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Sample records for active protection systems

  1. Protection of Active Distribution Systems with DGs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akila, Abdelrahman Ahmed; Helal, Ahmed; Eldesouki, Hussein

    2015-10-01

    Distribution systems are traditionally designed as radial passive systems fed from a single source. Protection coordination of such systems has been easily established assuming the system radiality. Insertion of distributed generators (DGs) into distribution systems makes the distribution system to be more active which causes redistribution of fault currents magnitudes and directions. This causes negative impacts on the original protection system coordination, since the distribution system losses its radiality and passiveness. Recently protection coordination in the presence of distributed generation has been paid a great attention. Researchers proposed various solutions to solve the protection coordination problem caused by adding DG into the distribution network. In this paper, the proposed solutions for the protection coordination problem considering the DG insertion will be illustrated, classified, and criticized.

  2. Aging assessment for active fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, S.B.; Nowlen, S.P.; Tanaka, T.

    1995-06-01

    This study assessed the impact of aging on the performance and reliability of active fire protection systems including both fixed fire suppression and fixed fire detection systems. The experience base shows that most nuclear power plants have an aggressive maintenance and testing program and are finding degraded fire protection system components before a failure occurs. Also, from the data reviewed it is clear that the risk impact of fire protection system aging is low. However, it is assumed that a more aggressive maintenance and testing program involving preventive diagnostics may reduce the risk impact even further.

  3. Active wireless temperature sensors for aerospace thermal protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Karunaratne, K. S. G.

    2003-07-01

    Vehicle system health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles in order to reduce life-cycle costs, to increase safety margins, and to improve mission reliability. NASA Ames is leading the effort to advance inspection and health management technologies for thermal protection systems. This paper summarizes a joint effort by NASA Ames and Korteks to develop active "wireless" sensors that can be embedded in the thermal protection system to monitor subsurface temperature histories. These devices are thermocouples integrated with radio-frequency identification circuits to enable non-contact communication of temperature data through aerospace thermal protection materials. Two generations of prototype sensors are discussed. The advanced prototype collects data from three type-k thermocouples attached to a 25-mm square integrated circuit and can communicate through 7 to 10 cm thickness of thermal protection materials.

  4. Active Wireless Temperature Sensors for Aerospace Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Karunaratne, K.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles in order to reduce life-cycle costs, to increase safety margins, and to improve mission reliability. NASA Ames is leading the effort to advance inspection and health management technologies for thermal protection systems. This paper summarizes a joint project between NASA Ames and Korteks to develop active wireless sensors that can be embedded in the thermal protection system to monitor sub-surface temperature histories. These devices are thermocouples integrated with radio-frequency identification circuitry to enable acquisition and non-contact communication of temperature data through aerospace thermal protection materials. Two generations of prototype sensors are discussed. The advanced prototype collects data from three type-k thermocouples attached to a 2.54-cm square integrated circuit.

  5. [Protection for noise-induced hearing loss using active hearing protection systems].

    PubMed

    Matschke, R G; Lehnert, H; Veit, I; Andresen, U

    1991-11-01

    Though noise induced hearing loss is no longer the most frequent occupational disease in the Federal Republic of Germany, the environmental pollution by the product "noise" in our technical and industrialized world has not been reduced. On the contrary, the situation is worsened by the rising influence of leisure noise. To avoid occupational hearing loss, the "Noise Injury Prevention Code" issued by the insurers would demand wearing personal ear protection, e.g. ear plugs, if ambient noise levels are above 85 dB(A). But there are working places in which such equipment would have precisely the adverse effect, because one of the reasons for possible damage to hearing is radio communication. In military aircraft cockpits for example noise exposure measurements showed ambient noise levels above 90 dB(A) during regular flight service nearly all the time. To be able to understand radio traffic in spite of the noisy environment, the headphone volume must be raised above the noise of the engines. The use of ear plugs can only be of limited value. Whereas pilots with normal hearing show only little impairment of speech intelligibility, those with noise-induced hearing losses show substantial impairment that varies in proportion to their hearing loss. Communication abilities may be drastically reduced which may compromise the reliability of radio traffic. To avoid compromising air security one has to demand a noise protection system which allows to reduce ambient noise levels without disturbing speech intelligibility in the inevitable radio communication. Nowadays active noise cancelling (ANC) systems by electronic compensation in different ways provide effective protection against noise induced hearing loss.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1755896

  6. Nitroxide delivery system for Nrf2 activation and skin protection.

    PubMed

    Ben Yehuda Greenwald, Maya; Frušić-Zlotkin, Marina; Soroka, Yoram; Sasson, Shmuel Ben; Bianco-Peled, Havazelet; Bitton, Ronit; Kohen, Ron

    2015-08-01

    Cyclic nitroxides are a large group of compounds composed of diverse stable radicals also known as synthetic antioxidants. Although nitroxides are valuable for use in several skin conditions, in in vivo conditions they have several drawbacks, such as nonspecific dispersion in normal tissue, preferential renal clearance and rapid reduction of the nitroxide to the corresponding hydroxylamine. However, these drawbacks can be easily addressed by encapsulating the nitroxides within microemulsions. This approach would allow nitroxide activity and therefore their valuable effects (e.g. activation of the Keap1-Nrf2-EpRE pathway) to continue. In this work, nitroxides were encapsulated in a microemulsion composed of biocompatible ingredients. The nanometric size and shape of the vehicle microemulsion and nitroxide microemulsion displayed high similarity, indicating that the stability of the microemulsions was preserved. Our studies demonstrated that nitroxide microemulsions were more potent inducers of the Keap1-Nrf2-EpRE pathway than the free nitroxides, causing the activation of phase II enzymes. Moreover, microemulsions containing nitroxides significantly reduced UVB-induced cytotoxicity in the skin. Understanding the mechanism of this improved activity may expand the usage of many other Nrf2 modulating molecules in encapsulated form, as a skin protection strategy against oxidative stress-related conditions. PMID:25986586

  7. Advanced Worker Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), and was demonstrated at their facility in Houston, TX as well as at Kansas State University, Manhattan. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment. The prototype unit development and testing under Phase 1 has demonstrated that AWPS has the ability to meet performance criteria. These criteria were developed with an understanding of both the AWPS capabilities and the DOE decontamination and decommissioning (D and D) activities protection needs.

  8. Advanced extravehicular protective systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    New technologies are identified and recommended for developing a regenerative portable life support system that provides protection for extravehicular human activities during long duration missions on orbiting space stations, potential lunar bases, and possible Mars landings. Parametric subsystems analyses consider: thermal control, carbon dioxide control, oxygen supply, power supply, contaminant control, humidity control, prime movers, and automatic temperature control.

  9. Soil microflora and enzyme activities in rhizosphere of Transgenic Bt cotton hybrid under different intercropping systems and plant protection schedules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biradar, D. P.; Alagawadi, A. R.; Basavanneppa, M. A.; Udikeri, S. S.

    2012-04-01

    Field experiments were conducted over three rainy seasons of 2005-06 to 2007-08 on a Vertisol at Dharwad, Karnataka, India to study the effect of intercropping and plant protection schedules on productivity, soil microflora and enzyme activities in the rhizosphere of transgenic Bt cotton hybrid. The experiment consisted of four intercropping systems namely, Bt cotton + okra, Bt cotton + chilli, Bt cotton + onion + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram with four plant protection schedules (zero protection, protection for Bt cotton, protection for intercrop and protection for both crops). Observations on microbial populations and enzyme activities were recorded at 45, 90, 135 and 185 (at harvest) days after sowing (DAS). Averaged over years, Bt cotton + okra intercropping had significantly higher total productivity than Bt cotton + chilli and Bt cotton + redgram intercropping system and was similar to Bt cotton + chilli + onion intercropping system. With respect to plant protection schedules for bollworms, protection for both cotton and intercrops recorded significantly higher yield than the rest of the treatments. Population of total bacteria, fungi, actinomycetes, P-solubilizers, free-living N2 fixers as well as urease, phosphatase and dehydrogenase enzyme activities increased up to 135 days of crop growth followed by a decline. Among the intercropping systems, Bt cotton + chilli recorded significantly higher population of microorganisms and enzyme activities than other cropping systems. While Bt cotton with okra as intercrop recorded the least population of total bacteria and free-living N2 fixers as well as urease activity. Intercropping with redgram resulted in the least population of actinomycetes, fungi and P-solubilizers, whereas Bt cotton with chilli and onion recorded least activities of dehydrogenase and phosphatase. Among the plant protection schedules, zero protection recorded maximum population of microorganisms and enzyme activities. This was followed by the

  10. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles. Phase I of the project has resulted in a full scale prototype Advanced Worker Protection Ensemble (AWPE, everything the worker will wear), with sub-scale support equipment, suitable for integrated testing and preliminary evaluation. Phase II will culminate in a full scale, certified, pre-production AWPS and a site demonstration.

  11. Advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, B.; Duncan, P.; Myers, J.

    1995-10-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project describes the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) which will include a life-support backpack with liquid air for cooling and as a supply of breathing gas, protective clothing, respirators, communications, and support equipment.

  12. Protective garment ventilation system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, R. (Inventor)

    1970-01-01

    A method and apparatus for ventilating a protective garment, space suit system, and/or pressure suits to maintain a comfortable and nontoxic atmosphere within is described. The direction of flow of a ventilating and purging gas in portions of the garment may be reversed in order to compensate for changes in environment and activity of the wearer. The entire flow of the ventilating gas can also be directed first to the helmet associated with the garment.

  13. Extravehicular Activity Probabilistic Risk Assessment Overview for Thermal Protection System Repair on the Hubble Space Telescope Servicing Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bigler, Mark; Canga, Michael A.; Duncan, Gary

    2010-01-01

    The Shuttle Program initiated an Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Probabilistic Risk Assessment (PRA) to assess the risks associated with performing a Shuttle Thermal Protection System (TPS) repair during the Space Transportation System (STS)-125 Hubble repair mission as part of risk trades between TPS repair and crew rescue.

  14. ADVANCED WORKER PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    Judson Hedgehock

    2001-03-16

    From 1993 to 2000, OSS worked under a cost share contract from the Department of Energy (DOE) to develop an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is a protective ensemble that provides the user with both breathing air and cooling for a NIOSH-rated duration of two hours. The ensemble consists of a liquid air based backpack, a Liquid Cooling Garment (LCG), and an outer protective garment. The AWPS project was divided into two phases. During Phase 1, OSS developed and tested a full-scale prototype AWPS. The testing showed that workers using the AWPS could work twice as long as workers using a standard SCBA. The testing also provided performance data on the AWPS in different environments that was used during Phase 2 to optimize the design. During Phase 1, OSS also performed a life-cycle cost analysis on a representative clean up effort. The analysis indicated that the AWPS could save the DOE millions of dollars on D and D activities and improve the health and safety of their workers. During Phase 2, OSS worked to optimize the AWPS design to increase system reliability, to improve system performance and comfort, and to reduce the backpack weight and manufacturing costs. To support this design effort, OSS developed and tested several different generations of prototype units. Two separate successful evaluations of the ensemble were performed by the International Union of Operation Engineers (IUOE). The results of these evaluations were used to drive the design. During Phase 2, OSS also pursued certifying the AWPS with the applicable government agencies. The initial intent during Phase 2 was to finalize the design and then to certify the system. OSS and Scott Health and Safety Products teamed to optimize the AWPS design and then certify the system with the National Institute of Occupational Health and Safety (NIOSH). Unfortunately, technical and programmatic difficulties prevented us from obtaining NIOSH certification. Despite the inability of NIOSH to certify

  15. Planetary Protection Concerns During Pre-Launch Radioisotope Power System Final Integration Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, Fei; McKay, Terri; Spry, James A.; Colozza, Anthony J.; DiStefano, Salvador

    2012-01-01

    The Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) is a next-generation radioisotope-based power system that is currently being developed as an alternative to the Multi-Mission Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (MMRTG). Power sources such as these may be needed for proposed missions to solar system planets and bodies that have challenging Planetary Protection (PP) requirements (e.g. Mars, Europa, Enceladus) that may support NASA s search for life, remnants of past life, and the precursors of life. One concern is that the heat from the ASRG could potentially create a region in which liquid water may occur. As advised by the NASA Planetary Protection Officer, when deploying an ASRG to Mars, the current COSPAR/NASA PP policy should be followed for Category IVc mission. Thus, sterilization processing of the ASRG to achieve bioburden reduction would be essential to meet the Planetary Protection requirements. Due to thermal constraints and associated low temperature limits of elements of the ASRG, vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) was suggested as a candidate alternative sterilization process to complement dry heat microbial reduction (DHMR) for the assembled ASRG. The following proposed sterilization plan for the ASRG anticipates a mission Category IVc level of cleanliness. This plan provides a scenario in which VHP is used as the final sterilization process. Keywords: Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG), Planetary Protection (PP), Vapor hydrogen peroxide (VHP) sterilization.

  16. Multiwall thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jackson, L. R. (Inventor)

    1982-01-01

    Multiwall insulating sandwich panels are provided for thermal protection of hypervelocity vehicles and other enclosures. In one embodiment, the multiwall panels are formed of alternate layers of dimpled and flat metal (titanium alloy) foil sheets and beaded scarfed edge seals to provide enclosure thermal protection up to 1000 F. An additional embodiment employs an intermediate fibrous insulation for the sandwich panel to provide thermal protection up to 2000 F. A third embodiment employs a silicide coated columbium waffle as the outer panel skin and fibrous layered intermediate protection for thermal environment protection up to 2500 F. The use of multiple panels on an enclosure facilitate repair and refurbishment of the thermal protection system due to the simple support provided by the tab and clip attachment for the panels.

  17. Transportable Collective Protection System (TCPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Tekesky, R.

    1990-08-15

    Human System Division (HSD/YAGD), Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433-6503 requested assistance from the Air Force Packaging Evaluation Activity (AFPEA) to conduct vibration, shock and environmental testing on three Rowley containers with contents. The contents consist of a Transportable Collective Protective System (TCPS). The TCPS, manufactured by IIC/Dover Inc., is a chemical warfare tent. Personnel can enter the tent, remove protective clothing and perform duties in an uncontaminated environment. The purpose of this project was to determine if the Rowley containers would be able to contain and protect the TCPS during world-wide shipment, storage, and handling.

  18. The influence of selective vitamin D receptor activator paricalcitol on cardiovascular system and cardiorenal protection

    PubMed Central

    Duplancic, Darko; Cesarik, Marijan; Poljak, Nikola Kolja; Radman, Maja; Kovacic, Vedran; Radic, Josipa; Rogosic, Veljko

    2013-01-01

    The ubiquitous distribution of vitamin D receptors in the human body is responsible for the pleiotropic effects of vitamin D-receptor activation. We discuss the possible beneficial effects of a selective activator of vitamin D receptor, paricalcitol, on the cardiovascular system in chronic heart failure patients and chronic kidney patients, in light of new trials. Paricalcitol should provide additional clinical benefits over the standard treatment for chronic kidney and heart failure, especially in cases of cardiorenal syndrome. PMID:23430986

  19. NH4 + protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by activation of systemic acquired acclimation

    PubMed Central

    Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Scalschi, Loredana; Llorens, Eugenio; García-Agustín, Pilar; Camañes, Gemma

    2015-01-01

    NH4 + nutrition provokes mild toxicity by enhancing H2O2 accumulation, which acts as a signal activating systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). Until now, induced resistance mechanisms in response to an abiotic stimulus and related to SAA were only reported for exposure to a subsequent abiotic stress. Herein, the first evidence is provided that this acclimation to an abiotic stimulus induces resistance to later pathogen infection, since NH4 + nutrition (N-NH4 +)-induced resistance (NH4 +-IR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst) in tomato plants was demonstrated. N-NH4 + plants displayed basal H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA), and putrescine (Put) accumulation. H2O2 accumulation acted as a signal to induce ABA-dependent signalling pathways required to prevent NH4 + toxicity. This acclimatory event provoked an increase in resistance against later pathogen infection. N-NH4 + plants displayed basal stomatal closure produced by H2O2 derived from enhanced CuAO and rboh1 activity that may reduce the entry of bacteria into the mesophyll, diminishing the disease symptoms as well as strongly inducing the oxidative burst upon Pst infection, favouring NH4 +-IR. Experiments with inhibitors of Put accumulation and the ABA-deficient mutant flacca demonstrated that Put and ABA downstream signalling pathways are required to complete NH4 +-IR. The metabolic profile revealed that infected N-NH4 + plants showed greater ferulic acid accumulation compared with control plants. Although classical salicylic acid (SA)-dependent responses against biotrophic pathogens were not found, the important role of Put in the resistance of tomato against Pst was demonstrated. Moreover, this work revealed the cross-talk between abiotic stress acclimation (NH4 + nutrition) and resistance to subsequent Pst infection. PMID:26246613

  20. NH4+ protects tomato plants against Pseudomonas syringae by activation of systemic acquired acclimation.

    PubMed

    Fernández-Crespo, Emma; Scalschi, Loredana; Llorens, Eugenio; García-Agustín, Pilar; Camañes, Gemma

    2015-11-01

    NH4 (+) nutrition provokes mild toxicity by enhancing H2O2 accumulation, which acts as a signal activating systemic acquired acclimation (SAA). Until now, induced resistance mechanisms in response to an abiotic stimulus and related to SAA were only reported for exposure to a subsequent abiotic stress. Herein, the first evidence is provided that this acclimation to an abiotic stimulus induces resistance to later pathogen infection, since NH4 (+) nutrition (N-NH4 (+))-induced resistance (NH4 (+)-IR) against Pseudomonas syringae pv tomato DC3000 (Pst) in tomato plants was demonstrated. N-NH4 (+) plants displayed basal H2O2, abscisic acid (ABA), and putrescine (Put) accumulation. H2O2 accumulation acted as a signal to induce ABA-dependent signalling pathways required to prevent NH4 (+) toxicity. This acclimatory event provoked an increase in resistance against later pathogen infection. N-NH4 (+) plants displayed basal stomatal closure produced by H2O2 derived from enhanced CuAO and rboh1 activity that may reduce the entry of bacteria into the mesophyll, diminishing the disease symptoms as well as strongly inducing the oxidative burst upon Pst infection, favouring NH4 (+)-IR. Experiments with inhibitors of Put accumulation and the ABA-deficient mutant flacca demonstrated that Put and ABA downstream signalling pathways are required to complete NH4 (+)-IR. The metabolic profile revealed that infected N-NH4 (+) plants showed greater ferulic acid accumulation compared with control plants. Although classical salicylic acid (SA)-dependent responses against biotrophic pathogens were not found, the important role of Put in the resistance of tomato against Pst was demonstrated. Moreover, this work revealed the cross-talk between abiotic stress acclimation (NH4 (+) nutrition) and resistance to subsequent Pst infection. PMID:26246613

  1. Ablative thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaniman, J.; Fisher, R.; Wojciechowski, C.; Dean, W.

    1983-01-01

    The procedures used to establish the TPS (thermal protection system) design of the SRB (solid rocket booster) element of the Space Shuttle vehicle are discussed. A final evaluation of the adequacy of this design will be made from data obtained from the first five Shuttle flights. Temperature sensors installed at selected locations on the SRB structure covered by the TPS give information as a function of time throughout the flight. Anomalies are to be investigated and computer design thermal models adjusted if required. In addition, the actual TPS ablator material loss is to be measured after each flight and compared with analytically determined losses. The analytical methods of predicting ablator performance are surveyed.

  2. The TLWP cathodic protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S. )

    1992-08-01

    This paper details the subsea corrosion protection system of the tension leg well platform (TLWP), which comprises coatings and cathodic protection (CP). Postinstallation surveys reveal potentials of at least 150 mV more protective than the minimum potential required for protection. The TLWP protection system weighs 434,000 lbm less than the conventional CP design, with 286,000 lbm less on the floating portion of the TLWP.

  3. Integration of planetary protection activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.

    1995-01-01

    For decades, NASA has been concerned about the protection of planets and other solar system bodies from biological contamination. Its policies regarding biological contamination control for outbound and inbound planetary spacecraft have evolved to focus on three important areas: (1) the preservation of celestial objects and the space environment; (2) protection of Earth from extraterrestrial hazards; and (3) ensuring the integrity of its scientific investigations. Over the years as new information has been obtained from planetary exploration and research, planetary protection parameters and policies have been modified accordingly. The overall focus of research under this cooperative agreement has been to provide information about non-scientific and societal factors related to planetary protection and use it in the planning and implementation phases of future Mars sample return missions.

  4. Involvement of endogenous antioxidant systems in the protective activity of pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide against hydrogen peroxide-induced oxidative damages in cultured rat astrocytes.

    PubMed

    Douiri, Salma; Bahdoudi, Seyma; Hamdi, Yosra; Cubì, Roger; Basille, Magali; Fournier, Alain; Vaudry, Hubert; Tonon, Marie-Christine; Amri, Mohamed; Vaudry, David; Masmoudi-Kouki, Olfa

    2016-06-01

    Astroglial cells possess an array of cellular defense mechanisms, including superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase antioxidant enzymes, to prevent damages caused by oxidative stress. Nevertheless, astroglial cell viability and functionality can be affected by significant oxidative stress. We have previously shown that pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP) is a potent glioprotective agent that prevents hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 )-induced apoptosis in cultured astrocytes. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential protective effect of PACAP against oxidative-generated alteration of astrocytic antioxidant systems. Incubation of cells with subnanomolar concentrations of PACAP inhibited H2 O2 -evoked reactive oxygen species accumulation, mitochondrial respiratory burst, and caspase-3 mRNA level increase. PACAP also stimulated SOD and catalase activities in a concentration-dependent manner, and counteracted the inhibitory effect of H2 O2 on the activity of these two antioxidant enzymes. The protective action of PACAP against H2 O2 -evoked inhibition of antioxidant systems in astrocytes was protein kinase A, PKC, and MAP-kinase dependent. In the presence of H2 O2 , the SOD blocker NaCN and the catalase inhibitor 3-aminotriazole, both suppressed the protective effects of PACAP on SOD and catalase activities, mitochondrial function, and cell survival. Taken together, these results indicate that the anti-apoptotic effect of PACAP on astroglial cells can account for the activation of endogenous antioxidant enzymes and reduction in respiration rate, thus preserving mitochondrial integrity and preventing caspase-3 expression provoked by oxidative stress. Considering its powerful anti-apoptotic and anti-oxidative properties, the PACAPergic signaling system should thus be considered for the development of new therapeutical approaches to cure various pathologies involving oxidative neurodegeneration. We propose the following cascade for the

  5. Effects of Adaptogens on the Central Nervous System and the Molecular Mechanisms Associated with Their Stress—Protective Activity

    PubMed Central

    Panossian, Alexander; Wikman, Georg

    2010-01-01

    Adaptogens were initially defined as substances that enhance the “state of non-specific resistance” in stress, a physiological condition that is linked with various disorders of the neuroendocrine-immune system. Studies on animals and isolated neuronal cells have revealed that adaptogens exhibit neuroprotective, anti-fatigue, antidepressive, anxiolytic, nootropic and CNS stimulating activity. In addition, a number of clinical trials demonstrate that adaptogens exert an anti-fatigue effect that increases mental work capacity against a background of stress and fatigue, particularly in tolerance to mental exhaustion and enhanced attention. Indeed, recent pharmacological studies of a number of adaptogens have provided a rationale for these effects also at the molecular level. It was discovered that the stress—protective activity of adaptogens was associated with regulation of homeostasis via several mechanisms of action, which was linked with the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis and the regulation of key mediators of stress response, such as molecular chaperons (e.g., HSP70), stress-activated c-Jun N-terminal protein kinase 1 (JNK1), Forkhead box O (FOXO) transcription factor DAF-16, cortisol and nitric oxide.

  6. Adaptive protection algorithm and system

    DOEpatents

    Hedrick, Paul [Pittsburgh, PA; Toms, Helen L [Irwin, PA; Miller, Roger M [Mars, PA

    2009-04-28

    An adaptive protection algorithm and system for protecting electrical distribution systems traces the flow of power through a distribution system, assigns a value (or rank) to each circuit breaker in the system and then determines the appropriate trip set points based on the assigned rank.

  7. Oxaliplatin activates the Keap1/Nrf2 antioxidant system conferring protection against the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiu Jun; Li, Yinyan; Luo, Lin; Wang, Hongyan; Chi, Zhexu; Xin, Ai; Li, Xin; Wu, Jiaguo; Tang, Xiuwen

    2014-05-01

    Oxaliplatin is an important drug in the treatment of advanced metastatic colorectal cancer. NF-E2 p45-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a key transcription factor that controls genes encoding cytoprotective and detoxifying enzymes through antioxidant-response elements (AREs) in their regulatory regions. Here, we report that oxaliplatin is an activator of the Nrf2 signaling pathway, with upregulation of ARE-driven genes and glutathione elevation. An injection of oxaliplatin into mice enhanced the expression of glutathione transferases and antioxidant enzymes in the small and large intestines of wild-type (WT) mice but not Nrf2(-/-) mice, indicating that oxaliplatin activates Nrf2 in vivo. Oxaliplatin failed to increase Nrf2 accumulation in non-small-cell lung cancer A549 cells, which harbor a dysfunctional somatic mutation of KEAP1. However, forced expression of WT mKeap1 restored the ability of oxaliplatin to activate the transcription factor. Cys(151) in Keap1 was required for the response stimulated by oxaliplatin. In addition, dichloro(1,2-diaminocyclohexane) platinum, a metabolite of oxaliplatin, was found to have the same effect in activating the ARE-gene battery as its parent drug, whereas another metabolite, oxalate, was ineffective. Moreover, two other platinum derivatives, cisplatin and carboplatin, had no effect on the Keap1/Nrf2 system. Furthermore, activation of Nrf2 by oxaliplatin reduced the sensitivity of colon cancer cells to therapeutic drugs. Conversely, knockdown of Nrf2 by Nrf2 siRNA reduced oxaliplatin-induced chemoresistance. Our study showed that oxaliplatin exerts protection against the cytotoxicity of anticancer drugs via Nrf2, indicating an important role of Nrf2 in oxaliplatin-based chemotherapy. PMID:24556415

  8. Personal Radiation Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McDonald, Mark; Vinci, Victoria

    2004-01-01

    A report describes the personal radiation protection system (PRPS), which has been invented for use on the International Space Station and other spacecraft. The PRPS comprises walls that can be erected inside spacecraft, where and when needed, to reduce the amount of radiation to which personnel are exposed. The basic structural modules of the PRPS are pairs of 1-in. (2.54-cm)-thick plates of high-density polyethylene equipped with fasteners. The plates of each module are assembled with a lap joint. The modules are denoted bricks because they are designed to be stacked with overlaps, in a manner reminiscent of bricks, to build 2-in. (5.08-cm)-thick walls of various lengths and widths. The bricks are of two varieties: one for flat wall areas and one for corners. The corner bricks are specialized adaptations of the flat-area bricks that make it possible to join walls perpendicular to each other. Bricks are attached to spacecraft structures and to each other by use of straps that can be tightened to increase the strengths and stiffnesses of joints.

  9. Integration of Planetary Protection Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Race, Margaret S.

    2000-01-01

    Research and activities under this grant have focused on a systematic examination and analysis of critical questions likely to impact planetary protection (PP) controls and implementation for Mars sample return missions (MSR). Four areas in the non-scientific and social realms were selected for special attention because of their importance to future mission planning and concern about critical timing or possible economic impacts on MSR mission implementation. These include: (1) questions of legal uncertainty and the decision making process, (2) public perception of risks associated with sample return, (3) risk communication and Education/Public Outreach , and (4) planetary protection implications of alternative mission architectures, for both robotic and human sample return missions. In its entirety, NAG 2-986 has encompassed three categories of activity: (1) research and analysis (Race), (2) subcontracted research (MacGregor/Decision Research), and (3) consulting services.

  10. Current Technology for Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scotti, Stephen J. (Compiler)

    1992-01-01

    Interest in thermal protection systems for high-speed vehicles is increasing because of the stringent requirements of such new projects as the Space Exploration Initiative, the National Aero-Space Plane, and the High-Speed Civil Transport, as well as the needs for improved capabilities in existing thermal protection systems in the Space Shuttle and in turbojet engines. This selection of 13 papers from NASA and industry summarizes the history and operational experience of thermal protection systems utilized in the national space program to date, and also covers recent development efforts in thermal insulation, refractory materials and coatings, actively cooled structures, and two-phase thermal control systems.

  11. 30 CFR 865.11 - Protected activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES § 865.11 Protected activity. (a) No person shall discharge or.... (b) Each employer conducting operations which are regulated under this Act, shall within 30 days from... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Protected activity. 865.11 Section...

  12. 30 CFR 865.11 - Protected activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES § 865.11 Protected activity. (a) No person shall discharge or.... (b) Each employer conducting operations which are regulated under this Act, shall within 30 days from... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protected activity. 865.11 Section...

  13. 30 CFR 865.11 - Protected activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES PROTECTION OF EMPLOYEES § 865.11 Protected activity. (a) No person shall discharge or.... (b) Each employer conducting operations which are regulated under this Act, shall within 30 days from... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Protected activity. 865.11 Section...

  14. Cathodic protection diagnostic expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blaricum, V.L.; Kumar, A. ); Park, Y.T. . Dept. of Computer Science)

    1994-12-01

    A knowledge-based diagnostic system has been developed for troubleshooting cathodic protection systems. The expert system is designed to work in conjunction with a database that stores inventory and field measurement information and flags problem areas. The system is described, and examples of troubleshooting using the system are presented.

  15. Extravehicular Activity and Planetary Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Buffington, J. A.; Mary, N. A.

    2015-01-01

    The first human mission to Mars will be the farthest distance that humans have traveled from Earth and the first human boots on Martian soil in the Exploration EVA Suit. The primary functions of the Exploration EVA Suit are to provide a habitable, anthropometric, pressurized environment for up to eight hours that allows crewmembers to perform autonomous and robotically assisted extravehicular exploration, science/research, construction, servicing, and repair operations on the exterior of the vehicle, in hazardous external conditions of the Mars local environment. The Exploration EVA Suit has the capability to structurally interface with exploration vehicles via next generation ingress/egress systems. Operational concepts and requirements are dependent on the mission profile, surface assets, and the Mars environment. This paper will discuss the effects and dependencies of the EVA system design with the local Mars environment and Planetary Protection. Of the three study areas listed for the workshop, EVA identifies most strongly with technology and operations for contamination control.

  16. Ablative Thermal Protection System Fundamentals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Robin A. S.

    2013-01-01

    This is the presentation for a short course on the fundamentals of ablative thermal protection systems. It covers the definition of ablation, description of ablative materials, how they work, how to analyze them and how to model them.

  17. Distributed Supervisory Protection Interlock System

    SciTech Connect

    Walz, H.V.; Agostini, R.C.; Barker, L.; Cherkassky, R.; Constant, T.; Matheson, R.

    1989-03-01

    The Distributed Supervisory Protection Interlock System, DSPI, is under development at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center for requirements in the areas of personnel protection, beam containment and equipment protection interlocks. The DSPI system, distributed over the application site, consists of segments with microprocessor-based controller and I/O modules, local area networks for communication, and a global supervisor computer. Segments are implemented with commercially available controller and I/O modules arranged in local interlock clusters, and associated software. Segments provide local interlock data acquisition, processing and control. Local area networks provide the communication backbone between segments and a global supervisor processor. The supervisor processor monitors the overall system, reports detail status and provides human interfaces. Details of an R and D test system, which will implement the requirements for personnel protection of 4 typical linear accelerator sectors, will be described. 4 refs., 2 figs.

  18. Hermes thermal protection system overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaumette, Daniel; Cretenet, Jean-Claude

    The HERMES thermal protection system for the reentry is a new challenge for the designer. Compared to the system operational to day which is the U.S. Orbiter, the smaller size and higher cross range of HERMES are inducing higher working temperatures and a longer duration for the hot phase of the reentry. Hence the overall weight of the TPS system is comparatively more critical than on the Orbiter. On the other hand since the conception of the Orbiter a lot of new materials, namely ceramic composites, have been developped, and may lead to more efficient concepts of TPS. In the initial studies on HERMES TPS systems a lot of possibilites were considered, including External passive TPS, Hot structures, Active TPS. This selection has been now shortlisted to three basic concepts, with a number of variant or back ups still under consideration: • Ceramic composites hot structures for the nose, leading edges, fins and control surfaces • External insulation : composite ceramic shingles covering a lightweight thermal insulation (or rigid surface insulation (tiles) as a back up solution) for the hot undersurfaces and part of the upper surface. • Flexible surface insulation for the lower temperature upper surfaces. The paper presents details on the concepts being studied, the optimisation methods and the concept selection criteria.

  19. Fan blade protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hermans, Thomas C. (Inventor); Wakeman, Thomas G. (Inventor); Hauser, Ambrose A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    In one type of aircraft propulsion system, propeller blades are mounted on a ring which surrounds a turbine. An annular space exists between the turbine and the ring. If a propeller blade should break free, the unbalanced centrifugal load tends to deform the ring. The invention reduces the deformation, as by locating spacers between the turbine and the ring.

  20. Orbiter Thermal Protection System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenshields, D. H.

    1977-01-01

    The development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System (TPS) is traced from concept definition, through technical development, to final design and qualification for manned flight. A sufficiently detailed description of the TPS design is presented to support an indepth discussion of the key issues encountered in conceptual design, materials development, and structural integration. Emphasis is placed on the unique combination of requirements which resulted in the use not only of revolutionary design concepts and materials, but also of unique design criteria, newly developed analysis, testing and manufacturing methods, and finally of an unconventional approach to system certification for operational flight. The conclusion is drawn that a significant advance in all areas of thermal protection system development has been achieved which results in a highly efficient, flexible, and cost-effective thermal protection system for the Orbiter of the Space Shuttle System.

  1. Thermal protection system flight repair kit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    A thermal protection system (TPS) flight repair kit required for use on a flight of the Space Transportation System is defined. A means of making TPS repairs in orbit by the crew via extravehicular activity is discussed. A cure in place ablator, a precured ablator (large area application), and packaging design (containers for mixing and dispensing) for the TPS are investigated.

  2. Cathodic protection diagnostic expert system

    SciTech Connect

    Van Blaricum, V.L.; Kumar, A.; Park, Y.T.

    1994-12-31

    A knowledge-based diagnostic system called CP Diagnostic has been developed for troubleshooting sacrificial and impressed current cathodic protection systems. The expert system is designed to work in conjunction with the CP Diagnostic database system, which stores inventory and field measurement information for CP systems and flags problem areas. When a malfunction is detected, the expert system queries the user and the companion inventory and field measurement databases to determine its symptoms. The system will be described and examples of troubleshooting using the system will be presented.

  3. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA PJ; KIRKBRIDE RA; HOHL TM; EMPEY PA; WELLS MN

    2009-09-15

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of approximately 57 million gallons 1 of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure2 of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in May 2008. ORP has made a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. ORP has contracts in place to implement the strategy for completion of the mission and establish the capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategl involves a number of interrelated activities. ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by the following: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) and delivering the waste to the Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) fraction contained in the tank farms. About one-third of the low-activity waste (LAW) fraction separated from the HLW fraction in the WTP will be immobilized in the WTP LAW Vitrification Facility. (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability assumed to be a second LAW vitrification facility that can safely treat about two-thirds of the LAW contained in the tank farms. (4) Developing and deploying supplemental pretreatment capability currently assumed to be an Aluminum Removal Facility (ARF) using a lithium hydrotalcite process to mitigate sodium management issues. (5) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) tank waste for possible shipment to and disposal

  4. RIVER PROTECTION PROJECT SYSTEM PLAN

    SciTech Connect

    CERTA PJ

    2008-07-10

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP) manages the River Protection Project (RPP). The RPP mission is to retrieve and treat Hanford's tank waste and close the tank farms to protect the Columbia River. As a result, the ORP is responsible for the retrieval, treatment, and disposal of the approximately 57 million gallons of radioactive waste contained in the Hanford Site waste tanks and closure of all the tanks and associated facilities. The previous revision of the System Plan was issued in September 2003. ORP has approved a number of changes to the tank waste treatment strategy and plans since the last revision of this document, and additional changes are under consideration. The ORP has established contracts to implement this strategy to establish a basic capability to complete the overall mission. The current strategy for completion of the mission uses a number of interrelated activities. The ORP will reduce risk to the environment posed by tank wastes by: (1) Retrieving the waste from the single-shell tanks (SST) to double-shell tanks (DST) for treatment and disposal; (2) Constructing and operating the WTP, which will safely treat all of the high-level waste (HLW) and about half of the low-activity waste (LAW) contained in the tank farms, and maximizing its capability and capacity; (3) Developing and deploying supplemental treatment capability or a second WTP LAW Facility that can safely treat about half of the LAW contained in the tank farms; (4) Developing and deploying treatment and packaging capability for transuranic (TRU) tank waste for shipment to and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP); (5) Deploying interim storage capacity for the immobilized HLW and shipping that waste to Yucca Mountain for disposal; (6) Operating the Integrated Disposal Facility for the disposal of immobilized LAW, along with the associated secondary waste, (7) Closing the SST and DST tank farms, ancillary facilities, and al1 waste

  5. Lightweight Thermal-Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macconochie, I. O.; Lawson, A. G.; Whiteman, T. C.; Brien, E. P.

    1983-01-01

    Hexagonal honeycomb panels secured by Y-shaped plates form lightweight, easily-maintained thermal-protection system. Honeycomb outer panel and fastener materials are selected to match local heating rates. Typical materials include composites, titanium, superalloys, and refractory metals. Advantages include complete symmetry of components--there are no left- or right-hand parts and no asymmetry in thermal expansion.

  6. Current technology for thermal protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Scotti, S.J.

    1992-10-01

    Interest in thermal protection systems for high-speed vehicles is increasing because of the stringent requirements of such new projects as the Space Exploration Initiative, the National Aero-Space Plane, and the High-Speed Civil Transport, as well as the needs for improved capabilities in existing thermal protection systems in the Space Shuttle and in turbojet engines. This selection of 13 papers from NASA and industry summarizes the history and operational experience of thermal protection systems utilized in the national space program to date, and also covers recent development efforts in thermal insulation, refractory materials and coatings, actively cooled structures, and two-phase thermal control systems. Separate abstracts were prepared for papers of this report.

  7. Thermal protection systems for aerobrakes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tompkins, Stephen S.

    1993-01-01

    In summary, advantages of the ablative thermal protection system (TPS) for aerobrakes are: (1) proven reliable TPS systems; (2) well characterized (thermally) with good, existing thermal analysis capability; (3) good candidate materials are available; (4) not sensitive to defects and more difficult to damage then RSI or C-C; (5) design program which demonstrated simple (direct bond) application of large panels; (6) thermal excursions not catastrophic; and (7) no SIP required.

  8. Systemic administration of the apocarotenoid bixin protects skin against solar UV-induced damage through activation of NRF2.

    PubMed

    Tao, Shasha; Park, Sophia L; Rojo de la Vega, Montserrat; Zhang, Donna D; Wondrak, Georg T

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a causative factor in skin photodamage and carcinogenesis, and an urgent need exists for improved molecular photoprotective strategies different from (or synergistic with) photon absorption. Recent studies suggest a photoprotective role of cutaneous gene expression orchestrated by the transcription factor NRF2 (nuclear factor-E2-related factor 2). Here we have explored the molecular mechanism underlying carotenoid-based systemic skin photoprotection in SKH-1 mice and provide genetic evidence that photoprotection achieved by the FDA-approved apocarotenoid and food additive bixin depends on NRF2 activation. Bixin activates NRF2 through the critical Cys-151 sensor residue in KEAP1, orchestrating a broad cytoprotective response in cultured human keratinocytes as revealed by antioxidant gene expression array analysis. Following dose optimization studies for cutaneous NRF2 activation by systemic administration of bixin, feasibility of bixin-based suppression of acute cutaneous photodamage from solar UV exposure was investigated in Nrf2(+/+) versus Nrf2(-/-) SKH-1 mice. Systemic administration of bixin suppressed skin photodamage, attenuating epidermal oxidative DNA damage and inflammatory responses in Nrf2(+/+) but not in Nrf2(-/-) mice, confirming the NRF2-dependence of bixin-based cytoprotection. Taken together, these data demonstrate feasibility of achieving NRF2-dependent cutaneous photoprotection by systemic administration of the apocarotenoid bixin, a natural food additive consumed worldwide. PMID:26456052

  9. Early infections by myxoma virus of young rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) protected by maternal antibodies activate their immune system and enhance herd immunity in wild populations

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    The role of maternal antibodies is to protect newborns against acute early infection by pathogens. This can be achieved either by preventing any infection or by allowing attenuated infections associated with activation of the immune system, the two strategies being based on different cost/benefit ratios. We carried out an epidemiological survey of myxomatosis, which is a highly lethal infectious disease, in two distant wild populations of rabbits to describe the epidemiological pattern of the disease. Detection of specific IgM and IgG enabled us to describe the pattern of immunity. We show that maternal immunity attenuates early infection of juveniles and enables activation of their immune system. This mechanism associated with steady circulation of the myxoma virus in both populations, which induces frequent reinfections of immune rabbits, leads to the maintenance of high immunity levels within populations. Thus, myxomatosis has a low impact, with most infections being asymptomatic. This work shows that infection of young rabbits protected by maternal antibodies induces attenuated disease and activates their immune system. This may play a major role in reducing the impact of a highly lethal disease when ecological conditions enable permanent circulation of the pathogen. PMID:24589193

  10. Early infections by myxoma virus of young rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) protected by maternal antibodies activate their immune system and enhance herd immunity in wild populations.

    PubMed

    Marchandeau, Stéphane; Pontier, Dominique; Guitton, Jean-Sébastien; Letty, Jérôme; Fouchet, David; Aubineau, Jacky; Berger, Francis; Léonard, Yves; Roobrouck, Alain; Gelfi, Jacqueline; Peralta, Brigitte; Bertagnoli, Stéphane

    2014-01-01

    The role of maternal antibodies is to protect newborns against acute early infection by pathogens. This can be achieved either by preventing any infection or by allowing attenuated infections associated with activation of the immune system, the two strategies being based on different cost/benefit ratios. We carried out an epidemiological survey of myxomatosis, which is a highly lethal infectious disease, in two distant wild populations of rabbits to describe the epidemiological pattern of the disease. Detection of specific IgM and IgG enabled us to describe the pattern of immunity. We show that maternal immunity attenuates early infection of juveniles and enables activation of their immune system. This mechanism associated with steady circulation of the myxoma virus in both populations, which induces frequent reinfections of immune rabbits, leads to the maintenance of high immunity levels within populations. Thus, myxomatosis has a low impact, with most infections being asymptomatic. This work shows that infection of young rabbits protected by maternal antibodies induces attenuated disease and activates their immune system. This may play a major role in reducing the impact of a highly lethal disease when ecological conditions enable permanent circulation of the pathogen. PMID:24589193

  11. Large thermal protection system panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Myers, Franklin K. (Inventor); Weinberg, David J. (Inventor); Tran, Tu T. (Inventor)

    2003-01-01

    A protective panel for a reusable launch vehicle provides enhanced moisture protection, simplified maintenance, and increased temperature resistance. The protective panel includes an outer ceramic matrix composite (CMC) panel, and an insulative bag assembly coupled to the outer CMC panel for isolating the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures and moisture. A standoff attachment system attaches the outer CMC panel and the bag assembly to the primary structure of the launch vehicle. The insulative bag assembly includes a foil bag having a first opening shrink fitted to the outer CMC panel such that the first opening and the outer CMC panel form a water tight seal at temperatures below a desired temperature threshold. Fibrous insulation is contained within the foil bag for protecting the launch vehicle from elevated temperatures. The insulative bag assembly further includes a back panel coupled to a second opening of the foil bag such that the fibrous insulation is encapsulated by the back panel, the foil bag, and the outer CMC panel. The use of a CMC material for the outer panel in conjunction with the insulative bag assembly eliminates the need for waterproofing processes, and ultimately allows for more efficient reentry profiles.

  12. Fast breeder reactor protection system

    DOEpatents

    van Erp, J.B.

    1973-10-01

    Reactor protection is provided for a liquid-metal-fast breeder reactor core by measuring the coolant outflow temperature from each of the subassemblies of the core. The outputs of the temperature sensors from a subassembly region of the core containing a plurality of subassemblies are combined in a logic circuit which develops a scram alarm if a predetermined number of the sensors indicate an over temperature condition. The coolant outflow from a single subassembly can be mixed with the coolant outflow from adjacent subassemblies prior to the temperature sensing to increase the sensitivity of the protection system to a single subassembly failure. Coherence between the sensors can be required to discriminate against noise signals. (Official Gazette)

  13. Mesoporous silica nanoparticles for active corrosion protection.

    PubMed

    Borisova, Dimitriya; Möhwald, Helmuth; Shchukin, Dmitry G

    2011-03-22

    This work presents the synthesis of monodisperse, mesoporous silica nanoparticles and their application as nanocontainers loaded with corrosion inhibitor (1H-benzotriazole (BTA)) and embedded in hybrid SiOx/ZrOx sol-gel coating for the corrosion protection of aluminum alloy. The developed porous system of mechanically stable silica nanoparticles exhibits high surface area (∼1000 m2·g(-1)), narrow pore size distribution (d∼3 nm), and large pore volume (∼1 mL·g(-1)). As a result, a sufficiently high uptake and storage of the corrosion inhibitor in the mesoporous nanocontainers was achieved. The successful embedding and homogeneous distribution of the BTA-loaded monodisperse silica nanocontainers in the passive anticorrosive SiOx/ZrOx film improve the wet corrosion resistance of the aluminum alloy AA2024 in 0.1 M sodium chloride solution. The enhanced corrosion protection of this newly developed active system in comparison to the passive sol-gel coating was observed during a simulated corrosion process by the scanning vibrating electrode technique (SVET). These results, as well as the controlled pH-dependent release of BTA from the mesoporous silica nanocontainers without additional polyelectrolyte shell, suggest an inhibitor release triggered by the corrosion process leading to a self-healing effect. PMID:21344888

  14. Thermal protection system ablation sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gorbunov, Sergey (Inventor); Martinez, Edward R. (Inventor); Scott, James B. (Inventor); Oishi, Tomomi (Inventor); Fu, Johnny (Inventor); Mach, Joseph G. (Inventor); Santos, Jose B. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    An isotherm sensor tracks space vehicle temperatures by a thermal protection system (TPS) material during vehicle re-entry as a function of time, and surface recession through calibration, calculation, analysis and exposed surface modeling. Sensor design includes: two resistive conductors, wound around a tube, with a first end of each conductor connected to a constant current source, and second ends electrically insulated from each other by a selected material that becomes an electrically conductive char at higher temperatures to thereby complete an electrical circuit. The sensor conductors become shorter as ablation proceeds and reduced resistance in the completed electrical circuit (proportional to conductor length) is continually monitored, using measured end-to-end voltage change or current in the circuit. Thermocouple and/or piezoelectric measurements provide consistency checks on local temperatures.

  15. Automating occupational protection records systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lyon, M.; Martin, J.B.

    1991-10-01

    Occupational protection records have traditionally been generated by field and laboratory personnel, assembled into files in the safety office, and eventually stored in a warehouse or other facility. Until recently, these records have been primarily paper copies, often handwritten. Sometimes, the paper is microfilmed for storage. However, electronic records are beginning to replace these traditional methods. The purpose of this paper is to provide guidance for making the transition to automated record keeping and retrieval using modern computer equipment. This paper describes the types of records most readily converted to electronic record keeping and a methodology for implementing an automated record system. The process of conversion is based on a requirements analysis to assess program needs and a high level of user involvement during the development. The importance of indexing the hard copy records for easy retrieval is also discussed. The concept of linkage between related records and its importance relative to reporting, research, and litigation will be addressed. 2 figs.

  16. European activities in radiation protection in medicine.

    PubMed

    Simeonov, Georgi

    2015-07-01

    The recently published Council Directive 2013/59/Euratom ('new European Basic Safety Standards', EU BSS) modernises and consolidates the European radiation protection legislation by taking into account the latest scientific knowledge, technological progress and experience with implementing the current legislation and by merging five existing Directives into a single piece of legislation. The new European BSS repeal previous European legislation on which the national systems for radiation protection in medicine of the 28 European Union (EU) Member States are based, including the 96/29/Euratom 'BSS' and the 97/43/Euratom 'Medical Exposure' Directives. While most of the elements of the previous legislation have been kept, there are several legal changes that will have important influence over the regulation and practice in the field all over Europe-these include, among others: (i) strengthening the implementation of the justification principle and expanding it to medically exposed asymptomatic individuals, (ii) more attention to interventional radiology, (iii) new requirements for dose recording and reporting, (iv) increased role of the medical physics expert in imaging, (v) new set of requirements for preventing and following up on accidents and (vi) new set of requirements for procedures where radiological equipment is used on people for non-medical purposes (non-medical imaging exposure). The EU Member States have to enforce the new EU BSS before January 2018 and bring into force the laws, regulations and administrative provisions necessary to comply with it. The European Commission has certain legal obligations and powers to verify the compliance of the national measures with the EU laws and, wherever necessary, issue recommendations to, or open infringement cases against, national governments. In order to ensure timely and coordinated implementation of the new European legal requirements for radiation protection, the Commission is launching several actions

  17. 24 CFR 245.115 - Protected activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protected activities. 245.115 Section 245.115 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development... URBAN DEVELOPMENT MORTGAGE AND LOAN INSURANCE PROGRAMS UNDER NATIONAL HOUSING ACT AND OTHER...

  18. Immune Adjuvant Activity of Pre-Resectional Radiofrequency Ablation Protects against Local and Systemic Recurrence in Aggressive Murine Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Fumito; Ku, Amy W.; Bucsek, Mark J.; Muhitch, Jason B.; Vardam-Kaur, Trupti; Kim, Minhyung; Fisher, Daniel T.; Camoriano, Marta; Khoury, Thaer; Skitzki, Joseph J.; Gollnick, Sandra O.; Evans, Sharon S.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose While surgical resection is a cornerstone of cancer treatment, local and distant recurrences continue to adversely affect outcome in a significant proportion of patients. Evidence that an alternative debulking strategy involving radiofrequency ablation (RFA) induces antitumor immunity prompted the current investigation of the efficacy of performing RFA prior to surgical resection (pre-resectional RFA) in a preclinical mouse model. Experimental Design Therapeutic efficacy and systemic immune responses were assessed following pre-resectional RFA treatment of murine CT26 colon adenocarcinoma. Results Treatment with pre-resectional RFA significantly delayed tumor growth and improved overall survival compared to sham surgery, RFA, or resection alone. Mice in the pre-resectional RFA group that achieved a complete response demonstrated durable antitumor immunity upon tumor re-challenge. Failure to achieve a therapeutic benefit in immunodeficient mice confirmed that tumor control by pre-resectional RFA depends on an intact adaptive immune response rather than changes in physical parameters that make ablated tumors more amenable to a complete surgical excision. RFA causes a marked increase in intratumoral CD8+ T lymphocyte infiltration, thus substantially enhancing the ratio of CD8+ effector T cells: FoxP3+ regulatory T cells. Importantly, pre-resectional RFA significantly increases the number of antigen-specific CD8+ T cells within the tumor microenvironment and tumor-draining lymph node but had no impact on infiltration by myeloid-derived suppressor cells, M1 macrophages or M2 macrophages at tumor sites or in peripheral lymphoid organs (i.e., spleen). Finally, pre-resectional RFA of primary tumors delayed growth of distant tumors through a mechanism that depends on systemic CD8+ T cell-mediated antitumor immunity. Conclusion Improved survival and antitumor systemic immunity elicited by pre-resectional RFA support the translational potential of this neoadjuvant

  19. National Ignition Facility environmental protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Mintz, J.M.; Reitz, T.C.; Tobin, M.T.

    1994-06-01

    The conceptual design of Environmental Protection Systems (EPS) for the National Ignition Facility (NIF) is described. These systems encompass tritium and activated debris handling, chamber, debris shield and general decontamination, neutron and gamma monitoring, and radioactive, hazardous and mixed waste handling. Key performance specifications met by EPS designs include limiting the tritium inventory to 300 Ci and total tritium release from NIF facilities to less than 10 Ci/yr. Total radiation doses attributable to NIF shall remain below 10 mrem/yr for any member of the general public and 500 mrem/yr for NIF staff. ALARA-based design features and operational procedures will, in most cases, result in much lower measured exposures. Waste minimization, improved cycle time and reduced exposures all result from the proposed CO2 robotic arm cleaning and decontamination system, while effective tritium control is achieved through a modern system design based on double containment and the proven detritiation technology.

  20. LHC magnet quench protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Coull, L.; Hagedorn, D.; Remondino, V.; Rodriguez-Mateos, F.

    1994-07-01

    The quench protection system for the superconducting magnets of the CERN Large Hadron Collider (LHC) is described. The system is based on the so called 'cold diode' concept. In a group of series connected magnets if one magnet quenches then the magnetic energy of all the magnets will be dissipated in the quenched magnet so destroying it. This is avoided by by-passing the quenched magnet and then rapidly de-exciting the unquenched magnets. For the LHC machine it is foreseen to use silicon diodes situated inside the cryostat as by-pass elements - so called 'cold diodes'. The diodes are exposed to some 50 kGray of radiation during a 10 year operation life-time. The high energy density of the LHC magnets (500 kJ/m) coupled with the relatively slow propagation speed of a 'natural' quench (10 to 20 m/s) can lead to excessive heating of the zone where the quench started and to high internal voltages. It is therefore necessary to detect quickly the incipient quench and fire strip heaters which spread the quench out more quickly over a large volume of the magnet. After a quench the magnet chain must be de-excited rapidly to avoid spreading the quench to other magnets and over-heating the by-pass diode. This is done by switching high-power energy-dump resistors in series with the magnets. The LHC main ring magnet will be divided into 16 electrically separated units which has important advantages.

  1. River Protection Project information systems assessment

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, A.L.

    1999-07-28

    The Information Systems Assessment Report documents the results from assessing the Project Hanford Management Contract (PHMC) Hanford Data Integrator 2000 (HANDI 2000) system, Business Management System (BMS) and Work Management System phases (WMS), with respect to the System Engineering Capability Assessment Model (CAM). The assessment was performed in accordance with the expectations stated in the fiscal year (FY) 1999 Performance Agreement 7.1.1, item (2) which reads, ''Provide an assessment report on the selected Integrated Information System by July 31, 1999.'' This report assesses the BMS and WMS as implemented and planned for the River Protection Project (RPP). The systems implementation is being performed under the PHMC HANDI 2000 information system project. The project began in FY 1998 with the BMS, proceeded in FY 1999 with the Master Equipment List portion of the WMS, and will continue the WMS implementation as funding provides. This report constitutes an interim quality assessment providing information necessary for planning RPP's information systems activities. To avoid confusion, HANDI 2000 will be used when referring to the entire system, encompassing both the BMS and WMS. A graphical depiction of the system is shown in Figure 2-1 of this report.

  2. Manned exploration and exploitation of solar system: Passive and active shielding for protecting astronauts from ionizing radiation-A short overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillantini, Piero

    2014-11-01

    In deep space manned missions for the exploration and exploitation of celestial bodies of Solar System astronauts are not shielded by the terrestrial magnetic field and must be protected against the action of Solar Cosmic Rays (SCRs) and Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCRs). SCRs are sporadically emitted, and in very rare but possible events, their fluence can be so high to be lethal to a unprotected crew. Their relatively low energy allows us to conceive fully passive shields, also if active systems can somewhat reduce the needed mass penalty. GCRs continuously flow without intensity peaks, and are dangerous to the health and operability of the crew in long duration (>1year) missions. Their very high energy excludes the possible use of passive systems, so that recourse must be made to electromagnetic fields for preventing ionizing particles to reach the habitat where astronauts spend most of their living and working time. A short overview is presented of the many ideas developed in last decades of last century; ideas are mainly based on very intense electrostatic shields, flowing plasma bubbles, or enormous superconducting coil systems for producing high magnetic fields. In the first decade of this century the problem began to be afforded in more realistic scenarios, taking into account the present and foreseeable possibilities of launchers (payload mass, diameter and length of the shroud of the rocket, etc.) and of assembling and/or inflating structures in space. Driving parameters are the volume of the habitat to be protected and the level of mitigation of the radiation dose to be guaranteed to the crew. Superconducting magnet systems based on multi-solenoid complexes or on one huge magnetic torus surrounding the habitat are being evaluated for defining the needed parameters: masses, mechanical structures for supporting the huge magnetic forces, needed equipments and safety systems. Technological tests are in preparation or planned for improving density of the current

  3. Thermal protection system and related methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garbe, Duane J. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A thermal protection system and a method of manufacturing are disclosed. The thermal protection system may be configured to protect a movable joint, for example, a flexible bearing of a rocket motor nozzle. The thermal protection system includes a series of annular shims separated by a plurality of discrete spacers. Each shim of the series of annular shims may have a larger diameter than the previous shim, and the shims may nest. The shims may comprise a thermally stable material, and the discrete spacers may comprise an elastomer. Optionally, an annular bearing protector may separate the annular shims from the flexible bearing.

  4. Novel concept in the mechanism of injury and protection of gastric mucosa: role of renin-angiotensin system and active metabolites of angiotensin.

    PubMed

    Brzozowski, T; Ptak-Belowska, A; Kwiecien, S; Krzysiek-Maczka, G; Strzalka, M; Drozdowicz, D; Pajdo, R; Olszanecki, R; Korbut, R; Konturek, S J; Pawlik, W W

    2012-01-01

    The term cytoprotection pioneered by Robert and colleagues has been introduced to describe the remarkable ability of endogenous and exogenous prostaglandins (PGs) to prevent acute gastric hemorrhagic lesions induced by noxious stimuli such as ethanol, bile acids, hiperosmolar solutions and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory agents such as aspirin. Since that time many factors were implicated to possess gastroprotective properties such as growth factors including epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming factor alpha (TGFα), vasodilatory mediators such as nitric oxide (NO) and calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) as well as appetite gut hormones including gastrin and cholecystokinin (CCK), leptin and recently ghrelin. This protective action of gut peptides has been attributed to the release of PG but question remains whether another peptide angiotensin, the classic component of the systemic and local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) could be involved in the mechanism of gastric integrity and gastroprotection. After renin stimulation, the circulating angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II (ANG II) by the activity of the Angiotensin Converting Enzyme (ACE). The ANG II acting via its binding to two major receptor subtypes the ANG type 1 (AT1) and type 2 (AT2) has been shown be activated during stress and to contribute to the pathogenesis of cold stress- and ischemia-reperfusion-induced gastric lesions. All bioactive angiotensin peptides can be generated not only in systemic circulation, but also locally in several tissues and organs. Recently the new functional components of RAS, such as Ang-(1-7), Ang IV, Ang-(1-12) and novel pathways ACE2 have been described suggesting the gastroprotective role for the novel ANG II metabolite, Ang-(1-7). The fact that Ang-(1-7) is produced in excessive amounts in the gastric mucosa of rodents and that pretreatment by Ang-(1-7) exhibits a potent gastroprotective activity against the gastric lesions induced by cold

  5. Structural Analysis of Lightning Protection System for New Launch Vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cope, Anne; Moore, Steve; Pruss, Richard

    2008-01-01

    This project includes the design and specification of a lightning protection system for Launch Complex 39 B (LC39B) at Kennedy Space Center, FL in support of the Constellation Program. The purpose of the lightning protection system is to protect the Crew Launch Vehicle (CLV) or Cargo Launch Vehicle (CaLV) and associated launch equipment from direct lightning strikes during launch processing and other activities prior to flight. The design includes a three-tower, overhead catenary wire system to protect the vehicle and equipment on LC39B as described in the study that preceded this design effort: KSC-DX-8234 "Study: Construct Lightning Protection System LC3 9B". The study was a collaborative effort between Reynolds, Smith, and Hills (RS&H) and ASRC Aerospace (ASRC), where ASRC was responsible for the theoretical design and risk analysis of the lightning protection system and RS&H was responsible for the development of the civil and structural components; the mechanical systems; the electrical and grounding systems; and the siting of the lightning protection system. The study determined that a triangular network of overhead catenary cables and down conductors supported by three triangular free-standing towers approximately 594 ft tall (each equipped with a man lift, ladder, electrical systems, and communications systems) would provide a level of lightning protection for the Constellation Program CLV and CaLV on Launch Pad 39B that exceeds the design requirements.

  6. Outer skin protection of columbium Thermal Protection System (TPS) panels

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culp, J. D.

    1973-01-01

    A coated columbium alloy material system 0.04 centimeter thick was developed which provides for increased reliability to the load bearing character of the system in the event of physical damage to and loss of the exterior protective coating. The increased reliability to the load bearing columbium alloy (FS-85) was achieved by interposing an oxidation resistant columbium alloy (B-1) between the FS-85 alloy and a fused slurry silicide coating. The B-1 alloy was applied as a cladding to the FS-85 and the composite was fused slurry silicide coated. Results of material evaluation testing included cyclic oxidation testing of specimens with intentional coating defects, tensile testing of several material combinations exposed to reentry profile conditions, and emittance testing after cycling of up to 100 simulated reentries. The clad material, which was shown to provide greater reliability than unclad materials, holds significant promise for use in the thermal protection system of hypersonic reentry vehicles.

  7. 21 CFR 346.14 - Protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protectant active ingredients. 346.14 Section 346... Protectant active ingredients. (a) The following active ingredients may be used as the sole protectant active... solution so that the final product contains not less than 10 and not more than 45 percent glycerin...

  8. The gnotobiotic brine shrimp (Artemia franciscana) model system reveals that the phenolic compound pyrogallol protects against infection through its prooxidant activity.

    PubMed

    Baruah, Kartik; Duy Phong, Ho Phuong Pham; Norouzitallab, Parisa; Defoirdt, Tom; Bossier, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The phenolic compound pyrogallol is the functional unit of many polyphenols and currently there has been a growing interest in using this compound in human and animal health owing to its health-promoting effects. The biological actions of pyrogallol moiety (and polyphenols) in inducing health benefitting effects have been studied; however, the mechanisms of action remain unclear yet. Here, we aimed at unravelling the underlying mechanism of action behind the protective effects of pyrogallol against bacterial infection by using the gnotobiotically-cultured brine shrimp Artemia franciscana and pathogenic bacteria Vibrio harveyi as host-pathogen model system. The gnotobiotic test system represents an exceptional system for carrying out such studies because it eliminates any possible interference of microbial communities (naturally present in the experimental system) in mechanistic studies and furthermore facilitates the interpretation of the results in terms of a cause effect relationship. We provided clear evidences suggesting that pyrogallol pretreament, at an optimum concentration, induced protective effects in the brine shrimp against V. harveyi infection. By pretreating brine shrimp with pyrogallol in the presence or absence of an antioxidant enzyme mixture (catalase and superoxide dismutase), we showed that the Vibrio-protective effect of the compound was caused by its prooxidant action (e.g. generation of hydrogen peroxide, H2O2). We showed further that generation of prooxidant is linked to the induction of heat shock protein Hsp70, which is involved in eliciting the prophenoloxidase and transglutaminase immune responses. The ability of pyrogallol to induce protective immunity makes it a potential natural protective agent that might be a potential preventive modality for different host-pathogen systems. PMID:26459033

  9. Remote monitoring of a Fire Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauman, Steven; Vermeulen, Tom; Roberts, Larry; Matsushige, Grant; Gajadhar, Sarah; Taroma, Ralph; Elizares, Casey; Arruda, Tyson; Potter, Sharon; Hoffman, James

    2011-03-01

    Some years ago CFHT proposed developing a Remote Observing Environment aimed at producing Science Observations at their Observatory Facility on Mauna Kea from their Headquarters facility in Waimea, HI. This Remote Observing Project commonly referred to as OAP (Observatory Automation Project) was completed at the end of January 2011 and has been providing the majority of Science Data since. My poster will discuss the upgrades to the existing fire alarm protection system. With no one at the summit during nightly operations, the observatory facility required automated monitoring of the facility for safety to personnel and equipment in the case of a fire. An addressable analog fire panel was installed which utilizes digital communication protocol (DCP), intelligent communication with other devices, and an RS-232 interface which provides feedback and real-time monitoring of the system. Using the interface capabilities of the panel, it provides notifications when heat detectors, smoke sensors, manual pull stations, or the main observatory computer room fire suppression system has been activated. The notifications are sent out as alerts to staff in the form of test massages and emails and the observing control GUI interface alerts the remote telescope operator with a map showing the location of the fire occurrence and type of device that has been triggered. And all of this was accomplished without the need for an outside vendor to monitor the system and facilitate warnings or notifications regarding the system.

  10. Heat shock protein expression and change of cytochrome c oxidase activity: presence of two phylogenic old systems to protect tissues in ischemia and reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Vogt, Sebastian; Portig, Irene; Irqsusi, Mark; Ruppert, Volker; Weber, Petra; Ramzan, Rabia

    2011-08-01

    Induction of heat shock proteins (hsp) has been shown to protect cells from ischemia by providing transient tolerance against myocardial injury and improving postischemic functional recovery. Attenuation of ATP depletion and earlier restoration of ATP content on reperfusion are thought to play a role in this scenario. Hsp induction is accompanied by altered enzyme activity of the respiratory chain, the major generator of ATP under physiological conditions. This report addresses the question whether processing and final assembly of the active holoenzyme cytochrome c oxidase (CcO, complex IV), member of the respiratory chain, is compromised under hypoxic conditions unless protected by stress proteins. Special focus is laid on function of the enzyme's subunits and importance of cellular energy availability and maintenance. PMID:21792694

  11. REDUCED-POLLUTION CORROSION-PROTECTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Coating systems, designed to protect metallic components against corrosive attack using environmentally compatible materials and processes, were evaluated as potential alternatives for their higher polluting counterparts. Viable replacements were established for cyanide cadmium, ...

  12. Requirements for CEC POP machine protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Pinayev, I.

    2015-02-18

    The requirements of CEC POP machine protection system are meant to prevent damage to a vacuum chamber by a missteered electron beam. In this example, beam energy = 22 MeV, Maximal bunch charge = 5 nC, Maximal repetition rate = 78 kHz, Normalized emittance = 5 mm mrad, Minimal β-function = 1 m. From this information the requirements of the protection system can be calculated by factoring the information into equations to find beam densities and temperature excursions.

  13. Synergy between different electromagnetic-protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boudenot, J. C.

    1990-04-01

    A new approach to electromagnetic-protection (EP) design is presented. The EP problem for large structures has been shown to be strongly dependent on the various types of electromagnetic constraints (NEMP, lightning, EMC, TEMPEST). Even though the types of protection systems that can be applied are limited, the characteristics of these systems show a potential for synergism in the treatment of the EP. It is shown that, in order to take advantange of this potential synergism and to achieve the best cost-effective design, an early analysis of the protection scenario is required.

  14. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section 347.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) DRUGS FOR HUMAN USE SKIN PROTECTANT DRUG PRODUCTS FOR OVER-THE-COUNTER HUMAN USE Active Ingredients § 347.10 Skin protectant active...

  15. Micelles Protect and Concentrate Activated Acetic Acid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todd, Zoe; House, C.

    2014-01-01

    As more and more exoplanets are discovered and the habitability of such planets is considered, one can turn to searching for the origin of life on Earth in order to better understand what makes a habitable planet. Activated acetic acid, or methyl thioacetate, has been proposed to be central to the origin of life on Earth, and also as an important energy currency molecule in early cellular evolution. We have investigated the hydrolysis of methyl thioacetate under various conditions. Its uncatalyzed rate of hydrolysis is about three orders of magnitude faster (K = 0.00663 s^-1; 100°C, pH 7.5, concentration = 0.33mM) than published rates for its catalyzed production making it unlikely to accumulate under prebiotic conditions. However, we also observed that methyl thioacetate was protected from hydrolysis when inside its own hydrophobic droplets. We found that methyl thioacetate protection from hydrolysis was also possible in droplets of hexane and in the membranes of nonanoic acid micelles. Thus, the hydrophobic regions of prebiotic micelles and early cell membranes could have offered a refuge for this energetic molecule increasing its lifetime in close proximity to the reactions for which it would be needed. Methyl thioacetate could thus be important for the origin of life on Earth and perhaps for better understanding the potential habitability of other planets.

  16. Radiation protection for manned space activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, T. M.

    1983-01-01

    The Earth's natural radiation environment poses a hazard to manned space activities directly through biological effects and indirectly through effects on materials and electronics. The following standard practices are indicated that address: (1) environment models for all radiation species including uncertainties and temporal variations; (2) upper bound and nominal quality factors for biological radiation effects that include dose, dose rate, critical organ, and linear energy transfer variations; (3) particle transport and shielding methodology including system and man modeling and uncertainty analysis; (4) mission planning that includes active dosimetry, minimizes exposure during extravehicular activities, subjects every mission to a radiation review, and specifies operational procedures for forecasting, recognizing, and dealing with large solar flaes.

  17. R&D ERL: Machine Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Altinbas, Z.

    2010-01-01

    The Machine Protection System (MPS) is a device-safety system that is designed to prevent damage to hardware by generating interlocks, based upon the state of input signals generated by selected sub-system. It exists to protect key machinery such as the 50 kW and 1 MW RF Systems. When a fault state occurs, the MPS is capable of responding with an interlock signal within several microseconds. The Machine Protection System inputs are designed to be fail-safe. In addition, all fault conditions are latched and time-stamped. The ERL MPS is based on a National Instruments hardware platform, and is programmed by utilizing National Instruments development environment for a visual programming language.

  18. FUTURE OF EXPERT SYSTEMS IN THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY

    EPA Science Inventory

    As in other organizations, the history of expert systems in the Environmental Protection Agency is very short. pproximately five years ago, the focus of our expert systems activities was to assess their feasibility and utility as environmental decision aids. ast year the Agency a...

  19. Ethical foundations of the radiological protection system.

    PubMed

    Cho, K W

    2016-06-01

    The International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has established Task Group 94 under Committee 4 to develop a report on the ethical foundations of the system of radiological protection. The aim of this report is to consolidate the basis of ICRP recommendations, to improve understanding of the system, and to provide a basis for communication on radiation risk and its perception. Through a series of workshops organised by the Commission in cooperation with the International Radiation Protection Association and its associate societies involving radiological protection professionals and specialists of ethics around the world, Task Group 94 has identified the key ethical and social values underpinning the system of radiological protection. The purpose of eliciting the ethical principles and values of the radiological protection system is not only to clarify the rationale for recommendations made by the Commission, but also to assist in discussions related to its practical implementation. A clear understanding of the ethical principles will help resolve dilemmas caused by potential conflicts in actions that might be considered, or decisions that must be made. PMID:26980798

  20. Advanced Protection & Service Restoration for FREEDM Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Urvir

    A smart electric power distribution system (FREEDM system) that incorporates DERs (Distributed Energy Resources), SSTs (Solid State Transformers - that can limit the fault current to two times of the rated current) & RSC (Reliable & Secure Communication) capabilities has been studied in this work in order to develop its appropriate protection & service restoration techniques. First, a solution is proposed that can make conventional protective devices be able to provide effective protection for FREEDM systems. Results show that although this scheme can provide required protection but it can be quite slow. Using the FREEDM system's communication capabilities, a communication assisted Overcurrent (O/C) protection scheme is proposed & results show that by using communication (blocking signals) very fast operating times are achieved thereby, mitigating the problem of conventional O/C scheme. Using the FREEDM System's DGI (Distributed Grid Intelligence) capability, an automated FLISR (Fault Location, Isolation & Service Restoration) scheme is proposed that is based on the concept of 'software agents' & uses lesser data (than conventional centralized approaches). Test results illustrated that this scheme is able to provide a global optimal system reconfiguration for service restoration.

  1. Fire protection system operating experience review for fusion applications

    SciTech Connect

    Cadwallader, L.C.

    1995-12-01

    This report presents a review of fire protection system operating experiences from particle accelerator, fusion experiment, and other applications. Safety relevant operating experiences and accident information are discussed. Quantitative order-of-magnitude estimates of fire protection system component failure rates and fire accident initiating event frequencies are presented for use in risk assessment, reliability, and availability studies. Safety concerns with these systems are discussed, including spurious operation. This information should be useful to fusion system designers and safety analysts, such as the team working on the Engineering Design Activities for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor.

  2. Protective activities in mice of monoclonal antibodies against pertussis toxin.

    PubMed Central

    Sato, H; Sato, Y

    1990-01-01

    Pertussis toxin (PT) protein, which is the most important protective antigen of Bordetella pertussis, has a hexameric structure composed of five subunits, designated S1 through S5. Immunoprotective activity of 20 different mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against pertussis toxin, 10 anti-S1, 1 anti-S2, 2 anti-S3, 4 anti-S23, and 3 anti-S4 antibodies, were investigated by aerosol and intracerebral challenges with virulent B. pertussis organisms in mice. Four anti-S1, named 1B7, 1D7, 3F11, and 10D6, and three anti-S23 antibodies, named 11E6, 10B5, and 10C9, showed the highest, and almost complete, protectivity against the aerosol challenge. Mouse protectivity against the intracerebral challenge was significant for these four anti-S1 MAbs but not for any of the three anti-S23 MAbs. Four anti-S1 and two anti-S4 MAbs did not protect the mice against either challenge. The other seven MAbs also showed dose-dependent moderate but significant protection against the aerosol challenge. In the aerosol challenge system, bacterial numbers and amounts of PT detected in the lung and the number of peripheral leukocytes were lower in the mice given the protective MAbs. All mice surviving 5 weeks after the infection produced high titers of antibodies against PT, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), and agglutinogens from the challenge organisms. A combination of the protective MAbs 1B7 and 11E6 strongly suppressed the disease and mortality of the mice at smaller amounts than with the anti-PT polyclonal antibody. Although combinations of one of the protective MAb and anti-FHA or anti-agglutinogen 2 also showed extremely high mouse protection without development of symptoms of the disease, antibody titers of the survivors against PT, FHA, and agglutinogens were significantly low. The foregoing results suggest that some important protective epitopes should be in S1 and S2 and/or S3, although there are both differences and similarities in the protective roles between anti-S1 and anti-S23

  3. Protective activities in mice of monoclonal antibodies against pertussis toxin.

    PubMed

    Sato, H; Sato, Y

    1990-10-01

    Pertussis toxin (PT) protein, which is the most important protective antigen of Bordetella pertussis, has a hexameric structure composed of five subunits, designated S1 through S5. Immunoprotective activity of 20 different mouse monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against pertussis toxin, 10 anti-S1, 1 anti-S2, 2 anti-S3, 4 anti-S23, and 3 anti-S4 antibodies, were investigated by aerosol and intracerebral challenges with virulent B. pertussis organisms in mice. Four anti-S1, named 1B7, 1D7, 3F11, and 10D6, and three anti-S23 antibodies, named 11E6, 10B5, and 10C9, showed the highest, and almost complete, protectivity against the aerosol challenge. Mouse protectivity against the intracerebral challenge was significant for these four anti-S1 MAbs but not for any of the three anti-S23 MAbs. Four anti-S1 and two anti-S4 MAbs did not protect the mice against either challenge. The other seven MAbs also showed dose-dependent moderate but significant protection against the aerosol challenge. In the aerosol challenge system, bacterial numbers and amounts of PT detected in the lung and the number of peripheral leukocytes were lower in the mice given the protective MAbs. All mice surviving 5 weeks after the infection produced high titers of antibodies against PT, filamentous hemagglutinin (FHA), and agglutinogens from the challenge organisms. A combination of the protective MAbs 1B7 and 11E6 strongly suppressed the disease and mortality of the mice at smaller amounts than with the anti-PT polyclonal antibody. Although combinations of one of the protective MAb and anti-FHA or anti-agglutinogen 2 also showed extremely high mouse protection without development of symptoms of the disease, antibody titers of the survivors against PT, FHA, and agglutinogens were significantly low. The foregoing results suggest that some important protective epitopes should be in S1 and S2 and/or S3, although there are both differences and similarities in the protective roles between anti-S1 and anti-S23

  4. Future Interoperability of Camp Protection Systems (FICAPS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caron, Sylvie; Gündisch, Rainer; Marchand, Alain; Stahl, Karl-Hermann

    2013-05-01

    The FICAPS Project has been established as a Project of the European Defence Agency based on an initiative of Germany and France. Goal of this Project was to derive Guidelines, which by a proper implementation in future developments improve Camp Protection Systems (CPS) by enabling and improving interoperability between Camp Protection Systems and its Equipments of different Nations involved in multinational missions. These Guidelines shall allow for: • Real-time information exchange between equipments and systems of different suppliers and nations (even via SatCom), • Quick and easy replacement of equipments (even of different Nations) at run-time in the field by means of plug and play capability, thus lowering the operational and logistic costs and making the system highly available, • Enhancement of system capabilities (open and modular systems) by adding new equipment with new capabilities (just plug-in, automatic adjustment of the HMI Human Machine Interface) without costly and time consuming validation and test on system level (validation and test can be done on Equipment level), Four scenarios have been identified to summarize the interoperability requirements from an operational viewpoint. To prove the definitions given in the Guideline Document, a French and a German Demonstration System, based on existing national assets, were realized. Demonstrations, showing the capabilities given by the defined interoperability requirements with respect to the operational scenarios, were performed. Demonstrations included remote control of a CPS by another CPS, remote sensor control (Electro-Optic/InfraRed EO/IR) and remote effector control. This capability can be applied to extend the protection area or to protect distant infrastructural assets Demonstrations have been performed. The required interoperability functionality was shown successfully. Even if the focus of the FICAPS project was on camp protection, the solution found is also appropriate for other

  5. Racial Disparity in Minnesota's Child Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnson, Erik P.; Clark, Sonja; Donald, Matthew; Pedersen, Rachel; Pichotta, Catherine

    2007-01-01

    Minnesota has been recognized by several studies as a state with a significant amount of racial disparity in its child protection system. This study, using 2001 data from Minnesota's Social Services Information Service, was conducted to determine at which of the six decision points in Minnesota's child welfare system racial disparities are…

  6. Thermal Management and Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hasnain, Aqib

    2016-01-01

    During my internship in the Thermal Design Branch (ES3), I contributed to two main projects: i) novel passive thermal management system for future human exploration, ii) AVCOAT undercut thermal analysis. i) As NASA prepares to further expand human and robotic presence in space, it is well known that spacecraft architectures will be challenged with unprecedented thermal environments. Future exploration activities will have the need of thermal management systems that can provide higher reliability, mass and power reduction and increased performance. In an effort to start addressing the current technical gaps the NASA Johnson Space Center Passive Thermal Discipline has engaged in technology development activities. One of these activities was done through an in-house Passive Thermal Management System (PTMS) design for a lunar lander. The proposed PTMS, functional in both microgravity and gravity environments, consists of three main components: a heat spreader, a novel hybrid wick Variable Conductance Heat Pipe (VCHP), and a radiator. The aim of this PTMS is to keep electronics on a vehicle within their temperature limits (0 and 50 C for the current design) during all mission phases including multiple lunar day/night cycles. The VCHP was tested to verify its thermal performance. I created a thermal math model using Thermal Desktop (TD) and analyzed it to predict the PTMS performance. After testing, the test data provided a means to correlate the thermal math model. This correlation took into account conduction and convection heat transfer, representing the actual benchtop test. Since this PTMS is proposed for space missions, a vacuum test will be taking place to provide confidence that the system is functional in space environments. Therefore, the model was modified to include a vacuum chamber with a liquid nitrogen shroud while taking into account conduction and radiation heat transfer. Infrared Lamps were modelled and introduced into the model to simulate the sun

  7. Hydrogel microspheres for stabilization of an antioxidant enzyme: effect of emulsion cross-linking of a dual polysaccharide system on the protection of enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Tang, Deh-Wei; Yu, Shu-Huei; Wu, Wen-Shin; Hsieh, Hao-Ying; Tsai, Yi-Chin; Mi, Fwu-Long

    2014-01-01

    Catalase is an antioxidant enzyme abundant in natural resources. However, the enzyme is usually inactivated by gastric acid and digestive enzymes after oral ingestion. In this study, carboxymethyl chitosan (CM-chitosan) and hyaluronic acid (HA) conjugate hydrogel microspheres have been prepared by an emulsion cross-linking technique to retain the activity of catalase in simulated gastrointestinal (GI) fluids. Cross-linking reduced the swelling capability and increased the resistance toward hyaluronidase digestion of prepared HA-CM-chitosan hydrogel microspheres. Catalase entrapped in the hydrogel microspheres exhibited superior stability over a wide pH range (pH 2.0 and 6.0-8.0) as compared to the native enzyme. The entrapped catalase was also protected against degradation by digestive enzymes. Following the treatments, the catalase-loaded microspheres, in contrast to native catalase, could effectively decrease the intracellular H2O2 level and protect HT-29 colonic epithelial cells against H2O2-induced oxidative damage to preserve cell viability. These results suggested that the HA-CM-chitosan hydrogel microspheres can be used for entrapment, protection and intestinal delivery of catalase for H2O2 scavenging. PMID:24055882

  8. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Fire protection activities. 553.210 Section 553.210 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and Law Enforcement Employees of Public Agencies Exemption Requirements § 553.210 Fire protection activities. (a)...

  9. Evolution of thiol protective systems in prokaryotes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fahey, R. C.; Newton, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    Biological thiols are essential elements in most aspects of cell function but undergo rapid oxidation to disulfides in the presence of oxygen. The evolution of systems to protect against such oxygen toxicity was essential to the emergence of aerobic life. The protection system used by eukaryotes is based upon glutathione (GSH) and GSH-dependent enzymes but many bacteria lack GSH and apparently use other mechanisms. The objective of this research is to elaborate the thiol protective mechanisms employed by prokaryotes of widely divergent evolutionary origin and to understand why GSH became the central thiol employed in essentially all higher organisms. Thiol-selective fluorescent labeling and HPLC analysis has been used to determine key monothiol components.

  10. Thermal Protection System with Staggered Joints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Xavier D. (Inventor); Robinson, Michael J. (Inventor); Andrews, Thomas L. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    The thermal protection system disclosed herein is suitable for use with a spacecraft such as a reentry module or vehicle, where the spacecraft has a convex surface to be protected. An embodiment of the thermal protection system includes a plurality of heat resistant panels, each having an outer surface configured for exposure to atmosphere, an inner surface opposite the outer surface and configured for attachment to the convex surface of the spacecraft, and a joint edge defined between the outer surface and the inner surface. The joint edges of adjacent ones of the heat resistant panels are configured to mate with each other to form staggered joints that run between the peak of the convex surface and the base section of the convex surface.

  11. Planetary Protection Considerations for Life Support and Habitation Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barta, Daniel J.; Hogan, John A.

    2010-01-01

    Life support systems for future human missions beyond low Earth orbit may include a combination of existing hardware components and advanced technologies. Discipline areas for technology development include atmosphere revitalization, water recovery, solid waste management, crew accommodations, food production, thermal systems, environmental monitoring, fire protection and radiation protection. Life support systems will be influenced by in situ resource utilization (ISRU), crew mobility and the degree of extravehicular activity. Planetary protection represents an additional set of requirements that technology developers have generally not considered. Planetary protection guidelines will affect the kind of operations, processes, and functions that can take place during future exploration missions, including venting and discharge of liquids and solids, ejection of wastes, use of ISRU, requirements for cabin atmospheric trace contaminant concentrations, cabin leakage and restrictions on what materials, organisms, and technologies that may be brought on missions. Compliance with planetary protection requirements may drive development of new capabilities or processes (e.g. in situ sterilization, waste containment, contaminant measurement) and limit or prohibit certain kinds of operations or processes (e.g. unfiltered venting). Ultimately, there will be an effect on mission costs, including the mission trade space. Planetary protection requirements need to be considered early in technology development programs. It is expected that planetary protection will have a major impact on technology selection for future missions.

  12. Prevention and the Child Protection System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldfogel, Jane

    2009-01-01

    The nation's child protection system (CPS) has historically focused on preventing maltreatment in high-risk families, whose children have already been maltreated. But, as Jane Waldfogel explains, it has also begun developing prevention procedures for children at lower risk--those who are referred to CPS but whose cases do not meet the criteria for…

  13. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section 347.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  14. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section 347.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  15. 21 CFR 347.10 - Skin protectant active ingredients.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Skin protectant active ingredients. 347.10 Section 347.10 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... § 347.10 Skin protectant active ingredients. The active ingredients of the product consist of any of...

  16. European Directions for Hypersonic Thermal Protection Systems and Hot Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glass, David E.

    2007-01-01

    This presentation will overview European Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) and Hot Structures activities in Europe. The Europeans have a lot of very good work going on in the area. The presentation will discuss their emphasis on focused technology development for their flight vehicles.

  17. CLASSIFICATION OF THE MGR FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    SciTech Connect

    R. Garrett

    1999-08-31

    The purpose of this analysis is to document the Quality Assurance (QA) classification of the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) subsurface fire protection system structures, systems and components (SSCs) performed by the MGR Safety Assurance Department. This analysis also provides the basis for revision of YMP/90-55Q, Q-List (YMP 1998). The Q-List identifies those MGR SSCs subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (QARD) (DOE 1998).

  18. Pre-stressed thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, T. J. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A hexagonal protective and high temperature resistant system for the Space Shuttle Orbiter consists of a multiplicity of pockets formed by hexagonally oriented spacer bars secured on the vehicle substructure. A packing of low density insulating batt material 18 in each pocket, and a thin protective panel of laterally resilient advanced carbon-carbon material surmounting the peripherals bars and packing. Each panel has three stepped or offset lips on contiguous edges. At the center of each pocket is a fully insulated stanchion secured to and connecting the substructure and panel for flexing the panel toward the substructure and thereby prestressing the panel and forcing the panel edges firmly against the spacer bars.

  19. Reusable thermal protection system development: A prospective

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Howard

    1992-01-01

    The state of the art in passive reusable thermal protection system materials is described. Development of the Space Shuttle Orbiter, which was the first reusable vehicle, is discussed. The thermal protection materials and given concepts and some of the shuttle development and manufacturing problems are described. Evolution of a family of grid and flexible ceramic external insulation materials from the initial shuttle concept in the early 1970's to the present time is described. The important properties and their evolution are documented. Application of these materials to vehicles currently being developed and plans for research to meet the space programs future needs are summarized.

  20. Tiagabine Protects Dopaminergic Neurons against Neurotoxins by Inhibiting Microglial Activation

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Jie; Huang, Dongping; Xu, Jing; Tong, Jiabin; Wang, Zishan; Huang, Li; Yang, Yufang; Bai, Xiaochen; Wang, Pan; Suo, Haiyun; Ma, Yuanyuan; Yu, Mei; Fei, Jian; Huang, Fang

    2015-01-01

    Microglial activation and inflammation are associated with progressive neuronal apoptosis in neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson’s disease (PD). γ-Aminobutyric acid (GABA), the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system, has recently been shown to play an inhibitory role in the immune system. Tiagabine, a piperidine derivative, enhances GABAergic transmission by inhibiting GABA transporter 1 (GAT 1). In the present study, we found that tiagabine pretreatment attenuated microglial activation, provided partial protection to the nigrostriatal axis and improved motor deficits in a methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) mouse model of PD. The protective function of tiagabine was abolished in GAT 1 knockout mice that were challenged with MPTP. In an alternative PD model, induced by intranigral infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS), microglial suppression and subsequent neuroprotective effects of tiagabine were demonstrated. Furthermore, the LPS-induced inflammatory activation of BV-2 microglial cells and the toxicity of conditioned medium toward SH-SY5Y cells were inhibited by pretreatment with GABAergic drugs. The attenuation of the nuclear translocation of nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) and the inhibition of the generation of inflammatory mediators were the underlying mechanisms. Our results suggest that tiagabine acts as a brake for nigrostriatal microglial activation and that it might be a novel therapeutic approach for PD. PMID:26499517

  1. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.J.; Beason, D.G.; Bergman, W.; Ford, H.W.; Lipska, A.E.

    1980-01-01

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect HEPA filters in exit ventilation ducts from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Several methods for partially mitigating the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified through testing and analysis. These independently involve controlling the fuel, controlling the fire, and intercepting the smoke aerosol prior to its sorption on the HEPA filter. Exit duct treatment of aerosols is not unusual in industrial applications and involves the use of scrubbers, prefilters, and inertial impaction, depending on the size, distribution, and concentration of the subject aerosol. However, when these unmodified techniques were applied to smoke aerosols from fires on materials, common to experimental laboratories of LLNL, it was found they offered minimal protection to the HEPA filters. Ultimately, a continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. This technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modificaton of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has a particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, we laminated rolling filter media with the desired properties. It is not true that the use of rolling prefilters solely to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols is cost effective in every type of containment system, especially if standard fire-protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  2. Thermal protection systems for hypersonic transport vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reich, G.; Hinger, J.; Huchler, M.

    1990-07-01

    Thermal protection systems (TPS) for hypersonic transport vehicles are described and evaluated. During the flight through the atmosphere moderate to high aerodynamic heating rates with corresponding high surface temperatures are generated. Therefore, a reliable light-weight but effective TPS is required, that limits the heat transfer into the central fuselage with the liquid hydrogen tank and that prevents the penetration of the temperature peak during stage separation to the load carrying structure. The heat transfer modes in the insulation are solid conduction, gas convection and radiation. Thermal protection systems based on different phenomena to reduce the heat transfer, like vacuum shingles, inert gas filled shingles, microporous insulations and multiwall structures, are described. It is demonstrated that microporous and multiwall insulations are efficient, light weight and reliable TPSs for future hypersonic transportation systems.

  3. Advanced worker protection system. Topical report, Phase I

    SciTech Connect

    Myers, J.

    1995-07-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. The DOE believes that existing technologies are inadequate to solve many challenging problems such as how to decontaminate structures and equipment cost effectively, what to do with materials and wastes generated, and how to adequately protect workers and the environment. Preliminary estimates show a tremendous need for effective use of resources over a relatively long period (over 30 years). Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This project will result in the development of an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS will be built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with advanced protective garments, advanced liquid cooling garment, respirator, communications, and support equipment to provide improved worker protection, simplified system, maintenance, and dramatically improve worker productivity through longer duration work cycles.

  4. The Invertebrate Lysozyme Effector ILYS-3 Is Systemically Activated in Response to Danger Signals and Confers Antimicrobial Protection in C. elegans.

    PubMed

    Gravato-Nobre, Maria João; Vaz, Filipa; Filipe, Sergio; Chalmers, Ronald; Hodgkin, Jonathan

    2016-08-01

    Little is known about the relative contributions and importance of antibacterial effectors in the nematode C. elegans, despite extensive work on the innate immune responses in this organism. We report an investigation of the expression, function and regulation of the six ilys (invertebrate-type lysozyme) genes of C. elegans. These genes exhibited a surprising variety of tissue-specific expression patterns and responses to starvation or bacterial infection. The most strongly expressed, ilys-3, was investigated in detail. ILYS-3 protein was expressed constitutively in the pharynx and coelomocytes, and dynamically in the intestine. Analysis of mutants showed that ILYS-3 was required for pharyngeal grinding (disruption of bacterial cells) during normal growth and consequently it contributes to longevity, as well as being protective against bacterial pathogens. Both starvation and challenge with Gram-positive pathogens resulted in ERK-MAPK-dependent up-regulation of ilys-3 in the intestine. The intestinal induction by pathogens, but not starvation, was found to be dependent on MPK-1 activity in the pharynx rather than in the intestine, demonstrating unexpected communication between these two tissues. The coelomocyte expression appeared to contribute little to normal growth or immunity. Recombinant ILYS-3 protein was found to exhibit appropriate lytic activity against Gram-positive cell wall material. PMID:27525822

  5. The Invertebrate Lysozyme Effector ILYS-3 Is Systemically Activated in Response to Danger Signals and Confers Antimicrobial Protection in C. elegans

    PubMed Central

    Gravato-Nobre, Maria João; Vaz, Filipa; Filipe, Sergio; Chalmers, Ronald; Hodgkin, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Little is known about the relative contributions and importance of antibacterial effectors in the nematode C. elegans, despite extensive work on the innate immune responses in this organism. We report an investigation of the expression, function and regulation of the six ilys (invertebrate-type lysozyme) genes of C. elegans. These genes exhibited a surprising variety of tissue-specific expression patterns and responses to starvation or bacterial infection. The most strongly expressed, ilys-3, was investigated in detail. ILYS-3 protein was expressed constitutively in the pharynx and coelomocytes, and dynamically in the intestine. Analysis of mutants showed that ILYS-3 was required for pharyngeal grinding (disruption of bacterial cells) during normal growth and consequently it contributes to longevity, as well as being protective against bacterial pathogens. Both starvation and challenge with Gram-positive pathogens resulted in ERK-MAPK-dependent up-regulation of ilys-3 in the intestine. The intestinal induction by pathogens, but not starvation, was found to be dependent on MPK-1 activity in the pharynx rather than in the intestine, demonstrating unexpected communication between these two tissues. The coelomocyte expression appeared to contribute little to normal growth or immunity. Recombinant ILYS-3 protein was found to exhibit appropriate lytic activity against Gram-positive cell wall material. PMID:27525822

  6. Fire protection countermeasures for containment ventilation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Alvares, N.; Beason, D.; Bergman, V.; Creighton, J.; Ford, H.; Lipska, A.

    1980-08-25

    The goal of this project is to find countermeasures to protect High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA) filters, in exit ventilation ducts, from the heat and smoke generated by fire. Initially, methods were developed to cool fire-heated air by fine water spray upstream of the filters. It was recognized that smoke aerosol exposure to HEPA filters could also cause disruption of the containment system. Through testing and analysis, several methods to partially mitigate the smoke exposure to the HEPA filters were identified. A continuous, movable, high-efficiency prefilter using modified commercial equipment was designed. The technique is capable of protecting HEPA filters over the total time duration of the test fires. The reason for success involved the modification of the prefiltration media. Commercially available filter media has particle sorption efficiency that is inversely proportional to media strength. To achieve properties of both efficiency and strength, rolling filter media were laminated with the desired properties. The approach was Edisonian, but truncation in short order to a combination of prefilters was effective. The application of this technique was qualified, since it is of use only to protect HEPA filters from fire-generated smoke aerosols. It is not believed that this technique is cost effective in the total spectrum of containment systems, especially if standard fire protection systems are available in the space. But in areas of high-fire risk, where the potential fuel load is large and ignition sources are plentiful, the complication of a rolling prefilter in exit ventilation ducts to protect HEPA filters from smoke aerosols is definitely justified.

  7. Software reliability and safety in nuclear reactor protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence, J.D.

    1993-11-01

    Planning the development, use and regulation of computer systems in nuclear reactor protection systems in such a way as to enhance reliability and safety is a complex issue. This report is one of a series of reports from the Computer Safety and Reliability Group, Lawrence Livermore that investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor National Laboratory, that investigates different aspects of computer software in reactor protection systems. There are two central themes in the report, First, software considerations cannot be fully understood in isolation from computer hardware and application considerations. Second, the process of engineering reliability and safety into a computer system requires activities to be carried out throughout the software life cycle. The report discusses the many activities that can be carried out during the software life cycle to improve the safety and reliability of the resulting product. The viewpoint is primarily that of the assessor, or auditor.

  8. Operability of Space Station Freedom's meteoroid/debris protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahl, Maggie S.; Stokes, Jack W.

    1992-01-01

    The design of Space Station Freedom's external structure must not only protect the spacecraft from the hazardous environment, but also must be compatible with the extra vehicular activity system for assembly and maintenance. The external procedures for module support are utility connections, external orbital replaceable unit changeout, and maintenance of the meteoroid/debris shields and multilayer insulation. All of these interfaces require proper man-machine engineering to be compatible with the extra vehicular activity and manipulator systems. This paper discusses design solutions, including those provided for human interface, to the Space Station Freedom meteoroid/debris protection system. The system advantages and current access capabilities are illustrated through analysis of its configuration over the Space Station Freedom resource nodes and common modules, with emphasis on the cylindrical sections and endcones.

  9. Design study on safety protection system of JSFR

    SciTech Connect

    Ishikawa, N.; Chikazawa, Y.; Fujita, K.; Yamada, Y.; Okazaki, H.; Suzuki, S.

    2012-07-01

    Development of Japan Sodium-cooled Fast Reactor (JSFR) has been progressed in Fast Reactor Cycle Technology Development (FaCT) project aiming at realizing high level of safety, reliability and economic competitiveness. For JSFR, design consideration on safety protection system has also been performed, which is essential for reactor shutdown in the case of design basis events (DBEs). In the design activity, consideration of safety protection system includes logic circuits configuration, selection of trip signals, and its setting values for reactor trip. In addition, it is necessary to evaluate the performance of the safety protection system by safety analysis taking into account the comprehensive parameter ranges. For this purpose, it has been evaluated whether adequate reactor trip signals can be ensured for satisfying safety standard regarding the fuel integrity (e.g., maximum fuel clad temperature) for DBEs. In this paper, results obtained from the design study on safety protection system of JSFR is presented focusing on the evaluation results of satisfaction of safety protection system for representative events of transient over power (TOP), loss of coolant flow (LOF) and loss of heat sink (LOHS). (authors)

  10. Pressure Systems Energy Release Protection (Gas Pressurized Systems)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, S. J. (Editor)

    1986-01-01

    A survey of studies into hazards associated with closed or pressurized system rupture and preliminary guidelines for the performance design of primary, secondary, and protective receptors of these hazards are provided. The hazards discussed in the survey are: blast, fragments, ground motion, heat radiation, biological, and chemical. Performance guidelines for receptors are limited to pressurized systems that contain inert gas. The performance guidelines for protection against the remaining unaddressed degenerative hazards are to be covered in another study.

  11. Cathodic protection requirements for deepwater systems

    SciTech Connect

    Menendez, C.M.; Hanson, H.R.; Kane, R.D.; Farquhar, G.B.

    1999-07-01

    Field and laboratory experience related to requirements for cathodic protection (CP) in deep water are reviewed with emphasis on identification of the major variables that need to be specified for successful deepwater CP designs for offshore structures. The subject is addressed based on the historical development of cathodic protection design methodologies for offshore structures focusing on sacrificial anode systems and trends that have resulted in specific changes in design requirements. Three main subjects are discussed: (1) application of existing industry standards such as NACE RP0176; (2) environmental factors--dissolved oxygen, temperature, salinity, pH, water velocity and fouling; and (3) calcareous deposits--difference between shallow and deep waters. Current practice of design criteria and systems for deepwater applications is assessed, including initial polarization, use of coatings and anode materials. The results from laboratory tests are compared with available documented service experiences and field tests results.

  12. Lightning protection system for a wind turbine

    DOEpatents

    Costin, Daniel P.; Petter, Jeffrey K.

    2008-05-27

    In a wind turbine (104, 500, 704) having a plurality of blades (132, 404, 516, 744) and a blade rotor hub (120, 712), a lightning protection system (100, 504, 700) for conducting lightning strikes to any one of the blades and the region surrounding the blade hub along a path around the blade hub and critical components of the wind turbine, such as the generator (112, 716), gearbox (708) and main turbine bearings (176, 724).

  13. The activities and prospect of planetary protection research in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection is an important activities and responsibilities for space exploration. In Chinese manned missions, micro-organism research and protection has been developed in Shenzhou-9, Shenzhou-10 and Tiangong-2 missions. In the experiment facility of Lunar Palace-1, the micro-organism pollution and protection/control technology has been studied. In the lunar sample recovery mission and China Mars mission, the planetary protection has become an important issue. This paper introduced the research about planetary protection in China. The planetary protection activities, strategy and procedures have been suggested for future space exploration program to meet the requirement for planetary protection, such as cabin pollution isolation, pollutant detection, and so on.

  14. 78 FR 15876 - Activation of Ice Protection

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-13

    ... final rule published on August 22, 2011 (76 FR 52241). In that rule, the FAA amended its regulations to... Protection,'' (76 FR 52241). In that final rule the FAA added operating rules for flight in icing conditions... amendatory language of the final rule which inadvertently led to the omission of the new section from...

  15. Auger tension leg platform cathodic protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Goolsby, A.D.; Smith, J.D.

    1995-11-01

    In 1986, Shell began investigating corrosion control systems for a generic 3,000 ft. water depth Tension Leg Platform (TLP) type structure to be located in the north-central Gulf of Mexico. In 1987, the 2,850 ft. deep Garden Banks block 426 ``Auger`` location was chosen for the first TLP, and the detailed design process began in earnest. During late 1993 and early 1994, the Auger hull was mated with the other components at its permanent site, and first oil and gas production began April 15, 1994. This paper describes the corrosion control design for the exterior submerged and buried steel surfaces of the 2,850 ft. (869 m) water depth Auger Tension Leg Platform structure. Each major type of component (hull, subsea marine wellhead/guidebase, tendon foundation template, tendon, and production riser) has its own combination of coating system and cathodic protection system designed for a thirty five year lifetime. Cathodic protection (CP) is achieved using a variety of sacrificial anode alloys and geometries (e.g. bracelet, flush-mount, and standoff anodes). Anode and cathode CP design parameters for each component depend upon water depth, and were developed using field test data, laboratory studies, field measurements on existing structures, and available literature information. CP design was performed using design spreadsheets constructed for each component, which optimized anode geometries. Extensive quality assurance efforts were part of the anode procurement process, to ensure performance for the intended life of the corrosion-control systems. Results of early in-service CP surveys of the tendons and guidebases are presented, showing the successful achievement of cathodic protection against seawater corrosion. Corrosion control of one additional system, the eight point lateral mooring system, is not addressed here.

  16. Valve system incorporating single failure protection logic

    DOEpatents

    Ryan, Rodger; Timmerman, Walter J. H.

    1980-01-01

    A valve system incorporating single failure protective logic. The system consists of a valve combination or composite valve which allows actuation or de-actuation of a device such as a hydraulic cylinder or other mechanism, integral with or separate from the valve assembly, by means of three independent input signals combined in a function commonly known as two-out-of-three logic. Using the input signals as independent and redundant actuation/de-actuation signals, a single signal failure, or failure of the corresponding valve or valve set, will neither prevent the desired action, nor cause the undesired action of the mechanism.

  17. Commercial application of thermal protection system technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dyer, Gordon L.

    1991-01-01

    The thermal protection system process technology is examined which is used in the manufacture of the External Tank for the Space Shuttle system and how that technology is applied by private business to create new products, new markets, and new American jobs. The term 'technology transfer' means different things to different people and has become one of the buzz words of the 1980s and 1990s. Herein, technology transfer is defined as a means of transferring technology developed by NASA's prime contractors to public and private sector industries.

  18. Type I and II Interferons Activate the Innate Immune System to Promote Early Protection of Swine Against Foot-and-Mouth Disease Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have demonstrated that the synergistic action of type I and II interferons (IFN) can rapidly protect swine against challenge with a low dose of foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV). Protection correlated with an upregulation of some IFN stimulated genes (ISGs), including IP-10, INDO, and OAS in PB...

  19. Novel transmit protection scheme for ultrasound systems.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Michael I; Blalock, Travis N; Hossack, John A; Walker, William F

    2007-01-01

    The problem of protecting or isolating extremely sensitive receive circuitry from high-voltage transmit circuitry is commonly addressed through the use of diode bridges, transformers, or high-voltage switches, which prove to be prohibitively expensive, bulky, and power consuming for use in portable, low-cost, battery-powered systems. These approaches also compound the interconnect difficulties associated with two-dimensional (2-D) transducer arrays. In this paper we present a novel transmit protection scheme that allows compact MOSFET shunting devices to be brought on-chip within each receive channel implemented in a standard CMOS integrated circuit process. During transmit, the high voltage transmit pulse is driven onto the common connection of the transducer array and the on-chip MOSFET devices shunt the current to ground. During receive, these devices are turned off, the common connection of the transducer array is shunted to ground, and the received echo can be detected as usual. The transmit protection scheme was experimentally shown to shunt a 16 mA peak current resulting from the equivalent of a 100-V, 25-ns-risetime transmit pulse through a 4 pF transducer element. The scheme was also incorporated into a prototype 1024-channel, low-cost, ultrasound system successfully used to form pulse echo images. PMID:17225802

  20. System for storing cathodic protection measurement data

    SciTech Connect

    Bowman, T.J., Westinghouse Hanford

    1996-12-02

    This paper describes a custom cathodic protection (CP) database, and discusses how this combination of data structure and software improves the ability to analyze cathodic protection. This may be a unique solution to the task of managing CP data, and may have value to others. This paper is primarily about the database design, and not about cathodic protection, per se. Every database project is a balancing act. A developer can create custom software that performs complex opcrafions requiring modest operator skills. On the other hand, custom software is expensive to both create and maintain. The Hanford CP data system will be used primarily by one person, the CP Engineer. It was concluded that this position could be trained to use off-the-shelf, general purpose database to store data, and spreadsheet software to perform analyses. The database product allows flexibility in data reporting, and enforces referential integrity. The spreadsheet allows many display options. Especially useful are the graphics. This solution entailed minimal computer coding and may lend itself to adoption by others. The data structure was designed by a database application developer, with close guidance from the CP engineer. The system will require modest amounts of attention from computer support staff, primarily for new query development. The data structures are provided in this report, and are available electronically.

  1. Fatigue properties of shuttle thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. W.; Cooper, P. A.

    1980-01-01

    Static and cyclic load tests were conducted to determine the static and fatigue strength of the RIS tile/SIP thermal protection system used on the orbiter of the space shuttle. The material systems investigated include the densified and undensified LI-900 tile system on the .40 cm thick SIP and the densified and undensified LI-2200 tile system on the .23 cm (.090 inch) thick SIP. The tests were conducted at room temperature with a fully reversed uniform cyclic loading at 1 Hertz. Cyclic loading causes a relatively large reduction in the stress level that each of the SIP/tile systems can withstand for a small number of cycles. For example, the average static strength of the .40 cm thick SIP/LI-900 tile system is reduced from 86 kPa to 62 kPa for a thousand cycles. Although the .23 cm thick SIP/LI-2200 tile system has a higher static strength, similar reductions in the fatigue strength are noted. Densifying the faying surface of the RSI tile changes the failure mode from the SIP/tile interface to the parent RSI or the SIP and thus greatly increases the static strength of the system. Fatigue failure for the densified tile system, however, occurs due to complete separation or excessive elongation of the SIP and the fatigue strength is only slightly greater than that for the undensified tile system.

  2. Advanced Extravehicular Protective System (AEPS) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, J. L.; Webbon, B. W.; Copeland, R. J.

    1972-01-01

    A summary is presented of Advanced Extravehicular Protective Systems (AEPS) for the future missions beyond Skylab in earth orbit, on the lunar surface, and on the Martian surface. The study concentrated on the origination of regenerable life support concepts for use in portable extravehicular protective systems, and included evaluation and comparison with expendable systems, and selection of life support subsystems. The study was conducted in two phases. In the first phase, subsystem concepts for performing life support functions in AEPS which are regenerable or partially regenerable were originated, and in addition, expendable subsystems were considered. Parametric data for each subsystem concept were evolved including subsystem weight and volume, power requirement, thermal control requirement; base regeneration equipment weight and volume, requirement. The second phase involved an evaluation of the impact of safety considerations involving redundant and/or backup systems on the selection of the regenerable life support subsystems. In addition, the impact of the space shuttle program on regenerable life support subsystem development was investigated.

  3. 29 CFR 1926.652 - Requirements for protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... excavation shall be protected from cave-ins by an adequate protective system designed in accordance with... no indication of a potential cave-in. (2) Protective systems shall have the capacity to resist... installed and removed in a manner that protects employees from cave-ins, structural collapses, or from...

  4. 29 CFR 1926.652 - Requirements for protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... excavation shall be protected from cave-ins by an adequate protective system designed in accordance with... no indication of a potential cave-in. (2) Protective systems shall have the capacity to resist... installed and removed in a manner that protects employees from cave-ins, structural collapses, or from...

  5. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  6. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  7. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  8. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  9. 14 CFR 23.1359 - Electrical system fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical system fire protection. 23.1359... Electrical Systems and Equipment § 23.1359 Electrical system fire protection. (a) Each component of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire protection requirements of §§ 23.863 and 23.1182....

  10. Machine Protection System algorithm compiler and simulator

    SciTech Connect

    White, G.R.; Sherwin, G.

    1993-04-01

    The Machine Protection System (MPS) component of the SLC`s beam selection system, in which integrated current is continuously monitored and limited to safe levels through careful selection and feedback of the beam repetition rate, is described elsewhere in these proceedings. The novel decision making mechanism by which that system can evaluate ``safe levels,`` and choose an appropriate repetition rate in real-time, is described here. The algorithm that this mechanism uses to make its decision is written in text files and expressed in states of the accelerator and its devices, one file per accelerator region. Before being used, a file is ``compiled`` to a binary format which can be easily processed as a forward-chaining decision tree. It is processed by distributed microcomputers local to the accelerator regions. A parent algorithm evaluates all results, and reports directly to the beam control microprocessor. Operators can test new algorithms, or changes they make to them, with an online graphical NPS simulator.

  11. TREAT Reactor Control and Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Lipinski, W.C.; Brookshier, W.K.; Burrows, D.R.; Lenkszus, F.R.; McDowell, W.P.

    1985-01-01

    The main control algorithm of the Transient Reactor Test Facility (TREAT) Automatic Reactor Control System (ARCS) resides in Read Only Memory (ROM) and only experiment specific parameters are input via keyboard entry. Prior to executing an experiment, the software and hardware of the control computer is tested by a closed loop real-time simulation. Two computers with parallel processing are used for the reactor simulation and another computer is used for simulation of the control rod system. A monitor computer, used as a redundant diverse reactor protection channel, uses more conservative setpoints and reduces challenges to the Reactor Trip System (RTS). The RTS consists of triplicated hardwired channels with one out of three logic. The RTS is automatically tested by a digital Dedicated Microprocessor Tester (DMT) prior to the execution of an experiment. 6 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  12. Fault-tolerant reactor protection system

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, Donald C.

    1997-01-01

    A reactor protection system having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Each division performs independently of the others (asynchronous operation). All communications between the divisions are asynchronous. Each chassis substitutes its own spare sensor reading in the 2/3 vote if a sensor reading from one of the other chassis is faulty or missing. Therefore the presence of at least two valid sensor readings in excess of a set point is required before terminating the output to the hardware logic of a scram inhibition signal even when one of the four sensors is faulty or when one of the divisions is out of service.

  13. Fault-tolerant reactor protection system

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, D.C.

    1997-04-15

    A reactor protection system is disclosed having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Each division performs independently of the others (asynchronous operation). All communications between the divisions are asynchronous. Each chassis substitutes its own spare sensor reading in the 2/3 vote if a sensor reading from one of the other chassis is faulty or missing. Therefore the presence of at least two valid sensor readings in excess of a set point is required before terminating the output to the hardware logic of a scram inhibition signal even when one of the four sensors is faulty or when one of the divisions is out of service. 16 figs.

  14. Thermal Protection Systems: Past, Present and Future

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Sylvia M.

    2015-01-01

    Thermal protection materials and systems (TPS) have been critical to fulfilling humankinds desire to explore space. Composite and ceramic materials have enabled the early missions to orbit, the moon, the space station, Mars with robots, and sample return. Crewed missions to Mars are being considered, and this places even more demands on TPS materials. This talk will give some history on the materials used for earth and planetary entry and the demands placed upon such materials. TPS needs for future missions, especially to Mars, will be identified and potential solutions discussed.

  15. Food protection activities of the Pan American Health Organization.

    PubMed

    1994-03-01

    One of the most widespread health problems in the Caribbean and Latin America is contaminated food and foodborne illness. The Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) has been a major force in activities to strengthen food protection. The program within the regional Program of Technical Cooperation is administered by the Veterinary Public Health program and under the guidance of the Pan American Institute for Food protection and Zoonoses in Buenos Aires, Argentina. A food action plan for 1986-90 was established at the 1986 Pan American Sanitary Conference, and extended to cover 1991-95. Program activities during the 1990s covered cholera, epidemiologic surveillance, street food vendors, shellfish poisoning, meat, national programs, information systems, air catering, food irradiation, and tourism. The action plan for 1991-95 promoted greater political support and cooperation within and between related sectors and institutions, management, and education. The aims were to organize national integrated programs, to strengthen laboratory services, to strengthen inspection services, to establish epidemiologic surveillance systems, and to promote food protection through community participation. Program activities included the initiatives of the Veterinary Public Health Program in 1991 to distribute literature on the transmission of cholera by foods. Studies were conducted in Bolivia, Colombia, and Peru on food contamination. Microbiologists received training on standard methods for detecting Vibrio cholerae in foods. A working group of experts from 10 countries examined the issues and produced a guide for investigating the incidence of foodborne disease. PAHO has contributed to the formation of an Inter-American Network for Epidemiologic Surveillance of Foodborne Diseases. PAHO has worked to improve hygienic practices among street food vendors. Seminars on paralytic shellfish poisoning were conducted in 1990; the outcome was a network working to strengthen national

  16. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... department of a municipality, county, fire district, or State; and (2) is engaged in the prevention, control... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Fire protection activities. 553.210 Section 553.210 Labor... OF THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT TO EMPLOYEES OF STATE AND LOCAL GOVERNMENTS Fire Protection and...

  17. Self-contained clothing system provides protection against hazardous environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1966-01-01

    Self-contained clothing system protects personnel against hazardous environments. The clothing has an environmental control system and a complete protection envelope consisting of an outer garment, inner garment, underwear, boots, gloves, and helmet.

  18. Passive and active protection from ionizing radiation in space: new activities and perspectives.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spillantini, Piero

    Very intense Solar Cosmic Ray (SCR) events are rare, but not predictable, and can be lethal to a not protected crew in deep space. A ‘life saving’ system must therefore be provided also in short duration manned missions. Passive and active ‘life saving’ system will be revised and discussed. Galactic Cosmic Rays (GCR) instead flow continuously, have a moderate intensity but the accumulation of their effects can have consequences to human health in long duration (≥one year) mission in deep space, and a ‘health saving’ system should be provided. Passive systems are not applicable and recourse has to be made to active systems based on powerful magnetic fields for deviating particles from the habitat where crew members live and work. The activities of last decade are revised and two scenarios are evaluated and discussed: (1) magnetic toroidal systems for mitigating the radiation dose in the relatively large (≅100m3) habitat of interplanetary spaceships; (2) very large magnetic systems for protecting a large habitat (≈500m3) of an inhabited station that should operate for many decades in deep space. Effectiveness, complexity, involved engineering problems and perspectives are outlined and discussed for both the scenarios. They are nowadays studied and evaluated by a cooperative project supported by the European Union that will be illustrated in a dedicated talk.

  19. Active optical zoom system

    DOEpatents

    Wick, David V.

    2005-12-20

    An active optical zoom system changes the magnification (or effective focal length) of an optical imaging system by utilizing two or more active optics in a conventional optical system. The system can create relatively large changes in system magnification with very small changes in the focal lengths of individual active elements by leveraging the optical power of the conventional optical elements (e.g., passive lenses and mirrors) surrounding the active optics. The active optics serve primarily as variable focal-length lenses or mirrors, although adding other aberrations enables increased utility. The active optics can either be LC SLMs, used in a transmissive optical zoom system, or DMs, used in a reflective optical zoom system. By appropriately designing the optical system, the variable focal-length lenses or mirrors can provide the flexibility necessary to change the overall system focal length (i.e., effective focal length), and therefore magnification, that is normally accomplished with mechanical motion in conventional zoom lenses. The active optics can provide additional flexibility by allowing magnification to occur anywhere within the FOV of the system, not just on-axis as in a conventional system.

  20. Thermal Protection Systems for Future NASA Space Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel B.; Rasky, Daniel; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The proposed first through fourth generation of future NASA Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLV) within NASA will be described, in general, along with their relative goals for improvement in performance (i.e., cost, safety, life, and turnaround time). A brief description of Spaceliner 100 activities representing a means to achieve those goals will be included. Some of the families of thermal protection materials with widely varying characteristics that are being developed for first generation space vehicles at Ames Research Center will be described as well as potential materials and composites for second and third generation applications as systems. These families of materials include functionally gradient material composites that are made from a variety of low-density substrates and moderate to fully dense surface treatments providing the resultant material with both toughness and higher temperature capability opening the envelope of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) capabilities. Some of the materials truly represent enabling technologies that are required to achieve substantially enhanced thermal protection system performance thereby reducing vehicle risk. Finally the needs for integrated vehicle health monitoring (IVHM) of future vehicles thermal protection systems relative to achieving the goals for third generation reusable launch vehicles and for improving vehicle performance and capabilities reducing risk will be described along with the state of the art in TPS.

  1. Privacy protection schemes for fingerprint recognition systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, Emanuela; Cukic, Bojan

    2015-05-01

    The deployment of fingerprint recognition systems has always raised concerns related to personal privacy. A fingerprint is permanently associated with an individual and, generally, it cannot be reset if compromised in one application. Given that fingerprints are not a secret, potential misuses besides personal recognition represent privacy threats and may lead to public distrust. Privacy mechanisms control access to personal information and limit the likelihood of intrusions. In this paper, image- and feature-level schemes for privacy protection in fingerprint recognition systems are reviewed. Storing only key features of a biometric signature can reduce the likelihood of biometric data being used for unintended purposes. In biometric cryptosystems and biometric-based key release, the biometric component verifies the identity of the user, while the cryptographic key protects the communication channel. Transformation-based approaches only a transformed version of the original biometric signature is stored. Different applications can use different transforms. Matching is performed in the transformed domain which enable the preservation of low error rates. Since such templates do not reveal information about individuals, they are referred to as cancelable templates. A compromised template can be re-issued using a different transform. At image-level, de-identification schemes can remove identifiers disclosed for objectives unrelated to the original purpose, while permitting other authorized uses of personal information. Fingerprint images can be de-identified by, for example, mixing fingerprints or removing gender signature. In both cases, degradation of matching performance is minimized.

  2. 3D Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, Jay; Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Wilkinson, Curt; Mercer, Ken

    2015-01-01

    NASA is developing the Orion spacecraft to carry astronauts farther into the solar system than ever before, with human exploration of Mars as its ultimate goal. One of the technologies required to enable this advanced, Apollo-shaped capsule is a 3-dimensional quartz fiber composite for the vehicle's compression pad. During its mission, the compression pad serves first as a structural component and later as an ablative heat shield, partially consumed on Earth re-entry. This presentation will summarize the development of a new 3D quartz cyanate ester composite material, 3-Dimensional Multifunctional Ablative Thermal Protection System (3D-MAT), designed to meet the mission requirements for the Orion compression pad. Manufacturing development, aerothermal (arc-jet) testing, structural performance, and the overall status of material development for the 2018 EM-1 flight test will be discussed.

  3. Lightweight Thermal Protection System for Atmospheric Entry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stewart, David; Leiser, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    TUFROC (Toughened Uni-piece Fibrous Reinforced Oxidation-resistant Composite) has been developed as a new thermal protection system (TPS) material for wing leading edge and nose cap applications. The composite withstands temperatures up to 1,970 K, and consists of a toughened, high-temperature surface cap and a low-thermal-conductivity base, and is applicable to both sharp and blunt leading edge vehicles. This extends the possible application of fibrous insulation to the wing leading edge and/or nose cap on a hypersonic vehicle. The lightweight system comprises a treated carbonaceous cap composed of ROCCI (Refractory Oxidation-resistant Ceramic Carbon Insulation), which provides dimensional stability to the outer mold line, while the fibrous base material provides maximum thermal insulation for the vehicle structure.

  4. Advanced power system protection and incipient fault detection and protection of spaceborne power systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Russell, B. Don

    1989-01-01

    This research concentrated on the application of advanced signal processing, expert system, and digital technologies for the detection and control of low grade, incipient faults on spaceborne power systems. The researchers have considerable experience in the application of advanced digital technologies and the protection of terrestrial power systems. This experience was used in the current contracts to develop new approaches for protecting the electrical distribution system in spaceborne applications. The project was divided into three distinct areas: (1) investigate the applicability of fault detection algorithms developed for terrestrial power systems to the detection of faults in spaceborne systems; (2) investigate the digital hardware and architectures required to monitor and control spaceborne power systems with full capability to implement new detection and diagnostic algorithms; and (3) develop a real-time expert operating system for implementing diagnostic and protection algorithms. Significant progress has been made in each of the above areas. Several terrestrial fault detection algorithms were modified to better adapt to spaceborne power system environments. Several digital architectures were developed and evaluated in light of the fault detection algorithms.

  5. 29 CFR 1926.652 - Requirements for protective systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... together to prevent sliding, falling, kickouts, or other predictable failure. (ii) Support systems shall be... 29 Labor 8 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Requirements for protective systems. 1926.652 Section 1926... Requirements for protective systems. (a) Protection of employees in excavations. (1) Each employee in...

  6. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection... systems for fire protection. (a) Each waterfront facility handling LHG must have a supply of water and a..., all fixed fire-protection systems, including monitor nozzles, at their designed flow and pressure...

  7. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection... systems for fire protection. (a) Each waterfront facility handling LHG must have a supply of water and a..., all fixed fire-protection systems, including monitor nozzles, at their designed flow and pressure...

  8. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection... systems for fire protection. (a) Each waterfront facility handling LHG must have a supply of water and a..., all fixed fire-protection systems, including monitor nozzles, at their designed flow and pressure...

  9. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection... systems for fire protection. (a) Each waterfront facility handling LHG must have a supply of water and a..., all fixed fire-protection systems, including monitor nozzles, at their designed flow and pressure...

  10. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Commandant (CG-ENG) approves the substitution of a dry chemical (D) type fire protection system for an A or B... 46 Shipping 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Fire protection systems. 153.460 Section 153.460... Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  11. L-3 Com AVISYS civil aviation self-protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Jim

    2006-05-01

    In early 2004, L-3 Com AVISYS Corporation (hereinafter referred to as L-3 AVISYS or AVISYS) completed a contract for the integration and deployment of an advanced Infrared Countermeasures self-protection suite for a Head of State Airbus A340 aircraft. This initial L-3 AVISYS IRCM Suite was named WIPPS (Widebody Integrated Platform Protection System). The A340 WIPPS installation provisions were FAA certified with the initial deployment of the modified aircraft. WIPPS is unique in that it utilizes a dual integrated missile warning subsystem to produce a robust, multi-spectral, ultra-low false alarm rate threat warning capability. WIPPS utilizes the Thales MWS-20 Pulsed Doppler Radar Active MWS and the EADS AN/AAR-60 Ultraviolet Passive MWS. These MWS subsystems are integrated through an L-3 AVISYS Electronic Warfare Control Set (EWCS). The EWCS also integrates the WIPPS MWS threat warning information with the A340 flight computer data to optimize ALE-47 Countermeasure Dispensing System IR decoy dispensing commands, program selection and timing. WIPPS utilizes standard and advanced IR Decoys produced by ARMTEC Defense and Alloy Surfaces. WIPPS demonstrated that when IR decoy dispensing is controlled by threat range and time-to-go information provided by an Active MWS, unsurpassed self protection levels are achievable. Recognizing the need for high volume civil aviation protection, L-3 AVISYS configured a variant of WIPPS optimized for commercial airline reliability requirements, safety requirements, supportability and most importantly, affordability. L-3 AVISYS refers to this IRCM suite as CAPS (Commercial Airliner Protection System). CAPS has been configured for applications to all civil aircraft ranging from the small Regional Jets to the largest Wide-bodies. This presentation and paper will provide an overview of the initial WIPPS IRCM Suite and the important factors that were considered in defining the CAPS configuration.

  12. Thermal protection systems manned spacecraft flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1992-01-01

    Since the first U.S. manned entry, Mercury (May 5, 1961), seventy-five manned entries have been made resulting in significant progress in the understanding and development of Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) for manned rated spacecraft. The TPS materials and systems installed on these spacecraft are compared. The first three vehicles (Mercury, Gemini, Apollo) used ablative (single-use) systems while the Space Shuttle Orbiter TPS is a multimission system. A TPS figure of merit, unit weight lb/sq ft, illustrates the advances in TPS material performance from Mercury (10.2 lb/sq ft) to the Space Shuttle (1.7 lb/sq ft). Significant advances have been made in the design, fabrication, and certification of TPS on manned entry vehicles (Mercury through Shuttle Orbiter). Shuttle experience has identified some key design and operational issues. State-of-the-art ceramic insulation materials developed in the 1970's for the Space Shuttle Orbiter have been used in the initial designs of aerobrakes. This TPS material experience has identified the need to develop a technology base from which a new class of higher temperature materials will emerge for advanced space transportation vehicles.

  13. Overload protection system for power inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagano, S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    An overload protection system for a power inverter utilized a first circuit for monitoring current to the load from the power inverter to detect an overload and a control circuit to shut off the power inverter, when an overload condition was detected. At the same time, a monitoring current inverter was turned on to deliver current to the load at a very low power level. A second circuit monitored current to the load, from the monitoring current inverter, to hold the power inverter off through the control circuit, until the overload condition was cleared so that the control circuit may be deactivated in order for the power inverter to be restored after the monitoring current inverter is turned off completely.

  14. Reusable Metallic Thermal Protection Systems Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, Max L.; Martin, Carl J.; Daryabeigi, Kamran; Poteet, Carl C.

    1998-01-01

    Metallic thermal protection systems (TPS) are being developed to help meet the ambitious goals of future reusable launch vehicles. Recent metallic TPS development efforts at NASA Langley Research Center are described. Foil-gage metallic honeycomb coupons, representative of the outer surface of metallic TPS were subjected to low speed impact, hypervelocity impact, rain erosion, and subsequent arcjet exposure. TPS panels were subjected to thermal vacuum, acoustic, and hot gas flow testing. Results of the coupon and panel tests are presented. Experimental and analytical tools are being developed to characterize and improve internal insulations. Masses of metallic TPS and advanced ceramic tile and blanket TPS concepts are compared for a wide range of parameters.

  15. Design of Transpiration Cooled Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Callens, E. Eugene, Jr.; Vinet, Robert F.

    1999-01-01

    This study explored three approaches for the utilization of transpiration cooling in thermal protection systems. One model uses an impermeable wall with boiling water heat transfer at the backface (Model I). A second model uses a permeable wall with a boiling water backface and additional heat transfer to the water vapor as it flows in channels toward the exposed surface (Model II). The third model also uses a permeable wall, but maintains a boiling condition at the exposed surface of the material (Model III). The governing equations for the models were developed in non-dimensional form and a comprehensive parametric investigation of the effects of the independent variables on the important dependent variables was performed. In addition, detailed analyses were performed for selected materials to evaluate the practical limitations of the results of the parametric study.

  16. Overview of the Orion Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowal, T. John

    2010-01-01

    The Orion spacecraft is being developed as part of the Constellation Exploration Program and will serve as the United States crewed transportation system to the International Space Station after the retirement of the Space Shuttle in 2010 and as the eventual means to return U.S. astronauts to the Moon. Therefore, Orion is being designed for reentry missions from both low Earth orbit and from Lunar-return trajectories. This presentation will provide an overview of the development of the Orion TPS, a critical component in the development of the spacecraft. The thermal protection system (TPS) that protects the crew module from the extreme environments associated with Earth atmospheric reentry consists of a forward heatshield and an aft backshell. The requirements that drive the design of the TPS will be discussed, including several key requirements that establish a precedent for U.S. human-rated spacecraft. For the first time in U.S. human spaceflight, a vehicle s TPS is being designed with a specific, derived requirement for reliability. Also, due to the increased presence of spacecraft in Earth s orbit in recent decades, requirements for micro-meteoroid/orbital debris damage tolerance are also a driving requirement that has affected the selection of portions of the TPS. The efforts to select materials and to define a preliminary design for both the heatshield and the backshell will be described. This will include a discussion of the design challenges presented by the numerous penetrations on both the backshell and the heatshield. Finally, the verification and validation plan which is currently under development to certify the TPS for human-rated missions will be outlined. To support the execution of this plan, a ground test campaign for both thermal and structural performance is being designed. This test campaign will directly support thermal and thermal/structural analyses that also are fundamental to the certification effort.

  17. WASTE HANDLING BUILDING FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM DESCRIPTION DOCUMENT

    SciTech Connect

    J. D. Bigbee

    2000-06-21

    The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System provides the capability to detect, control, and extinguish fires and/or mitigate explosions throughout the Waste Handling Building (WHB). Fire protection includes appropriate water-based and non-water-based suppression, as appropriate, and includes the distribution and delivery systems for the fire suppression agents. The Waste Handling Building Fire Protection System includes fire or explosion detection panel(s) controlling various detectors, system actuation, annunciators, equipment controls, and signal outputs. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for mounting of fire protection equipment and components, location of fire suppression equipment, suppression agent runoff, and locating fire rated barriers. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building System for adequate drainage and removal capabilities of liquid runoff resulting from fire protection discharges. The system interfaces with the Waste Handling Building Electrical Distribution System for power to operate, and with the Site Fire Protection System for fire protection water supply to automatic sprinklers, standpipes, and hose stations. The system interfaces with the Site Fire Protection System for fire signal transmission outside the WHB as needed to respond to a fire emergency, and with the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System to detect smoke and fire in specific areas, to protect building high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) filters, and to control portions of the Waste Handling Building Ventilation System for smoke management and manual override capability. The system interfaces with the Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR) Operations Monitoring and Control System for annunciation, and condition status.

  18. Qualification testing of the transportable collective-protection-system container

    SciTech Connect

    Buckey, C.J.

    1991-08-01

    Human System Division (HSD/YAGD), Wright-Patterson AFB OH 45433-5503 requested assistance from the Air Force Packaging Evaluation Activity (AFPEA) in conducting shock and vibration testing on the modified Transportable Collective Protection System (TCPS) Rowley Stand-Alone container. The TCPS, manufactured by ILC/Dover Inc., is a chemical warfare tent. Personnel can enter the tent, remove protective clothing and perform duties in an uncontaminated environment. Previous vibration test resulted in pole and container damage (Report No. 90-R-03). HSD/YAGD requested AFPEA to design and prototype the support racks and retest the new design to ensure that the TCPS and its container would not be damaged by shipment and handling. Upon completion of testing, the modified support racks passed all tests and met all HSD/YAGD requirements.

  19. Force protection demining system (FPDS) detection subsystem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachery, Karen N.; Schultz, Gregory M.; Collins, Leslie M.

    2005-06-01

    This study describes the U.S. Army Force Protection Demining System (FPDS); a remotely-operated, multisensor platform developed for reliable detection and neutralization of both anti-tank and anti-personnel landmines. The ongoing development of the prototype multisensor detection subsystem is presented, which integrates an advanced electromagnetic pulsed-induction array and ground penetrating synthetic aperture radar array on a single standoff platform. The FPDS detection subsystem is mounted on a robotic rubber-tracked vehicle and incorporates an accurate and precise navigation/positioning module making it well suited for operation in varied and irregular terrains. Detection sensors are optimally configured to minimize interference without loss in sensitivity or performance. Mine lane test data acquired from the prototype sensors are processed to extract signal- and image-based features for automatic target recognition. Preliminary results using optimal feature and classifier selection indicate the potential of the system to achieve high probabilities of detection while minimizing false alarms. The FPDS detection software system also exploits modern multi-sensor data fusion algorithms to provide real-time detection and discrimination information to the user.

  20. 14 CFR 23.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 23.954... Fuel System § 23.954 Fuel system lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct lightning strikes to areas having...

  1. 14 CFR 23.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 23.954... Fuel System § 23.954 Fuel system lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct lightning strikes to areas having...

  2. 14 CFR 23.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 23.954... Fuel System § 23.954 Fuel system lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct lightning strikes to areas having...

  3. 14 CFR 23.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 23.954... Fuel System § 23.954 Fuel system lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct lightning strikes to areas having...

  4. 14 CFR 23.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 23.954... Fuel System § 23.954 Fuel system lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct lightning strikes to areas having...

  5. 45 CFR 1386.21 - Requirements and authority of the Protection and Advocacy System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... financial participation for Protection and Advocacy activities under this subpart, as well as the State Developmental Disabilities Council activities (subpart C of this part), the Protection and Advocacy System must.... (b) Allotments must be used to supplement and not to supplant the level of non-federal...

  6. 45 CFR 1386.21 - Requirements and authority of the Protection and Advocacy System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... financial participation for Protection and Advocacy activities under this subpart, as well as the State Developmental Disabilities Council activities (subpart C of this part), the Protection and Advocacy System must.... (b) Allotments must be used to supplement and not to supplant the level of non-federal...

  7. 45 CFR 1386.21 - Requirements and authority of the Protection and Advocacy System.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... financial participation for Protection and Advocacy activities under this subpart, as well as the State Developmental Disabilities Council activities (subpart C of this part), the Protection and Advocacy System must.... (b) Allotments must be used to supplement and not to supplant the level of non-federal...

  8. Radiation protection in radiologic technology: Apathy versus active involvement

    SciTech Connect

    Franz, K.H.

    1982-11-01

    The lack of active participation in radiation protection is a serious problem in Radiologic Technology today. Underlying the problem is professional apathy. An overview of the historical changes, as well as various recent developments in radiology, accentuate the importance of necessary changes in technologists' attitudes and activities. 22 references.

  9. High Temperature Aerogels for Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hurwitz, Frances I.; Mbah, Godfrey C.

    2008-01-01

    High temperature aerogels in the Al2O3-SiO2 system are being investigated as possible constituents for lightweight integrated thermal protection system (TPS) designs for use in supersonic and hypersonic applications. Gels are synthesized from ethoxysilanes and AlCl3.6H2O, using an epoxide catalyst. The influence of Al:Si ratio, solvent, water to metal and water to alcohol ratios on aerogel composition, morphology, surface area, and pore size distribution were examined, and phase transformation on heat treatment characterized. Aerogels have been fabricated which maintain porous, fractal structures after brief exposures to 1000 C. Incorporation of nanofibers, infiltration of aerogels into SiC foams, use of polymers for crosslinking the aerogels, or combinations of these, offer potential for toughening and integration of TPS with composite structure. Woven fabric composites having Al2O3-SiO2 aerogels as a matrix also have been fabricated. Continuing work is focused on reduction in shrinkage and optimization of thermal and physical properties.

  10. Engine protection system for recoverable rocket booster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shelby, Jr., Jerry A. (Inventor)

    1994-01-01

    A rocket engine protection system for a recoverable rocket booster which is arranged to land in a salt water body in substantially a nose down attitude. The system includes an inflatable bag which is stowed on a portion of a flat annular rim of the aft skirt of the booster. The bag is hinged at opposing sides and is provided with springs that urge the bag open. The bag is latched in a stowed position during launch and prior to landing for recovery is unlatched to permit the bag to be urged open and into sealing engagement with the rim. A source of pressurized gas further inflates the bag and urges it into sealing engagement with the rim of the skirt where it is locked into position. The gas provides a positive pressure upon the interior of the bag to preclude entry of salt water into the skirt and into contact with the engine. A flotation arrangement may assist in precluding the skirt of the booster from becoming submerged.

  11. Advanced Metallic Thermal Protection System Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blosser, M. L.; Chen, R. R.; Schmidt, I. H.; Dorsey, J. T.; Poteet, C. C.; Bird, R. K.

    2002-01-01

    A new Adaptable, Robust, Metallic, Operable, Reusable (ARMOR) thermal protection system (TPS) concept has been designed, analyzed, and fabricated. In addition to the inherent tailorable robustness of metallic TPS, ARMOR TPS offers improved features based on lessons learned from previous metallic TPS development efforts. A specific location on a single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle was selected to develop loads and requirements needed to design prototype ARMOR TPS panels. The design loads include ascent and entry heating rate histories, pressures, acoustics, and accelerations. Additional TPS design issues were identified and discussed. An iterative sizing procedure was used to size the ARMOR TPS panels for thermal and structural loads as part of an integrated TPS/cryogenic tank structural wall. The TPS panels were sized to maintain acceptable temperatures on the underlying structure and to operate under the design structural loading. Detailed creep analyses were also performed on critical components of the ARMOR TPS panels. A lightweight, thermally compliant TPS support system (TPSS) was designed to connect the TPS to the cryogenic tank structure. Four 18-inch-square ARMOR TPS panels were fabricated. Details of the fabrication process are presented. Details of the TPSS for connecting the ARMOR TPS panels to the externally stiffened cryogenic tank structure are also described. Test plans for the fabricated hardware are presented.

  12. Guidelines for the seismic design of fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Benda, B.; Cushing, R.; Driesen, G.E.

    1991-12-31

    The engineering knowledge gained from earthquake experience data surveys of fire protection system components is combined with analytical evaluation results to develop guidelines for the design of seismically rugged fire protection distribution piping. The seismic design guidelines of the National Fire Protection Association Standard NFPA-13 are reviewed, augmented, and summarized to define an efficient method for the seismic design of fire protection piping systems. 8 refs.

  13. Guidelines for the seismic design of fire protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Benda, B. ); Cushing, R. ); Driesen, G.E. )

    1991-01-01

    The engineering knowledge gained from earthquake experience data surveys of fire protection system components is combined with analytical evaluation results to develop guidelines for the design of seismically rugged fire protection distribution piping. The seismic design guidelines of the National Fire Protection Association Standard NFPA-13 are reviewed, augmented, and summarized to define an efficient method for the seismic design of fire protection piping systems. 8 refs.

  14. Rack Protection Monitor - A Simple System

    SciTech Connect

    Orr, S.

    1997-12-01

    The Rack Protection Monitor is a simple, fail-safe device to monitor smoke, temperature and ventilation sensors. It accepts inputs from redundant sensors and has a hardwired algorithm to prevent nuisance power trips due to random sensor failures. When a sensor is triggered the Rack Protection Monitor latches and annunicates the alarm. If another sensor is triggered, the Rack Protection Monitor locally shuts down the power to the relay rack and sends alarm to central control.

  15. 14 CFR 27.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 27.954... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: NORMAL CATEGORY ROTORCRAFT Powerplant Fuel System § 27.954 Fuel system lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel...

  16. 14 CFR 25.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 25.954... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Fuel System § 25.954 Fuel system lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel...

  17. Advanced Control and Protection system Design Methods for Modular HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    Ball, Sydney J; Wilson Jr, Thomas L; Wood, Richard Thomas

    2012-06-01

    The project supported the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in identifying and evaluating the regulatory implications concerning the control and protection systems proposed for use in the Department of Energy's (DOE) Next-Generation Nuclear Plant (NGNP). The NGNP, using modular high-temperature gas-cooled reactor (HTGR) technology, is to provide commercial industries with electricity and high-temperature process heat for industrial processes such as hydrogen production. Process heat temperatures range from 700 to 950 C, and for the upper range of these operation temperatures, the modular HTGR is sometimes referred to as the Very High Temperature Reactor or VHTR. Initial NGNP designs are for operation in the lower temperature range. The defining safety characteristic of the modular HTGR is that its primary defense against serious accidents is to be achieved through its inherent properties of the fuel and core. Because of its strong negative temperature coefficient of reactivity and the capability of the fuel to withstand high temperatures, fast-acting active safety systems or prompt operator actions should not be required to prevent significant fuel failure and fission product release. The plant is designed such that its inherent features should provide adequate protection despite operational errors or equipment failure. Figure 1 shows an example modular HTGR layout (prismatic core version), where its inlet coolant enters the reactor vessel at the bottom, traversing up the sides to the top plenum, down-flow through an annular core, and exiting from the lower plenum (hot duct). This research provided NRC staff with (a) insights and knowledge about the control and protection systems for the NGNP and VHTR, (b) information on the technologies/approaches under consideration for use in the reactor and process heat applications, (c) guidelines for the design of highly integrated control rooms, (d) consideration for modeling of control and protection system designs for

  18. Evaluation of several corrosion protective coating systems on aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Higgins, R. H.

    1981-01-01

    A study of several protective coating systems for use on aluminum in seawater/seacoast environments was conducted to review the developments made on protective coatings since early in the Space Shuttle program and to perform comparative studies on these coatings to determine their effectiveness for providing corrosion protection during exposure to seawater/seacoast environments. Panels of 2219-T87 aluminum were coated with 21 different systems and exposed to a 5 percent salt spray for 4000 hr. Application properties, adhesion measurements, heat resistance and corrosion protection were evaluated. For comparative studies, the presently specified Bostik epoxy system used on the SRB structures was included. Results of these tests indicate four systems with outstanding performance and four additional systems with protection almost as good. These systems are based on a chromated pretreatment, a chromate epoxy primer, and a polyurethane topcoat. Consideration for one of these systems should be included for those applications where superior corrosion protection for aluminum surfaces is required.

  19. Advanced materials for thermal protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heng, Sangvavann; Sherman, Andrew J.

    1996-03-01

    Reticulated open-cell ceramic foams (both vitreous carbon and silicon carbide) and ceramic composites (SiC-based, both monolithic and fiber-reinforced) were evaluated as candidate materials for use in a heat shield sandwich panel design as an advanced thermal protection system (TPS) for unmanned single-use hypersonic reentry vehicles. These materials were fabricated by chemical vapor deposition/infiltration (CVD/CVI) and evaluated extensively for their mechanical, thermal, and erosion/ablation performance. In the TPS, the ceramic foams were used as a structural core providing thermal insulation and mechanical load distribution, while the ceramic composites were used as facesheets providing resistance to aerodynamic, shear, and erosive forces. Tensile, compressive, and shear strength, elastic and shear modulus, fracture toughness, Poisson's ratio, and thermal conductivity were measured for the ceramic foams, while arcjet testing was conducted on the ceramic composites at heat flux levels up to 5.90 MW/m2 (520 Btu/ft2ṡsec). Two prototype test articles were fabricated and subjected to arcjet testing at heat flux levels of 1.70-3.40 MW/m2 (150-300 Btu/ft2ṡsec) under simulated reentry trajectories.

  20. Automatic counterfeit protection system code classification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Beusekom, Joost; Schreyer, Marco; Breuel, Thomas M.

    2010-01-01

    Wide availability of cheap high-quality printing techniques make document forgery an easy task that can easily be done by most people using standard computer and printing hardware. To prevent the use of color laser printers or color copiers for counterfeiting e.g. money or other valuable documents, many of these machines print Counterfeit Protection System (CPS) codes on the page. These small yellow dots encode information about the specific printer and allow the questioned document examiner in cooperation with the manufacturers to track down the printer that was used to generate the document. However, the access to the methods to decode the tracking dots pattern is restricted. The exact decoding of a tracking pattern is often not necessary, as tracking the pattern down to the printer class may be enough. In this paper we present a method that detects what CPS pattern class was used in a given document. This can be used to specify the printer class that the document was printed on. Evaluation proved an accuracy of up to 91%.

  1. Planetary Protection Considerations in EVA System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Eppler, Dean B.; Kosmo, Joseph J.

    2011-01-01

    very little expression of these anomalies. hardware from the human-occupied area may limit (although not likely eliminate) external materials in the human habitat. Definition of design-to requirements is critical to understanding technical feasibility and costs. The definition of Planetary Protection needs in relation to EVA mission and system element development cost impacts should be considered and interpreted in terms of Plausible Protection criteria. Since EVA operations will have the most direct physical interaction with the Martian surface, PP needs should be considered in the terms of mitigating hardware and operations impacts and costs.

  2. Intellectual property protection systems and digital watermarking

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lacy, Jack; Quackenbush, Schuyler R.; Reibman, Amy; Snyder, James H.

    1998-12-01

    Adequate protection of digital copies of multimedia content - both audio and video - is a prerequisite to the distribution of this content over networks. Until recently digital audio and video content has been protected by its size: it is difficult to distribute and store without compression. Modern compression algorithms allow substantial bitrate reduction while maintaining high-fidelity reproduction. If distribution of these algorithms is controlled, cleartext uncompressed content is still protected by its size. However, once the compression algorithms are generally available cleartext content becomes extremely vulnerable to piracy. In this paper we explore the implications of this vulnerability and discuss the use of compression and watermarking in the control of piracy.

  3. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 25.1093... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Powerplant Induction System § 25.1093 Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction...

  4. Ceramic-Fibrous-Insulation Thermal-Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leiser, Daniel; Churchward, Rex; Katvala, Victor; Stewart, David; Balter, Aliza

    1992-01-01

    New composite thermal-protection system developed in which glass-ceramic impregnated into surface of fibrous insulation. Called TUFI for toughened unipiece fibrous insulation developed as replacement for tiles with reaction-cured-glass (RCG) coating. Impregnation of glass-ceramic results in thermal protection system with insulating properties comparable to existing system but with 20 to 100 times more resistance to impact.

  5. 14 CFR 25.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 25.954... lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct lightning strikes to areas having a high probability of...

  6. 14 CFR 25.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 25.954... lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct lightning strikes to areas having a high probability of...

  7. 14 CFR 27.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 27.954... lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct lightning strikes to areas having a high probability of...

  8. 14 CFR 29.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 29.954... lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct lightning strikes to areas having a high probability of...

  9. 14 CFR 29.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 29.954... lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct lightning strikes to areas having a high probability of...

  10. 14 CFR 27.954 - Fuel system lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fuel system lightning protection. 27.954... lightning protection. The fuel system must be designed and arranged to prevent the ignition of fuel vapor within the system by— (a) Direct lightning strikes to areas having a high probability of...

  11. 14 CFR 25.1093 - Induction system icing protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Induction system icing protection. 25.1093... Induction system icing protection. (a) Reciprocating engines. Each reciprocating engine air induction system must have means to prevent and eliminate icing. Unless this is done by other means, it must be...

  12. Solar cell activation system

    SciTech Connect

    Apelian, L.

    1983-07-05

    A system for activating solar cells involves the use of phosphorescent paint, the light from which is amplified by a thin magnifying lens and used to activate solar cells. In a typical system, a member painted with phosphorescent paint is mounted adjacent a thin magnifying lens which focuses the light on a predetermined array of sensitive cells such as selenium, cadmium or silicon, mounted on a plastic board. A one-sided mirror is mounted adjacent the cells to reflect the light back onto said cells for purposes of further intensification. The cells may be coupled to rechargeable batteries or used to directly power a small radio or watch.

  13. Space vehicle integrated thermal protection/structural/meteoroid protection system, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartlett, D. H.; Zimmerman, D. K.

    1973-01-01

    A program was conducted to determine the merit of a combined structure/thermal meteoroid protection system for a cryogenic vehicle propulsion module. Structural concepts were evaluated to identify least weight designs. Thermal analyses determined optimum tank arrangements and insulation materials. Meteoroid penetration experiments provided data for design of protection systems. Preliminary designs were made and compared on the basis of payload capability. Thermal performance tests demonstrated heat transfer rates typical for the selected design. Meteoroid impact tests verified the protection characteristics. A mockup was made to demonstrate protection system installation. The best design found combined multilayer insulation with a truss structure vehicle body. The multilayer served as the thermal/meteoroid protection system.

  14. 18 CFR 1316.8 - Employee protected activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... “Employee Protection” regulations of NRC, 10 CFR 50.7, including, but not limited to, providing information... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Employee protected activities. 1316.8 Section 1316.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY...

  15. 30 CFR 822.12 - Protection of agricultural activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of agricultural activities. 822.12 Section 822.12 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS SPECIAL PERMANENT PROGRAM PERFORMANCE STANDARDS-OPERATIONS IN ALLUVIAL VALLEY FLOORS §...

  16. 18 CFR 1316.8 - Employee protected activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... “Employee Protection” regulations of NRC, 10 CFR 50.7, including, but not limited to, providing information... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Employee protected activities. 1316.8 Section 1316.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY...

  17. 18 CFR 1316.8 - Employee protected activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... “Employee Protection” regulations of NRC, 10 CFR 50.7, including, but not limited to, providing information... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Employee protected activities. 1316.8 Section 1316.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY...

  18. 18 CFR 1316.8 - Employee protected activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... “Employee Protection” regulations of NRC, 10 CFR 50.7, including, but not limited to, providing information... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Employee protected activities. 1316.8 Section 1316.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY...

  19. 18 CFR 1316.8 - Employee protected activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... “Employee Protection” regulations of NRC, 10 CFR 50.7, including, but not limited to, providing information... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Employee protected activities. 1316.8 Section 1316.8 Conservation of Power and Water Resources TENNESSEE VALLEY...

  20. Mechanical properties of thermal protection system materials.

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, Robert Douglas; Bronowski, David R.; Lee, Moo Yul; Hofer, John H.

    2005-06-01

    An experimental study was conducted to measure the mechanical properties of the Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials used for the Space Shuttle. Three types of TPS materials (LI-900, LI-2200, and FRCI-12) were tested in 'in-plane' and 'out-of-plane' orientations. Four types of quasi-static mechanical tests (uniaxial tension, uniaxial compression, uniaxial strain, and shear) were performed under low (10{sup -4} to 10{sup -3}/s) and intermediate (1 to 10/s) strain rate conditions. In addition, split Hopkinson pressure bar tests were conducted to obtain the strength of the materials under a relatively higher strain rate ({approx}10{sup 2} to 10{sup 3}/s) condition. In general, TPS materials have higher strength and higher Young's modulus when tested in 'in-plane' than in 'through-the-thickness' orientation under compressive (unconfined and confined) and tensile stress conditions. In both stress conditions, the strength of the material increases as the strain rate increases. The rate of increase in LI-900 is relatively small compared to those for the other two TPS materials tested in this study. But, the Young's modulus appears to be insensitive to the different strain rates applied. The FRCI-12 material, designed to replace the heavier LI-2200, showed higher strengths under tensile and shear stress conditions. But, under a compressive stress condition, LI-2200 showed higher strength than FRCI-12. As far as the modulus is concerned, LI-2200 has higher Young's modulus both in compression and in tension. The shear modulus of FRCI-12 and LI-2200 fell in the same range.

  1. Thermal Protection System Development, Testing and Qualification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venkatapathy, Ethiraj; Arnold, James; Laub, B.; Hartman, G. J.

    The science community currently has interest in planetary entry probe missions to improve our understanding of the atmospheres of Saturn and Venus [1,2]. As in the case of the Galileo entry probe, such data are critical to the understanding of not only the individual planets but also to further knowledge regarding the formation of the solar system. It is believed that Saturn probes to depths corresponding to 10 bars will be sufficient [1] to provide the desired scientific data. The heating rates for the "shallow" Saturn probes and Venus are in the range of 2 - 5KW/cm2 . It is clear that new, mid-density Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for such probes can be mission-enabling for mass efficiency [3] and also make the use of smaller vehicles possible from advancements in scientific instrumentation [4]. Past consideration of new Jovian multiprobe missions has been considered problematic without the Giant Planet Arcjet Facility that was used to qualify Carbon Phenolic for the Galileo Probe. This paper describes emerging TPS technology and the proposed use of an affordable, small 5 MW arc jet that can be used for TPS development in test gases appropriate for the aforementioned, new planetary probe applications. Emerging TPS technologies of interest include a mid-density, chopped molded carbon phenolic (CMCP) material around 0.8g/cc and a densified variant of phenolic impregnated carbon ablator (PICA) around 0.5g/cc. The small 5 MW arc jet facility, called the Development Arcjet Facility (DAF) and the methodology of testing TPS, both based on previous work, are discussed. Finally, the applications to Earth entry appropriate to speeds greater than lunar return (11km/s) are discussed as will facility-to-facility validation using air as a test gas. The use of other facilities for development, qualification and certification of TPS for Saturn and Venus is also discussed. [1] Atreya, S. K., et. al. Formation of Giant Planets and Their Atmospheres: Entry Probes for

  2. Production Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    This production systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, domains and objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 30 modules on the following topics: production…

  3. Communication Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutherland, Barbara, Ed.

    This communication systems guide provides teachers with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an instructional planning outline and worksheet, an outline of essential elements, a list of objectives, a course description, and a content outline. The guide contains 32 modules on the following topics: story…

  4. Novel Directional Protection Scheme for the FREEDM Smart Grid System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Nitish

    This research primarily deals with the design and validation of the protection system for a large scale meshed distribution system. The large scale system simulation (LSSS) is a system level PSCAD model which is used to validate component models for different time-scale platforms, to provide a virtual testing platform for the Future Renewable Electric Energy Delivery and Management (FREEDM) system. It is also used to validate the cases of power system protection, renewable energy integration and storage, and load profiles. The protection of the FREEDM system against any abnormal condition is one of the important tasks. The addition of distributed generation and power electronic based solid state transformer adds to the complexity of the protection. The FREEDM loop system has a fault current limiter and in addition, the Solid State Transformer (SST) limits the fault current at 2.0 per unit. Former students at ASU have developed the protection scheme using fiber-optic cable. However, during the NSF-FREEDM site visit, the National Science Foundation (NSF) team regarded the system incompatible for the long distances. Hence, a new protection scheme with a wireless scheme is presented in this thesis. The use of wireless communication is extended to protect the large scale meshed distributed generation from any fault. The trip signal generated by the pilot protection system is used to trigger the FID (fault isolation device) which is an electronic circuit breaker operation (switched off/opening the FIDs). The trip signal must be received and accepted by the SST, and it must block the SST operation immediately. A comprehensive protection system for the large scale meshed distribution system has been developed in PSCAD with the ability to quickly detect the faults. The validation of the protection system is performed by building a hardware model using commercial relays at the ASU power laboratory.

  5. Active Protection of an MgB2 Test Coil

    PubMed Central

    Park, Dong Keun; Hahn, Seungyong; Bascuñán, Juan; Iwasa, Yukikazu

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents results of a study, experimental and computational, of a detect-and-activate-the-heater protection technique applied to a magnesium diboride (MgB2) test coil operated in semi-persistent mode. The test coil with a winding ID of 25 cm and wound with ~500-m long reacted MgB2 wire was operated at 4.2 K immersed in a bath of liquid helium. In this active technique, upon the initiation of a “hot spot” of a length ~10 cm, induced by a “quench heater,” a “protection heater” (PH) of ~600-cm long planted within the test coil is activated. The normal zone created by the PH is large enough to absorb the test coil’s entire initial stored energy and still keeps the peak temperature within the winding below ~260 K. PMID:22081754

  6. Modeling the protection system components of the Space Station electric power system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tam, Kwa-Sur; Yang, Lifeng; Dravid, Narayan

    1994-07-01

    To facilitate protection system studies on the space station electric power system, there is a need to develop a model that can accurately and conveniently simulate both the power system and the protection system. Models for two major protective devices, the remote bus isolater and the remote power controller, are described. These models have been installed in a power system model resembling one channel of the space station power system. The usefulness of these models in protection system studies is demonstrated.

  7. Deployable Aeroshell Flexible Thermal Protection System Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, Stephen J.; Ware, Joanne S.; DelCorso, Joseph A.; Lugo, Rafael A.

    2009-01-01

    Deployable aeroshells offer the promise of achieving larger aeroshell surface areas for entry vehicles than otherwise attainable without deployment. With the larger surface area comes the ability to decelerate high-mass entry vehicles at relatively low ballistic coefficients. However, for an aeroshell to perform even at the low ballistic coefficients attainable with deployable aeroshells, a flexible thermal protection system (TPS) is required that is capable of surviving reasonably high heat flux and durable enough to survive the rigors of construction handling, high density packing, deployment, aerodynamic loading and aerothermal heating. The Program for the Advancement of Inflatable Decelerators for Atmospheric Entry (PAIDAE) is tasked with developing the technologies required to increase the technology readiness level (TRL) of inflatable deployable aeroshells, and one of several of the technologies PAIDAE is developing for use on inflatable aeroshells is flexible TPS. Several flexible TPS layups were designed, based on commercially available materials, and tested in NASA Langley Research Center's 8 Foot High Temperature Tunnel (8ft HTT). The TPS layups were designed for, and tested at three different conditions that are representative of conditions seen in entry simulation analyses of inflatable aeroshell concepts. Two conditions were produced in a single run with a sting-mounted dual wedge test fixture. The dual wedge test fixture had one row of sample mounting locations (forward) at about half the running length of the top surface of the wedge. At about two thirds of the running length of the wedge, a second test surface drafted up at five degrees relative to the first test surface established the remaining running length of the wedge test fixture. A second row of sample mounting locations (aft) was positioned in the middle of the running length of the second test surface. Once the desired flow conditions were established in the test section the dual wedge

  8. 49 CFR 179.18 - Thermal protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Thermal protection systems. 179.18 Section 179.18... § 179.18 Thermal protection systems. (a) Performance standard. When the regulations in this subchapter..., and upon request, made available for inspection and copying by an authorized representative of...

  9. 30 CFR 715.17 - Protection of the hydrologic system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Protection of the hydrologic system. 715.17 Section 715.17 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 715.17 Protection of the hydrologic system. The permittee shall plan...

  10. 30 CFR 715.17 - Protection of the hydrologic system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Protection of the hydrologic system. 715.17 Section 715.17 Mineral Resources OFFICE OF SURFACE MINING RECLAMATION AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR INITIAL PROGRAM REGULATIONS GENERAL PERFORMANCE STANDARDS § 715.17 Protection of the hydrologic system. The permittee shall plan...

  11. Enhancement of active corrosion protection via combination of inhibitor-loaded nanocontainers.

    PubMed

    Tedim, J; Poznyak, S K; Kuznetsova, A; Raps, D; Hack, T; Zheludkevich, M L; Ferreira, M G S

    2010-05-01

    The present work reports the synthesis of layered double hydroxides (LDHs) nanocontainers loaded with different corrosion inhibitors (vanadate, phosphate, and 2-mercaptobenzothiazolate) and the characterization of the resulting pigments by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The anticorrosion activity of these nanocontainers with respect to aluminum alloy AA2024 was investigated by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS). The bare metallic substrates were immersed in dispersions of nanocontainers in sodium chloride solution and tested to understand the inhibition mechanisms and efficiency. The nanocontainers were also incorporated into commercial coatings used for aeronautical applications to study the active corrosion protection properties in systems of industrial relevance. The results show that an enhancement of the active protection effect can be reached when nanocontainers loaded with different inhibitors are combined in the same protective coating system. PMID:20455547

  12. System and method for quench protection of a superconductor

    DOEpatents

    Huang, Xianrui; Sivasubramaniam, Kiruba Haran; Bray, James William; Ryan, David Thomas

    2008-03-11

    A system and method for protecting a superconductor from a quench condition. A quench protection system is provided to protect the superconductor from damage due to a quench condition. The quench protection system comprises a voltage detector operable to detect voltage across the superconductor. The system also comprises a frequency filter coupled to the voltage detector. The frequency filter is operable to couple voltage signals to a control circuit that are representative of a rise in superconductor voltage caused by a quench condition and to block voltage signals that are not. The system is operable to detect whether a quench condition exists in the superconductor based on the voltage signal received via the frequency filter and to initiate a protective action in response.

  13. ADASY (Active Daylighting System)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vázquez-Moliní, Daniel; González-Montes, Mario; Fernández-Balbuena, Antonio Á.; Bernabéu, Eusebio; García-Botella, Ángel; García-Rodríguez, Lucas; Pohl, Wilfried

    2009-08-01

    The main objective of ADASY (Active Daylighting System) work is to design a façade static daylighting system oriented to office applications, mainly. The goal of the project is to save energy by guiding daylight into a building for lighting purpose. With this approach we can reduce the electrical load for artificial lighting, completing it with sustainable energy. The collector of the system is integrated on a vertical façade and its distribution guide is always horizontal inside of the false ceiling. ADASY is designed with a specific patent pending caption system, a modular light-guide and light extractor luminaire system. Special care has been put on the final cost of the system and its building integration purpose. The current ADASY configuration is able to illuminate 40 m2 area with a 300lx-400lx level in the mid time work hours; furthermore it has a good enough spatial uniformity distribution and a controlled glare. The data presented in this study are the result of simulation models and have been confirmed by a physical scaled prototype. ADASY's main advantages over regular illumination systems are: -Low maintenance; it has not mobile pieces and therefore it lasts for a long time and require little attention once installed. - No energy consumption; solar light continue working even if there has been a power outage. - High quality of light: the colour rendering of light is very high - Psychological benefits: People working with daylight get less stress and more comfort, increasing productivity. - Health benefits

  14. Space activities and radiation protection of crew members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Straube, Ulrich; Berger, Thomas; Reitz, Guenther; Facius, Rainer; Reiter, Thomas; Kehl, Marcel; Damann, M. D. Volker; Tognini, Michel

    Personnel working as crew in space-based activities e.g. professional astronauts and cosmo-nauts but also -to a certain extend-space flight participants ("space tourists"), demand health and safety considerations that have to include radiation protection measures. The radiation environment that a crew is exposed to during a space flight, differs significantly to that found on earth including commercial aviation, mainly due to the presence of heavy charged particles with great potential for biological damage. The exposure exceeds those routinely received by terrestrial radiation workers. A sequence of activities has to be conducted targeting to mitigate adverse effects of space radiation. Considerable information is available and applied through the joint efforts of the Space Agencies that are involved in the operations of the International Space Station, ISS. This presentation will give an introduction to the current measures for ra-diation monitoring and protection of astronauts of the European Space Agency (ESA). It will include information: on the radiation protection guidelines that shall ensure the proper imple-mentation and execution of radiation protection measures, the operational hardware used for radiation monitoring and personal dosimetry on ISS, as well as information about operational procedures that are applied.

  15. Broadcast encryption: paving the road to practical content protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deen, G.; Ponceleon, D.; Leake, Donald, Jr.

    2009-02-01

    Broadcast encryption is a well established alternative to public key encryption for use in content protection systems. It offers significant performance benefits, as well as useful features such a one-to-many delivery, dynamic membership in the authorized receivers group, and provides anonymous access to content, permitting content protection systems to preserve privacy for consumers. Broadcast encryption has been successfully deployed to users for protection of commercial content on digital media such as flash memory devices and optical media for both standard-definition and high-definition content. In this paper, we present the Advanced Secure Content Cluster Technology which applies broadcast encryption to content protection for home media networks

  16. Active Anti-erosion Protection Strategy in Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla)

    PubMed Central

    Han, Zhiwu; Yin, Wei; Zhang, Junqiu; Niu, Shichao; Ren, Luquan

    2013-01-01

    Plants have numerous active protection strategies for adapting to complex and severe environments. These strategies provide endless inspiration for extending the service life of materials and machines. Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla), a tree that thrives in raging sandstorm regions, has adapted to blustery conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust erosion resistant characteristics. However, the relationships among its surface cracks, internal histology and biomechanics, such as cracks, rings, cells, elasticity modulus and growth stress, which account for its erosion resistance, remain unclear. This present study reveals that the directionally eccentric growth rings of tamarisk, which are attributed to reduced stress and accelerated cell division, promote the formation of surface cracks. The windward rings are more extensive than the leeward side rings. The windward surfaces are more prone to cracks, which improves erosion resistance. Our data provide insight into the active protection strategy of the tamarisk against wind–sand erosion. PMID:24305989

  17. Active Anti-erosion Protection Strategy in Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Zhiwu; Yin, Wei; Zhang, Junqiu; Niu, Shichao; Ren, Luquan

    2013-12-01

    Plants have numerous active protection strategies for adapting to complex and severe environments. These strategies provide endless inspiration for extending the service life of materials and machines. Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla), a tree that thrives in raging sandstorm regions, has adapted to blustery conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust erosion resistant characteristics. However, the relationships among its surface cracks, internal histology and biomechanics, such as cracks, rings, cells, elasticity modulus and growth stress, which account for its erosion resistance, remain unclear. This present study reveals that the directionally eccentric growth rings of tamarisk, which are attributed to reduced stress and accelerated cell division, promote the formation of surface cracks. The windward rings are more extensive than the leeward side rings. The windward surfaces are more prone to cracks, which improves erosion resistance. Our data provide insight into the active protection strategy of the tamarisk against wind-sand erosion.

  18. Active anti-erosion protection strategy in tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla).

    PubMed

    Han, Zhiwu; Yin, Wei; Zhang, Junqiu; Niu, Shichao; Ren, Luquan

    2013-01-01

    Plants have numerous active protection strategies for adapting to complex and severe environments. These strategies provide endless inspiration for extending the service life of materials and machines. Tamarisk (Tamarix aphylla), a tree that thrives in raging sandstorm regions, has adapted to blustery conditions by evolving extremely effective and robust erosion resistant characteristics. However, the relationships among its surface cracks, internal histology and biomechanics, such as cracks, rings, cells, elasticity modulus and growth stress, which account for its erosion resistance, remain unclear. This present study reveals that the directionally eccentric growth rings of tamarisk, which are attributed to reduced stress and accelerated cell division, promote the formation of surface cracks. The windward rings are more extensive than the leeward side rings. The windward surfaces are more prone to cracks, which improves erosion resistance. Our data provide insight into the active protection strategy of the tamarisk against wind-sand erosion. PMID:24305989

  19. Protective effects and mechanisms of sirtuins in the nervous system

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Feng; Wang, Suping; Gan, Li; Vosler, Peter S.; Gao, Yanqin; Chen, Jun

    2011-01-01

    Silent information regulator two proteins (sirtuins or SIRTs) are a group of histone deacetylases whose activities are dependent on and regulated by nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD+). They suppress genome-wide transcription, yet upregulate a select set of proteins related to energy metabolism and pro-survival mechanisms, and therefore play a key role in the longevity effects elicited by calorie restriction. Recently, a neuroprotective effect of sirtuins has been reported for both acute and chronic neurological diseases. The focus of this review is to summarize the latest progress regarding the protective effects of sirtuins, with a focus on SIRT1. We first introduce the distribution of sirtuins in the brain and how their expression and activity are regulated. We then highlight their protective effects against common neurological disorders, such as cerebral ischemia, axonal injury, Alzheimer’s disease, Parkinson’s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis. Finally, we analyze the mechanisms underlying sirtuin-mediated neuroprotection, centering on their non-histone substrates such as DNA repair enzymes, protein kinases, transcription factors, and coactivators. Collectively, the information compiled here will serve as a comprehensive reference for the actions of sirtuins in the nervous system to date, and will hopefully help to design further experimental research and expand sirtuins as therapeutic targets in the future. PMID:21930182

  20. Rational protection of subjects in research and quality improvement activities.

    PubMed

    Goldman, Beth; Dixon, Lisa B; Adler, David A; Berlant, Jeffrey; Dulit, Rebecca A; Hackman, Ann; Oslin, David W; Siris, Samuel G; Valenstein, Marcia

    2010-02-01

    This Open Forum illuminates shortcomings with the basis for determining degree of oversight of health services research and quality improvement activities. Using a federally regulated definition of research rather than a direct appraisal of risk to patients can misallocate effort from activities with higher risk for patients to those with lower risk. The case of the Johns Hopkins multicenter study of central line safety checklists in intensive care units is cited. Definitions of research promulgated by the Office of Human Research Protection are reviewed, and an alternative model based on patient risk is proposed. Suggestions for how quality improvement work fits into the larger paradigm of research are made. PMID:20123824

  1. Criminal law repercussions on the Civil Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Altamura, M.; Musso, L.

    2009-09-01

    The legal systems of our Countries provide the citizenship with a high level of protection. Personal safety and the protection of property are guaranteed by the State through organized structures among which we can include the Civil Protection. The progress of science and technology has greatly improved monitoring tools, currently used by the Civil Protection, which allow, to a certain extent, to predict and prevent risk and natural hazards. The assertion of an individual right, which in some cases has reached a constitutional rank, to benefit from Civil Protection services and the widespread perception throughout the citizenship of the competence of the system to prevent disasters, often causes people to take legal action against Civil Protection authorities should they fail in their duties to protect. However, the attempt of having both recognized an economic compensation for the suffered loss and the punishment of those whom misled, frequently undergoes criminal law. This process could have results that may jeopardize the effectiveness of Civil Protection service without meeting citizens’ demands. A dual effort is thus necessary in order to solve such a problem. On the one hand, an interdisciplinary knowledge needs to pervade criminal law in an attempt to relieve its self-referentiality and pretended supremacy. On the other hand an alternative, and more agile, system -such as civil or administrative law- has to be identified in order to respond to the legitimate requests for protection in the case of a faulty behaviour of the authorities.

  2. 42 CFR 51.31 - Conduct of protection and advocacy activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... to mental health system improvement. Decisions concerning the selection of individuals to receive... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Conduct of protection and advocacy activities. 51.31 Section 51.31 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  3. 42 CFR 51.31 - Conduct of protection and advocacy activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... to mental health system improvement. Decisions concerning the selection of individuals to receive... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Conduct of protection and advocacy activities. 51.31 Section 51.31 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  4. 42 CFR 51.31 - Conduct of protection and advocacy activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... to mental health system improvement. Decisions concerning the selection of individuals to receive... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Conduct of protection and advocacy activities. 51.31 Section 51.31 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  5. 42 CFR 51.31 - Conduct of protection and advocacy activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... to mental health system improvement. Decisions concerning the selection of individuals to receive... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Conduct of protection and advocacy activities. 51.31 Section 51.31 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  6. NSTX-U Digital Coil Protection System Software Detailed Design

    SciTech Connect

    2014-06-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) currently uses a collection of analog signal processing solutions for coil protection. Part of the NSTX Upgrade (NSTX-U) entails replacing these analog systems with a software solution running on a conventional computing platform. The new Digital Coil Protection System (DCPS) will replace the old systems entirely, while also providing an extensible framework that allows adding new functionality as desired.

  7. Brown fat activation reduces hypercholesterolaemia and protects from atherosclerosis development

    PubMed Central

    Berbée, Jimmy F. P.; Boon, Mariëtte R; Khedoe, P. Padmini S. J.; Bartelt, Alexander; Schlein, Christian; Worthmann, Anna; Kooijman, Sander; Hoeke, Geerte; Mol, Isabel M.; John, Clara; Jung, Caroline; Vazirpanah, Nadia; Brouwers, Linda P.J.; Gordts, Philip L.S.M.; Esko, Jeffrey D.; Hiemstra, Pieter S.; Havekes, Louis M.; Scheja, Ludger; Heeren, Joerg; Rensen, Patrick C.N.

    2015-01-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) combusts high amounts of fatty acids, thereby lowering plasma triglyceride levels and reducing obesity. However, the precise role of BAT in plasma cholesterol metabolism and atherosclerosis development remains unclear. Here we show that BAT activation by β3-adrenergic receptor stimulation protects from atherosclerosis in hyperlipidemic APOE*3-Leiden.CETP mice, a well-established model for human-like lipoprotein metabolism that unlike hyperlipidemic Apoe−/− and Ldlr−/− mice expresses functional apoE and LDLR. BAT activation increases energy expenditure and decreases plasma triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Mechanistically, we demonstrate that BAT activation enhances the selective uptake of fatty acids from triglyceride-rich lipoproteins into BAT, subsequently accelerating the hepatic clearance of the cholesterol-enriched remnants. These effects depend on a functional hepatic apoE-LDLR clearance pathway as BAT activation in Apoe−/− and Ldlr−/− mice does not attenuate hypercholesterolaemia and atherosclerosis. We conclude that activation of BAT is a powerful therapeutic avenue to ameliorate hyperlipidaemia and protect from atherosclerosis. PMID:25754609

  8. DC isolation and protection system and circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Charles A. (Inventor); Kellogg, Gary V. (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A precision analog electronic circuit that is capable of sending accurate signals to an external device that has hostile electric characteristics, including the presence of very large common mode voltages. The circuit is also capable of surviving applications of normal mode overvoltages of up to 120 VAC/VDC for unlimited periods of time without damage or degradation. First, the circuit isolates the DC signal output from the computer. Means are then provided for amplifying the isolated DC signal. Further means are provided for stabilizing and protecting the isolating and amplifying means, and the isolated and amplified DC signal which is output to the external device, against overvoltages and overcurrents.

  9. Neutron activation analysis system

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, M.C.; Rhodes, J.R.

    1973-12-25

    A neutron activation analysis system for monitoring a generally fluid media, such as slurries, solutions, and fluidized powders, including two separate conduit loops for circulating fluid samples within the range of radiation sources and detectors is described. Associated with the first loop is a neutron source that emits s high flux of slow and thermal neutrons. The second loop employs a fast neutron source, the flux from which is substantially free of thermal neutrons. Adjacent to both loops are gamma counters for spectrographic determination of the fluid constituents. Other gsmma sources and detectors are arranged across a portion of each loop for deterMining the fluid density. (Official Gazette)

  10. Performance of newly developed sprayed anode cathodic protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Funahashi, M.; Young, W.T.; Daily, S.F.

    1997-12-01

    To improve sprayed sacrificial zinc anode cathodic protection system, the Federal Highway Administration has sponsored a comprehensive program to develop a new sacrificial alloy for use as an anode to cathodically protect reinforced prestressed concrete structures. Under this program, a new sacrificial aluminum alloy has been developed. This paper presents the results of laboratory and field studies using this alloy.

  11. Flight Set 360L006 STS-34 field joint protection system, thermal protection system, and systems tunnel components, volume 4

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilkinson, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    The performance of the thermal protection system, field joint protection system, and systems tunnel components of Flight Set 360L006, are documented, as evaluated by postflight hardware inspection. The condition of both motors was similar to previous flights. Sixteen aft edge hits were noted on the ground environment instrumentation thermal protection system. Each hit left a clean substrate, indicating that the damage was caused by nozzle severance debris and/or water impact. No National Space and Transporation System debris criteria for missing thermal protection system were violated. One 5.0 by 1.0 in. unbond was observed on the left hand center field joint K5NA closeout and was elevated to an in-flight anomaly (STS-34-M-4) by the NASA Ice/Debris team. Aft edge damage to the K5NA and an associated black streak indicate that burning debris from the nozzle severance system was the likely cause of the damage. Minor divots caused by debris were seen on previous flights, but this is the first occurrence of a K5NA unbond. Since the unbond occurred after booster separation there is no impact on flight safety and no corrective actions was taken. The right hand center field joint primary heater failed the dielectric withstanding voltage test after joint closeout. The heater was then disabled by opening the circuit breaker, and the redundant heater was used. The redundant heater performed nominally during the launch countdown. A similar condition occurred on Flight 4 when a secondary joint heater failed the dielectric withstanding voltage test.

  12. A PROTECTIVE ROLE FOR INFLAMMASOME ACTIVATION FOLLOWING INJURY

    PubMed Central

    Osuka, Akinori; Hanschen, Marc; Stoecklein, Veit; Lederer, James A.

    2011-01-01

    blocking caspase-1 activation with AC-YVAD-CMK in vivo caused significantly higher mortality in burn-injured mice (p<0.01). Taken together, these findings document that injury induces inflammasome activation in many immune cell subsets, but primarily in macrophages and that inflammasome activation plays a protective role in the host response to severe injury. PMID:21921832

  13. A protective role for inflammasome activation following injury.

    PubMed

    Osuka, Akinori; Hanschen, Marc; Stoecklein, Veit; Lederer, James A

    2012-01-01

    cells, CD4 T cells, and B cells, but CD8 T cells did not demonstrate caspase-1 activation. Surprisingly, we found that blocking caspase-1 activation with AC-YVAD-CMK in vivo caused significantly higher mortality in burn-injured mice (P < 0.01). Taken together, these findings document that injury induces inflammasome activation in many immune cell subsets, but primarily in macrophages, and that inflammasome activation plays a protective role in the host response to severe injury. PMID:21921832

  14. European Neutron Activation System.

    2013-01-11

    Version 03 EASY-2010 (European Activation System) consists of a wide range of codes, data and documentation all aimed at satisfying the objective of calculating the response of materials irradiated in a neutron flux. The main difference from the previous version is the upper energy limit, which has increased from 20 to 60 MeV. It is designed to investigate both fusion devices and accelerator based materials test facilities that will act as intense sources of high-energymore » neutrons causing significant activation of the surrounding materials. The very general nature of the calculational method and the data libraries means that it is applicable (with some reservations) to all situations (e.g. fission reactors or neutron sources) where materials are exposed to neutrons below 60 MeV. EASY can be divided into two parts: data and code development tools and user tools and data. The former are required to develop the latter, but EASY users only need to be able to use the inventory code FISPACT and be aware of the contents of the EAF library (the data source). The complete EASY package contains the FISPACT-2007 inventory code, the EAF-2003, EAF-2005, EAF-2007 and EAF-2010 libraries, and the EASY User Interface for the Window version. The activation package EASY-2010 is the result of significant development to extend the upper energy range from 20 to 60 MeV so that it is capable of being used for IFMIF calculations. The EAF-2010 library contains 66,256 reactions, almost five times more than in EAF-2003 (12,617). Deuteron-induced and proton-induced cross section libraries are also included, and can be used with EASY to enable calculations of the activation due to deuterons and proton [2].« less

  15. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  16. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  17. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  18. 46 CFR 153.460 - Fire protection systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CARRYING BULK LIQUID, LIQUEFIED GAS, OR COMPRESSED GAS HAZARDOUS MATERIALS Design and Equipment Special Requirements for Flammable Or Combustible Cargoes § 153.460 Fire protection systems. Each self-propelled...

  19. NASA Ames Develops Woven Thermal Protection System (TPS)

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) project explores an innovative way to design, develop and manufacture a family of ablative TPS materials using weaving technology and testing them in the ...

  20. Woven Thermal Protection System (Woven TPS) for Extreme Entry Environments

    NASA Video Gallery

    The Woven Thermal Protection System (WTPS) project explores an innovative way to design, develop and manufacture a family of ablative TPS materials using weaving technology and testing them in the ...

  1. Survivability analysis for continuous data protection system based on SMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Qi; Liu, Hui; Liu, Lin; Wu, Shizhong

    2011-10-01

    As a Novel Disaster surviving technology, Continuous Data Protection(CDP) can restore the protected system to the state of any time point in the past. Until now, no efficient survivability evaluation method for CDP system is developed. Regarding this problem, a semi-markov process(SMP) is applied to survivability of CDP, SMP model for CDP survivability analysis is established, quantitative survivability metric is calculated and some survivability enhancing strategies are proposed accordingly.

  2. Innovative technology summary report: advanced worker protection system

    SciTech Connect

    1996-04-01

    The Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS) is a liquid-air-based, self-contained breathing and cooling system with a duration of 2 hrs. AWPS employs a patented system developed by Oceaneering Space Systems (OSS), which was supported by the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Morgantown Energy Technology Center through a cost sharing research and development contract. The heart of the system is the life-support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack is combined with advanced protective garments, an advanced liquid cooling garment (LCG), a respirator, and communications and support equipment.

  3. In vitro antioxidant and ex vivo protective activities of green and roasted coffee.

    PubMed

    Daglia, M; Papetti, A; Gregotti, C; Bertè, F; Gazzani, G

    2000-05-01

    The antioxidant properties of green and roasted coffee, in relation to species (Coffea arabica and Coffea robusta) and degree of roasting (light, medium, dark), were investigated. These properties were evaluated by determining the reducing substances (RS) of coffee and its antioxidant activity (AA) in vitro (model system beta-carotene-linoleic acid) and ex vivo as protective activity (PA) against rat liver cell microsome lipid peroxidation measured as TBA-reacting substances. RS of C. robustasamples were found to be significantly higher when compared to those of C. arabica samples (p < 0.001). AA for green coffee samples were slightly higher than for the corresponding roasted samples while PA was significantly lower in green coffee compared to that of all roasted samples (p < 0.001). Extraction with three different organic solvents (ethyl acetate, ethyl ether, and dichloromethane) showed that the most protective compounds are extracted from acidified dark roasted coffee solutions with ethyl acetate. The analysis of acidic extract by gel filtration chromatography (GFC) gave five fractions. Higher molecular mass fractions were found to possess antioxidant activity while the lower molecular mass fractions showed protective activity. The small amounts of these acidic, low molecular mass protective fractions isolated indicate that they contain very strong protective agents. PMID:10820041

  4. Displacements of Metallic Thermal Protection System Panels During Reentry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Blosser, Max L.; Wurster, Kathryn E.

    2006-01-01

    Bowing of metallic thermal protection systems for reentry of a previously proposed single-stage-to-orbit reusable launch vehicle was studied. The outer layer of current metallic thermal protection system concepts typically consists of a honeycomb panel made of a high temperature nickel alloy. During portions of reentry when the thermal protection system is exposed to rapidly varying heating rates, a significant temperature gradient develops across the honeycomb panel thickness, resulting in bowing of the honeycomb panel. The deformations of the honeycomb panel increase the roughness of the outer mold line of the vehicle, which could possibly result in premature boundary layer transition, resulting in significantly higher downstream heating rates. The aerothermal loads and parameters for three locations on the centerline of the windward side of this vehicle were calculated using an engineering code. The transient temperature distributions through a metallic thermal protection system were obtained using 1-D finite volume thermal analysis, and the resulting displacements of the thermal protection system were calculated. The maximum deflection of the thermal protection system throughout the reentry trajectory was 6.4 mm. The maximum ratio of deflection to boundary layer thickness was 0.032. Based on previously developed distributed roughness correlations, it was concluded that these defections will not result in tripping the hypersonic boundary layer.

  5. Game Changing Technology: Woven Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Video Gallery

    New woven composite materials are an advanced space technology that mark a major milestone toward development of the space systems that will enable extending human and robotic presence throughout t...

  6. Computer-aided protective system (CAPS)

    SciTech Connect

    Squire, R.K.

    1988-01-01

    A method of improving the security of materials in transit is described. The system provides a continuously monitored position location system for the transport vehicle, an internal computer-based geographic delimiter that makes continuous comparisons of actual positions with the preplanned routing and schedule, and a tamper detection/reaction system. The position comparison is utilized to institute preprogrammed reactive measures if the carrier is taken off course or schedule, penetrated, or otherwise interfered with. The geographic locater could be an independent internal platform or an external signal-dependent system utilizing GPS, Loran or similar source of geographic information; a small (micro) computer could provide adequate memory and computational capacity; the insurance of integrity of the system indicates the need for a tamper-proof container and built-in intrusion sensors. A variant of the system could provide real-time transmission of the vehicle position and condition to a central control point for; such transmission could be encrypted to preclude spoofing.

  7. 14 CFR 25.1316 - System lightning protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false System lightning protection. 25.1316... AIRCRAFT AIRWORTHINESS STANDARDS: TRANSPORT CATEGORY AIRPLANES Equipment General § 25.1316 System lightning... systems to perform these functions are not adversely affected when the airplane is exposed to...

  8. OPERATING EXPERIENCE WITH EPA'S (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S) MOBILE INCINERATION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper describes the recent modifications made to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Mobile Incineration System. These modifications were aimed toward increasing the capacity of the system as well as its on-stream factor. The operation of the modified system was ...

  9. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    PubMed

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  10. Protected Areas in Tropical Africa: Assessing Threats and Conservation Activities

    PubMed Central

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M.; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A.; Davenport, Tim R. B.; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A.; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C.; Holbech, Lars H.; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K.; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G.; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J.; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M.; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  11. Deicing System Protects General Aviation Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    Kelly Aerospace Thermal Systems LLC worked with researchers at Glenn Research Center on deicing technology with assistance from the Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program. Kelly Aerospace acquired Northcoast Technologies Ltd., a firm that had conducted work on a graphite foil heating element under a NASA SBIR contract and developed a lightweight, easy-to-install, reliable wing and tail deicing system. Kelly Aerospace engineers combined their experiences with those of the Northcoast engineers, leading to the certification and integration of a thermoelectric deicing system called Thermawing, a DC-powered air conditioner for single-engine aircraft called Thermacool, and high-output alternators to run them both. Thermawing, a reliable anti-icing and deicing system, allows pilots to safely fly through ice encounters and provides pilots of single-engine aircraft the heated wing technology usually reserved for larger, jet-powered craft. Thermacool, an innovative electric air conditioning system, uses a new compressor whose rotary pump design runs off an energy-efficient, brushless DC motor and allows pilots to use the air conditioner before the engine even starts

  12. Evaluation of a lightweight protective-mask concept for Respiratory Protection System 21. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, T.J.

    1992-01-01

    In the event of combat where Nuclear, Biological, or Chemical (NBC) weapons could be presented, the soldier must be protected while being able to perform his mission. NBC protective equipment for individuals included both protection for the body and the head. However, this equipment causes disadvantages due to the physiological burden on the soldier, such as: Reduction in vision, both field of view and acuity; Degradation on communications, both speech and hearing capabilities; Increased heat load by containing body heat and preventing exposure to cooling air. The U.S. Army Chemical, Research, Development, and Engineering Center (CRDEC) is entering development of the next generation of respiratory protection (RESPO 21) to replace the current M40 series of protective masks. One of the system concepts is a lightweight protective mask (LPM) which utilizes a barrier film for both the facepiece and hood. This concept provides a lightweight, conformal mask design which can be rolled or folded into a very smal package. Concept studies have been competed for advanced seal designs, attachment systems, and electronics for this mask.

  13. Advanced extravehicular protective systems study, volume 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sutton, J. G.; Heimlich, P. F.; Tepper, E. H.

    1972-01-01

    An appraisal was made of advanced portable and emergency life support systems concepts for space station, space shuttle, lunar base, and Mars EVA missions. Specifications are given, and the methodology is described. Subsystem studies and systems integration efforts are summarized. Among the conclusions are the following: (1) For long duration missions, a configuration incorporating a regenerable CO2 control subsystem and a thermal control subsystem utilizing a minimum of expendables decreases the vehicle penalty of present configurations. (2) For shorter duration missions, a configuration incorporating an expendable water thermal control subsystem is the most competitive subsystem; regenerable CO2 control subsystems if properly developed are competitive with nonregenerable counterparts. (3) The CO2 reduction and oxygen reclamation withing the parent vehicle is only competitive when there are three or more parent vehicle resupply periods. (4) For long duration emergency systems of one hour or more, inherent redundancy within the primary configuration to provide emergency thermal control is the most competitive approach.

  14. A collision avoidance system for workpiece protection

    SciTech Connect

    Schmitt, D.J.; Weber, T.M.; Novak, J.L.; Maslakowski, J.E.

    1995-04-01

    This paper describes an application of Sandia`s non-contact capacitive sensing technology for collision avoidance during the manufacturing of rocket engine thrust chambers. The collision avoidance system consists of an octagon shaped collar with a capacitive proximity sensor mounted on each face. The sensors produced electric fields which extend several inches from the face of the collar and detect potential collisions between the robot and the workpiece. A signal conditioning system processes the sensor output and provides varying voltage signals to the robot controller for stopping the robot.

  15. Evolution of the Radiological Protection System and its Implementation.

    PubMed

    Lazo, Edward

    2016-02-01

    The International System of Radiological Protection, developed, maintained, and elaborated by the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) has, for the past 50 y, provided a robust framework for developing radiological protection policy, regulation, and application. It has, however, been evolving as a result of experience with its implementation, modernization of social awareness of a shrinking world where the Internet links everyone instantly, and increasing public interest in safety-related decisions. These currents have gently pushed the ICRP in recent years to focus more sharply on particular aspects of its system: optimization, prevailing circumstances, the use of effective dose and aspects of an individual's risk, and consideration of the independent implementation of the international system's elements. This paper will present these issues and their relevance to the ICRP system of protection and its evolution. The broader framework of radiological protection (e.g., science, philosophy, policy, regulation, implementation), of which the ICRP is an important element, will provide a global, equally evolving context for this characterization of the changing ICRP system of radiological protection. PMID:26717167

  16. Management and protection system for superconducting tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Juszczyk, B.; Wojenski, A.; Zienkiewicz, P.; Kasprowicz, G.; Pozniak, K.; Romaniuk, R.

    2015-09-01

    This paper describes system for a diagnostics of a high-voltage power supply section of tokamaks. System is designed to assure reliability and safety of power supply subsystems. It is divided into two main components: remote and local. Remote part is located near tokamak, whereas local part can be localised away from the tokamak area. The remote side consists of custom, standalone devices. On the other hand, the local device is based on the uTCA.4 architecture. Components are connected with an optic fibre over a link-layer protocol which provides high throughput, low latency and transmission redundancy. All main operations ie. data processing, transmission etc. are performed on the FPGA devices. At the local side there is one device treated as a master device. It implements sort of a routing table which connects consecutive system inputs and outputs. It also provides possibility for some user defined data processing. This document contains general system overview, short description of hardware used in the project and gateware implementation.

  17. Cooling system with automated seasonal freeze protection

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Levi A.; Chu, Richard C.; David, Milnes P.; Ellsworth, Jr., Michael J.; Iyengar, Madhusudan K.; Simons, Robert E.; Singh, Prabjit; Zhang, Jing

    2016-05-24

    An automated multi-fluid cooling system and method are provided for cooling an electronic component(s). The cooling system includes a coolant loop, a coolant tank, multiple valves, and a controller. The coolant loop is at least partially exposed to outdoor ambient air temperature(s) during normal operation, and the coolant tank includes first and second reservoirs containing first and second fluids, respectively. The first fluid freezes at a lower temperature than the second, the second fluid has superior cooling properties compared with the first, and the two fluids are soluble. The multiple valves are controllable to selectively couple the first or second fluid into the coolant in the coolant loop, wherein the coolant includes at least the second fluid. The controller automatically controls the valves to vary first fluid concentration level in the coolant loop based on historical, current, or anticipated outdoor air ambient temperature(s) for a time of year.

  18. Passive and Active Protective Clothing against High-Power Laser Radiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hennigs, C.; Hustedt, M.; Kaierle, S.; Wenzel, D.; Markstein, S.; Hutter, A.

    The main objective of the work described in this paper was the development of passive and active protective clothing for the protection of the human skin against accidental laser irradiation and of active protective curtains. Here, the passive systems consist of functional multi-layer textiles, providing a high level of passive laser resistance. In addition, the active functional multi-layer textiles incorporate sensors that detect laser exposure and are, by means of a safety control, able to deactivate the laser beam automatically.Due to the lack of regulations for testing and qualifying textiles to be used as laser PPE, test methods were defined and validated. Additionally, corresponding testing set-ups were developed.Finally, the gap with respect to standardization was bridged by the definition of a test procedure and the requirements with respect to laser PPE.The developments were demonstrated by a set of tailored functional passive and active laser-protective clothing prototypes (gloves, jackets, aprons, trousers) and active curtains as well as by a prototype testing rig, providing the possibility to perform the specified low-power and high-power textile test procedure.

  19. Protective, Modular Wave Power Generation System

    SciTech Connect

    Vvedensky, Jane M.; Park, Robert Y.

    2012-11-27

    The concept of small wave energy conversion modules that can be built into large, scalable arrays, in the same vein as solar panels, has been developed. This innovation lends itself to an organic business and development model, and enables the use of large-run manufacturing technology to reduce system costs. The first prototype module has been built to full-scale, and tested in a laboratory wave channel. The device has been shown to generate electricity and dissipate wave energy. Improvements need to be made to the electrical generator and a demonstration of an array of modules should be made in natural conditions.

  20. New immobilized cell system with protection against toxic solvents

    SciTech Connect

    Tanaka, H.; Harada, S.; Kurosawa, H.; Yajima, M.

    1987-01-01

    A new immobilized cell system providing protection against toxic solvents was investigated so that normal fermentations could be carried out in a medium containing toxic solvents. The system consists of immobilized growing cells in Ca-alginate gel beads to which vegetable oils, which are inexpensive absorbents of solvents, had been added. The ethanol fermentation of Saccharomyces cerevisiae ATCC 26603 was used as a model fermentation to study the protection afforded by the system against solvent toxicities. The fermentation was inhibited by solvents such as 2-octanol, benzene, toluene, and phenol. Ethanol production of one batch was not finished even after 35 h using immobilized growing yeast cells in conventional Ca-alginate gel beads in an ethanol production medium (5% glucose) containing 0.1% 2-octanol, which is used as a solvent for liquid-liquid extraction and is one of the most toxic solvents in our experiments. With the new immobilized growing cell system using vegetable oils, however, four repeated batch fermentations were completed in 35 h. Castor oil provided even more protection than soy bean, olive, and tung oils, and it was possible to complete six repeated batches in 35 h. The immobilized cell system with vegetable oils also provided protection against other toxic solvents such as benzene and toluene. A possible mechanism for the protective function of the new immobilized cell system is discussed.

  1. Physiological evaluation of men wearing three different toxicological protective systems

    SciTech Connect

    Levine, L.; Cadarette, B.S.; Sawka, M.N.; Pandolf, K.B.

    1989-08-01

    This study examined the physiological responses of seven volunteers exercising in the heat while wearing three different toxicological protective systems. The Toxicological Agent Protective (TAP) suit has been available for use for more than 30 years while the other two protective systems are developmental efforts. The Self-Contained Toxicological Environmental Protection Outfit (STEPO) includes either a backpack-rebreather (with CO{sub 2} scrubber) and ice-cooling vest (STEPO-R), or a tether system which supplies breathing/cooling air inside the suit (STEPO-T). After the volunteers were heat acclimated, the three toxicological protection systems were evaluated utilizing a counter-balanced experimental design initially in a hot and then in a cool environment while subjects walked at 1.12 m/s, 0% grade for an attempted two hours. There was no statistical advantage of any one system in terms of exercise time in the cool environment. While evaporated sweating rate was greater for the STEPO-T in the cool environment compared to both STEPO-R and TAP. Development efforts to improve the STEPO system designs continue, and physiological evaluation of new developmental models is underway.

  2. Lightning Protection System for Space Shuttle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1977-01-01

    The suitability and cost effectiveness of using a lightning mast for the shuttle service and access tower (SSAT) similar to the type used for the Apollo Soyuz Test Project (ASTP) mobile launcher (ML) was evaluated. Topics covered include: (1) ASTP launch damage to mast, mast supports, grounded overhead wires, and the instrumentation system; (2) modifications required to permit reusing the ASTP mast on the SSAT; (3) comparative costing factors per launch over a 10 year period in repetitive maintenance and refurbishment of the existing and modified masts, mast supports, grounded overhead wires, and ground instrumentation required to sustain mechanical and electrical integrity of the masts; (4) effects of blast testing samples of the ASTP ML type mast (corrosion and electrical flashover); (5) comparison of damages from ASTP launch and from blast testing.

  3. Engineered coating systems protect meters, station piping

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1986-03-01

    This paper describes how the Gas Division of the Colorado Springs, Colorado Department of Public Utilities has cut the frequency of painting exposed pipe, valves and associated equipment at the five gate metering stations, as well as distribution stations within the city and manifold stations where natural gas is distributed to nearby Ft. Carson and the U.S. Air Force Academy. Because of tourism in these areas, the city is very conscious of the appearance it presents. The Gas Division selected New Color Horizons coatings made by the Rust-Oleum Corp. They have cut down on maintenance costs and their facilities still have an excellent appearance. Greater coating durability was obtained through a system consisting of shop-applied enamel finish and a color-matched fast-drying aerosol spray coating to resist corrosion and the elements.

  4. Association Analysis of System Failure in Wide Area Backup Protection System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yagang; Sun, Yi

    2015-12-01

    Wide area backup protection algorithm based on fault component identification is the heart of the whole wide area backup protection system, its validity and reliability is a problem which needs to be first considered in the engineering practice applications of wide area backup protection system. Wide are backup protection algorithm mainly use two kinds of wide area information to realize protection criterion, one is electrical quantity information, such as voltage, current, etc. Another one is protection action and circuit breaker information. The wide area backup protection algorithm based on electrical quantity information is mainly utilizing the significant change of electrical quantity to search fault component, and the primary means include current differential method of wide area multi-measuring points, the comparison method of calculation and measurement, the multiple statistics method. In this paper, a novel and effective association analysis of system failure in wide area backup protection system will be discussed carefully, and the analytical results are successful and reliable.

  5. Technology Systems. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brame, Ray; And Others

    This guide contains 43 modules of laboratory activities for technology education courses. Each module includes an instructor's resource sheet and the student laboratory activity. Instructor's resource sheets include some or all of the following elements: module number, course title, activity topic, estimated time, essential elements, objectives,…

  6. Information support systems for cultural heritage protection against flooding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nedvedova, K.; Pergl, R.

    2015-08-01

    The goal of this paper is to present use of different kind of software applications to create complex support system for protection of cultural heritage against flooding. The project is very complex and it tries to cover the whole area of the problem from prevention to liquidation of aftermath effects. We used GIS for mapping the risk areas, ontology systems for vulnerability assessment application and the BORM method (Business Object Relation Modelling) for flood protection system planning guide. Those modern technologies helped us to gather a lot of information in one place and provide the knowledge to the broad audience.

  7. Antibacterial Activity of Hawaiian Corals: Possible Protection from Disease?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gochfeld, D. J.; Aeby, G. S.; Miller, J. D.

    2006-12-01

    Reports of coral diseases in the Caribbean have appeared with increasing frequency over the past two decades; however, records of coral diseases in the Pacific have lagged far behind. Recent surveys of coral disease in the Hawaiian Islands indicate relatively low, but consistent, levels of disease throughout the inhabited Main and uninhabited Northwestern Hawaiian Islands, and demonstrate variation in levels of disease among the major genera of Hawaiian corals. Although little is known about immune defense to disease in corals, one potential mechanism of defense is the production of antimicrobial compounds that protect corals from pathogens. A preliminary survey of antibacterial chemical defenses among three dominant species of Hawaiian corals was undertaken. Crude aqueous extracts of Porites lobata, Pocillopora meandrina and Montipora capitata were tested against nine strains of bacteria in a growth inhibition assay. Inhibitory extracts were further tested to determine whether their effects were cytostatic or cytotoxic. The bacteria selected included known coral pathogens, potential marine pathogens found in human waste and strains previously identified from the surfaces of Hawaiian corals. Extracts from all three species of coral exhibited a high degree of antibacterial activity, but also a high degree of selectivity against different bacterial strains. In addition, some extracts were stimulatory to some bacteria. In addition to interspecific variability, extracts also exhibited intraspecific variability, both within and between sites. Hawaiian corals have significant antibacterial activity, which may explain the relatively low prevalence of disease in these corals; however, further characterization of pathogens specifically responsible for disease in Hawaiian corals is necessary before we can conclude that antibacterial activity protects Hawaiian corals from disease.

  8. 21 CFR 1240.86 - Protection of pier water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Protection of pier water system. 1240.86 Section 1240.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... interstate traffic shall make a connection between its nonpotable water system and any pier potable...

  9. 21 CFR 1240.86 - Protection of pier water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Protection of pier water system. 1240.86 Section 1240.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... interstate traffic shall make a connection between its nonpotable water system and any pier potable...

  10. 21 CFR 1240.86 - Protection of pier water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Protection of pier water system. 1240.86 Section 1240.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... interstate traffic shall make a connection between its nonpotable water system and any pier potable...

  11. Control and protection system for paralleled modular static inverter-converter systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Birchenough, A. G.; Gourash, F.

    1973-01-01

    A control and protection system was developed for use with a paralleled 2.5-kWe-per-module static inverter-converter system. The control and protection system senses internal and external fault parameters such as voltage, frequency, current, and paralleling current unbalance. A logic system controls contactors to isolate defective power conditioners or loads. The system sequences contactor operation to automatically control parallel operation, startup, and fault isolation. Transient overload protection and fault checking sequences are included. The operation and performance of a control and protection system, with detailed circuit descriptions, are presented.

  12. Nuclear reactor loss of coolant protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Loose, R.A.

    1986-03-18

    A pressurized water reactor system is described of a nuclear power plant having a water storage tank for providing emergency coolant water and means provided external to the containment vessel, for use in the event of a primary loss of coolant situation, to circulate emergency water as a coolant by withdrawal through a wall of the containment vessel and return the same back through the wall of the containment vessel and passing the water through a heat exchange means prior to use as a coolant for the reactor core. The improvement described here consists of: an enslosure, the interior of which is sealed to the atmosphere, positioned adjacent to and exterior of a wall of the containment vessel; an inlet conduit, enclosed within a sealed outer casing, communicating between the interior of the containment vessel and the interior of the enclosure; an exhaust conduit, enclosed within a sealed outer casing, communicating between the interior of the enclosure and the interior of the containment vessel; a rupture disc on the inlet conduit within the enclosure, such that failure of the exhaust conduit within the enclosure will produce an increase of the pressure within the enclosure and above a predetermined pressure will fracture the rupture disc, and will circulate the coolant within the enclosure; and means within the interior of the enclosure for pumping coolant from the interior of the containment vessel through the inlet conduit, and back to the interior of the containment vessel through the exhaust conduit; whereby if either of the conduits should fail, coolant will be collected within the enclosure and sealed to the atmosphere.

  13. Cold Vacuum Drying facility fire protection system design description (SYS 24)

    SciTech Connect

    PITKOFF, C.C.

    1999-07-06

    This document describes the Cold Vacuum Drying Facility (CVDF) fire protection system (FPS). The FPS provides fire detection, suppression, and loss limitation for the CVDF structure, personnel, and in-process spent nuclear fuel. The system provides, along with supporting interfacing systems, detection, alarm, and activation instrumentation and controls, distributive piping system, isolation valves, and materials and controls to limit combustibles and the associated fire loadings.

  14. Nitrosothiols in the Immune System: Signaling and Protection

    PubMed Central

    Hernansanz-Agustín, Pablo; Izquierdo-Álvarez, Alicia; García-Ortiz, Almudena; Ibiza, Sales; Serrador, Juan M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Significance: In the immune system, nitric oxide (NO) has been mainly associated with antibacterial defenses exerted through oxidative, nitrosative, and nitrative stress and signal transduction through cyclic GMP-dependent mechanisms. However, S-nitrosylation is emerging as a post-translational modification (PTM) involved in NO-mediated cell signaling. Recent Advances: Precise roles for S-nitrosylation in signaling pathways have been described both for innate and adaptive immunity. Denitrosylation may protect macrophages from their own S-nitrosylation, while maintaining nitrosative stress compartmentalized in the phagosomes. Nitrosothiols have also been shown to be beneficial in experimental models of autoimmune diseases, mainly through their role in modulating T-cell differentiation and function. Critical Issues: Relationship between S-nitrosylation, other thiol redox PTMs, and other NO-signaling pathways has not been always taken into account, particularly in the context of immune responses. Methods for assaying S-nitrosylation in individual proteins and proteomic approaches to study the S-nitrosoproteome are constantly being improved, which helps to move this field forward. Future Directions: Integrated studies of signaling pathways in the immune system should consider whether S-nitrosylation/denitrosylation processes are among the PTMs influencing the activity of key signaling and adaptor proteins. Studies in pathophysiological scenarios will also be of interest to put these mechanisms into broader contexts. Interventions modulating nitrosothiol levels in autoimmune disease could be investigated with a view to developing new therapies. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 18, 288–308. PMID:22746191

  15. Challenges to the Future Development of Iran's Protected Areas System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolahi, Mahdi; Sakai, Tetsuro; Moriya, Kazuyuki; Makhdoum, Majid F.

    2012-10-01

    Since the 1950s, there has been a continuous increase in the number and coverage of protected areas (PAs) in Iran, and in total 253 PAs have been declared that cover 10.12 % of the country's area. This paper reviews literature addressing Iran's PAs, examines what is known about them, highlights the challenges and lessons learned, and identifies areas where more research is needed. The PA system in Iran is criticized because of (1) shortages of manpower, equipment, and financial resources; (2) de jure PAs that are often implemented as de facto reserves; (3) lack of national biodiversity indicators and objective monitoring processes; and (4) limited public participation and conflict between people over PAs. To improve, Iran's PAs system needs to be realistically supported by policies and planning instruments. In addition, the implementation of active management to restore habitat, increase education and awareness, shift practices towards the guidelines of international organizations, build capacity, and improve management and co-management by local communities needs to occur.

  16. Flexible Thermal Protection System Development for Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DelCorso, Joseph A.; Bruce, Walter E., III; Hughes, Stephen J.; Dec, John A.; Rezin, Marc D.; Meador, Mary Ann B.; Guo, Haiquan; Fletcher, Douglas G.; Calomino, Anthony M.; Cheatwood, McNeil

    2012-01-01

    The Hypersonic Inflatable Aerodynamic Decelerators (HIAD) project has invested in development of multiple thermal protection system (TPS) candidates to be used in inflatable, high downmass, technology flight projects. Flexible TPS is one element of the HIAD project which is tasked with the research and development of the technology ranging from direct ground tests, modelling and simulation, characterization of TPS systems, manufacturing and handling, and standards and policy definition. The intent of flexible TPS is to enable large deployable aeroshell technologies, which increase the drag performance while significantly reducing the ballistic coefficient of high-mass entry vehicles. A HIAD requires a flexible TPS capable of surviving aerothermal loads, and durable enough to survive the rigors of construction, handling, high density packing, long duration exposure to extrinsic, in-situ environments, and deployment. This paper provides a comprehensive overview of key work being performed within the Flexible TPS element of the HIAD project. Included in this paper is an overview of, and results from, each Flexible TPS research and development activity, which includes ground testing, physics-based thermal modelling, age testing, margins policy, catalysis, materials characterization, and recent developments with new TPS materials.

  17. Intelligent, Self-Diagnostic Thermal Protection System for Future Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hyers, Robert W.; SanSoucie, Michael P.; Pepyne, David; Hanlon, Alaina B.; Deshmukh, Abhijit

    2005-01-01

    The goal of this project is to provide self-diagnostic capabilities to the thermal protection systems (TPS) of future spacecraft. Self-diagnosis is especially important in thermal protection systems (TPS), where large numbers of parts must survive extreme conditions after weeks or years in space. In-service inspections of these systems are difficult or impossible, yet their reliability must be ensured before atmospheric entry. In fact, TPS represents the greatest risk factor after propulsion for any transatmospheric mission. The concepts and much of the technology would be applicable not only to the Crew Exploration Vehicle (CEV), but also to ablative thermal protection for aerocapture and planetary exploration. Monitoring a thermal protection system on a Shuttle-sized vehicle is a daunting task: there are more than 26,000 components whose integrity must be verified with very low rates of both missed faults and false positives. The large number of monitored components precludes conventional approaches based on centralized data collection over separate wires; a distributed approach is necessary to limit the power, mass, and volume of the health monitoring system. Distributed intelligence with self-diagnosis further improves capability, scalability, robustness, and reliability of the monitoring subsystem. A distributed system of intelligent sensors can provide an assurance of the integrity of the system, diagnosis of faults, and condition-based maintenance, all with provable bounds on errors.

  18. The Timing of Raf/ERK and AKT Activation in Protecting PC12 Cells against Oxidative Stress

    PubMed Central

    Ong, Qunxiang; Guo, Shunling; Duan, Liting; Zhang, Kai; Collier, Eleanor Ann; Cui, Bianxiao

    2016-01-01

    Acute brain injuries such as ischemic stroke or traumatic brain injury often cause massive neural death and irreversible brain damage with grave consequences. Previous studies have established that a key participant in the events leading to neural death is the excessive production of reactive oxygen species. Protecting neuronal cells by activating their endogenous defense mechanisms is an attractive treatment strategy for acute brain injuries. In this work, we investigate how the precise timing of the Raf/ERK and the AKT pathway activation affects their protective effects against oxidative stress. For this purpose, we employed optogenetic systems that use light to precisely and reversibly activate either the Raf/ERK or the AKT pathway. We find that preconditioning activation of the Raf/ERK or the AKT pathway immediately before oxidant exposure provides significant protection to cells. Notably, a 15-minute transient activation of the Raf/ERK pathway is able to protect PC12 cells against oxidant strike that is applied 12 hours later, while the transient activation of the AKT pathway fails to protect PC12 cells in such a scenario. On the other hand, if the pathways are activated after the oxidative insult, i.e. postconditioning, the AKT pathway conveys greater protective effect than the Raf/ERK pathway. We find that postconditioning AKT activation has an optimal delay period of 2 hours. When the AKT pathway is activated 30min after the oxidative insult, it exhibits very little protective effect. Therefore, the precise timing of the pathway activation is crucial in determining its protective effect against oxidative injury. The optogenetic platform, with its precise temporal control and its ability to activate specific pathways, is ideal for the mechanistic dissection of intracellular pathways in protection against oxidative stress. PMID:27082641

  19. A secure steganography for privacy protection in healthcare system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jing; Tang, Guangming; Sun, Yifeng

    2013-04-01

    Private data in healthcare system require confidentiality protection while transmitting. Steganography is the art of concealing data into a cover media for conveying messages confidentially. In this paper, we propose a steganographic method which can provide private data in medical system with very secure protection. In our method, a cover image is first mapped into a 1D pixels sequence by Hilbert filling curve and then divided into non-overlapping embedding units with three consecutive pixels. We use adaptive pixel pair match (APPM) method to embed digits in the pixel value differences (PVD) of the three pixels and the base of embedded digits is dependent on the differences among the three pixels. By solving an optimization problem, minimal distortion of the pixel ternaries caused by data embedding can be obtained. The experimental results show our method is more suitable to privacy protection of healthcare system than prior steganographic works. PMID:23321975

  20. Sulforaphane Protects against Cardiovascular Disease via Nrf2 Activation

    PubMed Central

    Bai, Yang; Wang, Xiaolu; Zhao, Song; Ma, Chunye; Cui, Jiuwei; Zheng, Yang

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) causes an unparalleled proportion of the global burden of disease and will remain the main cause of mortality for the near future. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathophysiology of cardiac disorders. Several studies have highlighted the cardinal role played by the overproduction of reactive oxygen or nitrogen species in the pathogenesis of ischemic myocardial damage and consequent cardiac dysfunction. Isothiocyanates (ITC) are sulfur-containing compounds that are broadly distributed among cruciferous vegetables. Sulforaphane (SFN) is an ITC shown to possess anticancer activities by both in vivo and epidemiological studies. Recent data have indicated that the beneficial effects of SFN in CVD are due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. SFN activates NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a basic leucine zipper transcription factor that serves as a defense mechanism against oxidative stress and electrophilic toxicants by inducing more than a hundred cytoprotective proteins, including antioxidants and phase II detoxifying enzymes. This review will summarize the evidence from clinical studies and animal experiments relating to the potential mechanisms by which SFN modulates Nrf2 activation and protects against CVD. PMID:26583056

  1. Field joint environmental protection system vibration/pressurization qualification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    The procedures used and results obtained from vibration testing the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) field joint environmental protection system (FJEPS), hereafter referred to as the joint protection system (JPS) are documented. The major purposes were to certify that the flight-designed JPS will withstand the dynamic environmental conditions of the redesigned solid rocket booster, and to certify that the cartridge check valve (vent valve) will relieve pressure build-up under the JPS during the initial 120 sec of flight. Also, an evaluation of the extruded cork insulation bonding was performed after the vibration testing.

  2. Performance/design criteria review advanced worker protection systems. Topical report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-08-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of defining the magnitude and diversity of Decontamination and Decommissioning (D&D) obligations at its numerous sites. Several technologies are being investigated which can potentially reduce D&D costs while providing appropriate protection to DOE workers. The DOE recognizes that traditional methods used by the EPA in hazardous waste site clean up activities are insufficient to provide the needed protection and worker productivity demanded by DOE D&D programs. As a consequence, new clothing and equipment which can adequately protect workers while providing increases in worker productivity are being sought for implementation at DOE sites. This document describes an Advanced Worker Protection System (AWPS). The AWPS is built around a life support backpack that uses liquid air to provide cooling as well as breathing gas to the worker. The backpack will be combined with a variety of articles of protective clothing and support equipment.

  3. The role of privacy protection in healthcare information systems adoption.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chien-Lung; Lee, Ming-Ren; Su, Chien-Hui

    2013-10-01

    Privacy protection is an important issue and challenge in healthcare information systems (HISs). Recently, some privacy-enhanced HISs are proposed. Users' privacy perception, intention, and attitude might affect the adoption of such systems. This paper aims to propose a privacy-enhanced HIS framework and investigate the role of privacy protection in HISs adoption. In the proposed framework, privacy protection, access control, and secure transmission modules are designed to enhance the privacy protection of a HIS. An experimental privacy-enhanced HIS is also implemented. Furthermore, we proposed a research model extending the unified theory of acceptance and use of technology by considering perceived security and information security literacy and then investigate user adoption of a privacy-enhanced HIS. The experimental results and analyses showed that user adoption of a privacy-enhanced HIS is directly affected by social influence, performance expectancy, facilitating conditions, and perceived security. Perceived security has a mediating effect between information security literacy and user adoption. This study proposes several implications for research and practice to improve designing, development, and promotion of a good healthcare information system with privacy protection. PMID:24014266

  4. Principles for protecting material accounting systems from data falsification

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, D.R.; McDonnel, J.L.; Chilton, P.D.; Kufahl, G.E.; Vergari, A.A.

    1980-09-30

    This study is part of a larger effort involving the development of regulatory licensing criteria and guidance for an upgraded material accounting rule for fixed-site, commercial nuclear fuel-cycle facilities. Our approach was to examine the vulnerability events of the Generic Minimal Material Accounting (GMMA) system from the point-of-view of a systems analyst and an internal auditor and then determine some acceptable methods for protecting them. During the course of this task, four protection principles were identified which have the potential of controlling against data falsification: Data Control (DC) - to provide assurance that sufficient controls be involved in the handling of data, especially with regard to the introduction of original data; Control on Controls (CC) - to ensure accuracy, validity, and integrity of information or procedures; Skip Echelon Verification (SEV) - to verify by senders of data that the data are properly used; and Secondary Echelon Forwarding (SEF) - to verify by recipients of data that the data were previously used in an appropriate manner by the sender. The extent to which these or other protection principles should be applied to achieve protection against data falsification and Special Nuclear Material (SNM) diversion depends on the degree of protection desired and the level of threat from which a system must be protected. Data falsification and SNM diversion must involve personnel, and the personnel of concern here are insiders who perform the accounting functions as well as those who have authorized access to the accounting elements. Therefore, protection principles must be implemented with regard to organizational constraints. Our approach to setting organizational criteria is basically to ensure that there is adequate separation of responsibilities for elements of control mechanisms.

  5. 78 FR 30870 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-23

    ...In January 2013, NOAA and the Department of the Interior (DOI) invited federal, state, commonwealth, and territorial marine protected area (MPA) programs with potentially eligible existing MPAs to nominate their sites to the National System of MPAs (national system). The national system and the nomination process are described in the Framework for the National System of Marine Protected Areas......

  6. A fuselage/tank structure study for actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles: Active cooling system analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stone, J. E.

    1975-01-01

    The effects of fuselage cross section and structural arrangement on the performance of actively cooled hypersonic cruise vehicles are investigated. An active cooling system which maintains the aircraft's entire surface area at temperatures below 394 K at Mach 6 is developed along with a hydrogen fuel tankage thermal protection system. Thermodynamic characteristics of the actively cooled thermal protection systems established are summarized. Design heat loads and coolant flowrate requirements are defined for each major structural section and for the total system. Cooling system weights are summarized at the major component level. Conclusions and recommendations are included.

  7. Joint force protection advanced security system (JFPASS) "the future of force protection: integrate and automate"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lama, Carlos E.; Fagan, Joe E.

    2009-09-01

    The United States Department of Defense (DoD) defines 'force protection' as "preventive measures taken to mitigate hostile actions against DoD personnel (to include family members), resources, facilities, and critical information." Advanced technologies enable significant improvements in automating and distributing situation awareness, optimizing operator time, and improving sustainability, which enhance protection and lower costs. The JFPASS Joint Capability Technology Demonstration (JCTD) demonstrates a force protection environment that combines physical security and Chemical, Biological, Radiological, Nuclear, and Explosive (CBRNE) defense through the application of integrated command and control and data fusion. The JFPASS JCTD provides a layered approach to force protection by integrating traditional sensors used in physical security, such as video cameras, battlefield surveillance radars, unmanned and unattended ground sensors. The optimization of human participation and automation of processes is achieved by employment of unmanned ground vehicles, along with remotely operated lethal and less-than-lethal weapon systems. These capabilities are integrated via a tailorable, user-defined common operational picture display through a data fusion engine operating in the background. The combined systems automate the screening of alarms, manage the information displays, and provide assessment and response measures. The data fusion engine links disparate sensors and systems, and applies tailored logic to focus the assessment of events. It enables timely responses by providing the user with automated and semi-automated decision support tools. The JFPASS JCTD uses standard communication/data exchange protocols, which allow the system to incorporate future sensor technologies or communication networks, while maintaining the ability to communicate with legacy or existing systems.

  8. Sun protection preferences and behaviors among young adult males during maximum ultraviolet radiation exposure activities.

    PubMed

    Wickenheiser, Marilyn; Baker, Mary Kate; Gaber, Rikki; Blatt, Hanz; Robinson, June K

    2013-08-01

    This study explores sun protection attitudes, preferences, and behaviors among young adult males participating in an open-field activity with extreme ultraviolet radiation exposure. Male drum corps members (n = 137) responded to survey questions regarding their behavior and willingness to engage in sun protection and barriers to sunscreen usage. A subset of members (n = 31) participated in cognitive interviews exploring various sunscreen products and intervention techniques. Participants were knowledgeable about health risks and protection benefits regarding sun exposure. Generally, males had positive attitudes and normative beliefs about using sunscreen. A barrier to sunscreen re-application was lack of adequate time to reapply sunscreen during the open field activity. Males preferred a towelette application method, but were unfamiliar with its efficacy and proper use. Thus, they were more likely to use the more familiar sunscreen spray. To increase sun protection behaviors and lower skin cancer risk for males participating in open-field activities, breaks must be allotted every 2 h and have sufficient time to allow sunscreen application. Future development and research into delivery systems that rapidly and evenly apply sunscreen may help lower exposure in this population. PMID:23912201

  9. Respiratory protective device design using control system techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burgess, W. A.; Yankovich, D.

    1972-01-01

    The feasibility of a control system analysis approach to provide a design base for respiratory protective devices is considered. A system design approach requires that all functions and components of the system be mathematically identified in a model of the RPD. The mathematical notations describe the operation of the components as closely as possible. The individual component mathematical descriptions are then combined to describe the complete RPD. Finally, analysis of the mathematical notation by control system theory is used to derive compensating component values that force the system to operate in a stable and predictable manner.

  10. Ulcer Protective Activity of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vijayakumar, Arumugam Ramamoorthy; Daniel, Epison Prabu; Ilavarasan, Raju; Venkataraman, S.; Vijayakumar, S.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Several synthetic drugs are useful in the treatment of peptic ulcer, but almost of these drugs are used in prolonging time, it may cause several adverse reactions. However, the herbal medicines are more potent to the treatment and minimize the side effects. Objective: To evaluate the methanol extract of Jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. (MEJG) for gastro protective activity against Wistar rats. Materials and Methods: Anti-ulcer potency of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg, b.w.) was assessed using aspirin (200 mg/kg, p.o.) plus pylorus ligation ulcer model and the parameters studied were ulcer index (UI), gastric juice volume, pH, total acidity, and total acid output. Same extract was studied by ethanol-induced (80%, 5 mL/kg, intragastrically) ulcer model, and the UI and biochemical parameters were studied. Results: The oral administration of MEJG (100 and 200 mg/kg) significantly (P < 0.001) attenuated the ulcer score and anti-secretary parameters (such as the volume of gastric content, free acidity, total acidity, and total acid output) in the aspirin plus pylorus ligation rats. The extract also significantly attenuated (P < 0.001) ulcer score in ethanol-induced ulcer model and lipid peroxidation level and significantly increased the level of glutathione peroxides, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activity. The MEJG may possess active constituents such as alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, and terpenes, which may play a major role in gastroprotective effect in Wistar rats. Conclusion: The present study provides scientific support for the anti-ulcer activities of extracts of JG and also claimed that antioxidant potential of the extracts. However, substantiates the traditional claims for the usage of this drug in the treatment of gastric ulcer. SUMMARY The methanolic extract of jatropha gossypiifolia Linn. for gastro protective activity against aspirin plus pyloric ligation and ethanol induced ulcer models was studied in Wistar rats. JG shows significantly

  11. 77 FR 7526 - Interpretation of Protection System Reliability Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-13

    ... Making, 75 FR 81,152 (Dec. 27, 2010), FERC Stats. & Regs. ] 32,669 (2010). I. Background 2. Section 215... (Transmission and Generation Protection System Maintenance and Testing). On December 16, 2010, the Commission... R1 of Commission- approved Reliability Standard PRC-005-1 (Transmission and Generation...

  12. 21 CFR 1240.86 - Protection of pier water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Protection of pier water system. 1240.86 Section 1240.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of...

  13. 21 CFR 1240.86 - Protection of pier water system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Protection of pier water system. 1240.86 Section 1240.86 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) REGULATIONS UNDER CERTAIN OTHER ACTS ADMINISTERED BY THE FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION CONTROL OF COMMUNICABLE DISEASES Source and Use of...

  14. Space Shuttle Orbiter thermal protection system design and flight experience

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curry, Donald M.

    1993-01-01

    The Space Shuttle Orbiter Thermal Protection System materials, design approaches associated with each material, and the operational performance experienced during fifty-five successful flights are described. The flights to date indicate that the thermal and structural design requirements were met and that the overall performance was outstanding.

  15. 33 CFR 127.1507 - Water systems for fire protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Water systems for fire protection. 127.1507 Section 127.1507 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... HAZARDOUS GAS Waterfront Facilities Handling Liquefied Hazardous Gas Firefighting Equipment § 127.1507...

  16. Damage Detection/Locating System Providing Thermal Protection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodard, Stanley E. (Inventor); Jones, Thomas W. (Inventor); Taylor, Bryant D. (Inventor); Qamar, A. Shams (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A damage locating system also provides thermal protection. An array of sensors substantially tiles an area of interest. Each sensor is a reflective-surface conductor having operatively coupled inductance and capacitance. A magnetic field response recorder is provided to interrogate each sensor before and after a damage condition. Changes in response are indicative of damage and a corresponding location thereof.

  17. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant. (c) Oxygen equipment and lines must— (1... escape from, any designated fire zone, and (3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause ignition... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Fire protection: systems. 25.869 Section...

  18. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant. (c) Oxygen equipment and lines must— (1... escape from, any designated fire zone, and (3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause ignition... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Fire protection: systems. 25.869 Section...

  19. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant. (c) Oxygen equipment and lines must— (1... escape from, any designated fire zone, and (3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause ignition... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Fire protection: systems. 25.869 Section...

  20. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant. (c) Oxygen equipment and lines must— (1... escape from, any designated fire zone, and (3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause ignition... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Fire protection: systems. 25.869 Section...

  1. 14 CFR 25.869 - Fire protection: systems.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... components in designated fire zones must be at least fire resistant. (c) Oxygen equipment and lines must— (1... escape from, any designated fire zone, and (3) Be installed so that escaping oxygen cannot cause ignition... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Fire protection: systems. 25.869 Section...

  2. Insider protection

    SciTech Connect

    Waddoups, I.G.

    1993-07-01

    The government community is broadly addressing the insider threat. The first section of this paper defines protection approaches and the latter sections present various applicable technology developments. The bulk of the paper discusses technology developments applied to (1) personnel and material tracking and inventory, (2) classified document protection, and (3) protecting security systems. The personnel and material tracking system uses a PC based-host to (1) collect information from proximity tags and material movement sensors, (2) apply rules to this input to assure that the ongoing activity meets the site selectable rules and, (3) forward the results to either an automated inventory system or an alarm system. The document protection system uses a PC network to efficiently and securely control classified material which is stored on write-once-read-mostly optical media. The protection of sensor to multiplexer communications in a security system is emphasized in the discussion of protecting security systems.

  3. 20 CFR 1002.19 - What activity is protected from employer retaliation by USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994 Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Retaliation Protection from Employer Discrimination and Retaliation § 1002.19 What activity is protected from employer retaliation...

  4. 20 CFR 1002.19 - What activity is protected from employer retaliation by USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994 Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Retaliation Protection from Employer Discrimination and Retaliation § 1002.19 What activity is protected from employer retaliation...

  5. 20 CFR 1002.19 - What activity is protected from employer retaliation by USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994 Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Retaliation Protection from Employer Discrimination and Retaliation § 1002.19 What activity is protected from employer retaliation...

  6. 20 CFR 1002.19 - What activity is protected from employer retaliation by USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994 Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Retaliation Protection from Employer Discrimination and Retaliation § 1002.19 What activity is protected from employer retaliation...

  7. 20 CFR 1002.19 - What activity is protected from employer retaliation by USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994 Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Retaliation Protection from Employer Discrimination and Retaliation § 1002.19 What activity is protected from employer retaliation...

  8. A demonstrator for an integrated subway protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Detoma, E.; Capetti, P.; Casati, G.; Billington, S.

    2008-04-01

    In 2006 SEPA has carried on the installation and tests of a demonstrator for an integrated subway protection system at a new subway station in the Naples, Italy) metropolitan area. Protection of a subway system is a difficult task given the amount of passengers transported every day. The demonstrator has been limited to non-intrusive detection techniques not to impair the passenger flow into the station. The demonstrator integrates several technologies and products that have been developed by SEPA or are already available on the market (MKS Instruments,...). The main purpose is to provide detection capabilities for attempts to introduce radioactive substances in the subway station, in order to foil possible attempts to place a dirty bomb, and threat detection and identification following release of chemical agents. The system integrates additional sensors such as video surveillance cameras and air flow sensing to complement the basic sensors suite. The need to protect sensitive installations such as subway stations has been highlighted by the series of terroristics actions carried out in recent years in the subway in London. However, given the number of passengers of a metro system, it is impossible to propose security techniques operating in ways similar to the screening of passengers in airports. Passengers screening and threat detection and identification must be quick, non-intrusive and capable of screening a large number of passengers to be applicable to mass transit systems. In 2005 SEPA, a small company operating in the field of trains video-surveillance systems and radiation detectors, started developing an integrated system to provide a comprehensive protection to subway stations, based on ready available or off-the-shelf components in order to quickly develop a reliable system with available technology. We ruled out at the beginning any new development in order to speed up the fielding of the system in less than one year. The system was developed with

  9. Impact Testing of Orbiter Thermal Protection System Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerr, Justin

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the impact testing of the materials used in designing the shuttle orbiter thermal protection system (TPS). Pursuant to the Columbia Accident Investigation Board recommendations a testing program of the TPS system was instituted. This involved using various types of impactors in different sizes shot from various sizes and strengths guns to impact the TPS tiles and the Leading Edge Structural Subsystem (LESS). The observed damage is shown, and the resultant lessons learned are reviewed.

  10. Three year performance of aluminum alloy galvanic cathodic protection system

    SciTech Connect

    Funahashi, M.; Young, W.T.

    1999-07-01

    A newly developed aluminum alloy galvanic cathodic protection system was installed on selected prestressed concrete piles. The piles were instrumented to measure the aluminum alloy anode performance. To evaluate the new anode, the pure zinc anode was used for the comparison purpose. The anode performance was monitored for the three years since the system was installed in June, 1996. This paper discusses the results of the performance of the new aluminum alloy anode.

  11. Portable active interrogation system.

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, C. E.; Brener, M. W.; Hollas, C. L.; Myers, W. L.

    2004-01-01

    The system consists of a pulsed DT neutron generator (5 x 10{sup 7} n/s) and a portable but high intrinsic efficiency, custom-designed, polyethylene-moderated {sup 3}He neutron detector. A multichannel scaler card in a ruggedized laptop computer acquires the data. A user-friendly LabVIEW program analyzes and displays the data. The program displays a warning message when highly enriched uranium or any other fissionable materials is detected at a specified number of sigmas above background in the delayed region between pulses. This report describes the system and gives examples of the response of the system to highly enriched uranium and some other fissionable materials, at several distances and with various shielding materials.

  12. Container lid gasket protective strip for double door transfer system

    DOEpatents

    Allen, Jr., Burgess M

    2013-02-19

    An apparatus and a process for forming a protective barrier seal along a "ring of concern" of a transfer container used with double door systems is provided. A protective substrate is supplied between a "ring of concern" and a safety cover in which an adhesive layer of the substrate engages the "ring of concern". A compressive foam strip along an opposite side of the substrate engages a safety cover such that a compressive force is maintained between the "ring of concern" and the adhesive layer of the substrate.

  13. Concept of data processing in multisensor system for perimeter protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dulski, R.; Kastek, M.; Trzaskawka, P.; Piątkowski, T.; Szustakowski, M.; Życzkowski, M.

    2011-06-01

    The nature of recent terrorist attacks and military conflicts as well as the necessity to protect bases, convoys and patrols gave serious impact to the development of more effective security systems. Widely-used so far concepts of perimeter protection with zone sensors will be replaced in the near future with multi-sensor systems. This kind of systems can utilize day/night cameras, IR uncooled thermal cameras as well as millimeter-wave radars detecting radiation reflected from target. Ranges of detection, recognition and identification for all targets depends on the parameters of the sensors used and the observed scene itself. Apart from the sensors the most important elements that influence the system effectiveness is intelligent data analysis and a proper data fusion algorithm. A multi-sensor protection system allows to achieve significant improvement of detection probability of intruder. The concept of data fusion in multi-sensor system has been introduced. It is based on image fusion algorithm which allows visualizing and tracking intruders under any conditions.

  14. Sulforaphane protects Microcystin-LR-induced toxicity through activation of the Nrf2-mediated defensive response

    SciTech Connect

    Gan Nanqin; Mi Lixin; Sun Xiaoyun; Dai Guofei; Chung Funglung; Song Lirong

    2010-09-01

    Microcystins (MCs), a cyclic heptapeptide hepatotoxins, are mainly produced by the bloom-forming cyanobacerium Microcystis, which has become an environmental hazard worldwide. Long term consumption of MC-contaminated water may induce liver damage, liver cancer, and even human death. Therefore, in addition to removal of MCs in drinking water, novel strategies that prevent health damages are urgently needed. Sulforaphane (SFN), a natural-occurring isothiocyanate from cruciferous vegetables, has been reported to reduce and eliminate toxicities from xenobiotics and carcinogens. The purpose of the present study was to provide mechanistic insights into the SFN-induced antioxidative defense system against MC-LR-induced cytotoxicity. We performed cell viability assays, including MTS assay, colony formation assay and apoptotic cell sorting, to study MC-LR-induced cellular damage and the protective effects by SFN. The results showed that SFN protected MC-LR-induced damages at a nontoxic and physiological relevant dose in HepG2, BRL-3A and NIH 3 T3 cells. The protection was Nrf2-mediated as evident by transactivation of Nrf2 and activation of its downstream genes, including NQO1 and HO-1, and elevated intracellular GSH level. Results of our studies indicate that pretreatment of cells with 10 {mu}M SFN for 12 h significantly protected cells from MC-LR-induced damage. SFN-induced protective response was mediated through Nrf2 pathway.

  15. Policy and practice in Myanmar's protected area system.

    PubMed

    Myint Aung, U

    2007-07-01

    Myanmar's protected area (PA) system began nearly 150 years ago under royal patronage. Park policies and practices, embodied in 19 pieces of legislation developed sporadically during and after the colonial period. As a result of the FAO-UNDP's Nature Conservation and National Parks Project (1981-1985) the government established the Nature & Wildlife Conservation Division and placed it within the Forest Department as the agency responsible for PA management. As a consequence the number of parks increased from 14 to 33. Myanmar's median park size is less than 50 km(2), but only five parks (15%) are larger than 1000 km(2). Most parks conserve terrestrial habitats; parks encompassing inland wetlands, mangrove, and marine habitats are limited in number and size. Existing PAs unequally represent Myanmar's ecosystems; the Malay Transition, Burmese coast, Burmese Transition and Cardamom Mountains bio-units are under-represented within the system. The effective total PA size (i.e., area of all parks less the area of 13 paper parks) is currently about 2.1%. Budgetary support for parks increased 11% since 1996, but is insufficient to address park needs, particularly in remote parks that are understaffed. Limited education and training of PA staff is a major factor limiting effective park management. Fifty-eight percent of park wardens are educated as foresters, and 42% have university degrees. The average posting in a park is 4 years, which is less than ideal for management continuity. Recommended actions to secure Myanmar's PAs include evaluation and reformulation of policies, increasing representation of Myanmar's habitats within the PA system, management planning, and standardizing protocols for anti-poaching patrols and other forms of law enforcement. Improved leadership training for wardens and range forest officers can also improve park management. Funding for community relations and more integrated management of parks and people can reduce conflicts, while

  16. Liver-protective activities of aucubin derived from traditional oriental medicine.

    PubMed

    Chang, I M

    1998-11-01

    The iridoid glycosides including aucubin (AU), catalpol (CA), swertimarin (SW), and gardenoside (GA) are frequently found as natural constituents of many traditional oriental medicinal plants including Chinese herbs. Among these iridoid glycosides, AU was systematically studied for its potent liver-protective activities using experimental systems of hepatic damage. AU showed high liver-protective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in mice. Also AU showed significant protective activity against alpha-amanitin-induced hepatic damage in mice, and it prevented a depression of liver RNA biosynthesis caused by alpha-amanitin administration. Potent antidotal effects on mushroom poisoning in beagle dogs ingested with aqueous extract of Amanita virosa was observed; beagle dogs completely survived, even when AU administration was withheld for half an hour after mushroom poisoning. In addition, AU was found to suppress hepatitis B viral DNA replication in vitro. Conversion of AU to its aglycone form appeared to be a prerequisite step for an exhibition of such antiviral activity. PMID:10100510

  17. Intelligent vehicle electrical power supply system with central coordinated protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Diange; Kong, Weiwei; Li, Bing; Lian, Xiaomin

    2016-05-01

    The current research of vehicle electrical power supply system mainly focuses on electric vehicles (EV) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEV). The vehicle electrical power supply system used in traditional fuel vehicles is rather simple and imperfect; electrical/electronic devices (EEDs) applied in vehicles are usually directly connected with the vehicle's battery. With increasing numbers of EEDs being applied in traditional fuel vehicles, vehicle electrical power supply systems should be optimized and improved so that they can work more safely and more effectively. In this paper, a new vehicle electrical power supply system for traditional fuel vehicles, which accounts for all electrical/electronic devices and complex work conditions, is proposed based on a smart electrical/electronic device (SEED) system. Working as an independent intelligent electrical power supply network, the proposed system is isolated from the electrical control module and communication network, and access to the vehicle system is made through a bus interface. This results in a clean controller power supply with no electromagnetic interference. A new practical battery state of charge (SoC) estimation method is also proposed to achieve more accurate SoC estimation for lead-acid batteries in traditional fuel vehicles so that the intelligent power system can monitor the status of the battery for an over-current state in each power channel. Optimized protection methods are also used to ensure power supply safety. Experiments and tests on a traditional fuel vehicle are performed, and the results reveal that the battery SoC is calculated quickly and sufficiently accurately for battery over-discharge protection. Over-current protection is achieved, and the entire vehicle's power utilization is optimized. For traditional fuel vehicles, the proposed vehicle electrical power supply system is comprehensive and has a unified system architecture, enhancing system reliability and security.

  18. Marine Protected Dramas: The Flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C.; Godoy, Eduardo A. S.; Jones, Peter J. S.; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P.

    2011-04-01

    This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of `leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments.

  19. Marine protected dramas: the flaws of the Brazilian National System of Marine Protected Areas.

    PubMed

    Gerhardinger, Leopoldo C; Godoy, Eduardo A S; Jones, Peter J S; Sales, Gilberto; Ferreira, Beatrice P

    2011-04-01

    This article discusses the current problems and issues associated with the implementation of a National System of Marine Protected Areas in Brazil. MPA managers and higher governmental level authorities were interviewed about their perceptions of the implementation of a national MPA strategy and the recent changes in the institutional arrangement of government marine conservation agencies. Interviewees' narratives were generally pessimistic and the National System was perceived as weak, with few recognizable marine conservation outcomes on the ground. The following major flaws were identified: poor inter-institutional coordination of coastal and ocean governance; institutional crisis faced by the national government marine conservation agency; poor management within individual MPAs; problems with regional networks of marine protected areas; an overly bureaucratic management and administrative system; financial shortages creating structural problems and a disconnect between MPA policy and its delivery. Furthermore, a lack of professional motivation and a pessimistic atmosphere was encountered during many interviews, a malaise which we believe affects how the entire system is able to respond to crises. Our findings highlight the need for a better understanding of the role of 'leadership' in the performance of socio-ecological systems (such as MPA networks), more effective official evaluation mechanisms, more localized audits of (and reforms if necessary to) Brazil's federal biodiversity conservation agency (ICMBio), and the need for political measures to promote state leadership and support. Continuing to focus on the designation of more MPAs whilst not fully addressing these issues will achieve little beyond fulfilling, on paper, Brazil's international marine biodiversity commitments. PMID:20865415

  20. New cathodic protection system design for dubai platforms

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, S.

    1985-03-01

    New sacrificial anode protection criteria that were developed and tested by the Dubai Petroleum Company (DPC) have resulted in a 40 percent decrease in anode weight as compared to that required by conventionally accepted design. Derivation of the criteria are based on an analyses of extensive field results of potential surveys of seven DPC platforms that had conventional sacrificial anode protection systems. It was found that an initial platform current density of 310 + or - 20 milliampers per square meter of area exposed to seawater, resulted in polarization of the platform to -1 volt with respect to the silversilver chloride reference electrode. As a consequence of this high initial polarization, the electric current requirement for protection is significantly reduced. The new criteria were used in the design of Platform ''JJ'' which was installed in September 1982. Field results that include periodic potential surveys of Platform ''JJ'' will be presented and discussed.

  1. [Protection of the environment and veterinary public health activities].

    PubMed

    Cifuentes, E E

    1992-03-01

    The author discusses the health status of 800 million persons who live in developing countries under conditions of absolute misery, and the 450 million on the brink of starvation, taking into account environmental factors which directly affect this situation of shortages, illness and death. Data are presented on diseases directly related to environmental conditions: 200 million people infested with schistosomes and 500 million at risk of infestation. In the case of Chagas' disease, 16 to 18 million are infected and 90 million at risk. The epidemiological situation regarding plague, the epidemiological risks of leptospirosis, the taeniasis-cysticercosis complex and other infectious and parasitic diseases are discussed. A description is given of the organisation and function of veterinary public health services, with comments on, and justification of the various activities which can be undertaken to prevent, reduce and even eradicate various diseases associated with poor hygienic conditions in the environment. Finally, proposals are made to revise the academic instruction of veterinarians. There is an urgent need to promote collaboration between institutes and between disciplines if the environment is to be protected and lives saved. PMID:1525417

  2. Improving radioactive waste management: an overview of the Environmental Protection Agency's low-activity waste effort.

    PubMed

    Schultheisz, Daniel J; Czyscinski, Kenneth S; Klinger, Adam D

    2006-11-01

    Radioactive waste disposal in the United States is marked by a fragmented regulatory system, with requirements that often focus on the origin or statutory definition of the waste, rather than the hazard of the material in question. It may be possible to enhance public protection by moving toward a system that provides disposal options appropriate for the hazard presented by the waste in question. This paper summarizes aspects of an approach focusing on the potential use, with appropriate conditions, of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act Subtitle-C hazardous waste landfills for disposal of "low-activity" wastes and public comments on the suggested approach. PMID:17033466

  3. Human Threat Management Systems: Self-Protection and Disease Avoidance

    PubMed Central

    Neuberg, Steven L.; Kenrick, Douglas T.; Schaller, Mark

    2010-01-01

    Humans likely evolved precautionary systems designed to minimize the threats to reproductive fitness posed by highly interdependent ultrasociality. A review of research on the self-protection and disease avoidance systems reveals that each system is functionally distinct and domain-specific: Each is attuned to different cues; engages different emotions, inferences, and behavioral inclinations; and is rooted in somewhat different neurobiological substrates. These systems share important features, however. Each system is functionally coherent, in that perceptual, affective, cognitive, and behavioral processes work in concert to reduce fitness costs of potential threats. Each system is biased in a risk-averse manner, erring toward precautionary responses even when available cues only heuristically imply threat. And each system is functionally flexible, being highly sensitive to specific ecological and dispositional cues that signal greater vulnerability to the relevant threat. These features characterize a general template useful for understanding not only the self-protection and disease avoidance systems, but also a broader set of evolved, domain-specific precautionary systems. PMID:20833199

  4. LIMITED-USE CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING FOR EPA SUPERFUND ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because contractor field personnel complained about the poor durability and fit of limited-use chemical protective clothing (CPC) most commonly used at hazardous waste site operations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a study to characterize use of CPC; de...

  5. Measuring the Impact of Child Protection through Activation States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brackenridge, Celia H.; Pawlaczek, Zofia; Bringer, Joy D.; Cockburn, Claudi; Nutt, Gareth; Pitchford, Andy; Russell, Kate

    2005-01-01

    Child protection (CP) has risen to the top of the UK sports policy agenda in the past four years and the Football Association has invested in this major strategy as part of its commitment to "use the power of football to build a better future" (Football Association, 2000a). Evidencing the impact of child protection is, however, a complex task,…

  6. LIMITED-USE CHEMICAL PROTECTIVE CLOTHING FOR EPA SUPERFUND ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Because contractor field personnel complained about the poor durability and fit of limited-use chemical protective clothing (CPC) most commonly used at hazardous waste site operations, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) initiated a study to • characterize use of CPC...

  7. "TPSX: Thermal Protection System Expert and Material Property Database"

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Squire, Thomas H.; Milos, Frank S.; Rasky, Daniel J. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    The Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center has developed a computer program for storing, organizing, and accessing information about thermal protection materials. The program, called Thermal Protection Systems Expert and Material Property Database, or TPSX, is available for the Microsoft Windows operating system. An "on-line" version is also accessible on the World Wide Web. TPSX is designed to be a high-quality source for TPS material properties presented in a convenient, easily accessible form for use by engineers and researchers in the field of high-speed vehicle design. Data can be displayed and printed in several formats. An information window displays a brief description of the material with properties at standard pressure and temperature. A spread sheet window displays complete, detailed property information. Properties which are a function of temperature and/or pressure can be displayed as graphs. In any display the data can be converted from English to SI units with the click of a button. Two material databases included with TPSX are: 1) materials used and/or developed by the Thermal Protection Branch at NASA Ames Research Center, and 2) a database compiled by NASA Johnson Space Center 9JSC). The Ames database contains over 60 advanced TPS materials including flexible blankets, rigid ceramic tiles, and ultra-high temperature ceramics. The JSC database contains over 130 insulative and structural materials. The Ames database is periodically updated and expanded as required to include newly developed materials and material property refinements.

  8. Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter for Transportable Collective Protection Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Josephson, Gary B.; Tonkyn, Russell G.; Frye, J. G.; Riley, Brian J.; Rappe, Kenneth G.

    2011-04-06

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has performed an assessment of a Hybrid Plasma/Filter system as an alternative to conventional methods for collective protection. The key premise of the hybrid system is to couple a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor with reactive adsorption to provide a broader envelope of protection than can be provided through a single-solution approach. The first step uses highly reactive species (e.g. oxygen radicals, hydroxyl radicals, etc.) created in a nonthermal plasma (NTP) reactor to destroy the majority (~75% - 90%) of an incoming threat. Following the NTP reactor an O3 reactor/filter uses the O3 created in the NTP reactor to further destroy the remaining organic materials. This report summarizes the laboratory development of the Hybrid Plasma Reactor/Filter to protect against a ‘worst-case’ simulant, methyl bromide (CH3Br), and presents a preliminary engineering assessment of the technology to Joint Expeditionary Collective Protection performance specifications for chemical vapor air purification technologies.

  9. ETV Program Report: Coatings for Wastewater Collection Systems - Protective Liner Systems, Inc., Epoxy Mastic, PLS-614

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Protective Liner Systems International, Inc. Epoxy Mastic PLS-614 coating used for wastewater collection system rehabilitation was evaluated by EPA’s Environmental Technology Verification Program under laboratory conditions at the Center for Innovative Grouting Material and T...

  10. Development of a model representing systems protected against research*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Styugin, M.

    2016-04-01

    The research described herein presents a method of modeling information systems with dynamic parameters. The model includes elements with discrete internal states and agents, which can act in the system by modifying states of the system’s elements. The research has two objectives aimed at protection against research, which are as follows: inadmissibility for the system to transfer into some specific states and invisibility of actions taken by the agents. The present paper establishes stable secure states and proves algorithmic insolubility of Problem 1 in its general case.

  11. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, D.C.

    1996-12-17

    A reactor protection system is disclosed having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically ``identical`` values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic. 16 figs.

  12. Reactor protection system with automatic self-testing and diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    Gaubatz, Donald C.

    1996-01-01

    A reactor protection system having four divisions, with quad redundant sensors for each scram parameter providing input to four independent microprocessor-based electronic chassis. Each electronic chassis acquires the scram parameter data from its own sensor, digitizes the information, and then transmits the sensor reading to the other three electronic chassis via optical fibers. To increase system availability and reduce false scrams, the reactor protection system employs two levels of voting on a need for reactor scram. The electronic chassis perform software divisional data processing, vote 2/3 with spare based upon information from all four sensors, and send the divisional scram signals to the hardware logic panel, which performs a 2/4 division vote on whether or not to initiate a reactor scram. Each chassis makes a divisional scram decision based on data from all sensors. Automatic detection and discrimination against failed sensors allows the reactor protection system to automatically enter a known state when sensor failures occur. Cross communication of sensor readings allows comparison of four theoretically "identical" values. This permits identification of sensor errors such as drift or malfunction. A diagnostic request for service is issued for errant sensor data. Automated self test and diagnostic monitoring, sensor input through output relay logic, virtually eliminate the need for manual surveillance testing. This provides an ability for each division to cross-check all divisions and to sense failures of the hardware logic.

  13. A management system integrating radiation protection and safety supporting safety culture in the hospital.

    PubMed

    Almén, A; Lundh, C

    2015-04-01

    Quality assurance has been identified as an important part of radiation protection and safety for a considerable time period. A rational expansion and improvement of quality assurance is to integrate radiation protection and safety in a management system. The aim of this study was to explore factors influencing the implementing strategy when introducing a management system including radiation protection and safety in hospitals and to outline benefits of such a system. The main experience from developing a management system is that it is possible to create a vast number of common policies and routines for the whole hospital, resulting in a cost-efficient system. One of the key benefits is the involvement of management at all levels, including the hospital director. Furthermore, a transparent system will involve staff throughout the organisation as well. A management system supports a common view on what should be done, who should do it and how the activities are reviewed. An integrated management system for radiation protection and safety includes key elements supporting a safety culture. PMID:25429027

  14. A privacy protection for an mHealth messaging system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aaleswara, Lakshmipathi; Akopian, David; Chronopoulos, Anthony T.

    2015-03-01

    In this paper, we propose a new software system that employs features that help the organization to comply with USA HIPAA regulations. The system uses SMS as the primary way of communication to transfer information. Lack of knowledge about some diseases is still a major reason for some harmful diseases spreading. The developed system includes different features that may help to communicate amongst low income people who don't even have access to the internet. Since the software system deals with Personal Health Information (PHI) it is equipped with an access control authentication system mechanism to protect privacy. The system is analyzed for performance to identify how much overhead the privacy rules impose.

  15. Design of motorcycle rider protection systems using numerical techniques.

    PubMed

    Miralbes, R

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this paper is the development of a design methodology, based on the use of finite elements numerical tools and dummies in order to study the damages and injuries that appear during a motorcyclist collision against a motorcyclist protection system (MPS). According to the existing regulation, a Hybrid III dummy FEM model has been used as a starting point and some modifications have been included. For instance a new finite element helmet model has been developed and later added to the dummy model. Moreover, some structural elements affecting the simulation results such as the connecting bolts or the ground have been adequately modeled. Finally there have been analyzed diverse types of current motorcyclists protection systems, for which it has been made a comparative numerical-experiment analysis to validate the numerical results and the methodology used. PMID:23792610

  16. Invited Article: Topological crystalline protection in a photonic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jian-Xiao; Rechtsman, Mikael C.; Liu, Chao-Xing

    2016-08-01

    Topological crystalline insulators are a class of materials with a bulk energy gap and edge or surface modes, which are protected by crystalline symmetry, at their boundaries. They have been realized in electronic systems: in particular, in SnTe. In this work, we propose a mechanism to realize photonic boundary states topologically protected by crystalline symmetry. We map this one-dimensional system to a two-dimensional lattice model with opposite magnetic fields, as well as opposite Chern numbers in its even and odd mirror parity subspaces, thus corresponding to a topological mirror insulator. Furthermore, we test the robustness of the boundary modes depending on their mirror parity by performing time dependent evolution simulations in a photonic setting with realistic experimental parameters.

  17. Means of protecting cryogenic systems from the geyser effect

    SciTech Connect

    Filina, N.N.

    1986-03-01

    New means of protection, which permit a low fluid boil in the pipeline without proceeding into an avalanchelike process, have been developed on the basis of theoretical and experimental investigations of the geyser effect in cryogenic systems with an end thermal influx from a regulating fitting. An equation is presented for computing the time allowed for the low fluid boil. Pressure increase in the overhead reservoir is discussed and a cryogenic reservoir with concentric pipeline equipped with a hood for vapor elimination is illustrated. Vapor removal from a vertical pipeline is examined. A structural method of protecting cryogenic systems from the geyser effect is discussed; the value of this method consists in its high reliability.

  18. Game theoretic analysis of physical protection system design

    SciTech Connect

    Canion, B.; Schneider, E.; Bickel, E.; Hadlock, C.; Morton, D.

    2013-07-01

    The physical protection system (PPS) of a fictional small modular reactor (SMR) facility have been modeled as a platform for a game theoretic approach to security decision analysis. To demonstrate the game theoretic approach, a rational adversary with complete knowledge of the facility has been modeled attempting a sabotage attack. The adversary adjusts his decisions in response to investments made by the defender to enhance the security measures. This can lead to a conservative physical protection system design. Since defender upgrades were limited by a budget, cost benefit analysis may be conducted upon security upgrades. One approach to cost benefit analysis is the efficient frontier, which depicts the reduction in expected consequence per incremental increase in the security budget.

  19. 10 CFR 73.50 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities. 73.50 Section 73.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.50 Requirements for...

  20. 10 CFR 73.50 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities. 73.50 Section 73.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.50 Requirements for...

  1. 10 CFR 73.50 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities. 73.50 Section 73.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.50 Requirements for...

  2. 10 CFR 73.50 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities. 73.50 Section 73.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.50 Requirements for...

  3. 10 CFR 73.50 - Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Requirements for physical protection of licensed activities. 73.50 Section 73.50 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PHYSICAL PROTECTION OF PLANTS AND MATERIALS Physical Protection Requirements at Fixed Sites § 73.50 Requirements for...

  4. Protective Fullerene (C60) Packaging System for Microelectromechanical Systems Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Olivas, John D. (Inventor)

    2004-01-01

    The invention involves tunneling tips to their conducting surface, and specifically the deposition of a monolayer of fullerene C60 onto the conducting plate surface to protect the tunneling tip from contact. The Fullerene C60 molecule is approximately spherical, and a monolayer of fullerene has a thickness of one nanometer, such that a monolayer thereby establishing the theoretical distance desired between the MEMS tunneling tip and the conducting plate. Exploiting the electrical conductivity of C60 the tip can be accurately positioned by simply monitoring conductivity between the fullerene and the tunneling tip. By monitoring the Conductivity between the tip and the fullerene layer as the tip is brought in proximity, the surfaces can be brought together without risk of contacting the underlying conducting surface. Once the tunneling tip is positioned at the one nanometer spacing, with only the monolayer of fullerene between the tunneling tip and the conducting plate, the monolayer of C60, can be broken down thermally and removed chemically leaving only the tunneling tip and the conducting plate at the ideal tunneling spacing. Alternatively, the properties of fullerene allow the tunneling process to occur directly across the fullerene monolayer.

  5. Protecting sensitive systems and data in an open agency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Douglas B.; Tompkins, Frederick G.

    1987-01-01

    This paper focuses on the policy and definitional issues associated with providing adequate and reasonable levels of protection for sensitive systems and data in an agency whose basic charter mandates the open sharing of information and transfer of technology into the market economy. An information model based on current Federal regulatory issuances is presented. A scheme for determining sensitivity levels, based on a categorization taxonomy,is provided.

  6. QM-8 field joint protection system, volume 7

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hale, Elgie

    1989-01-01

    The pre-launch functioning data of the Field Joint Protection System (JPS) used on QM-8 are presented. Also included is the post fire condition of the JPS components following the test firing of the motor. The JPS components are: field joint heaters; field joint sensors; field joint moisture seal; moisture seal kevlar retaining straps; field joint external extruded cork insulation; vent valve; power cables; and igniter heater.

  7. The Challenges of Credible Thermal Protection System Reliability Quantification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Green, Lawrence L.

    2013-01-01

    The paper discusses several of the challenges associated with developing a credible reliability estimate for a human-rated crew capsule thermal protection system. The process of developing such a credible estimate is subject to the quantification, modeling and propagation of numerous uncertainties within a probabilistic analysis. The development of specific investment recommendations, to improve the reliability prediction, among various potential testing and programmatic options is then accomplished through Bayesian analysis.

  8. Promising freeze protection alternatives in solar domestic hot water systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, D.E.

    1997-12-31

    Since the gains associated with solar thermal energy technologies are comparatively small in relation to the required capital investment, it is vital to maximize conversion efficiency. While providing the necessary function of freeze protection, the heat exchanger commonly included in solar domestic water heating systems represents a system inefficiency. This thesis explores two alternate methods of providing freeze protection without resorting to a heat exchanger. Commonly, collectors are made of rigid copper tubes separated by copper or aluminum fins. Cracking damage can occur when water is allowed to freeze and expand inside the non compliant tubes. The possibility of making collectors out of an elastic material was investigated and shown to be effective. Since unlike copper, elastomers typically have low thermal conductivities, the standard collector performance prediction equations do not apply. Modified thermal performance prediction equations were developed which can be used for both low and high thermal conductivity materials to provide accurate predictions within a limited range of plate geometries. An elastomeric collector plate was then designed and shown to have comparable performance to a copper plate collector whose aperture area is approximately 33% smaller. Another options for providing freeze protection to an SDHW system is to turn it off during the winter. Choosing a three-season operating period means two things. First, the system will have different optimums such as slope and collector area. Second, the wintertime solar energy incident on the collector is unavailable for meeting a heating load. However, the system`s heat exchanger becomes unnecessary and removing it increases the amount of energy that arrives at the storage tank during those periods in which the system is operating.

  9. AMP-activated protein kinase activation protects gastric epithelial cells from Helicobacter pylori-induced apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Lv, Guoqiang; Zhu, Huanhuan; Zhou, Feng; Lin, Zhou; Lin, Gang; Li, Chenwan

    2014-10-10

    Helicobacter pylori (H pylori), infecting half of the world's population, causes gastritis, duodenal and gastric ulcer, and gastric cancers. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) is a highly conserved regulator of cellular energy and metabolism. Recent studies indicated an important role for AMPK in promoting cell survival. In this study, we discovered that H Pylori induced AMPK activation in transformed (GEC-1 line) and primary human gastric epithelial cells (GECs). Inhibition of H Pylori-stimulated AMPK kinase activity by AMPK inhibitor compound C exacerbated apoptosis in transformed and primary GECs. Meanwhile, downregulation of AMPK expression by targeted shRNAs promoted apoptosis in H pylori-infected GECs. In contrast, A-769662 and resveratrol, two known AMPK activators, or AMPKα1 over-expression, enhanced H Pylori-induced AMPK activation, and inhibited GEC apoptosis. Our data suggested that transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β)-activated kinase 1 (TAK1) could be the upstream kinase for AMPK activation by H pylori. Partial depletion of TAK1 by shRNAs not only inhibited AMPK activation, but also suppressed survival of H pylori-infected GECs. Taken together, these results suggest that TAK1-dependent AMPK activation protects GECs from H pylori-Induced apoptosis. PMID:25229685

  10. Engineering Aerothermal Analysis for X-34 Thermal Protection System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurster, Kathryn E.; Riley, Christopher J.; Zoby, E. Vincent

    1998-01-01

    Design of the thermal protection system for any hypersonic flight vehicle requires determination of both the peak temperatures over the surface and the heating-rate history along the flight profile. In this paper, the process used to generate the aerothermal environments required for the X-34 Testbed Technology Demonstrator thermal protection system design is described as it has evolved from a relatively simplistic approach based on engineering methods applied to critical areas to one of detailed analyses over the entire vehicle. A brief description of the trajectory development leading to the selection of the thermal protection system design trajectory is included. Comparisons of engineering heating predictions with wind-tunnel test data and with results obtained using a Navier- Stokes flowfield code and an inviscid/boundary layer method are shown. Good agreement is demonstrated among all these methods for both the ground-test condition and the peak heating flight condition. Finally, the detailed analysis using engineering methods to interpolate the surface-heating-rate results from the inviscid/boundary layer method to predict the required thermal environments is described and results presented.

  11. Engineering Aerothermal Analysis for X-34 Thermal Protection System Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wurster, Kathryn E.; Riley, Christopher J.; Zoby, E. Vincent

    1998-01-01

    Design of the thermal protection system for any hypersonic flight vehicle requires determination of both the peak temperatures over the surface and the heating-rate history along the flight profile. In this paper, the process used to generate the aerothermal environments required for the X-34 Testbed Technology Demonstrator thermal protection system design is described as it has evolved from a relatively simplistic approach based on engineering methods applied to critical areas to one of detailed analyses over the entire vehicle. A brief description of the trajectory development leading to the selection of the thermal protection system design trajectory is included. Comparisons of engineering heating predictions with wind-tunnel test data and with results obtained using a Navier-Stokes flowfield code and an inviscid/boundary layer method are shown. Good agreement is demonstrated among all these methods for both the ground-test condition and the peak heating flight condition. Finally, the detailed analysis using engineering methods to interpolate the surface-heating-rate results from the inviscid/boundary layer method to predict the required thermal environments is described and results presented.

  12. Physical Protection System Upgrades - Optimizing for Performance and Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Bouchard, Ann M.; Hicks, Mary Jane

    1999-07-09

    CPA--Cost and Performance Analysis--is an architecture that supports analysis of physical protection systems and upgrade options. ASSESS (Analytic System and Software for Evaluating Security Systems), a tool for evaluating performance of physical protection systems, currently forms the cornerstone for evaluating detection probabilities and delay times of the system. Cost and performance data are offered to the decision-maker at the systems level and to technologists at the path-element level. A new optimization engine has been attached to the CPA methodology to automate analyses of many combinations (portfolios) of technologies. That engine controls a new analysis sequencer that automatically modifies ASSESS PPS files (facility descriptions), automatically invokes ASSESS Outsider analysis and then saves results for post-processing. Users can constrain the search to an upper bound on total cost, to a lower bound on level of performance, or to include specific technologies or technology types. This process has been applied to a set of technology development proposals to identify those portfolios that provide the most improvement in physical security for the lowest cost to install, operate and maintain at a baseline facility.

  13. Protection of quantum systems by nested dynamical decoupling

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhenyu; Liu Renbao

    2011-02-15

    Based on a theorem we establish on dynamical decoupling of time-dependent systems, we present a scheme of nested Uhrig dynamical decoupling (NUDD) to protect multiqubit systems in generic quantum baths to arbitrary decoupling orders, using only single-qubit operations. The number of control pulses in NUDD increases polynomially with the decoupling order. For general multilevel systems, this scheme can preserve a set of unitary Hermitian system operators which mutually either commute or anticommute, and hence all operators in the Lie algebra generated from this set of operators, generating an effective symmetry group for the system up to a given order of precision. NUDD can be implemented with pulses of finite amplitude, up to an error in the second order of the pulse durations.

  14. Iris-based authentication system with template protection and renewability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ercole, Chiara; Campisi, Patrizio; Neri, Alessandro

    2007-10-01

    Biometrics is the most emerging technology for automatic people authentication, nevertheless severe concerns raised about security of such systems and users' privacy. In case of malicious attacks toward one or more components of the authentication system, stolen biometric features cannot be replaced. This paper focuses on securing the enrollment database and the communication channel between such database and the matcher. In particular, a method is developed to protect the stored biometric templates, adapting the fuzzy commitment scheme to iris biometrics by exploiting error correction codes tailored on template discriminability. The aforementioned method allows template renewability applied to iris based authentication and guarantees high security performing the match in the encrypted domain.

  15. Layered virus protection for the operations and administrative messaging system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cortez, R. H.

    2002-01-01

    NASA's Deep Space Network (DSN) is critical in supporting the wide variety of operating and plannedunmanned flight projects. For day-to-day operations it relies on email communication between the three Deep Space Communication Complexes (Canberra, Goldstone, Madrid) and NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The Operations & Administrative Messaging system, based on the Microsoft Windows NTand Exchange platform, provides the infrastructure that is required for reliable, mission-critical messaging. The reliability of this system, however, is threatened by the proliferation of email viruses that continue to spread at alarming rates. A layered approach to email security has been implemented across the DSN to protect against this threat.

  16. Structural evaluation of candidate space shuttle thermal protection systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, A. B.

    1972-01-01

    The characteristics and development of a lightweight reusable thermal protection system for the space shuttle are discussed. The test articles consisted of metallic substrates with upper surfaces covered with all-silica, reusable, surface insulation material. The material is processed in the form of tiles. The external surfaces of the tiles are provided with a coating system which consists of a borosilicate coating with a silicon carbide emittance agent and impregnation with a hydrophobic agent. The finished tiles are attached to the metal substrate by adhesive bonding. Charts and graphs of the properties of the material are provided.

  17. Quench Detection and Protection for High Temperature Superconducting Transformers by Using the Active Power Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nanato, N.; Kobayashi, Y.

    AC high temperature superconducting (HTS) coils have been developed for transformers, motors and so on. Quench detection and protection system are essential for safety operations of the AC HTS facilities. The balance voltage method is universally used for the quench detection and protection, however especially for AC operations, the method has risks in terms of high voltage sparks. Because the method needs a voltage tap soldered to a midpoint of the coil winding and the AC HTS facilities generally operate at high voltages and therefore high voltage sparks may occur at the midpoint with no insulation. We have proposed the active power method for the quench detection and protection. The method requires no voltage tap on the midpoint of the coil winding and therefore it has in-built effectiveness for the AC HTS facilities. In this paper, we show that the method can detect the quench in an HTS transformer and moreover our proposed quench protection circuits which consist of thyristors are simple and useful for the AC HTS facilities.

  18. MMOD Protection and Degradation Effects for Thermal Control Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Micrometeoroid and orbital debris (MMOD) environment overview Hypervelocity impact effects & MMOD shielding MMOD risk assessment process Requirements & protection techniques - ISS - Shuttle - Orion/Commercial Crew Vehicles MMOD effects on spacecraft systems & improving MMOD protection - Radiators Coatings - Thermal protection system (TPS) for atmospheric entry vehicles Coatings - Windows - Solar arrays - Solar array masts - EVA Handrails - Thermal Blankets Orbital Debris provided by JSC & is the predominate threat in low Earth orbit - ORDEM 3.0 is latest model (released December 2013) - http://orbitaldebris.jsc.nasa.gov/ - Man-made objects in orbit about Earth impacting up to 16 km/s average 9-10 km/s for ISS orbit - High-density debris (steel) is major issue Meteoroid model provided by MSFC - MEM-R2 is latest release - http://www.nasa.gov/offices/meo/home/index.html - Natural particles in orbit about sun Mg-silicates, Ni-Fe, others - Meteoroid environment (MEM): 11-72 km/s Average 22-23 km/s.

  19. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  20. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  1. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  2. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  3. 40 CFR 29.3 - What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Environmental Protection Agency are subject to these regulations? 29.3 Section 29.3 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GENERAL INTERGOVERNMENTAL REVIEW OF ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES § 29.3 What programs and activities of the Environmental Protection......

  4. Autophagy is activated to protect against endotoxic acute kidney injury.

    PubMed

    Mei, Shuqin; Livingston, Man; Hao, Jielu; Li, Lin; Mei, Changlin; Dong, Zheng

    2016-01-01

    Endotoxemia in sepsis, characterized by systemic inflammation, is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) in hospitalized patients, especially in intensive care unit; however the underlying pathogenesis is poorly understood. Autophagy is a conserved, cellular catabolic pathway that plays crucial roles in cellular homeostasis including the maintenance of cellular function and viability. The regulation and role of autophagy in septic or endotoxic AKI remains unclear. Here we show that autophagy was induced in kidney tubular cells in mice by the endotoxin lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Pharmacological inhibition of autophagy with chloroquine enhanced LPS-induced AKI. Moreover, specific ablation of autophagy gene 7 (Atg7) from kidney proximal tubules worsened LPS-induced AKI. Together, the results demonstrate convincing evidence of autophagy activation in endotoxic kidney injury and support a renoprotective role of autophagy in kidney tubules. PMID:26916346

  5. Active Response Gravity Offload System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valle, Paul; Dungan, Larry; Cunningham, Thomas; Lieberman, Asher; Poncia, Dina

    2011-01-01

    The Active Response Gravity Offload System (ARGOS) provides the ability to simulate with one system the gravity effect of planets, moons, comets, asteroids, and microgravity, where the gravity is less than Earth fs gravity. The system works by providing a constant force offload through an overhead hoist system and horizontal motion through a rail and trolley system. The facility covers a 20 by 40-ft (approximately equals 6.1 by 12.2m) horizontal area with 15 ft (approximately equals4.6 m) of lifting vertical range.

  6. Field testing of the Advanced Worker Protection System

    SciTech Connect

    Todd, R.J.E.; Hamill, D.

    1996-12-31

    AWPS is a life support system that allows a suited worker in operate in a chemically hazardous or radiologically hot environment for up to 2 hours with minimal heat stress and minimal encumbrance from his life support equipment. It consists of 3 parts: a backpack using liquid air to supply breathing gas and cooling power; a liquid cooling garment (LCG) that circulates water chilled from vaporizing and warming the cryogen; and a Level B protective garment which accommodates the low profile of the backpack, permits greater mobility and doesn`t require tape closure. The AWPS backpack and LCG are compatible with commercially available Level A protective garments. A one-hour demonstration of a AWPS prototype was done.

  7. High temperature electromagnetic characterization of thermal protection system tile materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heil, Garrett G.

    1993-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of elevated temperatures on the electromagnetic performance of the LI-2200 thermal protection system. A 15-kilowatt CO2 laser was used to heat an LI-2200 specimen to 3000 F while electromagnetic measurements were performed over the frequency range of l9 to 21 GHz. The electromagnetic measurement system consisted of two Dual-Lens Spot-Focusing (DLSF) antennas, a sample support structure, and an HP-8510B vector network analyzer. Calibration of the electromagnetic system was accomplished with a Transmission-Reflection-Line (TRL) procedure and was verified with measurements on a two-layer specimen of known properties. The results of testing indicated that the LI-2200 system's electromagnetic performance is slightly temperature dependent at temperatures up to 3000 F.

  8. Thermal Protection System Imagery Inspection Management System -TIIMS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goza, Sharon; Melendrez, David L.; Henningan, Marsha; LaBasse, Daniel; Smith, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    TIIMS is used during the inspection phases of every mission to provide quick visual feedback, detailed inspection data, and determination to the mission management team. This system consists of a visual Web page interface, an SQL database, and a graphical image generator. These combine to allow a user to ascertain quickly the status of the inspection process, and current determination of any problem zones. The TIIMS system allows inspection engineers to enter their determinations into a database and to link pertinent images and video to those database entries. The database then assigns criteria to each zone and tile, and via query, sends the information to a graphical image generation program. Using the official TIPS database tile positions and sizes, the graphical image generation program creates images of the current status of the orbiter, coloring zones, and tiles based on a predefined key code. These images are then displayed on a Web page using customized JAVA scripts to display the appropriate zone of the orbiter based on the location of the user's cursor. The close-up graphic and database entry for that particular zone can then be seen by selecting the zone. This page contains links into the database to access the images used by the inspection engineer when they make the determination entered into the database. Status for the inspection zones changes as determinations are refined and shown by the appropriate color code.

  9. Detection of fastener failure in a thermal protection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Derriso, Mark M.; Olson, Steven E.; Braisted, William R.; DeSimio, Martin P.; Rosenstengel, John; Brown, Kevin

    2004-07-01

    This paper presents experimental and analytical studies focused on the development of a structural health monitoring system to assess the condition of mechanical fasteners of a thermal protection system. A realistic thermal protection system component, consisting of a carbon-carbon panel bolted through 15 brackets to a backing structure, is utilized. Mechanical states considered include all bolts fastened to a nominal torque value, or one of the 15 bolts loosened. Four transducers on the backing structure provide actuation and sensing signals. Spectral functions are computed from all single and pair-wise signal combinations. Automated analysis of the spectral functions shows frequency intervals exist over which the function values are indicative of the mechanical state of the test article. These frequency intervals are used to provide features for the structural health monitoring classifier. Finite element analyses provide a physics-based understanding of these features. Statistical pattern recognition methods select a subset of the features. The overall localization accuracy of the structural health monitoring system on test data is 99.1% with 99.7% probability of detecting a damaged condition at a 0.2% probability of a false alarm.

  10. Active site electrostatics protect genome integrity by blocking abortive hydrolysis during DNA recombination

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Chien-Hui; Rowley, Paul A; Macieszak, Anna; Guga, Piotr; Jayaram, Makkuni

    2009-01-01

    Water, acting as a rogue nucleophile, can disrupt transesterification steps of important phosphoryl transfer reactions in DNA and RNA. We have unveiled this risk, and identified safeguards instituted against it, during strand cleavage and joining by the tyrosine site-specific recombinase Flp. Strand joining is threatened by a latent Flp endonuclease activity (type I) towards the 3′-phosphotyrosyl intermediate resulting from strand cleavage. This risk is not alleviated by phosphate electrostatics; neutralizing the negative charge on the scissile phosphate through methylphosphonate (MeP) substitution does not stimulate type I endonuclease. Rather, protection derives from the architecture of the recombination synapse and conformational dynamics within it. Strand cleavage is protected against water by active site electrostatics. Replacement of the catalytic Arg-308 of Flp by alanine, along with MeP substitution, elicits a second Flp endonuclease activity (type II) that directly targets the scissile phosphodiester bond in DNA. MeP substitution, combined with appropriate active site mutations, will be useful in revealing anti-hydrolytic mechanisms engendered by systems that mediate DNA relaxation, DNA transposition, site-specific recombination, telomere resolution, RNA splicing and retrohoming of mobile introns. PMID:19440204

  11. An Intrusion Detection System for the Protection of Railway Assets Using Fiber Bragg Grating Sensors

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, Angelo; Bruno, Francesco Antonio; Pisco, Marco; Cutolo, Antonello; Cusano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) sensors to protect large areas from unauthorized activities in railway scenarios such as stations or tunnels. We report on the technological strategy adopted to protect a specific depot, representative of a common scenario for security applications in the railway environment. One of the concerns in the protection of a railway area centers on the presence of rail-tracks, which cannot be obstructed with physical barriers. We propose an integrated optical fiber system composed of FBG strain sensors that can detect human intrusion for protection of the perimeter combined with FBG accelerometer sensors for protection of rail-track access. Several trials were carried out in indoor and outdoor environments. The results demonstrate that FBG strain sensors bonded under a ribbed rubber mat enable the detection of intruder break-in via the pressure induced on the mat, whereas the FBG accelerometers installed under the rails enable the detection of intruders walking close to the railroad tracks via the acoustic surface waves generated by footsteps. Based on a single enabling technology, this integrated system represents a valuable intrusion detection system for railway security and could be integrated with other sensing functionalities in the railway field using fiber optic technology. PMID:25268920

  12. Shape-memory alloy overload protection device for osseointegrated transfemoral implant prosthetic limb attachment system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Wei; Shao, Fei; Hughes, Steven

    2002-11-01

    The osseointegrated trans-femoral implant system provides a direct anchoring technique to attach prosthetic limb. This technique was first introduced PI Brenmark in Sweden. The UK had the first clinical trial in 1997 and currently has 6 active limb wearers. The success of this procedure has the potential for improved gait function and mobility, increased employability and significant long-term improvements in the quality of life for above knee amputees. However, the significant load involved in the trans-femoral implant system has caused permanent deformation and/or fractures of the implant abutment in several occasions. To protect the implant system, the implant abutment in particularly, an overloading protection device was introduced. The device uses mechanical mechanism to release torsion overload on the abutment. However, the bending overload protection remains unsolved. To solve the problem, a new overload protection device was developed. This device uses SMA component for bending overload protection. In this paper, the results of non-linear finite element modelling of the SMA and steel (AISI 1040) components were presented. Experiments were also carried out using steel components to assess the design which is based on the non-linear property of the materials.

  13. An intrusion detection system for the protection of railway assets using Fiber Bragg Grating sensors.

    PubMed

    Catalano, Angelo; Bruno, Francesco Antonio; Pisco, Marco; Cutolo, Antonello; Cusano, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate the ability of Fiber Bragg Gratings (FBGs) sensors to protect large areas from unauthorized activities in railway scenarios such as stations or tunnels. We report on the technological strategy adopted to protect a specific depot, representative of a common scenario for security applications in the railway environment. One of the concerns in the protection of a railway area centers on the presence of rail-tracks, which cannot be obstructed with physical barriers. We propose an integrated optical fiber system composed of FBG strain sensors that can detect human intrusion for protection of the perimeter combined with FBG accelerometer sensors for protection of rail-track access. Several trials were carried out in indoor and outdoor environments. The results demonstrate that FBG strain sensors bonded under a ribbed rubber mat enable the detection of intruder break-in via the pressure induced on the mat, whereas the FBG accelerometers installed under the rails enable the detection of intruders walking close to the railroad tracks via the acoustic surface waves generated by footsteps. Based on a single enabling technology, this integrated system represents a valuable intrusion detection system for railway security and could be integrated with other sensing functionalities in the railway field using fiber optic technology. PMID:25268920

  14. [The revised system of hospitalization for medical care and protection].

    PubMed

    Fukuo, Yasuhisa

    2014-01-01

    The Act to Partially Amend the Act on Mental Health and Welfare for the Mentally Disabled was passed on June 13, 2013. Major amendments regarding hospitalization for medical care and protection include the points listed below. The guardianship system will be abolished. Consent by a guardian will no longer be required in the case of hospitalization for medical care and protection. In the case of hospitalization for medical care and protection, the administrators of the psychiatric hospital are required to obtain the consent of one of the following persons: spouse, person with parental authority, person responsible for support, legal custodian, or curator. If no qualified person is available, consent must be obtained from the mayor, etc. of the municipality. The following three obligations are imposed on psychiatric hospital administrators. (1) Assignment of a person, such as a psychiatric social worker, to provide guidance and counseling to patients hospitalized for medical care and protection regarding their postdischarge living environment. (2) Collaboration with community support entities that consult with and provide information as necessary to the person hospitalized, their spouse, a person with parental authority, a person responsible for support, or their legal custodian or curator. (3) Organizational improvements to promote hospital discharge. With regard to requests for discharge, the revised law stipulates that, in addition to the person hospitalized with a mental disorder, others who may file a request for discharge with the psychiatric review board include: the person's spouse, a person with parental authority, a person responsible for support, or their legal custodian or curator. If none of the above persons are available, or if none of them are able to express their wishes, the mayor, etc. of the municipality having jurisdiction over the place of residence of the person hospitalized may request a discharge. In order to promote transition to life in the

  15. Mars transit vehicle thermal protection system: Issues, options, and trades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Norman

    1986-01-01

    A Mars mission is characterized by different mission phases. The thermal control of cryogenic propellant in a propulsive vehicle must withstand the different mission environments. Long term cryogenic storage may be achieved by passive or active systems. Passive cryo boiloff management features will include multilayer insulation, vapor cooled shield, and low conductance structural supports and penetrations. Active boiloff management incorporates the use of a refrigeration system. Key system trade areas include active verses passive system boiloff management (with respect to safety, reliability, and cost) and propellant tank insulation optimizations. Technology requirements include refrigeration technology advancements, insulation performance during long exposure, and cryogenic fluid transfer system for mission vehicle propellant tanking during vehicle buildip in LEO.

  16. Extravehicular Activity (EVA) 101: Constellation EVA Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, Nicole C.

    2007-01-01

    A viewgraph presentation on Extravehicular Activity (EVA) Systems is shown. The topics include: 1) Why do we need space suits? 2) Protection From the Environment; 3) Primary Life Support System (PLSS); 4) Thermal Control; 5) Communications; 6) Helmet and Extravehicular Visor Assy; 7) Hard Upper Torso (HUT) and Arm Assy; 8) Display and Controls Module (DCM); 9) Gloves; 10) Lower Torso Assembly (LTA); 11) What Size Do You Need?; 12) Boot and Sizing Insert; 13) Boot Heel Clip and Foot Restraint; 14) Advanced and Crew Escape Suit; 15) Nominal & Off-Nominal Landing; 16) Gemini Program (mid-1960s); 17) Apollo EVA on Service Module; 18) A Bold Vision for Space Exploration, Authorized by Congress; 19) EVA System Missions; 20) Configurations; 21) Reduced Gravity Program; and 22) Other Opportunities.

  17. Cost and performance analysis of conceptual designs of physical protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Hicks, M.J.; Snell, M.S.; Sandoval, J.S.; Potter, C.S.

    1998-06-01

    CPA -- Cost and Performance Analysis -- is a methodology that joins Activity Based Cost (ABC) estimation with performance based analysis of physical protection systems. CPA offers system managers an approach that supports both tactical decision making and strategic planning. Current exploratory applications of the CPA methodology are addressing analysis of alternative conceptual designs. To support these activities, the original architecture for CPA, is being expanded to incorporate results from a suite of performance and consequence analysis tools such as JTS (Joint Tactical Simulation), ERAD (Explosive Release Atmospheric Dispersion) and blast effect models. The process flow for applying CPA to the development and analysis conceptual designs is illustrated graphically.

  18. Physical Activity Protects against the Health Risks of Obesity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welk, Gregory J.; Blair, Steven N.

    2000-01-01

    This paper reviews the relationships between physical fitness and body composition and their combined effect on health. After discussing the epidemiologic evidence for a protective effect of physical fitness on the health risks associated with obesity, it describes the Aerobics Center Longitudinal Study, an ongoing observational study that…

  19. Comet/Asteroid Protection System: Concept Study Executive Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mazanek, Daniel D.

    2005-01-01

    Many of the major issues have been identified for a futuristic capability to protect against impacting comets and asteroids, and a preliminary space-based concept has been envisioned. Some of the basic concept elements, approaches, methodologies, and features have been identified. When contemplating the ability to monitor comets and asteroids continuously, there are many trade-offs between orbiting observatories and detection systems on planetary bodies without an atmosphere. Future orbit modification techniques have the potential for rapid and controlled alteration of NEO orbits, provided that high-power, compatible thermal management systems are developed. Much additional work and analysis are required to identify a final system concept, and many trade studies need to be performed to select the best mix of system capability, reliability, maintainability, and cost. Finally, it is fully appreciated that at the present time space systems are much more costly than terrestrial-based systems. Hopefully, this will change in the future. Regardless, understanding what it would take to defend against a much wider range of the impact threat will foster ideas, innovations, and technologies that could one day enable the development of such a system. This understanding is vital to provide ways of reducing the costs and quantifying the benefits that are achievable with a system like CAPS.

  20. Defense against common mode failures in protection system design

    SciTech Connect

    Wyman, R.H.; Johnson, G.L.

    1997-08-27

    The introduction of digital instrumentation and control into reactor safety systems creates a heightened concern about common-mode failure. This paper discusses the concern and methods to cope with the concern. Common-mode failures have been a ``fact-of-life`` in existing systems. The informal introduction of defense-in-depth and diversity (D-in-D&D)-coupled with the fact that hardware common-mode failures are often distributed in time-has allowed systems to deal with past common-mode failures. However, identical software operating in identical redundant systems presents the potential for simultaneous failure. Consequently, the use of digital systems raises the concern about common-mode failure to a new level. A more methodical approach to mitigating common-mode failure is needed to address these concerns. Purposeful introduction of D-in-D&D has been used as a defense against common-mode failure in reactor protection systems. At least two diverse systems are provided to mitigate any potential initiating event. Additionally, diverse displays and controls are provided to allow the operator to monitor plant status and manually initiate engineered safety features. A special form of conimon-mode failure analysis called ``defense-in-depth and diversity analysis`` has been developed to identify possible conimon-mode failure vulnerabilities in digital systems. An overview of this analysis technique is provided.

  1. NSTX Protection And Interlock Systems For Coil And Powers Supply Systems

    SciTech Connect

    X. Zhao, S. Ramakrishnan, J. Lawson, C.Neumeyer, R. Marsala, H. Schneider, Engineering Operations

    2009-09-24

    NSTX at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) requires sophisticated plasma positioning control system for stable plasma operation. TF magnetic coils and PF magnetic coils provide electromagnetic fields to position and shape the plasma vertically and horizontally respectively. NSTX utilizes twenty six coil power supplies to establish and initiate electromagnetic fields through the coil system for plasma control. A power protection and interlock system is utilized to detect power system faults and protect the TF coils and PF coils against excessive electromechanical forces, overheating, and over current. Upon detecting any fault condition the power system is restricted, and it is either prevented from initializing or suppressed to de-energize coil power during pulsing. Power fault status is immediately reported to the computer system. This paper describes the design and operation of NSTX's protection and interlocking system and possible future expansion.

  2. Thermal Protection Materials Technology for NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Valentine, Peter G.; Lawerence, Timtohy W.; Gubert, Michael K.; Flynn, Kevin C.; Milos, Frank S.; Kiser, James D.; Ohlhorst, Craig W.; Koenig, John R.

    2005-01-01

    To fulfill the President s Vision for Space Exploration - successful human and robotic missions between the Earth and other solar system bodies in order to explore their atmospheres and surfaces - NASA must reduce trip time, cost, and vehicle weight so that payload and scientific experiment capabilities are maximized. As a collaboration among NASA Centers, this project will generate products that will enable greater fidelity in mission/vehicle design trade studies, support risk reduction for material selections, assist in optimization of vehicle weights, and provide the material and process templates for development of human-rated qualification and certification Thermal Protection System (TPS) plans. Missions performing aerocapture, aerobraking, or direct aeroentry rely on technologies that reduce vehicle weight by minimizing the need for propellant. These missions use the destination planet s atmosphere to slow the spacecraft. Such mission profiles induce heating environments on the spacecraft that demand thermal protection heatshields. This program offers NASA essential advanced thermal management technologies needed to develop new lightweight nonmetallic TPS materials for critical thermal protection heatshields for future spacecraft. Discussion of this new program (a December 2004 new start) will include both initial progress made and a presentation of the work to be preformed over the four-year life of the program. Additionally, the relevant missions and environments expected for Exploration Systems vehicles will be presented, along with discussion of the candidate materials to be considered and of the types of testing to be performed (material property tests, space environmental effects tests, and Earth and Mars gases arc jet tests).

  3. Thermal Protection System Aerothermal Screening Tests in HYMETS Facility

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Szalai, Christine E.; Beck, Robin A. S.; Gasch, Matthew J.; Alumni, Antonella I.; Chavez-Garcia, Jose F.; Splinter, Scott C.; Gragg, Jeffrey G.; Brewer, Amy

    2011-01-01

    The Entry, Descent, and Landing (EDL) Technology Development Project has been tasked to develop Thermal Protection System (TPS) materials for insertion into future Mars Entry Systems. A screening arc jet test of seven rigid ablative TPS material candidates was performed in the Hypersonic Materials Environmental Test System (HYMETS) facility at NASA Langley Research Center, in both an air and carbon dioxide test environment. Recession, mass loss, surface temperature, and backface thermal response were measured for each test specimen. All material candidates survived the Mars aerocapture relevant heating condition, and some materials showed a clear increase in recession rate in the carbon dioxide test environment. These test results supported subsequent down-selection of the most promising material candidates for further development.

  4. Terahertz Computed Tomography of NASA Thermal Protection System Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roth, D. J.; Reyes-Rodriguez, S.; Zimdars, D. A.; Rauser, R. W.; Ussery, W. W.

    2011-01-01

    A terahertz axial computed tomography system has been developed that uses time domain measurements in order to form cross-sectional image slices and three-dimensional volume renderings of terahertz-transparent materials. The system can inspect samples as large as 0.0283 cubic meters (1 cubic foot) with no safety concerns as for x-ray computed tomography. In this study, the system is evaluated for its ability to detect and characterize flat bottom holes, drilled holes, and embedded voids in foam materials utilized as thermal protection on the external fuel tanks for the Space Shuttle. X-ray micro-computed tomography was also performed on the samples to compare against the terahertz computed tomography results and better define embedded voids. Limits of detectability based on depth and size for the samples used in this study are loosely defined. Image sharpness and morphology characterization ability for terahertz computed tomography are qualitatively described.

  5. Nonlinear dynamic phenomena in the space shuttle thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Housner, J. M.; Edighoffer, H. H.; Park, K. C.

    1981-01-01

    The development of an analysis for examining the nonlinear dynamic phenomena arising in the space shuttle orbiter tile/pad thermal protection system is presented. The tile/pad system consists of ceramic tiles bonded to the aluminum skin of the orbiter through a thin nylon felt pad. The pads are a soft nonlinear material which permits large strains and displays both hysteretic and nonlinear viscous damping. Application of the analysis to a square tile subjected to transverse sinusoidal motion of the orbiter skin is presented and the following nonlinear dynamic phenomena are considered: highly distorted wave forms, amplitude-dependent resonant frequencies which initially decrease and then increase with increasing amplitude of motion, magnification of substrate motion which is higher than would be expected in a similarly highly damped linear system, and classical parametric resonance instability.

  6. Integrated Thermal Protection Systems and Heat Resistant Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pichon, Thierry; Lacoste, Marc; Glass, David E.

    2006-01-01

    In the early stages of NASA's Exploration Initiative, Snecma Propulsion Solide was funded under the Exploration Systems Research & Technology program to develop integrated thermal protection systems and heat resistant structures for reentry vehicles. Due to changes within NASA's Exploration Initiative, this task was cancelled early. This presentation provides an overview of the work that was accomplished prior to cancellation. The Snecma team chose an Apollo-type capsule as the reference vehicle for the work. They began with the design of a ceramic aft heatshield (CAS) utilizing C/SiC panels as the capsule heatshield, a C/SiC deployable decelerator and several ablators. They additionally developed a health monitoring system, high temperature structures testing, and the insulation characterization. Though the task was pre-maturely cancelled, a significant quantity of work was accomplished.

  7. 75 FR 972 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-07

    ... on November 19, 2008, (73 FR 69608) and provides guidance for collaborative efforts among Federal... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas AGENCY: NOAA, Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Public...

  8. 75 FR 38779 - Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-06

    ... on November 19, 2008, (73 FR 69608) and provides guidance for collaborative efforts among federal... National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Nomination of Existing Marine Protected Areas to the National System of Marine Protected Areas AGENCY: NOAA, Department of Commerce (DOC). ACTION: Public...

  9. Coated columbium thermal protection systems: An assessment of technological readiness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, S. R.; Grisaffe, S. J.

    1973-01-01

    Evaluation and development to date show that of the coated columbium alloys FS-85 coated with R512E shows significant promise for a reusable thermal protection system (TPS) as judged by environmental resistance and the retention of mechanical properties and structural integrity of panels upon repeated reentry simulation. Production of the alloy, the coating, and full-sized TPS panels is well within current manufacturing technology. Small defects which arise from impact damage or from local coating breakdown do not appear to have serious immediate consequences in the use environment anticipated for the space shuttle orbiter TPS.

  10. Field repair of coated columbium Thermal Protection System (TPS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culp, J. D.

    1972-01-01

    The requirements for field repair of coated columbian panels were studied, and the probable cause of damage were identified. The following types of repair methods were developed, and are ready for use on an operational system: replacement of fused slurrey silicide coating by a short processing cycle using a focused radiant spot heater; repair of the coating by a glassy matrix ceramic composition which is painted or sprayed over the defective area; and repair of the protective coating by plasma spraying molybdenum disilicide over the damaged area employing portable equipment.

  11. Machine protection system for rotating equipment and method

    DOEpatents

    Lakshminarasimha, Arkalgud N.; Rucigay, Richard J.; Ozgur, Dincer

    2003-01-01

    A machine protection system and method for rotating equipment introduces new alarming features and makes use of full proximity probe sensor information, including amplitude and phase. Baseline vibration amplitude and phase data is estimated and tracked according to operating modes of the rotating equipment. Baseline vibration and phase data can be determined using a rolling average and variance and stored in a unit circle or tracked using short term average and long term average baselines. The sensed vibration amplitude and phase is compared with the baseline vibration amplitude and phase data. Operation of the rotating equipment can be controlled based on the vibration amplitude and phase.

  12. Identification of Protective Antigens for Vaccination against Systemic Salmonellosis

    PubMed Central

    Bumann, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    There is an urgent medical need for improved vaccines with broad serovar coverage and high efficacy against systemic salmonellosis. Subunit vaccines offer excellent safety profiles but require identification of protective antigens, which remains a challenging task. Here, I review crucial properties of Salmonella antigens that might help to narrow down the number of potential candidates from more than 4000 proteins encoded in Salmonella genomes, to a more manageable number of 50–200 most promising antigens. I also discuss complementary approaches for antigen identification and potential limitations of current pre-clinical vaccine testing. PMID:25157252

  13. Vagal nerve stimulation protects against burn-induced intestinal injury through activation of enteric glia cells.

    PubMed

    Costantini, Todd W; Bansal, Vishal; Krzyzaniak, Michael; Putnam, James G; Peterson, Carrie Y; Loomis, William H; Wolf, Paul; Baird, Andrew; Eliceiri, Brian P; Coimbra, Raul

    2010-12-01

    The enteric nervous system may have an important role in modulating gastrointestinal barrier response to disease through activation of enteric glia cells. In vitro studies have shown that enteric glia activation improves intestinal epithelial barrier function by altering the expression of tight junction proteins. We hypothesized that severe injury would increase expression of glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), a marker of enteric glial activation. We also sought to define the effects of vagal nerve stimulation on enteric glia activation and intestinal barrier function using a model of systemic injury and local gut mucosal involvement. Mice with 30% total body surface area steam burn were used as model of severe injury. Vagal nerve stimulation was performed to assess the role of parasympathetic signaling on enteric glia activation. In vivo intestinal permeability was measured to assess barrier function. Intestine was collected to investigate changes in histology; GFAP expression was assessed by quantitative PCR, by confocal microscopy, and in GFAP-luciferase transgenic mice. Stimulation of the vagus nerve prevented injury-induced intestinal barrier injury. Intestinal GFAP expression increased at early time points following burn and returned to baseline by 24 h after injury. Vagal nerve stimulation prior to injury increased GFAP expression to a greater degree than burn alone. Gastrointestinal bioluminescence was imaged in GFAP-luciferase transgenic animals following either severe burn or vagal stimulation and confirmed the increased expression of intestinal GFAP. Injection of S-nitrosoglutathione, a signaling molecule released by activated enteric glia cells, following burn exerts protective effects similar to vagal nerve stimulation. Intestinal expression of GFAP increases following severe burn injury. Stimulation of the vagus nerve increases enteric glia activation, which is associated with improved intestinal barrier function. The vagus nerve may mediate the

  14. The JET Neutron Activation System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roquemore, A. L.; Bertalot, L.; Esposito, B.; Jarvis, O. N.; Loughlin, M. J.; Sadler, G.; van Belle, P.

    1997-11-01

    The JET activation system provides the absolute value of the neutron yields as well as a check on the linearity of other neutron detector systems. The total neutron yield is standardized to one irradiation end reentrant in the top of the vessel, while the results from the other seven irradiation ends are normalized to this standard end and provide redundancy as well as information on the plasma position. A pneumatic transfer system is used to transfer up to five capsules containing elemental foils for a single discharge on JET. Eleven different elemental foils have been utilized to determine the yields from both DD and DT plasmas. By placing several different foils with different activation energy thresholds in a single capsule for one DT discharge, neutron spectral information has been obtained by use of the SAND-II unfolding code. A description of the activation system hardware and calibration of the activation detector system will be presented along with the results from the DT neutron calibration campaign.

  15. Field joint protection system rain qualification test report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cook, M.

    1989-01-01

    This report documents the procedures, performance, and results obtained from the Field Joint Protection System (FJPS) rain test. This test was performed to validate that the flight configuration FJPS prevents the accumulation of moisture in the redesigned solid rocket motor (RSRM) field joints when subjected to simulated prelaunch natural rain environments. The FJPS test article was exposed to rain simulation for approximately 50 minutes. During the test, water entered through the open upper end of the systems tunnel and was funneled down between the tunnel and case. A sealant void at the moisture seal butt splice allowed this water to flow underneath the FJPS. The most likely cause of voids was improper bondline preparation, particularly on the moisture seal surface. In total, water penetrated underneath approximately 60 percent of the FJPS circumference. Because the test article was substantially different from flight configuration (no systems tunnel closeout), results of this test will not affect current flight motors. Due to the omission of systems tunnel covers and systems tunnel floor plate closeout, the test assembly was not representative of flight hardware and resulted in a gross overtest. It is therefore recommended that the test be declared void. It is also recommended that the test be repeated with a complete closeout of the systems tunnel, sealed systems tunnel ends, and improved adhesive bondline preparation.

  16. Protecting clinical data in PACS, teleradiology systems, and research environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meissner, Marion C.; Collmann, Jeff R.; Tohme, Walid G.; Mun, Seong K.

    1997-05-01

    As clinical data is more widely stored in electronic patient record management systems and transmitted over the Internet and telephone lines, it becomes more accessible and therefore more useful, but also more vulnerable. Computer systems such as PACS, telemedicine applications, and medical research networks must protect against accidental or deliberate modification, disclosure, and violation of patient confidentiality in order to be viable. Conventional wisdom in the medical field and among lawmakers legislating the use of electronic medical records suggests that, although it may improve access to information, an electronic medical record cannot be as secure as a traditional paper record. This is not the case. Information security is a well-developed field in the computer and communications industry. If medical information systems, such as PACS, telemedicine applications, and research networks, properly apply information security techniques, they can ensure the accuracy and confidentiality of their patient information and even improve the security of their data over a traditional paper record. This paper will elaborate on some of these techniques and discuss how they can be applied to medical information systems. The following systems will be used as examples for the analysis: a research laboratory at Georgetown University Medical Center, the Deployable Radiology system installed to support the US Army's peace- keeping operation in Bosnia, a kidney dialysis telemedicine system in Washington, D.C., and various experiences with implementing and integrating PACS.

  17. Modeling approaches for active systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herold, Sven; Atzrodt, Heiko; Mayer, Dirk; Thomaier, Martin

    2006-03-01

    To solve a wide range of vibration problems with the active structures technology, different simulation approaches for several models are needed. The selection of an appropriate modeling strategy is depending, amongst others, on the frequency range, the modal density and the control target. An active system consists of several components: the mechanical structure, at least one sensor and actuator, signal conditioning electronics and the controller. For each individual part of the active system the simulation approaches can be different. To integrate the several modeling approaches into an active system simulation and to ensure a highly efficient and accurate calculation, all sub models must harmonize. For this purpose, structural models considered in this article are modal state-space formulations for the lower frequency range and transfer function based models for the higher frequency range. The modal state-space formulations are derived from finite element models and/or experimental modal analyses. Consequently, the structure models which are based on transfer functions are directly derived from measurements. The transfer functions are identified with the Steiglitz-McBride iteration method. To convert them from the z-domain to the s-domain a least squares solution is implemented. An analytical approach is used to derive models of active interfaces. These models are transferred into impedance formulations. To couple mechanical and electrical sub-systems with the active materials, the concept of impedance modeling was successfully tested. The impedance models are enhanced by adapting them to adequate measurements. The controller design strongly depends on the frequency range and the number of modes to be controlled. To control systems with a small number of modes, techniques such as active damping or independent modal space control may be used, whereas in the case of systems with a large number of modes or with modes that are not well separated, other control

  18. 14. Protective measures for activities in Chernobyl's radioactively contaminated territories.

    PubMed

    Nesterenko, Alexey V; Nesterenko, Vassily B

    2009-11-01

    Owing to internally absorbed radionuclides, radiation levels for individuals living in the contaminated territories of Belarus, Ukraine, and Russia have been increasing steadily since 1994. Special protective measures in connection with agriculture, forestry, hunting, and fishing are necessary to protect the health of people in all the radioactively contaminated territories. Among the measures that have proven to be effective in reducing levels of incorporated radionuclides in meat production are food additives with ferrocyanides, zeolites, and mineral salts. Significant decreases in radionuclide levels in crops are achieved using lime/Ca as an antagonist of Sr-90, K fertilizers as antagonists of Cs-137, and phosphoric fertilizers that form a hard, soluble phosphate with Sr-90. Disk tillage and replowing of hayfields incorporating applications of organic and mineral fertilizers reduces the levels of Cs-137 and Sr-90 three- to fivefold in herbage grown in mineral soils. Among food technologies to reduce radionuclide content are cleaning cereal seeds, processing potatoes into starch, processing carbohydrate-containing products into sugars, and processing milk into cream and butter. There are several simple cooking techniques that decrease radionuclides in foodstuffs. Belarus has effectively used some forestry operations to create "a live partition wall," to regulate the redistribution of radionuclides into ecosystems. All such protective measures will be necessary in many European territories for many generations. PMID:20002058

  19. Data fusion concept in multispectral system for perimeter protection of stationary and moving objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ciurapiński, Wieslaw; Dulski, Rafal; Kastek, Mariusz; Szustakowski, Mieczyslaw; Bieszczad, Grzegorz; Życzkowski, Marek; Trzaskawka, Piotr; Piszczek, Marek

    2009-09-01

    The paper presents the concept of multispectral protection system for perimeter protection for stationary and moving objects. The system consists of active ground radar, thermal and visible cameras. The radar allows the system to locate potential intruders and to control an observation area for system cameras. The multisensor construction of the system ensures significant improvement of detection probability of intruder and reduction of false alarms. A final decision from system is worked out using image data. The method of data fusion used in the system has been presented. The system is working under control of FLIR Nexus system. The Nexus offers complete technology and components to create network-based, high-end integrated systems for security and surveillance applications. Based on unique "plug and play" architecture, system provides unmatched flexibility and simplistic integration of sensors and devices in TCP/IP networks. Using a graphical user interface it is possible to control sensors and monitor streaming video and other data over the network, visualize the results of data fusion process and obtain detailed information about detected intruders over a digital map. System provides high-level applications and operator workload reduction with features such as sensor to sensor cueing from detection devices, automatic e-mail notification and alarm triggering.

  20. Design criteria document, Fire Protection Task, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, Project W-405

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, B.H.

    1994-12-14

    The K Basin were constructed in the early 1950`s with a 20 year design life. The K Basins are currently in their third design life and are serving as a near term storage facility for irradiated N Reactor fuel until an interim fuel storage solution can be implemented. In April 1994, Project W-405, K Basin Essential Systems Recovery, was established to address (among other things) the immediate fire protection needs of the 100K Area. A Fire Barrier Evaluation was performed for the wall between the active and inactive areas of the 105KE and 105KW buildings. This evaluation concludes that the wall is capable of being upgraded to provide an equivalent level of fire resistance as a qualified barrier having a fire resistance rating of 2 hours. The Fire Protection Task is one of four separate Tasks included within the scope of Project W405, K Basin Essential systems Recovery. The other three Tasks are the Water Distribution System Task, the Electrical System Task, and the Maintenance Shop/Support Facility Task. The purpose of Project W-405`s Fire Protection Task is to correct Life Safety Code (NFPA 101) non-compliances and to provide fire protection features in Buildings 105KE, 105KW and 190KE that are essential for assuring the safe operation and storage of spent nuclear fuel at the 100K Area Facilities` Irradiated Fuel Storage Basins (K Basins).

  1. Is lipid signaling through cannabinoid 2 receptors part of a protective system?

    PubMed Central

    Pacher, P.; Mechoulam, R.

    2011-01-01

    The mammalian body has a highly developed immune system which guards against continuous invading protein attacks and aims at preventing, attenuating or repairing the inflicted damage. It is conceivable that through evolution analogous biological protective systems have been evolved against non-protein attacks. There is emerging evidence that lipid endocannabinoid signaling through cannabinoid 2 (CB2) receptors may represent an example/part of such a protective system/armamentarium. Inflammation/tissue injury triggers rapid elevations in local endocannabinoid levels, which in turn regulate signaling responses in immune and other cells modulating their critical functions. Changes in endocannabinoid levels and/or CB2 receptor expressions have been reported in almost all diseases affecting humans, ranging from cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, liver, kidney, neurodegenerative, psychiatric, bone, skin, auto-immune, lung disorders to pain and cancer, and modulating CB2 receptor activity holds tremendous therapeutic potential in these pathologies. While CB2 receptor activation in general mediates immunosuppressive effects, which limit inflammation and associated tissue injury in large number of pathological conditions, in some disease states activation of the CB2 receptor may enhance or even trigger tissue damage, which will also be discussed alongside the protective actions of the CB2 receptor stimulation with endocannabinoids or synthetic agonists, and the possible biological mechanisms involved in these effects. PMID:21295074

  2. Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is

  3. Cathodic protection of underground storage tanks using continuous polymeric cable anode systems

    SciTech Connect

    Werner, D.P.; Mussall, E.J.

    1995-12-31

    The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated several compliance deadlines for owners of underground storage tanks. These regulations include installation of vapor recovery systems, inventory control systems, tank tightness testing, overfill and overspill protection, and installation of cathodic protection systems, et al. This paper will focus on the installation of cathodic protection systems, the installation of which the EPA has mandated be complete prior to the end of 1998 for underground storage tanks.

  4. Real World Data Driven Evolution of Volvo Cars’ Side Impact Protection Systems and their Effectiveness

    PubMed Central

    Jakobsson, Lotta; Lindman, Magdalena; Svanberg, Bo; Carlsson, Henrik

    2010-01-01

    This study analyses the outcome of the continuous improved occupant protection over the last two decades for front seat near side occupants in side impacts based on a real world driven working process. The effectiveness of four generations of improved side impact protection are calculated based on data from Volvo’s statistical accident database of Volvo Cars in Sweden. Generation I includes vehicles with a new structural and interior concept (SIPS). Generation II includes vehicles with structural improvements and a new chest airbag (SIPSbag). Generation III includes vehicles with further improved SIPS and SIPSbag as well as the new concept with a head protecting Inflatable Curtain (IC). Generation IV includes the most recent vehicles with further improvements of all the systems plus advanced sensors and seat belt pretensioner activation. Compared to baseline vehicles, vehicles of generation I reduce MAIS2+ injuries by 54%, generation II by 61% and generation III by 72%. For generation IV effectiveness figures cannot be calculated because of the lack of MAIS2+ injuries. A continuous improved performance is also seen when studying the AIS2+ pelvis, abdomen, chest and head injuries separately. By using the same real world driven working process, future improvements and possibly new passive as well as active safety systems, will be developed with the aim of further improved protection to near side occupants in side impacts. PMID:21050597

  5. Microscopy and microstructure of Shuttle thermal protection system materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newquist, C. W.; Pfister, A. M.; Miller, A. D.; Scott, W. D.

    1981-01-01

    Examples of the contribution of microstructural analysis to the development of the Space Shuttle tile insulation system are presented, with photographic examples of the scanning electron microscope (SEM) investigations. After the basic thermal protection system materials had been selected, it was neccessary to analyze the mechanical responses of the combined materials; which included: (1) the polymer strain isolation pad (SIP), (2) the room temperature-vulcanizing silicone rubber bond, (RTV), and (3) rigid ceramic fiber reusable surface insulation (RSI). Microstructural analysis was used to provide information on deformation and fracture mechanisms, load transfer mechanisms, and structural alterations occurring before final failure. Both quantitative and qualitative information was obtained in the open, three-dimensional fibrous structures of the ceramic tiles by means of novel techniques of encapsulation and dissolution.

  6. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2001-04-10

    Nuclear power plants (NPPs) must ensure that the emergency core cooling system (ECCS) or safety-related containment spray system (CSS) remains capable of performing its design safety function throughout the life of the plant. This requires ensuring that long-term core cooling can be maintained following a postulated loss-of-coolant accident (LOCA). Adequate safety operation can be impaired if the protective coatings which have been applied to the concrete and steel structures within the primary containment fail, producing transportable debris which could then accumulate on BWR ECCS suction strainers or PWR ECCS sump debris screens located within the containment. This document will present the data collected during the investigation of coating specimens from plants.

  7. The activation system EASY-2007

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forrest, R. A.; Kopecky, J.

    2009-04-01

    Safety and waste management of materials for ITER, IFMIF and future power plants require knowledge of the activation caused by irradiation with neutrons, or in the case of IFMIF, deuterons. The European Activation System has been developed for such calculations and a new version was released earlier this year. This contains a large amount of nuclear data in the European Activation File covering neutron-, deuteron- and proton-induced cross sections. These data are input to the FISPACT code for activation calculations. EASY-2007 is being validated using integral and differential measurements. However, only a minority of reactions have experimental support and a statistical method is described that can test the complete library. Importance diagrams are useful in finding the dominant nuclides formed following irradiation and the reactions responsible for their production. These diagrams now cover energies above 20 MeV and examples of new dominant nuclides and reactions relevant to IFMIF are given.

  8. Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor-α Inhibition Protects Against Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity in Mice.

    PubMed

    Rahmatollahi, Mahdieh; Baram, Somayeh Mahmoodi; Rahimian, Reza; Saeedi Saravi, Seyed Soheil; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2016-07-01

    Doxorubicin is an effective chemotherapeutic drug against a considerable number of malignancies. However, its toxic effects on myocardium are confirmed as major limit of utilization. PPAR-α is highly expressed in the heart, and its activation leads to an increased cardiac fatty acid oxidation and cardiomyocyte necrosis. This study was performed to adjust the hypothesis that PPAR-α receptor inhibition protects against doxorubicin-induced cardiac dysfunction in mice. Male Balb/c mice were used in this study. Left atria were isolated, and their contractility was measured in response to electrical field stimulation in a standard organ bath. PPAR-α activity was measured using specific PPAR-α antibody in an ELISA-based system coated with double-strand DNA containing PPAR-α response element sequence. Moreover, cardiac MDA and TNF-α levels were measured by ELISA method. Following incubation with doxorubicin (35 µM), a significant reduction in atrial contractility was observed (P < 0.001). Pretreatment of animals with a selective PPAR-α antagonist, GW6471, significantly improved doxorubicin-induced atrial dysfunction (P < 0.001). Furthermore, pretreatment of the mice with a non-selective cannabinoid agonist, WIN55212-2, significantly decreased PPAR-α activity in cardiac tissue, subsequently leading to significant improvement in doxorubicin-induced atrial dysfunction (P < 0.001). Also, GW6471 and WIN significantly reduced cardiac MDA and TNF-α levels compared with animals receiving doxorubicin (P < 0.001). The study showed that inhibition of PPAR-α is associated with protection against doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity in mice, and cannabinoids can potentiate the protection by PPAR-α blockade. Moreover, PPAR-α may be considered as a target to prevent cardiotoxicity induced by doxorubicin in patients undergoing chemotherapy. PMID:26082188

  9. 76 FR 60398 - Exemption to Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-29

    ... Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies, 65 FR 64556, 64564, published in the Federal Register... Prohibition on Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies, 68 FR 62011... Circumvention of Copyright Protection Systems for Access Control Technologies, 71 FR 68472, 68480, published...

  10. 78 FR 66384 - Membership of the Merit Systems Protection Board's Performance Review Board

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-05

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD Membership of the Merit Systems Protection Board's Performance Review Board AGENCY: Merit Systems Protection Board. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: Notice is hereby given of the members of the Merit...

  11. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  12. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  13. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  14. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  15. 14 CFR 29.1359 - Electrical system fire and smoke protection.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Electrical system fire and smoke protection... Equipment § 29.1359 Electrical system fire and smoke protection. (a) Components of the electrical system must meet the applicable fire and smoke protection provisions of §§ 29.831 and 29.863. (b)...

  16. Anatomy of power system blackouts and preventive strategies by rational supervision and control of protection systems

    SciTech Connect

    Phadke, A.G.; Horowitz, S.H.; Thorp, J.S.

    1995-01-01

    This report establishes the concept of hidden failures in relays and associated devices used for the protection of electric power systems. A hidden failure is a defect such as a component failure, inappropriate setting or incorrect external connection that remains undetected until some other system event causes the hidden failure to initiate a cascading outage. Associated with the study of hidden failures, this report examines the impact such defects might have by defining regions of vulnerability. A region of vulnerability is the area of the system in which a hidden failure will be activated. To determine such areas we have established criteria associated with load flows and steady-state stability, such as lack of convergence, and employed a technique known as importance sampling in which the simulation is done with the probabilities altered so that the rare event happens more frequently. Our purpose is to provide a framework for further research into relay vulnerability, possibly using adaptive techniques to eliminate hidden defects. We believe control strategies can be developed to prevent cascading normal operations from developing into severe outages by extending the present criteria using steady-state stability and load flow studies into the area of transient stability, and further research into importance sampling would provide significant benefits in evaluating corrective actions.

  17. Activated Natural Zeolites on Textiles: Protection from Radioactive Contamination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grancaric, A. M.; Prlic, I.; Tarbuk, A.; Marovic, G.

    Clothing designed to protect against radioactive contamination was based on a simple principle. It was important not to inhale contaminated dust and air and to ensure that contaminated particles could not reach the skin. Therefore, the density of the textile was crucial. New developments, keeping in mind that textile should be lightweight, are focused on textiles which can chemically bind the contamination particles and not allow them either to diffuse to the skin or spread back into the environment. A great success would be if the clothing were made reusable (e.g., for use in the space station). Therefore, new methods (or chemical preparations) are being proposed for developing intelligent textiles.

  18. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... activities” refers to “an employee, including a firefighter, paramedic, emergency medical technician, rescue... support activities as those performed by dispatchers, alarm operators, apparatus and equipment repair...

  19. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... activities” refers to “an employee, including a firefighter, paramedic, emergency medical technician, rescue... support activities as those performed by dispatchers, alarm operators, apparatus and equipment repair...

  20. 29 CFR 553.210 - Fire protection activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... activities” refers to “an employee, including a firefighter, paramedic, emergency medical technician, rescue... support activities as those performed by dispatchers, alarm operators, apparatus and equipment repair...

  1. The endogenous cannabinoid system protects against colonic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Massa, Federico; Marsicano, Giovanni; Hermann, Heike; Cannich, Astrid; Monory, Krisztina; Cravatt, Benjamin F; Ferri, Gian-Luca; Sibaev, Andrei; Storr, Martin; Lutz, Beat

    2004-04-01

    Excessive inflammatory responses can emerge as a potential danger for organisms' health. Physiological balance between pro- and anti-inflammatory processes constitutes an important feature of responses against harmful events. Here, we show that cannabinoid receptors type 1 (CB1) mediate intrinsic protective signals that counteract proinflammatory responses. Both intrarectal infusion of 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) and oral administration of dextrane sulfate sodium induced stronger inflammation in CB1-deficient mice (CB1(-/-)) than in wild-type littermates (CB1(+/+)). Treatment of wild-type mice with the specific CB1 antagonist N-(piperidino-1-yl)-5-(4-chlorophenyl)-1-(2,4-dichlorophenyl)-4-methyl-pyrazole-3-carboxamide (SR141716A) mimicked the phenotype of CB1(-/-) mice, showing an acute requirement of CB1 receptors for protection from inflammation. Consistently, treatment with the cannabinoid receptor agonist R(-)-7-hydroxy-Delta(6)-tetra-hydrocannabinol-dimethylheptyl (HU210) or genetic ablation of the endocannabinoid-degrading enzyme fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) resulted in protection against DNBS-induced colitis. Electrophysiological recordings from circular smooth muscle cells, performed 8 hours after DNBS treatment, revealed spontaneous oscillatory action potentials in CB1(-/-) but not in CB1(+/+) colons, indicating an early CB1-mediated control of inflammation-induced irritation of smooth muscle cells. DNBS treatment increased the percentage of myenteric neurons expressing CB1 receptors, suggesting an enhancement of cannabinoid signaling during colitis. Our results indicate that the endogenous cannabinoid system represents a promising therapeutic target for the treatment of intestinal disease conditions characterized by excessive inflammatory responses. PMID:15085199

  2. EPA (ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY) OIL SHALE RESEARCH ACTIVITIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper is an overview of EPA's oil shale research activities. In spite of substantial cutbacks in the program, several new projects should not only be of interest to developers and researchers but also support future regulatory and permitting decisions by the Agency. New activ...

  3. A protection system for the JET ITER-like wall based on imaging diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Arnoux, G.; Balboa, I.; Balshaw, N.; Beldishevski, M.; Cramp, S.; Felton, R.; Goodyear, A.; Horton, A.; Kinna, D.; McCullen, P.; Obrejan, K.; Patel, K.; Lomas, P. J.; Rimini, F.; Stamp, M.; Stephen, A.; Thomas, P. D.; Williams, J.; Wilson, J.; Zastrow, K.-D. [Euratom and others

    2012-10-15

    The new JET ITER-like wall (made of beryllium and tungsten) is more fragile than the former carbon fiber composite wall and requires active protection to prevent excessive heat loads on the plasma facing components (PFC). Analog CCD cameras operating in the near infrared wavelength are used to measure surface temperature of the PFCs. Region of interest (ROI) analysis is performed in real time and the maximum temperature measured in each ROI is sent to the vessel thermal map. The protection of the ITER-like wall system started in October 2011 and has already successfully led to a safe landing of the plasma when hot spots were observed on the Be main chamber PFCs. Divertor protection is more of a challenge due to dust deposits that often generate false hot spots. In this contribution we describe the camera, data capture and real time processing systems. We discuss the calibration strategy for the temperature measurements with cross validation with thermal IR cameras and bi-color pyrometers. Most importantly, we demonstrate that a protection system based on CCD cameras can work and show examples of hot spot detections that stop the plasma pulse. The limits of such a design and the associated constraints on the operations are also presented.

  4. Development of a protective dermal drug delivery system for therapeutic DNAzymes.

    PubMed

    Marquardt, Kay; Eicher, Anna-Carola; Dobler, Dorota; Mäder, Ulf; Schmidts, Thomas; Renz, Harald; Runkel, Frank

    2015-02-01

    RNA-cleaving DNAzymes are a potential novel class of nucleic acid-based active pharmaceutical ingredients (API). However, developing an appropriate drug delivery system (DDS) that achieves high bioavailability is challenging. Especially in a dermal application, DNAzymes have to overcome physiological barriers composed of penetration barriers and degrading enzymes. The focus of the present study was the development of a protective and penetration-enhanced dermal DDS that was tailor made for DNAzymes. DNAzyme Dz13 was used as a potential API for topical therapy against actinic keratosis. In the progress of development and selection, different preservatives, submicron emulsions (SMEs) and the physiological pH range were validated with respect to the API's integrity. A physicochemical stable SME of a pharmaceutical grade along with a high API integrity was achieved. Additionally, two developed protective systems, consisting of a liposomal formulation or chitosan-polyplexes, reduced the degradation of Dz13 in vitro. A combination of SME and polyplexes was finally validated at the skin and cellular level by in vitro model systems. Properties of penetration, degradation and distribution were determined. The result was enhanced skin penetration efficiency and increased cellular uptake with a high protective efficiency for DNAzymes due to the developed protective DDS. PMID:25541146

  5. Flexible Foam Protection Materials for Portable Life Support System Packaging Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang,Henry H.; Dillon, Paul A.; Thomas, Gretchen A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper discusses the phase I effort in evaluating and selecting a light weight impact protection material for the Constellation Space Suit Element (CSSE) Portable Life Support System (PLSS) conceptual packaging study. A light weight material capable of holding and protecting the components inside the PLSS is required to demonstrate the viability of the flexible PLSS packaging concept. The material needs to distribute, dissipate, and absorb the impact energy of the PLSS falling on the lunar surface. It must also be robust to consistently perform over several Extravehicular Activity (EVA) missions in the extreme lunar thermal vacuum environment. This paper documents the performance requirements for selecting a foam protection material, and the methodologies for evaluating some commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) foam material candidates. It also presents the mechanical properties and impact drop tests results of the foam material candidates. The results of this study suggest that a foam based flexible protection system is a viable solution for PLSS packaging. However, additional works are needed to optimize COTS foam or to develop a composite foam system that will meet all the performance requirements for the CSSE PLSS flexible packaging.

  6. A protection system for the JET ITER-like wall based on imaging diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Arnoux, G; Devaux, S; Alves, D; Balboa, I; Balorin, C; Balshaw, N; Beldishevski, M; Carvalho, P; Clever, M; Cramp, S; de Pablos, J-L; de la Cal, E; Falie, D; Garcia-Sanchez, P; Felton, R; Gervaise, V; Goodyear, A; Horton, A; Jachmich, S; Huber, A; Jouve, M; Kinna, D; Kruezi, U; Manzanares, A; Martin, V; McCullen, P; Moncada, V; Obrejan, K; Patel, K; Lomas, P J; Neto, A; Rimini, F; Ruset, C; Schweer, B; Sergienko, G; Sieglin, B; Soleto, A; Stamp, M; Stephen, A; Thomas, P D; Valcárcel, D F; Williams, J; Wilson, J; Zastrow, K-D

    2012-10-01

    The new JET ITER-like wall (made of beryllium and tungsten) is more fragile than the former carbon fiber composite wall and requires active protection to prevent excessive heat loads on the plasma facing components (PFC). Analog CCD cameras operating in the near infrared wavelength are used to measure surface temperature of the PFCs. Region of interest (ROI) analysis is performed in real time and the maximum temperature measured in each ROI is sent to the vessel thermal map. The protection of the ITER-like wall system started in October 2011 and has already successfully led to a safe landing of the plasma when hot spots were observed on the Be main chamber PFCs. Divertor protection is more of a challenge due to dust deposits that often generate false hot spots. In this contribution we describe the camera, data capture and real time processing systems. We discuss the calibration strategy for the temperature measurements with cross validation with thermal IR cameras and bi-color pyrometers. Most importantly, we demonstrate that a protection system based on CCD cameras can work and show examples of hot spot detections that stop the plasma pulse. The limits of such a design and the associated constraints on the operations are also presented. PMID:23130796

  7. 20 CFR 1002.18 - What status or activity is protected from employer discrimination by USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... employer discrimination by USERRA? 1002.18 Section 1002.18 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994 Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Retaliation Protection from Employer Discrimination and Retaliation § 1002.18 What status or activity is protected...

  8. 20 CFR 1002.18 - What status or activity is protected from employer discrimination by USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... employer discrimination by USERRA? 1002.18 Section 1002.18 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994 Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Retaliation Protection from Employer Discrimination and Retaliation § 1002.18 What status or activity is protected...

  9. 20 CFR 1002.18 - What status or activity is protected from employer discrimination by USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... employer discrimination by USERRA? 1002.18 Section 1002.18 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994 Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Retaliation Protection from Employer Discrimination and Retaliation § 1002.18 What status or activity is protected...

  10. 20 CFR 1002.18 - What status or activity is protected from employer discrimination by USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... employer discrimination by USERRA? 1002.18 Section 1002.18 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994 Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Retaliation Protection from Employer Discrimination and Retaliation § 1002.18 What status or activity is protected...

  11. 20 CFR 1002.18 - What status or activity is protected from employer discrimination by USERRA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... employer discrimination by USERRA? 1002.18 Section 1002.18 Employees' Benefits OFFICE OF THE ASSISTANT... SERVICES EMPLOYMENT AND REEMPLOYMENT RIGHTS ACT OF 1994 Anti-Discrimination and Anti-Retaliation Protection from Employer Discrimination and Retaliation § 1002.18 What status or activity is protected...

  12. 76 FR 22113 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Infrastructure...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-20

    ... Information Collection Request in the Federal Register on November 4, 2010 at 75 FR 67989, for a 60-day public... SECURITY Agency Information Collection Activities: Office of Infrastructure Protection; Infrastructure... Infrastructure Protection (IP), will submit the following Information Collection Request to the Office...

  13. Hypervelocity Impact Test Results for a Metallic Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Karr, Katherine L.; Poteet, Carl C.; Blosser, Max L.

    2003-01-01

    Hypervelocity impact tests have been performed on specimens representing metallic thermal protection systems (TPS) developed at NASA Langley Research Center for use on next-generation reusable launch vehicles (RLV). The majority of the specimens tested consists of a foil gauge exterior honeycomb panel, composed of either Inconel 617 or Ti-6Al-4V, backed with 2.0 in. of fibrous insulation and a final Ti-6Al-4V foil layer. Other tested specimens include titanium multi-wall sandwich coupons as well as TPS using a second honeycomb sandwich in place of the foil backing. Hypervelocity impact tests were performed at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center Orbital Debris Simulation Facility. An improved test fixture was designed and fabricated to hold specimens firmly in place during impact. Projectile diameter, honeycomb sandwich material, honeycomb sandwich facesheet thickness, and honeycomb core cell size were examined to determine the influence of TPS configuration on the level of protection provided to the substructure (crew, cabin, fuel tank, etc.) against micrometeoroid or orbit debris impacts. Pictures and descriptions of the damage to each specimen are included.

  14. Symmetry-protected topological phases in noninteracting fermion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Xiao-Gang

    2012-02-01

    Symmetry-protected topological (SPT) phases are gapped quantum phases with a certain symmetry, which can all be smoothly connected to the same trivial product state if we break the symmetry. For noninteracting fermion systems with time reversal (T̂), charge conjugation (Ĉ), and/or U(1) (N̂) symmetries, the total symmetry group can depend on the relations between those symmetry operations, such as T̂N̂T̂-1=N̂ or T̂N̂T̂-1=-N̂. As a result, the SPT phases of those fermion systems with different symmetry groups have different classifications. In this paper, we use Kitaev's K-theory approach to classify the gapped free-fermion phases for those possible symmetry groups. In particular, we can view the U(1) as a spin rotation. We find that superconductors with the Sz spin-rotation symmetry are classified by Z in even dimensions, while superconductors with the time reversal plus the Sz spin-rotation symmetries are classified by Z in odd dimensions. We show that all 10 classes of gapped free-fermion phases can be realized by electron systems with certain symmetries. We also point out that, to properly describe the symmetry of a fermionic system, we need to specify its full symmetry group that includes the fermion number parity transformation (-)N̂. The full symmetry group is actually a projective symmetry group.

  15. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2000-12-01

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel.

  16. Protective clothing textile research for space activities in the 1980's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Radnofsky, M. I.; Kosmo, J. J.

    1980-01-01

    Textile and clothing specifications for space activities are discussed, emphasizing a chronological and utilitarian role. New fabrication techniques led to the Mercury Space Suit, a constant-wear hybrid of the omni-environmental full pressure suit used by high-flying pilots of the 1950s. The Gemini program (1964-1966) provided the first specifically designed protective clothing assembly for both intra- and extravehicular operations. The G4C, used for EV (extravehicular) activities, protected the astronaut against solar radiation, heat loss, and meteoroid penetration. The clothing for the Apollo program (1968-1975) mirrored a greater concern for fire safety with Durette (a halogenated polyamide) and PBI (polybenzimadazole) widely used for intravehicular garments. With the advent of the Shuttle program, cabin pressure and composition were changed from 6 psi, 100% oxygen to 9-14 psi, 23.4% oxygen, 76.6% N2. As a result, 'off-the-shelf' materials were used without compromising fire safety. Reusability was stressed, as textile costs and durability were now important selection criteria noting that existing textile materials will probably be adequate for the next 20 years of space operations and research. A portable lunar survival shelter made of textiles is being developed; and a preliminary design for an EV 'tunnel suit system' (an access tunnel and homoform work station) is already in existence.

  17. Activation of Notch-Mediated Protective Signaling in the Myocardium

    PubMed Central

    Gude, Natalie A.; Emmanuel, Gregory; Wu, Weitao; Cottage, Christopher T.; Fischer, Kimberlee; Quijada, Pearl; Muraski, John A.; Alvarez, Roberto; Rubio, Marta; Schaefer, Eric; Sussman, Mark A.

    2013-01-01

    The Notch network regulates multiple cellular processes, including cell fate determination, development, differentiation, proliferation, apoptosis, and regeneration. These processes are regulated via Notch-mediated activity that involves hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/c-Met receptor and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt signaling cascades. The impact of HGF on Notch signaling was assessed following myocardial infarction as well as in cultured cardiomyocytes. Notch1 is activated in border zone cardiomyocytes coincident with nuclear c-Met following infarction. Intramyocardial injection of HGF enhances Notch1 and Akt activation in adult mouse myocardium. Corroborating evidence in cultured cardiomyocytes shows treatment with HGF or insulin increases levels of Notch effector Hes1 in immunoblots, whereas overexpression of activated Notch intracellular domain prompts a 3-fold increase in phosphorylated Akt. Infarcted hearts injected with adenoviral vector expressing Notch intracellular domain treatment exhibit improved hemodynamic function in comparison with control mice after 4 weeks, implicating Notch signaling in a cardioprotective role following cardiac injury. These results indicate Notch activation in cardiomyocytes is mediated through c-Met and Akt survival signaling pathways, and Notch1 signaling in turn enhances Akt activity. This mutually supportive crosstalk suggests a positive survival feedback mechanism between Notch and Akt signaling in adult myocardium following injury. PMID:18369158

  18. Robotic system for the servicing of the orbiter thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Graham, Todd; Bennett, Richard; Dowling, Kevin; Manouchehri, Davoud; Cooper, Eric; Cowan, Cregg

    1994-01-01

    This paper describes the design and development of a mobile robotic system to process orbiter thermal protection system (TPS) tiles. This work was justified by a TPS automation study which identified tile rewaterproofing and visual inspection as excellent applications for robotic automation.

  19. 75 FR 81152 - Interpretation of Protection System Reliability Standard

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-27

    ... this in mind, NERC further states that it must clarify the requirement language in PRC-005-1a to... reading, the term ``protective'' describes a relay that serves to protect the Reliable Operation of...

  20. Integration of B cells and CD8+ T in the protective regulation of systemic epithelial inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Bo; McPherson, Michael; Turovskaya, Olga; Velazquez, Peter; Fujiwara, Daisuke; Brewer, Sarah; Braun, Jonathan

    2008-01-01

    Mechanisms that control abnormal CD4+ T cell-mediated tissue damage are a significant factor in averting and resolving chronic inflammatory epithelial diseases. B cells can promote such immunoregulation, and this is thought to involve interaction with MHC II- or CD1-restricted regulatory T cells. The purpose of this study is to genetically define the interacting cells targeted by protective B cells, and to elucidate their regulatory mechanisms in CD4+ T cell inflammation. Transfer of Gαi2−/− CD3+ T cells into lymphopenic mice causes a dose-dependent multi-organ inflammatory disease including the skin, intestine, and lungs. Disease activity is associated with elevated levels of serum TNF-α and IFN-γ and an activated IL-17 producing CD4+ T cell population. Mesenteric node B cells from wild type mice suppress disease activity, serum cytokine expression, and levels of CD4+ T cells producing TNF-α, IFN-γ, and IL-17. The protective function of B cells requires genetic sufficiency of IL-10, MHC I and TAP1. Regulatory B cells induce the expansion and activation of CD8+ T cells, which is correlated with disease protection. These results demonstrate that CD8+ T cells can ameliorate lymphopenic systemic inflammatory disease, through peptide/MHC I-dependent B cell interaction. PMID:18282744

  1. A detailed study of patent system for protection of inventions.

    PubMed

    Tulasi, G Krishna; Rao, B Subba

    2008-09-01

    Creations of brain are called intellect. Since these creations have good commercial value, are called as property. Inventions are intellectual property and can be protected by patents provided the invention is novel, non-obvious, useful and enabled. To have fare trade among member countries, World Trade Organisation proposed TRIPS agreement. India had taken necessary initiation by signing the World Trade Organisation agreement and transformed to global needs. The aim of this article is to enlighten pharmaceutical professionals especially in the field of research and development about planning inventions by thorough review of prior-art, which saves time and money. A thorough understanding is made possible by providing details of origin; present governing bodies, their role along with the Act that is safeguarding the patent system. PMID:21394248

  2. A Detailed Study of Patent System for Protection of Inventions

    PubMed Central

    Tulasi, G. Krishna; Rao, B. Subba

    2008-01-01

    Creations of brain are called intellect. Since these creations have good commercial value, are called as property. Inventions are intellectual property and can be protected by patents provided the invention is novel, non-obvious, useful and enabled. To have fare trade among member countries, World Trade Organisation proposed TRIPS agreement. India had taken necessary initiation by signing the World Trade Organisation agreement and transformed to global needs. The aim of this article is to enlighten pharmaceutical professionals especially in the field of research and development about planning inventions by thorough review of prior-art, which saves time and money. A thorough understanding is made possible by providing details of origin; present governing bodies, their role along with the Act that is safeguarding the patent system. PMID:21394248

  3. Lightning protection of full authority digital electronic systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crofts, David

    1991-01-01

    Modern electronic systems are vulnerable to transient and they now provide safety critical functions such as full authority digital electronic control (FADEC) units for fly by wire aircraft. Of the traditional suppression technologies available diodes have gained the wider acceptance, however, they lack the current handling capacity to meet existing threat levels. The development of high speed fold back devices where, at a specified voltage, the off state resistance switches to a very low on state one has provided the equivalent to a semiconductor spark gap. The size of the technology enables it to be integrated into connectors of interconnection cables. To illustrate the performance the technology was developed to meet the Lightning Protection requirements for FADEC units within aeroengines. Work was also carried out to study switching behavior with the waveform 5, the 500 us, 10 kA pulse applied to cable assemblies. This test enabled all the switches in a connector to be fired simultaneously.

  4. Prediction system to protect astronauts from solar storms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schultz, Colin

    2012-08-01

    With the impending solar maximum expected to bring heightened rates of fares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs), putting at risk an ever-increasing human presence in space, Oh et al. designed and assessed a prediction system to keep astronauts safe from these solar storms. During a solar fare or CME, particles from the Sun can be accelerated to very high energies—in some cases traveling near the speed of light. Protons with energies surpassing 100 megaelectron volts (MeV) essentially sandblast everything in their path. Though people on Earth are protected by the planet's magnetic feld and thick atmosphere, astronauts in spacecraft beyond low-Earth orbit or people at high altitudes near the poles can be exposed to this increased radiation, which can cause radiation sickness, with symptoms such as fever and vomiting.

  5. Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal-Protection-Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christiansen, E. L.; Davis, B. A.; Miller, J. E.; Bohl, W. E.; Foreman, C. D.

    2009-01-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Space Shuttle and are currently being proposed for the next generation of manned spacecraft, Orion. These materials insulate the structural components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Furthermore, these materials are also highly exposed to space environmental hazards like meteoroid and orbital debris impacts. This paper discusses recent impact testing up to 9 km/s, and the findings of the influence of material equation-of-state on the simulation of the impact event to characterize the ballistic performance of these materials. These results will be compared with heritage models1 for these materials developed from testing at lower velocities. Assessments of predicted spacecraft risk based upon these tests and simulations will also be discussed.

  6. Step voltage analysis for the catenoid lightning protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chai, J. C.; Briet, R.; Barker, D. L.; Eley, H. E.

    1991-01-01

    The main objective of the proposed overhead Catenoid Lightning Protection System (CLPS) is personnel safety. To ensure working personnel's safety in lightning situations, it is necessary that the potential difference developed across a distance equal to a person's pace (step voltage) does not exceed a separately established safe voltage in order to avoid electrocution (ventricular fibrillation) of humans. Therefore, the first stage of the analytical effort is to calculate the open circuit step voltage. An impedance model is developed for this purpose. It takes into consideration the earth's complex impedance behavior and the transient nature of the lightning phenomenon. In the low frequency limit, this impedance model is shown to reduce to results similar to those predicted by the conventional resistor model in a DC analysis.

  7. Fracture behavior of the Space Shuttle thermal protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komine, A.; Kobayashi, A. S.

    1983-01-01

    Stable crack-growth and fracture-toughness experiments were conducted using precracked specimens machined from LI-900 reusable surface insulation (RSI) tiles of the Space Shuttle thermal protection system (TPS) at room temperature. Similar fracture experiments were conducted on fracture specimens with preexisting cracks at the interface of the tile and the strain isolation pad (SIP). Stable crack growth was not observed in the LI-900 tile fracture specimens which had a fracture toughness of 12.0 kPa sq rt of m. The intermittent subcritical crack growth at the tile-pad interface of the fracture specimens was attributed to successive local pull-outs due to tensile overload in the LI-900 tile and cannot be characterized by linear elastic fracture mechanics. No subcritical interfacial crack growth was observed in the fracture specimens with densified LI-900 tiles where brittle fracture initiated at an interior point away from the densification.

  8. Room temperature mechanical properties of shuttle thermal protection system materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sawyer, J. W.; Rummler, D. R.

    1980-01-01

    Tests were conducted at room temperature to determine the mechanical properties and behavior of materials used for the thermal protection system of the space shuttle. The materials investigated include the LI-900 RSI tiles, the RTV-560 adhesive and the .41 cm (.16 thick) strain isolator pad (SIP). Tensile and compression cyclic loading tests were conducted on the SIP material and stress-strain curves obtained for various proof loads and load cyclic conditioning. Ultimate tensile and shear tests were conducted on the RSI, RTV, and SIP materials. The SIP material exhibits highly nonlinear stress-strain behavior, increased tangent modulus and ultimate tensile strength with increased loading rate, and large short time load relaxation and moderate creep behavior. Proof and cyclic load conditioning of the SIP results in permanent deformation of the material, hysteresis effects, and much higher tensile tangent modulus values at large strains.

  9. [Children's health protection in the state political system].

    PubMed

    Baranov, A A; Iakovleva, T V; Lapin, Iu E

    2011-01-01

    The system of children's health protection in this country still lacks an adequate legal basis. Its improvement should be considered as a function of the state realized through legal regulation of public relations for the benefit of each child based on the legislatively fixed government policy in the sphere of children's health care. Such an approach may strengthen the role of this sphere in the intersectoral relations and implies the extension of pediatrics toward interaction with the spheres of politics and law. It reflects the understanding that physiological processes behind regulation of the functioning of the child's organism in the course of its development need an adequate support from the outside through regulation of public relations on behalf of children. The definition of state policy in the sphere of children's health care is proposed and its basic principles are considered. PMID:21789796

  10. Protective system for civil buildings and industrial structures subjected to the seismic risk

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghica, D.; Grigore, A.; Ionescu, C.

    2009-04-01

    Romania is a European country with significant seismicity. The most active seismic zone is represented by the Vrancea area, located within the arch of the Carpathians Mountains. Vrancea seismicity is characterized by intermediate depth earthquakes which occur in a narrow epicentral and hypocentral region. During the last 70 years, Romania experienced four strong Vrancea earthquakes: 10 November 1940 (Mw =7.7, 160 km depth), 4 March 1977 (Mw =7.5, 100 km depth), 30 August 1986 (Mw =7.2, 140 km depth), 30 May 30 1990 (Mw =6.9, 80 km depth). The 1977 event was characterized by catastrophic consequences: 1500 casualties and collapsing of 35 high-risk buildings, mostly occurring in Bucharest. The purpose of this paper is to present a protective system designed to be installed in the civil buildings and industrial structures placed in the high seismic regions, and therefore to contribute to the mitigation of the strong earthquake effects on human society. This system proposes an efficient antiseismic protection, respectively shutting down the installations and equipments mounted in the building's infrastructure, which can become extremely dangerous in case of a major earthquake by appearing the possibility of explosions, deflagration, fires, toxic and polluting fluids leakage. The damages are strongly amplified by the fact that, simultaneously, water and electric energy lines distributions are damaged too, making impossible an efficient firemen intervention, for localizing the fire sources. Moreover, the installations of the individual heating stations which operate with open flame increase the risk of explosions inside the buildings during an earthquake. The protective system consists of a seismic switch used for activating through weak-electric-currents of the building's safety systems in case of strong earthquake, especially designed for building's elevators, as well as for moving parts of installations, which require positioning in safety place areas. The originality

  11. Activation of glutathione peroxidase via Nrf1 mediates genistein's protection against oxidative endothelial cell injury

    SciTech Connect

    Hernandez-Montes, Eva; Pollard, Susan E.; Vauzour, David; Jofre-Montseny, Laia; Rota, Cristina; Rimbach, Gerald; Weinberg, Peter D.; Spencer, Jeremy P.E. . E-mail: j.p.e.spencer@reading.ac.uk

    2006-08-04

    Cellular actions of isoflavones may mediate the beneficial health effects associated with high soy consumption. We have investigated protection by genistein and daidzein against oxidative stress-induced endothelial injury. Genistein but not daidzein protected endothelial cells from damage induced by oxidative stress. This protection was accompanied by decreases in intracellular glutathione levels that could be explained by the generation of glutathionyl conjugates of the oxidised genistein metabolite, 5,7,3',4'-tetrahydroxyisoflavone. Both isoflavones evoked increased protein expression of {gamma}-glutamylcysteine synthetase-heavy subunit ({gamma}-GCS-HS) and increased cytosolic accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf2. However, only genistein led to increases in the cytosolic accumulation and nuclear translocation of Nrf1 and the increased expression of and activity of glutathione peroxidase. These results suggest that genistein-induced protective effects depend primarily on the activation of glutathione peroxidase mediated by Nrf1 activation, and not on Nrf2 activation or increases in glutathione synthesis.

  12. Vadose Zone Monitoring System as a Tool for Groundwater Protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dahan, O.

    2007-05-01

    Subsurface monitoring for groundwater protection from pollution hazards has traditionally been based on culling information from the groundwater. This information is usually retrieved from boreholes penetrating the saturated section of the groundwater. Accordingly, the entire path and fate of pollutants transported from land surface through the vadose zone to the groundwater is evaluated from the chemical and physical state of the water which has been sampled from a well. That monitoring procedure is well founded in both scientific studies and through legislative acts which enforce groundwater monitoring for potential sources of pollution. However, this creates a paradox since, by definition, identification of pollution in groundwater means that the groundwater is already polluted. Moreover, since vertical transport in the vadose zone and lateral flow in the groundwater are very slow processes, pollution identification in a well may take years or decades. As a result, the total mass of pollutant that has penetrated the subsurface may be extremely high by the time it has been identified. Finally, pollution identification in a well usually reveals only the edges of a much larger pollutant plume. Accordingly, identification of pollution in the vadose zone right under the pollution source, long before it shows up in the groundwater, should be the key to groundwater protection. The need for real-time information on the quality of percolating water led to the development of a new vadose- zone monitoring system. The new monitoring system is designed to provide continuous measurements of the soil water content and water potential, while allowing pore-water sampling all along the vadose-zone cross section. The installation technique allows monitoring of the vadose-zone cross section under relatively undisturbed soil conditions. The new monitoring system is comprised of special flexible TDR (FTDR) probes, assembled with special vadose-zone sampling ports (VSPs) that function

  13. Estradiol protects female rats against sepsis induced by Enterococcus faecalis improving leukocyte bactericidal activity.

    PubMed

    Saia, Rafael Simone; Garcia, Fabíola Morales; Cárnio, Evelin Capellari

    2015-10-01

    Enterococcus faecalis is a Gram-positive bacteria described as an important causative agent of sepsis. The contact between host leukocytes and bacteria activates the innate immunity, participating as the first defense mechanism against infection. Pro-inflammatory cytokines [including tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and interleukin-1β] and nitric oxide (NO) are essential to recruitment of leukocytes into the infectious focus as well as their activation for phagocytosis. Beyond the bacteria species, gender has been considered another factor to predict outcome in septic patients. Studies suggest that females exhibit a protective advantage during sepsis models, being gonadal hormones possible modulators of functions of immune cells. Nevertheless, the role of estradiol during Gram-positive infection remains a literature gap. Our aims were to investigate whether estradiol protects rats against bacterial dissemination during E. faecalis-induced sepsis. We determined whether estradiol modulates the local and systemic inflammatory response, as well as the cell migration into the infectious focus and the bactericidal capacity of leukocytes. Our findings demonstrated that estradiol pre-treated rats showed a dose-dependent reduction in bacterial counts in peritoneal lavage fluid (PLF) and in liver. Moreover, TNF-α and nitrate levels were increased in plasma, while only TNF-α was increased in the PLF in estradiol-treated rats. The prevention of bacterial dissemination may be related to the enhanced neutrophil and macrophage migration into the peritoneal cavity. Furthermore, estradiol improved the phagocytic and bactericidal ability of these both inflammatory cells. Taken together, the present study clearly demonstrates an important protective role of estradiol against sepsis induced by E. faecalis in female rats. PMID:26143494

  14. Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joshua; Bohl, William; Christiansen, Eric; Davis, B. Alan; Foreman, Cory

    2011-06-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These systems insulate reentry critical components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Additionally, these materials are also highly exposed to space environment hazards like solid particle impacts. This paper discusses impact testing up to 9.65 km/s on one of these systems. The materials considered are 8 lb/ft3 alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) tiles coated with a toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation/reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG). A semi-empirical, first principals impact model that describes projectile dispersion is described that provides excellent agreement with observations over a broad range of impact velocities, obliquities and projectile materials. A model extension to look at the implications of greater than 10 GPa equation of state measurements is also discussed. Predicted penetration probabilities for a vehicle visiting the International Space Station is 60% lower for orbital debris and 95% lower for meteoroids with this model compared to an energy scaled approach.

  15. X-33 Base Region Thermal Protection System Design Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lycans, Randal W.

    1998-01-01

    The X-33 is an advanced technology demonstrator for validating critical technologies and systems required for an operational Single-Stage-to-Orbit (SSTO) Reusuable Launch Vehicle (RLV). Currently under development by a unique contractor/government team led by Lockheed- Martin Skunk Works (LMSW), and managed by Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), the X-33 will be the prototype of the first new launch system developed by the United States since the advent of the space shuttle. This paper documents a design trade study of the X-33 base region thermal protection system (TPS). Two candidate designs were evaluated for thermal performance and weight. The first candidate was a fully reusable metallic TPS using Inconel honeycomb panels insulated with high temperature fibrous insulation, while the second was an ablator/insulator sprayed on the metallic skin of the vehicle. The TPS configurations and insulation thickness requirements were determined for the predicted main engine plume heating environments and base region entry aerothermal environments. In addition to thermal analysis of the design concepts, sensitivity studies were performed to investigate the effect of variations in key parameters of the base TPS analysis.

  16. Estimates Of The Orbiter RSI Thermal Protection System Thermal Reliability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolodziej, P.; Rasky, D. J.

    2002-01-01

    In support of the Space Shuttle Orbiter post-flight inspection, structure temperatures are recorded at selected positions on the windward, leeward, starboard and port surfaces. Statistical analysis of this flight data and a non-dimensional load interference (NDLI) method are used to estimate the thermal reliability at positions were reusable surface insulation (RSI) is installed. In this analysis, structure temperatures that exceed the design limit define the critical failure mode. At thirty-three positions the RSI thermal reliability is greater than 0.999999 for the missions studied. This is not the overall system level reliability of the thermal protection system installed on an Orbiter. The results from two Orbiters, OV-102 and OV-105, are in good agreement. The original RSI designs on the OV-102 Orbital Maneuvering System pods, which had low reliability, were significantly improved on OV-105. The NDLI method was also used to estimate thermal reliability from an assessment of TPS uncertainties that was completed shortly before the first Orbiter flight. Results fiom the flight data analysis and the pre-flight assessment agree at several positions near each other. The NDLI method is also effective for optimizing RSI designs to provide uniform thermal reliability on the acreage surface of reusable launch vehicles.

  17. The bright side of plasmonic gold nanoparticles; activation of Nrf2, the cellular protective pathway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldstein, Alona; Soroka, Yoram; Frušić-Zlotkin, Marina; Lewis, Aaron; Kohen, Ron

    2016-06-01

    Plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are widely investigated for cancer therapy, due to their ability to strongly absorb light and convert it to heat and thus selectively destroy tumor cells. In this study we shed light on a new aspect of AuNPs and their plasmonic excitation, wherein they can provide anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory protection by stimulating the cellular protective Nrf2 pathway. Our study was carried out on cells of the immune system, macrophages, and on skin cells, keratinocytes. A different response to AuNPs was noted in the two types of cells, explained by their distinct uptake profiles. In keratinocytes, the exposure to AuNPs, even at low concentrations, was sufficient to activate the Nrf2 pathway, without any irradiation, due to the presence of free AuNPs inside the cytosol. In contrast, in macrophages, the plasmonic excitation of the AuNPs by a low, non-lethal irradiation dose was required for their release from the constraining vesicles. The mechanism by which AuNPs activate the Nrf2 pathway was studied. Direct and indirect activation were suggested, based on the inherent ability of the AuNPs to react with thiol groups and to generate reactive oxygen species, in particular, under plasmonic excitation. The ability of AuNPs to directly activate the Nrf2 pathway renders them good candidates for treatment of disorders in which the up-regulation of Nrf2 is beneficial, specifically for topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases.

  18. The bright side of plasmonic gold nanoparticles; activation of Nrf2, the cellular protective pathway.

    PubMed

    Goldstein, Alona; Soroka, Yoram; Frušić-Zlotkin, Marina; Lewis, Aaron; Kohen, Ron

    2016-06-01

    Plasmonic gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) are widely investigated for cancer therapy, due to their ability to strongly absorb light and convert it to heat and thus selectively destroy tumor cells. In this study we shed light on a new aspect of AuNPs and their plasmonic excitation, wherein they can provide anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory protection by stimulating the cellular protective Nrf2 pathway. Our study was carried out on cells of the immune system, macrophages, and on skin cells, keratinocytes. A different response to AuNPs was noted in the two types of cells, explained by their distinct uptake profiles. In keratinocytes, the exposure to AuNPs, even at low concentrations, was sufficient to activate the Nrf2 pathway, without any irradiation, due to the presence of free AuNPs inside the cytosol. In contrast, in macrophages, the plasmonic excitation of the AuNPs by a low, non-lethal irradiation dose was required for their release from the constraining vesicles. The mechanism by which AuNPs activate the Nrf2 pathway was studied. Direct and indirect activation were suggested, based on the inherent ability of the AuNPs to react with thiol groups and to generate reactive oxygen species, in particular, under plasmonic excitation. The ability of AuNPs to directly activate the Nrf2 pathway renders them good candidates for treatment of disorders in which the up-regulation of Nrf2 is beneficial, specifically for topical treatment of inflammatory skin diseases. PMID:27224746

  19. Anode protection system for shutdown of solid oxide fuel cell system

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Bob X; Grieves, Malcolm J; Kelly, Sean M

    2014-12-30

    An Anode Protection Systems for a SOFC system, having a Reductant Supply and safety subsystem, a SOFC anode protection subsystem, and a Post Combustion and slip stream control subsystem. The Reductant Supply and safety subsystem includes means for generating a reducing gas or vapor to prevent re-oxidation of the Ni in the anode layer during the course of shut down of the SOFC stack. The underlying ammonia or hydrogen based material used to generate a reducing gas or vapor to prevent the re-oxidation of the Ni can be in either a solid or liquid stored inside a portable container. The SOFC anode protection subsystem provides an internal pressure of 0.2 to 10 kPa to prevent air from entering into the SOFC system. The Post Combustion and slip stream control subsystem provides a catalyst converter configured to treat any residual reducing gas in the slip stream gas exiting from SOFC stack.

  20. 30 CFR 822.12 - Protection of agricultural activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... alluvial valley floors; or (2) cause material damage to the quantity or quality of water in surface or underground water systems that supply alluvial valley floors. (b) Statutory exclusions. The prohibitions...

  1. 30 CFR 822.12 - Protection of agricultural activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... alluvial valley floors; or (2) cause material damage to the quantity or quality of water in surface or underground water systems that supply alluvial valley floors. (b) Statutory exclusions. The prohibitions...

  2. 30 CFR 822.12 - Protection of agricultural activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... alluvial valley floors; or (2) cause material damage to the quantity or quality of water in surface or underground water systems that supply alluvial valley floors. (b) Statutory exclusions. The prohibitions...

  3. 30 CFR 822.12 - Protection of agricultural activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... alluvial valley floors; or (2) cause material damage to the quantity or quality of water in surface or underground water systems that supply alluvial valley floors. (b) Statutory exclusions. The prohibitions...

  4. Revitalizing the Space Shuttle's Thermal Protection System with Reverse Engineering and 3D Vision Technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Brad; Galatzer, Yishai

    2008-01-01

    The Space Shuttle is protected by a Thermal Protection System (TPS) made of tens of thousands of individually shaped heat protection tile. With every flight, tiles are damaged on take-off and return to earth. After each mission, the heat tiles must be fixed or replaced depending on the level of damage. As part of the return to flight mission, the TPS requirements are more stringent, leading to a significant increase in heat tile replacements. The replacement operation requires scanning tile cavities, and in some cases the actual tiles. The 3D scan data is used to reverse engineer each tile into a precise CAD model, which in turn, is exported to a CAM system for the manufacture of the heat protection tile. Scanning is performed while other activities are going on in the shuttle processing facility. Many technicians work simultaneously on the space shuttle structure, which results in structural movements and vibrations. This paper will cover a portable, ultra-fast data acquisition approach used to scan surfaces in this unstable environment.

  5. A clinical trial of active hearing protection for orchestral musicians.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Ian; Driscoll, Tim; Williams, Warwick; Ackermann, Bronwen

    2014-01-01

    Orchestral musicians-an at-risk group for noise-induced hearing loss-have consistently reported great difficulty using hearing protection while performing or rehearsing, even when using earplugs specifically designed for musicians. A recent innovation in this field has been electronic earplugs that claim to deliver very high quality sound and only attenuate when sound levels become excessive. This study investigated these claims, aiming to determine whether professional orchestral musicians were able to use these devices and whether they were preferred to existing earplugs. Initially clinical and laboratory testing was carried out on the devices, indicating some spectral alteration of processed sound occurred, however claims of attenuation properties were validated. Following this, 26 orchestral musicians used the devices during rehearsals and performances for at least four weeks, providing feedback throughout this period. While musicians preferred the devices to previous earplugs, they identified issues including difficulty with orchestral balance, perception of dynamics and quality of sound provided by the devices. Results indicate these earplugs are a very positive step towards a usable hearing conservation tool for orchestral musicians to use in conjunction with other risk mitigation measures. PMID:24433326

  6. A real-time monitoring system for night glare protection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Jun; Ni, Xuxiang

    2010-11-01

    When capturing a dark scene with a high bright object, the monitoring camera will be saturated in some regions and the details will be lost in and near these saturated regions because of the glare vision. This work aims at developing a real-time night monitoring system. The system can decrease the influence of the glare vision and gain more details from the ordinary camera when exposing a high-contrast scene like a car with its headlight on during night. The system is made up of spatial light modulator (The liquid crystal on silicon: LCoS), image sensor (CCD), imaging lens and DSP. LCoS, a reflective liquid crystal, can modular the intensity of reflective light at every pixel as a digital device. Through modulation function of LCoS, CCD is exposed with sub-region. With the control of DSP, the light intensity is decreased to minimum in the glare regions, and the light intensity is negative feedback modulated based on PID theory in other regions. So that more details of the object will be imaging on CCD and the glare protection of monitoring system is achieved. In experiments, the feedback is controlled by the embedded system based on TI DM642. Experiments shows: this feedback modulation method not only reduces the glare vision to improve image quality, but also enhances the dynamic range of image. The high-quality and high dynamic range image is real-time captured at 30hz. The modulation depth of LCoS determines how strong the glare can be removed.

  7. Protection Circuits for Very High Frequency Ultrasound Systems

    PubMed Central

    Shung, K. Kirk

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of protection circuits in ultrasound applications is to block noise signals from the transmitter from reaching the transducer and also to prevent unwanted high voltage signals from reaching the receiver. The protection circuit using a resistor and diode pair is widely used due to its simple architecture, however, it may not be suitable for very high frequency (VHF) ultrasound transducer applications (>100 MHz) because of its limited bandwidth. Therefore, a protection circuit using MOSFET devices with unique structure is proposed in this paper. The performance of the designed protection circuit was compared with that of other traditional protection schemes. The performance characteristics measured were the insertion loss (IL), total harmonic distortion (THD) and transient response time (TRT). The new protection scheme offers the lowest IL (−1.0 dB), THD (−69.8 dB) and TRT (78 ns) at 120 MHz. The pulse-echo response using a 120 MHz LiNbO3 transducer with each protection circuit was measured to validate the feasibility of the protection circuits in VHF ultrasound applications. The sensitivity and bandwidth of the transducer using the new protection circuit improved by 252.1 and 50.9 %, respectively with respect to the protection circuit using a resistor and diode pair. These results demonstrated that the new protection circuit design minimizes the IL, THD and TRT for VHF ultrasound transducer applications. PMID:24682684

  8. Soluble Expression and Characterization of Biologically Active Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Suryanarayana, Nagendra; Vanlalhmuaka; Mankere, Bharti; Verma, Monika; Thavachelvam, Kulanthaivel; Tuteja, Urmil

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis secretory protein protective antigen (PA) is primary candidate for subunit vaccine against anthrax. Attempts to obtain large quantity of PA from Escherichia coli expression system often result in the formation of insoluble inclusion bodies. Therefore, it is always better to produce recombinant proteins in a soluble form. In the present study, we have obtained biologically active recombinant PA in small scale E. coli shake culture system using three different expression constructs. The PA gene was cloned in expression vectors bearing trc, T5, and T7 promoters and transformed into their respective E. coli hosts. The growth conditions were optimized to obtain maximum expression of PA in soluble form. The expression construct PA-pET32c in DE3-pLysS E. coli host resulted in a maximum production of soluble PA (15 mg L−1) compared to other combinations. Purified PA was subjected to trypsin digestion and binding assay with lethal factor to confirm the protein's functionality. Biological activity was confirmed by cytotoxicity assay on J774.1 cells. Balb/c mice were immunized with PA and the immunogenicity was tested by ELISA and toxin neutralization assay. This study highlights the expression of soluble and biologically active recombinant PA in larger quantity using simpler E. coli production platform. PMID:26966576

  9. Soluble Expression and Characterization of Biologically Active Bacillus anthracis Protective Antigen in Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Suryanarayana, Nagendra; Vanlalhmuaka; Mankere, Bharti; Verma, Monika; Thavachelvam, Kulanthaivel; Tuteja, Urmil

    2016-01-01

    Bacillus anthracis secretory protein protective antigen (PA) is primary candidate for subunit vaccine against anthrax. Attempts to obtain large quantity of PA from Escherichia coli expression system often result in the formation of insoluble inclusion bodies. Therefore, it is always better to produce recombinant proteins in a soluble form. In the present study, we have obtained biologically active recombinant PA in small scale E. coli shake culture system using three different expression constructs. The PA gene was cloned in expression vectors bearing trc, T5, and T7 promoters and transformed into their respective E. coli hosts. The growth conditions were optimized to obtain maximum expression of PA in soluble form. The expression construct PA-pET32c in DE3-pLysS E. coli host resulted in a maximum production of soluble PA (15 mg L(-1)) compared to other combinations. Purified PA was subjected to trypsin digestion and binding assay with lethal factor to confirm the protein's functionality. Biological activity was confirmed by cytotoxicity assay on J774.1 cells. Balb/c mice were immunized with PA and the immunogenicity was tested by ELISA and toxin neutralization assay. This study highlights the expression of soluble and biologically active recombinant PA in larger quantity using simpler E. coli production platform. PMID:26966576

  10. Stem cell factor (SCF) protects osteoblasts from oxidative stress through activating c-Kit-Akt signaling

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Lei; Wu, Zhong; Yin, Gang; Liu, Haifeng; Guan, Xiaojun; Zhao, Xiaoqiang; Wang, Jianguang; Zhu, Jianguo

    2014-12-12

    Highlights: • SCF receptor c-Kit is functionally expressed in primary and transformed osteoblasts. • SCF protects primary and transformed osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. • SCF activation of c-Kit in osteoblasts, required for its cyto-protective effects. • c-Kit mediates SCF-induced Akt activation in cultured osteoblasts. • Akt activation is required for SCF-regulated cyto-protective effects in osteoblasts. - Abstract: Osteoblasts regulate bone formation and remodeling, and are main target cells of oxidative stress in the progression of osteonecrosis. The stem cell factor (SCF)-c-Kit pathway plays important roles in the proliferation, differentiation and survival in a range of cell types, but little is known about its functions in osteoblasts. In this study, we found that c-Kit is functionally expressed in both osteoblastic-like MC3T3-E1 cells and primary murine osteoblasts. Its ligand SCF exerted significant cyto-protective effects against hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}). SCF activated its receptor c-Kit in osteoblasts, which was required for its cyto-protective effects against H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Pharmacological inhibition (by Imatinib and Dasatinib) or shRNA-mediated knockdown of c-Kit thus inhibited SCF-mediated osteoblast protection. Further investigations showed that protection by SCF against H{sub 2}O{sub 2} was mediated via activation of c-Kit-dependent Akt pathway. Inhibition of Akt activation, through pharmacological or genetic means, suppressed SCF-mediated anti-H{sub 2}O{sub 2} activity in osteoblasts. In summary, we have identified a new SCF-c-Kit-Akt physiologic pathway that protects osteoblasts from H{sub 2}O{sub 2}-induced damages, and might minimize the risk of osteonecrosis caused by oxidative stress.

  11. Degradation and Failure Characteristics of NPP Containment Protective Coating Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2001-02-22

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for debris formation of Service Level I coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is being performed at the Savannah River Technology Center. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause coating disbondment as identified by the Industry Coatings Expert Panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are described in this report and the application of these elements to evaluate the performance of the specific coating system of Phenoline 305 epoxy-phenolic topcoat over Carbozinc 11 primer on a steel substrate. This system is one of the predominant coating systems present on steel substrates in NPP containment.

  12. Activated mouse eosinophils protect against lethal respiratory virus infection

    PubMed Central

    Percopo, Caroline M.; Dyer, Kimberly D.; Ochkur, Sergei I.; Luo, Janice L.; Fischer, Elizabeth R.; Lee, James J.; Lee, Nancy A.; Domachowske, Joseph B.

    2014-01-01

    Eosinophils are recruited to the airways as a prominent feature of the asthmatic inflammatory response where they are broadly perceived as promoting pathophysiology. Respiratory virus infections exacerbate established asthma; however, the role of eosinophils and the nature of their interactions with respiratory viruses remain uncertain. To explore these questions, we established acute infection with the rodent pneumovirus, pneumonia virus of mice (PVM), in 3 distinct mouse models of Th2 cytokine–driven asthmatic inflammation. We found that eosinophils recruited to the airways of otherwise naïve mice in response to Aspergillus fumigatus, but not ovalbumin sensitization and challenge, are activated by and degranulate specifically in response to PVM infection. Furthermore, we demonstrate that activated eosinophils from both Aspergillus antigen and cytokine-driven asthma models are profoundly antiviral and promote survival in response to an otherwise lethal PVM infection. Thus, although activated eosinophils within a Th2-polarized inflammatory response may have pathophysiologic features, they are also efficient and effective mediators of antiviral host defense. PMID:24297871

  13. Wireless Subsurface Sensors for Health Monitoring of Thermal Protection Systems on Hypersonic Vehicles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Milos, Frank S.; Arnold, Jim (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Health diagnostics is an area where major improvements have been identified for potential implementation into the design of new reusable launch vehicles (RLVs) in order to reduce life cycle costs, to increase safety margins, and to improve mission reliability. NASA Ames is leading the effort to develop inspection and health management technologies for thermal protection systems. This paper summarizes a joint project between NASA Ames and industry partners to develop "wireless" devices that can be embedded in the thermal protection system to monitor temperature or other quantities of interest. These devices are sensors integrated with radio-frequency identification (RFID) microchips to enable non-contact communication of sensor data to an external reader that may be a hand-held scanner or a large portal. Both passive and active prototype devices have been developed. The passive device uses a thermal fuse to indicate the occurrence of excessive temperature. This device has a diameter under 0.13 cm. (suitable for placement in gaps between ceramic TPS tiles on an RLV) and can withstand 370 C for 15 minutes. The active device contains a small battery to provide power to a thermocouple for recording a temperature history during flight. The bulk of the device must be placed beneath the TPS for protection from high temperature, but the thermocouple can be placed in a hot location such as near the external surface.

  14. The Serum Complement System: A Simplified Laboratory Exercise to Measure the Activity of an Important Component of the Immune System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglis, Jordan E.; Radziwon, Kimberly A.; Maniero, Gregory D.

    2008-01-01

    The immune system is a vital physiological component that affords animals protection from disease and is composed of innate and adaptive mechanisms that rely on cellular and dissolved components. The serum complement system is a series of dissolved proteins that protect against a variety of pathogens. The activity of complement in serum can be…

  15. Thermal Protection System (Heat Shield) Development - Advanced Development Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kowal, T. John

    2010-01-01

    The Orion Thermal Protection System (TPS) ADP was a 3 1/2 year effort to develop ablative TPS materials for the Orion crew capsule. The ADP was motivated by the lack of available ablative TPS's. The TPS ADP pursued a competitive phased development strategy with succeeding rounds of development, testing and down selections. The Project raised the technology readiness level (TRL) of 8 different TPS materials from 5 different commercial vendors, eventual down selecting to a single material system for the Orion heat shield. In addition to providing a heat shield material and design for Orion on time and on budget, the Project accomplished the following: 1) Re-invigorated TPS industry & re-established a NASA competency to respond to future TPS needs; 2) Identified a potentially catastrophic problem with the planned MSL heat shield, and provided a viable, high TRL alternate heat shield design option; and 3) Transferred mature heat shield material and design options to the commercial space industry, including TPS technology information for the SpaceX Dragon capsule.

  16. Thermal Vacuum Facility for Testing Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Daryabeigi, Kamran; Knutson, Jeffrey R.; Sikora, Joseph G.

    2002-01-01

    A thermal vacuum facility for testing launch vehicle thermal protection systems by subjecting them to transient thermal conditions simulating re-entry aerodynamic heating is described. Re-entry heating is simulated by controlling the test specimen surface temperature and the environmental pressure in the chamber. Design requirements for simulating re-entry conditions are briefly described. A description of the thermal vacuum facility, the quartz lamp array and the control system is provided. The facility was evaluated by subjecting an 18 by 36 in. Inconel honeycomb panel to a typical re-entry pressure and surface temperature profile. For most of the test duration, the average difference between the measured and desired pressures was 1.6% of reading with a standard deviation of +/- 7.4%, while the average difference between measured and desired temperatures was 7.6% of reading with a standard deviation of +/- 6.5%. The temperature non-uniformity across the panel was 12% during the initial heating phase (t less than 500 sec.), and less than 2% during the remainder of the test.

  17. Ballistic performance of porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Joshua E.; Bohl, William E.; Christiansen, Eric C.; Davis, Bruce A.; Foreman, Cory D.

    2012-03-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These systems insulate reentry critical components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Additionally, these materials are highly exposed to space environment hazards like solid particle impacts. This paper discusses impact studies up to 10 km/s on 8 lb/ft3 alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) tiles coated with a toughened-unipiece-fibrousinsulation/ reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG). A semi-empirical, first principles impact model that describes projectile dispersion is described that provides excellent agreement with observations over a broad range of impact velocities, obliquities and projectile materials. Model extensions to look at the implications of greater than 10 GPa equation of state is also discussed. Predicted penetration probabilities for a vehicle visiting the International Space Station is 60% lower for orbital debris and 95% lower for meteoroids with this model compared to an energy scaled approach.

  18. Optical fiber sensor systems for forest protection in Canada

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Domanski, Andrzej W.; Wolinski, Tomasz R.; Dybko, Artur; Sosin, Tomasz P.; Bock, Wojtek J.

    1993-03-01

    Forest damages in Canada have been observed to occur since the mid-1970's. Current hypotheses that attempt to explain forest declines implicate the effects of acid deposition, excess sulfur and nitrogen deposition, and elevated concentration of ozone and carbon dioxide on forest soils and nutrition as major contributors. Forest protection requires information about the pH of precipitation and aquatic ground water/soil systems along with the characterization of chemical toxicants distribution in the forest environment. Present analytical techniques for toxic chemical compounds are not well suited for field measurements. Current methods require collection of samples in the field and subsequent analysis in the laboratory. The paper discusses the possibility of applying fiber optic sensing networks for constant monitoring of pH and input/output balance of forest ecosystems to overcome most of the limitations of current methods for characterizing the distribution of chemical toxicants in the forest environment. The idea of such networks is based on sensors which couple fluorescence measurement with optical fibers offering not only a good precision and reliability but direct compatibility with fiber optic telemetry, optical data transmission systems, and optical multiplexing technology.

  19. Ballistic Performance of Porous-Ceramic, Thermal Protection Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, J. E.; Bohl, W. E.; Christiansen, Eric C.; Davis, B. A.; Foreman, C. D.

    2011-01-01

    Porous-ceramic, thermal protection systems are used heavily in current reentry vehicles like the Orbiter, and they are currently being proposed for the next generation of US manned spacecraft, Orion. These systems insulate reentry critical components of a spacecraft against the intense thermal environments of atmospheric reentry. Additionally, these materials are highly exposed to space environment hazards like solid particle impacts. This paper discusses impact studies up to 10 km/s on 8 lb/cu ft alumina-fiber-enhanced-thermal-barrier (AETB8) tiles coated with a toughened-unipiece-fibrous-insulation/ reaction-cured-glass layer (TUFI/RCG). A semi-empirical, first principals impact model that describes projectile dispersion is described that provides excellent agreement with observations over a broad range of impact velocities, obliquities and projectile materials. Model extensions to look at the implications of greater than 10 GPa equation of state is also discussed. Predicted penetration probabilities for a vehicle visiting the International Space Station is 60% lower for orbital debris and 95% lower for meteoroids with this model compared to an energy scaled approach.

  20. Shearographic nondestructive evaluation of Space Shuttle thermal protection systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davis, Christopher K.; Hooker, Jeffery A.; Simmons, Stephen M.; Tenbusch, Kenneth E.

    1995-07-01

    Preliminary results of shearographic inspections of the shuttle external tank (ET) spray-on foam insulation (SOFI) and solid rocket booster (SRB) Marshall sprayable ablative (MSA-2) epoxy-cork thermal protection systems (TPS) are presented. Debonding SOFI or MSA-2 damage the orbiter `belly' tile and exposes the ET/SRB to thermal loading. Previous work with the ET/SRB showed promising results with shearography. The first area investigated was the jack pad close-out, one of many areas on the ET where foam is applied at KSC. Voids 0.375 inch were detected in 1.75 inch thick foam using a pressure reduction of less than 0.4 psi. Of primary interest are areas of the ET that directly face the orbiter tile TPS. It is estimated that 90% of tile TPS damage on the orbiter `belly' results from debonding SOFI during ascent. Test panels modeling these areas were manufactured with programmed debonds to determine the sensitivity of shearography as a function of debond size, SOFI thickness and vacuum. Results show repeatable detection of debonds with a diameter approximately half the SOFI thickness at less than 0.4 psi pressure reduction. Preliminary results are also presented on inspections of MSA-2 and the remote manipulator system (RMS) honeycomb material.

  1. Bifurcation perspective on topologically protected and non-protected states in continuous systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee-Thorp, James P.

    We study Schrodinger operators perturbed by non-compact (spatially extended) defects. We consider two models: a one-dimensional (1D) dimer structure with a global phase shift, and a two-dimensional (2D) honeycomb structure with a line-defect or "edge''. In both the 1D and 2D settings, the non-compact defects are modeled by adiabatic, domain wall modulations of the respective dimer and honeycomb structures. Our main results relate to the rigorous construction of states via bifurcations from continuous spectra. These bifurcations are controlled by asymptotic effective (homogenized) equations that underlie the protected or non-protected character of the states. In 1D, the states we construct are localized solutions. In 2D, they are "edge states'' - time-harmonic solutions which are propagating (plane-wave-like) parallel to a line-defect or "edge'' and are localized transverse to it. The states are described as protected if they persist in the presence of spatially localized (even strong) deformations of the global phase defect (in 1D) or edge (in 2D). The protected states bifurcate from "Dirac points'' (linear/conical spectral band-crossings) in the continuous spectra and are seeded by an effective Dirac equation. The (more conventional) non-protected states bifurcate from spectral band edges are seeded by an effective Schrodinger equation. Our 2D model captures many aspects of the phenomenon of topologically protected edge states observed in honeycomb structures such as graphene and "artificial graphene''. The protected states we construct in our 1D dimer model can be realized as highly robust TM- electromagnetic modes for a class of photonic waveguides with a phase-defect. We present a detailed computational study of an experimentally realizable photonic waveguide array structure.

  2. Upgrading and enhancing the generator protection system by making use of current digital systems

    SciTech Connect

    Chau, N.H.; Gardell, J.D.; Patel, S.C.

    1996-06-01

    Upgrading of power plant systems and equipment is becoming a major theme for many utilities. Due to operational cost pressures, competitiveness, life extension, and the desire for better productivity, condition assessment programs are being implemented. One aspect of this is the enhancement/upgrade of existing generator protection schemes with digital systems. Traditionally this protection has been provided by a complement of discrete component relays. These relays have included both electromechanical and static types. Considering a digital enhancement/upgrade offers the owner of installed generation equipment several unique advantages. These include more complete machine protection, diagnostics capabilities for greater productivity and maintenance optimization, life extension with minimal implementation, and the operational advantages of sequence of events, present values and communications capabilities.

  3. 42 CFR 51.45 - Confidentiality of protection and advocacy system records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Confidentiality of protection and advocacy system... Access to Records, Facilities and Individuals § 51.45 Confidentiality of protection and advocacy system records. (a) Records maintained by the P&A system are the property of the P&A system which must...

  4. Antiviral Protection via RdRP-Mediated Stable Activation of Innate Immunity.

    PubMed

    Painter, Meghan M; Morrison, James H; Zoecklein, Laurie J; Rinkoski, Tommy A; Watzlawik, Jens O; Papke, Louisa M; Warrington, Arthur E; Bieber, Allan J; Matchett, William E; Turkowski, Kari L; Poeschla, Eric M; Rodriguez, Moses

    2015-12-01

    For many emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, definitive solutions via sterilizing adaptive immunity may require years or decades to develop, if they are even possible. The innate immune system offers alternative mechanisms that do not require antigen-specific recognition or a priori knowledge of the causative agent. However, it is unclear whether effective stable innate immune system activation can be achieved without triggering harmful autoimmunity or other chronic inflammatory sequelae. Here, we show that transgenic expression of a picornavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), in the absence of other viral proteins, can profoundly reconfigure mammalian innate antiviral immunity by exposing the normally membrane-sequestered RdRP activity to sustained innate immune detection. RdRP-transgenic mice have life-long, quantitatively dramatic upregulation of 80 interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and show profound resistance to normally lethal viral challenge. Multiple crosses with defined knockout mice (Rag1, Mda5, Mavs, Ifnar1, Ifngr1, and Tlr3) established that the mechanism operates via MDA5 and MAVS and is fully independent of the adaptive immune system. Human cell models recapitulated the key features with striking fidelity, with the RdRP inducing an analogous ISG network and a strict block to HIV-1 infection. This RdRP-mediated antiviral mechanism does not depend on secondary structure within the RdRP mRNA but operates at the protein level and requires RdRP catalysis. Importantly, despite lifelong massive ISG elevations, RdRP mice are entirely healthy, with normal longevity. Our data reveal that a powerfully augmented MDA5-mediated activation state can be a well-tolerated mammalian innate immune system configuration. These results provide a foundation for augmenting innate immunity to achieve broad-spectrum antiviral protection. PMID:26633895

  5. Antiviral Protection via RdRP-Mediated Stable Activation of Innate Immunity

    PubMed Central

    Painter, Meghan M.; Morrison, James H.; Zoecklein, Laurie J.; Rinkoski, Tommy A.; Watzlawik, Jens O.; Papke, Louisa M.; Warrington, Arthur E.; Bieber, Allan J.; Matchett, William E.; Turkowski, Kari L.; Poeschla, Eric M.; Rodriguez, Moses

    2015-01-01

    For many emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases, definitive solutions via sterilizing adaptive immunity may require years or decades to develop, if they are even possible. The innate immune system offers alternative mechanisms that do not require antigen-specific recognition or a priori knowledge of the causative agent. However, it is unclear whether effective stable innate immune system activation can be achieved without triggering harmful autoimmunity or other chronic inflammatory sequelae. Here, we show that transgenic expression of a picornavirus RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRP), in the absence of other viral proteins, can profoundly reconfigure mammalian innate antiviral immunity by exposing the normally membrane-sequestered RdRP activity to sustained innate immune detection. RdRP-transgenic mice have life-long, quantitatively dramatic upregulation of 80 interferon-stimulated genes (ISGs) and show profound resistance to normally lethal viral challenge. Multiple crosses with defined knockout mice (Rag1, Mda5, Mavs, Ifnar1, Ifngr1, and Tlr3) established that the mechanism operates via MDA5 and MAVS and is fully independent of the adaptive immune system. Human cell models recapitulated the key features with striking fidelity, with the RdRP inducing an analogous ISG network and a strict block to HIV-1 infection. This RdRP-mediated antiviral mechanism does not depend on secondary structure within the RdRP mRNA but operates at the protein level and requires RdRP catalysis. Importantly, despite lifelong massive ISG elevations, RdRP mice are entirely healthy, with normal longevity. Our data reveal that a powerfully augmented MDA5-mediated activation state can be a well-tolerated mammalian innate immune system configuration. These results provide a foundation for augmenting innate immunity to achieve broad-spectrum antiviral protection. PMID:26633895

  6. Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 interactions with adrenergic and dopaminergic systems in mucosal protection in stress.

    PubMed

    Sikirić, P; Mazul, B; Seiwerth, S; Grabarević, Z; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Jagić, V; Turković, B; Rotkvić, I; Mise, S; Zoricić, I; Jurina, L; Konjevoda, P; Hanzevacki, M; Gjurasin, M; Separović, J; Ljubanović, D; Artuković, B; Bratulić, M; Tisljar, M; Miklić, P; Sumajstorcić, J

    1997-03-01

    Since superior protection against different gastrointestinal and liver lesions and antiinflammatory and analgesic activities were noted for pentadecapeptide BPC (an essential fragment of an organoprotective gastric juice protein named BPC), the beneficial mechanism of BPC 157 and its likely interactions with other systems were studied. Hence its beneficial effects would be abolished by adrenal gland medullectomy, the influence of different agents affecting alpha, beta, and dopamine receptors on BPC 157 gastroprotection in 48 h restraint stress was further investigated. Animals were pretreated (1 hr before stress) with saline (controls) or BPC 157 (dissolved in saline) (10 microg or 10 ng/kg body wt intraperitoneally or intragastrically) applied either alone to establish basal conditions or, when manipulating the adrenergic or dopaminergic system, a simultaneous administration was carried out with various agents with specific effects on adrenergic or dopaminergic receptors [given in milligrams per kilogram intraperitoneally except for atenolol, which was given subcutaneously] phentolamine (10.0), prazosin (0.5), yohimbine (5.0), clonidine (0.1) (alpha-adrenergic domain), propranolol (1.0), atenolol (20.0) (beta-adrenergic domain), domperidone (5.0), and haloperidol (5.0) (peripheral/central dopamine system). Alternatively, agents stimulating adrenergic or dopaminergic systems--adrenaline (5.0) or bromocriptine (10.0)--were applied. A strong protection, noted following intragastric or intraperitoneal administration of BPC 157, was fully abolished by coadministration of phentolamine, clonidine, and haloperidol, and consistently not affected by prazosin, yohimbine, or domperidone. Atenolol abolished only intraperitoneal BPC 157 protection, whereas propranolol affected specifically intragastric BPC 157 protection. Interestingly, the severe course of lesion development obtained in basal conditions, unlike BPC 157 gastroprotection, was not influenced by the application of

  7. Degradation and failure characteristics of NPP containment protective coating systems

    SciTech Connect

    Sindelar, R.L.

    2000-03-30

    A research program to investigate the performance and potential for failure of Service Level 1 coating systems used in nuclear power plant containment is in progress. The research activities are aligned to address phenomena important to cause failure as identified by the industry coatings expert panel. The period of interest for performance covers the time from application of the coating through 40 years of service, followed by a medium-to-large break loss-of-coolant accident scenario, which is a design basis accident (DBA) scenario. The interactive program elements are discussed in this report and the application of these elements to the System 5 coating system (polyamide epoxy primer, carbon steel substrate) is used to evaluate performance.

  8. Deformation of Polymer Composites in Force Protection Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nazarian, Oshin

    Systems used for protecting personnel, vehicles and infrastructure from ballistic and blast threats derive their performance from a combination of the intrinsic properties of the constituent materials and the way in which the materials are arranged and attached to one another. The present work addresses outstanding issues in both the intrinsic properties of high-performance fiber composites and the consequences of how such composites are integrated into force protection systems. One aim is to develop a constitutive model for the large-strain intralaminar shear deformation of an ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) fiber-reinforced composite. To this end, an analytical model based on a binary representation of the constituent phases is developed and validated using finite element analyses. The model is assessed through comparisons with experimental measurements on cross-ply composite specimens in the +/-45° orientation. The hardening behavior and the limiting tensile strain are attributable to rotations of fibers in the plastic domain and the effects of these rotations on the internal stress state. The model is further assessed through quasi-static punch experiments and dynamic impact tests using metal foam projectiles. The finite element model based on this model accurately captures both the back-face deflection-time history and the final plate profile (especially the changes caused by fiber pull-in). A separate analytical framework for describing the accelerations caused by head impact during, for example, the secondary collision of a vehicle occupant with the cabin interior during an external event is also presented. The severity of impact, characterized by the Head Injury Criterion (HIC), is used to assess the efficacy of crushable foams in mitigating head injury. The framework is used to identify the optimal foam strength that minimizes the HIC for prescribed mass and velocity, subject to constraints on foam thickness. The predictive capability of

  9. Anti-inflammatory activity of intravenous immunoglobulins protects against West Nile virus encephalitis

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Ruchi; Ramakrishna, Chandran

    2015-01-01

    West Nile virus (WNV), an important global human pathogen, targets neurons to cause lethal encephalitis, primarily in elderly and immunocompromised patients. Currently, there are no approved therapeutic agents or vaccines to treat WNV encephalitis. Recent studies have suggested that inflammation is a major contributor to WNV encephalitis morbidity. In this study we evaluated the use of IVIG (intravenous immunoglobulins – a clinical product comprising pooled human IgG) as an anti-inflammatory treatment in a model of lethal WNV infection. We report here that IVIG and pooled human WNV convalescent sera (WNV-IVIG) inhibited development of lethal WNV encephalitis by suppressing central nervous system (CNS) infiltration by CD45high leukocytes. Pathogenic Ly6Chigh CD11b+ monocytes were the major infiltrating subset in the CNS of infected control mice, whereas IVIG profoundly reduced infiltration of these pathogenic Ly6Chigh monocytes into the CNS of infected mice. Interestingly, WNV-IVIG was more efficacious than IVIG in controlling CNS inflammation when mice were challenged with a high-dose inoculum (105 versus 104 p.f.u.) of WNV. Importantly, adsorption of WNV E-glycoprotein neutralizing antibodies did not abrogate IVIG protection, consistent with virus neutralization not being essential for IVIG protection. These findings confirmed the potent immunomodulatory activity of generic IVIG, and emphasized its potential as an effective immunotherapeutic drug for encephalitis and other virus induced inflammatory diseases. PMID:25667322

  10. Thermal Management Coating As Thermal Protection System for Space Transportation System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kaul, Raj; Stuckey, C. Irvin

    2003-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on the development of a non-ablative thermal management coating used as the thermal protection system material for space shuttle rocket boosters and other launch vehicles. The topics include: 1) Coating Study; 2) Aerothermal Testing; 3) Preconditioning Environments; 4) Test Observations; 5) Lightning Strike Test Panel; 6) Test Panel After Impact Testing; 7) Thermal Testing; and 8) Mechanical Testing.

  11. Characterizing wind turbine system response to lightning activity

    SciTech Connect

    McNiff, B.; LaWhite, N.; Muljadi, E.

    1998-07-01

    A lightning protection research program was instituted by National Renewable Energy Laboratory to minimize lightning damage to wind turbines and to further the understanding of effective damage mitigation techniques. To that end, a test program is under way to observe lightning activity, protection system response, and damage at a wind power plant in the Department of Energy (DOE) and Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) Turbine Verification Program. The authors installed Lightning activated surveillance cameras along with a special storm tracking device to observe the activity in the wind plant area. They instrumented the turbines with lightning and ground current detection devices to log direct and indirect strike activity at each unit. They installed a surge monitor on the utility interface to track incoming activity from the transmission lines. Maintenance logs are used to verify damage and determine downtime and repair costs. Actual strikes to turbines were recorded on video and ancillary devices. The test setup and some results are discussed in this paper.

  12. SAFER Inspection of Space Shuttle Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Scoville, Zebulon C.; Rajula, Sudhakar

    2005-01-01

    In the aftermath of the space shuttle Columbia accident, it quickly became clear that new methods would need to be developed that would provide the capability to inspect and repair the shuttle's thermal protection system (TPS). A boom extension to the Remote Manipulator System (RMS) with a laser topography sensor package was identified as the primary means for measuring the damage depth in acreage tile as well as scanning Reinforced Carbon- Carbon (RCC) surfaces. However, concern over the system's fault tolerance made it prudent to investigate alternate means of acquiring close range photographs and contour depth measurements in the event of a failure. One method that was identified early was to use the Simplified Aid For EVA Rescue (SAFER) propulsion system to allow EVA access to damaged areas of concern. Several issues were identified as potential hazards to SAFER use for this operation. First, the ability of an astronaut to maintain controlled flight depends upon efficient technique and hardware reliability. If either of these is insufficient during flight operations, a safety tether must be used to rescue the crewmember. This operation can jeopardize the integrity of the Extra-vehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) or delicate TPS materials. Controls were developed to prevent the likelihood of requiring a tether rescue, and procedures were written to maximize the chances for success if it cannot be avoided. Crewmember ability to manage tether cable tension during nominal flight also had to be evaluated to ensure it would not negatively affect propellant consumption. Second, although propellant consumption, flight control, orbital dynamics, and flight complexity can all be accurately evaluated in Virtual Reality (VR) Laboratory at Johnson Space Center, there are some shortcomings. As a crewmember's hand is extended to simulate measurement of tile damage, it will pass through the vehicle without resistance. In reality, this force will push the crewmember away from the

  13. A Study of the Effects of Altitude on Thermal Ice Protection System Performance

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Addy, Gene; Oleskiw, Myron; Broeren, Andy P.; Orchard, David

    2013-01-01

    Thermal ice protection systems use heat energy to prevent a dangerous buildup of ice on an aircraft. As aircraft become more efficient, less heat energy is available to operate a thermal ice protections system. This requires that thermal ice protection systems be designed to more exacting standards so as to more efficiently prevent a dangerous ice buildup without adversely affecting aircraft safety. While the effects of altitude have always beeing taked into account in the design of thermal ice protection systems, a better understanding of these effects is needed so as to enable more exact design, testing, and evaluation of these systems.

  14. Lightning: Understanding it and protecting systems from its effects

    SciTech Connect

    Hasbrouck, R.T.

    1989-04-10

    This tutorial will raise the reader's level of lightning consciousness by providing an overview of the atmospheric electrification process and by discussing the development and characteristics of a lightning discharge. Next, techniques and instrumentation for lightning threat warning, detection and tracking will be presented. Finally, the principles of protection will be discussed, along with several methods for testing that protection. 15 refs., 16 figs.

  15. DEVELOPMENT OF ALTERNATIVE, NON-HALOGEN FIRE PROTECTION SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    With the phaseout of halon production, two alternative technologies - water misting and low-residue particulates - have come to the fire protection forefront. These technologies use water or dry chemicals in reduced quantities to provide acceptable fire protection. A review and a...

  16. 42 CFR 51.31 - Conduct of protection and advocacy activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Conduct of protection and advocacy activities. 51.31 Section 51.31 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS... health care or treatment facilities, and relevant hospital units. (d) Program activities should...

  17. Mars Science Laboratory Entry Capsule Aerothermodynamics and Thermal Protection System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Edquist, Karl T.; Hollis, Brian R.; Dyakonov, Artem A.; Laub, Bernard; Wright, Michael J.; Rivellini, Tomasso P.; Slimko, Eric M.; Willcockson, William H.

    2007-01-01

    The Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) spacecraft is being designed to carry a large rover (greater than 800 kg) to the surface of Mars using a blunt-body entry capsule as the primary decelerator. The spacecraft is being designed for launch in 2009 and arrival at Mars in 2010. The combination of large mass and diameter with non-zero angle-of-attack for MSL will result in unprecedented convective heating environments caused by turbulence prior to peak heating. Navier-Stokes computations predict a large turbulent heating augmentation for which there are no supporting flight data1 and little ground data for validation. Consequently, an extensive experimental program has been established specifically for MSL to understand the level of turbulent augmentation expected in flight. The experimental data support the prediction of turbulent transition and have also uncovered phenomena that cannot be replicated with available computational methods. The result is that the flight aeroheating environments predictions must include larger uncertainties than are typically used for a Mars entry capsule. Finally, the thermal protection system (TPS) being used for MSL has not been flown at the heat flux, pressure, and shear stress combinations expected in flight, so a test program has been established to obtain conditions relevant to flight. This paper summarizes the aerothermodynamic definition analysis and TPS development, focusing on the challenges that are unique to MSL.

  18. Interfacial fracture of Space-Shuttle thermal-protection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Komine, A.; Kobayashi, A. S.

    1982-01-01

    Stable crack growth and fracture at the interface of undensified LI-900 reusable surface insulation (RSI) tile and the Nomex strain isolation pad (SIP) of the Space-Shuttle thermal-protection system (TPS) were modeled by double-edged notch-tension specimens. These specimens were loaded under uniaxial tension or 50-Hz cyclic loading and the resultant stable crack growth leading to eventual fracture was monitored by a videocamera. These tests showed that successive local tear-outs due to local tensile overload in the RSI tile resulted in the interfacial fracture where the crack-tip opening angle, CTOA, of the SIP was related to initiation and intermittent stable crack propagation. Fractures in similar static and dynamic test specimens using densified LI-900 RSI tiles occurred in the undensified regions of the RSI tiles. These failures were consistent with the above failure mechanism based on the local tensile strength of the undensified LI-900 RSI tile. The intermittent stable crack growth of undensified LI-900 RSI tile was reproduced by a deterministic, two-dimensional finite-element model with SIP of variable elastic moduli.

  19. Nanostructured Thermal Protection Systems for Space Exploration Missions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnold, J. O.; Chen, Y. K.; Squire, T.; Srivastava, D.; Allen, G., Jr.; Stackpoole, M.; Goldstein, H. E.; Venkatapathy, E.; Loomis, M. P.

    2005-01-01

    Strong research and development programs in nanotechnology and Thermal Protection Systems (TPS) exist at NASA Ames. Conceptual studies have been undertaken to determine if new, nanostructured materials (composites of existing TPS materials and nanostructured composite fibers) could improve the performance of TPS. To this end, we have studied various candidate heatshields, some composed of existing TPS materials (with known material properties), to provide a baseline for comparison with others that are admixtures of such materials and a nanostructured material. In the latter case, some assumptions were made about the thermal conductivity and strength of the admixture, relative to the baseline TPS material. For the purposes of this study, we have made the conservative assumption that only a small fraction of the remarkable properties of carbon nanotubes (for example) will be realized in the material properties of the admixtures employing them. The heatshields studied included those for Sharp leading edges (appropriate to out-of-orbit entry and aero-maneuvering), probes, an out-of-orbit Apollo Command Module (as a surrogate for NASA's new Crew Exploration Vehicle [CEV]), a Mars Sample Return Vehicle and a large heat shield for Mars aerocapture missions. We report on these conceptual studies, which show that in some cases (not all), significant improvements in the TPS can be achieved through the use of nanostructured materials.

  20. Thermal Protection System design studies for lunar crew module

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, S. D.; Curry, Donald M.; Bouslog, Stanley A.; Rochelle, William C.

    1993-01-01

    The results of a study to predict aeroheating and Thermal Protection System (TPS) requirements for manned entry vehicles returning to Earth from the moon are presented. The effects of vehicle size and lunar-return strategies on the aerothermodynamic environment and TPS design were assessed. Study guidelines were based on an Apollo Command Module (CM) configuration and lunar return strategies included direct entry and aerocapture followed by Low Earth Orbit entry (LEO). Convective heating was obtained by the boundary layer integral matrix procedure (BLIMP) code, and radiative heating was computed with the QRAD program. The AESOP-STAB code and the AESOP-THERM code were used for TPS analysis for ablating materials and nonablating materials respectively. Results indicated that there was an optimum size for minimum heating and that direct entry had higher heating rates than aerocapture. Aerocapture resulted in higher heat loads and TPS weight. The TPS weight factor was 6-8 percent for all lunar return strategies, with the TPS weight being about 50 percent less than that of the original Apollo CM vehicle.