyte lysate at the postmolt, while they have no effect on the total hemocyte numbers. Immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis using a specific antiserum generated against CasPPO show granulocytes, semigranulocytes and hyaline cells as the cellular sources for PPO at the postmolt. Interestingly, the type of hemocytes, as the cellular sources of PPO, varies by molt stage. The granulocytes always contain PPO throughout the molt cycle. However, semigranulocytes and hyaline cells become CasPPO immune-positive only at early premolt and postmolt, indicating that PPO expression in these cells may be involved in the shell-hardening process of C. sapidus.

  11. Concepts in context: Processing mental state concepts with internal or external focus involves different neural systems

    PubMed Central

    Oosterwijk, Suzanne; Mackey, Scott; Wilson-Mendenhall, Christine; Winkielman, Piotr; Paulus, Martin P.

    2015-01-01

    According to embodied cognition theories concepts are contextually-situated and grounded in neural systems that produce experiential states. This view predicts that processing mental state concepts recruits neural regions associated with different aspects of experience depending on the context in which people understand a concept. This neuroimaging study tested this prediction using a set of sentences that described emotional (e.g., fear, joy) and non-emotional (e.g., thinking, hunger) mental states with internal focus (i.e. focusing on bodily sensations and introspection) or external focus (i.e. focusing on expression and action). Consistent with our predictions, data suggested that the inferior frontal gyrus, a region associated with action representation, was engaged more by external than internal sentences. By contrast, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, a region associated with the generation of internal states, was engaged more by internal emotion sentences than external sentence categories. Similar patterns emerged when we examined the relationship between neural activity and independent ratings of sentence focus. Furthermore, ratings of emotion were associated with activation in the medial prefrontal cortex, whereas ratings of activity were associated with activation in the inferior frontal gyrus. These results suggest that mental state concepts are represented in a dynamic way, using context-relevant interoceptive and sensorimotor resources. PMID:25748274

  12. Spectral dynamics of electroencephalographic activity during auditory information processing.

    PubMed

    Cacace, Anthony T; McFarland, Dennis J

    2003-02-01

    Dynamics of electroencephalographic (EEG) activity during auditory information processing were evaluated in response to changes in stimulus complexity, stimulus discriminability and attention using the oddball paradigm. In comparison to pre-stimulus baseline conditions, auditory stimulation synchronized EEG activity in delta, theta and alpha frequency bands. Event-related synchronization (ERS) effects were greatest at approximately 3 Hz (theta frequency band), and their magnitude depended on stimulus and task demands. Event-related desynchronization (ERD) of EEG activity was observed in the beta frequency band. This effect was greatest at approximately 21 Hz but occurred only for easily discriminable stimuli in attention-related target conditions. Because active discrimination tasks also required a button-press response with the right hand, ERDs involved more complex responses that may be related to a combination of perceptual, motor and cognitive processes. These results demonstrate that oddball and attention-related EEG responses to auditory stimulation could be characterized in the frequency domain. The specific design and analysis features described herein may prove useful since they provide a simple index of the brain's response to stimulation while at the same time provide powerful information not contained in typical time domain analysis.

  13. Rundown of the hyperpolarization-activated KAT1 channel involves slowing of the opening transitions regulated by phosphorylation.

    PubMed Central

    Tang, X D; Hoshi, T

    1999-01-01

    Disappearance of the functional activity or rundown of ion channels upon patch excision in many cells involves a decrease in the number of channels available to open. A variety of cellular and biophysical mechanisms have been shown to be involved in the rundown of different ion channels. We examined the rundown process of the plant hyperpolarization-activated KAT1 K+ channel expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The decrease in the KAT1 channel activity on patch excision was accompanied by progressive slowing of the activation time course, and it was caused by a shift in the voltage dependence of the channel without any change in the single-channel amplitude. The single-channel analysis showed that patch excision alters only the transitions leading up to the burst states of the channel. Patch cramming or concurrent application of protein kinase A (PKA) and ATP restored the channel activity. In contrast, nonspecific alkaline phosphatase (ALP) accelerated the rundown time course. Low internal pH, which inhibits ALP activity, slowed the KAT1 rundown time course. The results show that the opening transitions of the KAT1 channel are enhanced not only by hyperpolarization but also by PKA-mediated phosphorylation. PMID:10354434

  14. Crystal structure and functional implications of Pyrococcus furiosus hef helicase domain involved in branched DNA processing.

    PubMed

    Nishino, Tatsuya; Komori, Kayoko; Tsuchiya, Daisuke; Ishino, Yoshizumi; Morikawa, Kosuke

    2005-01-01

    DNA and RNA frequently form various branched intermediates that are important for the transmission of genetic information. Helicases play pivotal roles in the processing of these transient intermediates during nucleic acid metabolism. The archaeal Hef helicase/ nuclease is a representative protein that processes flap- or fork-DNA structures, and, intriguingly, its C-terminal half belongs to the XPF/Mus81 nuclease family. Here, we report the crystal structure of the helicase domain of the Hef protein from Pyrococcus furiosus. The structure reveals a novel helical insertion between the two conserved helicase core domains. This positively charged extra region, structurally similar to the "thumb" domain of DNA polymerase, plays critical roles in fork recognition. The Hef helicase/nuclease exhibits sequence similarity to the Mph1 helicase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae; XPF/Rad1, involved in DNA repair; and a putative Hef homolog identified in mammals. Hence, our findings provide a structural basis for the functional mechanisms of this helicase/nuclease family.

  15. Are cognitive "insomnia" processes involved in the development and maintenance of delayed sleep wake phase disorder?

    PubMed

    Richardson, Cele E; Gradisar, Michael; Barbero, Sebastian C

    2016-04-01

    Although individuals with delayed sleep wake phase disorder (DSWPD) and chronic insomnia disorder (CID) share many of the same phenomenological experiences, theories relating to the development and maintenance of these disorders are distinct in focus. Unlike CID, theory relating to DSWPD is primarily physiologically based and assumes almost no cognitive pathway. However, recent research findings suggest that individuals with DSWPD also display many of the sleep-disordered cognitive processes that were previously assumed to be unique to the insomnia experience. As such, this review aims to summarise current research findings to address the question "Could cognitive processes be involved in the development and maintenance of DSWPD?" In particular, the presence of cognitive and physiological pre-sleep arousal, sleep-related attentional bias, distorted perception of sleep and daytime functioning, dysfunctional beliefs and safety behaviours will be investigated. As this emerging area of research requires a stronger evidence base, we highlight suggestions for future investigation and provide preliminary practice points for clinicians assessing and treating "insomnia" in patients with DSWPD.

  16. Microbial community analysis involved in the aerobic/extended-idle process performing biological phosphorus removal.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Tian-jing; Yang, Guo-jing; Wang, Dong-bo; Li, Xiao-ming; Zheng, Wei; Yang, Qi; Zeng, Guang-ming

    2013-01-01

    Recently, it has been found that biological phosphorus removal can be achieved in an aerobic/extended-idle (AEI) process using both glucose and acetate as the sole substrate. However, the microbial consortiums involved in glucose-fed and acetate-fed systems have not yet been characterized. Thus the aims of this paper were to investigate the diversities and dynamics of bacterial communities during the acclimation period, and to quantify polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) and glycogen-accumulating organisms (GAOs) in the systems. The phylogenetic analysis showed that the microbial communities were mainly composed of phylum Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi and another six kinds of unclassified bacteria. Fluorescence in-situ hybridization (FISH) analysis revealed that PAOs and GAOs accounted for 43 ± 7 and 16 ± 3% of all bacteria in the glucose-fed system, and 19 ± 4 and 35 ± 5% of total bacteria in the acetate-fed system, respectively. The results showed that the conventional PAOs could thrive in the AEI process, and a defined anaerobic zone was not necessarily required for putative PAOs growth.

  17. Heterogeneous processes involving nitrogenous compounds and Saharan dust inferred from measurements and model calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galy-Lacaux, C.; Carmichael, G. R.; Song, C. H.; Lacaux, J. P.; Al Ourabi, H.; Modi, A. I.

    2001-01-01

    Experimental data on aerosol chemical composition and gaseous concentrations in various African ecosystems have been obtained under the IGAC DEBITS AFRICA (IDAF) program. In this paper, data covering a complete wet and dry season (1996 and 1998) in the semiarid savanna of the Sahelian region of Niger are presented. The analysis of the aerosol chemical composition and the gas phase concentrations at the Banizoumbou station indicates two strong signatures: a nitrogenous component composed of nitric acid, ammonia, particulate ammonium, and nitrates; and a terrigenous component originating from semiarid and desert soils (calcium, carbonates, magnesium, potassium, sulfate). To further investigate the interactions between gas and particles and to help interpret the IDAF experimental data, these data are analyzed using a gas aerosol equilibrium model (Simulating Composition of Atmospheric Particles at Equilibrium (SCAPE)). The model is found to accurately represent the mean aerosol composition for the dry and the wet season of the studied region. It is found that heterogeneous processes involving terrigenous compounds are important and play a major role in partitioning semivolatile species, such as nitric acid, between the gas and aerosol phases. The important role of these heterogeneous processes in the atmospheric chemistry in the Sahelian region is discussed. To compare results obtained in the semiarid savanna of Niger and other African ecosystems, SCAPE model is also applied to humid savanna and forest using IDAF and Experiment for Regional Sources and Sinks of Oxidants (EXPRESSO) measurements.

  18. Guidelines for inclusion: Ensuring Indigenous peoples' involvement in water planning processes across South Eastern Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saenz Quitian, Alejandra; Rodríguez, Gloria Amparo

    2016-11-01

    Indigenous peoples within the Murray-Darling Basin have traditionally struggled for the recognition of their cultural, social, environmental, spiritual, commercial and economic connection to the waters that they have traditionally used, as well as their right to engage in all stages of water planning processes. Despite Australian national and federal frameworks providing for the inclusion of Indigenous Australians' objectives in planning frameworks, water plans have rarely addressed these objectives in water, or the strategies to achieve them. Indeed, insufficient resources, a lack of institutional capacity in both Indigenous communities and agencies and an inadequate understanding of Indigenous people's objectives in water management have limited the extent to which Indigenous objectives are addressed in water plans within the Murray-Darling Basin. In this context, the adoption of specific guidelines to meet Indigenous requirements in relation to basin water resources is crucial to support Indigenous engagement in water planning processes. Using insights from participatory planning methods and human rights frameworks, this article outlines a set of alternative and collaborative guidelines to improve Indigenous involvement in water planning and to promote sustainable and just water allocations.

  19. Neuroimmune regulation of microglial activity involved in neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative diseases.

    PubMed

    González, Hugo; Elgueta, Daniela; Montoya, Andro; Pacheco, Rodrigo

    2014-09-15

    Neuroinflammation constitutes a fundamental process involved in the progression of several neurodegenerative disorders, such as Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and multiple sclerosis. Microglial cells play a central role in neuroinflammation, promoting neuroprotective or neurotoxic microenvironments, thus controlling neuronal fate. Acquisition of different microglial functions is regulated by intercellular interactions with neurons, astrocytes, the blood-brain barrier, and T-cells infiltrating the central nervous system. In this study, an overview of the regulation of microglial function mediated by different intercellular communications is summarised and discussed. Afterward, we focus in T-cell-mediated regulation of neuroinflammation involved in neurodegenerative disorders.

  20. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required.

  1. Personal Involvement with Learning Disability Children: Activities Groups Can Do for Personal Involvement with Learning Disability Children thru Movement Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, Elizabeth I.

    Described are perceptual motor activities in the areas of coordination, agility, strength, balance, and endurance for use with learning disabled children. Provided are a rationale for movement education and definitions of 10 terms such as laterality and endurance. A sequence of activities is provided for the following skills: ball bouncing, rope…

  2. Behavioral activation system modulation on brain activation during appetitive and aversive stimulus processing

    PubMed Central

    Ventura-Campos, Noelia; Sanjuán-Tomás, Ana; Belloch, Vicente; Parcet, Maria-Antònia; Ávila, César

    2010-01-01

    The reinforcement sensitivity theory (RST) proposed the behavioral activation system (BAS) as a neurobehavioral system that is dependent on dopamine-irrigated structures and that mediates the individual differences in sensitivity and reactivity to appetitive stimuli associated with BAS-related personality traits. Theoretical developments propose that high BAS sensitivity is associated with both enhanced appetitive stimuli processing and the diminished processing of aversive stimuli. The objective of this study was to analyze how individual differences in BAS functioning were associated with brain activation during erotic and aversive picture processing while subjects were involved in a simple goal-directed task. Forty-five male participants took part in this study. The task activation results confirm the activation of the reward and punishment brain-related structures while viewing erotic and aversive pictures, respectively. The SR scores show a positive correlation with activation of the left lateral prefrontal cortex, the mesial prefrontal cortex and the right occipital cortex while viewing erotic pictures, and a negative correlation with the right lateral prefrontal cortex and the left occipital cortex while viewing aversive pictures. In summary, the SR scores modulate the activity of the cortical areas in the prefrontal and the occipital cortices that are proposed to modulate the BAS and the BIS-FFFS. PMID:20147458

  3. Efficient high light acclimation involves rapid processes at multiple mechanistic levels.

    PubMed

    Dietz, Karl-Josef

    2015-05-01

    Like no other chemical or physical parameter, the natural light environment of plants changes with high speed and jumps of enormous intensity. To cope with this variability, photosynthetic organisms have evolved sensing and response mechanisms that allow efficient acclimation. Most signals originate from the chloroplast itself. In addition to very fast photochemical regulation, intensive molecular communication is realized within the photosynthesizing cell, optimizing the acclimation process. Current research has opened up new perspectives on plausible but mostly unexpected complexity in signalling events, crosstalk, and process adjustments. Within seconds and minutes, redox states, levels of reactive oxygen species, metabolites, and hormones change and transmit information to the cytosol, modifying metabolic activity, gene expression, translation activity, and alternative splicing events. Signalling pathways on an intermediate time scale of several minutes to a few hours pave the way for long-term acclimation. Thereby, a new steady state of the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolism is realized within rather short time periods irrespective of the previous acclimation history to shade or sun conditions. This review provides a time line of events during six hours in the 'stressful' life of a plant.

  4. Rearrangements of intranuclear structures involved in RNA processing in response to adenovirus infection.

    PubMed

    Puvion-Dutilleul, F; Bachellerie, J P; Visa, N; Puvion, E

    1994-06-01

    We have studied in HeLa cells at the electron microscope level the response to adenovirus infection of the RNA processing machinery. Components of the spliceosomes were localized by in situ hybridization with biotinylated U1 and U2 DNA probes and by immunolabeling with Y12 anti-Sm monoclonal antibody, whereas poly(A)+ RNAs were localized by specific binding of biotinylated poly(dT) probe. At early stages of nuclear transformation, the distribution of small nuclear RNPs was similar to that previously described in non-infected nuclei (Visa, N., Puvion-Dutilleul, F., Bachellerie, J.P. and Puvion, E., Eur. J. Cell Biol. 60, 308-321, 1993; Visa, N., Puvion-Dutilleul, F., Harper, F., Bachellerie, J. P. and Puvion, E., Exp. Cell Res. 208, 19-34, 1993). As the infection progresses, the large virus-induced inclusion body consists of a central storage site of functionally inactive viral genomes surrounded by a peripheral shell formed by clusters of interchromatin granules, compact rings and a fibrillogranular network in which are embedded the viral single-stranded DNA accumulation sites. Spliceosome components and poly(A)+ RNAs were then exclusively detected over the clusters of interchromatin granules and the fibrillogranular network whereas the viral single-stranded DNA accumulation sites and compact rings remained unlabeled, thus appearing to not be directly involved in splicing. Our data, therefore, suggest that the fibrillogranular network, in addition to being the site of viral transcription, is also a major site of viral RNA splicing. Like the clusters of interchromatin granules, which had been already involved in spliceosome assembly, they could also have a role in the sorting of viral spliced polyadenylated mRNAs before export to the cytoplasm. The compact rings, which contain non-polyadenylated viral RNA, might accumulate the non-used portions of the viral transcripts resulting from differential poly(A)+ site selection.

  5. Difficulty with daily activities involving the lower extremities in people with systemic sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Poole, Janet L; Brandenstein, Jane

    2016-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the extent of lower extremity impairments in motion and strength in people with systemic sclerosis and the relationships of the impairments to limitations in activities of daily living primarily involving the lower extremities. Participants were 69 persons with SSc who received evaluations of lower extremity joint motion (Keitel function test), strength (timed-stands test), and basic mobility (timed up and go test) and completed a demographic questionnaire regarding symptoms in the lower extremities. Activity limitations were measured by the Rheumatoid and Arthritis Outcome Score (RAOS) which examines functional ability, pain, and quality of life. The participants had difficulty with items requiring external rotation of the hips and lower extremity strength. There were moderate correlations between the impairment measures of joint motion, strength, mobility, and activity limitations. Fair correlations were found between the skin scores and the RAOS sections except for pain. The results of this study show that lower extremity involvement is present in persons with SSc. The findings, regarding strength, mobility, and joint motion are related to the ability to perform everyday activities involving the lower extremities, suggest that these areas should be targeted for intervention in persons with SSc.

  6. Active involvement of people with intellectual disabilities in health research - A structured literature review.

    PubMed

    Frankena, Tessa Kim; Naaldenberg, Jenneken; Cardol, Mieke; Linehan, Christine; van Schrojenstein Lantman-de Valk, Henny

    2015-01-01

    Actively involving people with intellectual disabilities (ID) in health research, also known as inclusive health research, is increasingly popular. Currently, insight into experiences of this type of research is scarce. To gain insight into this topic, a structured literature review was conducted focussing on (1) existing theories, (2) inclusive methods, (3) added value and (4) barriers and facilitators. Literature published between January 2000 and January 2014 was included covering keywords related to ID and inclusive health research. Searches were performed in Pubmed, CINAHL, PsycINFO, EMBASE and MEDLINE databases, resulting in 26 included papers. Papers were quality assessed and analysed using qualitative data analysis software. Four theories were often simultaneously addressed: participatory research, emancipatory research, inclusive research and Arnstein's ladder. Barriers and facilitators could be divided into preparing, undertaking and finalising phases of research. Authors indicated that their motivation to conduct inclusive health research was based on demands by policy and funding bodies or was based on ethical considerations (i.e., ethical notions and giving people with ID a voice). Upon completion, authors perceived increased quality and validity of their research and several benefits for stakeholders (i.e., people with ID, researchers and healthcare professionals). Overall, there was consistency in their perception of the most important aspects of inclusive health research. Based on the analysis of included papers, four recommendations of inclusive health research with people with ID were found. Inclusive health research should be: (1) tailoring to the specific study; (2) anticipating all stakeholders; (3) considering its added value; and (4) providing insight into its process.

  7. Antibotulinal activity of process cheese ingredients.

    PubMed

    Glass, Kathleen A; Johnson, Eric A

    2004-08-01

    Ingredients used in the manufacture of reduced-fat process cheese products were screened for their ability to inhibit growth of Clostridium botulinum serotypes A and B in media. Reinforced clostridial medium (RCM) supplemented with 0, 0.5, 1, 2, 3, 5, or 10% (wt/vol) of various ingredients, including a carbohydrate-based fat replacer, an enzyme-modified cheese (EMC) derived from a Blue cheese, sweet whey, modified whey protein, or whey protein concentrate, did not inhibit botulinal growth and toxin production when stored at 30 degrees C for 1 week. In contrast, RCM supplemented with 10% soy-based flavor enhancer, 10% Parmesan EMC, or 5 or 10% Cheddar EMC inhibited botulinal toxin production in media for at least 6 weeks of storage at 30 degrees C. Subsequent trials revealed that the antibotulinal effect varied significantly among 13 lots of EMC and that the antimicrobial effect was not correlated with the pH or water activity of the EMC.

  8. Empathic choice involves vmPFC value signals that are modulated by social processing implemented in IPL.

    PubMed

    Janowski, Vanessa; Camerer, Colin; Rangel, Antonio

    2013-02-01

    Empathic decision-making involves making choices on behalf of others in order to maximize their well-being. Examples include the choices that parents make for their children, as well as the decisions of a politician trying to make good choices on behalf of his constituency. We investigated the neurobiological and computational basis of empathic choice using a human fMRI task in which subjects purchased DVDs for themselves with their own money, or DVDs for others with the other's money. We found that empathic choices engage the same regions of ventromedial prefrontal cortex that are known to compute stimulus values, and that these value signals were modulated by activity from a region of inferior parietal lobule (IPL) known to play a critical role in social processes such as empathy. We also found that the stimulus value signals used to make empathic choices were computed using a mixture of self-simulation and other-simulation processes, and that activity in IPL encoded a variable measuring the distance between the other's and self preferences, which provides a hint for how the mixture of self- and other-simulation might be implemented.

  9. Offline Memory Reprocessing: Involvement of the Brain's Default Network in Spontaneous Thought Processes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun; Yu, Chunshui; Xu, Lijuan; Qin, Wen; Li, Kuncheng; Xu, Lin; Jiang, Tianzi

    2009-01-01

    Background Spontaneous thought processes (STPs), also called daydreaming or mind-wandering, occur ubiquitously in daily life. However, the functional significance of STPs remains largely unknown. Methodology/Principal Finding Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we first identified an STPs-network whose activity was positively correlated with the subjects' tendency of having STPs during a task-free state. The STPs-network was then found to be strongly associated with the default network, which has previously been established as being active during the task-free state. Interestingly, we found that offline reprocessing of previously memorized information further increased the activity of the STPs-network regions, although during a state with less STPs. In addition, we found that the STPs-network kept a dynamic balance between functional integration and functional separation among its component regions to execute offline memory reprocessing in STPs. Conclusion/Significance These findings strengthen a view that offline memory reprocessing and STPs share the brain's default network, and thus implicate that offline memory reprocessing may be a predetermined function of STPs. This supports the perspective that memory can be consolidated and modified during STPs, and thus gives rise to a dynamic behavior dependent on both previous external and internal experiences. PMID:19290044

  10. Understanding affluent adolescent adjustment: The interplay of parental perfectionism, perceived parental pressure, and organized activity involvement.

    PubMed

    Randall, Edin T; Bohnert, Amy M; Travers, Lea V

    2015-06-01

    This cross-sectional study examined relations between affluent adolescent adjustment and culturally salient factors within parent-child relationship and extracurricular domain. Bootstrapping techniques evaluated mediated effects among parental perfectionism, perceived parental pressure, intensity of organized activity (OA) involvement, and adolescent adjustment (i.e., depressive and anxiety symptoms, life satisfaction) within a sample of 10th graders and their parents (n = 88 parent-child pairs) from four high schools in affluent communities. Findings indicated that adolescents with more perfectionistic parents perceived more parental pressure and experienced poorer adjustment. Results also demonstrated that affluent adolescents who perceived more parental pressure were more intensely involved in OAs, but that higher OA intensity was linked to better adjustment. Findings highlight the importance of considering parental perfectionism when understanding adolescent behaviors and psychological outcomes, confirm the negative direct effects of parental pressure on adjustment, and corroborate prior research dispelling that highly intense OA involvement is linked to adolescent maladjustment.

  11. Differentiation of cellular processes involved in the induction and maintenance of stimulated neutrophil adherence.

    PubMed

    English, D; Gabig, T G

    1986-05-01

    Neutrophil adherence stimulated by phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) was investigated by quantitating the attachment of 51Cr-labeled neutrophils to plastic surfaces and to the endothelium of umbilical veins mounted in compartmentalized Lucite chambers. PMA-induced adherence could be functionally separated into an induction phase requiring cellular metabolism and a Mg++ dependent maintenance phase that was independent of cellular metabolism. Thus, metabolic inhibitors (N-ethylmaleimide, 2-deoxyglucose) blocked adherence when added to neutrophils prior to PMA, but did not cause detachment of cells adhering as a consequence of prior exposure to PMA. PMA failed to induce adherence of neutrophils incubated at low (0.4 degree C) temperature, but temperature reduction, even for prolonged periods, did not cause detachment of adherent cells. Thus, the attractive forces that mediate stimulated adherence persist independently of any sustained metabolic response to the inducing stimulus. However, removal of Mg++ from the media above adherent cells resulted in immediate detachment, indicating that the cation was required for the persistent expression or maintenance of the attractive forces involved. The extent of stimulated adherence correlated well with the extent of degranulation when rates were varied by limiting the incubation time or stimulus concentration. This correlation was not absolute; in the absence of Mg++, PMA induced degranulation normally but failed to enhance adherence. To explain these findings, we investigated the possibility that PMA-stimulated adherence was maintained by Mg++-dependent cellular adherence molecules released during exocytosis. Supernatants of stimulated neutrophils were devoid of adherence-promoting activity, and only weak activity was recovered in supernatants of mechanically disrupted neutrophils. PMA effectively stimulated the tight adherence of degranulated neutrophil cytoplasts to plastic surfaces and did so in the absence of stimulated

  12. Epac1 and Epac2 are differentially involved in inflammatory and remodeling processes induced by cigarette smoke

    PubMed Central

    Oldenburger, Anouk; Timens, Wim; Bos, Sophie; Smit, Marieke; Smrcka, Alan V.; Laurent, Anne-Coline; Cao, Junjun; Hylkema, Machteld; Meurs, Herman; Maarsingh, Harm; Lezoualc'h, Frank; Schmidt, Martina

    2014-01-01

    Cigarette smoke (CS) induces inflammatory responses characterized by increase of immune cells and cytokine release. Remodeling processes, such as mucus hypersecretion and extracellular matrix protein production, are also directly or indirectly induced by CS. Recently, we showed that activation of the exchange protein directly activated by cAMP (Epac) attenuates CS extract-induced interleukin (IL)-8 release from cultured airway smooth muscle cells. Using an acute, short-term model of CS exposure, we now studied the role of Epac1, Epac2, and the Epac effector phospholipase-Cε (PLCε) in airway inflammation and remodeling in vivo. Compared to wild-type mice exposed to CS, the number of total inflammatory cells, macrophages, and neutrophils and total IL-6 release was lower in Epac2−/− mice, which was also the case for neutrophils and IL-6 in PLCε−/− mice. Taken together, Epac2, acting partly via PLCε, but not Epac1, enhances CS-induced airway inflammation in vivo. In total lung homogenates of Epac1−/− mice, MUC5AC and matrix remodeling parameters (transforming growth factor-β1, collagen I, and fibronectin) were increased at baseline. Our findings suggest that Epac1 primarily is capable of inhibiting remodeling processes, whereas Epac2 primarily increases inflammatory processes in vivo.—Oldenburger, A., Timens, W., Bos, S., Smit, M., Smrcka, A. V., Laurent, A.-C., Cao, J., Hylkema, M., Meurs, H., Maarsingh, H., Lezoualc'h, F., and Schmidt, M. Epac1 and Epac2 are differentially involved in inflammatory and remodeling processes induced by cigarette smoke. PMID:25103224

  13. Involving Faculty in Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andrew, Lloyd D.

    1979-01-01

    Firm planning objectives, clearly stated relationships to overall institutional objectives, faculty involvement, and active leadership are advocated for successful academic planning. Faculty involvement is dependent on the strength of the technical, marketing, and budgeting staffs, and involvement in the planning process may kindle faculty…

  14. Involvement of plasmin-mediated extracellular activation of progalanin in angiogenesis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Hiroyuki; Okada, Rina; Iguchi, Kazuaki; Ohno, Satoshi; Yokogawa, Takashi; Nishikawa, Kazuya; Unno, Keiko; Hoshino, Minoru; Takeda, Atsushi

    2013-01-18

    Progalanin is released from the small cell lung carcinoma line SBC-3A and converted to its active form by plasmin. To elucidate the role of progalanin activation in the extracellular compartment, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) activity was studied in SBC-3A cells treated with progalanin siRNA, and angiogenesis was measured in tumor tissue originating from SBC-3A cell transplantation into mice. Progalanin siRNA caused downregulation of progalanin expression for approximately 8 days. MMP activity and angiogenesis were reduced in tumors induced by transplantation of progalanin siRNA-treated SBC-3A cells. In contrast, MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity and angiogenesis increased in tumors originating from progalanin siRNA-treated SBC-3A cells in the presence of galanin and progalanin. Furthermore, injection of tranexamic acid, a plasmin inhibitor, more markedly reduced MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity and angiogenesis in tumors originating from progalanin siRNA-treated SBC-3A cells and in tumor tissue originating from progalanin siRNA-treated SBC-3A cells in the presence of progalanin. The reduction of MMP-9 and MMP-2 activity with tranexamic acid was restored by galanin, but not by progalanin. Moreover, tranexamic acid reduced angiogenesis in control siRNA-treated SBC-3A cells. These results suggest that the activation of progalanin by plasmin in the extracellular compartment was involved in MMP-9 and MMP-2 activation and in angiogenesis in tumor tissue.

  15. Degassing Processes at Persistently Active Explosive Volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smekens, Jean-Francois

    Among volcanic gases, sulfur dioxide (SO2) is by far the most commonly measured. More than a monitoring proxy for volcanic degassing, SO 2 has the potential to alter climate patterns. Persistently active explosive volcanoes are characterized by short explosive bursts, which often occur at periodic intervals numerous times per day, spanning years to decades. SO 2 emissions at those volcanoes are poorly constrained, in large part because the current satellite monitoring techniques are unable to detect or quantify plumes of low concentration in the troposphere. Eruption plumes also often show high concentrations of ash and/or aerosols, which further inhibit the detection methods. In this work I focus on quantifying volcanic gas emissions at persistently active explosive volcanoes and their variations over short timescales (minutes to hours), in order to document their contribution to natural SO2 flux as well as investigate the physical processes that control their behavior. In order to make these measurements, I first develop and assemble a UV ground-based instrument, and validate it against an independently measured source of SO2 at a coal-burning power plant in Arizona. I establish a measurement protocol and demonstrate that the instrument measures SO 2 fluxes with < 20 % error. Using the same protocol, I establish a record of the degassing patterns at Semeru volcano (Indonesia), a volcano that has been producing cycles of repeated explosions with periods of minutes to hours for the past several decades. Semeru produces an average of 21-71 tons of SO2 per day, amounting to a yearly output of 8-26 Mt. Using the Semeru data, along with a 1-D transient numerical model of magma ascent, I test the validity of a model in which a viscous plug at the top of the conduit produces cycles of eruption and gas release. I find that it can be a valid hypothesis to explain the observed patterns of degassing at Semeru. Periodic behavior in such a system occurs for a very narrow range

  16. An ENU mutagenesis screen identifies novel and known genes involved in epigenetic processes in the mouse

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background We have used a sensitized ENU mutagenesis screen to produce mouse lines that carry mutations in genes required for epigenetic regulation. We call these lines Modifiers of murine metastable epialleles (Mommes). Results We report a basic molecular and phenotypic characterization for twenty of the Momme mouse lines, and in each case we also identify the causative mutation. Three of the lines carry a mutation in a novel epigenetic modifier, Rearranged L-myc fusion (Rlf), and one gene, Rap-interacting factor 1 (Rif1), has not previously been reported to be involved in transcriptional regulation in mammals. Many of the other lines are novel alleles of known epigenetic regulators. For two genes, Rlf and Widely-interspaced zinc finger (Wiz), we describe the first mouse mutants. All of the Momme mutants show some degree of homozygous embryonic lethality, emphasizing the importance of epigenetic processes. The penetrance of lethality is incomplete in a number of cases. Similarly, abnormalities in phenotype seen in the heterozygous individuals of some lines occur with incomplete penetrance. Conclusions Recent advances in sequencing enhance the power of sensitized mutagenesis screens to identify the function of previously uncharacterized factors and to discover additional functions for previously characterized proteins. The observation of incomplete penetrance of phenotypes in these inbred mutant mice, at various stages of development, is of interest. Overall, the Momme collection of mouse mutants provides a valuable resource for researchers across many disciplines. PMID:24025402

  17. Unbalanced Activation of Glutathione Metabolic Pathways Suggests Potential Involvement in Plant Defense against the Gall Midge Mayetiola destructor in Wheat

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xuming; Zhang, Shize; Whitworth, R. Jeff; Stuart, Jeffrey J.; Chen, Ming-Shun

    2015-01-01

    Glutathione, γ-glutamylcysteinylglycine, exists abundantly in nearly all organisms. Glutathione participates in various physiological processes involved in redox reactions by serving as an electron donor/acceptor. We found that the abundance of total glutathione increased up to 60% in resistant wheat plants within 72 hours following attack by the gall midge Mayetiola destructor, the Hessian fly. The increase in total glutathione abundance, however, is coupled with an unbalanced activation of glutathione metabolic pathways. The activity and transcript abundance of glutathione peroxidases, which convert reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG), increased in infested resistant plants. However, the enzymatic activity and transcript abundance of glutathione reductases, which convert GSSG back to GSH, did not change. This unbalanced regulation of the glutathione oxidation/reduction cycle indicates the existence of an alternative pathway to regenerate GSH from GSSG to maintain a stable GSSG/GSH ratio. Our data suggest the possibility that GSSG is transported from cytosol to apoplast to serve as an oxidant for class III peroxidases to generate reactive oxygen species for plant defense against Hessian fly larvae. Our results provide a foundation for elucidating the molecular processes involved in glutathione-mediated plant resistance to Hessian fly and potentially other pests as well. PMID:25627558

  18. Enhanced detection of lipid transfer inhibitor protein activity by an assay involving only low density lipoprotein.

    PubMed

    Morton, R E; Greene, D J

    1994-11-01

    Lipid transfer inhibitor protein (LTIP) activity has been typically quantitated by its ability to suppress lipid transfer protein-mediated lipid movement between low density lipoprotein (LDL) and high density lipoprotein (HDL). In an attempt to establish an LTIP activity assay that is more sensitive, we have exploited the reported preference of the inhibitor protein to interact with LDL. A lipid transfer assay was established that involves LDL as both the donor and the acceptor; LDL in one of these two pools was biotinylated to facilitate its removal with immobilized avidin. Compared to the standard LDL to HDL assay, LTIP inhibited lipid transfer from radiolabeled LDL to biotin-LDL 7-fold more. In the absence of LTIP, lipid transfer activity was the same in both assays. An added benefit of this assay was the near linearity (up to 85%) of the inhibitory response, in contrast to the highly curvilinear response of LTIP in LDL to HDL transfer assays. The high sensitivity of the LDL to biotin-LDL transfer assay in measuring LTIP activity could not be duplicated by other transfer assays including assays containing only HDL (HDL to biotin-HDL), assays between liposomes and LDL, or assays between LDL and HDL where the concentration of lipoproteins was reduced 10-fold. Thus, LTIP activity is most effectively measured in homologous lipid transfer assays involving only LDL (and its biotin derivative). This increased sensitivity to LTIP suggests that the inhibitor binds more avidly to the LDL surface than does lipid transfer protein.

  19. HTLV-1 Tax-mediated TAK1 activation involves TAB2 adapter protein

    SciTech Connect

    Yu Qingsheng; Minoda, Yasumasa; Yoshida, Ryoko; Yoshida, Hideyuki; Iha, Hidekatsu; Kobayashi, Takashi; Yoshimura, Akihiko; Takaesu, Giichi

    2008-01-04

    Human T cell leukemia virus type 1 (HTLV-1) Tax is an oncoprotein that plays a crucial role in the proliferation and transformation of HTLV-1-infected T lymphocytes. It has recently been reported that Tax activates a MAPKKK family, TAK1. However, the molecular mechanism of Tax-mediated TAK1 activation is not well understood. In this report, we investigated the role of TAK1-binding protein 2 (TAB2) in Tax-mediated TAK1 activation. We found that TAB2 physically interacts with Tax and augments Tax-induced NF-{kappa}B activity. Tax and TAB2 cooperatively activate TAK1 when they are coexpressed. Furthermore, TAK1 activation by Tax requires TAB2 binding as well as ubiquitination of Tax. We also found that the overexpression of TRAF2, 5, or 6 strongly induces Tax ubiquitination. These results suggest that TAB2 may be critically involved in Tax-mediated activation of TAK1 and that NF-{kappa}B-activating TRAF family proteins are potential cellular E3 ubiquitin ligases toward Tax.

  20. Coordinated activities of human dicer domains in regulatory RNA processing.

    PubMed

    Ma, Enbo; Zhou, Kaihong; Kidwell, Mary Anne; Doudna, Jennifer A

    2012-09-28

    The conserved ribonuclease Dicer generates microRNAs and short-interfering RNAs that guide gene silencing in eukaryotes. The specific contributions of human Dicer's structural domains to RNA product length and substrate preference are incompletely understood, due in part to the difficulties of Dicer purification. Here, we show that active forms of human Dicer can be assembled from recombinant polypeptides expressed in bacteria. Using this system, we find that three distinct modes of RNA recognition give rise to Dicer's fidelity and product length specificity. The first involves anchoring one end of a double-stranded RNA helix within the PAZ domain, which can assemble in trans with Dicer's catalytic domains to reconstitute an accurate but non-substrate-selective dicing activity. The second entails nonspecific RNA binding by the double-stranded RNA binding domain, an interaction that is essential for substrate recruitment in the absence of the PAZ domain. The third mode of recognition involves hairpin RNA loop recognition by the helicase domain, which ensures efficient processing of specific substrates. These results reveal distinct interactions of each Dicer domain with different RNA structural features and provide a facile system for investigating the molecular mechanisms of human microRNA biogenesis.

  1. Mixed reverse micelles facilitated downstream processing of lipase involving water-oil-water liquid emulsion membrane.

    PubMed

    Bhowal, Saibal; Priyanka, B S; Rastogi, Navin K

    2014-01-01

    Our earlier work for the first time demonstrated that liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) containing reverse micelles could be successfully used for the downstream processing of lipase from Aspergillus niger. In the present work, we have attempted to increase the extraction and purification fold of lipase by using mixed reverse micelles (MRM) consisting of cationic and nonionic surfactants in LEM. It was basically prepared by addition of the internal aqueous phase solution to the organic phase followed by the redispersion of the emulsion in the feed phase containing enzyme, which resulted in globules of water-oil-water (WOW) emulsion for the extraction of lipase. The optimum conditions for maximum lipase recovery (100%) and purification fold (17.0-fold) were CTAB concentration 0.075 M, Tween 80 concentration 0.012 M, at stirring speed of 500 rpm, contact time 15 min, internal aqueous phase pH 7, feed pH 9, KCl concentration 1 M, NaCl concentration 0.1 M, and ratio of membrane emulsion to feed volume 1:1. Incorporation of the nonionic surfactant (e.g., Tween 80) resulted in remarkable improvement in the purification fold (3.1-17.0) of the lipase. LEM containing a mixture of nonionic and cationic surfactants can be successfully used for the enhancement in the activity recovery and purification fold during downstream processing of enzymes/proteins.

  2. Alkylating potential of styrene oxide: reactions and factors involved in the alkylation process.

    PubMed

    González-Pérez, Marina; Gómez-Bombarelli, Rafael; Pérez-Prior, M Teresa; Arenas-Valgañón, Jorge; García-Santos, M Pilar; Calle, Emilio; Casado, Julio

    2014-10-20

    The chemical reactivity of styrene-7,8-oxide (SO), an alkylating agent with high affinity for the guanine–N7 position and a probable carcinogen for humans, with 4-(p-nitrobenzyl)pyridine (NBP), a trap for alkylating agents with nucleophilic characteristics similar to those of DNA bases, was investigated kinetically in water/dioxane media. UV–vis spectrophotometry and ultrafast liquid chromatography were used to monitor the reactions involved. It was found that in the alkylation process four reactions occur simultaneously: (a) the formation of a β-NBP–SO adduct through an SN2 mechanism; (b) the acid-catalyzed formation of the stable α-NBP–SO adduct through an SN2′ mechanism; (c) the base-catalyzed hydrolysis of the β-adduct, and (d) the acid-catalyzed hydrolysis of SO. At 37.5 °C and pH = 7.0 (in 7:3 water/dioxane medium), the values of the respective reaction rate constants were as follows: kalkβ = (2.1 ± 0.3) × 10–4 M–1 s–1, kalkα = (1.0 ± 0.1) × 10–4 M–1 s–1, khydAD = (3.06 ± 0.09) × 10–6 s–1, and khyd = (4.2 ± 0.9) × 10–6 s–1. These values show that, in order to determine the alkylating potential of SO, none of the four reactions involved can be neglected. Temperature and pH were found to exert a strong influence on the values of some parameters that may be useful to investigate possible chemicobiological correlations (e.g., in the pH 5.81–7.69 range, the fraction of total adducts formed increased from 24% to 90% of the initial SO, whereas the adduct lifetime of the unstable β-adduct, which gives an idea of the permanence of the adduct over time, decreased from 32358 to 13313 min). A consequence of these results is that the conclusions drawn in studies addressing alkylation reactions at temperatures and/or pH far from those of biological conditions should be considered with some reserve.

  3. The consent process: Enabling or disabling patients’ active participation?

    PubMed Central

    Doherty, Carole; Stavropoulou, Charitini; Saunders, Mark NK; Brown, Tracey

    2015-01-01

    Standards expected by doctors’ regulatory bodies in respect of the process of consent to treatment have arguably sought to restructure the nature of the doctor–patient relationship from one of the paternalism to that of shared decision-making. Yet, few studies have explored empirically, from patients’ perspectives, the extent to which the process of consent to treatment enables or disables patients’ participation in medical decision-making. Our article examines patients’ attitudes towards the consent process, exploring how and why these attitudes influence patients’ active participation in decision-making and considering possible consequent medico-legal issues. Data were collected longitudinally using semi-structured interviews and field observations involving 35 patients and 19 of their caregivers, in an English hospital between February and November 2014. These indicate that generally patients defer to the doctor in respect of treatment decision-making. Although most patients and their caregivers wanted detailed information and discussion, they did not necessarily expect that this would be provided. Furthermore, patients perceived that signing the consent form was an obligatory routine principally to protect doctors from legal action should something go wrong. Our study suggests that patients’ predominantly paternalistic perceptions of the consent process can not only undermine attempts by doctors to involve them in decision-making but, as patients are now considered in law as informed actors, their perceptions of the consent form as not being in their interests could be a self-fulfilling prophecy if signing is undertaken without due consideration to the content. PMID:26487687

  4. PhosphoTyrosyl phosphatase activator of Plasmodium falciparum: identification of its residues involved in binding to and activation of PP2A.

    PubMed

    Vandomme, Audrey; Fréville, Aline; Cailliau, Katia; Kalamou, Hadidjatou; Bodart, Jean-François; Khalife, Jamal; Pierrot, Christine

    2014-02-11

    In Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), the causative agent of the deadliest form of malaria, a tight regulation of phosphatase activity is crucial for the development of the parasite. In this study, we have identified and characterized PfPTPA homologous to PhosphoTyrosyl Phosphatase Activator, an activator of protein phosphatase 2A which is a major phosphatase involved in many biological processes in eukaryotic cells. The PfPTPA sequence analysis revealed that five out of six amino acids involved in interaction with PP2A in human are conserved in P. falciparum. Localization studies showed that PfPTPA and PfPP2A are present in the same compartment of blood stage parasites, suggesting a possible interaction of both proteins. In vitro binding and functional studies revealed that PfPTPA binds to and activates PP2A. Mutation studies showed that three residues (V(283), G(292) and M(296)) of PfPTPA are indispensable for the interaction and that the G(292) residue is essential for its activity. In P. falciparum, genetic studies suggested the essentiality of PfPTPA for the completion of intraerythrocytic parasite lifecycle. Using Xenopus oocytes, we showed that PfPTPA blocked the G2/M transition. Taken together, our data suggest that PfPTPA could play a role in the regulation of the P. falciparum cell cycle through its PfPP2A regulatory activity.

  5. PhosphoTyrosyl Phosphatase Activator of Plasmodium falciparum: Identification of Its Residues Involved in Binding to and Activation of PP2A

    PubMed Central

    Vandomme, Audrey; Fréville, Aline; Cailliau, Katia; Kalamou, Hadidjatou; Bodart, Jean-François; Khalife, Jamal; Pierrot, Christine

    2014-01-01

    In Plasmodium falciparum (Pf), the causative agent of the deadliest form of malaria, a tight regulation of phosphatase activity is crucial for the development of the parasite. In this study, we have identified and characterized PfPTPA homologous to PhosphoTyrosyl Phosphatase Activator, an activator of protein phosphatase 2A which is a major phosphatase involved in many biological processes in eukaryotic cells. The PfPTPA sequence analysis revealed that five out of six amino acids involved in interaction with PP2A in human are conserved in P. falciparum. Localization studies showed that PfPTPA and PfPP2A are present in the same compartment of blood stage parasites, suggesting a possible interaction of both proteins. In vitro binding and functional studies revealed that PfPTPA binds to and activates PP2A. Mutation studies showed that three residues (V283, G292 and M296) of PfPTPA are indispensable for the interaction and that the G292 residue is essential for its activity. In P. falciparum, genetic studies suggested the essentiality of PfPTPA for the completion of intraerythrocytic parasite lifecycle. Using Xenopus oocytes, we showed that PfPTPA blocked the G2/M transition. Taken together, our data suggest that PfPTPA could play a role in the regulation of the P. falciparum cell cycle through its PfPP2A regulatory activity. PMID:24521882

  6. [Motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skills of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation technique: recommendations for the teaching-learning process].

    PubMed

    Miyadahira, A M

    2001-12-01

    It is a bibliographic study about the identification of the motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skills of the cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) which aims to obtain subsidies to the planning of the teaching-learning process of this skill. It was found that: the motor capacities involved in the psychomotor skill of the CPR technique are predominantly cognitive and motor, involving 9 perceptive-motor capacities and 8 physical proficiency capacities. The CPR technique is a psychomotor skill classified as open, done in series and categorized as a thin and global skill and the teaching-learning process of the CPR technique has an elevated degree of complexity.

  7. Beyond participation: the association between school extracurricular activities and involvement in violence across generations of immigration.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xin; Peterson, Ruth D

    2012-03-01

    Participation in extracurricular activities is purported to protect the broad spectrum of youth from a host of behavioral risks. Yet, empirical research on the extent to which this assumption holds for involvement in violence by immigrant youth is limited. Thus, using data for 13,236 (51.8% female) adolescents from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health, this study explores how the relationship between extracurricular activities and youth violence varies by type of extracurricular activity profile (sports alone, non-sports alone, and a combination of sports and non-sports) and by generations of immigration (first, second, and third-plus). The sample is composed of 9.3% (n = 1,233) first-generation youth, 15.7% (n = 2,080) second generation, and 74.9% (n = 9,923) third-plus generation. The results reveal that adolescents from the third-plus generation (i.e., non-immigrant youth) who participate in non-sports alone or sports plus non-sports have lower odds of involvement in violence than adolescents from the same generation who do not participate in extracurricular activities. However, for first- and second-generation adolescents, participation in extracurricular activities is associated with higher rather than lower odds of violence compared to their non-participating counterparts. These findings challenge the viewpoint that participation in mainstream extracurricular activities as afforded by US schools is equally beneficial for all youth. They also call for additional research that explores why immigrant youth are less likely than non-immigrant youth to gain violence-reducing benefits when they participate in extracurricular activities.

  8. Activation of Manganese Oxidants with Bisulfite for Enhanced Oxidation of Organic Contaminants: The Involvement of Mn(III).

    PubMed

    Sun, Bo; Guan, Xiaohong; Fang, Jingyun; Tratnyek, Paul G

    2015-10-20

    MnO4(-) was activated by HSO3(-), resulting in a process that oxidizes organic contaminants at extraordinarily high rates. The permanganate/bisulfite (PM/BS) process oxidized phenol, ciprofloxacin, and methyl blue at pHini 5.0 with rates (kobs ≈ 60-150 s(-1)) that were 5-6 orders of magnitude faster than those measured for permanganate alone, and ∼5 to 7 orders of magnitude faster than conventional advanced oxidation processes for water treatment. Oxidation of phenol was fastest at pH 4.0, but still effective at pH 7.0, and only slightly slower when performed in tap water. A smaller, but still considerable (∼3 orders of magnitude) increase in oxidation rates of methyl blue was observed with MnO2 activated by HSO3(-) (MO/BS). The above results, time-resolved spectroscopy of manganese species under various conditions, stoichiometric analysis of pH changes, and the effect of pyrophosphate on UV absorbance spectra suggest that the reactive intermediate(s) responsible for the extremely rapid oxidation of organic contaminants in the PM/BS process involve manganese(III) species with minimal stabilization by complexation. The PM/BS process may lead to a new category of advanced oxidation technologies based on contaminant oxidation by reactive manganese(III) species, rather than hydroxyl and sulfate radicals.

  9. Antinociceptive Activity of Methanol Extract of Muntingia calabura Leaves and the Mechanisms of Action Involved

    PubMed Central

    Sani, M. H. Mohd.; Zakaria, Z. A.; Balan, T.; Teh, L. K.; Salleh, M. Z.

    2012-01-01

    Muntingia calabura L. (family Elaeocarpaceae) has been traditionally used to relieve various pain-related ailments. The present study aimed to determine the antinociceptive activity of methanol extract of M. calabura leaves (MEMC) and to elucidate the possible mechanism of antinociception involved. The in vivo chemicals (acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction and formalin-, capsaicin-, glutamate-, serotonin-induced paw licking test) and thermal (hot plate test) models of nociception were used to evaluate the extract antinociceptive activity. The extract (100, 250, and 500 mg/kg) was administered orally 60 min prior to subjection to the respective test. The results obtained demonstrated that MEMC produced significant (P < 0.05) antinociceptive response in all the chemical- and thermal-induced nociception models, which was reversed after pretreatment with 5 mg/kg naloxone, a non-selective opioid antagonist. Furthermore, pretreatment with L-arginine (a nitric oxide (NO) donor), NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl esters (L-NAME; an inhibitor of NO synthase (NOS)), methylene blue (MB; an inhibitor of cyclic-guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway), or their combination also caused significant (P < 0.05) change in the intensity of the MEMC antinociception. In conclusion, the MEMC antinociceptive activity involves activation of the peripheral and central mechanisms, and modulation via, partly, the opioid receptors and NO/cGMP pathway. PMID:22611437

  10. Interactions of xanthines with activated carbon. I. Kinetics of the adsorption process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Navarrete Casas, R.; García Rodriguez, A.; Rey Bueno, F.; Espínola Lara, A.; Valenzuela Calahorro, C.; Navarrete Guijosa, A.

    2006-06-01

    Because of their pharmaceutical and industrial applications, we have studied the adsorption of xanthine derivates (caffeine and theophylline) by activated carbon. To this end, we examined kinetic, equilibrium and thermodynamic aspects of the process. This paper reports the kinetics results. The experimental results indicate that the process was first order in C and the overall process was assumed to involve a single, reversible adsorption-desorption process obeying a kinetic law postulated by us.

  11. Differential hippocampal and retrosplenial involvement in egocentric-updating, rotation, and allocentric processing during online spatial encoding: an fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Gomez, Alice; Cerles, Mélanie; Rousset, Stéphane; Rémy, Chantal; Baciu, Monica

    2014-01-01

    The way new spatial information is encoded seems to be crucial in disentangling the role of decisive regions within the spatial memory network (i.e., hippocampus, parahippocampal, parietal, retrosplenial,…). Several data sources converge to suggest that the hippocampus is not always involved or indeed necessary for allocentric processing. Hippocampal involvement in spatial coding could reflect the integration of new information generated by "online" self-related changes. In this fMRI study, the participants started by encoding several object locations in a virtual reality environment and then performed a pointing task. Allocentric encoding was maximized by using a survey perspective and an object-to-object pointing task. Two egocentric encoding conditions were used, involving self-related changes processed under a first-person perspective and implicating a self-to-object pointing task. The Egocentric-updating condition involved navigation whereas the Egocentric with rotation only condition involved orientation changes only. Conjunction analysis of spatial encoding conditions revealed a wide activation of the occipito-parieto-frontal network and several medio-temporal structures. Interestingly, only the cuneal areas were significantly more recruited by the allocentric encoding in comparison to other spatial conditions. Moreover, the enhancement of hippocampal activation was found during Egocentric-updating encoding whereas the retrosplenial activation was observed during the Egocentric with rotation only condition. Hence, in some circumstances, hippocampal and retrosplenial structures-known for being involved in allocentric environmental coding-demonstrate preferential involvement in the egocentric coding of space. These results indicate that the raw differentiation between allocentric versus egocentric representation seems to no longer be sufficient in understanding the complexity of the mechanisms involved during spatial encoding.

  12. Different structures involved during ictal and interictal epileptic activity in malformations of cortical development: an EEG-fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Tyvaert, L; Hawco, C; Kobayashi, E; LeVan, P; Dubeau, F; Gotman, J

    2008-08-01

    Malformations of cortical development (MCDs) are commonly complicated by intractable focal epilepsy. Epileptogenesis in these disorders is not well understood and may depend on the type of MCD. The cellular mechanisms involved in interictal and ictal events are notably different, and could be influenced independently by the type of pathology. We evaluated the relationship between interictal and ictal zones in eight patients with different types of MCD in order to better understand the generation of these activities: four had nodular heterotopia, two focal cortical dysplasia and two subcortical band heterotopia (double-cortex). We used the non-invasive EEG-fMRI technique to record simultaneously all cerebral structures with a high spatio-temporal resolution. We recorded interictal and ictal events during the same session. Ictal events were either electrical only or clinical with minimal motion. BOLD changes were found in the focal cortical dysplasia during interictal and ictal epileptiform events in the two patients with this disorder. Heterotopic and normal cortices were involved in BOLD changes during interictal and ictal events in the two patients with double cortex, but the maximum BOLD response was in the heterotopic band in both patients. Only two of the four patients with nodular heterotopia showed involvement of a nodule during interictal activity. During seizures, although BOLD changes affected the lesion in two patients, the maximum was always in the overlying cortex and never in the heterotopia. For two patients intracranial recordings were available and confirm our findings. The dysplastic cortex and the heterotopic cortex of band heterotopia were involved in interictal and seizure processes. Even if the nodular gray matter heterotopia may have the cellular substrate to produce interictal events, the often abnormal overlying cortex is more likely to be involved during the seizures. The non-invasive BOLD study of interictal and ictal events in MCD

  13. Involvement of an intracellular vesicular transport process in naked-sgRNA-mediated TRUE gene silencing.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Masato; Kawano, Mitsuoki; Sato, Mari; Nashimoto, Masayuki

    2015-10-01

    tRNase ZL-utilizing efficacious gene silencing (TRUE gene silencing) is an RNA-mediated gene expression control technology with therapeutic potential. Recently, our group demonstrated that a heptamer, mh1 (Bcl‑2), targeting human Bcl-2 mRNA, can be taken up by cells without the use of any transfection reagents and can induce the apoptosis of leukemia cells. However, little is known regarding the mechanism of naked small guide (sg)RNA uptake by cultured cells. Therefore, in the present study the effects of various inhibitors on the induction of apoptosis by naked sgRNA treatment were investigated in order to identify the uptake pathway required for sgRNA function in cultured cells. Addition of the endocytosis inhibitors chlorpromazine, nystatin or methyl‑β‑cyclodextrin together with naked effective sgRNA was unable to diminish the apoptosis‑inducing effects of naked sgRNA or the reduction in target mRNA, suggesting that functional uptake of sgRNA by cells is clathrin‑, caveolae‑ and raft‑independent. Next, chloroquine, an inhibitor of lysosome acidification, and brefeldin A, an inhibitor that blocks protein transport from the Golgi apparatus to the endoplasmic reticulum were administered. In the presence of these compounds, the apoptosis‑inducing effects of naked sgRNA were reduced. These results suggest that a vesicular transport process is involved in sgRNA‑mediated TRUE gene silencing. A greater understanding of how naked sgRNAs enter cells and how they reach their target RNAs may aid in the design of more specifically‑targeted and potent sgRNA drugs.

  14. GWAS for executive function and processing speed suggests involvement of the CADM2 gene.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim-Verbaas, C A; Bressler, J; Debette, S; Schuur, M; Smith, A V; Bis, J C; Davies, G; Trompet, S; Smith, J A; Wolf, C; Chibnik, L B; Liu, Y; Vitart, V; Kirin, M; Petrovic, K; Polasek, O; Zgaga, L; Fawns-Ritchie, C; Hoffmann, P; Karjalainen, J; Lahti, J; Llewellyn, D J; Schmidt, C O; Mather, K A; Chouraki, V; Sun, Q; Resnick, S M; Rose, L M; Oldmeadow, C; Stewart, M; Smith, B H; Gudnason, V; Yang, Q; Mirza, S S; Jukema, J W; deJager, P L; Harris, T B; Liewald, D C; Amin, N; Coker, L H; Stegle, O; Lopez, O L; Schmidt, R; Teumer, A; Ford, I; Karbalai, N; Becker, J T; Jonsdottir, M K; Au, R; Fehrmann, R S N; Herms, S; Nalls, M; Zhao, W; Turner, S T; Yaffe, K; Lohman, K; van Swieten, J C; Kardia, S L R; Knopman, D S; Meeks, W M; Heiss, G; Holliday, E G; Schofield, P W; Tanaka, T; Stott, D J; Wang, J; Ridker, P; Gow, A J; Pattie, A; Starr, J M; Hocking, L J; Armstrong, N J; McLachlan, S; Shulman, J M; Pilling, L C; Eiriksdottir, G; Scott, R J; Kochan, N A; Palotie, A; Hsieh, Y-C; Eriksson, J G; Penman, A; Gottesman, R F; Oostra, B A; Yu, L; DeStefano, A L; Beiser, A; Garcia, M; Rotter, J I; Nöthen, M M; Hofman, A; Slagboom, P E; Westendorp, R G J; Buckley, B M; Wolf, P A; Uitterlinden, A G; Psaty, B M; Grabe, H J; Bandinelli, S; Chasman, D I; Grodstein, F; Räikkönen, K; Lambert, J-C; Porteous, D J; Price, J F; Sachdev, P S; Ferrucci, L; Attia, J R; Rudan, I; Hayward, C; Wright, A F; Wilson, J F; Cichon, S; Franke, L; Schmidt, H; Ding, J; de Craen, A J M; Fornage, M; Bennett, D A; Deary, I J; Ikram, M A; Launer, L J; Fitzpatrick, A L; Seshadri, S; van Duijn, C M; Mosley, T H

    2016-02-01

    To identify common variants contributing to normal variation in two specific domains of cognitive functioning, we conducted a genome-wide association study (GWAS) of executive functioning and information processing speed in non-demented older adults from the CHARGE (Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology) consortium. Neuropsychological testing was available for 5429-32,070 subjects of European ancestry aged 45 years or older, free of dementia and clinical stroke at the time of cognitive testing from 20 cohorts in the discovery phase. We analyzed performance on the Trail Making Test parts A and B, the Letter Digit Substitution Test (LDST), the Digit Symbol Substitution Task (DSST), semantic and phonemic fluency tests, and the Stroop Color and Word Test. Replication was sought in 1311-21860 subjects from 20 independent cohorts. A significant association was observed in the discovery cohorts for the single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs17518584 (discovery P-value=3.12 × 10(-8)) and in the joint discovery and replication meta-analysis (P-value=3.28 × 10(-9) after adjustment for age, gender and education) in an intron of the gene cell adhesion molecule 2 (CADM2) for performance on the LDST/DSST. Rs17518584 is located about 170 kb upstream of the transcription start site of the major transcript for the CADM2 gene, but is within an intron of a variant transcript that includes an alternative first exon. The variant is associated with expression of CADM2 in the cingulate cortex (P-value=4 × 10(-4)). The protein encoded by CADM2 is involved in glutamate signaling (P-value=7.22 × 10(-15)), gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) transport (P-value=1.36 × 10(-11)) and neuron cell-cell adhesion (P-value=1.48 × 10(-13)). Our findings suggest that genetic variation in the CADM2 gene is associated with individual differences in information processing speed.

  15. An Initial Investigation of Sexual Minority Youth Involvement in School-Based Extracurricular Activities.

    PubMed

    Toomey, Russell B; Russell, Stephen T

    2013-06-01

    Sexual minority youth are at risk for negative school-based experiences and poor academic outcomes. Yet, little is known about their experiences in positive school-based contexts. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1,214 sexual minority and 11,427 heterosexual participants), this study compared participation rates in, predictors of, and outcomes associated with three types of school-based extracurricular activities - sports, arts, and school clubs - by sexual orientation and gender. Findings revealed several significant sexual orientation and gender differences in participation rates in school-based sports, clubs, and arts activities. Further, findings suggested that the outcomes associated with extracurricular activity involvement do not differ by sexual orientation and gender; however, predictors of participation in these domains varied across groups.

  16. An Initial Investigation of Sexual Minority Youth Involvement in School-Based Extracurricular Activities

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Stephen T.

    2012-01-01

    Sexual minority youth are at risk for negative school-based experiences and poor academic outcomes. Yet, little is known about their experiences in positive school-based contexts. Using the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health (1,214 sexual minority and 11,427 heterosexual participants), this study compared participation rates in, predictors of, and outcomes associated with three types of school-based extracurricular activities - sports, arts, and school clubs - by sexual orientation and gender. Findings revealed several significant sexual orientation and gender differences in participation rates in school-based sports, clubs, and arts activities. Further, findings suggested that the outcomes associated with extracurricular activity involvement do not differ by sexual orientation and gender; however, predictors of participation in these domains varied across groups. PMID:24187476

  17. Amyloidosis involving the respiratory system: 5-year's experience of a multi-disciplinary group's activity.

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele; Maccari, Uberto; Madioni, Chiara; Venezia, Duccio; La Magra, Lidia Calogera

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis may involve the respiratory system with different clinical-radiological-functional patterns which are not always easy to be recognized. A good level of knowledge of the disease, an active integration of the pulmonologist within a multidisciplinary setting and a high level of clinical suspicion are necessary for an early diagnosis of respiratory amyloidosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the number and the patterns of amyloidosis involving the respiratory system. We searched the cases of amyloidosis among patients attending the multidisciplinary rare and diffuse lung disease outpatients' clinic of Pulmonology Unit of the Hospital of Arezzo from 2007 to 2012. Among the 298 patients evaluated during the study period, we identified three cases of amyloidosis with involvement of the respiratory system, associated or not with other extra-thoracic localizations, whose diagnosis was histo-pathologically confirmed after the pulmonologist, the radiologist, and the pathologist evaluation. Our experience of a multidisciplinary team confirms that intra-thoracic amyloidosis is an uncommon disorder, representing 1.0% of the cases of rare and diffuse lung diseases referred to our center. The diagnosis of the disease is not always easy and quick as the amyloidosis may involve different parts of the respiratory system (airways, pleura, parenchyma). It is therefore recommended to remind this orphan disease in the differential diagnosis of the wide clinical scenarios the pulmonologist may intercept in clinical practice.

  18. Involvement of serotonin 2A receptor activation in modulating medial prefrontal cortex and amygdala neuronal activation during novelty-exposure.

    PubMed

    Hervig, Mona El-Sayed; Jensen, Nadja Cecilie Hvid; Rasmussen, Nadja Bredo; Rydbirk, Rasmus; Olesen, Mikkel Vestergaard; Hay-Schmidt, Anders; Pakkenberg, Bente; Aznar, Susana

    2017-03-02

    The medial prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a major role in executive function by exerting a top-down control onto subcortical areas. Novelty-induced frontal cortex activation is 5-HT2A receptor (5-HT2AR) dependent. Here, we further investigated how blockade of 5-HT2ARs in mice exposed to a novel open-field arena affects medial PFC activation and basolateral amygdala (BLA) reactivity. We used c-Fos immunoreactivity (IR) as a marker of neuronal activation and stereological quantification for obtaining the total number of c-Fos-IR neurons as a measure of regional activation. We further examined the impact of 5-HT2AR blockade on the striatal-projecting BLA neurons. Systemic administration of ketanserin (0.5mg/kg) prior to novel open-field exposure resulted in reduced total numbers of c-Fos-IR cells in dorsomedial PFC areas and the BLA. Moreover, there was a positive correlation between the relative time spent in the centre of the open-field and BLA c-Fos-IR in the ketanserin-treated animals. Unilateral medial PFC lesions blocked this effect, ascertaining an involvement of this frontal cortex area. On the other hand, medial PFC lesioning exacerbated the more anxiogenic-like behaviour of the ketanserin-treated animals, upholding its involvement in modulating averseness. Ketanserin did not affect the number of activated striatal-projecting BLA neurons (measured by number of Cholera Toxin b (CTb) retrograde labelled neurons also being c-Fos-IR) following CTb injection in the ventral striatum. These results support a role of 5-HT2AR activation in modulating mPFC and BLA activation during exposure to a novel environment, which may be interrelated. Conversely, 5-HT2AR blockade does not seem to affect the amygdala-striatal projection.

  19. Establishing User Needs--A Large-Scale Study into the Requirements of Those Involved in the Research Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grimshaw, Shirley; Wilson, Ian

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the project was to develop a set of online tools, systems and processes that would facilitate research at the University of Nottingham. The tools would be delivered via a portal, a one-stop place providing a Virtual Research Environment for all those involved in the research process. A predominantly bottom-up approach was used with…

  20. Integrating Information: An Analysis of the Processes Involved and the Products Generated in a Written Synthesis Task

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sole, Isabel; Miras, Mariana; Castells, Nuria; Espino, Sandra; Minguela, Marta

    2013-01-01

    The case study reported here explores the processes involved in producing a written synthesis of three history texts and their possible relation to the characteristics of the texts produced and the degree of comprehension achieved following the task. The processes carried out by 10 final-year compulsory education students (15 and 16 years old) to…

  1. TAB3 involves in hepatic insulin resistance through activation of MAPK pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yun; Tang, Zhuqi; Zhu, Xiaohui; Wang, Xueqin; Wang, Cuifang; Zhang, Wanlu; Xia, Nana; Wang, Suxin; Huang, Jieru; Cui, Shiwei

    2015-12-01

    Insulin resistance is often accompanied by chronic inflammatory responses. The mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway is rapidly activated in response to many inflammatory cytokines. But the functional role of MAPKs in palmitate-induced insulin resistance has yet to be clarified. In this study, we found that transforming growth factor β-activated kinase binding protein-3 (TAB3) was up-regulated in insulin resistance. Considering the relationship between transforming growth factor β-activated kinase (TAK1) and MAPK pathway, we assumed TAB3 involved in insulin resistance through activation of MAPK pathway. To certify this hypothesis, we knocked down TAB3 in palmitate treated HepG2 cells and detected subsequent biological responses. Importantly, TAB3 siRNA directly reversed insulin sensitivity by improving insulin signal transduction. Moreover, silencing of TAB3 could facilitate hepatic glucose uptake, reverse gluconeogenesis and improve ectopic fat accumulation. Meanwhile, we found that the positive effect of knocking down TAB3 was more significant when insulin resistance occurred. All these results indicate that TAB3 acts as a negative regulator in insulin resistance through activation of MAPK pathway.

  2. Caffeine in hot drinks elicits cephalic phase responses involving cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Michael K; Whitehouse, Julie M; Shine, Gillian; Whitton, Peter A; Towell, Anthony

    2012-09-01

    Caffeine stimulates both oropharyngeal and gut bitter taste receptors (hTAS2Rs) and so has the potential to elicit reflex autonomic responses. Coffee containing 130 mg caffeine has been reported to increase heart rate for 30 min post-ingestion. Whereas added-caffeine, in doses of 25 to 200 mg, ingested with decaffeinated coffee/tea decreases heart rate 10 to 30 min post-ingestion. This study aimed to clarify caffeine's chemosensory impact. Double-espresso coffees were compared to a placebo-control capsule in a double-blind between-measures design. Coffees tested were regular coffee (130 mg caffeine) and decaffeinated coffee with added-caffeine (0, 67 and 134 mg). Cardiovascular measures from three post-ingestion phases: 1) 0 to 5; 2) 10 to 15; and 3) 25 to 30 min; were compared to pre-ingestion measures. Participants comprised 11 women in the control group and 10 women in the test group. Decaffeinated coffee elicited no changes. Decaffeinated coffee with 67 mg caffeine: decreased dp/dt in Phase 1. Decaffeinated coffee with 134 mg caffeine: increased heart rate in Phases 1 and 2; decreased spontaneous baroreflex sensitivity in Phase 1; and increased diastolic pressure in Phases 2 and 3. Regular coffee: increased heart rate in Phases 1 and 2; decreased dp/dt in all phases; and decreased systolic pressure in Phase 1. Caffeine is the substance in regular coffee which elicits chemosensory autonomic reflex responses, which involves heart activity and the baroreflex. Compared to the caffeine in regular coffee, added-caffeine elicits somewhat different chemosensory responses including a more pronounced pressor effect and resetting of the baroreflex. Caffeine in commonly consumed amounts, as well as modulating body processes by blocking adenosine receptors, can elicit reflex autonomic responses during the ingestion of caffeinated drinks. It is plausible that caffeine stimulates hTAS2Rs, during the ingestion of coffee, eliciting cephalic phase responses. These cephalic phase

  3. Blockade of T-cell activation by dithiocarbamates involves novel mechanisms of inhibition of nuclear factor of activated T cells.

    PubMed Central

    Martínez-Martínez, S; Gómez del Arco, P; Armesilla, A L; Aramburu, J; Luo, C; Rao, A; Redondo, J M

    1997-01-01

    Dithiocarbamates (DTCs) have recently been reported as powerful inhibitors of NF-kappaB activation in a number of cell types. Given the role of this transcription factor in the regulation of gene expression in the inflammatory response, NF-kappaB inhibitors have been suggested as potential therapeutic drugs for inflammatory diseases. We show here that DTCs inhibited both interleukin 2 (IL-2) synthesis and membrane expression of antigens which are induced during T-cell activation. This inhibition, which occurred with a parallel activation of c-Jun transactivating functions and expression, was reflected by transfection experiments at the IL-2 promoter level, and involved not only the inhibition of NF-kappaB-driven reporter activation but also that of nuclear factor of activated T cells (NFAT). Accordingly, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSAs) indicated that pyrrolidine DTC (PDTC) prevented NF-kappaB, and NFAT DNA-binding activity in T cells stimulated with either phorbol myristate acetate plus ionophore or antibodies against the CD3-T-cell receptor complex and simultaneously activated the binding of AP-1. Furthermore, PDTC differentially targeted both NFATp and NFATc family members, inhibiting the transactivation functions of NFATp and mRNA induction of NFATc. Strikingly, Western blotting and immunocytochemical experiments indicated that PDTC promoted a transient and rapid shuttling of NFATp and NFATc, leading to their accelerated export from the nucleus of activated T cells. We propose that the activation of an NFAT kinase by PDTC could be responsible for the rapid shuttling of the NFAT, therefore transiently converting the sustained transactivation of this transcription factor that occurs during lymphocyte activation, and show that c-Jun NH2-terminal kinase (JNK) can act by directly phosphorylating NFATp. In addition, the combined inhibitory effects on NFAT and NF-KB support a potential use of DTCs as immunosuppressants. PMID:9343406

  4. Drilling to investigate processes in active tectonics and magmatism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shervais, J.; Evans, J.; Toy, V.; Kirkpatrick, J.; Clarke, A.; Eichelberger, J.

    2014-12-01

    Coordinated drilling efforts are an important method to investigate active tectonics and magmatic processes related to faults and volcanoes. The US National Science Foundation (NSF) recently sponsored a series of workshops to define the nature of future continental drilling efforts. As part of this series, we convened a workshop to explore how continental scientific drilling can be used to better understand active tectonic and magmatic processes. The workshop, held in Park City, Utah, in May 2013, was attended by 41 investigators from seven countries. Participants were asked to define compelling scientific justifications for examining problems that can be addressed by coordinated programs of continental scientific drilling and related site investigations. They were also asked to evaluate a wide range of proposed drilling projects, based on white papers submitted prior to the workshop. Participants working on faults and fault zone processes highlighted two overarching topics with exciting potential for future scientific drilling research: (1) the seismic cycle and (2) the mechanics and architecture of fault zones. Recommended projects target fundamental mechanical processes and controls on faulting, and range from induced earthquakes and earthquake initiation to investigations of detachment fault mechanics and fluid flow in fault zones. Participants working on active volcanism identified five themes: the volcano eruption cycle; eruption sustainability, near-field stresses, and system recovery; eruption hazards; verification of geophysical models; and interactions with other Earth systems. Recommended projects address problems that are transferrable to other volcanic systems, such as improved methods for identifying eruption history and constraining the rheological structure of shallow caldera regions. Participants working on chemical geodynamics identified four major themes: large igneous provinces (LIPs), ocean islands, continental hotspot tracks and rifts, and

  5. Involvement of TREK-1 activity in astrocyte function and neuroprotection under simulated ischemia conditions.

    PubMed

    Wu, Xiao; Liu, Yang; Chen, Xiaojing; Sun, Qian; Tang, Ronghua; Wang, Wei; Yu, Zhiyuan; Xie, Minjie

    2013-03-01

    Astrocytes play a fundamental role in the pathogenesis of ischemic neuronal death. The optimal operation of electrogenic astrocytic transporters and exchangers for some well-defined astrocyte brain homeostatic functions depends on the presence of K(+) channels in the cell membranes and the hyperpolarized membrane potential. Our previous study showed that astrocytes functionally express two-pore domain K(+) channel TREK-1, which helps to set the negative resting membrane potential. However, the roles of TREK-1 on astrocytic function under normal and ischemic conditions remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the expression of TREK-1 protein on cultured astrocytes and the effect of TREK-1 activity on astrocytic glutamate clearance capacity and release of s100β after simulated ischemic insult. TREK-1 immunoreactivity was up-regulated after hypoxia. Suppression of TREK-1 activity inhibited the glutamate clearance capability, enhanced the inflammatory secretion of astrocytes derived s100β and led to increased neuronal apoptosis after ischemic insult. Our results suggest that TREK-1 activity is involved in astrocytic function and neuronal survival. This would provide evidence showing astrocytic TREK-1 involvement in ischemia pathology which may serve as a potential therapeutic target in stroke.

  6. Community Involvement and Education in the 1991-2000 Australian Reconciliation Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gunstone, Andrew

    2007-01-01

    In 1991, the Australian Parliament implemented a formal 10-year process of reconciliation. The aim of the process was to reconcile Indigenous and non-Indigenous people by the end of 2000. The Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation (CAR) was established to promote the process. The process had three broad goals: improving education, addressing…

  7. Plant immunity induced by COS-OGA elicitor is a cumulative process that involves salicylic acid.

    PubMed

    van Aubel, Géraldine; Cambier, Pierre; Dieu, Marc; Van Cutsem, Pierre

    2016-06-01

    Plant innate immunity offers considerable opportunities for plant protection but beside flagellin and chitin, not many molecules and their receptors have been extensively characterized and very few have successfully reached the field. COS-OGA, an elicitor that combines cationic chitosan oligomers (COS) with anionic pectin oligomers (OGA), efficiently protected tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) grown in greenhouse against powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica). Leaf proteomic analysis of plants sprayed with COS-OGA showed accumulation of Pathogenesis-Related proteins (PR), especially subtilisin-like proteases. qRT-PCR confirmed upregulation of PR-proteins and salicylic acid (SA)-related genes while expression of jasmonic acid/ethylene-associated genes was not modified. SA concentration and class III peroxidase activity were increased in leaves and appeared to be a cumulative process dependent on the number of sprayings with the elicitor. These results suggest a systemic acquired resistance (SAR) mechanism of action of the COS-OGA elicitor and highlight the importance of repeated applications to ensure efficient protection against disease.

  8. Aminopeptidase N (CD13) Is Involved in Phagocytic Processes in Human Dendritic Cells and Macrophages

    PubMed Central

    Villaseñor-Cardoso, Mónica I.; Frausto-Del-Río, Dulce A.

    2013-01-01

    Aminopeptidase N (APN or CD13) is a membrane ectopeptidase expressed by many cell types, including myelomonocytic lineage cells: monocytes, macrophages, and dendritic cells. CD13 is known to regulate the biological activity of various peptides by proteolysis, and it has been proposed that CD13 also participates in several functions such as angiogenesis, cell adhesion, metastasis, and tumor invasion. We had previously reported that, in human monocytes and macrophages, CD13 modulates the phagocytosis mediated by receptors for the Fc portion of IgG antibodies (FcγRs). In this work, we analyzed the possible interaction of CD13 with other phagocytic receptors. We found out that the cross-linking of CD13 positively modulates the phagocytosis mediated by receptors of the innate immune system, since a significant increase in the phagocytosis of zymosan particles or heat-killed E. coli was observed when CD13 was cross-linked using anti-CD13 antibodies, in both macrophages and dendritic cells. Also, we observed that, during the phagocytosis of zymosan, CD13 redistributes and is internalized into the phagosome. These findings suggest that, besides its known functions, CD13 participates in phagocytic processes in dendritic cells and macrophages. PMID:24063007

  9. Involvement of multiple elements in FXR-mediated transcriptional activation of FGF19.

    PubMed

    Miyata, Masaaki; Hata, Tatsuya; Yamakawa, Hiroki; Kagawa, Tatehiro; Yoshinari, Kouichi; Yamazoe, Yasushi

    2012-10-01

    The intestinal endocrine hormone human fibroblast growth factor 19 (FGF19) is involved in the regulation of not only hepatic bile acid metabolism but also carbohydrate and lipid metabolism. In the present study, bile acid/farnesoid X receptor (FXR) responsiveness in the FGF19 promoter region was investigated by a reporter assay using the human colon carcinoma cell line LS174T. The assay revealed the presence of bile acid/FXR-responsive elements in the 5'-flanking region up to 8.8 kb of FGF19. Deletion analysis indicated that regions from -1866 to -1833, from -1427 to -1353, and from -75 to +262 were involved in FXR responsiveness. Four, four, and two consecutive half-sites of nuclear receptors were observed in the three regions, respectively. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) and chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) assay revealed FXR/retinoid X receptor α (RXRα) heterodimer binding in these three regions. EMSA and reporter assays using mutated constructs indicated that the nuclear receptor IR1, ER2, and DR8 motifs in the 5'-flanking region were involved in FXR responsiveness of FGF19. Lithocholic acid (LCA) (10 μM), chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) (10 μM), or GW4064 (0.1 μM) treatment increased reporter activity in a construct including the three motifs under FXR-expressing conditions whereas LCA and not CDCA or GW4064 treatment increased the reporter activity under pregnane X receptor (PXR)-expressing conditions. These results suggest that FGF19 is transcriptionally activated through multiple FXR-responsive elements in the promoter region.

  10. Analysis and computer tools for separation processes involving nonideal mixtures. Progress report, December 1, 1989--November 30, 1992

    SciTech Connect

    Lucia, A.

    1992-05-01

    The objectives of this research, were to continue to further both the theoretical understanding of and the development of computer tools (algorithms) for separation processes involving nonideal mixtures. These objectives were divided into three interrelated major areas -- the mathematical analysis of the number of steady-state solutions to multistage separation processes, the numerical analysis of general, related fixed-point methods, and the development and implementation of computer tools for process simulation.

  11. Ileocaecal Intussusception with a Lead Point: Unusual MDCT Findings of Active Crohn's Disease Involving the Appendix

    PubMed Central

    Ozan, Ebru; Atac, Gokce Kaan; Akincioglu, Egemen; Keskin, Mete; Gulpinar, Kamil

    2015-01-01

    Adult intussusception is a rare entity accounting for 1% of all bowel obstructions. Unlike intussusceptions in children, which are idiopathic in 90% of cases, adult intussusceptions have an identifiable cause (lead point) in the majority of cases. Crohn's disease (CD) may affect any part of the gastrointestinal tract, including the appendix. It was shown to be a predisposing factor for intussusception. Here, we report a rare case of adult intussusception with a lead point, emphasizing diagnostic input of multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) in a patient with active CD that involves the appendix. PMID:26558130

  12. Differential Pro-Inflammatory Responses of Astrocytes and Microglia Involve STAT3 Activation in Response to 1800 MHz Radiofrequency Fields

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yonghui; He, Mindi; Zhang, Yang; Xu, Shangcheng; Zhang, Lei; He, Yue; Chen, Chunhai; Liu, Chuan; Pi, Huifeng; Yu, Zhengping; Zhou, Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Microglia and astrocytes play important role in maintaining the homeostasis of central nervous system (CNS). Several CNS impacts have been postulated to be associated with radiofrequency (RF) electromagnetic fields exposure. Given the important role of inflammation in neural physiopathologic processes, we investigated the pro-inflammatory responses of microglia and astrocytes and the involved mechanism in response to RF fields. Microglial N9 and astroglial C8-D1A cells were exposed to 1800 MHz RF for different time with or without pretreatment with STAT3 inhibitor. Microglia and astrocytes were activated by RF exposure indicated by up-regulated CD11b and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). However, RF exposure induced differential pro-inflammatory responses in astrocytes and microglia, characterized by different expression and release profiles of IL-1β, TNF-α, IL-6, PGE2, nitric oxide (NO), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX2). Moreover, the RF exposure activated STAT3 in microglia but not in astrocytes. Furthermore, the STAT3 inhibitor Stattic ameliorated the RF-induced release of pro-inflammatory cytokines in microglia but not in astrocytes. Our results demonstrated that RF exposure differentially induced pro-inflammatory responses in microglia and astrocytes, which involved differential activation of STAT3 in microglia and astrocytes. Our data provide novel insights into the potential mechanisms of the reported CNS impacts associated with mobile phone use and present STAT3 as a promising target to protect humans against increasing RF exposure. PMID:25275372

  13. Activating transcription factor 4 is involved in endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis contributing to vascular calcification.

    PubMed

    Duan, Xiao-Hui; Chang, Jin-Rui; Zhang, Jing; Zhang, Bao-Hong; Li, Yu-Lin; Teng, Xu; Zhu, Yi; Du, Jie; Tang, Chao-Shu; Qi, Yong-Fen

    2013-09-01

    Our previous work reported that endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS)-mediated apoptosis was activated during vascular calcification (VC). Activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) is a critical transcription factor in osteoblastogenesis and ERS-induced apoptosis. However, whether ATF4 is involved in ERS-mediated apoptosis contributing to VC remains unclear. In the present study, in vivo VC was induced in rats by administering vitamin D3 plus nicotine. Vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) calcification in vitro was induced by incubation in calcifying media containing β-glycerophosphate and CaCl2. ERS inhibitors taurine or 4-phenylbutyric acid attenuated ERS and VSMC apoptosis in calcified rat arteries, reduced calcification and retarded the VSMC contractile phenotype transforming into an osteoblast-like phenotype in vivo. Inhibition of ERS retarded the VSMC phenotypic transition into an osteoblast-like cell phenotype and reduced VSMC calcification and apoptosis in vitro. Interestingly, ATF4 was activated in calcified aortas and calcified VSMCs in vitro. ATF4 knockdown attenuated ERS-induced apoptosis in calcified VSMCs. ATF4 deficiency blocked VSMC calcification and negatively regulated the osteoblast phenotypic transition of VSMCs in vitro. Our results demonstrate that ATF4 was involved at least in part in the process of ERS-mediated apoptosis contributing to VC.

  14. The benefits of in-group contact through physical activity involvement for health and well-being among Korean immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Heo, Jinmoo; Kim, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study is designed to examine the benefits of physical activity involvement with members of the same ethnic group. For this study, Korean immigrants who were members of Korean physical activity clubs such as badminton and tennis were selected as participants. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, three themes were identified as benefits of physical activity involvement: (1) the experience of psychological well-being, (2) the creation of a unique cultural world, and (3) the facilitation of physical activity involvement. The findings of this study suggest that Korean immigrant participants gained various social, cultural, and psychological benefits by engaging in activities with other Korean immigrants. PMID:24875239

  15. Tyrosine phosphorylation and protein degradation control the transcriptional activity of WRKY involved in benzylisoquinoline alkaloid biosynthesis

    PubMed Central

    Yamada, Yasuyuki; Sato, Fumihiko

    2016-01-01

    Benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIQ) are among the most structurally diverse and pharmaceutically valuable secondary metabolites. A plant-specific WRKY-type transcription factor, CjWRKY1, was isolated from Coptis japonica and identified as a transcriptional activator of BIQ biosynthesis. However, the expression of CjWRKY1 gene alone was not sufficient for the activation of genes encoding biosynthetic enzymes. Here, we report the importance of post-translational regulation of CjWRKY1 in BIQ biosynthesis. First, we detected the differential accumulation of CjWRKY1 protein in two cell lines with similar CjWRKY1 gene expression but different levels of accumulated alkaloids. Further investigation of the WRKY protein identified the phosphorylation of the WRKYGQK core domain at Y115. The CjWRKYY115E phosphorylation-mimic mutant showed loss of nuclear localization, DNA-binding activity, and transactivation activity compared to wild-type CjWRKY1. Rapid degradation of the CjWRKY1 protein was also confirmed following treatment with inhibitors of the 26S proteasome and protease inhibitors. The existence of two independent degradation pathways as well as protein phosphorylation suggests the fine-tuning of CjWRKY1 activities is involved in the regulation of biosynthesis of BIQs. PMID:27552928

  16. Inhibition of Fast Axonal Transport by Pathogenic SOD1 Involves Activation of p38 MAP Kinase

    PubMed Central

    Morfini, Gerardo A.; Bosco, Daryl A.; Brown, Hannah; Gatto, Rodolfo; Kaminska, Agnieszka; Song, Yuyu; Molla, Linda; Baker, Lisa; Marangoni, M. Natalia; Berth, Sarah; Tavassoli, Ehsan; Bagnato, Carolina; Tiwari, Ashutosh; Hayward, Lawrence J.; Pigino, Gustavo F.; Watterson, D. Martin; Huang, Chun-Fang; Banker, Gary; Brown, Robert H.; Brady, Scott T.

    2013-01-01

    Dying-back degeneration of motor neuron axons represents an established feature of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FALS) associated with superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations, but axon-autonomous effects of pathogenic SOD1 remained undefined. Characteristics of motor neurons affected in FALS include abnormal kinase activation, aberrant neurofilament phosphorylation, and fast axonal transport (FAT) deficits, but functional relationships among these pathogenic events were unclear. Experiments in isolated squid axoplasm reveal that FALS-related SOD1 mutant polypeptides inhibit FAT through a mechanism involving a p38 mitogen activated protein kinase pathway. Mutant SOD1 activated neuronal p38 in mouse spinal cord, neuroblastoma cells and squid axoplasm. Active p38 MAP kinase phosphorylated kinesin-1, and this phosphorylation event inhibited kinesin-1. Finally, vesicle motility assays revealed previously unrecognized, isoform-specific effects of p38 on FAT. Axon-autonomous activation of the p38 pathway represents a novel gain of toxic function for FALS-linked SOD1 proteins consistent with the dying-back pattern of neurodegeneration characteristic of ALS. PMID:23776455

  17. Histamine and spontaneous motor activity: biphasic changes, receptors involved and participation of the striatal dopamine system.

    PubMed

    Chiavegatto, S; Nasello, A G; Bernardi, M M

    1998-01-01

    The time- and dose-related effects of exogenous histamine on spontaneous motor activity and receptors involved were evaluated in male rats. Intracerebroventricular administration of histamine (5.4 and 54.3 nmol) produced a biphasic effect with initial transitory hypoactivity and later hyperactivity expressed by locomotion frequency in an open-field. The rearing frequencies were only reduced by all doses of histamine used. The histamine-induced hypoactivity was inhibited by the H3-antagonist thioperamide and was also induced by the H3-agonist N-alpha-methylhistamine. The histamine-induced hyperactivity phase was blocked by the H1-antagonist mepyramine. The H2-antagonist ranitidine increased locomotion and rearing frequencies. The participation of other neurotransmitters in the persistent hypokinetic effect induced by 135.8 nmol of histamine was determined by HPLC in the striatum and hypothalamus as counter-proof. A decreased DOPAC/DA ratio was observed only in the striatum. In the hypothalamus, low levels of 5HT were detected, probably not correlated with motor activity. In conclusion, the present results suggest that the exogenous histamine-induced hypoactivity response is probably due to activation of H3-receptors as heteroreceptors reducing the activity of the striatal dopaminergic system. This effect can partially overlap with the expression of the hyperactivity induced by H1-receptor activation. The participation of H2-receptors requires further investigation.

  18. Calpain activation is involved in acute manganese neurotoxicity in the rat striatum in vivo.

    PubMed

    Quintanar, Liliana; Montiel, Teresa; Márquez, Maripaz; González, Alejandra; Massieu, Lourdes

    2012-01-01

    Manganese is essential for life, yet chronic exposure to this metal can cause a neurodegenerative disease named manganism that affects motor function. In the present study we have evaluated Mn neurotoxicity after its administration in the rat striatum. The participation of the calcium-dependent protease calpain and the apoptosis-related protease caspase-3, in Mn-induced cell death was monitored in the striatum and globus pallidus. Mn induced the activation of both proteases, although calpain activation seems to be an earlier event. Moreover, while the broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor QVD did not significantly prevent Mn-induced cell death, the specific calpain inhibitor MDL-28170 did. The role of NMDA glutamate receptors on calpain activity was also investigated; blockage of these receptors by MK-801 and memantine did not prevent calpain activation, nor Mn-induced cell death. Finally, studies in striatal homogenates suggest a direct activation of calpain by Mn ions. Altogether the present study suggests that additional mechanisms to excitotoxicity are involved in Mn-induced cell death, placing calpain as an important mediator of acute Mn neurotoxicity in vivo.

  19. Involvement of phosphoinositide 3-kinases in neutrophil activation and the development of acute lung injury.

    PubMed

    Yum, H K; Arcaroli, J; Kupfner, J; Shenkar, R; Penninger, J M; Sasaki, T; Yang, K Y; Park, J S; Abraham, E

    2001-12-01

    Activated neutrophils contribute to the development and severity of acute lung injury (ALI). Phosphoinositide 3-kinases (PI3-K) and the downstream serine/threonine kinase Akt/protein kinase B have a central role in modulating neutrophil function, including respiratory burst, chemotaxis, and apoptosis. In the present study, we found that exposure of neutrophils to endotoxin resulted in phosphorylation of Akt, activation of NF-kappaB, and expression of the proinflammatory cytokines IL-1beta and TNF-alpha through PI3-K-dependent pathways. In vivo, endotoxin administration to mice resulted in activation of PI3-K and Akt in neutrophils that accumulated in the lungs. The severity of endotoxemia-induced ALI was significantly diminished in mice lacking the p110gamma catalytic subunit of PI3-K. In PI3-Kgamma(-/-) mice, lung edema, neutrophil recruitment, nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB, and pulmonary levels of IL-1beta and TNF-alpha were significantly lower after endotoxemia as compared with PI3-Kgamma(+/+) controls. Among neutrophils that did accumulate in the lungs of the PI3-Kgamma(-/-) mice after endotoxin administration, activation of NF-kappaB and expression of proinflammatory cytokines was diminished compared with levels present in lung neutrophils from PI3-Kgamma(+/+) mice. These results show that PI3-K, and particularly PI3-Kgamma, occupies a central position in regulating endotoxin-induced neutrophil activation, including that involved in ALI.

  20. Reconciling the discrepancies on the involvement of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K channels in glioblastoma cell migration.

    PubMed

    Catacuzzeno, Luigi; Caramia, Martino; Sforna, Luigi; Belia, Silvia; Guglielmi, Luca; D'Adamo, Maria Cristina; Pessia, Mauro; Franciolini, Fabio

    2015-01-01

    Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common and aggressive primary brain tumor, and is notable for spreading so effectively through the brain parenchyma to make complete surgical resection virtually impossible, and prospect of life dismal. Several ion channels have been involved in GBM migration and invasion, due to their critical role in supporting volume changes and Ca(2+) influx occuring during the process. The large-conductance, Ca(2+)-activated K (BK) channels, markedly overexpressed in biopsies of patients with GBMs and in GBM cell lines, have attracted much interest and have been suggested to play a central role in cell migration and invasion as candidate channels for providing the ion efflux and consequent water extrusion that allow cell shrinkage during migration. Available experimental data on the role of BK channel in migration and invasion are not consistent though. While BK channels block typically resulted in inhibition of cell migration or in no effect, their activation would either enhance or inhibit the process. This short review reexamines the relevant available data on the topic, and presents a unifying paradigm capable of reconciling present discrepancies. According to this paradigm, BK channels would not contribute to migration under conditions where the [Ca(2+)] i is too low for their activation. They will instead positively contribute to migration for intermediate [Ca(2+)] i , insufficient as such to activate BK channels, but capable of predisposing them to cyclic activation following oscillatory [Ca(2+)] i increases. Finally, steadily active BK channels because of prolonged high [Ca(2+)] i would inhibit migration as their steady activity would be unsuitable to match the cyclic cell volume changes needed for proper cell migration.

  1. Power relations and contrasting conceptions of evidence in patient-involvement processes used to inform health funding decisions in Australia.

    PubMed

    Lopes, Edilene; Carter, Drew; Street, Jackie

    2015-06-01

    We collected and analysed views of key stakeholders on the processes used to involve patient organisations in health care funding decision making in Australia. We conducted 12 semi-structured interviews with patient organisation representatives and members of Advisory Committees that provide advice to the Australian Department of Health and employ Health Technology Assessment (HTA) as an evaluation framework. Using two theoretical frameworks, we analysed structural and contextual elements pertaining to the involvement processes. The findings reported in this article relate to interviewees' perspectives on contextual elements, analysed using a Foucauldian lens. These elements include: the perspectives of marginalised voices; the diversity of views on what ought to be considered valid evidence in a HTA setting; and the relationships between stakeholders, along with how these relationships impact on involvement processes and the outcomes of those processes. The findings demonstrate that the involvement processes currently used are deemed inadequate by both patient organisation representatives and Advisory Committee members, but for different reasons connected to how different stakeholders conceptualise evidence. Advisory Committee members viewed evidence as encompassing clinical outcomes and patient preferences, whereas patient organisation representatives tended to view evidence as encompassing aspects not directly related to a disease entity, such as the social and emotional aspects of patients' experiences in living with illness. Patient organisation representatives reported interacting with other stakeholders (especially industry) to increase the influence of their conception of evidence on decision making. The use of this strategy by interviewees illustrates how power struggles occur in government decision-making processes which involve both medical expertise and patients' accounts. Such struggles, and the power differentials they reflect, need to be considered

  2. Transmembrane myosin chitin synthase involved in mollusc shell formation produced in Dictyostelium is active.

    PubMed

    Schönitzer, Veronika; Eichner, Norbert; Clausen-Schaumann, Hauke; Weiss, Ingrid M

    2011-12-02

    Several mollusc shells contain chitin, which is formed by a transmembrane myosin motor enzyme. This protein could be involved in sensing mechanical and structural changes of the forming, mineralizing extracellular matrix. Here we report the heterologous expression of the transmembrane myosin chitin synthase Ar-CS1 of the bivalve mollusc Atrina rigida (2286 amino acid residues, M.W. 264 kDa/monomer) in Dictyostelium discoideum, a model organism for myosin motor proteins. Confocal laser scanning immunofluorescence microscopy (CLSM), chitin binding GFP detection of chitin on cells and released to the cell culture medium, and a radiochemical activity assay of membrane extracts revealed expression and enzymatic activity of the mollusc chitin synthase in transgenic slime mold cells. First high-resolution atomic force microscopy (AFM) images of Ar-CS1 transformed cellulose synthase deficient D. discoideumdcsA(-) cell lines are shown.

  3. Transmitting Sport Values: The Importance of Parental Involvement in Children’s Sport Activity

    PubMed Central

    Danioni, Francesca; Barni, Daniela; Rosnati, Rosa

    2017-01-01

    The transmission of positive values between parents and children is generally considered to be the hallmark of successful socialization. As this issue has been widely discussed but surprisingly little researched - especially with reference to core sport values - in this study we aimed to: 1) analyze adolescent athletes’ acceptance of the sport values their parents want to transmit to them (i.e., parental socialization values) and 2) examine the relationship between parental involvement in children’s sportive activity and adolescents’ acceptance of their parents’ socialization values. One hundred and seventy-two Italian adolescents (48.3% male, 51.7% female) who regularly practice team sports were asked to fill out a questionnaire which included the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire – 2 and the Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire. The dyadic correlations revealed that young athletes are in general willing to accept their parents’ socialization values in regards to sport. Moreover, from the relative weight analysis (a relatively new data analysis strategy), it emerged that parental involvement characterized by praise and understanding is the most important predictor of adolescents’ willingness to accept their parents’ sport values. Implications of these results and further expansion of the study are discussed. PMID:28344676

  4. Transmitting Sport Values: The Importance of Parental Involvement in Children's Sport Activity.

    PubMed

    Danioni, Francesca; Barni, Daniela; Rosnati, Rosa

    2017-03-01

    The transmission of positive values between parents and children is generally considered to be the hallmark of successful socialization. As this issue has been widely discussed but surprisingly little researched - especially with reference to core sport values - in this study we aimed to: 1) analyze adolescent athletes' acceptance of the sport values their parents want to transmit to them (i.e., parental socialization values) and 2) examine the relationship between parental involvement in children's sportive activity and adolescents' acceptance of their parents' socialization values. One hundred and seventy-two Italian adolescents (48.3% male, 51.7% female) who regularly practice team sports were asked to fill out a questionnaire which included the Youth Sport Values Questionnaire - 2 and the Parental Involvement in Sport Questionnaire. The dyadic correlations revealed that young athletes are in general willing to accept their parents' socialization values in regards to sport. Moreover, from the relative weight analysis (a relatively new data analysis strategy), it emerged that parental involvement characterized by praise and understanding is the most important predictor of adolescents' willingness to accept their parents' sport values. Implications of these results and further expansion of the study are discussed.

  5. Cissus sicyoides: Pharmacological Mechanisms Involved in the Anti-Inflammatory and Antidiarrheal Activities

    PubMed Central

    Beserra, Fernando Pereira; de Cássia Santos, Raquel; Périco, Larissa Lucena; Rodrigues, Vinicius Peixoto; de Almeida Kiguti, Luiz Ricardo; Saldanha, Luiz Leonardo; Pupo, André Sampaio; da Rocha, Lúcia Regina Machado; Dokkedal, Anne Lígia; Vilegas, Wagner; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the pharmacological mechanisms involved in anti-inflammatory and antidiarrheal actions of hydroalcoholic extract obtained from the leaves of Cissus sicyoides (HECS). The anti-inflammatory effect was evaluated by oral administration of HECS against acute model of edema induced by xylene, and the mechanisms of action were analysed by involvement of arachidonic acid (AA) and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). The antidiarrheal effect of HECS was observed and we analyzed the motility and accumulation of intestinal fluid. We also analyzed the antidiarrheal mechanisms of action of HECS by evaluating the role of the opioid receptor, α2 adrenergic receptor, muscarinic receptor, nitric oxide (NO) and PGE2. The oral administration of HECS inhibited the edema induced by xylene and AA and was also able to significantly decrease the levels of PGE2. The extract also exhibited significant anti-diarrheal activity by reducing motility and intestinal fluid accumulation. This extract significantly reduced intestinal transit stimulated by muscarinic agonist and intestinal secretion induced by PGE2. Our data demonstrate that the mechanism of action involved in the anti-inflammatory effect of HECS is related to PGE2. The antidiarrheal effect of this extract may be mediated by inhibition of contraction by acting on the intestinal smooth muscle and/or intestinal transit. PMID:26805827

  6. Polyamines and transglutaminase activity are involved in compatible and self-incompatible pollination of Citrus grandis.

    PubMed

    Gentile, Alessandra; Antognoni, Fabiana; Iorio, Rosa Anna; Distefano, Gaetano; Las Casas, Giuseppina; La Malfa, Stefano; Serafini-Fracassini, Donatella; Del Duca, Stefano

    2012-02-01

    Pollination of pummelo (Citrus grandis L. Osbeck) pistils has been studied in planta by adding compatible and self-incompatible (SI) pollen to the stigma surface. The pollen germination has been monitored inside the pistil by fluorescent microscopy showing SI altered morphologies with irregular depositions of callose in the tube walls, and heavy callose depositions in enlarged tips. The polyamine (PA) content as free, perchloric acid (PCA)-soluble and -insoluble fractions and transglutaminase (TGase) activity have been analyzed in order to deepen their possible involvement in the progamic phase of plant reproduction. The conjugated PAs in PCA-soluble fraction were definitely higher than the free and the PCA-insoluble forms, in both compatible and SI pollinated pistils. In pistils, pollination caused an early decrease of free PAs and increase of the bound forms. The SI pollination, showed highest values of PCA-soluble and -insoluble PAs with a maximum in concomitance with the pollen tube arrest. As TGase mediates some of the effects of PAs by covalently binding them to proteins, its activity, never checked before in Citrus, was examined with two different assays. In addition, the presence of glutamyl-PAs confirmed the enzyme assay data and excluded the possibility of a misinterpretation. The SI pollination caused an increase in TGase activity, whereas the compatible pollination caused its decrease. Similarly to bound PAs, the glutamyl-PAs and the enzyme activity peaked in the SI pollinated pistils in concomitance with the observed block of the pollen tube growth, suggesting an involvement of TGase in SI response.

  7. Laboratory Activities for Developing Process Skills.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Institute for Services to Education, Inc., Washington, DC.

    This workbook contains laboratory exercises designed for use in a college introductory biology course. Each exercise helps the student develop a basic science skill. The exercises are arranged in a hierarchical sequence suggesting the scientific method. Each skill facilitates the development of succeeding ones. Activities include Use of the…

  8. Involvement of Hevea latex organelle membrane proteins in the rubber biosynthesis activity and regulatory function.

    PubMed

    Wititsuwaannakul, Dhirayos; Rattanapittayaporn, Atiya; Koyama, Tanetoshi; Wititsuwaannakul, Rapepun

    2004-03-15

    Centrifugation of fresh Hevea rubber latex yields three distinct fractions. The sediment bottom fraction (BF) content of membrane-bound organelles is ca. 20 vol.-% of latex. Prolonged storage or delayed use of fresh latex will result in disintegration and loss of the bottom fraction. This is due to the osmotically sensitive BF rupture and its membrane debris being tightly bound to the top rubber particles (RP) phase. The BF membrane was found to be highly active for rubber biosynthesis (RB), in contrast to previous reports that describe RB only occurring on the RP surface. It was clearly shown that washed BF membrane (WBM) was much more active than fresh RP for RB activity. WBM was highly activated by SDS for RB in a biphasic manner, but SDS strongly inhibited the RP. Probably WBM micelle formation resulted in a highly increased active surface area for RB. C55-PP (UPP) was a very active allylic for WBM in RB function, but inactive for RP. Serial acetone extraction of WBM proteins showed a distinct profile of the fractions with different RB activity. WBM isolated proteins suspended in 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) with an RB activity equal to that of intact WBM was with the 20% acetone protein fraction. The 60 and 80% fractions were inactive. Combining the 20 with 80% fractions showed a complete inhibition of RB activity. Complete RB loss was also found when WBM was mixed with the 80% fraction, indicating that WBM has both an enzyme system and a factor for regulation of the RB activity in a well controlled metabolic function for the latex RB process.

  9. Process synthesis involving multi-period operations by the P-graph framework

    EPA Science Inventory

    The P-graph (process graph) framework is an effective tool for process-network synthesis (PNS). Here we extended it to multi-period operations. The efficacy of the P-graph methodology has been demonstrated by numerous applications. The unambiguous representation of processes and ...

  10. 15 CFR 712.1 - Round to zero rule that applies to activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.1 Section 712.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.1 Round to...

  11. 15 CFR 712.1 - Round to zero rule that applies to activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.1 Section 712.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.1 Round to...

  12. 15 CFR 712.1 - Round to zero rule that applies to activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.1 Section 712.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.1 Round to...

  13. 15 CFR 712.1 - Round to zero rule that applies to activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.1 Section 712.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.1 Round to...

  14. 15 CFR 712.1 - Round to zero rule that applies to activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... activities involving Schedule 1 chemicals. 712.1 Section 712.1 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION REGULATIONS ACTIVITIES INVOLVING SCHEDULE 1 CHEMICALS § 712.1 Round to...

  15. Differences between Depressed and Non-Depressed Residents of Nursing Homes on Measures of Daily Activity Involvement and Affect.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Voelkl, Judith E.; Mathieu, Mary A.

    1993-01-01

    This study examined how depressed and nondepressed nursing home residents differed on measures of frequency of daily activity involvement and accompanying affect. Interviews indicated the groups differed significantly on frequency of activity involvement and affect. Depressed subjects spent large portions of time watching television. Nondepressed…

  16. 22 CFR 40.25 - Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution. 40.25 Section 40.25 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF... involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution....

  17. 22 CFR 40.25 - Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution. 40.25 Section 40.25 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF... involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution....

  18. 22 CFR 40.25 - Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution. 40.25 Section 40.25 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF... involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution....

  19. 22 CFR 40.25 - Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution. 40.25 Section 40.25 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF... involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution....

  20. 22 CFR 40.25 - Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Certain aliens involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution. 40.25 Section 40.25 Foreign Relations DEPARTMENT OF... involved in serious criminal activity who have asserted immunity from prosecution....

  1. Mitochondrial Dysfunction Is Involved in the Toxic Activity of Boric Acid against Saprolegnia

    PubMed Central

    Ali, Shimaa E.; Thoen, Even; Evensen, Øystein; Wiik-Nielsen, Jannicke; Gamil, Amr A. A.; Skaar, Ida

    2014-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the incidence of Saprolegnia infections over the past decades, especially after the banning of malachite green. Very often these infections are associated with high economic losses in salmonid farms and hatcheries. The use of boric acid to control the disease has been investigated recently both under in vitro and in vivo conditions, however its possible mode of action against fish pathogenic Saprolegnia is not known. In this study, we have explored the transformation in Saprolegnia spores/hyphae after exposure to boric acid (1 g/L) over a period 4–24 h post treatment. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), early changes in Saprolegnia spores were detected. Mitochondrial degeneration was the most obvious sign observed following 4 h treatment in about 20% of randomly selected spores. We also investigated the effect of the treatment on nuclear division, mitochondrial activity and function using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Fluorescence microscopy was also used to test the effect of treatment on mitochondrial membrane potential and formation of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the viability and proliferation of treated spores that correlated to mitochondrial enzymatic activity were tested using an MTS assay. All obtained data pointed towards changes in the mitochondrial structure, membrane potential and enzymatic activity following treatment. We have found that boric acid has no effect on the integrity of membranes of Saprolegnia spores at concentrations tested. It is therefore likely that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the toxic activity of boric acid against Saprolegnia spp. PMID:25354209

  2. Effects of negative air ions on activity of neural substrates involved in autonomic regulation in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Satoko; Yanagita, Shinya; Amemiya, Seiichiro; Kato, Yumi; Kubota, Natsuko; Ryushi, Tomoo; Kita, Ichiro

    2008-07-01

    The neural mechanism by which negative air ions (NAI) mediate the regulation of autonomic nervous system activity is still unknown. We examined the effects of NAI on physiological responses, such as blood pressure (BP), heart rate (HR), and heart rate variability (HRV) as well as neuronal activity, in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), nucleus ambiguus (NA), and nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS) with c-Fos immunohistochemistry in anesthetized, spontaneously breathing rats. In addition, we performed cervical vagotomy to reveal the afferent pathway involved in mediating the effects of NAI on autonomic regulation. NAI significantly decreased BP and HR, and increased HF power of the HRV spectrum. Significant decreases in c-Fos positive nuclei in the PVN and LC, and enhancement of c-Fos expression in the NA and NTS were induced by NAI. After vagotomy, these physiological and neuronal responses to NAI were not observed. These findings suggest that NAI can modulate autonomic regulation through inhibition of neuronal activity in PVN and LC as well as activation of NA neurons, and that these effects of NAI might be mediated via the vagus nerves.

  3. Mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the toxic activity of boric acid against Saprolegnia.

    PubMed

    Ali, Shimaa E; Thoen, Even; Evensen, Øystein; Wiik-Nielsen, Jannicke; Gamil, Amr A A; Skaar, Ida

    2014-01-01

    There has been a significant increase in the incidence of Saprolegnia infections over the past decades, especially after the banning of malachite green. Very often these infections are associated with high economic losses in salmonid farms and hatcheries. The use of boric acid to control the disease has been investigated recently both under in vitro and in vivo conditions, however its possible mode of action against fish pathogenic Saprolegnia is not known. In this study, we have explored the transformation in Saprolegnia spores/hyphae after exposure to boric acid (1 g/L) over a period 4-24 h post treatment. Using transmission electron microscopy (TEM), early changes in Saprolegnia spores were detected. Mitochondrial degeneration was the most obvious sign observed following 4 h treatment in about 20% of randomly selected spores. We also investigated the effect of the treatment on nuclear division, mitochondrial activity and function using confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM). Fluorescence microscopy was also used to test the effect of treatment on mitochondrial membrane potential and formation of reactive oxygen species. Additionally, the viability and proliferation of treated spores that correlated to mitochondrial enzymatic activity were tested using an MTS assay. All obtained data pointed towards changes in the mitochondrial structure, membrane potential and enzymatic activity following treatment. We have found that boric acid has no effect on the integrity of membranes of Saprolegnia spores at concentrations tested. It is therefore likely that mitochondrial dysfunction is involved in the toxic activity of boric acid against Saprolegnia spp.

  4. Anticonvulsant activity of Dorema ammoniacum gum: evidence for the involvement of benzodiazepines and opioid receptors

    PubMed Central

    Motevalian, Manijeh; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Ahadi, Samira; Shojaii, Asie

    2017-01-01

    This study investigated the anticonvulsant activity and possible mechanism of action of an aqueous solution of Dorema ammoniacum gum (DAG) which has been used traditionally in the treatment of convulsions. In this study, the anticonvulsant activity of DAG was examined using the pentylentetrazole (PTZ) model in mice. Thirty male albino mice were divided randomly and equally to 5 groups, and pretreated with normal saline, diazepam, or various doses of DAG (500, 700, and 1000 mg/kg, i.p.), prior to the injection of PTZ (60 mg/kg, i.p.). The latency and duration of seizures were recorded 30 min after PTZ injection. Pretreatments with naloxone and flumazenil in different groups were studied to further clarify the mechanisms of the anticonvulsant action. Phytochemical screening and thin layer chromatography (TLC) fingerprinting of ammoniacum gum was also determined. DAG showed significant anticonvulsant activity at all doses used. The gum delayed both the onset and the duration of seizures induced by PTZ. Treatment with flumazenil before DAG (700 mg/kg) inhibited the effect of gum on seizure duration and latency to some extent and administration of naloxone before DAG also significantly inhibited changes in latency and duration of seizure produced by DAG. The percentage inhibition was greater with naloxone than with flumazenil. This study showed that DAG had significant anticonvulsant activity in PTZ-induced seizures, and GABAergic and opioid systems may be involved. More studies are needed to further investigate its detailed mechanism. PMID:28255314

  5. Modelling the Active Hearing Process in Mosquitoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avitabile, Daniele; Homer, Martin; Jackson, Joe; Robert, Daniel; Champneys, Alan

    2011-11-01

    A simple microscopic mechanistic model is described of the active amplification within the Johnston's organ of the mosquito species Toxorhynchites brevipalpis. The model is based on the description of the antenna as a forced-damped oscillator coupled to a set of active threads (ensembles of scolopidia) that provide an impulsive force when they twitch. This twitching is in turn controlled by channels that are opened and closed if the antennal oscillation reaches a critical amplitude. The model matches both qualitatively and quantitatively with recent experiments. New results are presented using mathematical homogenization techniques to derive a mesoscopic model as a simple oscillator with nonlinear force and damping characteristics. It is shown how the results from this new model closely resemble those from the microscopic model as the number of threads approach physiologically correct values.

  6. Capturing Cognitive Processing Time for Active Authentication

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-02-01

    biometrics, extracted from keystroke dynamics , as “something a user is” for active authentication. This scheme performs continual verification in the...fingerprint for continuous authentication. Its effectiveness has been verified through a large-scale dataset. 2.0 INTRODUCTION Keystroke dynamics —the...measure the similarity. A recent survey on biometric authentication using keystroke dynamics classified research papers on the basis of their

  7. Joint Associations of Residential Density and Neighborhood Involvement with Physical Activity among a Multiethnic Sample of Urban Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson-Lawrence, Vicki; Schulz, Amy J.; Zenk, Shannon N.; Israel, Barbara A.; Wineman, Jean; Marans, Robert W.; Rowe, Zachary

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity is associated with improvements in overall health. Although resident involvement in neighborhood social activities is positively associated with physical activity, neighborhood design features, including residential density, have varied associations with physical activity. Using data from a multiethnic sample of 696…

  8. Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ Regulates Genes Involved in Insulin/Insulin-like Growth Factor Signaling and Lipid Metabolism during Adipogenesis through Functionally Distinct Enhancer Classes*

    PubMed Central

    Oger, Frédérik; Dubois-Chevalier, Julie; Gheeraert, Céline; Avner, Stéphane; Durand, Emmanuelle; Froguel, Philippe; Salbert, Gilles; Staels, Bart; Lefebvre, Philippe; Eeckhoute, Jérôme

    2014-01-01

    The nuclear receptor peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) γ is a transcription factor whose expression is induced during adipogenesis and that is required for the acquisition and control of mature adipocyte functions. Indeed, PPARγ induces the expression of genes involved in lipid synthesis and storage through enhancers activated during adipocyte differentiation. Here, we show that PPARγ also binds to enhancers already active in preadipocytes as evidenced by an active chromatin state including lower DNA methylation levels despite higher CpG content. These constitutive enhancers are linked to genes involved in the insulin/insulin-like growth factor signaling pathway that are transcriptionally induced during adipogenesis but to a lower extent than lipid metabolism genes, because of stronger basal expression levels in preadipocytes. This is consistent with the sequential involvement of hormonal sensitivity and lipid handling during adipocyte maturation and correlates with the chromatin structure dynamics at constitutive and activated enhancers. Interestingly, constitutive enhancers are evolutionary conserved and can be activated in other tissues, in contrast to enhancers controlling lipid handling genes whose activation is more restricted to adipocytes. Thus, PPARγ utilizes both broadly active and cell type-specific enhancers to modulate the dynamic range of activation of genes involved in the adipogenic process. PMID:24288131

  9. Mammalian oocyte activation by the synergistic action of discrete sperm head components: induction of calcium transients and involvement of proteolysis.

    PubMed

    Perry, A C; Wakayama, T; Cooke, I M; Yanagimachi, R

    2000-01-15

    Sperm-borne oocyte-activating factor (SOAF) elicits activation sufficient for full development and originates from sperm head submembrane matrices. SOAF comprises discrete, heat-sensitive and -stable components (referred to here respectively as SOAF-I and -II) which are each necessary but not sufficient to activate oocytes. The heat-sensitive SOAF component, SOAF-I(m), becomes solubilized from the perinuclear matrix under reducing conditions (the SOAF transition) to generate SOAF-I(s). Although calcium transients likely play an important role in oocyte activation at fertilization, the question is open as to whether demembranated heads or SOAF-I(s) and/or SOAF-II can induce calcium transients. We now report that injection of demembranated sperm heads into mouse oocytes efficiently induced Ca(2+) oscillations. When injected independently, SOAF-I(s) and demembranated heads heated to 48 degrees C failed to generate Ca(2+) oscillations. However, co-injection of SOAF-I(s) and 48 degrees C-heated heads induced oscillations, mirroring their synergistic ability to activate oocytes. This suggests that SOAF-mediated activation proceeds via pathways resembling those at fertilization and provides the first direct evidence that multiple sperm components are required to induce Ca(2+) oscillations. We probed the SOAF-I(s) liberation at the center of this activation and show that in vitro it was sensitive to a profile of serine protease inhibitors. These findings support a model in which mammalian oocyte activation, including the induction of calcium transients, involves proteolytic processing of SOAF from sperm head submembrane compartments.

  10. Studies on Bronchodilator Activity of Salvia officinalis (Sage): Possible Involvement of K(+) Channel Activation and Phosphodiesterase Inhibition.

    PubMed

    Gilani, Anwarul-Hassan; Rehman, Najeeb-Ur; Khan, Aslam; Alkharfy, Khalid M

    2015-06-01

    The aqueous methanolic extract of the aerial parts of Salvia officinalis (So.Cr) was studied to provide possible underlying mechanism(s) for its medicinal use in asthma using the in vivo bronchodilatory assay and isolated tracheal preparations. S. officinalis (1-10 mg/kg) dose-dependently inhibited carbachol (CCh)-induced bronchospasm in anesthetized rats with three-fold greater potency than the positive control, aminophylline. In tracheal preparations, So.Cr inhibited the low K(+) (25 mM)-induced contractions. Pretreatment of the tissues with 4-aminopyridine reversed the inhibitory effect of the plant extract against low K(+) , whereas glibenclamide did not show any effect, thus showing the involvement of voltage-sensitive K(+) channels. When tested against the CCh-induced pre-contractions for the involvement of any additional mechanism, interestingly, the extract showed a dose-dependent (0.03-0.1 mg/mL) inhibitory effect and shifted the inhibitory concentration response curves of isoprenaline to the left, thus showing phosphodiesterase enzyme inhibitory-like action, similar to that of papaverine. These results indicate that the crude extract of S. officinalis possesses bronchodilatory activity mediated predominantly via activation of voltage-dependent K(+) channels and inhibition of phosphodiesterase enzyme; thus, this study provides sound pharmacological basis for its medicinal use in hyperactive airways disorders such as asthma and cough. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. No Longer a Teacher Monologue--Involving EFL Writing Learners in Teachers' Assessment and Feedback Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Shu-Chen

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports the design of learning-oriented formative assessments in an EFL writing course that involved learners in regularly responding to teacher feedback. Following major assessment and feedback frameworks developed recently, these formative assessments were explicated in three aspects: the scheduling of learning and assessment…

  12. Adolescent Women's Sports Involvement and Sexual Behavior/Health: A Process-Level Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehman, Stephanie Jacobs; Koerner, Susan Silverberg

    2004-01-01

    This multimethod study explored the promising link between organized sports involvement during the high school years and sexual behavior/health among 176 adolescent women. Using more sensitive and appropriate measures than those in existing studies and directed, in part, by cultural resource theory, this study helped to fill a gap in the…

  13. African American Families in the Special Education Process: Increasing Their Level of Involvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandon, Regina R.; Brown, Monica R.

    2009-01-01

    African American children continue to be overrepresented in special education classrooms. Despite this overrepresentation, there is a noticeable void in the literature concerning the family perceptions of special education and the impact these perceptions may have on parents' level of involvement. Therefore, this article discusses (a) African…

  14. Software Quality Perceptions of Stakeholders Involved in the Software Development Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Padmanabhan, Priya

    2013-01-01

    Software quality is one of the primary determinants of project management success. Stakeholders involved in software development widely agree that quality is important (Barney and Wohlin 2009). However, they may differ on what constitutes software quality, and which of its attributes are more important than others. Although, software quality…

  15. Acculturation and Latino Family Processes: How Cultural Involvement, Biculturalism, and Acculturation Gaps Influence Family Dynamics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smokowski, Paul R.; Rose, Roderick; Bacallao, Martica L.

    2008-01-01

    This study investigated how adolescent and parent acculturation (culture-of-origin and U.S. cultural involvement, biculturalism, acculturation conflicts, and parent-adolescent acculturation gaps) influenced family dynamics (family cohesion, adaptability, familism, and parent-adolescent conflict) in a sample of 402 Latino families from North…

  16. Socialization Values and Parenting Practices as Predictors of Parental Involvement in Their Children's Educational Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kikas, Eve; Tulviste, Tiia; Peets, Kätlin

    2014-01-01

    Research Findings: The purpose of this study was to examine associations between parental socialization values (including inconsistency in values), parenting practices, and parental involvement in their children's education. Altogether 242 Estonian mothers and fathers of first-grade children participated in the study. We found that mothers were…

  17. Enhancing Home Involvement to Address Barriers to Learning: A Collaborative Process. A Center Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Center for Mental Health in Schools at UCLA, 2011

    2011-01-01

    For schools to significantly enhance home involvement will require (1) broadening the focus beyond thinking only in terms of parents and (2) enhancing the range of ways in which schools connect with primary caretakers. Particular attention must be given to outreaching to those who are reluctant to engage with the school, especially if they have a…

  18. Differential involvement of IFN-beta in Toll-like receptor-stimulated dendritic cell activation.

    PubMed

    Hoshino, Katsuaki; Kaisho, Tsuneyasu; Iwabe, Tomio; Takeuchi, Osamu; Akira, Shizuo

    2002-10-01

    Toll-like receptor (TLR) can activate dendritic cells (DC) through common signaling pathways requiring a cytoplasmic adapter, MyD88. However, the signaling is differentially regulated among TLR family members. TLR4 can activate MyD88-deficient bone marrow-derived DC (BMDC), and lead to induction of IFN-inducible genes and up-regulation of co-stimulatory molecules such as CD40, implying that the MyD88-independent signaling pathway functions downstream of TLR4. Because these effects can also be induced by type I IFN, we have analyzed whether type I IFN is involved in TLR4-induced responses. In response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS), IFN-beta gene expression was augmented in both wild-type and MyD88-deficient BMDC. Expression of all IFN-inducible genes except immune-responsive gene 1 (IRG1) was abolished and CD40 up-regulation was decreased in LPS-stimulated BMDC lacking either IFN-alpha/beta receptor (IFN-alpha/betaR) or signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT-1). Similar to the LPS response, TLR9 signaling can also induce expression of IFN-beta and IFN-inducible genes, and up-regulation of CD40. However, all these effects were MyD88 dependent. Thus, in TLR4 signaling, IFN-beta expression can be induced either by the MyD88-dependent or -independent pathway, whereas, in TLR9 signaling, it is dependent on MyD88. In CpG DNA-stimulated DC, expression of IFN-inducible genes except IRG1 was dependent on type I IFN signaling as in LPS-stimulated DC. However, in contrast to TLR4 signaling, TLR9 signaling requires type I IFN signaling for CD40 up-regulation. Taken together, this study demonstrates differential involvement of type I IFN in TLR4- and TLR9-induced effects on DC.

  19. Uav Data Processing for Rapid Mapping Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampubolon, W.; Reinhardt, W.

    2015-08-01

    During disaster and emergency situations, geospatial data plays an important role to serve as a framework for decision support system. As one component of basic geospatial data, large scale topographical maps are mandatory in order to enable geospatial analysis within quite a number of societal challenges. The increasing role of geo-information in disaster management nowadays consequently needs to include geospatial aspects on its analysis. Therefore different geospatial datasets can be combined in order to produce reliable geospatial analysis especially in the context of disaster preparedness and emergency response. A very well-known issue in this context is the fast delivery of geospatial relevant data which is expressed by the term "Rapid Mapping". Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is the rising geospatial data platform nowadays that can be attractive for modelling and monitoring the disaster area with a low cost and timely acquisition in such critical period of time. Disaster-related object extraction is of special interest for many applications. In this paper, UAV-borne data has been used for supporting rapid mapping activities in combination with high resolution airborne Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) data. A real disaster instance from 2013 in conjunction with Mount Sinabung eruption, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, is used as the benchmark test for the rapid mapping activities presented in this paper. On this context, the reliable IFSAR dataset from airborne data acquisition in 2011 has been used as a comparable dataset for accuracy investigation and assessment purpose in 3 D reconstructions. After all, this paper presents a proper geo-referencing and feature extraction method of UAV data to support rapid mapping activities.

  20. Department of Energy interest and involvement in nuclear plant license renewal activities

    SciTech Connect

    Bustard, L.D. ); Harrison, D.L. . Office of LWR Safety and Technology)

    1991-01-01

    Recognizing the importance of nuclear license renewal to the nation's energy strategy, the Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a plant lifetime improvement program during 1985 to determine the feasibility of the license renewal option for US nuclear plants. Initial activities of the DOE program focused on determining whether there were technical and economic obstacles that might preclude or limit the successful implementation of the license renewal option. To make this determination, DOE cosponsored with the Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) pilot-plant efforts by Virginia Electric Power and Northern States Power. Both pilot-plant efforts concluded that life extension is technically and economically feasible. In parallel with the pilot-plant activities, DOE performed national economic studies that demonstrated the economic desirability of life extension. Having demonstrated the feasibility of life extension, DOE, in conjunction with EPRI, selected two lead plants to demonstrate the license renewal process. These lead plants are Yankee Atomic's Yankee Rowe facility and Northern States Power's Monticello facility. DOE also initiated activities to develop the technical and regulatory bases to support the license renewal process in the United States. DOE has recently identified nuclear plant license renewal to be an important element of its National Energy Strategy. This paper summarizes the significant results, conclusions, and ongoing activities of the DOE effort. 18 refs.

  1. Determination of Dehydrogenase Activities Involved in D-Glucose Oxidation in Gluconobacter and Acetobacter Strains

    PubMed Central

    Sainz, Florencia; Jesús Torija, María; Matsutani, Minenosuke; Kataoka, Naoya; Yakushi, Toshiharu; Matsushita, Kazunobu; Mas, Albert

    2016-01-01

    Acetic acid bacteria (AAB) are known for rapid and incomplete oxidation of an extensively variety of alcohols and carbohydrates, resulting in the accumulation of organic acids as the final products. These oxidative fermentations in AAB are catalyzed by PQQ- or FAD- dependent membrane-bound dehydrogenases. In the present study, the enzyme activity of the membrane-bound dehydrogenases [membrane-bound PQQ-glucose dehydrogenase (mGDH), D-gluconate dehydrogenase (GADH) and membrane-bound glycerol dehydrogenase (GLDH)] involved in the oxidation of D-glucose and D-gluconic acid (GA) was determined in six strains of three different species of AAB (three natural and three type strains). Moreover, the effect of these activities on the production of related metabolites [GA, 2-keto-D-gluconic acid (2KGA) and 5-keto-D-gluconic acid (5KGA)] was analyzed. The natural strains belonging to Gluconobacter showed a high mGDH activity and low activity in GADH and GLDH, whereas the Acetobacter malorum strain presented low activity in the three enzymes. Nevertheless, no correlation was observed between the activity of these enzymes and the concentration of the corresponding metabolites. In fact, all the tested strains were able to oxidize D-glucose to GA, being maximal at the late exponential phase of the AAB growth (24 h), which coincided with D-glucose exhaustion and the maximum mGDH activity. Instead, only some of the tested strains were capable of producing 2KGA and/or 5KGA. In the case of Gluconobacter oxydans strains, no 2KGA production was detected which is related to the absence of GADH activity after 24 h, while in the remaining strains, detection of GADH activity after 24 h resulted in a high accumulation of 2KGA. Therefore, it is possible to choose the best strain depending on the desired product composition. Moreover, the sequences of these genes were used to construct phylogenetic trees. According to the sequence of gcd, gene coding for mGDH, Acetobacter and Komagataeibacter

  2. Processing abstract language modulates motor system activity.

    PubMed

    Glenberg, Arthur M; Sato, Marc; Cattaneo, Luigi; Riggio, Lucia; Palumbo, Daniele; Buccino, Giovanni

    2008-06-01

    Embodiment theory proposes that neural systems for perception and action are also engaged during language comprehension. Previous neuroimaging and neurophysiological studies have only been able to demonstrate modulation of action systems during comprehension of concrete language. We provide neurophysiological evidence for modulation of motor system activity during the comprehension of both concrete and abstract language. In Experiment 1, when the described direction of object transfer or information transfer (e.g., away from the reader to another) matched the literal direction of a hand movement used to make a response, speed of responding was faster than when the two directions mismatched (an action-sentence compatibility effect). In Experiment 2, we used single-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation to study changes in the corticospinal motor pathways to hand muscles while reading the same sentences. Relative to sentences that do not describe transfer, there is greater modulation of activity in the hand muscles when reading sentences describing transfer of both concrete objects and abstract information. These findings are discussed in relation to the human mirror neuron system.

  3. Management guidelines for participation in collision activities with congenital, developmental, or post-injury lesions involving the cervical spine.

    PubMed

    Torg, J S; Ramsey-Emrhein, J A

    1997-01-01

    Conditions involving the cervical spine in the athlete requiring management decisions are numerous. The purpose of this paper is to present appropriate guidelines for return to collision activities in those with congenital, developmental, or post-injury lesions. Collision activities include boxing, football, ice hockey, lacrosse, rugby and wrestling. Information compiled from over 1200 cervical spine lesions documented by the National Football Head and Neck Injury Registry, an extensive literature review, as well as an understanding of injury mechanisms have resulted in reasonable management guidelines. Each of the congenital, developmental and post-traumatic conditions presented are identified as either no contraindication, relative contraindication, or an absolute contraindication on the basis of a variety of parameters. Conditions involved in the discussion include: odontoid anomalies, spina bifida occulta, atlanto-occipital fusion, K1ippel-Feil syndrome, cervical canal stenosis, spear tackler's spine; and traumatic conditions of the upper, middle and lower cervical spine including ligamentous injuries and fractures, intervertebral disc injuries and post-cervical spine fusion. It should be emphasized that the proposed guidelines should be used in the decision making process and in conjunction with other such factors as age, experience, ability of the individual, level of participation, position played, as well as the attitude and desires of the athlete and his parents, where applicable following an informed discussion of the problem with particular regard to potential risk.

  4. Involvement of Vacuolar Sequestration and Active Transport in Tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to Hop Iso-α-Acids▿ † ¶

    PubMed Central

    Hazelwood, Lucie A.; Walsh, Michael C.; Pronk, Jack T.; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    The hop plant, Humulus lupulus L., has an exceptionally high content of secondary metabolites, the hop α-acids, which possess a range of beneficial properties, including antiseptic action. Studies performed on the mode of action of hop iso-α-acids have hitherto been restricted to lactic acid bacteria. The present study investigated molecular mechanisms of hop iso-α-acid resistance in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Growth inhibition occurred at concentrations of hop iso-α-acids that were an order of magnitude higher than those found with hop-tolerant prokaryotes. Chemostat-based transcriptome analysis and phenotype screening of the S. cerevisiae haploid gene deletion collection were used as complementary methods to screen for genes involved in hop iso-α-acid detoxification and tolerance. This screening and further analysis of deletion mutants confirmed that yeast tolerance to hop iso-α-acids involves three major processes, active proton pumping into the vacuole by the vacuolar-type ATPase to enable vacuolar sequestration of iso-α-acids and alteration of cell wall structure and, to a lesser extent, active export of iso-α-acids across the plasma membrane. Furthermore, iso-α-acids were shown to affect cellular metal homeostasis by acting as strong zinc and iron chelators. PMID:19915041

  5. Involvement of vacuolar sequestration and active transport in tolerance of Saccharomyces cerevisiae to hop iso-alpha-acids.

    PubMed

    Hazelwood, Lucie A; Walsh, Michael C; Pronk, Jack T; Daran, Jean-Marc

    2010-01-01

    The hop plant, Humulus lupulus L., has an exceptionally high content of secondary metabolites, the hop alpha-acids, which possess a range of beneficial properties, including antiseptic action. Studies performed on the mode of action of hop iso-alpha-acids have hitherto been restricted to lactic acid bacteria. The present study investigated molecular mechanisms of hop iso-alpha-acid resistance in the model eukaryote Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Growth inhibition occurred at concentrations of hop iso-alpha-acids that were an order of magnitude higher than those found with hop-tolerant prokaryotes. Chemostat-based transcriptome analysis and phenotype screening of the S. cerevisiae haploid gene deletion collection were used as complementary methods to screen for genes involved in hop iso-alpha-acid detoxification and tolerance. This screening and further analysis of deletion mutants confirmed that yeast tolerance to hop iso-alpha-acids involves three major processes, active proton pumping into the vacuole by the vacuolar-type ATPase to enable vacuolar sequestration of iso-alpha-acids and alteration of cell wall structure and, to a lesser extent, active export of iso-alpha-acids across the plasma membrane. Furthermore, iso-alpha-acids were shown to affect cellular metal homeostasis by acting as strong zinc and iron chelators.

  6. Using Dual-Task Methodology to Dissociate Automatic from Nonautomatic Processes Involved in Artificial Grammar Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hendricks, Michelle A.; Conway, Christopher M.; Kellogg, Ronald T.

    2013-01-01

    Previous studies have suggested that both automatic and intentional processes contribute to the learning of grammar and fragment knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks. To explore the relative contribution of automatic and intentional processes to knowledge gained in AGL, we utilized dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic and…

  7. Autoinducer AI-2 is involved in regulating a variety of cellular processes in Salmonella Typhimurium

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling is a known strategy that modulates a variety of bacterial processes in prokaryotes. Salmonella Typhimurium is known to possess LuxS/AI-2 mediated cell signaling. Until now, the Lsr- ABC transporter system (LuxS- regulated) is the only known process controlled by t...

  8. Physical processes involved in strip electrode welding using the method of slatted splicing

    SciTech Connect

    Bushma, V. O.

    2010-12-15

    Physical processes that take place in a strip electrode during welding using the slatted splicing technique are considered. Flowing of the welding current in the electrode is shown to be the key process which determines electrode heating and melting. Technological receipts are proposed that allow obtaining high-quality welds by the method of slatted splicing.

  9. Involvement of BLT1 endocytosis and Yes kinase activation in leukotriene B4-induced neutrophil degranulation.

    PubMed

    Gaudreault, Eric; Thompson, Charles; Stankova, Jana; Rola-Pleszczynski, Marek

    2005-03-15

    One of the important biological activities of human neutrophils is degranulation, which can be induced by leukotriene B4 (LTB4). Here we investigated the intracellular signaling events involved in neutrophil degranulation mediated by the high affinity LTB4 receptor, BLT1. Peripheral blood neutrophils as well as the promyeloid PLB-985 cell line, stably transfected with BLT1 cDNA and differentiated into a neutrophil-like cell phenotype, were used throughout this study. LTB4-induced enzyme release was inhibited by 50-80% when cells were pretreated with the pharmacological inhibitors of endocytosis sucrose, Con A and NH4Cl. In addition, transient transfection with a dominant negative form of dynamin (K44A) resulted in approximately 70% inhibition of ligand-induced degranulation. Pretreating neutrophils or BLT1-expressing PLB-985 cells with the Src family kinase inhibitor PP1 resulted in a 30-60% inhibition in BLT1-mediated degranulation. Yes kinase, but not c-Src, Fgr, Hck, or Lyn, was found to exhibit up-regulated kinase activity after LTB4 stimulation. Moreover, BLT1 endocytosis was found to be necessary for Yes kinase activation in neutrophils. LTB4-induced degranulation was also sensitive to inhibition of PI3K. In contrast, it was not affected by inhibition of the mitogen-activated protein kinase MEK kinase, the Janus kinases, or the receptor tyrosine kinase epidermal growth factor receptor or platelet-derived growth factor receptor. Taken together, our results suggest an essential role for BLT1 endocytosis and Yes kinase activation in LTB4-mediated degranulation of human neutrophils.

  10. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Gifford G.; Kato, Takeo R.; Schonegg, Edward

    1986-10-07

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  11. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, Gifford G.; Kato, Takeo R.; Schonegg, Edward

    1986-01-01

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which have undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed.

  12. Process for reducing beta activity in uranium

    DOEpatents

    Briggs, G.G.; Kato, T.R.; Schonegg, E.

    1985-04-11

    This invention is a method for lowering the beta radiation hazards associated with the casting of uranium. The method reduces the beta radiation emitted from the as-cast surfaces of uranium ingots. The method also reduces the amount of beta radiation emitters retained on the interiors of the crucibles that have been used to melt the uranium charges and which undergone cleaning in a remote handling facility. The lowering of the radioactivity is done by scavenging the beta emitters from the molten uranium with a molten mixture containing the fluorides of magnesium and calcium. The method provides a means of collection and disposal of the beta emitters in a manner that reduces radiation exposure to operating personnel in the work area where the ingots are cast and processed. 5 tabs.

  13. Protein receptor for activated C kinase 1 is involved in morphine reward in mice.

    PubMed

    Wan, L; Su, L; Xie, Y; Liu, Y; Wang, Y; Wang, Z

    2009-07-07

    Opiate addiction is associated with upregulation of cAMP signaling in the brain. cAMP-responsive element binding protein (CREB), a nuclear transcription factor, is a downstream component of the extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase (ERK) pathway, which has been shown to regulate different physiological and psychological responses of drug addiction. RACK1, the protein receptor for activated C kinase 1, is a multifunctional scaffolding protein known to be a key regulator of various signaling cascades in the CNS. RACK1 functions specifically in integrin mediated activation of ERK cascade and targets active ERK. We examined if RACK1 is involved in the mechanism of drug addiction by regulating CREB in mouse hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. Several expressions were observed. Chronic administration of morphine made the expression of RACK1 and CREB mRNA increase in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. The expression of RACK1 and CREB protein was strongly positive in CA1, CA3 and dentate gyrus (DG) of the hippocampus of morphine-treated mice brain, especially the pyramidal neurons in the DG of the hippocampus. Using the small interfering RNA technology, we determined that the expression of CREB mRNA was decreased in hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of morphine-treated mice. The expression of RACK1 and CREB protein was negative in CA1, CA3 and DG of hippocampus. These findings suggest that morphine reward can influence the expression of RACK1 in mouse hippocampus and prefrontal cortex through regulating CREB transcription.

  14. Astragaloside IV enhances diabetic wound healing involving upregulation of alternatively activated macrophages.

    PubMed

    Luo, Xiaochun; Huang, Ping; Yuan, Baohong; Liu, Tao; Lan, Fang; Lu, Xiaoyan; Dai, Liangcheng; Liu, Yunjun; Yin, Hui

    2016-06-01

    Astragaloside IV (AS-IV), one of the major active compounds extracted from Astragali Radix, has been used experimentally for its potent antiinflammatory and immunoregulatory activities. In this study, we further investigate the potential efficacy of AS-IV on impaired wound healing in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice. A full-thickness skin wound was produced on the back of diabetic mice and treated with AS-IV or vehicle topically. Our results showed that AS-IV application promoted diabetic wound repair with wounds gaping narrower and exhibiting augmented reepithelialization. AS-IV enhanced the collagen deposition and the expression of extracellular matrix (ECM)-related genes such as fibronectin and collagen IIIa, which implies a direct effect of AS-IV on matrix synthesis. AS-IV also improved the new blood vessel formation in wound tissue with increased numbers of endothelial cells and enhanced expression of VEGF and vWF. Moreover, the beneficial effect of AS-IV was related to the development of polarized alternatively activated macrophages, which involved in resolution of inflammation and facilitation of wound repair. All together, these findings suggest that AS-IV may play a potential effect on maintenance of cutaneous homeostasis and acceleration of diabetic wound healing.

  15. Cyclooxygenase-1 and -2 in spinally projecting neurons are involved in CRF-induced sympathetic activation.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Naoko; Okada, Shoshiro

    2009-12-03

    Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in the brain has been shown to stimulate sympathetic activity, leading to elevations of blood pressure, heart rate and plasma catecholamine levels and neuronal activation of the sympathetic ganglia and adrenal medulla. We previously reported that brain cyclooxygenase (COX), the rate-limiting enzyme in the synthesis of prostanoids, is involved in centrally administered CRF-induced sympathetic activation in rats. Therefore, the present study was designed to reveal the effect of centrally administered CRF (1.5 nmol/animal) on the expression of COX isozymes, COX-1 and COX-2, in spinally projecting neurons until 6h after the administration, using rats microinjected with a monosynaptic retrograde tracer into the intermediolateral cell column of the thoracic spinal cord. Retrogradely labeled neurons were detected in the paraventricular hypothalamic nucleus (PVN), locus coeruleus (LC), raphe pallidus nucleus and rostral ventrolateral medulla. Centrally administered CRF significantly increased the number of spinally projecting PVN neurons expressing COX-1 throughout the experimental period and those expressing COX-2 during only the late phase. CRF also increased the number of spinally projecting LC neurons expressing COX-2 throughout the experimental period. In other regions, the CRF administration had no effect on COXs expression in spinally projecting neurons. These results suggest that COX-1 and COX-2 in the PVN and COX-2 in the LC play roles in the CRF-induced sympathetic regulation in rats.

  16. [Importance of stimulation of the areas involved in the mathematical processing: effects on neurodevelopment].

    PubMed

    Arch-Tirado, Emilio; Lino-González, Ana Luisa; Alfaro-Rodríguez, Alfonso

    2013-01-01

    This paper aims to discuss and analyze the role of mathematics in neurodevelopment, for which discusses the historical, ontogenetic and physiological bases involved. The methodology of this paper is a deductive analysis, describing the use of mathematics in ancient cultures to the specialization of brain regions. Sensory perceptions are useful for the acquisition and development of cortical functions thus sensory stimulations is essential for the maturation of specialized neurologic functions.

  17. Strategic Co-Location in a Hybrid Process Involving Desalination and Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO)

    PubMed Central

    Sim, Victor S.T.; She, Qianhong; Chong, Tzyy Haur; Tang, Chuyang Y.; Fane, Anthony G.; Krantz, William B.

    2013-01-01

    This paper focuses on a Hybrid Process that uses feed salinity dilution and osmotic power recovery from Pressure Retarded Osmosis (PRO) to achieve higher overall water recovery. This reduces the energy consumption and capital costs of conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes. The Hybrid Process increases the amount of water recovered from the current 66.7% for conventional seawater desalination and water reuse processes to a potential 80% through the use of reclaimed water brine as an impaired water source. A reduction of up to 23% in energy consumption is projected via the Hybrid Process. The attractiveness is amplified by potential capital cost savings ranging from 8.7%–20% compared to conventional designs of seawater desalination plants. A decision matrix in the form of a customizable scorecard is introduced for evaluating a Hybrid Process based on the importance of land space, capital costs, energy consumption and membrane fouling. This study provides a new perspective, looking at processes not as individual systems but as a whole utilizing strategic co-location to unlock the synergies available in the water-energy nexus for more sustainable desalination. PMID:24956940

  18. 7 CFR 799.10 - Criteria and identification of FSA actions as to degree of involvement under the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... § 799.10 Criteria and identification of FSA actions as to degree of involvement under the NEPA process... an environmental evaluation not to significantly affect the quality of the human environment. (c) FSA... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Criteria and identification of FSA actions as...

  19. 29 CFR 570.61 - Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat-processing machines and occupations involving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.61 Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat-processing... similar products. (4) All occupations involved in the operation or feeding of the following...

  20. 29 CFR 570.61 - Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat-processing machines and occupations involving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.61 Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat-processing... similar products. (4) All occupations involved in the operation or feeding of the following...

  1. 29 CFR 570.61 - Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat-processing machines and occupations involving...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat... to Their Health or Well-Being § 570.61 Occupations in the operation of power-driven meat-processing... similar products. (4) All occupations involved in the operation or feeding of the following...

  2. Application of Ict and Rubrics to the Assessment Process where Professional Judgement Is Involved: The Features of an Emarking Tool

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, Alistair

    2005-01-01

    This paper describes a new ICT assessment tool that reduces multihandling of marks, comments and scores specifically where professional judgement is involved. Whereas previous ICT applications in most fields of education have focused on student learning, this tool focuses on the lecturer task of the assessment process. Unlike many ICT based…

  3. 7 CFR 799.10 - Criteria and identification of FSA actions as to degree of involvement under the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... an environmental evaluation not to significantly affect the quality of the human environment. (c) FSA... degree of involvement under the NEPA process. 799.10 Section 799.10 Agriculture Regulations of the... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS-COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY...

  4. 7 CFR 799.10 - Criteria and identification of FSA actions as to degree of involvement under the NEPA process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... an environmental evaluation not to significantly affect the quality of the human environment. (c) FSA... degree of involvement under the NEPA process. 799.10 Section 799.10 Agriculture Regulations of the... ENVIRONMENTAL QUALITY AND RELATED ENVIRONMENTAL CONCERNS-COMPLIANCE WITH THE NATIONAL ENVIRONMENTAL POLICY...

  5. Molecular Mechanisms Involved in the Antitumor Activity of Cannabinoids on Gliomas: Role for Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Massi, Paola; Valenti, Marta; Solinas, Marta; Parolaro, Daniela

    2010-01-01

    Cannabinoids, the active components of Cannabis sativa, have been shown to exert antiproliferative and proapoptotic effects on a wide spectrum of tumor cells and tissues. Of interest, cannabinoids have displayed great potency in reducing the growth of glioma tumors, one of the most aggressive CNS tumors, either in vitro or in animal experimental models curbing the growth of xenografts generated by subcutaneous or intrathecal injection of glioma cells in immune-deficient mice. Cannabinoids appear to be selective antitumoral agents as they kill glioma cells without affecting the viability of non-transformed cells. This review will summarize the anti-cancer properties that cannabinoids exert on gliomas and discuss their potential action mechanisms that appear complex, involving modulation of multiple key cell signaling pathways and induction of oxidative stress in glioma cells. PMID:24281104

  6. Protein Folding Activity of the Ribosome is involved in Yeast Prion Propagation

    PubMed Central

    Blondel, Marc; Soubigou, Flavie; Evrard, Justine; Nguyen, Phu hai; Hasin, Naushaba; Chédin, Stéphane; Gillet, Reynald; Contesse, Marie-Astrid; Friocourt, Gaëlle; Stahl, Guillaume; Jones, Gary W.; Voisset, Cécile

    2016-01-01

    6AP and GA are potent inhibitors of yeast and mammalian prions and also specific inhibitors of PFAR, the protein-folding activity borne by domain V of the large rRNA of the large subunit of the ribosome. We therefore explored the link between PFAR and yeast prion [PSI+] using both PFAR-enriched mutants and site-directed methylation. We demonstrate that PFAR is involved in propagation and de novo formation of [PSI+]. PFAR and the yeast heat-shock protein Hsp104 partially compensate each other for [PSI+] propagation. Our data also provide insight into new functions for the ribosome in basal thermotolerance and heat-shocked protein refolding. PFAR is thus an evolutionarily conserved cell component implicated in the prion life cycle, and we propose that it could be a potential therapeutic target for human protein misfolding diseases. PMID:27633137

  7. [Perception of fathers as for their involvement in activities with their children].

    PubMed

    da Silva, Mara Regina Santos; Bueno, Maria Emilia Nunes; Ribeiro, Juliane Portella

    2014-03-01

    This is an exploratory, descriptive study with a quantitative approach and the aim to identzfy the perception of fathers regarding their children's needs; strategies used by fathers to get closer to their children as well as to analyze the influence of household chores and children's education in their fathers' lives. Study subjects were 92 men with six-year-old children, residing in the city of Rio Grande, state of Rio Grande do Sul (RS). The results revealed fathers who are more engaged in activities with their children, valuing confidence, safety, as well as proximity to family as children's main needs, having prioritized the progress children make as well as attention to listening and conversation. Children's education does not aggregate more problems than they imagined, managing to plan life the way they seek to. These findings show that, in the sample studied, fathers have been able to develop more affectionate actions aimed at being more involved with their children.

  8. Macrophages migrate in an activation-dependent manner to chemokines involved in neuroinflammation

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background In neuroinflammatory diseases, macrophages can play a dual role in the process of tissue damage, depending on their activation status (M1 / M2). M1 macrophages are considered to exert damaging effects to neurons, whereas M2 macrophages are reported to aid regeneration and repair of neurons. Their migration within the central nervous system may be of critical importance in the final outcome of neurodegeneration in neuroinflammatory diseases e.g. multiple sclerosis (MS). To provide insight into this process, we examined the migratory capacity of human monocyte-derived M1 and M2 polarised macrophages towards chemoattractants, relevant for neuroinflammatory diseases like MS. Methods Primary cultures of human monocyte-derived macrophages were exposed to interferon gamma and lipopolysaccharide (LPS) to evoke proinflammatory (M1) activation or IL-4 to evoke anti-inflammatory (M2) activation. In a TAXIScan assay, migration of M0, M1 and M2 towards chemoattractants was measured and quantified. Furthermore the adhesion capacity and the expression levels of integrins as well as chemokine receptors of M0, M1 and M2 were assessed. Alterations in cell morphology were analysed using fluorescent labelling of the cytoskeleton. Results Significant differences were observed between M1 and M2 macrophages in the migration towards chemoattractants. We show that M2 macrophages migrated over longer distances towards CCL2, CCL5, CXCL10, CXCL12 and C1q compared to non-activated (M0) and M1 macrophages. No differences were observed in the adhesion of M0, M1 and M2 macrophages to multiple matrix components, nor in the expression of integrins and chemokine receptors. Significant changes were observed in the cytoskeleton organization upon stimulation with CCL2, M0, M1 and M2 macrophages adopt a spherical morphology and the cytoskeleton is rapidly rearranged. M0 and M2 macrophages are able to form filopodia, whereas M1 macrophages only adapt a spherical morphology. Conclusions

  9. Thermal-hydraulic processes involved in loss of residual heat removal during reduced inventory operation

    SciTech Connect

    Fletcher, C.D.; McHugh, P.R.; Naff, S.A.; Johnsen, G.W.

    1991-02-01

    This paper identifies the topics needed to understand pressurized water reactor response to an extended loss of residual heat removal event during refueling and maintenance outages. By identifying the possible plant conditions and cooling methods that would be used for each cooling mode, the controlling thermal-hydraulic processes and phenomena were identified. Controlling processes and phenomena include: gravity drain, core water boil-off, and reflux cooling processes. Important subcategories of the reflux cooling processes include: the initiation of reflux cooling from various plant conditions, the effects of air on reflux cooling, core level depression effects, issues regarding the steam generator secondaries, and the special case of boiler-condenser cooling with once-through steam generators. 25 refs., 6 figs., 1 tab.

  10. 43 CFR 3420.3 - Activity planning: The leasing process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Activity planning: The leasing process... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3 Activity planning: The leasing process....

  11. 43 CFR 3420.3 - Activity planning: The leasing process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Activity planning: The leasing process... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3 Activity planning: The leasing process....

  12. 43 CFR 3420.3 - Activity planning: The leasing process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Activity planning: The leasing process... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3 Activity planning: The leasing process....

  13. 12 CFR 211.604 - Data processing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Data processing activities. 211.604 Section 211... processing activities under Regulation K (12 CFR part 211). This question has arisen as a result of the fact... authority in Regulation K was somewhat broader than that permissible in the United States under Regulation...

  14. 12 CFR 211.604 - Data processing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Data processing activities. 211.604 Section 211... processing activities under Regulation K (12 CFR part 211). This question has arisen as a result of the fact... authority in Regulation K was somewhat broader than that permissible in the United States under Regulation...

  15. 12 CFR 211.604 - Data processing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Data processing activities. 211.604 Section 211... processing activities under Regulation K (12 CFR part 211). This question has arisen as a result of the fact... authority in Regulation K was somewhat broader than that permissible in the United States under Regulation...

  16. 12 CFR 211.604 - Data processing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Data processing activities. 211.604 Section 211... processing activities under Regulation K (12 CFR part 211). This question has arisen as a result of the fact... authority in Regulation K was somewhat broader than that permissible in the United States under Regulation...

  17. 12 CFR 211.604 - Data processing activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Data processing activities. 211.604 Section 211... processing activities under Regulation K (12 CFR part 211). This question has arisen as a result of the fact... authority in Regulation K was somewhat broader than that permissible in the United States under Regulation...

  18. 43 CFR 3420.3 - Activity planning: The leasing process.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Activity planning: The leasing process... LAND MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR MINERALS MANAGEMENT (3000) COMPETITIVE LEASING Competitive Leasing § 3420.3 Activity planning: The leasing process....

  19. Kinetic analysis of a general model of activation of aspartic proteinase zymogens involving a reversible inhibitor. I. Kinetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-López, A; Sotos-Lomas, A; Arribas, E; Masia-Perez, J; Garcia-Molina, F; García-Moreno, M; Varon, R

    2007-04-01

    Starting from a simple general reaction mechanism of activation of aspartic proteinases zymogens involving a uni- and a bimolecular simultaneous activation route and a reversible inhibition step, the time course equation of the zymogen, inhibitor and activated enzyme concentrations have been derived. Likewise, expressions for the time required for any reaction progress and the corresponding mean activation rates as well as the half-life of the global zymogen activation have been derived. An experimental design and kinetic data analysis is suggested to estimate the kinetic parameters involved in the reaction mechanism proposed.

  20. Processes involved in assisted reproduction technologies significantly increase sperm DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine translocation.

    PubMed

    Balasuriya, A; Serhal, P; Doshi, A; Harper, J C

    2014-03-01

    Sperm preparation techniques in assisted reproduction technologies (ART) are potential generators of exogenous stresses that cause additional DNA damage. DNA fragmentation tests, such as the sperm chromatin structure assay, involve freezing sperm samples in the absence of cryoprotectant. Thermal, oxidative stress (OS) and freezing are detrimental to sperm DNA fragmentation and phosphatidylserine (PS) translocation. The primary aim of this study was to subject mature sperm to environmental insults that normally occur during ART. We tested the hypotheses that OS, thermal stress and freeze-thawing caused sperm nuclear and membrane damage and that a positive correlation exists between PS translocation and DNA fragmentation. Sperm DNA integrity deteriorates in semen samples from men with advancing age and a sperm concentration of <15 m ml(-1) . The significant increase in sperm DNA fragmentation at 37 °C after merely 1 h is important clinically as semen liquefaction and short-term sperm storage in an ART cycle involve incubating samples at this temperature. Freezing without a cryoprotectant significantly increases the level of sperm nuclear damage, so it is important not to freeze neat semen prior to DNA fragmentation testing. This study highlights the importance of minimising the production of exogenous stresses during sperm preparation in ART.

  1. Analysis of Hazards Associated with a Process Involving Uranium Metal and Uranium Hydride Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Bullock, J.S.

    2000-05-01

    An analysis of the reaction chemistry and operational factors associated with processing uranium and uranium hydride powders is presented, focusing on a specific operation in the Development Division which was subjected to the Job Hazard Analysis (JHA) process. Primary emphasis is on the thermodynamic factors leading to pyrophoricity in common atmospheres. The discussion covers feed powders, cold-pressed and hot-pressed materials, and stray material resulting from the operations. The sensitivity of the various forms of material to pyrophoricity in common atmospheres is discussed. Operational recommendations for performing the work described are given.

  2. Are serotonergic neurons involved in the control of anxiety and in the anxiolytic activity of benzodiazepines?

    PubMed

    Thiebot, M H

    1986-05-01

    Several studies have shown that, like benzodiazepines (BZP), treatments able to reduce or block the activity of CNS serotonergic (5-HT) neurons released punished behavior. Therefore, 5-HT mechanisms have been tentatively implicated in the anti-punishment (anxiolytic?) activity of BZP. Numerous data, however, are not in keeping with this hypothesis. Since not responding enables the animals to avoid punishment but also delays the receipt of food-reward, one of these factors could be an alteration of waiting capacities. Indeed, we have shown that diazepam released behavioral suppression in conflict schedules only when the duration of the punished periods exceeded 1 minute. Moreover, in rats allowed to choose in a T-maze between immediate-but-small vs. delayed-but-large reward, BZP significantly decreased the frequency with which the delayed reward was chosen, with 5-HT uptake blockers producing opposite effects. Therefore, one can hypothesize that BZP render the animals less prone than controls to tolerate delay of reward and that 5-HT mechanisms may be involved in this phenomenon. An altered tolerance to delay of reward should be taken into account when interpreting the BZP-induced release of behavioral inhibition in classical conflict procedures.

  3. Genes Involved in Interleukin-1 Receptor Type II Activities Are Associated With Asthmatic Phenotypes

    PubMed Central

    Madore, Anne-Marie; Vaillancourt, Vanessa T.; Bouzigon, Emmanuelle; Sarnowski, Chloé; Monier, Florent; Dizier, Marie-Hélène; Demenais, Florence

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Interleukin-1 (IL-1) plays a key role in inflammation and immunity and its decoy receptor, IL-1R2, has been implicated in transcriptomic and genetic studies of asthma. Methods Two large asthma family collections, the French-Canadian Saguenay—Lac-St-Jean (SLSJ) study and the French Epidemiological Study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA), were used to investigate the association of SNPs in 10 genes that modulate IL-1R2 activities with asthma, allergic asthma, and atopy. Gene-gene interactions were also tested. Results One SNP in BACE2 was associated with allergic asthma in the SLSJ study and replicated in the EGEA study before statistical correction for multiple testing. Additionally, two SNPs in the MMP2 gene were replicated in both studies prior to statistical correction and reached significance in the combined analysis. Moreover, three gene-gene interactions also survived statistical correction in the combined analyses (BACE1-IL1RAP in asthma and allergic asthma and IL1R1-IL1RAP in atopy). Conclusions Our results highlight the relevance of genes involved in the IL-1R2 activity in the context of asthma and asthma-related traits. PMID:27334786

  4. Plasminogen Activator Inhibitor-1 Is Involved in Streptozotocin-Induced Bone Loss in Female Mice

    PubMed Central

    Tamura, Yukinori; Kawao, Naoyuki; Okada, Kiyotaka; Yano, Masato; Okumoto, Katsumi; Matsuo, Osamu; Kaji, Hiroshi

    2013-01-01

    In diabetic patients, the risk of fracture is high because of impaired bone formation. However, the details of the mechanisms in the development of diabetic osteoporosis remain unclear. In the current study, we investigated the role of plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetic osteoporosis by using PAI-1–deficient mice. Quantitative computed tomography analysis showed that PAI-1 deficiency protected against streptozotocin-induced bone loss in female mice but not in male mice. PAI-1 deficiency blunted the changes in the levels of Runx2, osterix, and alkaline phosphatase in tibia as well as serum osteocalcin levels suppressed by the diabetic state in female mice only. Furthermore, the osteoclast levels in tibia, suppressed in diabetes, were also blunted by PAI-1 deficiency in female mice. Streptozotocin markedly elevated the levels of PAI-1 mRNA in liver in female mice only. In vitro study demonstrated that treatment with active PAI-1 suppressed the levels of osteogenic genes and mineralization in primary osteoblasts from female mouse calvaria. In conclusion, the current study indicates that PAI-1 is involved in the pathogenesis of type 1 diabetic osteoporosis in females. The expression of PAI-1 in the liver and the sensitivity of bone cells to PAI-1 may be an underlying mechanism. PMID:23715621

  5. TRPV4 channel is involved in the coupling of fluid viscosity changes to epithelial ciliary activity

    PubMed Central

    Andrade, Yaniré N.; Fernandes, Jacqueline; Vázquez, Esther; Fernández-Fernández, José M.; Arniges, Maite; Sánchez, Trinidad M.; Villalón, Manuel; Valverde, Miguel A.

    2005-01-01

    Autoregulation of the ciliary beat frequency (CBF) has been proposed as the mechanism used by epithelial ciliated cells to maintain the CBF and prevent the collapse of mucociliary transport under conditions of varying mucus viscosity. Despite the relevance of this regulatory response to the pathophysiology of airways and reproductive tract, the underlying cellular and molecular aspects remain unknown. Hamster oviductal ciliated cells express the transient receptor potential vanilloid 4 (TRPV4) channel, which is activated by increased viscous load involving a phospholipase A2–dependent pathway. TRPV4-transfected HeLa cells also increased their cationic currents in response to high viscous load. This mechanical activation is prevented in native ciliated cells loaded with a TRPV4 antibody. Application of the TRPV4 synthetic ligand 4α-phorbol 12,13-didecanoate increased cationic currents, intracellular Ca2+, and the CBF in the absence of a viscous load. Therefore, TRPV4 emerges as a candidate to participate in the coupling of fluid viscosity changes to the generation of the Ca2+ signal required for the autoregulation of CBF. PMID:15753126

  6. Involvement of both PKS and NRPS in antibacterial activity in Lysobacter enzymogenes OH11

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Juan; Du, Liangcheng; Liu, Fengquan; Xu, Feifei; Hu, Baishi; Venturi, Vittorio; Qian, Guoliang

    2014-01-01

    Polyketides and nonribosomal peptides represent two large families of natural products (NPs) with diverse structures and important functions. They are synthesized by polyketide synthase (PKS) and nonribosomal peptide synthetase (NRPS), respectively. Lysobacter enzymogenes is emerging as a novel biocontrol agent against pathogens of crop plants and a new source of bioactive NPs, such as antibacterial antibiotic WAP-8294A2 and antifungal antibiotic HSAF. Genome survey of strain OH11, a Chinese L. enzymogenes isolate, detected four novel PKS, NRPS or hybrid gene clusters, designed as cluster A to D. We further individually mutated five genes (PKS or NRPS) located in these four gene clusters, and showed that a PKS gene in cluster A and an NRPS gene in cluster D were involved in the antibacterial activity via a WAP-8294A2 dependent way. The data also showed that none of the five genes was associated with antifungal activity and the regulation of HSAF biosynthesis. Our results reveal the unusual regulatory role of these PKS and NRPS genes that were discovered from genome mining in L. enzymogenes. PMID:24801439

  7. Involvement of JNK and Caspase Activation in Hoiamide A-Induced Neurotoxicity in Neocortical Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Zhengyu; Li, Xichun; Zou, Xiaohan; Greenwood, Michael; Gerwick, William H.; Murray, Thomas F.

    2015-01-01

    The frequent occurrence of Moorea producens (formerly Lyngbya majuscula) blooms has been associated with adverse effects on human health. Hoiamide A is a structurally unique cyclic depsipeptide isolated from an assemblage of the marine cyanobacteria M. producens and Phormidium gracile. We examined the influence of hoiamide A on neurite outgrowth in neocortical neurons and found that it suppressed neurite outgrowth with an IC50 value of 4.89 nM. Further study demonstrated that hoiamide A stimulated lactic acid dehydrogenase (LDH) efflux, nuclear condensation and caspase-3 activity with EC50 values of 3.66, 2.55 and 4.33 nM, respectively. These data indicated that hoiamide A triggered a unique neuronal death profile that involves both necrotic and apoptotic mechanisms. The similar potencies and similar time-response relationships between LDH efflux and caspase-3 activation/nuclear condensation suggested that both necrosis and apoptosis may derive from interaction with a common molecular target. The broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK completely inhibited hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity. Additionally, hoiamide A stimulated JNK phosphorylation, and a JNK inhibitor attenuated hoiamide A-induced neurotoxicity. Collectively, these data demonstrate that hoiamide A-induced neuronal death requires both JNK and caspase signaling pathways. The potent neurotoxicity and unique neuronal cell death profile of hoiamide A represents a novel neurotoxic chemotype from marine cyanobacteria. PMID:25675001

  8. Measurement of action spectra of light-activated processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Justin; Zvyagin, Andrei V.; Heckenberg, Norman R.; Upcroft, Jacqui; Upcroft, Peter; Rubinsztein-Dunlop, Halina H.

    2006-01-01

    We report on a new experimental technique suitable for measurement of light-activated processes, such as fluorophore transport. The usefulness of this technique is derived from its capacity to decouple the imaging and activation processes, allowing fluorescent imaging of fluorophore transport at a convenient activation wavelength. We demonstrate the efficiency of this new technique in determination of the action spectrum of the light mediated transport of rhodamine 123 into the parasitic protozoan Giardia duodenalis.

  9. Speech Perception as a Cognitive Process: The Interactive Activation Model.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-04-01

    one another in COHORT, the nodes for sell, your, light, and cellulite , wil all bc in active competition with one another. The system will have no way...7 AD-AI28 787 SPEECH PERCEPTION AS A COGNITIVE PROCESS: THE INTERACTIVE ACTIVATION MODE..(U) CALIFORNIA UNIV SAN D IEGO LA dOLLA INST FOR COGNITIVE...TYPE OF REPORT & PERIOD COVERED Speech Perception as a Cognitive Process: Technical Report The Interactive Activation Model S. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT

  10. Brain regions involved in processing facial identity and expression are differentially selective for surface and edge information.

    PubMed

    Harris, Richard J; Young, Andrew W; Andrews, Timothy J

    2014-08-15

    Although different brain regions are widely considered to be involved in the recognition of facial identity and expression, it remains unclear how these regions process different properties of the visual image. Here, we ask how surface-based reflectance information and edge-based shape cues contribute to the perception and neural representation of facial identity and expression. Contrast-reversal was used to generate images in which normal contrast relationships across the surface of the image were disrupted, but edge information was preserved. In a behavioural experiment, contrast-reversal significantly attenuated judgements of facial identity, but only had a marginal effect on judgements of expression. An fMR-adaptation paradigm was then used to ask how brain regions involved in the processing of identity and expression responded to blocks comprising all normal, all contrast-reversed, or a mixture of normal and contrast-reversed faces. Adaptation in the posterior superior temporal sulcus--a region directly linked with processing facial expression--was relatively unaffected by mixing normal with contrast-reversed faces. In contrast, the response of the fusiform face area--a region linked with processing facial identity--was significantly affected by contrast-reversal. These results offer a new perspective on the reasons underlying the neural segregation of facial identity and expression in which brain regions involved in processing invariant aspects of faces, such as identity, are very sensitive to surface-based cues, whereas regions involved in processing changes in faces, such as expression, are relatively dependent on edge-based cues.

  11. Involvement of the serine protease inhibitor, SERPINE2, and the urokinase plasminogen activator in cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation.

    PubMed

    Lu, Chung-Hao; Lee, Robert Kuo-Kuang; Hwu, Yuh-Ming; Lin, Ming-Huei; Yeh, Ling-Yu; Chen, Ying-Jie; Lin, Shau-Ping; Li, Sheng-Hsiang

    2013-01-01

    The serpin peptidase inhibitor, clade E, member 2 (SERPINE2) inhibits urokinase-type plasminogen activator (PLAU) and tissue-type plasminogen activator. Higher SERPINE2 expression levels were detected in cumulus cells of human immature oocytes than in those of mature oocytes. The objective of this study was to evaluate whether high SERPINE2 levels in cumulus cells are associated with oocyte immaturity. Using the mouse cumulus-oocyte complex as an experimental model, the effects of elimination and overexpression of SERPINE2 in cumulus cells on cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation were assayed by in vitro maturation. Serpine2 and PLAU transcripts were the most highly expressed serpins and plasminogen activators, respectively. Their expression was coordinately regulated in cumulus cells during gonadotropin-induced oocyte maturation. Silencing of Serpine2 expression using small interfering RNAs or blockage of SERPINE2 protein using a specific antibody had no effect on oocyte maturation. However, overexpression of Serpine2 or exogenous supplementation with high levels of SERPINE2 impaired cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation, probably by decreasing hyaluronan synthase 2 (Has2) and versican (Vcan) mRNA expression. Amiloride, a specific PLAU inhibitor, also suppressed these processes. PLAU supplementation of the oocyte in vitro maturation medium caused earlier and more extensive expansion of cumulus cells and oocyte maturation that may be mediated by increased Has2 mRNA expression. However, these effects were neutralized by coincubation with SERPINE2 or amiloride and PLAU. In conclusion, SERPINE2 and PLAU are involved in cumulus expansion and oocyte maturation. High SERPINE2 levels impair these processes, probably by decreasing cumulus matrix gene expression as well as reducing cumulus hyaluronan contents and inhibiting PLAU activity. These findings may explain why cumulus cells surrounding immature human oocytes express high SERPINE2 levels.

  12. Is Broca's Area Involved in the Processing of Passive Sentences? An Event-Related fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yokoyama, Satoru; Watanabe, Jobu; Iwata, Kazuki; Ikuta, Naho; Haji, Tomoki; Usui, Nobuo; Taira, Masato; Miyamoto, Tadao; Nakamura, Wataru; Sato, Shigeru; Horie, Kaoru; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2007-01-01

    We used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate whether activation in Broca's area is greater during the processing of passive versus active sentences in the brains of healthy subjects. Twenty Japanese native speakers performed a visual sentence comprehension task in which they were asked to read a visually presented sentence…

  13. Braze Process Optimization Involving Conventional Metal/Ceramic Brazing with 50Au-50Cu Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    MALIZIA JR.,LOUIS A.; MEREDITH,KEITH W.; APPEL,DANIEL B.; MONROE,SAUNDRA L.; BURCHETT,STEVEN N.; STEPHENS JR.,JOHN J.

    1999-12-15

    Numerous process variables can influence the robustness of conventional metal/ceramic brazing processes. Experience with brazing of hermetic vacuum components has identified the following parameters as influencing the outcome of hydrogen furnace brazed Kovar{trademark} to metallized alumina braze joints: (a) Mo-Mn metallization thickness, sinter fire temperature and porosity (b) Nil plate purity, thickness, and sinter firing conditions (c) peak process temperature, time above liquidus and (d) braze alloy washer thickness. ASTM F19 tensile buttons are being used to investigate the above parameters. The F19 geometry permits determination of both joint hermeticity and tensile strength. This presentation will focus on important lessons learned from the tensile button study: (A) the position of the Kovar{trademark} interlayer can influence the joint tensile strength achieved--namely, off-center interlayers can lead to residual stress development in the ceramic and degrade tensile strength values. Finite element analysis has been used to demonstrate the expected magnitude in strength degradation as a function of misalignment. (B) Time above liquidus (TAL) and peak temperature can influence the strength and alloying level of the resulting braze joint. Excessive TAL or peak temperatures can lead to overbraze conditions where all of the Ni plate is dissolved. (C) Metallize sinter fire processes can influence the morphology and strength obtained from the braze joints.

  14. Audience Involvement with Entertainment-Education Programs: Explicating Processes and Outcomes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintero Johnson, Jessie Marguerite

    2011-01-01

    One area of health promotion research rich with potential for both theoretical and empirical investigation is the "entertainment-education" (EE) strategy. Though a growing body of evidence points to the effectiveness of the EE strategy, further investigation is needed to explore the underlying cognitive and affective processes that make EE an…

  15. Age-Related Changes in Duration Reproduction: Involvement of Working Memory Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baudouin, Alexia; Vanneste, Sandrine; Pouthas, Viviane; Isingrini, Michel

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present research was to study age-related changes in duration reproduction by differentiating the working memory processes underlying this time estimation task. We compared performances of young and elderly adults in a duration reproduction task performed in simple and concurrent task conditions. Participants were also administered…

  16. Parent Involvement in the Special Education Eligibility Process: Implementation of Legal Mandates and Best Practices

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, Cathleen K.

    2013-01-01

    School psychologists throughout New York State were surveyed regarding their schools' policies to include parents in the special education eligibility process related to legal mandates and best practices. Differences were found in the implementation of legal mandates compared to implementation of best practices. Location differences were…

  17. An Analysis of Court Cases Involving Student Due Process in Dismissal from Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Grindle, Christopher Carl

    2009-01-01

    The Fourteenth Amendment to the U. S. Constitution holds that states must provide due process and equal protection to those with a life, liberty, or property right. College students have a property and liberty interest in the public education that they receive and the courts require notice and hearing before a deprivation of one of these…

  18. A Mathematical Experience Involving Defining Processes: In-Action Definitions and Zero-Definitions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ouvrier-Buffet, Cecile

    2011-01-01

    In this paper, a focus is made on defining processes at stake in an unfamiliar situation coming from discrete mathematics which brings surprising mathematical results. The epistemological framework of Lakatos is questioned and used for the design and the analysis of the situation. The cognitive background of Vergnaud's approach enriches the study…

  19. Parental Involvement in the Habilitation Process Following Children's Cochlear Implantation: An Action Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zaidman-Zait, Anat; Young, Richard A.

    2008-01-01

    Action theory and the qualitative action-project method are used in this study to address and illustrate the complexity of parenting children who have received cochlear implants (CIs) as well as the intentionality of parents engaged in that process. "Action" refers to individual and joint goal-directed and intentional behaviors. Action theory has…

  20. Judging the Grade: Exploring the Judgement Processes Involved in Examination Grading Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crisp, Victoria

    2010-01-01

    Examiners' grading judgements are central to the maintenance of examination standards. This research investigated the judgement processes underpinning examination grading. Operating under a think aloud protocol, six examiners conducted a grading exercise for each of two geography A level examinations. They also "thought aloud" whilst…

  1. A Joint Learning Activity in Process Control and Distance Collaboration between Future Engineers and Technicians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deschênes, Jean-Sebastien; Barka, Noureddine; Michaud, Mario; Paradis, Denis; Brousseau, Jean

    2013-01-01

    A joint learning activity in process control is presented, in the context of a distance collaboration between engineering and technical-level students, in a similar fashion as current practices in the industry involving distance coordination and troubleshooting. The necessary infrastructure and the setup used are first detailed, followed by a…

  2. Coronin 3 involvement in F-actin-dependent processes at the cell cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Rosentreter, Andre; Hofmann, Andreas; Xavier, Charles-Peter; Stumpf, Maria; Noegel, Angelika A.; Clemen, Christoph S. . E-mail: christoph.clemen@uni-koeln.de

    2007-03-10

    The actin interaction of coronin 3 has been mainly documented by in vitro experiments. Here, we discuss coronin 3 properties in the light of new structural information and focus on assays that reflect in vivo roles of coronin 3 and its impact on F-actin-associated functions. Using GFP-tagged coronin 3 fusion proteins and RNAi silencing we show that coronin 3 has roles in wound healing, protrusion formation, cell proliferation, cytokinesis, endocytosis, axonal growth, and secretion. During formation of cell protrusions actin accumulation precedes the focal enrichment of coronin 3 suggesting a role for coronin 3 in events that follow the initial F-actin assembly. Moreover, we show that coronin 3 similar to other coronins interacts with the Arp2/3-complex and cofilin indicating that this family in general is involved in regulating Arp2/3-mediated events.

  3. Computation of NLO processes involving heavy quarks using Loop-Tree Duality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Driencourt-Mangin, Félix

    2017-03-01

    We present a new method to compute higher-order corrections to physical cross-sections, at Next-to-Leading Order and beyond. This method, based on the Loop Tree Duality, leads to locally integrable expressions in four dimensions. By introducing a physically motivated momentum mapping between the momenta involved in the real and the virtual contributions, infrared singularities naturally cancel at integrand level, without the need to introduce subtraction counter-terms. Ultraviolet singularities are dealt with by using dual representations of suitable counter-terms, with some subtleties regarding the self-energy contributions. As an example, we apply this method to compute the 1 → 2 decay rate in the context of a scalar toy model with massive particles.

  4. Involvement of IL-1 in the Maintenance of Masseter Muscle Activity and Glucose Homeostasis

    PubMed Central

    Chiba, Ko; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Koide, Masashi; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Hattori, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Makoto; Sugawara, Shunji; Kanzaki, Makoto; Endo, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise reportedly stimulates IL-1 production within working skeletal muscles, but its physiological significance remains unknown due to the existence of two distinct IL-1 isoforms, IL-1α and IL-1β. The regulatory complexities of these two isoforms, in terms of which cells in muscles produce them and their distinct/redundant biological actions, have yet to be elucidated. Taking advantage of our masticatory behavior (Restrained/Gnawing) model, we herein show that IL-1α/1β-double-knockout (IL-1-KO) mice exhibit compromised masseter muscle (MM) activity which is at least partially attributable to abnormalities of glucose handling (rapid glycogen depletion along with impaired glucose uptake) and dysfunction of IL-6 upregulation in working MMs. In wild-type mice, masticatory behavior clearly increased IL-1β mRNA expression but no incremental protein abundance was detectable in whole MM homogenates, whereas immunohistochemical staining analysis revealed that both IL-1α- and IL-1β-immunopositive cells were recruited around blood vessels in the perimysium of MMs after masticatory behavior. In addition to the aforementioned phenotype of IL-1-KO mice, we found the IL-6 mRNA and protein levels in MMs after masticatory behavior to be significantly lower in IL-1-KO than in WT. Thus, our findings confirm that the locally-increased IL-1 elicited by masticatory behavior, although present small in amounts, contributes to supporting MM activity by maintaining normal glucose homeostasis in these muscles. Our data also underscore the importance of IL-1-mediated local interplay between autocrine myokines including IL-6 and paracrine cytokines in active skeletal muscles. This interplay is directly involved in MM performance and fatigability, perhaps mediated through maintaining muscular glucose homeostasis. PMID:26599867

  5. Modulation of NCC activity by low and high K(+) intake: insights into the signaling pathways involved.

    PubMed

    Castañeda-Bueno, María; Cervantes-Perez, Luz Graciela; Rojas-Vega, Lorena; Arroyo-Garza, Isidora; Vázquez, Norma; Moreno, Erika; Gamba, Gerardo

    2014-06-15

    Modulation of Na(+)-Cl(-) cotransporter (NCC) activity is essential to adjust K(+) excretion in the face of changes in dietary K(+) intake. We used previously characterized genetic mouse models to assess the role of Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and with-no-lysine kinase (WNK)4 in the modulation of NCC by K(+) diets. SPAK knockin and WNK4 knockout mice were placed on normal-, low-, or high-K(+)-citrate diets for 4 days. The low-K(+) diet decreased and high-K(+) diet increased plasma aldosterone levels, but both diets were associated with increased phosphorylation of NCC (phospho-NCC, Thr(44)/Thr(48)/Thr(53)) and phosphorylation of SPAK/oxidative stress responsive kinase 1 (phospho-SPAK/OSR1, Ser(383)/Ser(325)). The effect of the low-K(+) diet on SPAK phosphorylation persisted in WNK4 knockout and SPAK knockin mice, whereas the effects of ANG II on NCC and SPAK were lost in both mouse colonies. This suggests that for NCC activation by ANG II, integrity of the WNK4/SPAK pathway is required, whereas for the low-K(+) diet, SPAK phosphorylation occurred despite the absence of WNK4, suggesting the involvement of another WNK (WNK1 or WNK3). Additionally, because NCC activation also occurred in SPAK knockin mice, it is possible that loss of SPAK was compensated by OSR1. The positive effect of the high-K(+) diet was observed when the accompanying anion was citrate, whereas the high-KCl diet reduced NCC phosphorylation. However, the effect of the high-K(+)-citrate diet was aldosterone dependent, and neither metabolic alkalosis induced by bicarbonate, nor citrate administration in the absence of K(+) increased NCC phosphorylation, suggesting that it was not due to citrate-induced metabolic alkalosis. Thus, the accompanying anion might modulate the NCC response to the high-K(+) diet.

  6. Modulation of NCC activity by low and high K+ intake: insights into the signaling pathways involved

    PubMed Central

    Castañeda-Bueno, María; Cervantes-Perez, Luz Graciela; Rojas-Vega, Lorena; Arroyo-Garza, Isidora; Vázquez, Norma; Moreno, Erika

    2014-01-01

    Modulation of Na+-Cl− cotransporter (NCC) activity is essential to adjust K+ excretion in the face of changes in dietary K+ intake. We used previously characterized genetic mouse models to assess the role of Ste20-related proline-alanine-rich kinase (SPAK) and with-no-lysine kinase (WNK)4 in the modulation of NCC by K+ diets. SPAK knockin and WNK4 knockout mice were placed on normal-, low-, or high-K+-citrate diets for 4 days. The low-K+ diet decreased and high-K+ diet increased plasma aldosterone levels, but both diets were associated with increased phosphorylation of NCC (phospho-NCC, Thr44/Thr48/Thr53) and phosphorylation of SPAK/oxidative stress responsive kinase 1 (phospho-SPAK/OSR1, Ser383/Ser325). The effect of the low-K+ diet on SPAK phosphorylation persisted in WNK4 knockout and SPAK knockin mice, whereas the effects of ANG II on NCC and SPAK were lost in both mouse colonies. This suggests that for NCC activation by ANG II, integrity of the WNK4/SPAK pathway is required, whereas for the low-K+ diet, SPAK phosphorylation occurred despite the absence of WNK4, suggesting the involvement of another WNK (WNK1 or WNK3). Additionally, because NCC activation also occurred in SPAK knockin mice, it is possible that loss of SPAK was compensated by OSR1. The positive effect of the high-K+ diet was observed when the accompanying anion was citrate, whereas the high-KCl diet reduced NCC phosphorylation. However, the effect of the high-K+-citrate diet was aldosterone dependent, and neither metabolic alkalosis induced by bicarbonate, nor citrate administration in the absence of K+ increased NCC phosphorylation, suggesting that it was not due to citrate-induced metabolic alkalosis. Thus, the accompanying anion might modulate the NCC response to the high-K+ diet. PMID:24761002

  7. Involvement of IL-1 in the Maintenance of Masseter Muscle Activity and Glucose Homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Chiba, Ko; Tsuchiya, Masahiro; Koide, Masashi; Hagiwara, Yoshihiro; Sasaki, Keiichi; Hattori, Yoshinori; Watanabe, Makoto; Sugawara, Shunji; Kanzaki, Makoto; Endo, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Physical exercise reportedly stimulates IL-1 production within working skeletal muscles, but its physiological significance remains unknown due to the existence of two distinct IL-1 isoforms, IL-1α and IL-1β. The regulatory complexities of these two isoforms, in terms of which cells in muscles produce them and their distinct/redundant biological actions, have yet to be elucidated. Taking advantage of our masticatory behavior (Restrained/Gnawing) model, we herein show that IL-1α/1β-double-knockout (IL-1-KO) mice exhibit compromised masseter muscle (MM) activity which is at least partially attributable to abnormalities of glucose handling (rapid glycogen depletion along with impaired glucose uptake) and dysfunction of IL-6 upregulation in working MMs. In wild-type mice, masticatory behavior clearly increased IL-1β mRNA expression but no incremental protein abundance was detectable in whole MM homogenates, whereas immunohistochemical staining analysis revealed that both IL-1α- and IL-1β-immunopositive cells were recruited around blood vessels in the perimysium of MMs after masticatory behavior. In addition to the aforementioned phenotype of IL-1-KO mice, we found the IL-6 mRNA and protein levels in MMs after masticatory behavior to be significantly lower in IL-1-KO than in WT. Thus, our findings confirm that the locally-increased IL-1 elicited by masticatory behavior, although present small in amounts, contributes to supporting MM activity by maintaining normal glucose homeostasis in these muscles. Our data also underscore the importance of IL-1-mediated local interplay between autocrine myokines including IL-6 and paracrine cytokines in active skeletal muscles. This interplay is directly involved in MM performance and fatigability, perhaps mediated through maintaining muscular glucose homeostasis.

  8. Mothers' and Fathers' Involvement in Home Activities with Their Children: Psychosocial Factors and the Role of Parental Self-Efficacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Giallo, Rebecca; Treyvaud, Karli; Cooklin, Amanda; Wade, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Parent involvement in play, learning, and everyday home activities is important for promoting children's cognitive and language development. The aims of the study were to (a) examine differences between mothers' and fathers' self-reported involvement with their children, (b) explore the relationship between child, parent and family factors, and…

  9. Parent Involvement Activities in School Improvement Plans in the Northwest Region. Summary. Issues & Answers. REL 2008-No. 064

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Speth, Timothy; Saifer, Steffen; Forehand, Gregory

    2008-01-01

    This document presents a summary of the larger report, "Parent Involvement Activities in School Improvement Plans in the Northwest Region." Although the No Child Left Behind Act of 2001 (NCLB) spells out parent involvement requirements for schools in need of improvement, the majority of the Northwest Region school improvement plans…

  10. Neural systems involved in processing novel linguistic constructions and their visual referents

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Matthew A.; Turk-Browne, Nicholas B.; Goldberg, Adele E.

    2016-01-01

    In language, abstract phrasal patterns provide an important source of meaning, but little is known about whether or how such constructions are used to predict upcoming visual scenes. Findings from two fMRI studies indicate that initial exposure to a novel construction allows its semantics to be used for such predictions. Specifically, greater activity in the ventral striatum, a region sensitive to prediction errors, was linked to worse overall comprehension of a novel construction. Moreover, activity in occipital cortex was attenuated when a visual event could be inferred from a learned construction, which may reflect predictive coding of the event. These effects disappeared when predictions were unlikely: that is, when phrases provided no additional information about visual events. These findings support the idea that learners create and evaluate predictions about new instances during comprehension of novel linguistic constructions. PMID:27453896

  11. Different Involvement of Type 1, 2, and 3 Ryanodine Receptors in Memory Processes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Galeotti, Nicoletta; Quattrone, Alessandro; Vivoli, Elisa; Norcini, Monica; Bartolini, Alessandro; Ghelardini, Carla

    2008-01-01

    The administration of the ryanodine receptor (RyR) agonist 4-Cmc (0.003-9 nmol per mouse intracerebroventricularly [i.c.v.]) ameliorated memory functions, whereas the RyR antagonist ryanodine (0.0001-1 nmol per mouse i.c.v.) induced amnesia in the mouse passive avoidance test. The role of the type 1, 2, and 3 RyR isoforms in memory processes was…

  12. Increased functional connectivity with puberty in the mentalising network involved in social emotion processing

    PubMed Central

    Klapwijk, Eduard T.; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Heyes, Stephanie Burnett; Bird, Geoffrey; Viner, Russell M.; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2015-01-01

    There is increasing evidence that puberty plays an important role in the structural and functional brain development seen in adolescence, but little is known of the pubertal influence on changes in functional connectivity. We explored how pubertal indicators (salivary concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and DHEA; pubertal stage; menarcheal status) relate to functional connectivity between components of a mentalising network identified to be engaged in social emotion processing by our prior work, using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. Female adolescents aged 11 to 13 years were scanned whilst silently reading scenarios designed to evoke either social emotions (guilt and embarrassment) or basic emotions (disgust and fear), of which only social compared to basic emotions require the representation of another person’s mental states. Pubertal stage and menarcheal status were used to assign participants to pre/early or mid/late puberty groups. We found increased functional connectivity between the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during social relative to basic emotion processing. Moreover, increasing oestradiol concentrations were associated with increased functional connectivity between the DMPFC and the right TPJ during social relative to basic emotion processing, independent of age. Our analysis of the PPI data by phenotypic pubertal status showed that more advanced puberty stage was associated with enhanced functional connectivity between the DMPFC and the left anterior temporal cortex (ATC) during social relative to basic emotion processing, also independent of age. Our results suggest increased functional maturation of the social brain network with the advancement of puberty in girls. PMID:23998674

  13. Increased functional connectivity with puberty in the mentalising network involved in social emotion processing.

    PubMed

    Klapwijk, Eduard T; Goddings, Anne-Lise; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Bird, Geoffrey; Viner, Russell M; Blakemore, Sarah-Jayne

    2013-07-01

    This article is part of a Special Issue "Puberty and Adolescence". There is increasing evidence that puberty plays an important role in the structural and functional brain development seen in adolescence, but little is known of the pubertal influence on changes in functional connectivity. We explored how pubertal indicators (salivary concentrations of testosterone, oestradiol and DHEA; pubertal stage; menarcheal status) relate to functional connectivity between components of a mentalising network identified to be engaged in social emotion processing by our prior work, using psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis. Female adolescents aged 11 to 13years were scanned whilst silently reading scenarios designed to evoke either social emotions (guilt and embarrassment) or basic emotions (disgust and fear), of which only social compared to basic emotions require the representation of another person's mental states. Pubertal stage and menarcheal status were used to assign participants to pre/early or mid/late puberty groups. We found increased functional connectivity between the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) and the right posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) and right temporo-parietal junction (TPJ) during social relative to basic emotion processing. Moreover, increasing oestradiol concentrations were associated with increased functional connectivity between the DMPFC and the right TPJ during social relative to basic emotion processing, independent of age. Our analysis of the PPI data by phenotypic pubertal status showed that more advanced puberty stage was associated with enhanced functional connectivity between the DMPFC and the left anterior temporal cortex (ATC) during social relative to basic emotion processing, also independent of age. Our results suggest increased functional maturation of the social brain network with the advancement of puberty in girls.

  14. Using dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic from nonautomatic processes involved in artificial grammar learning.

    PubMed

    Hendricks, Michelle A; Conway, Christopher M; Kellogg, Ronald T

    2013-09-01

    Previous studies have suggested that both automatic and intentional processes contribute to the learning of grammar and fragment knowledge in artificial grammar learning (AGL) tasks. To explore the relative contribution of automatic and intentional processes to knowledge gained in AGL, we utilized dual-task methodology to dissociate automatic and intentional grammar- and fragment-based knowledge in AGL at both acquisition and at test. Both experiments used a balanced chunk strength grammar to assure an equal proportion of fragment cues (i.e., chunks) in grammatical and nongrammatical test items. In Experiment 1, participants engaged in a working memory dual-task either during acquisition, test, or both acquisition and test. The results showed that participants performing the dual-task during acquisition learned the artificial grammar as well as the single-task group, presumably by relying on automatic learning mechanisms. A working memory dual-task at test resulted in attenuated grammar performance, suggesting a role for intentional processes for the expression of grammatical learning at test. Experiment 2 explored the importance of perceptual cues by changing letters between the acquisition and test phase; unlike Experiment 1, there was no significant learning of grammatical information for participants under dual-task conditions in Experiment 2, suggesting that intentional processing is necessary for successful acquisition and expression of grammar-based knowledge under transfer conditions. In sum, it appears that some aspects of learning in AGL are indeed relatively automatic, although the expression of grammatical information and the learning of grammatical patterns when perceptual similarity is eliminated both appear to require explicit resources.

  15. A New Cycloaddition Process Involving Nitro Group Participation in Polynitroaromatic Chemistry.

    PubMed

    Hallé, Jean-Claude; Vichard, Dominique; Pouet, Marie-José; Terrier, François

    1997-10-17

    The reaction of ethyl vinyl ether (2 equiv) with 4,6-dinitrobenzofuroxan (DNBF, 1 equiv) in dichloromethane affords a mixture of two diastereomeric dihydrooxazine N-oxide adducts, 5a and 5b, in a 4:1 ratio. Further addition of the enol reagent to this mixture results in a second cycloaddition process with formation of a bis(dihydrooxazine N-oxide) product 6, which can also be obtained directly upon treatment of DNBF with excess ethyl vinyl ether. The observed condensations are accounted for in terms of inverse electron demand Diels-Alder cycloaddition processes between the enol ether dienophile and the heterodienyl moieties of DNBF, constituted first, by the 6-NO(2) group conjugated to the 6,7-double bond and then by the 4-NO(2) group and the 4,5-double bond of the carbocyclic ring. The configurations of the cycloadducts 5a and 5b have been determined on the basis of collected (1)H NMR parameters, as well as NOE experiments. It thus appears that the configuration of the major diastereomer corresponds to the endo product while that of the minor one corresponds to the exo product of the first cycloaddition process. The results obtained emphasize a low aromatic character for the DNBF molecule.

  16. Activation of Peroxymonosulfate by Benzoquinone: A Novel Nonradical Oxidation Process.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yang; Jiang, Jin; Gao, Yuan; Ma, Jun; Pang, Su-Yan; Li, Juan; Lu, Xue-Ting; Yuan, Li-Peng

    2015-11-03

    The reactions between peroxymonosulfate (PMS) and quinones were investigated for the first time in this work, where benzoquinone (BQ) was selected as a model quinone. It was demonstrated that BQ could efficiently activate PMS for the degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX; a frequently detected antibiotic in the environments), and the degradation rate increased with solution pH from 7 to 10. Interestingly, quenching studies suggested that neither hydroxyl radical (•OH) nor sulfate radical (SO4•-) was produced therein. Instead, the generation of singlet oxygen (1O2) was proved by using two chemical probes (i.e., 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-4-piperidinol and 9,10-diphenylanthracene) with the appearance of 1O2 indicative products detected by electron paramagnetic resonance spectrometry and liquid chromatography mass spectrometry, respectively. A catalytic mechanism was proposed involving the formation of a dioxirane intermediate between PMS and BQ and the subsequent decomposition of this intermediate into 1O2. Accordingly, a kinetic model was developed, and it well described the experimental observation that the pH-dependent decomposition rate of PMS was first-order with respect to BQ. These findings have important implications for the development of novel nonradical oxidation processes based on PMS, because 1O2 as a moderately reactive electrophile may suffer less interference from background organic matters compared with nonselective •OH and SO4•-.

  17. Involvement of urokinase-type plasminogen activator system in cancer: an overview.

    PubMed

    Mekkawy, Ahmed H; Pourgholami, Mohammad H; Morris, David L

    2014-09-01

    Currently, there are several studies supporting the role of urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA) system in cancer. The association of uPA to its receptor triggers the conversion of plasminogen into plasmin. This process is regulated by the uPA inhibitors (PAI-1 and PAI-2). Plasmin promotes degradation of basement membrane and extracellular matrix (ECM) components as well as activation of ECM latent matrix metalloproteases. Degradation and remodeling of the surrounding tissues is crucial in the early steps of tumor progression by facilitating expansion of the tumor mass, release of tumor growth factors, activation of cytokines as well as induction of tumor cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. Hence, many tumors showed a correlation between uPA system component levels and tumor aggressiveness and survival. Therefore, this review summarizes the structure of the uPA system, its contribution to cancer progression, and the clinical relevance of uPA family members in cancer diagnosis. In addition, the review evaluates the significance of uPA system in the development of cancer-targeted therapies.

  18. Involvement of nitric oxide donor compounds in the bactericidal activity of human neutrophils in vitro.

    PubMed

    Klink, Magdalena; Cedzyński, Maciej; St Swierzko, Anna; Tchórzewski, Henryk; Sulowska, Zofia

    2003-04-01

    The bactericidal activity of human neutrophils against extracellular and facultatively intracellular bacteria was studied in the presence of the nitric oxide (NO) donors sodium nitroprusside (SNP) and 3-morpholinosydnonimine (SIN-1), a molsidomine metabolite. SNP and molsidomine are drugs commonly used as nitrovasodilators in coronary heart disease. It is demonstrated here that the NO donor compounds themselves did not affect the viability and survival of the bacterial strains tested. Neither SNP nor SIN-1 had any effect on the process of bacteria ingestion. In contrast, NO donors enhanced the ability of neutrophils to kill Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris and Salmonella Anatum. However, strains differed in their susceptibility to SNP- and SIN-1-mediated killing by neutrophils. Removal of the superoxide anion reduced the bactericidal activity of SNP- and SIN-1-treated neutrophils against E. coli and S. Anatum. This suggests that the NO derivatives formed in the reaction of NO generated from donors with the reactive oxygen species released by phagocytosed neutrophils potentiate the bactericidal activity of human neutrophils in vitro. The above original observation discussed here suggests clinical significance for the treatment of patients with nitrovasodilators in the course of coronary heart disease therapy.

  19. Restoration advisory board expanding public involvement process at Rocky Mountain Arsenal

    SciTech Connect

    Mecham, R.; Blose, K.

    1995-12-31

    The Rocky Mountain Arsenal (Arsenal) is a federal enclave covering more than 17,000 acres (27 square miles) bounded by Adams County, Colorado, on the north and west, and the City and County of Denver on the south and east. In February 1989, two administrative agreements were signed to ensure the Arsenal cleanup program was carried out in a smooth and responsible manner. The Federal Facility Agreement (FFA) and the Settlement Agreement (SA) define how appropriate remedial actions Will be determined and the technical and financial responsibilities for each party involved. The FFA also defines how Interim Response Actions (IRAs) will be carried out, consistent with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) and the National Contingency Plan (NCP). The IRAs are designed to support and be consistent with the final Record of Decision (ROD), which describes the final remediation plan for the Arsenal. When this decision is made in 1996, the IRAs will either be completed or be incorporated as part of the final cleanup plan.

  20. Determining Monkey Free Choice Long before the Choice Is Made: The Principal Role of Prefrontal Neurons Involved in Both Decision and Motor Processes

    PubMed Central

    Marcos, Encarni; Genovesio, Aldo

    2016-01-01

    When choices are made freely, they might emerge from pre-existing neural activity. However, whether neurons in the prefrontal cortex (PF) show this anticipatory effect and, if so, in which part of the process they are involved is still debated. To answer this question, we studied PF activity in monkeys while they performed a strategy task. In this task when the stimulus changed from the previous trial, the monkeys had to shift their response to one of two spatial goals, excluding the one that had been previously selected. Under this free-choice condition, the prestimulus activity of the same neurons that are involved in decision and motor processes predicted future choices. These neurons developed the same goal preferences during the prestimulus presentation as they did later in the decision phase. In contrast, the same effect was not observed in motor-only neurons and it was present but weaker in decision-only neurons. Overall, our results suggest that the PF neuronal activity predicts upcoming actions mainly through the decision-making network that integrate in time decision and motor task aspects. PMID:27713692

  1. High-resolution Li/Mg in cold-water coral skeletons: metabolic processes involved

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouchi, Vincent; Crowley, Quentin G.

    2016-04-01

    Skeletal Li/Mg has recently been presented as a vital-effect-devoid proxy for seawater temperature in both coastal and deep-sea corals. Bulk analyses on multiple scleractinian species appear to follow an exponential law when plotted against measured seawater temperature. In situ coral wall micro-analyses of cold-water species, however display a variability that cannot be solely inferred to relate to seawater temperature and must be influenced by some other processes. High-resolution (i.e. seasonal and infra-annual) reconstruction of palaeotemperatures using Li/Mg from cold-water carbonates is therefore questionable from our current understanding of these processes. In order to address this uncertainty we present LA-ICP-MS elemental maps of Li, Mg, Sr and Li/Mg from the skeleton of the cold-water coral Lophelia pertusa. Fluctuations in concentration of these elements are present in both radial and longitudinal axes of growth, implying a potential bias in absolute values measured, depending on the position of an analytical transect. Microstructures of L. pertusa skeletons can provide some insight into the potential use of elemental ratios as proxies for fluctuations in environmental conditions. Observation of growth patterns permits a micro-textural definition for calibration of geochemical fluctuations occurring over the course of a year or more. Two cycles of geochemical fluctuations are observed per year, meaning that seasonal fluctuations cannot be solely responsible for these variations. Moreover, high elemental concentrations in the coral wall correspond to large growth increments, suggesting that certain elemental incorporation is dominantly ruled by growth rates and thus kinetic processes. Growth rate fluctuations, which appear to occur twice per year, are likely caused by interaction of physiological mechanisms and local physicochemical conditions. Specifically for L. pertusa skeletons, further characterization and discreet separation of these interactions

  2. Hydrological processes involved in groundwater-surface water exchange at a lowland river: measurements and modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuetzmann, G.; Lewandowski, J.

    2009-04-01

    Water exchange processes in the floodplain of a lowland groundwater-surface water system are studied on the basis of a study site near Freienbrink, NE Germany. The surface water boundaries of this site are formed by an oxbow and the current bed of the river Spree, section Müggelspree. Surface and ground water levels and water temperatures were collected in 12 piezometers and 2 recording stage gauges of a 300 m long transect throughout a one-year-period. Due to water level fluctuations alternation of infiltration and exfiltration occurred. However, most of the time groundwater flux is directed into the river Spree and, river water infiltration events into the aquifer are usually short and of minor importance. Due to clogging of the oxbow bed with a mud layer of different thickness the hydraulic contact between the oxbow and the adjacent aquifer is heterogeneously distributed and partially marginal. These features are modelled quantitatively using MODFLOW and MT3DMS in order to simulate ground water flow and heat transport. Two different model approaches are developed: with the help of a 3D model the whole test site was simulated describing the main vertical and lateral flow components; with a 2D vertical model along transect the exchange processes close to the surface water bodies are studied in more detail in order to quantify the leakage parameters of both river sections. With the results the following questions will be answered: (1) How fast does the exchange between the surface water and the aquifer occur? (2) Can the hydraulic processes (in- and exfiltration) between both river sections and the aquifer be identified and quantified? (3) What are the driving forces for groundwater dynamics in the floodplain - groundwater recharge, regional groundwater flow, or water level fluctuations of the river sections?

  3. The PINK1-Parkin pathway is involved in the regulation of mitochondrial remodeling process

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jeehye; Lee, Gina; Chung, Jongkyeong

    2009-01-16

    The two Parkinson's disease (PD) genes, PTEN-induced kinase 1 (PINK1) and parkin, are linked in a common pathway which affects mitochondrial integrity and function. However, it is still not known what this pathway does in the mitochondria. Therefore, we investigated its physiological function in Drosophila. Because Drosophila PINK1 and parkin mutants show changes in mitochondrial morphology in both indirect flight muscles and dopaminergic neurons, we here investigated whether the PINK1-Parkin pathway genetically interacts with the regulators of mitochondrial fusion and fission such as Drp1, which promotes mitochondrial fission, and Opa1 or Marf, which induces mitochondrial fusion. Surprisingly, DrosophilaPINK1 and parkin mutant phenotypes were markedly suppressed by overexpression of Drp1 or downregulation of Opa1 or Marf, indicating that the PINK1-Parkin pathway regulates mitochondrial remodeling process in the direction of promoting mitochondrial fission. Therefore, we strongly suggest that mitochondrial fusion and fission process could be a prominent therapeutic target for the treatment of PD.

  4. Climate change scenario planning in Alaska's National Parks: Stakeholder involvement in the decision-making process

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Kathleen M; Van Riemsdijk, Dr. Micheline

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the participation of stakeholders in climate change decision-making in Alaska s National Parks. We place stakeholder participation within literatures on environmental and climate change decision-making. We conducted participant observation and interviews in two planning workshops to investigate the decision-making process, and our findings are three-fold. First, the inclusion of diverse stakeholders expanded climate change decision-making beyond National Park Service (NPS) institutional constraints. Second, workshops of the Climate Change Scenario Planning Project (CCSPP) enhanced institutional understandings of participants attitudes towards climate change and climate change decision-making. Third, the geographical context of climate change influences the decisionmaking process. As the first regional approach to climate change decision-making within the NPS, the CCSPP serves as a model for future climate change planning in public land agencies. This study shows how the participation of stakeholders can contribute to robust decisions, may move climate change decision-making beyond institutional barriers, and can provide information about attitudes towards climate change decision-making.

  5. Climate Change Scenario Planning in Alaska's National Parks: Stakeholder Involvement in the Decision-Making Process

    SciTech Connect

    Ernst, Kathleen M; Van Riemsdijk, Dr. Micheline

    2013-01-01

    This article studies the participation of stakeholders in climate change decision-making in Alaska s National Parks. We place stakeholder participation within literatures on environmental and climate change decision-making. We conducted participant observation and interviews in two planning workshops to investigate the decision-making process, and our findings are three-fold. First, the inclusion of diverse stakeholders expanded climate change decision-making beyond National Park Service (NPS) institutional constraints. Second, workshops of the Climate Change Scenario Planning Project (CCSPP) enhanced institutional understandings of participants attitudes towards climate change and climate change decision-making. Third, the geographical context of climate change influences the decision-making process. As the first regional approach to climate change decision-making within the NPS, the CCSPP serves as a model for future climate change planning in public land agencies. This study shows how the participation of stakeholders can contribute to robust decisions, may move climate change decision-making beyond institutional barriers, and can provide information about attitudes towards climate change decision-making.

  6. Beta-delayed fission probabilities of transfermium nuclei, involved in the r-process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panov, I.; Lutostansky, Yu; Thielemann, F.-K.

    2016-01-01

    For the nucleosynthesis of heavy and superheavy nuclei fission becomes very important when the r-process runs in a very high neutron density environment. In part, fission is responsible for the formation of heavy nuclei due to the inclusion of fission products as new seed nuclei (fission cycling). More than that, beta-delayed fission, along with spontaneous fission, is responsible in the late stages of the r-process for the suppression of superheavy element yields. For beta-delayed fission probability calculations a model description of the beta-strength- functions is required. Extended theoretical predictions for astro-physical applications were provided long ago, and new predictions also for superheavy nuclei with uptodate nuclear input are needed. For the further extension of data to heavier transactinides the models of strength- functions should be modified, taking into account more complicated level schemes. In our present calculations the strength-function model is based on the quasi-particle approximation of Finite Fermi Systems Theory. The probabilities of beta-delayed fission and beta-delayed neutron emission are calculated for some transfermium neutron-rich nuclei, and the influence of beta-delayed fission upon superheavy element formation is discussed.

  7. Involvement of low-level visual areas in hemispheric superiority for face processing.

    PubMed

    Sung, Yul-Wan; Someya, Yoshiaki; Eriko, Yamamoto; Choi, Sang-Han; Cho, Zang-Hee; Ogawa, Seiji

    2011-05-16

    Previous studies on laterality in face processing have indicated superiority of the right hemisphere in discriminating and recognizing faces; however, the reasons for this feature are poorly understood. We employed functional MRI (fMRI) to elucidate the origin of this feature and used a paired-stimulus paradigm in which face pairs were presented unilaterally at the left or right visual hemifield of the participants. Each face in a pair was at a different position in the visual field. Refractory suppression in the fMRI response was observed bilaterally at the fusiform face area (FFA) for the same face pairs when pictures were presented in the left visual hemifield. In contrast, suppression was observed bilaterally at the FFA for the different as well as for the same face pairs when pictures were presented in the right visual hemifield. This pattern indicated inferior discrimination ability for paired stimuli presented to the right visual hemifield. These observations, along with changes in bilaterally interlocked responses at the FFA, suggest that low-level visual areas, and not high-level face areas, are strongly associated with the superiority of the right hemisphere in face processing.

  8. Conflict monitoring and stimulus categorization processes involved in the prosocial attitude implicit association test: Evidence from event-related potentials.

    PubMed

    Xiao, Fengqiu; Zheng, Zhiwei; Wang, Ya; Cui, Jifang; Chen, Yinghe

    2015-08-01

    The implicit association test (IAT) is a promising method used to assess individual implicit attitudes by indirectly measuring the strengths of associations between target and attribute categories. To date, the cognitive processes involved in the prosocial attitude IAT task have received little attention. The present study examined the temporal dynamics of the IAT that measures prosocial attitude using event-related potentials (ERPs). ERP results revealed enhanced N2 amplitudes for incongruent trials when compared with congruent trials and enhanced P300 amplitudes for congruent trials when compared with incongruent trials. In addition, the N2 amplitude differences were significantly correlated with individual prosocial behavior (the amount of donation). Our findings suggest that conflict monitoring and stimulus categorization processes are involved in the prosocial attitude IAT task and that the ERP indices of IATs that measure prosocial attitude may predict individual prosocial behavior.

  9. Utilization of iron-catecholamine complexes involving ferric reductase activity in Listeria monocytogenes.

    PubMed Central

    Coulanges, V; Andre, P; Ziegler, O; Buchheit, L; Vidon, D J

    1997-01-01

    Listeria monocytogenes is a ubiquitous potentially pathogenic organism requiring iron for growth and virulence. Although it does not produce siderophores, L. monocytogenes is able to obtain iron by using either exogenous siderophores produced by various microorganisms or natural catechol compounds widespread in the environment. In the presence of tropolone, an iron-chelating agent, growth of L. monocytogenes is completely inhibited. However, the growth inhibition can be relieved by the addition of dopamine or norepinephrine under their different isomeric forms, while the catecholamine derivatives 4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenylglycol and normetanephrine did not relieve the inhibitory effect of tropolone. Preincubation of L. monocytogenes with chlorpromazine and yohimbine did not antagonize the growth-promoting effect of catecholamines in iron-complexed medium. In addition, norepinephrine stimulated the growth-promoting effect induced by human transferrin in iron-limited medium. Furthermore, dopamine and norepinephrine allowed 55Fe uptake by iron-deprived bacterial cells. The uptake of iron was energy dependent, as indicated by inhibition of 55Fe uptake at 0 degrees C as well as by preincubating the bacteria with KCN. Inhibition of 55Fe uptake by L. monocytogenes was also observed in the presence of Pt(II). Moreover, when assessed by a whole-cell ferric reductase assay, reductase activity of L. monocytogenes was inhibited by Pt(II). These data demonstrate that dopamine and norepinephrine can function as siderophore-like compounds in L. monocytogenes owing to their ortho-diphenol function and that catecholamine-mediated iron acquisition does not involve specific catecholamine receptors but acts through a cell-bound ferrireductase activity. PMID:9199450

  10. Cocaine-mediated microglial activation involves the ER stress-autophagy axis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Ming-Lei; Liao, Ke; Periyasamy, Palsamy; Yang, Lu; Cai, Yu; Callen, Shannon E; Buch, Shilpa

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine abuse leads to neuroinflammation, which, in turn, contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration associated with advanced HIV-1 infection. Autophagy plays important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the possible functional link between cocaine and autophagy has not been explored before. Herein, we demonstrate that cocaine exposure induced autophagy in both BV-2 and primary rat microglial cells as demonstrated by a dose- and time-dependent induction of autophagy-signature proteins such as BECN1/Beclin 1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B. These findings were validated wherein cocaine treatment of BV-2 cells resulted in increased formation of puncta in cells expressing either endogenous MAP1LC3B or overexpressing GFP-MAP1LC3B. Specificity of cocaine-induced autophagy was confirmed by treating cells with inhibitors of autophagy (3-MA and wortmannin). Intriguingly, cocaine-mediated induction of autophagy involved upstream activation of 2 ER stress pathways (EIF2AK3- and ERN1-dependent), as evidenced by the ability of the ER stress inhibitor salubrinal to ameliorate cocaine-induced autophagy. In vivo validation of these findings demonstrated increased expression of BECN1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B-II proteins in cocaine-treated mouse brains compared to untreated animals. Increased autophagy contributes to cocaine-mediated activation of microglia since pretreatment of cells with wortmannin resulted in decreased expression and release of inflammatory factors (TNF, IL1B, IL6, and CCL2) in microglial cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that cocaine exposure results in induction of autophagy that is closely linked with neuroinflammation. Targeting autophagic proteins could thus be considered as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cocaine-related neuroinflammation diseases. PMID:26043790

  11. Evidence for the Involvement of p38 MAPK Activation in Barnacle Larval Settlement

    PubMed Central

    He, Li-Sheng; Xu, Ying; Matsumura, Kiyotaka; Zhang, Yu; Zhang, Gen; Qi, Shu-Hua; Qian, Pei-Yuan

    2012-01-01

    The barnacle Balanus ( = Amphibalanus) amphitrite is a major marine fouling animal. Understanding the molecular mechanism of larval settlement in this species is critical for anti-fouling research. In this study, we cloned one isoform of p38 MAPK (Bar-p38 MAPK) from this species, which shares the significant characteristic of containing a TGY motif with other species such as yeast, Drosophila and humans. The activation of p38 MAPK was detected by an antibody that recognizes the conserved dual phosphorylation sites of TGY. The results showed that phospho-p38 MAPK (pp38 MAPK) was more highly expressed at the cyprid stage, particularly in aged cyprids, in comparison to other stages, including the nauplius and juvenile stages. Immunostaining showed that Bar-p38 MAPK and pp38 MAPK were mainly located at the cyprid antennules, and especially the third and fourth segments, which are responsible for substratum exploration during settlement. The expression and localization patterns of Bar-p38 MAPK suggest its involvement in larval settlement. This postulation was also supported by the larval settlement bioassay with the p38 MAPK inhibitor SB203580. Behavioral analysis by live imaging revealed that the larvae were still capable of exploring the surface of the substratum after SB203580 treatment. This shows that the effect of p38 MAPK on larval settlement might be by regulating the secretion of permanent proteinaceous substances. Furthermore, the level of pp38 MAPK dramatically decreased after full settlement, suggesting that Bar-p38 MAPK maybe plays a role in larval settlement rather than metamorphosis. Finally, we found that Bar-p38 MAPK was highly activated when larvae confronted extracts of adult barnacle containing settlement cues, whereas larvae pre-treated with SB203580 failed to respond to the crude adult extracts. PMID:23115639

  12. Cocaine-mediated microglial activation involves the ER stress-autophagy axis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Ming-Lei; Liao, Ke; Periyasamy, Palsamy; Yang, Lu; Cai, Yu; Callen, Shannon E; Buch, Shilpa

    2015-01-01

    Cocaine abuse leads to neuroinflammation, which, in turn, contributes to the pathogenesis of neurodegeneration associated with advanced HIV-1 infection. Autophagy plays important roles in both innate and adaptive immune responses. However, the possible functional link between cocaine and autophagy has not been explored before. Herein, we demonstrate that cocaine exposure induced autophagy in both BV-2 and primary rat microglial cells as demonstrated by a dose- and time-dependent induction of autophagy-signature proteins such as BECN1/Beclin 1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B. These findings were validated wherein cocaine treatment of BV-2 cells resulted in increased formation of puncta in cells expressing either endogenous MAP1LC3B or overexpressing GFP-MAP1LC3B. Specificity of cocaine-induced autophagy was confirmed by treating cells with inhibitors of autophagy (3-MA and wortmannin). Intriguingly, cocaine-mediated induction of autophagy involved upstream activation of 2 ER stress pathways (EIF2AK3- and ERN1-dependent), as evidenced by the ability of the ER stress inhibitor salubrinal to ameliorate cocaine-induced autophagy. In vivo validation of these findings demonstrated increased expression of BECN1, ATG5, and MAP1LC3B-II proteins in cocaine-treated mouse brains compared to untreated animals. Increased autophagy contributes to cocaine-mediated activation of microglia since pretreatment of cells with wortmannin resulted in decreased expression and release of inflammatory factors (TNF, IL1B, IL6, and CCL2) in microglial cells. Taken together, our findings suggest that cocaine exposure results in induction of autophagy that is closely linked with neuroinflammation. Targeting autophagic proteins could thus be considered as a therapeutic strategy for the treatment of cocaine-related neuroinflammation diseases.

  13. Evolution of genes involved in feeding preference and metabolic processes in Calliphoridae (Diptera: Calyptratae)

    PubMed Central

    Cardoso, Gisele Antoniazzi; Marinho, Marco Antonio Tonus; Monfardini, Raquel Dietsche; Espin, Ana Maria Lima de Azeredo

    2016-01-01

    Background The genotype-phenotype interactions among traits governing feeding preference are of fundamental importance to behavioral genetics and evolutionary biology. The genetic basis of behavioral traits has been explored in different taxa using different approaches. However, the complex nature of the genetic mechanisms undergirding behavior is poorly understood. Here, we present an evolutionary study of candidate genes related to parasitism in Calliphoridae (Diptera: Calyptratae). Closely related species in this family exhibit distinct larval feeding habits, most notably necro-saprophagy and obligate parasitism. Methods To understand the genetic and molecular bases underlying these habits, expression levels of eight candidate genes for feeding behavior—Cyp6g2, foraging, glutamate dehydrogenase, Jonah65aiv, Malvolio, PGRP-SC2, RPS6-p70-protein kinase, and smooth—were measured in four species using qPCR. Moreover we used expression values and sequence information to reconstruct the relationship among species and the dN/dS rate to infer possible sites under selection. Results For most candidate genes, no statistically significant differences were observed, indicating a high degree of conservation in expression. However, Malvolio was differentially expressed between habits. Evolutionary analyses based on transcript levels and nucleotide sequences of Malvolio coding region suggest that transcript levels were correlated to feeding habit preferences among species, although deviations under a strictly neutral model were also observed in statistical tests. Discussion Malvolio was the only gene demonstrating a possible connection to feeding habit. Differences in gene expression may be involved in (or be a result of) the genetic regulation of Calliphoridae feeding habit. Our results are the first steps towards understanding the genetic basis and evolution of feeding behavior in Calliphoridae using a functional approach. PMID:27812410

  14. Potential Involvement of P2 Receptors in the Pathological Processes of Hyperthyroidism: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wu; Li, Guodong; Nie, Yijun; Zou, Lifang; Zhang, Xi; Liu, Shuangmei; Li, Guilin; Xu, Hong; Zhang, Chun-Ping; Liang, Shangdong

    2016-05-01

    Symptoms of hyperthyroidism manifest mainly as changes in the nervous and metabolic systems. Whether P2X receptors (ionotropic ATP purinergic receptors, including P2X3 receptor and P2X7 receptor) are involved in the alterations of these disorders still remains unclear. Thus, this study aimed to assess the association of hyperthyroidism with the expression of P2X3 and P2X7 receptors and the concentrations of ATP in blood leukocytes and catecholamine. Twelve healthy subjects and twelve patients diagnosed with hyperthyroidism were recruited. Serum free triiodothyronine (FT3), free thyroxine (FT4) and thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) levels had been detected by chemiluminescence method. Meanwhile, the catecholamine levels (including adrenaline, noradrenaline, and dopamine) in plasma, ATP level and P2X receptors (including P2X3 receptor and P2X7 receptor) in peripheral blood had been detected by high performance liquid chromatography, bioluminescence method, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Levels of epinephrine and norepinephrine were significantly higher in the hyperthyroidism group compared with the control group. The concentration of ATP in the hyperthyroidism group was significantly higher than its in the control group. The expression of P2X3 mRNA and P2X7 mRNA in hyperthyroidism group were significantly increased compared with those in control group. In a conclusion, there is a relationship between the elevated expression of P2X3 receptor and P2X7 receptor in peripheral blood leukocytes and high serum epinephrine and norepinephrine levels in hyperthyroidism patients.

  15. Process of activation of a palladium catalyst system

    SciTech Connect

    Sobolevskiy, Anatoly; Rossin, Joseph A.; Knapke, Michael J.

    2011-08-02

    Improved processes for activating a catalyst system used for the reduction of nitrogen oxides are provided. In one embodiment, the catalyst system is activated by passing an activation gas stream having an amount of each of oxygen, water vapor, nitrogen oxides, and hydrogen over the catalyst system and increasing a temperature of the catalyst system to a temperature of at least 180.degree. C. at a heating rate of from 1-20.degree./min. Use of activation processes described herein leads to a catalyst system with superior NOx reduction capabilities.

  16. Possible involvement of galectin-3 in microglial activation in the hippocampus with trimethyltin treatment.

    PubMed

    Yang, Miyoung; Kim, Juhwan; Kim, Taehyub; Kim, Sung-Ho; Kim, Jong-Choon; Kim, Jeongtae; Takayama, Chitoshi; Hayashi, Akinobu; Joo, Hong-Gu; Shin, Taekyun; Moon, Changjong

    2012-12-01

    Trimethyltin (TMT) is an organotin neurotoxicant with effects that are selectively localized to the limbic system (especially the hippocampus), which produces memory deficits and temporal lobe seizures. Galectin-3 (Gal-3) is a beta-galactoside-binding lectin that is important in cell proliferation and regulation of apoptosis. The present study evaluated the temporal expression of Gal-3 in the hippocampus of adult BALB/c mice after TMT treatment (i.p., 2.5mg/kg). Western blotting analyses showed that Gal-3 immunoreactivity began to increase days after treatment; the immunoreactivity peaked significantly within days after treatment but significantly declined between days 4 and 8. Immunohistochemical analysis indicated that Gal-3 expression was very rare in the hippocampi of vehicle-treated controls. However, Gal-3 immunoreactivity appeared between 2 and 8 days after TMT treatment and was primarily localized to the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG), in which neuronal degeneration occurred. The immunoreactivity was detected predominantly in most of the Iba1-positive microglia and in some GFAP-positive astrocytes of the hippocampal DG. Furthermore, Gal-3 expression co-localized with the pro-inflammatory enzymes cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase in the hippocampal DG. Therefore, we suggest that Gal-3 is involved in the inflammatory process of neurodegenerative disorder induced by organotin intoxication.

  17. Nanometer Scale Titanium Surface Texturing Are Detected by Signaling Pathways Involving Transient FAK and Src Activations

    PubMed Central

    Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Bonfante, Estevam A.; Jimbo, Ryo; Hayashi, Mariko; Andersson, Martin; Alves, Gutemberg; Takamori, Esther R.; Beltrão, Paulo J.; Coelho, Paulo G.; Granjeiro, José M.

    2014-01-01

    Background It is known that physico/chemical alterations on biomaterial surfaces have the capability to modulate cellular behavior, affecting early tissue repair. Such surface modifications are aimed to improve early healing response and, clinically, offer the possibility to shorten the time from implant placement to functional loading. Since FAK and Src are intracellular proteins able to predict the quality of osteoblast adhesion, this study evaluated the osteoblast behavior in response to nanometer scale titanium surface texturing by monitoring FAK and Src phosphorylations. Methodology Four engineered titanium surfaces were used for the study: machined (M), dual acid-etched (DAA), resorbable media microblasted and acid-etched (MBAA), and acid-etch microblasted (AAMB). Surfaces were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, interferometry, atomic force microscopy, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Thereafter, those 4 samples were used to evaluate their cytotoxicity and interference on FAK and Src phosphorylations. Both Src and FAK were investigated by using specific antibody against specific phosphorylation sites. Principal Findings The results showed that both FAK and Src activations were differently modulated as a function of titanium surfaces physico/chemical configuration and protein adsorption. Conclusions It can be suggested that signaling pathways involving both FAK and Src could provide biomarkers to predict osteoblast adhesion onto different surfaces. PMID:24999733

  18. Postnatal changes of local neuronal circuits involved in activation of jaw-closing muscles.

    PubMed

    Inoue, Tomio; Nakamura, Shiro; Takamatsu, Junichi; Tokita, Kenichi; Gemba, Akiko; Nakayama, Kiyomi

    2007-04-01

    Feeding behaviour in mammals changes from suckling to mastication during postnatal development and the neuronal circuits controlling feeding behaviour should change in parallel to the development of orofacial structures. In this review we discuss the location of excitatory premotor neurons for jaw-closing motoneurons (JCMNs) and postnatal changes of excitatory synaptic transmission from the supratrigeminal region (SupV) to JCMNs. We show that neurons located in SupV and the reticular formation dorsal to the facial nucleus most likely excite JCMNs. Excitatory inputs from SupV to JCMNs are mediated by activation of glutamate and glycine receptors in neonatal rats, whereas glycinergic inputs from SupV to JCMNs become inhibitory with age. We also show that the incidence of post-spike afterdepolarization increases during postnatal development, whereas the amplitude and half-duration of the medium-duration afterhyperpolarization decrease with age. Such postnatal changes in synaptic transmission from SupV to JCMNs and membrane properties of JCMNs might be involved in the transition from suckling to mastication.

  19. Tachykinins activate guinea-pig alveolar macrophages: involvement of NK2 and NK1 receptors.

    PubMed Central

    Brunelleschi, S.; Vanni, L.; Ledda, F.; Giotti, A.; Maggi, C. A.; Fantozzi, R.

    1990-01-01

    1. The effects of substance P (SP), neurokinin A (NKA) and neurokinin B (NKB) were evaluated on superoxide anion (O2-.) production by guinea-pig alveolar macrophages (AM). 2. SP dose-dependently (ED50 = 0.7 nM) evoked O2-. production from guinea-pig AM; the N-terminal heptapeptide, SP(1-7), was ineffective. In the presence of thiorphan (10(-5) M), an enkephalinase inhibitor, the stimulating effects of SP were not significantly modified. NKA and NKB were both able to induce O2-. production from guinea-pig AM, ED50 values being 0.1 and 1.3 nM, respectively. Therefore, the rank order of activity of natural tachykinins was NKA greater than SP greater than NKB. Tachykinin-evoked effects were quantitatively similar to those elicited by the autacoid mediator PAF-acether and less than those induced by the synthetic peptide N-formylmethionyl-leucyl-phenylalanine (FMLP). 3. The NK2 receptor agonist [beta-Ala8]-NKA (4-10) dose-dependently evoked O2-. production from guinea-pig AM; the NK1 receptor agonist [Pro9]-SP sulphone acted only at high concentrations, while the NK3 receptor agonist [Me,Phe7]-NKB was ineffective. 4. These findings indicate that guinea-pig AM possess NK2 and possibly some NK1 tachykinin receptors and further suggest tachykinin involvement in lung pathophysiology. PMID:1697194

  20. Involvement of Trichoderma Trichothecenes in the Biocontrol Activity and Induction of Plant Defense-Related Genes

    PubMed Central

    Malmierca, M. G.; Cardoza, R. E.; Alexander, N. J.; McCormick, S. P.; Hermosa, R.; Monte, E.

    2012-01-01

    Trichoderma species produce trichothecenes, most notably trichodermin and harzianum A (HA), by a biosynthetic pathway in which several of the involved proteins have significant differences in functionality compared to their Fusarium orthologues. In addition, the genes encoding these proteins show a genomic organization differing from that of the Fusarium tri clusters. Here we describe the isolation of Trichoderma arundinaceum IBT 40837 transformants which have a disrupted or silenced tri4 gene, a gene encoding a cytochrome P450 monooxygenase that oxygenates trichodiene to give rise to isotrichodiol, and the effect of tri4 gene disruption and silencing on the expression of other tri genes. Our results indicate that the tri4 gene disruption resulted in a reduced antifungal activity against Botrytis cinerea and Rhizoctonia solani and also in a reduced ability to induce the expression of tomato plant defense-related genes belonging to the salicylic acid (SA) and jasmonate (JA) pathways against B. cinerea, in comparison to the wild-type strain, indicating that HA plays an important function in the sensitization of Trichoderma-pretreated plants against this fungal pathogen. Additionally, the effect of the interaction of T. arundinaceum with B. cinerea or R. solani and with tomato seedlings on the expressions of the tri genes was studied. PMID:22562989

  1. Water-soluble chlorophyll protein is involved in herbivore resistance activation during greening of Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Boex-Fontvieille, Edouard; Rustgi, Sachin; von Wettstein, Diter; Reinbothe, Steffen; Reinbothe, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Water-soluble chlorophyll proteins (WSCPs) constitute a small family of unusual chlorophyll (Chl)-binding proteins that possess a Kunitz-type protease inhibitor domain. In Arabidopsis thaliana, a WSCP has been identified, named AtWSCP, that forms complexes with Chl and the Chl precursor chlorophyllide (Chlide) in vitro. AtWSCP exhibits a quite unexpected expression pattern for a Chl binding protein and accumulated to high levels in the apical hook of etiolated plants. AtWSCP expression was negatively light-regulated. Transgenic expression of AtWSCP fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) revealed that AtWSCP is localized to cell walls/apoplastic spaces. Biochemical assays identified AtWSCP as interacting with RD21 (RESPONSIVE TO DESICCATION 21), a granulin domain-containing cysteine protease implicated in stress responses and defense. Reconstitution experiments showed tight interactions between RD21 and WSCP that were relieved upon Chlide binding. Laboratory feeding experiments with two herbivorous isopod crustaceans, Porcellio scaber (woodlouse) and Armadillidium vulgare (pillbug), identified the apical hook as Achilles’ heel of etiolated plants and that this was protected by RD21 during greening. Because Chlide is formed in the apical hook during seedling emergence from the soil, our data suggest an unprecedented mechanism of herbivore resistance activation that is triggered by light and involves AtWSCP. PMID:26016527

  2. Study of the elementary processes involved in the selective oxidation of methane over MoOx/SiO2.

    PubMed

    Ohler, Nicholas; Bell, Alexis T

    2006-02-16

    Isolated molybdate species supported on silica are reported to have the highest specific activity and selectivity for the direct oxidation of methane to formaldehyde. The present investigation was undertaken to understand the elementary redox processes involved in the formation of formaldehyde over such species. A MoO(x)/SiO(2) catalyst was prepared with a Mo loading of 0.44 Mo/nm(2). On the basis of evidence from extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and Raman spectroscopy, the Mo atoms in this catalyst are present as isolated, pentacoordinated molybdate species containing a single Mo=O bond. Isotopic labeling experiments in combination with in-situ Raman spectroscopy were used to examine the reducibility of the dispersed molybdate species and the exchange of O atoms between the gas phase and the catalyst. It was established that treatment of MoO(x)/SiO(2) at 873 K under pure methane reduces the dispersed molybdate species to only a limited extent and results mainly in the deposition of amorphous carbon. During CH(4) oxidation to formaldehyde, the catalyst undergoes only a very small degree of reduction and typically only approximately 50-500 ppm of Mo(VI) is reduced to Mo(IV). Reactions carried out using CH(4) and (18)O(2) show that there is extensive scrambling of O atoms between the species in the gas phase and the catalyst. Additional experiments revealed that H(2)O formed in the reaction is the principal species responsible for the exchange of O atoms between the gas phase and the SiO(2) support. Low concentrations of H(2)O were observed to enhance the activity of MoO(x)/SiO(2) for CH(4) oxidation to formaldehyde. A mechanism for the oxidation of CH(4) over MoO(x)/SiO(2) was formulated in light of the observations made here and is discussed in the light of previous studies. It is proposed that peroxides are produced by the reaction of O(2) with a small concentration of reduced molybdate species and that the reaction of CH(4) with these peroxide

  3. Involvement of DNA methylation in memory processing in the honey bee.

    PubMed

    Lockett, Gabrielle A; Helliwell, Paul; Maleszka, Ryszard

    2010-08-23

    DNA methylation, an important and evolutionarily conserved epigenetic mechanism, is implicated in learning and memory processes in vertebrates, but its role in behaviour in invertebrates is unknown. We examined the role of DNA methylation in memory in the honey bee using an appetitive Pavlovian olfactory discrimination task, and by assessing the expression of DNA methyltransferase3, a key driver of epigenetic reprogramming. Here we report that DNA methyltransferase inhibition reduces acquisition retention and alters the extinction depending on treatment time, and DNA methyltransferase3 is upregulated after training. Our findings add to the understanding of epigenetic mechanisms in learning and memory, extending known roles of DNA methylation to appetitive and extinction memory, and for the first time implicate DNA methylation in memory in invertebrates.

  4. Different forms of MARCKS protein are involved in memory formation in the learning process of imprinting.

    PubMed

    Solomonia, Revaz O; Apkhazava, David; Nozadze, Maia; Jackson, Antony P; McCabe, Brian J; Horn, Gabriel

    2008-06-01

    There is strong evidence that a restricted part of the chick forebrain, the IMM (formerly IMHV), stores information acquired through the learning process of visual imprinting. Twenty-four hours after imprinting training, a learning-specific increase in amount of myristoylated, alanine-rich C-kinase substrate (MARCKS) protein is known to occur in the homogenate fraction of IMM. We investigated the two components of this fraction, membrane-bound and cytoplasmic-phosphorylated MARCKS. In IMM, amount of membrane-bound MARCKS, but not of cytoplasmic-phosphorylated MARCKS, increased as chicks learned. No changes were observed for either form of MARCKS in PPN, a control forebrain region. The results indicate that there is a learning-specific increase in membrane-bound, non-phosphorylated MARCKS 24 h after training. This increase might contribute to stabilization of synaptic morphology.

  5. Chemical Dependency and Nursing Students: A Complicated Process Calling for Nurse Educator Involvement.

    PubMed

    Dittman, Patricia W

    2015-01-01

    Chemical use and dependency is a prevalent problem in society and among the members of the nursing profession. Nursing students, as the novice representatives of the profession, may be particularly vulnerable to chemical use. Nursing leaders in both educational institutions and practice settings must recognize highly vulnerable individuals, which nursing activities are most vulnerable, and interventions to assist and support the vulnerable individual while assuring a safe practice environment. As nurses, it is our responsibility, both ethically and legally, to provide a safe working environment not only for our patients but also for ourselves by reporting the behaviors of nurses who may be impaired through the proper channels according to your state's Nurse Practice Act. Through a united approach, nurse leaders from both the academic and practice environments should provide a safe and effective rehabilitation approach.

  6. A potential Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor involves in kinetics of protease inhibition and bacteriostatic activity.

    PubMed

    Kumaresan, Venkatesh; Harikrishnan, Ramaswamy; Arockiaraj, Jesu

    2015-02-01

    Kazal-type serine protease inhibitor (KSPI) is a pancreatic secretary trypsin inhibitor which involves in various cellular component regulations including development and defense process. In this study, we have characterized a KSPI cDNA sequence of freshwater striped murrel fish Channa striatus (Cs) at molecular level. Cellular location analysis predicted that the CsKSPI was an extracellular protein. The domain analysis showed that the CsKSPI contains a Kazal domain at 47-103 along with its family signature between 61 and 83. Phylogenetically, CsKSPI is closely related to KSPI from Maylandia zebra and formed a sister group with mammals. The 2D structure of CsKSPI showed three α-helical regions which are connected with random coils, one helix at signal sequence and two at the Kazal domain region. The relative gene expression showed that the CsKSPI was highly expressed in gills and its expression was induced upon fungus (Aphanomyces invadans), bacteria (Aeromonas hydrophila) and poly I:C (a viral analogue) challenge. The CsKSPI recombinant protein was produced to characterize and study the CsKSPI gene specific functions. The recombinant CsKSPI strongly inhibited trypsin compared to other tested proteases. The results of the kinetic activity of CsKSPI against trypsin was V(max)s = 1.62 nmol/min, K(M)s = 0.21 mM and K(i)s = 15.37 nM. Moreover, the recombinant CsKSPI inhibited the growth of Gram-negative bacteria A. hydrophila at 20 μM and Gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtilis at the MIC50 of 15 μM. Overall, the study indicated that the CsKSPI was a potential trypsin inhibitor which involves in antimicrobial activity.

  7. Collagen-induced platelet activation mainly involves the protein kinase C pathway.

    PubMed Central

    Karniguian, A; Grelac, F; Levy-Toledano, S; Legrand, Y J; Rendu, F

    1990-01-01

    This study analyses early biochemical events in collagen-induced platelet activation. An early metabolic event occurring during the lag phase was the activation of PtdIns(4,5)P2-specific phospholipase C. Phosphatidic acid (PtdOH) formation, phosphorylation of P43 and P20, thromboxane B2 (TXB2) synthesis and platelet secretion began after the lag phase, and were similarly time-dependent, except for TXB2 synthesis, which was delayed. Collagen induced extensive P43 phosphorylation, whereas P20 phosphorylation was weak and always lower than with thrombin. The dose-response curves of P43 phosphorylation and granule secretion were similar, and both reached a peak at 7.5 micrograms of collagen/ml, a dose which induced half-maximal PtdOH and TXB2 formation. Sphingosine, assumed to inhibit protein kinase C, inhibited P43 phosphorylation and secretion in parallel. However, sphingosine was not specific for protein kinase C, since a 15 microM concentration, which did not inhibit P43 phosphorylation, blocked TXB2 synthesis by 50%. Sphingosine did not affect PtdOH formation at all, even at 100 microM, suggesting that collagen itself induced this PtdOH formation, independently of TXB2 generation. The absence of external Ca2+ allowed the cleavage of polyphosphoinositides and the accumulation of InsP3 to occur, but impaired P43 phosphorylation, PtdOH and TXB2 formation, and secretion; these were only restored by adding 0.11 microM-Ca2+. In conclusion, stimulation of platelet membrane receptors for collagen initiates a PtdInsP2-specific phospholipase C activation, which is independent of external Ca2+, and might be the immediate receptor-linked response. A Ca2+ influx is indispensable to the triggering of subsequent platelet responses. This stimulation predominantly involves the protein kinase C pathway associated with secretion, and appears not to be mediated by TXB2, at least during its initial stage. Images Fig. 6. PMID:2163606

  8. Signalling pathways involved in the activation of dendritic cells by layered double hydroxide nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Li, Ang; Qin, Lili; Zhu, Di; Zhu, Rongrong; Sun, Jing; Wang, Shilong

    2010-02-01

    Layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanoparticles are attractive as potential drug vectors for the targeting not only of tissues, but also of intracellular organelles, and particularly the acidic endolysosomes created after cell endocytosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the ability of LDH nanoparticles designed as vectors to activate dendritic cells (DCs), as measured by various cellular functions. The study also explored the possible signaling pathway through which the LDH nanoparticles exerted their effects on the cellular functions of DCs. First, LDH nanoparticles with different ratios of Mg(OH)(2) to Al(OH)(3) (1:1, 2:1 and 3:1, called R1, R2 and R3 respectively) were optimized and had a hydrodynamic diameter of 57 nm with a zeta potential of +35 mV. Then, the efficient endocytosis of the optimized LDH nanoparticles by bone marrow-derived dendritic cells (MDDCs) was monitored by fluorescence-activated cell sorting. The effect of R1, R2 and R3 on the expression of the pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-alpha, IL-6, and IL-12) and the co-stimulatory molecules (CD40, CD80, CD86, and MHC class II) in MDDCs was examined. The exposure of R1 caused a dose-dependent increase in the expression of TNF-alpha, IL-12, CD86 and CD40, while R2 and R3 did not up-regulate these cytokines and co-stimulatory molecules. Migration assays showed that R1 could increase the migration capacity of DCs to CCL21 and up-regulate the expression of CCR7. Furthermore, we found that R1 significantly increased the NF-kappaB expression in the nucleus (in a dose-dependent manner) and promoted the degradation of total IkappaBalpha levels, indicating that the NF-kappaB signaling pathway might involve in an R1-induced DC activation. Our results suggested that LDH nanoparticles, in the future, may function as a useful vector for ex vivo engineering to promote vaccine delivery in immune cells.

  9. Hold My Calls: An Activity for Introducing the Statistical Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abel, Todd; Poling, Lisa

    2015-01-01

    Working with practicing teachers, this article demonstrates, through the facilitation of a statistical activity, how to introduce and investigate the unique qualities of the statistical process including: formulate a question, collect data, analyze data, and interpret data.

  10. Evaluation of Control Parameters for the Activated Sludge Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stall, T. Ray; Sherrard, Josephy H.

    1978-01-01

    An evaluation of the use of the parameters currently being used to design and operate the activated sludge process is presented. The advantages and disadvantages for the use of each parameter are discussed. (MR)

  11. What Are the Key Ingredients for Effective Public Involvement in Health Care Improvement and Policy Decisions? A Randomized Trial Process Evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Boivin, Antoine; Lehoux, Pascale; Burgers, Jako; Grol, Richard

    2014-01-01

    Context In the past 50 years, individual patient involvement at the clinical consultation level has received considerable attention. More recently, patients and the public have increasingly been involved in collective decisions concerning the improvement of health care and policymaking. However, rigorous evaluation guiding the development and implementation of effective public involvement interventions is lacking. This article describes those key ingredients likely to affect public members’ ability to deliberate productively with professionals and influence collective health care choices. Method We conducted a trial process evaluation of public involvement in setting priorities for health care improvement. In all, 172 participants (including 83 patients and public members and 89 professionals) from 6 Health and Social Services Centers in Canada participated in the trial. We videorecorded 14 one-day meetings, and 2 nonparticipant observers took structured notes. Using qualitative analysis, we show how public members influenced health care improvement priorities. Findings Legitimacy, credibility, and power explain the variations in the public members’ influence. Their credibility was supported by their personal experience as patients and caregivers, the provision of a structured preparation meeting, and access to population-based data from their community. Legitimacy was fostered by the recruitment of a balanced group of participants and by the public members’ opportunities to draw from one another's experience. The combination of small-group deliberations, wider public consultation, and a moderation style focused on effective group process helped level out the power differences between professionals and the public. The engagement of key stakeholders in the intervention design and implementation helped build policy support for public involvement. Conclusions A number of interacting active ingredients structure and foster the public's legitimacy, credibility

  12. Human high intelligence is involved in spectral redshift of biophotonic activities in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Niting; Li, Zehua; Xiao, Fangyan; Dai, Jiapei

    2016-01-01

    Human beings hold higher intelligence than other animals on Earth; however, it is still unclear which brain properties might explain the underlying mechanisms. The brain is a major energy-consuming organ compared with other organs. Neural signal communications and information processing in neural circuits play an important role in the realization of various neural functions, whereas improvement in cognitive function is driven by the need for more effective communication that requires less energy. Combining the ultraweak biophoton imaging system (UBIS) with the biophoton spectral analysis device (BSAD), we found that glutamate-induced biophotonic activities and transmission in the brain, which has recently been demonstrated as a novel neural signal communication mechanism, present a spectral redshift from animals (in order of bullfrog, mouse, chicken, pig, and monkey) to humans, even up to a near-infrared wavelength (∼865 nm) in the human brain. This brain property may be a key biophysical basis for explaining high intelligence in humans because biophoton spectral redshift could be a more economical and effective measure of biophotonic signal communications and information processing in the human brain. PMID:27432962

  13. Molecular Changes Involving MEK3-p38 MAPK Activation in Chronic Masticatory Myalgia.

    PubMed

    Meng, H; Gao, Y; Kang, Y F; Zhao, Y P; Yang, G J; Wang, Y; Cao, Y; Gan, Y H; Xie, Q F

    2016-09-01

    The exact mechanism underlying chronic masticatory myalgia (CMM), a conspicuous symptom in temporomandibular disorders, remains unclear. This investigation compared gene expression profiles between CMM patients and healthy subjects. Peripheral blood leukocytes were collected in 8 cases and 8 controls and subjected to whole genome microarray analyses. Data were analyzed with Gene Ontology and interactive pathways analyses. According to Gene Ontology analysis, categories such as ion transport, response to stimuli, and metabolic process were upregulated. The pathway analysis suggested overexpression of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in CMM patients and to a higher degree in a pathway network. Overexpression of representative members of the MAPK pathway-including MAPK kinase 3 (MEK3), calcium voltage-gated channel auxiliary subunit gamma 2 (CACNG2), and growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible gamma (GADD45G)-was validated with real-time polymerase chain reaction. The upregulation of MEK3 was negatively correlated with the age of the CMM group. In the next step, the authors focused on MEK3, the gene that exhibited the greatest degree of differential expression, and its downstream target protein p38 MAPK. The results revealed upregulation of MEK3, as well as phosphorylated MEK3 and phosphorylated p38 MAPK, in CMM patients. These results provide a "fingerprint" for mechanistic studies of CMM in the future and highlight the importance of MEK3-p38 MAPK activation in CMM.

  14. Frontal and parietal lobe involvement in the processing of pretence and intention.

    PubMed

    Chiavarino, Claudia; Apperly, Ian A; Humphreys, Glyn W

    2009-09-01

    We assessed whether different processes might be at play during pretence understanding by examining breakdowns of performance in participants with acquired brain damage. In Experiment 1 patients with frontal or parietal lesions and neurologically intact adults were asked to categorize videos of pretend and real actions. In Experiment 2 participants saw three types of videos: real intentional actions, real accidental actions, and pretend actions. In one session they judged whether the actions they saw were intentional or accidental, and in a second session they judged whether the actions were real or pretend. Parietal patients had particular difficulties in the identification of pretend actions, and both parietal and frontal patients were more impaired than controls in understanding the intentional nature of pretence. Analyses of individual patients' performance revealed that parietal lesions, and in particular lesions to the temporo-parietal junction, impaired the ability to discriminate pretend from real actions. However, this did not necessarily affect the discrimination of intentional from unintentional actions, which instead may be independently disrupted by damage to frontal areas. Moreover, spared ability to discriminate pretend actions from real actions, and intentional actions from accidental actions, did not grant a full conceptual understanding of the intentional nature of pretence. The implications for pretence understanding are discussed.

  15. A flash-drag effect in random motion reveals involvement of preattentive motion processing.

    PubMed

    Fukiage, Taiki; Whitney, David; Murakami, Ikuya

    2011-11-11

    The flash-drag (FDE) effect refers to the phenomenon in which the position of a stationary flashed object in one location appears shifted in the direction of nearby motion. Over the past decade, it has been debated how bottom-up and top-down processes contribute to this illusion. In this study, we demonstrate that randomly phase-shifting gratings can produce the FDE. In the random motion sequence we used, the FDE inducer (a sinusoidal grating) jumped to a random phase every 125 ms and stood still until the next jump. Because this random sequence could not be tracked attentively, it was impossible for the observer to discern the jump direction at the time of the flash. By sorting the data based on the flash's onset time relative to each jump time in the random motion sequence, we found that a large FDE with a broad temporal tuning occurred around 50 to 150 ms before the jump and that this effect was not correlated with any other jumps in the past or future. These results suggest that as few as two frames of unpredictable apparent motion can preattentively cause the FDE with a broad temporal tuning.

  16. Residues involved in the pore-forming activity of the Clostridium perfringens iota toxin.

    PubMed

    Knapp, Oliver; Maier, Elke; Waltenberger, Eva; Mazuet, Christelle; Benz, Roland; Popoff, Michel R

    2015-02-01

    Clostridium perfringens iota toxin is a binary toxin that is organized into enzyme (Ia) and binding (Ib) components. Ib forms channels in lipid bilayers and mediates the transport of Ia into the target cells. Here we show that Ib residues 334-359 contain a conserved pattern of alternating hydrophobic and hydrophilic residues forming two amphipathic β-strands involved in membrane insertion and channel formation. This stretch of amino acids shows remarkable structural and functional analogies with the β-pore-forming domain of C. perfringens epsilon toxin. Several mutations within the two amphipathic β-strands affected pore formation, single-channel conductance and ion selectivity (S339E-S341E, Q345H N346E) confirming their involvement in channel formation. F454 of Ib corresponds to the Φ-clamp F427 of anthrax protective antigen and F428 of C2II binary toxins. The mutation F454A resulted in a loss of cytotoxicity and strong increase in single-channel conductance (500 pS as compared with 85 pS in 1 M KCl) with a slight decrease in cation selectivity, indicating that the Φ-clamp is highly conserved and crucial for binary toxin activity. In contrast, the mutants Q367D, N430D, L443E had no or only minor effects on Ib properties, while T360I, T360A and T360W caused a dramatic effect on ion selectivity and single-channel conductance, indicating gross disturbance of the oligomer structure. This suggests that, at least in the iota toxin family, T360 has a structural role in the pore organization. Moreover, introduction of charged residues within the channel (S339E-S341E) or in the vestibule (Q367D, N430D and L443E) had virtually no effect on chloroquine or Ia binding, whereas F454A, T360I, T360A and T360W strongly decreased the chloroquine and Ia affinity to Ib. These results support that distinct residues within the vestibule interact with chloroquine and Ia or are responsible for channel structure, while the channel lining amino acids play a less important role.

  17. Waste-Activated Sludge Fermentation for Polyacrylamide Biodegradation Improved by Anaerobic Hydrolysis and Key Microorganisms Involved in Biological Polyacrylamide Removal

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Xiaohu; Luo, Fan; Zhang, Dong; Dai, Lingling; Chen, Yinguang; Dong, Bin

    2015-01-01

    During the anaerobic digestion of dewatered sludge, polyacrylamide (PAM), a chemical conditioner, can usually be consumed as a carbon and nitrogen source along with other organic matter (e.g., proteins and carbohydrates in the sludge). However, a significant accumulation of acrylamide monomers (AMs) was observed during the PAM biodegradation process. To improve the anaerobic hydrolysis of PAM, especially the amide hydrolysis process, and to avoid the generation of the intermediate product AM, a new strategy is reported herein that uses an initial pH of 9, 200 mg COD/L of PAM and a fermentation time of 17 d. First, response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize PAM removal in the anaerobic digestion of the sludge. The biological hydrolysis of PAM reached 86.64% under the optimal conditions obtained from the RSM. Then, the mechanisms for the optimized parameters that significantly improved the biological hydrolysis of PAM were investigated by the synergistic effect of the main organic compounds in the sludge, the floc size distribution, and the enzymatic activities. Finally, semi-continuous-flow experiments for a microbial community study were investigated based on the determination of key microorganisms involved in the biological hydrolysis of PAM. PMID:26144551

  18. Microarray Analysis of Genes Involved with Shell Strength in Layer Shell Gland at the Early Stage of Active Calcification

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhangguo; Zheng, Qi; Zhang, Xueyu; Lu, Lizhi

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to get a comprehensive understanding of how genes in chicken shell gland modulate eggshell strength at the early stage of active calcification. Four 32-week old of purebred Xianju hens with consistent high or low shell breakage strength were grouped into two pairs. Using Affymetrix Chicken Array, a whole-transcriptome analysis was performed on hen’s shell gland at 9 h post oviposition. Gene ontology enrichment analysis for differentially expressed (DE) transcripts was performed using the web-based GOEAST, and the validation of DE-transcripts was tested by qRT-PCR. 1,195 DE-transcripts, corresponding to 941 unique genes were identified in hens with strong eggshell compared to weak shell hens. According to gene ontology annotations, there are 77 DE-transcripts encoding ion transporters and secreted extracellular matrix proteins, and at least 26 DE-transcripts related to carbohydrate metabolism or post-translation glycosylation modification; furthermore, there are 88 signaling DE-transcripts. GO term enrichment analysis suggests that some DE-transcripts mediate reproductive hormones or neurotransmitters to affect eggshell quality through a complex suite of biophysical processes. These results reveal some candidate genes involved with eggshell strength at the early stage of active calcification which may facilitate our understanding of regulating mechanisms of eggshell quality. PMID:25049830

  19. Understanding the Meaning African-American Men Give to Their Student Leadership Involvement and Engagement Activities in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brooks, Karl A.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative, phenomenological study was to explore and gain a deeper understanding of the lived experiences and perceptions of African-American (A-A) men who are persisting in college and who demonstrate participation in co-curricular activities defined as student leadership involvement and engagement activities (SLIEA). The…

  20. Rural Schooling in Georgia: The Experiences of a Minority Community Service Organization Involved in Local School Decision-Making Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lowe, Cynthia Louise Altman

    2010-01-01

    This dissertation study was a descriptive case study of a minority community service organization whose members were actively involved in local school decision-making and activities in a rural Northeast Georgia community. Rural schools face unique challenges in light of current educational trends. To address the challenges, rural schools must…