Science.gov

Sample records for active raman gain

  1. Enhanced optical precursors by Doppler effect via active Raman gain process.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yandong; Niu, Yueping; Zhang, Lida; Yang, Aihong; Jiang, Lin; Gong, Shangqing

    2012-08-15

    A scheme for enhancing precursor pulse by Doppler effect is proposed in a room-temperature active-Raman-gain medium. Due to abnormal dispersion between two gain peaks, main fields are advanced and constructively interfere with optical precursors, which leads to enhancement of the transient pulse at the rise edge of the input. Moreover, after Doppler averaging, the abnormal dispersion intensifies and the constructive interference between precursors and main fields is much strengthened, which boosts the transient spike. Simulation results demonstrate that the peak intensity of precursors could be enhanced nearly 20 times larger than that of the input. PMID:23381248

  2. All-optical transistor using a photonic-crystal cavity with an active Raman gain medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipkin, V. G.; Myslivets, S. A.

    2013-09-01

    We propose a design of an all-optical transistor based on a one-dimensional photonic-crystal cavity doped with a four-level N-type active Raman gain medium. The calculated results show that in a photonic-crystal cavity of this kind transmission and reflection of the probe (Raman) beam are strongly dependent on the optical switching power. Transmission and reflection of the probe beam can be greatly amplified or attenuated. Therefore the optical switching field can serve as a gate field of the transistor to effectively control propagation of the weak probe field. It is shown that the group velocity of the probe pulse can be controlled in the range from subluminal (slow light) to superluminal (fast light).

  3. Lossless Airy Surface Polaritons in a Metamaterial via Active Raman Gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qi; Tan, Chaohua; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-02-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a lossless propagation of linear and nonlinear Airy surface polaritons (SPs) via active Raman gain (ARG). The system we suggest is a planar interface superposed by a negative index metamaterial (NIMM) and a dielectric, where three-level quantum emitters are doped. By using the ARG from the quantum emitters and the destructive interference effect between the electric and magnetic responses from the NIMM, we show that not only the Ohmic loss of the NIMM but also the light absorption of the quantum emitters can be completely eliminated. As a result, non-diffractive Airy SPs may propagate for very long distance without attenuation. We also show that the Kerr nonlinearity of the system can be largely enhanced due to the introduction of the quantum emitters and hence lossless Airy surface polaritonic solitons with very low power can be generated in the system.

  4. Lossless Airy Surface Polaritons in a Metamaterial via Active Raman Gain.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qi; Tan, Chaohua; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a lossless propagation of linear and nonlinear Airy surface polaritons (SPs) via active Raman gain (ARG). The system we suggest is a planar interface superposed by a negative index metamaterial (NIMM) and a dielectric, where three-level quantum emitters are doped. By using the ARG from the quantum emitters and the destructive interference effect between the electric and magnetic responses from the NIMM, we show that not only the Ohmic loss of the NIMM but also the light absorption of the quantum emitters can be completely eliminated. As a result, non-diffractive Airy SPs may propagate for very long distance without attenuation. We also show that the Kerr nonlinearity of the system can be largely enhanced due to the introduction of the quantum emitters and hence lossless Airy surface polaritonic solitons with very low power can be generated in the system. PMID:26891795

  5. Lossless Airy Surface Polaritons in a Metamaterial via Active Raman Gain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Tan, Chaohua; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a lossless propagation of linear and nonlinear Airy surface polaritons (SPs) via active Raman gain (ARG). The system we suggest is a planar interface superposed by a negative index metamaterial (NIMM) and a dielectric, where three-level quantum emitters are doped. By using the ARG from the quantum emitters and the destructive interference effect between the electric and magnetic responses from the NIMM, we show that not only the Ohmic loss of the NIMM but also the light absorption of the quantum emitters can be completely eliminated. As a result, non-diffractive Airy SPs may propagate for very long distance without attenuation. We also show that the Kerr nonlinearity of the system can be largely enhanced due to the introduction of the quantum emitters and hence lossless Airy surface polaritonic solitons with very low power can be generated in the system. PMID:26891795

  6. Surface polaritons in a negative-index metamaterial with active Raman gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Chaohua; Huang, Guoxiang

    2015-02-01

    We propose a scheme to realize stable propagation of linear and nonlinear surface polaritons (SPs) by placing a N -type four-level quantum emitters at the interface between a dielectric and a negative-index metamaterial (NIMM). We show that in linear propagation regime SPs can acquire an active Raman gain (ARG) from a pump field and a gain doublet appears in the gain spectrum of a signal field induced by the quantum interference effect from a control field. The ARG can be used not only to completely compensate the Ohmic loss in the NIMM but also to acquire a superluminal group velocity for the SPs. We also show that in the nonlinear propagation regime a huge enhancement of the Kerr nonlinearity of the SPs can be obtained. As a result, ARG-assisted (1 + 1 )- and (2 + 1 )- dimensional superluminal surface polaritonic solitons with extremely low generation power may be produced based on the strong confinement of the electric field at the dielectric-NIMM interface.

  7. Image formation using stimulated raman scattering gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespalov, V. G.; Makarov, E. A.; Stasel'ko, D. I.

    2016-07-01

    Theoretical analysis of the spatial, noise, and energy characteristics of an amplifier has been performed in the mode of spectral and time selection using subnanosecond stimulated Raman Scattering gain of weak echo signals in crystalline active media that are known for high (up to 10-1 cm/MW) gain coefficients. The possibility to reach high gain values has been demonstrated for weak signals from objects at acceptable angular sizes of the field of vision of an amplifier. To provide a signal-to-noise ratio that exceeds unity over the entire field of vision, the number of photons at the input to an amplifier that is required has to exceed the number of its resolution elements. Accurate determination of the possibilities of recording of weak echo signals and quality of images of targets that are obtained using amplifiers under stimulated Raman Scattering requires additional special experiments.

  8. Giant Raman gain in silicon nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Sirleto, Luigi; Antonietta Ferrara, Maria; Nikitin, Timur; Novikov, Sergei; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured silicon has generated a lot of interest in the past decades as a key material for silicon-based photonics. The low absorption coefficient makes silicon nanocrystals attractive as an active medium in waveguide structures, and their third-order nonlinear optical properties are crucial for the development of next generation nonlinear photonic devices. Here we report the first observation of stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silica matrix under non-resonant excitation at infrared wavelengths (~1.5 μm). Raman gain is directly measured as a function of the silicon content. A giant Raman gain from the silicon nanocrystals is obtained that is up to four orders of magnitude greater than in crystalline silicon. These results demonstrate the first Raman amplifier based on silicon nanocrystals in a silica matrix, thus opening new perspectives for the realization of more efficient Raman lasers with ultra-small sizes, which would increase the synergy between electronic and photonic devices. PMID:23187620

  9. Linear and nonlinear Faraday rotations of light polarization in a four-level active-Raman-gain medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Chengjie; Deng, L.; Hagley, E. W.

    2013-08-01

    We investigate linear and nonlinear Faraday effects in a room-temperature, coherently driven four-level active-Raman-gain (ARG) medium. By using the multiple-scale method, we derive two nonlinear coupled envelope equations governing the dynamics of left- and right-polarized components of a linearly polarized probe field. Under the weak probe field approximation, we demonstrate a factor of four increase of the Faraday rotation angle by the linear and nonlinear response of the ARG scheme without probe field loss. We further compare this ARG system with an M-type five-state electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) scheme and demonstrate the superiority of the ARG scheme over the conventional EIT scheme.

  10. Highly entangled photons and rapidly responding polarization qubit phase gates in a room-temperature active Raman gain medium

    SciTech Connect

    Hang Chao; Huang Guoxiang

    2010-11-15

    We present a scheme for obtaining entangled photons and quantum phase gates in a room-temperature four-state tripod-type atomic system with two-mode active Raman gain (ARG). We analyze the linear and nonlinear optical responses of this ARG system and show that the scheme is fundamentally different from those based on electromagnetically induced transparency and hence can avoid significant probe-field absorption as well as a temperature-related Doppler effect. We demonstrate that highly entangled photon pairs can be produced and rapidly responding polarization qubit phase gates can be constructed based on the unique features of the enhanced cross-phase-modulation and superluminal probe-field propagation of the system.

  11. Raman gains of ADP and KDP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Wang, Bo; Xu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Zheng-Ping; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Li-Song; Liu, Bao-An; Chai, Xiang-Xu

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the Raman gain coefficients of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are measured. By using a pump source of a 30-ps, 532-nm laser, the gain coefficients of ADP and KDP are 1.22 cm/GW, and 0.91 cm/GW, respectively. While for a 20-ps, 355-nm pump laser, the gain coefficients of these two crystals are similar, which are 1.95 cm/GW for ADP and 1.86 for KDP. The present results indicate that for ultra-violet frequency conversion, the problem of stimulated Raman scattering for ADP crystal will not be more serious than that for KDP crystal. Considering other advantages such the larger nonlinear optical coefficient, higher laser damage threshold, and lower noncritical phase-matching temperature, it can be anticipated that ADP will be a powerful competitor to KDP in large aperture, high energy third-harmonic generation or fourth-harmonic generation applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51323002 and 51402173), the Independent Innovation Foundation of Shandong University, China (Grant Nos. IIFSDU and 2012JC016), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, China (Grant No. NCET-10-0552), the Fund from the Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. 2014BB07), and the Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholar of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. JQ201218).

  12. Gain enhancement in a XeCl-pumped Raman amplifier

    SciTech Connect

    Rifkin, J.; Bernt, M.L.; MacPherson, D.C.; Carlsten, J.L.

    1988-08-01

    A comparison of the theoretical predictions of a multimode broadband model with the experimentally measured gain enhancement in a Raman amplifier is presented. The results show that the multimode theory with fixed and totally random phases is in agreement with the data obtained from an excimer-laser-pumped Raman amplifier. Additionally, this theory indicates that the correlated gain can be larger than the gain for a monochromatic laser, as might be expected for a model with amplitude modulation.

  13. High gain/broadband oxide glasses for next generation Raman amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rivero, Clara A.

    Interest in Raman amplification has undergone a revival due to the rapidly increasing bandwidth requirements for communications transmission, both for long haul and local area networks, and recent developments in the telecom fiber industry and diode laser technology. In contrast to rare earth doped fiber amplifiers, for which the range of wavelengths is fixed and limited, Raman gain bandwidths are larger and the operating wavelength is fixed only by the pump wavelength and the bandwidth of the Raman active medium. In this context, glasses are the material of choice for this application due to their relatively broad spectral response, and ability of making them into optical fiber. This dissertation summarizes findings on different oxide-based glasses that have been synthesized and characterized for their potential application as Raman gain media. Two main glass families were investigated: phosphate-based glass matrices for broadband Raman gain application and TeO2-based glasses for high Raman gain amplification. A phosphate network was preferred for the broadband application since the phosphate Raman active modes can provide amplification above 1000 cm-1, whilst TeO2-based glasses were selected for the high gain application due to their enhanced nonlinearities and polarizabilities among the other oxide-based network formers. The results summarized in this dissertation show that phosphate-based glasses can provide Raman amplification bandwidths of up to 40 THz, an improvement of almost 5 times the bandwidth of SiO2. On the other hand, tellurite-based glasses appear to be promising candidates for high gain discrete Raman applications, providing peak Raman gain coefficients of up to 50 times higher than SiO 2, at 1064 nm. Although, visible spontaneous Raman scattering cross-section measurement is the most frequently used tool for estimating the strength and spectral distribution of Raman gain in materials, especially glasses, there are some issues that one needs to be

  14. Low frequency Raman gain measurements using chirped pulses.

    PubMed

    Dogariu, A; Hagan, D

    1997-08-01

    Two-beam coupling, attributed to Raman gain, is observed in dielectrics using chirped femtosecond pulses. A time resolved pump-probe geometry is used to vary the frequency difference between pulses in the terahertz frequency band. Stimulated Raman scattering couples the pulses transferring energy from the higher to the lower frequency beam, resulting in a dispersion shaped curve as a function of the temporal delay, dependent on the product of the pump and probe irradiances. The observed signal gives the Raman gain in SiO2 and PbF2 for detunings up to 10 THz (approximately 300 cm -1 ) using mm-thick samples. This method may also be sensitive to the electronic motion responsible for bound-electronic nonlinear refractive index, which could yield the optical response time of bound electrons. PMID:19373383

  15. High gain Raman amplifier with inherent gain flattening and dispersion compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kakkar, Charu; Thyagarajan, K.

    2005-06-01

    We report here an inherently gain-flattened, high-gain discrete Raman fiber amplifier design with 21 dB net gain (±1.4 dB gain ripple) over 25 nm bandwidth. The amplifier design is based on a W-shape highly nonlinear fiber, in which, optimized spectral variation of leakage loss has been used to achieve inherent gain flattening of Raman gain. The proposed fiber has an additional advantage of having a high negative dispersion coefficient (∼-84 ps/km nm) over the operating range of wavelength and thus the designed discrete amplifier module, based on this fiber, is also capable of compensating dispersion accumulated in one span (70 km) of transmission through G.652 fiber. Hence, the designed module is proposed as a composite amplifier and dispersion-compensating unit for 25 nm bandwidth, which is capable of handling both attenuation and dispersion of one span of G. 652 transmission.

  16. Raman gain of SiC as a potential medium for Raman lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Merkle, Larry D.; Zhang, Jun; Allen, Graham; Dawson, Jay W.; Dubinskii, Mark

    2015-03-01

    We have investigated stimulated Raman scattering in the 4H polytype of SiC, due to its excellent thermal conductivity which is of great importance for power scaling of Raman lasers. Spectroscopy verifies the sample's polytype and precludes any significant admixture of other polytypes. Tests indicate the moderate optical quality of this commercially available sample. Using pump-probe measurements around 1030 nm, we find the Raman gain coefficient of the major peak at 777 cm-1 to be 0.46 cm/GW. Although this value is only modest, calculations and experience with other Raman materials indicate that Raman lasing of 4H SiC should be possible with reasonable intensities of 1064-nm pulsed pumping.

  17. Accumulation of Raman gain between closely spaced pulse pairs.

    PubMed

    Marshall, L R; Piper, J A

    1990-12-01

    The short-pulse conversion efficiency of stimulated Raman scattering in Pb vapor is increased from 15% to 35% by using a novel technique that employs a closely spaced pair of pump pulses. The second pulse scatters off the coherent excitation induced in the medium by the first pulse, with a resultant enhancement in efficiency. To our knowledge these results give the first observation of such long-lived cooperative phenomena in stimulated Raman scattering. We have also observed this phenomenon in H(2) and show that this technique is readily applicable to other Raman-active media. PMID:19771085

  18. Estimation of peak Raman gain coefficients for Barium-Bismuth-Tellurite glasses from spontaneous Raman cross-section experiments.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Jessica; Smith, Charmayne; Massera, Jonathan; Rivero-Baleine, Clara; Bungay, Corey; Petit, Laeticia; Richardson, Kathleen

    2009-05-25

    In this paper we explore the TeO(2)-Bi(2)O(3)-BaO glass family with varied TeO(2) concentration for Raman gain applications, and we report, for the first time, the peak Raman gain coefficients of glasses within this glass family extrapolated from non-resonant absolute Raman cross-section measurements at 785 nm. Estimated Raman gain coefficients show peak values of up to 40 times higher than silica for the main TeO(2) bands. Other optical properties, including index dispersion from the visible to the long wave Infrared (LWIR) are also summarized in this paper. PMID:19466157

  19. Raman Gain Coefficient of Barium Nitrate Measured for the Spectral Region of TI:SAPPHIRE Laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lisinetskii, V. A.; Mishkel', I. I.; Chulkov, R. V.; Grabtchikov, A. S.; Apanasevich, P. A.; Eichler, H.-J.; Orlovich, V. A.

    We report the measurements of the Raman gain coefficient for a barium nitrate crystal in the spectral region of a Ti:Sapphire laser using Raman amplification. The experimentally-obtained data are well described by the known empirical formula.

  20. Intraband Raman laser gain in a boron nitride coupled quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorthy, N. Narayana; Peter, A. John

    2016-05-01

    On-centre impurity related electronic and optical properties are studied in a Boron nitride coupled quantum well. Confined energies for the intraband transition are investigated by studying differential cross section of electron Raman scattering taking into consideration of spatial confinement in a B0.3Ga0.7N/BN coupled quantum well. Raman gain as a function of incident optical pump intensity is computed for constant well width. The enhancement of Raman gain is observed with the application of pump power. The results can be applied for the potential applications for fabricating some optical devices such as optical switches, infrared photo-detectors and electro-optical modulator.

  1. Electron and donor-impurity-related Raman scattering and Raman gain in triangular quantum dots under an applied electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiutiunnyk, Anton; Akimov, Volodymyr; Tulupenko, Viktor; Mora-Ramos, Miguel E.; Kasapoglu, Esin; Morales, Alvaro L.; Duque, Carlos Alberto

    2016-04-01

    The differential cross-section of electron Raman scattering and the Raman gain are calculated and analysed in the case of prismatic quantum dots with equilateral triangle base shape. The study takes into account their dependencies on the size of the triangle, the influence of externally applied electric field as well as the presence of an ionized donor center located at the triangle's orthocenter. The calculations are made within the effective mass and parabolic band approximations, with a diagonalization scheme being applied to obtain the eigenfunctions and eigenvalues of the x- y Hamiltonian. The incident and secondary (scattered) radiation have been considered linearly-polarized along the y-direction, coinciding with the direction of the applied electric field. For the case with an impurity center, Raman scattering with the intermediate state energy below the initial state one has been found to show maximum differential cross-section more than by an order of magnitude bigger than that resulting from the scheme with lower intermediate state energy. The Raman gain has maximum magnitude around 35 nm dot size and electric field of 40 kV/cm for the case without impurity and at maximum considered values of the input parameters for the case with impurity. Values of Raman gain of the order of up to 104cm-1 are predicted in both cases.

  2. Gain dynamics in Raman fiber lasers and passive pump-to-Stokes RIN suppression.

    PubMed

    Steinke, M; Neumann, J; Kracht, D; Wessels, P

    2015-06-29

    We report on theoretical and experimental investigations of gain dynamics in Raman fiber lasers in the frequency range of 1 Hz-1 MHz. An analytical solution of the problem is due to the nonlinear nature of the Raman effect not feasible. Thus, we used a numerical simulation to gain general insights. Experimentally and numerically obtained results for a Raman fiber laser emitting at 1180 nm show good qualitative agreement. We also present a potential physical interpretation of the observed dynamical properties. In addition, we report on an experimental proof-of-principle of a passive pump-to-Stokes RIN suppression scheme for the main Stokes order in cascaded Raman fiber lasers utilizing an additional parasitic Stokes order. Again, results from numerical and experimental studies of a cascaded Raman fiber laser at 1180 nm and 1240 nm show good agreement and confirm the passive pump-to-Stokes RIN suppression at 1180 nm. The dependencies between the resonator design and the parameters of the noise suppression are investigated. In addition, it is shown that the scheme can also be applied to cascaded Raman fiber lasers with more then two Stokes shifts. This opens the possibility to design for example low-noise Raman fiber lasers at 1480 nm to pump low-noise Er(3+) doped fiber amplifiers. PMID:26191694

  3. Gain and Raman line-broadening with graphene coated diamond-shape nano-antennas.

    PubMed

    Paraskevaidis, Charilaos; Kuykendall, Tevye; Melli, Mauro; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Schuck, P James; Schwartzberg, Adam; Dhuey, Scott; Cabrini, Stefano; Grebel, Haim

    2015-10-01

    Using Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS), we report on intensity-dependent broadening in graphene-deposited broad-band antennas. The antenna gain curve includes both the incident frequency and some of the scattered mode frequencies. By comparing antennas with various gaps and types (bow-tie vs. diamond-shape antennas) we make the case that the line broadening did not originate from strain, thermal or surface potential. Strain, if present, further shifts and broadens those Raman lines that are included within the antenna gain curve. PMID:26332298

  4. Optimization of pump parameters for gain flattened Raman fiber amplifiers based on artificial fish school algorithm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hai Ming; Xie, Kang; Wang, Ya Fei

    2011-11-01

    In this work, a novel metaheuristic named artificial fish school algorithm is introduced into the optimization of pump parameters for the design of gain flattened Raman fiber amplifiers for the first time. Artificial fish school algorithm emulates three simple social behaviors of a fish in a school, namely, preying, swarming and following, to optimize a target function. In this algorithm the pump wavelengths and power levels are mapped respectively to the state of a fish in a school, and the gain of a Raman fiber amplifier is mapped to the concentration of a food source for the fish school to search. Application of this algorithm to the design of a C-band gain flattened Raman fiber amplifier leads to an optimized amplifier that produces a flat gain spectrum with 0.63 dB in band ripple for given conditions. This result demonstrates that the artificial fish school algorithm is efficient for the optimization of pump parameters of gain flattened Raman fiber amplifiers.

  5. Gain spectrum self controlling device and algorithm for mutiply pumped Raman amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia Ying

    2004-05-01

    For both forward- and backward-pumped Raman amplifiers, devices to perform gain-spectrum self-control of multi-laser pumps are depicted in this paper. The algorithm supporting the devices is presented also. The function of automatic control is suitable for on-line maintenance of WDM equipment.

  6. Optimizing gain profile and noise performance for distributed fiber Raman amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xueming; Chen, Jian; Lu, Chao; Zhou, Xiaoqun

    2004-11-29

    Raman gain spectrum, noise performance and corresponding nonlinear impact for co-, counter- and bi-directional multi-pump Raman amplifiers are optimized and compared in this paper. A fast numerical method, which can shorten the computing time more than 4 times by comparison to the classical fast method, for solving Raman amplifier propagation equation is proposed. Based on the geometry compensation technique, multiple shooting algorithms and hybrid genetic algorithm, an effective and fast algorithm for optimizing the design of various structures of multi-pump Raman amplifiers is proposed. The optimized results demonstrate that (1) the optimal efficiency and speed are increased significantly by using the proposed algorithm and method (2) although pure forward pumping scheme can improve more than 3-dB optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNR) in comparison with pure backward pumping scheme, the latter costs less total power of input pumps and has great less nonlinear impact; (3) bi-directionally pumping configurations with proper forward pump source can obviously decrease the ripples of both gain and OSNR and equalize the OSNR tilt by comparing to pure backward pumping configuration; (4) there are multiple global or near-global maximums for signal gain spectrum in each pumping scheme and different global maximum in any pumping scheme has different OSNR performance; (5) different bi-directional pump schemes have different gain ripple and noise performance. PMID:19488247

  7. Gain and Raman line-broadening with graphene coated diamond-shape nano-antennas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paraskevaidis, Charilaos; Kuykendall, Tevye; Melli, Mauro; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Schuck, P. James; Schwartzberg, Adam; Dhuey, Scott; Cabrini, Stefano; Grebel, Haim

    2015-09-01

    Using Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS), we report on intensity-dependent broadening in graphene-deposited broad-band antennas. The antenna gain curve includes both the incident frequency and some of the scattered mode frequencies. By comparing antennas with various gaps and types (bow-tie vs. diamond-shape antennas) we make the case that the line broadening did not originate from strain, thermal or surface potential. Strain, if present, further shifts and broadens those Raman lines that are included within the antenna gain curve.Using Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS), we report on intensity-dependent broadening in graphene-deposited broad-band antennas. The antenna gain curve includes both the incident frequency and some of the scattered mode frequencies. By comparing antennas with various gaps and types (bow-tie vs. diamond-shape antennas) we make the case that the line broadening did not originate from strain, thermal or surface potential. Strain, if present, further shifts and broadens those Raman lines that are included within the antenna gain curve. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03893f

  8. [Raman active vibrations of aluminosilicates].

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Yu, Xue-hui; Mo, Xuan-xue; You, Jing-lin; Wang, Chen; Chen, Hui; Jiang, Guo-chang

    2006-10-01

    Raman spectra of aluminosilicate minerals, namely kyanite, andalusite, and sillimanite and K2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses were recorded. Four alumino-silicon tetrahedral model clusters were calculated by self-consistent (SCF) molecular orbital ab-ini-tio calculation of the quantum chem (QC) method. The result shows a decrease tendency in Raman frequencies in the 800-1200 cm(-1) frequency region with increase in four-coordinated Al content, which is assigned to the Si--Onb symmetry stretching vibrations. The Raman spectra in the 700-800 cm(-1) frequency region is attributed to Al-Onb symmetry stretching vibrations. PMID:17205741

  9. Matrix Algorithms for Dynamic Gain-Spectrum Adjustment of Backward-Pumped Distributed Fiber Raman Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Xiao, Li; Peng, Jiangde

    2006-03-01

    Two matrix algorithms aiming at a dynamic gain-spectrum adjustment in a backward-pumped distributed fiber Raman amplifier (B-DFRA) are developed based on the relation between changes in the pump power and the gain spectrum. Characteristic channels are chosen to reduce the dimension of matrices in the algorithm, which can be implemented by built-in microprocessors or DSP chips inside the B-DFRA module. Furthermore, as shown by the theoretical analysis and the numerical simulation, elements in the matrices can be directly and easily measured in deployed fiber plants without information on fiber parameters. These matrix algorithms are capable of adjusting the gain spectrum to fit the arbitrary profile desired in reality, while a wide dynamic range can be achieved by a multistage adjustment using matrices measured under several gain levels.

  10. Steering, splitting, and cloning of an optical beam in a coherently driven Raman gain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Onkar N.; Dey, Tarak N.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an all-optical antiwaveguide mechanism for steering, splitting, and cloning of an optical beam without diffraction. We use a spatially inhomogeneous pump beam to create an antiwaveguide structure in a Doppler broadened N -type four-level Raman gain medium for a copropagating weak probe beam. We show that a transverse modulated index of refraction and gain due to the spatially dependent pump beam hold the keys to steering, splitting, and cloning of an optical beam. We have also shown that an additional control field permits the propagation of an optical beam through an otherwise gain medium without diffraction and instability. We further discuss how finesse of the cloned images can be increased by changing the detuning of the control field. We arrive at similar results by using homogeneously broadened gain media at higher density.

  11. An analytical approach for gain optimization in multimode fiber Raman amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Junhe

    2014-09-01

    In this paper, an analytical approach is proposed to minimize the mode dependent gain as well as the wavelength dependent gain for the multimode fiber Raman amplifiers (MFRAs). It is shown that the optimal power integrals at the corresponding modes and wavelengths can be obtained by the non-negative least square method (NNLSM). The corresponding input pump powers can be calculated afterwards using the shooting method. It is demonstrated that if the power overlap integrals are not wavelength dependent, the optimization can be further simplified by decomposing the optimization problem into two sub optimization problems, i.e. the optimization of the gain ripple with respect to the modes, and with respect to the wavelengths. The optimization results closely match the ones in recent publications. PMID:25321517

  12. Loss and gain signals in broadband stimulated-Raman spectra: Theoretical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harbola, Upendra; Umapathy, Siva; Mukamel, Shaul

    2013-07-01

    Stimulated optical signals obtained by subjecting the system to a narrow band and a broadband pulse show both gain and loss Raman features at the red and blue side of the narrow beam, respectively. Recently observed temperature-dependent asymmetry in these features [Mallick , J. Raman Spectrosc.JRSPAF0377-048610.1002/jrs.2996 42, 1883 (2011); Dang , Phys. Rev. Lett.PRLTAO0031-900710.1103/PhysRevLett.107.043001 107, 043001 (2011)] has been attributed to the Stokes and anti-Stokes components of the third-order susceptibility, χ(3). By treating the setup as a steady state of an open system coupled to four quantum radiation field modes, we show that Stokes and anti-Stokes processes contribute to both the loss and gain resonances. χ(3) predicts loss and gain signals with equal intensity for electronically off-resonant excitation. Some asymmetry may exist for resonant excitation. However, this is unrelated to the Stokes vs anti-Stokes processes. Any observed temperature-dependent asymmetry must thus originate from effects lying outside the χ(3) regime.

  13. Efficient use of hybrid Genetic Algorithms in the gain optimization of distributed Raman amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Neto, B; Teixeira, A L J; Wada, N; André, P S

    2007-12-24

    In this paper, we propose an efficient and accurate method that combines the Genetic Algorithm (GA) with the Nelder-Mead method in order to obtain the gain optimization of distributed Raman amplifiers. By using these two methods together, the advantages of both are combined: the convergence of the GA and the high accuracy of the Nelder-Mead. To enhance the convergence of the GA, several features were examined and correlated with fitting errors. It is also shown that when the right moment to switch between methods is chosen, the computation time can be reduced by a factor of two. PMID:19551045

  14. Actively mode-locked Raman fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuezong; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Huawei; Fan, Tingwei; Feng, Yan

    2015-07-27

    Active mode-locking of Raman fiber laser is experimentally investigated for the first time. An all fiber connected and polarization maintaining loop cavity of ~500 m long is pumped by a linearly polarized 1120 nm Yb fiber laser and modulated by an acousto-optic modulator. Stable 2 ns width pulse train at 1178 nm is obtained with modulator opening time of > 50 ns. At higher power, pulses become longer, and second order Raman Stokes could take place, which however can be suppressed by adjusting the open time and modulation frequency. Transient pulse evolution measurement confirms the absence of relaxation oscillation in Raman fiber laser. Tuning of repetition rate from 392 kHz to 31.37 MHz is obtained with harmonic mode locking. PMID:26367642

  15. Elaboration and optimization of tellurite-based materials for raman gain application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guery, Guillaume

    Tellurite-based oxide glasses have been investigated as promising materials for Raman gain applications, due to their good linear and nonlinear optical properties and their wide transparency windows in the near- and midwave infrared spectral region. Furthermore, their interesting thermal properties, i.e. low glass transition temperature and ability to be drawn into optical fibers, make tellurite-based glasses excellent candidates for optical fiber amplifiers. The estimation of the strength and spectral distribution of Raman gain in materials is commonly approximated from the spontaneous Raman scattering cross-section measurement. For development of tellurite-based glasses as Raman amplifiers, understanding the relationship between glass structure, vibrational response, and nonlinear optical properties (NLO) represents a key point. This dissertation provides an answer to the fundamental question of the PhD study: "What is the impact of the glass structure on Raman gain properties of tellurite glasses?" This dissertation summarizes findings on different tellurite-based glass families: the TeO2-TaO5/2-ZnO, TeO2-BiO 3/2-ZnO and TeO2-NbO5/2 glass networks. The influence of glass modifiers has been shown on the glass' properties. Introduction of tantalum oxide or zinc oxide has been shown to increase the glass' stability against crystallization, quantified by DeltaT, where DeltaT = Tx -Tg. Added to the variation of the glass viscosity, this attribute is critical in fabricating optical fibers and for the use of these materials in fiber-based Raman gain applications. The role of ZnO in the tellurite network and the mechanism for structural modification has been determined. This addition results in not only the largest DeltaT reported for these highly nonlinear glasses to date, but coincides with a commensurate decrease of the refractive index. A hydroxyl purification has been developed that when employed, resulted in high purity preform materials exhibiting a limited

  16. Gain and noise figure enhancement of Er+3/Yb+3 co-doped fiber/Raman hybrid amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahran, O.

    2016-02-01

    An Er/Yb co-doped fiber/Raman hybrid amplifier (HA) is proposed and studied theoretically and analytically to improve the gain and noise figure of optical amplifiers. The calculations are performed under a uniform dopant and steady-state conditions. The initial energy transfer efficiency for Er/Yb co-doped fiber amplifier (EYDFA) is introduced, while the amplified spontaneous emission (ASE) is neglected. The glass fiber used for both Er/Yb and Raman amplifiers is phosphate. Different pump powers are used for both EYDFA and RA with 1 μW input signal power, 1 m length of Er/Yb amplifier and 25 km length of Raman amplifier (RA). The proposed model is validated for Er/Yb co-doped amplifier and Raman amplifier separately by comparing the calculating results with the experimental data. A high gain and low noise figure at 200 mW Raman pump power and 500 mW Er/Yb pump power are obtained for the proposed HA as compared with the experimental results of EYDFA, Raman amplifier and the EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier.

  17. Anharmonic effects on Raman-active phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canonico, Michael John

    This dissertation explores anharmonic properties of semiconductor materials associated with strain and phonon lifetime using Raman spectroscopy. In recent years, extensive research and development of strain engineered advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices utilizing high-k dielectrics and metal gate technology has been conducted to meet the challenges imposed by fundamental limits of device scaling. From a development and manufacturing viewpoint, the metrology required to drive these new technologies is critical to their success. In particular, UV-Raman spectroscopy has been extensively used to measure wafer and device strain due to the high spatial and spectral resolution coupled with an ultra-short optical penetration depth in Si. However, the strain-shift coefficients reported in the literature, which correlate the shift in Raman frequency with strain, have typically been measured in the visible portion of the spectrum and appear to differ from their UV counter-parts. This work presents a detailed measurement of the strain-shift coefficients in the UV at 325 and 364nm for Si, Ge, and Si:C and SiGe alloys. In addition, the temperature dependence of the frequencies and linewidths of the Raman-active longitudinal-optic (LO) phonons in GaAs and AlAs III-V semiconductor compounds is presented. Contrary to early theoretical predictions, the low temperature lifetime of the LO phonon is similar for the two materials with tau = 9.5 ps and 9.7 ps in GaAs and AlAs, respectively. The discrepancy between theory and experiment is caused by the accidental degeneracy between the AlAs LO phonon frequency and a Van Hove singularity in the two-phonon density of states. A new expression, based on the frequency dependence of the phonon self-energy, is derived to model the phonon lifetime.

  18. Cascaded gain fibers for increasing output power and the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold of narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Nagel, J A; Temyanko, V; Dobler, J T; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Dianov, E M; Peyghambarian, N

    2016-05-20

    We show both experimentally and theoretically a method to increase the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold and output power of narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifiers. This method employs two or more fibers with varying concentrations of the Raman gain material dopant such as GeO2 or P2O5 in silicate-based glasses. These fibers are then cascaded to form an amplifier gain stage, disrupting the buildup of SBS that normally occurs in single continuous fibers. The numerical model shown is applicable to arbitrary amplifier systems for gain stage optimization and increased power scaling. We give experimental results for phosphosilicate fibers that agree well with simulation predictions that support the numerical model used. PMID:27411133

  19. Actively Q-switched Raman fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. G.; Podivilov, E. V.; Babin, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    A new scheme providing actively Q-switched operation of a Raman fiber laser (RFL) has been proposed and tested. The RFL consists of a 1 km single-mode fiber with a switchable loop mirror at one end and an angled cleaved output end. An 1080 nm pulse with microsecond duration is generated at the output by means of acousto-optic switching of the mirror at ~30 kHz in the presence of 6 W backward pumping at 1030 nm. In the proposed scheme, the generated pulse energy is defined by the pump energy distributed along the passive fiber, which amounts to 30 μJ in our case. The available pump energy may be increased by means of fiber lengthening. Pulse shortening is also expected.

  20. Steady-state Raman gain coefficients of potassium-gadolinium tungstate at the wavelength of 532 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chulkov, R.; Markevich, V.; Orlovich, V.; El-Desouki, M.

    2015-12-01

    Stokes generation has been considered under the Fourier-limited nanosecond pulse excitation to find Raman gain coefficients in potassium-gadolinium tungstate. Data of numerical simulation under spontaneous Stokes initiation, light diffraction, and optical feedback have been compared with experimental results to reveal coefficient values of 14 ± 3 and 11 ± 3 cm/GW for the p[mm]p and p[gg]p sample orientations, respectively, at 532 nm wavelength.

  1. Raman gain induced mode evolution and on-demand coupling control in whispering-gallery-mode microcavities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xu; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Peng, Bo; Yilmaz, Huzeyfe; Lei, Fu-Chuan; Long, Gui-Lu; Yang, Lan

    2015-11-16

    Waveguide-coupled optical resonators have played an important role in a wide range of applications including optical communication, sensing, nonlinear optics, slow/fast light, and cavity QED. In such a system, the coupling regimes strongly affect the resonance feature in the light transmission spectra, and hence the performance and outcomes of the applications. Therefore it is crucial to control the coupling between the waveguide and the microresonator. In this work, we investigated a fiber-taper coupled whispering-gallery-mode microresonator system, in which the coupling regime is traditionally controlled by adjusting the distance between the resonator and the fiber-taper mechanically. We propose and experimentally demonstrate that by utilizing Raman gain one can achieve on-demand control of the coupling regime without any mechanical movement in the resonator system. Particularly, the application of Raman gain is accompanied by Q enhancement. We also show that with the help of Raman gain control, the transitions between various coupling regimes can affect the light transmission spectra so as to provide better resolvability and signal amplification. This all-optical approach is also suitable for monolithically integrated and packaged waveguide-resonator systems, whose coupling regime is fixed at the time of manufacturing. It provides an effective route to control the light transmission in a waveguide-couple resonator system without mechanically moving individual optical components. PMID:26698440

  2. Optimization of pump spectra for gain-flattened photonic crystal fiber Raman amplifiers operating in C-band.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Kazuya; Varshney, Shailendra K; Wada, Keisuke; Saitoh, Kunimasa; Koshiba, Masanori

    2007-03-01

    This paper focuses on the optimization of pump spectra to achieve low Raman gain ripples over C-band in ultra-low loss photonic crystal fiber (PCF) and dispersion compensating PCFs (DCPCFs). Genetic algorithm (GA), a multivariate stochastic optimization algorithm, is applied to optimize the pump powers and the wavelengths for the aforesaid fiber designs. In addition, the GA integrated with full-vectorial finite element method with curvilinear edge/nodal elements is used to optimize the structural parameters of DCPCF. The optimized DCPCF provides broadband dispersion compensation over C-band with low negative dispersion coefficient of -530 ps/nm/km at 1550 nm, which is five times larger than the conventional dispersion compensating fibers with nearly equal effective mode area (21.7 mum(2)). A peak gain of 8.4 dB with +/-0.21 dB gain ripple is achieved for a 2.73 km long DCPCF module when three optimized pumps are used in the backward direction. The lowest gain ripple of +/-0.36 dB is attained for a 10 km long ultra-low loss PCF with three backward pumps. Sensitivity analysis has been performed and it is found that within the experimental fabrication tolerances of +/-2%, the absolute magnitude of dispersion may vary by +/-16%, while the Raman gain may change by +/-7%. Through tolerance study, it is examined that the ring core's hole-size is more sensitive to the structural deformations. PMID:19532502

  3. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2014-01-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829

  4. Polarized Raman optical activity of menthol and related molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, L. D.; Hecht, L.; Blyth, S. M.

    1989-01-01

    Polarized and depolarized Raman optical activity spectra of menthol, menthyl chloride, neomenthol and neothiomenthol from 800 to 1500 cm -1 are reported. Despite axial symmetry in all the bonds, the presence of the heteroatoms O or S seems to induce large deviations from the expected ratio of 2:1 between the polarized and depolarized Raman optical activity intensities, but Cl does not. These deviations might originate in large electric quadrupole contributions induced by excited state interactions involving O or S Rydberg p orbitals and valence orbitals on other parts of the molecule. Such interactions appear to undermine the bond polarizability theory of Raman intensities.

  5. Basis Set Dependence of Vibrational Raman and Raman Optical Activity Intensities.

    PubMed

    Cheeseman, James R; Frisch, Michael J

    2011-10-11

    We present a systematic study of the basis set dependence of the backscattering vibrational Raman intensities and Raman Optical Activity (ROA) intensity differences. The accuracies of computed Raman intensities and ROA intensity differences for a series of commonly used basis sets are reported, relative to large reference basis sets, using the B3LYP density functional. This study attempts to separately quantify the relative accuracies obtained from particular basis set combinations: one for the geometry optimization and force field computation and the other for the computation of Raman and ROA tensors. We demonstrate here that the basis set requirements for the geometry and force fields are not similar to those of the Raman and ROA tensors. The Raman and ROA tensors require basis sets with diffuse functions, while geometry optimizations and force field computations typically do not. Eleven molecules were examined: (S)-methyloxirane, (S)-methylthirane, (R)-epichlorhydrin, (S)-CHFClBr, (1S,5S)-α-pinene, (1S,5S)-β-pinene, (1S,4S)-norborneneone, (M)-σ-[4]-helicene, an enone precursor to a cytotoxic sesquiterpene, the gauche-gauche conformer of the monosaccharide methyl-β-d-glucopyranose, and the dipeptide Ac-(alanine)2-NH2. For the molecules examined here, intensities and intensity differences obtained from Raman and ROA tensors computed using the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set are nearly equivalent to those computed with the larger aug-cc-pVTZ basis set. We find that modifying the aug-cc-pVDZ basis set by removing the set of diffuse d functions on all atoms (while keeping the diffuse s and p sets), denoted as aug(sp)-cc-pVDZ, results in a basis set which is significantly faster without much reduction in the overall accuracy. In addition, the popular rDPS basis set introduced by Zuber and Hug offers a good compromise between accuracy and efficiency. The combination of either the aug(sp)-pVDZ or rDPS basis for the computation of the Raman and ROA tensors with the 6-31G

  6. The Raman and vibronic activity of intermolecular vibrations in aromatic-containing complexes and clusters

    SciTech Connect

    Maxton, P.M.; Schaeffer, M.W.; Ohline, S.M.; Kim, W.; Venturo, V.A.; Felker, P.M. )

    1994-11-15

    Theoretical and experimental results pertaining to the excitation of intermolecular vibrations in the Raman and vibronic spectra of aromatic-containing, weakly bound complexes and clusters are reported. The theoretical analysis of intermolecular Raman activity is based on the assumption that the polarizability tensor of a weakly bound species is given by the sum of the polarizability tensors of its constituent monomers. The analysis shows that the van der Waals bending fundamentals in aromatic--rare gas complexes may be expected to be strongly Raman active. More generally, it predicts strong Raman activity for intermolecular vibrations that involve the libration or internal rotation of monomer moieties having appreciable permanent polarizability anisotropies. The vibronic activity of intermolecular vibrations in aromatic-rare gas complexes is analyzed under the assumption that every vibronic band gains its strength from an aromatic-localized transition. It is found that intermolecular vibrational excitations can accompany aromatic-localized vibronic excitations by the usual Franck--Condon mechanism or by a mechanism dependent on the librational amplitude of the aromatic moiety during the course of the pertinent intermolecular vibration. The latter mechanism can impart appreciable intensity to bands that are forbidden by rigid-molecule symmetry selection rules. The applicability of such rules is therefore called into question. Finally, experimental spectra of intermolecular transitions, obtained by mass-selective, ionization-detected stimulated Raman spectroscopies, are reported for benzene--X (X=Ar, --Ar[sub 2], N[sub 2], HCl, CO[sub 2], and --fluorene), fluorobenzene--Ar and --Kr, aniline--Ar, and fluorene--Ar and --Ar[sub 2]. The results support the conclusions of the theoretical analyses and provide further evidence for the value of Raman methods in characterizing intermolecular vibrational level structures.

  7. Realization of all-optical switch and diode via Raman gain process using a Kerr field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Muqaddar; Qamar, Sajid; Qamar, Shahid

    2016-08-01

    The idea of optical photonic crystal, which is generated using two counter-propagating fields, is revisited to study gain-assisted all-optical switch and diode using Kerr field. Two counter-propagating fields with relative detuning Δ ν generate standing-wave field pattern which interacts with a four-level atomic system. The standing-wave field pattern acts like a static photonic crystal for Δ ν =0 , however, it behaves as a moving photonic crystal for Δ ν \

  8. Diamagnetic Raman Optical Activity of Chlorine, Bromine, and Iodine Gases.

    PubMed

    Šebestík, Jaroslav; Kapitán, Josef; Pačes, Ondřej; Bouř, Petr

    2016-03-01

    Magnetic Raman optical activity of gases provides unique information about their electric and magnetic properties. Magnetic Raman optical activity has recently been observed in a paramagnetic gas (Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 2012, 51, 11058; Angew. Chem. 2012, 124, 11220). In diamagnetic molecules, it has been considered too weak to be measurable. However, in chlorine, bromine and iodine vapors, we could detect a significant signal as well. Zeeman splitting of electronic ground-state energy levels cannot rationalize the observed circular intensity difference (CID) values of about 10(-4) . These are explicable by participation of paramagnetic excited electronic states. Then a simple model including one electronic excited state provides reasonable spectral intensities. The results suggest that this kind of scattering by diamagnetic molecules is a general event observable under resonance conditions. The phenomenon sheds new light on the role of excited states in the Raman scattering, and may be used to probe molecular geometry and electronic structure. PMID:26845382

  9. Effect of lower and upper parabolic dips in refractive index profile on performance of coaxial fiber Raman gain amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karak, Anup; Pramanik, Sanchita; Sarkar, Somenath

    2016-03-01

    An investigation on the effect of practically possible upper and lower parabolic dips in the refractive index profile of the inner core of the coaxial fiber Raman gain amplifier is reported using matrix method for single pump. It is seen that for lower parabolic dip, the tolerable limits of dip parameters correspond to dip depth of 0.25% and dip width of 25% of the respective parameters for ideal step index profile case and agree with the earlier predicted linear dip. However, for upper parabolic dip, one gets higher gain and better flatness at these limits. Even up to 1% of the dip depth for 25% of dip width or 75% of dip width for 0.25% of the dip depth or 0.5% of dip depth and 50% of dip width, one can expect performance as good as that of the ideal one. However, since system designers will be aimed to produce ideal profile, our recommendation is to keep tolerable limits within 0.25% of dip depth and 25% of dip width of respective parameters. But one can accept profile with upper parabolic dip if there is deviation within the above relaxation limits for such dip.

  10. Effect of stimulated Brillouin scattering on the gain saturation of distributed fiber Raman amplifier and its suppression by phase modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yi-Chi; Chen, Wei; Sun, Shi-Lin; Meng, Zhou

    2015-09-01

    For distributed fiber Raman amplifiers (DFRAs), stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) can deplete the pump once occurring and consequently generate gain saturation. On the basis of such a theory, theoretical gain saturation powers in DFRAs with various pump schemes are obtained by calculating SBS thresholds in them, and the experimental results show that they are in excellent agreement with the calculation results. The saturation power of the DFRA with a 300 mW forward pump is as low as 0 dBm, which needs to be enhanced by phase modulation, and the effect is quantitatively studied. A simple model taking both modulation frequency and index into consideration is presented by introducing a correction factor to evaluate the effect of phase modulation on the enhancement of saturation power. Experimentally, it is shown that such a correction factor decreases as the modulation frequency increases and approaches zero when the modulation frequency becomes high enough. In particular, a phase modulation with a modulation frequency of 100 MHz and a modulation index of 1.380 can enhance the saturation power by 4.44 dB, and the correction factor is 0.25 dB, in which the modulation frequency is high enough. Additionally, the factor is 1.767 dB for the modulation frequency of 25 MHz. On this basis, phase modulations with various indexes and a fixed frequency of 25 MHz are adopted to verify the modified model, and the results are positive. To obtain the highest gain saturation power, the model is referable. The research results provide a guide for the design of practical DFRAs. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61177073) and the Major Application Basic Research Project of National University of Defense Technology, China (Grant No. ZDYYJCYJ20140701).

  11. Flexible and Transparent Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)-Active Metafilm for Visualizing Trace Molecules via Raman Spectral Mapping.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiangjiang; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Jiajun; Tang, Longhua; Ying, Yibin

    2016-06-21

    Raman spectral mapping is a powerful tool for directly visualizing the composition, structure, and distribution of molecules on any surface of interest. However, one major limitation of Raman mapping is its overlong imaging time caused by the intrinsic weak Raman signal. Here, we developed a fast Raman imaging approach based on a flexible and transparent surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active metafilm. This particular SERS substrate can be conformably attached to a sample surface to enhance the Raman signal of analytes and the good optical transparency allow excitation and collection of signal from the backside of the substrate. Therefore, by simply attaching it to the surface of interest, a fast Raman imaging can be realized. We noticed that the imaging speed can be increased by several orders of magnitude, compared to a conventional Raman mapping approach. Importantly, the proposed approach required little or no sample preparation and exhibited good generalizability that can be performed perfectly on different surfaces. It is believed that the proposed methodology will provide new trends for chemical imaging using Raman microscopy. PMID:27219332

  12. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  15. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  16. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  17. 26 CFR 7.105-2 - Substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity. 7.105-2 Section 7.105-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... because of a physical or mental impairment accepts sheltered employment in a protected environment...

  18. 26 CFR 7.105-2 - Substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 14 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity. 7.105-2 Section 7.105-2 Internal Revenue INTERNAL REVENUE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) INCOME TAX... because of a physical or mental impairment accepts sheltered employment in a protected environment...

  19. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416.910 Section 416.910 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  20. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416.910 Section 416.910 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  1. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416.910 Section 416.910 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  2. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416.910 Section 416.910 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  3. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416.910 Section 416.910 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION SUPPLEMENTAL SECURITY INCOME FOR THE AGED, BLIND, AND DISABLED Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  4. Novel design of inherently gain-flattened discrete highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber Raman amplifier and dispersion compensation using a single pump in C-band.

    PubMed

    Varshney, Shailendra; Fujisawa, Takeshi; Saitoh, Kunimasa; Koshiba, Masanori

    2005-11-14

    In this paper, we report, for the first time, an inherently gain-flattened discrete highly nonlinear photonic crystal fiber (HNPCF) Raman amplifier (HNPCF-RA) design which shows 13.7 dB of net gain (with +/-0.85-dB gain ripple) over 28-nm bandwidth. The wavelength dependent leakage loss property of HNPCF is used to flatten the Raman gain of the amplifier module. The PCF structural design is based on W-shaped refractive index profile where the fiber parameters are well optimized by homely developed genetic algorithm optimization tool integrated with an efficient vectorial finite element method (V-FEM). The proposed fiber design has a high Raman gain efficiency of 4.88 W(-1) . km(-1) at a frequency shift of 13.1 THz, which is precisely evaluated through V-FEM. Additionally, the designed module, which shows ultra-wide single mode operation, has a slowly varying negative dispersion coefficient (-107.5 ps/nm/km at 1550 nm) over the operating range of wavelengths. Therefore, our proposed HNPCF-RA module acts as a composite amplifier with dispersion compensator functionality in a single component using a single pump. PMID:19503154

  5. Synchronized and timing-stabilized pulse generation from a gain-switched laser diode for stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Kyoya; Fang, Yi-Cheng; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Ozeki, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    We present a picosecond laser source based on a gain-switched laser diode (GS-LD) that can be applied to stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. A 1.06-μm GS-LD was used to generate 14-ps pulses at a repetition rate of 38 MHz. The GS-LD was driven by 200-ps electrical pulses, which were triggered through a toggle flip-flop (T-FF). As a result, the GS-LD pulses were subharmonically synchronized to Ti:sapphire laser (TSL) pulses at a repetition rate of 76 MHz. We investigated the timing jitter of GS-LD pulses and found it to be less than 2.5 ps. We also show that the trigger delay can be less sensitive to the optical power of TSL pulses by controlling the threshold voltage of the T-FF. As a result, GS-LD pulses sufficiently overlapped with TSL pulses even when we scanned the wavelength of the TSL pulses. We demonstrate the SRS imaging of HeLa cells with GS-LD pulses and TSL pulses, proving that GS-LD is readily applicable to SRS microscopy as a compact and stable pulse source.

  6. Active rc filter permits easy trade-off of amplifier gain and sensitivity to gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Shaffer, C. V.

    1968-01-01

    Passive RC network was designed with zeros of transmission in the right half of the complex frequency plane in the feedback loop of a simple negative-gain amplifier. The proper positioning provides any desired trade-off between amplifier gain and sensitivity to amplifier gain.

  7. High-efficient diode-pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YAG/KTP Raman laser at 1096 nm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Fufang; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Weitao; Cong, Zhenhua; Shi, Men; Yang, Xiuqin; Kong, Weijin; Ma, Lili; Wu, Wendi

    2013-09-01

    With Nd:YAG as the gain medium and KTP crystal as the Raman medium, the characteristics of an LD pumped intracavity actively Q-switched Nd:YAG/KTP Raman laser at 1096 nm wavelength were studied. The output characteristics of 1096 nm were investigated. At a pulse repetition rate of 30 kHz an average power up to 1.97 W was obtained with the incident pump power of 11.75 W, corresponding to a diode-to-Stokes conversion efficiency of 16.8%.

  8. Nonlinear infrared generation in alkali metal vapors: Steady state susceptibilities and dynamic behavior. Effective relaxation rates and preliminary Raman gain predictions for the Cs system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Effective relaxation rates for atomic cesium pumped by doubled Alexandrite radiation are presented. Laser radiation levels are 8S 1/2 and 9S 1/2; resonance levels 3 = 8P 1/2 and 8P 1/2, respectively. In addition, Raman gain is represented in two graphs which plot chi per atom (10 to the -13 power) at Raman peak versus the infrared wave number per centimeter and the corresponding doubled Alexandrite wave number. One graph covers resonance level 8P, the other 9P; in both cases cesium is pumped with a peak pulse height of 0.5 MW in a 200 micron diameter spot size.

  9. High power VCSEL device with periodic gain active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Y. Q., II; Qin, L.; Sun, Y. F.; Li, T.; Cui, J. J.; Peng, B.; Liu, G. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Wang, L. J.; Cui, D. F.; Xu, Z. Y.

    2007-11-01

    High power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with large aperture have been fabricated through improving passivation, lateral oxidation and heat dissipation techniques. Different from conventional three quantum well structure, a periodic gain active region with nine quantum wells was incorporated into the VCSEL structure, with which high efficiency and high power operation were expected. The nine quantum wells were divided into three groups with each of them located at the antinodes of the cavity to enhance the coupling between the optical field and the gain region. Large aperture and bottom-emitting configuration was used to improve the beam quality and the heat dissipation. A maximum output power of 1.4W was demonstrated at CW operation for a 400μm-diameter device. The lasing wavelength shifted to 995.5nm with a FWHM of 2nm at a current of 4.8A due to the internal heating and the absence of active water cooling. A ring-shape farfield pattern was induced by the non-homogeneous lateral current distribution in large diameter device. The light intensity at the center of the ring increased with increasing current. A symmetric round light spot at the center and single transverse mode operation with a divergence angle of 16° were observed with current beyond 4.8A.

  10. Dramatic Raman Gain Suppression in the Vicinity of the Zero Dispersion Point in a Gas-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bauerschmidt, S. T.; Novoa, D.; Russell, P. St. J.

    2015-12-01

    In 1964 Bloembergen and Shen predicted that Raman gain could be suppressed if the rates of phonon creation and annihilation (by inelastic scattering) exactly balance. This is only possible if the momentum required for each process is identical, i.e., phonon coherence waves created by pump-to-Stokes scattering are identical to those annihilated in pump-to-anti-Stokes scattering. In bulk gas cells, this can only be achieved over limited interaction lengths at an oblique angle to the pump axis. Here we report a simple system that provides dramatic Raman gain suppression over long collinear path lengths in hydrogen. It consists of a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber whose zero dispersion point is pressure adjusted to lie close to the pump laser wavelength. At a certain precise pressure, stimulated generation of Stokes light in the fundamental mode is completely suppressed, allowing other much weaker phenomena such as spontaneous Raman scattering to be explored at high pump powers.

  11. Dramatic Raman Gain Suppression in the Vicinity of the Zero Dispersion Point in a Gas-Filled Hollow-Core Photonic Crystal Fiber.

    PubMed

    Bauerschmidt, S T; Novoa, D; Russell, P St J

    2015-12-11

    In 1964 Bloembergen and Shen predicted that Raman gain could be suppressed if the rates of phonon creation and annihilation (by inelastic scattering) exactly balance. This is only possible if the momentum required for each process is identical, i.e., phonon coherence waves created by pump-to-Stokes scattering are identical to those annihilated in pump-to-anti-Stokes scattering. In bulk gas cells, this can only be achieved over limited interaction lengths at an oblique angle to the pump axis. Here we report a simple system that provides dramatic Raman gain suppression over long collinear path lengths in hydrogen. It consists of a gas-filled hollow-core photonic crystal fiber whose zero dispersion point is pressure adjusted to lie close to the pump laser wavelength. At a certain precise pressure, stimulated generation of Stokes light in the fundamental mode is completely suppressed, allowing other much weaker phenomena such as spontaneous Raman scattering to be explored at high pump powers. PMID:26705636

  12. Resonance Raman Optical Activity of Single Walled Chiral Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Péter R; Koltai, János; Surján, Péter R; Kürti, Jenő; Szabados, Ágnes

    2016-07-21

    Resonance (vibrational) Raman Optical Activity (ROA) spectra of six chiral single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are studied by theoretical means. Calculations are performed imposing line group symmetry. Polarizability tensors, computed at the π-electron level, are differentiated with respect to DFT normal modes to generate spectral intensities. This computational protocol yields a ROA spectrum in good agreement with the only experiment on SWCNT, available at present. In addition to the conventional periodic electric dipole operator we introduce magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole operators, suitable for conventional k-space calculations. Consequences of the complex nature of the wave function on the scattering cross section are discussed in detail. The resonance phenomenon is accounted for by the short time approximation. Involvement of fundamental vibrations in the region of the intermediate frequency modes is found to be more notable in ROA than in Raman spectra. Calculations indicate exceptionally strong resonance enhancement of SWCNT ROA signals. Resonance ROA profile of the (6,5) tube shows an interesting sign change that may be exploited experimentally for SWCNT identification. PMID:27315548

  13. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... activities like taking care of one's self, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance, club...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant...

  14. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... activities like taking care of one's self, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance, club...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant...

  15. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... activities like taking care of one's self, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance, club...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant...

  16. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... activities like taking care of one's self, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance, club...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant...

  17. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... activities like taking care of one's self, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance, club...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant...

  18. Origin invariance in vibrational resonance Raman optical activity.

    PubMed

    Vidal, Luciano N; Egidi, Franco; Barone, Vincenzo; Cappelli, Chiara

    2015-05-01

    A theoretical investigation on the origin dependence of the vibronic polarizabilities, isotropic and anisotropic rotational invariants, and scattering cross sections in Resonance Raman Optical Activity (RROA) spectroscopy is presented. Expressions showing the origin dependence of these polarizabilities were written in the resonance regime using the Franck-Condon (FC) and Herzberg-Teller (HT) approximations for the electronic transition moments. Differently from the far-from-resonance scattering regime, where the origin dependent terms cancel out when the rotational invariants are calculated, RROA spectrum can exhibit some origin dependence even for eigenfunctions of the electronic Hamiltonian. At the FC level, the RROA spectrum is completely origin invariant if the polarizabilities are calculated using a single excited state or for a set of degenerate states. Otherwise, some origin effects can be observed in the spectrum. At the HT level, RROA spectrum is origin dependent even when the polarizabilities are evaluated from a single excited state but the origin effect is expected to be small in this case. Numerical calculations performed for (S)-methyloxirane, (2R,3R)-dimethyloxirane, and (R)-4-F-2-azetidinone at both FC and HT levels using the velocity representation of the electric dipole and quadrupole transition moments confirm the predictions of the theory and show the extent of origin effects and the effectiveness of suggested ways to remove them. PMID:25956084

  19. Origin invariance in vibrational resonance Raman optical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, Luciano N.; Egidi, Franco; Barone, Vincenzo; Cappelli, Chiara

    2015-05-01

    A theoretical investigation on the origin dependence of the vibronic polarizabilities, isotropic and anisotropic rotational invariants, and scattering cross sections in Resonance Raman Optical Activity (RROA) spectroscopy is presented. Expressions showing the origin dependence of these polarizabilities were written in the resonance regime using the Franck-Condon (FC) and Herzberg-Teller (HT) approximations for the electronic transition moments. Differently from the far-from-resonance scattering regime, where the origin dependent terms cancel out when the rotational invariants are calculated, RROA spectrum can exhibit some origin dependence even for eigenfunctions of the electronic Hamiltonian. At the FC level, the RROA spectrum is completely origin invariant if the polarizabilities are calculated using a single excited state or for a set of degenerate states. Otherwise, some origin effects can be observed in the spectrum. At the HT level, RROA spectrum is origin dependent even when the polarizabilities are evaluated from a single excited state but the origin effect is expected to be small in this case. Numerical calculations performed for (S)-methyloxirane, (2R,3R)-dimethyloxirane, and (R)-4-F-2-azetidinone at both FC and HT levels using the velocity representation of the electric dipole and quadrupole transition moments confirm the predictions of the theory and show the extent of origin effects and the effectiveness of suggested ways to remove them.

  20. Origin invariance in vibrational resonance Raman optical activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, Luciano N. Cappelli, Chiara; Egidi, Franco; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-05-07

    A theoretical investigation on the origin dependence of the vibronic polarizabilities, isotropic and anisotropic rotational invariants, and scattering cross sections in Resonance Raman Optical Activity (RROA) spectroscopy is presented. Expressions showing the origin dependence of these polarizabilities were written in the resonance regime using the Franck-Condon (FC) and Herzberg-Teller (HT) approximations for the electronic transition moments. Differently from the far-from-resonance scattering regime, where the origin dependent terms cancel out when the rotational invariants are calculated, RROA spectrum can exhibit some origin dependence even for eigenfunctions of the electronic Hamiltonian. At the FC level, the RROA spectrum is completely origin invariant if the polarizabilities are calculated using a single excited state or for a set of degenerate states. Otherwise, some origin effects can be observed in the spectrum. At the HT level, RROA spectrum is origin dependent even when the polarizabilities are evaluated from a single excited state but the origin effect is expected to be small in this case. Numerical calculations performed for (S)-methyloxirane, (2R,3R)-dimethyloxirane, and (R)-4-F-2-azetidinone at both FC and HT levels using the velocity representation of the electric dipole and quadrupole transition moments confirm the predictions of the theory and show the extent of origin effects and the effectiveness of suggested ways to remove them.

  1. Design of Raman active nanoparticles for SERS-based detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, Javier T.; Cote, Gerard L.

    2016-03-01

    Timely detection of cardiac biomarkers is needed to diagnose acute myocardial infarction, implement the appropriate early treatment, and significantly reduce the chance of mortality. Ideally, for maximizing patient impact, a point of care device needs to be designed that is fast, sensitive, reliable, and small enough to be used in the ambulance and emergency department. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a sensitive optical technique that can potentially be used to quantify the cardiac biomarkers of interest. In this work, silver nanoparticles were functionalized with a Raman reporter molecule and human cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) as an essential component of binding assays. Aggregated nanoparticles with the Raman reporter molecules were encapsulated in a silica shell to form SERS hotspots. Besides having a specific Raman spectra and binding affinity to cardiac Troponin I antibodies, the nanoparticles were designed to exhibit stability by using silica and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as part of the bioconjugation strategy. The specific narrow peaks from the Raman reporter molecule SERS signal allow for potential multiplexing capabilities as different Raman reporter molecules can be used in functionalized nanoparticles with different cardiac biomarkers. The SERS spectrum of the functionalized nanoparticles was measured to assess its potential to be used in an assay.

  2. Active Raman sounding of the earth's water vapor field.

    PubMed

    Tratt, David M; Whiteman, David N; Demoz, Belay B; Farley, Robert W; Wessel, John E

    2005-08-01

    The typically weak cross-sections characteristic of Raman processes has historically limited their use in atmospheric remote sensing to nighttime application. However, with advances in instrumentation and techniques, it is now possible to apply Raman lidar to the monitoring of atmospheric water vapor, aerosols and clouds throughout the diurnal cycle. Upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric measurements of water vapor using Raman lidar are also possible but are limited to nighttime and require long integration times. However, boundary layer studies of water vapor variability can now be performed with high temporal and spatial resolution. This paper will review the current state-of-the-art of Raman lidar for high-resolution measurements of the atmospheric water vapor, aerosol and cloud fields. In particular, we describe the use of Raman lidar for mapping the vertical distribution and variability of atmospheric water vapor, aerosols and clouds throughout the evolution of dynamic meteorological events. The ability of Raman lidar to detect and characterize water in the region of the tropopause and the importance of high-altitude water vapor for climate-related studies and meteorological satellite performance are discussed. PMID:16029854

  3. Active Raman sounding of the earth's water vapor field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tratt, David M.; Whiteman, David N.; Demoz, Belay B.; Farley, Robert W.; Wessel, John E.

    2005-01-01

    The typically weak cross-sections characteristic of Raman processes has historically limited their use in atmospheric remote sensing to nighttime application. However, with advances in instrumentation and techniques, it is now possible to apply Raman lidar to the monitoring of atmospheric water vapor, aerosols and clouds throughout the diurnal cycle. Upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric measurements of water vapor using Raman lidar are also possible but are limited to nighttime and require long integration times. However, boundary layer studies of water vapor variability can now be performed with high temporal and spatial resolution. This paper will review the current state-of-the-art of Raman lidar for high-resolution measurements of the atmospheric water vapor, aerosol and cloud fields. In particular, we describe the use of Raman lidar for mapping the vertical distribution and variability of atmospheric water vapor, aerosols and clouds throughout the evolution of dynamic meteorological events. The ability of Raman lidar to detect and characterize water in the region of the tropopause and the importance of high-altitude water vapor for climate-related studies and meteorological satellite performance are discussed.

  4. Laser induced magneto-Raman optical gain of an exciton and a biexciton in a CdTe/ZnTe quantum dot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sujanah, P.; John Peter, A.; Lee, Chang Woo

    2016-06-01

    Magnetic field and laser field amplitude dependent electronic and optical properties of exciton and biexciton in a CdTe/ZnTe quantum dot nanostructure are brought out taking into account the spatial confinement effect. Binding energies of exciton and biexciton as functions of laser field amplitude and magnetic field strength are computed in a CdTe/ZnTe quantum dot for the constant dot radius 30 Å. Oscillator strength, resonant absorption coefficients and resonant optical Raman intensity of the exciton and biexciton as a function of laser field amplitude are obtained in the presence of magnetic field strength in a CdTe/ZnTe quantum dot. The laser field induced magneto-Raman gain is studied for a constant dot radii. The Coulomb interaction energy which is involved in Hartree potential is obtained numerically. The result shows that the applications of magnetic field strength and the laser field amplitude alter the electronic and optical properties considerably in the CdTe/ZnTe quantum dot.

  5. A tunable photonic temporal integrator with ultra-long integration time windows based on Raman-gain assisted phase-shifted silicon Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuqian; Deng, Ye; Huang, Ningbo; Tang, Jian; Zhu, Ninghua; Li, Ming

    2016-08-01

    A tunable photonic temporal integrator based on Raman-gain assisted phase-shifted silicon Bragg gratings is proposed and theoretically demonstrated. The proposed temporal photonic integrator is constructed using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) π-phase-shifted Bragg grating, with a 25 V reverse bias applied to the p-i-n rib waveguide. Key feature of our design is that the length of integration time window could be widely tuned by simply changing the optical power of the pump light and could be extended to very long when the pump power is approaching lasing threshold. In addition, this scheme also has the potential for on-chip integration with other silicon photonics components.

  6. Goos-Hänchen shifts of partially coherent light beams from a cavity with a four-level Raman gain medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziauddin; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically investigate spatial and angular Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts (both negative and positive) in the reflected light for a partial coherent light incident on a cavity. A four-level Raman gain atomic medium is considered in a cavity. The effects of spatial coherence, beam width, and mode index of partial coherent light fields on spatial and angular GH shifts are studied. Our results reveal that a large magnitude of negative and positive GH shifts in the reflected light is achievable with the introduction of partial coherent light fields. Furthermore, the amplitude of spatial (negative and positive) GH shifts are sharply affected by the partial coherent light beam as compared to angular (negative and positive) GH shifts in the reflected light.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of mixed monolayer protected gold nanorods and their Raman activities

    SciTech Connect

    Mlambo, Mbuso; Mdluli, Phumlani S.; Shumbula, Poslet; Mpelane, Siyasanga; Moloto, Nosipho; Skepu, Amanda; Tshikhudo, Robert

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanorods surface functionalization. - Highlights: • Mixed monolayer protected gold nanorods. • Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. • HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin as a Raman active compound. - Abstract: The cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) gold nanorods (AuNRs) were prepared by seed-mediated route followed by the addition of a Raman active compound (HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin) on the gold nanorods surfaces. Different stoichiometric mixtures of HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin and HS-PEG-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}COOH were evaluated for their Raman activities. The lowest stoichiometric ratio HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin adsorbed on gold nanorods surface was detected and enhanced by Raman spectroscopy. The produced mixed monolayer protected gold nanorods were characterized by UV-vis spectrometer for optical properties, transmission electron microscope (TEM) for structural properties (shape and aspect ratio) and their zeta potentials (charges) were obtained from ZetaSizer to determine the stability of the produced mixed monolayer protected gold nanorods. The Raman results showed a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement at the lowest stoichiometric ratio of 1% HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin compared to high ratio of 50% HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin on the surface of gold nanorods.

  8. 20 CFR 220.29 - Work that is considered substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Employment § 220.29 Work that is considered substantial gainful activity. Work is considered to be substantial gainful activity if it— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties... activity. 220.29 Section 220.29 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER...

  9. 20 CFR 220.29 - Work that is considered substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Employment § 220.29 Work that is considered substantial gainful activity. Work is considered to be substantial gainful activity if it— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties... activity. 220.29 Section 220.29 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER...

  10. 20 CFR 220.29 - Work that is considered substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Employment § 220.29 Work that is considered substantial gainful activity. Work is considered to be substantial gainful activity if it— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties... activity. 220.29 Section 220.29 Employees' Benefits RAILROAD RETIREMENT BOARD REGULATIONS UNDER...

  11. Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic studies of specific, small molecule activator of histone acetyltransferase p300

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kundu, Partha P.; Pavan Kumar, G. V.; Mantelingu, Kempegowda; Kundu, Tapas K.; Narayana, Chandrabhas

    2011-07-01

    We report for the first time, the Raman and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) studies of N-(4-chloro-3-trifluoromethyl-phenyl)-2-ethoxy-benzamide (CTB). This molecule is specific activator of human histone acetyltransferase (HAT), p300, and serves as lead molecule to design anti-neoplastic therapeutics. A detailed Raman and SERS band assignments have been performed for CTB, which are compared with the density functional theory calculations. The observed red shift of N sbnd H stretching frequency from the computed wavenumber indicates the weakening of N sbnd H bond resulting from proton transfer to the neighboring oxygen atom. We observe Ag sbnd N vibrational mode at 234 cm -1 in SERS of CTB. This indicates there is a metal-molecule bond leading to chemical enhancement in SERS. We also observe, enhancement in the modes pertaining to substituted benzene rings and methyl groups. Based on SERS analysis we propose the adsorption sites and the orientation of CTB on silver surface.

  12. Third-order random lasing via Raman gain and Rayleigh feedback within a half-open cavity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zinan; Wu, Han; Fan, Mengqiu; Rao, Yunjiang; Jia, Xinhong; Zhang, Weili

    2013-08-26

    Third-order random lasing operating in 1670 nm spectral band is experimentally demonstrated for the first time to the best of our knowledge, with only 2.45 W pump threshold. The lasing cavity is formed by G.652 fiber and fiber loop mirrors (FLMs), while the former acts as the distributed reflector and the latter acts as the point reflector. The G.652 fiber and the FLMs are connected via a multi-band wavelength-division-multiplexer, which ensures each of the three Raman Stokes components generated in the long fiber is routed to one FLM and then reflected back with minimum loss. Unlike existing half-open random lasing cavities using fiber Bragg gratings, the reflection bandwidth of FLMs is wide enough to preserve the intrinsic spectral features of each lasing bands, providing a valuable platform to study the mechanism of high-order random lasing in fibers. Also, the reflection efficiency can be treated as an invariant as the pump power grows, significantly reducing the threshold of high-order random lasing. The stationary model is used to calculate the output power, and the results fit the experimental data well. PMID:24105555

  13. Exploring Sudden Gains in Behavioral Activation Therapy for Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hunnicutt-Ferguson, Kallio; Hoxha, Denada; Gollan, Jackie

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the onset and course of sudden gains in treatment provides clinical information to the patient and clinician, and encourages clinicians to strive for these sudden clinical gains with their patients. This study characterizes the occurrence of sudden gains with Behavioral Activation (BA; Martell, Addis, & Jacobson, 2001), and the extent to which pre-treatment dysfunctional depressive thinking predicts sudden gains during treatment. We enrolled a sample of adults (n = 42) between ages 18–65 diagnosed with primary Major Depressive Disorder. All participants completed a 16-week course of BA, with clinical and self-report assessments at pre-, mid- and post-treatment. Results indicated that sudden gain and non-sudden gain participants showed differential improvement across treatment. No significant effects emerged for the dysfunctional cognitive style as a predictor of sudden gain status. Sudden gains may result from interaction of non-specific factors with the BA techniques implemented during early phases of therapy. PMID:22336434

  14. 26 CFR 7.105-2 - Substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., institutional therapy or training, school attendance, clubs, social programs, and similar activities is not... from employment as a teacher because of terminal cancer. The taxpayer's physician...

  15. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity by blind... Reductions § 229.85 Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. A blind employee or child who is 55 years old or older is entitled to an O/M benefit based on disability while he or she is working...

  16. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2014-04-01 2012-04-01 true Substantial gainful activity by blind employee... § 229.85 Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. A blind employee or child who is 55 years old or older is entitled to an O/M benefit based on disability while he or she is working...

  17. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity by blind... Reductions § 229.85 Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. A blind employee or child who is 55 years old or older is entitled to an O/M benefit based on disability while he or she is working...

  18. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2013-04-01 2012-04-01 true Substantial gainful activity by blind employee... § 229.85 Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. A blind employee or child who is 55 years old or older is entitled to an O/M benefit based on disability while he or she is working...

  19. 20 CFR 229.85 - Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity by blind... Reductions § 229.85 Substantial gainful activity by blind employee or child. A blind employee or child who is 55 years old or older is entitled to an O/M benefit based on disability while he or she is working...

  20. Identification of active fluorescence stained bacteria by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Mario; Beyer, Beatrice; Pietsch, Christian; Radt, Benno; Harz, Michaela; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2008-04-01

    Microorganisms can be found everywhere e.g. in food both as useful ingredients or harmful contaminations causing food spoilage. Therefore, a fast and easy to handle analysis method is needed to detect bacteria in different kinds of samples like meat, juice or air to decide if the sample is contaminated by harmful microorganisms. Conventional identification methods in microbiology require always cultivation and therefore are time consuming. In this contribution we present an analysis approach to identify fluorescence stained bacteria on strain level by means of Raman spectroscopy. The stained bacteria are highlighted and can be localized easier against a complex sample environment e.g. in food. The use of Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrical methods allows the identification of single bacteria within minutes.

  1. Measurement of the gain in a disk amplification stage with neodymium phosphate glass active elements

    SciTech Connect

    Voronich, Ivan N; Galakhov, I V; Garanin, Sergey G; Eroshenko, V A; Zaretskii, Aleksei I; Zimalin, B G; Ignat'ev, Ivan V; Kirdyashkin, M Yu; Kirillov, G A; Osin, Vladimir A; Rukavishnikov, N N; Sukharev, Stanislav A; Sharov, Oleg A; Charukhchev, Aleksandr V

    2003-06-30

    The measuring technique is described and time-resolved measurements of the small-signal gain as a function of the pump energy in a disk amplification stage with neodymium phosphate glass active elements in the 'Luch' facility are presented. The distribution of the gain over the amplifier aperture in the horizontal plane is measured. (lasers)

  2. Tuning the surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of gold nanocubes by silver coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Shu-Jun; Zhu, Jian

    2015-12-01

    Colloidal gold nanocubes coated with a silver nanoshell have been synthesized via the seed mediated growth method. By changing the volume of gold seed and silver nitrate, both the edge length of gold nanocube and the thickness of silver shell could be fine-tuned. The surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of these core-shell structural Au-Ag bimetallic nanocubes has also been investigated by using the rhodamine 6G (R6G) as Raman active probe. It has been found the SERS activity of the silver-coated gold nanocubes greatly depends on their geometry factors. By decreasing the edge length of gold nanocubes or increasing the silver coating thickness, the SERS activity has been greatly enhanced. By comparing with other Raman bands of R6G, the enhancement of the Raman peak corresponding to the Csbnd Csbnd C ring in-plane vibration mode is more sensitive to the geometries of the nanostructure. These improved SERS properties of silver-coated gold nanocubes provide potential application for biologic and chemical sensing based on Raman spectroanalysis.

  3. Generation of synchronized picosecond pulses by a 1.06-µm gain-switched laser diode for stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Kyoya; Fang, Yi-Cheng; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Ozeki, Yasuyuki

    2016-05-01

    We propose that a gain-switched laser diode (GS-LD) can be used as a picosecond laser source for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. We employed a 1.06-µm GS-LD to generate ~13-ps pulses at a repetition rate of 38 MHz and amplified them to >100 mW with Yb-doped fiber amplifiers. The GS-LD was driven by 200-ps electrical pulses, which were triggered through a toggle flip-flop (T-FF) so that the GS-LD pulses were synchronized to Ti:sapphire laser (TSL) pulses at a repetition rate of 76 MHz. We found the timing jitter of GS-LD pulses to be approximately 2.7 ps in a jitter bandwidth of 7 MHz. We also show that the delay of electrical pulses can be less sensitive to the optical power of TSL pulses by controlling the threshold voltage of the T-FF. We demonstrate the SRS imaging of polymer beads and of HeLa cells with GS-LD pulses and TSL pulses, proving that GS-LD is readily applicable to SRS microscopy as a compact and stable pulse source. PMID:27137575

  4. Neighborhood factors associated with physical activity and adequacy of weight gain during pregnancy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy diet, physical activity, smoking, and adequate weight gain are all associated with maternal health and fetal growth during pregnancy. Neighborhood characteristics have been associated with poor maternal and child health outcomes, yet conceptualization of potential mechani...

  5. Nonlinear infrared generation in alkali metal vapors: steady state susceptibilities and dynamic behavior. Effective relaxation rates and preliminary Raman gain predictions for the Cs system. Technical progress report, 1 July-31 December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lawandy, N.M.

    1986-12-01

    Effective relaxation rates for atomic cesium pumped by doubled Alexandrite radiation are presented. Laser radiation levels are 8S 1/2 and 9S 1/2; resonance levels 3 = 8P 1/2 and 8P 1/2, respectively. In addition, Raman gain is represented in two graphs which plot chi per atom (10 to the -13 power) at Raman peak versus the infrared wave number per centimeter and the corresponding doubled Alexandrite wave number. One graph covers resonance level 8P, the other 9P; in both cases cesium is pumped with a peak pulse height of 0.5 MW in a 200 micron diameter spot size.

  6. Aggregation-Induced Resonance Raman Optical Activity (AIRROA): A New Mechanism for Chirality Enhancement.

    PubMed

    Zajac, Grzegorz; Kaczor, Agnieszka; Pallares Zazo, Ana; Mlynarski, Jacek; Dudek, Monika; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2016-05-01

    Raman optical activity (ROA) spectroscopy is hampered by low sensitivity, with limited possibilities for enhancing the signal. In the present study, we report a new mechanism whereby chirality is enhanced using the resonance resulting from supramolecular aggregation. We have named this mechanism aggregation-induced resonance Raman optical activity (AIRROA). As an example, we study J-aggregates of astaxanthin (AXT), which show strong absorption of circularly polarized light in the range of ROA excitation. The implications of aggregation-induced signal enhancement for chiroptical spectroscopy are discussed. PMID:27057926

  7. Femtoliter silver cups as surface enhanced Raman scattering active containers.

    PubMed

    Bhuvana, T; Kulkarni, G U

    2009-01-28

    Femtoliter capacity Ag cups formed by the pulsed laser ablation of an Ag foil have been tried out as substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements. The cups are formed as the impinging droplets from the laser plume undergo a flow pattern before freezing into cup-like structures, resulting in a surface roughness (approximately 35 nm) that makes them ideal for SERS studies. The internal volume of the cups is in the femtoliter (10(-15) l) range, well suited for small-scale reactions, particularly in biological studies. The cups exhibit enhancement factors of the order of 10(6) with the analyte molecule thiophenol. Individual cups have been dosed attoliter quantities (10(-18) l) of the analyte and detected. PMID:19417320

  8. Raman-activated cell sorting based on dielectrophoretic single-cell trap and release.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peiran; Ren, Lihui; Zhang, Xu; Shan, Yufei; Wang, Yun; Ji, Yuetong; Yin, Huabing; Huang, Wei E; Xu, Jian; Ma, Bo

    2015-02-17

    Raman-activated cell sorting (RACS) is a promising single-cell technology that holds several significant advantages, as RACS is label-free, information-rich, and potentially in situ. To date, the ability of the technique to identify single cells in a high-speed flow has been limited by inherent weakness of the spontaneous Raman signal. Here we present an alternative pause-and-sort RACS microfluidic system that combines positive dielectrophoresis (pDEP) for single-cell trap and release with a solenoid-valve-suction-based switch for cell separation. This has allowed the integration of trapping, Raman identification, and automatic separation of individual cells in a high-speed flow. By exerting a periodical pDEP field, single cells were trapped, ordered, and positioned individually to the detection point for Raman measurement. As a proof-of-concept demonstration, a mixture of two cell strains containing carotenoid-producing yeast (9%) and non-carotenoid-producing Saccharomyces cerevisiae (91%) was sorted, which enriched the former to 73% on average and showed a fast Raman-activated cell sorting at the subsecond level. PMID:25607599

  9. Preservation of fluorescence and Raman gain in the buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}(Nd:KGW) by femtosecond laser writing

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiaoyu; Qu Shiliang; Tan Yang; Chen Feng

    2011-02-20

    We report on the preservation of fluorescence and Raman gain in low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser written buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}. The propagation loss index, profile reconstruction, and calculation of the modal intensity distribution by the beam propagation method of the waveguide are presented. Microluminescence spectra of the waveguides show that the fluorescence properties of Nd{sup 3+} ions are not significantly affected by the waveguide formation processing, which indicates a fairly good potential for further laser actions in a compact device. Micro-Raman spectra are also performed to reveal the preservation of the characteristic 768 and 901 cm{sup -1} Raman mode intensities in the guiding regions.

  10. Maintaining a High Physical Activity Level Over 20 Years and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Arlene L.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Bouchard, Claude; Carnethon, Mercedes; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Context Data supporting physical activity guidelines to prevent long-term weight gain are sparse, particularly during the period when the highest risk of weight gain occurs. Objective To evaluate the relationship between habitual activity levels and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference over 20 years. Design, Setting, and Participants The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study is a prospective longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up, 1985-86 to 2005-06. Habitual activity was defined as maintaining high, moderate, and low activity levels based on sex-specific tertiles of activity scores at baseline. Participants comprised a population-based multi-center cohort (Chicago, Illinois; Birmingham, Alabama; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Oakland, California) of 3554 men and women aged 18 to 30 years at baseline. Main Outcome Measures Average annual changes in BMI and waist circumference Results Over 20 years, maintaining high levels of activity was associated with smaller gains in BMI and waist circumference compared with low activity levels after adjustment for race, baseline BMI, age, education, cigarette smoking status, alcohol use, and energy intake. Men maintaining high activity gained 2.6 fewer kilograms (+ 0.15 BMI units per year; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.18 vs +0.20 in the lower activity group; 95% CI, 0.17-0.23) and women maintaining higher activity gained 6.1 fewer kilograms (+0.17 BMI units per year; 95 % CI, 0.12-0.21 vs. +0.30 in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.25-0.34). Men maintaining high activity gained 3.1 fewer centimeters in waist circumference (+0.52 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.43-0.61 cm vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75) and women maintaining higher activity gained 3.8 fewer centimeters (+0.49 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.39-0.58 vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75). Conclusion Maintaining high activity levels through young adulthood may lessen

  11. Probing the Raman-active acoustic vibrations of nanoparticles with extraordinary spectral resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheaton, Skyler; Gelfand, Ryan M.; Gordon, Reuven

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots, viruses, DNA and all other nanoparticles have acoustic vibrations that can act as ‘fingerprints’ to identify their shape, size and mechanical properties, yet high-resolution Raman spectroscopy in this low-energy range has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate extraordinary acoustic Raman (EAR) spectroscopy to measure the Raman-active vibrations of single isolated nanoparticles in the 0.1-10 cm-1 range with ˜0.05 cm-1 resolution, to resolve peak splitting from material anisotropy and to probe the low-frequency modes of biomolecules. EAR employs a nanoaperture laser tweezer that can select particles of interest and manipulate them once identified. We therefore believe that this nanotechnology will enable expanded capabilities for the study of nanoparticles in the materials and life sciences.

  12. Intracavity Raman lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Band, Y.B.; Ackerhalt, J.R.; Krasinski, J.S.; Heller, D.F.

    1989-02-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of intracavity Raman lasers are presented. Advantages of intracavity Raman lasers, particularly for low-emission cross section and broadly tunable vibronic gain media, are described. Experimental studies of a hydrogen gas Raman laser pumped inside the cavity of an alexandrite laser are presented. A theoretical model of the dynamics of a unidirectional intracavity Raman ring laser is developed and solved analytically. This model is adapted to simulate experiments.

  13. Role of nonexercise activity thermogenesis in resistance to fat gain in humans.

    PubMed

    Levine, J A; Eberhardt, N L; Jensen, M D

    1999-01-01

    Humans show considerable interindividual variation in susceptibility to weight gain in response to overeating. The physiological basis of this variation was investigated by measuring changes in energy storage and expenditure in 16 nonobese volunteers who were fed 1000 kilocalories per day in excess of weight-maintenance requirements for 8 weeks. Two-thirds of the increases in total daily energy expenditure was due to increased nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT), which is associated with fidgeting, maintenance of posture, and other physical activities of daily life. Changes in NEAT accounted for the 10-fold differences in fat storage that occurred and directly predicted resistance to fat gain with overfeeding (correlation coefficient = 0.77, probability < 0.001). These results suggest that as humans overeat, activation of NEAT dissipates excess energy to preserve leanness and that failure to activate NEAT may result in ready fat gain. PMID:9880251

  14. Women and Training for Rural Gainful Activities (TRUGA). Training Discussion Paper No. 72.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baidya, Bhuchandra P. R.; Chaudhari, Gayatri

    An evaluative study was conducted of the Training for Rural Gainful Activities (TRUGA) project and methodology in Nepal regarding women's participation and benefits. The study analyzed TRUGA as a project and as a training methodology, assessed the effects of TRUGA activities on women, and evaluated project investment in and benefits to women.…

  15. The charge excitation in the Raman process as correlated from a classical theory for Raman optical activity: the case study of (+)-(R)-methyloxirane.

    PubMed

    Fang, Yan; Wu, Guozhen; Wang, Peijie

    2012-03-01

    We developed a classical algorithm to calculate the spectral signs in the Raman optical activity (ROA) spectrum. In this algorithm, the charge re-distributions among the bonds, which are associated to the bond polarizabilities, are included. For (+)-(R)-methyloxirane, we found that if these bond polarizabilities are attributed to the atoms and are properly scaled in order to be combined with the Mulliken charges on the atoms in the ground state, then the experimental ROA spectral signs can be well reproduced. Furthermore, in this process, we are able to determine that around 20% of the electrons in the molecule are excited in the Raman process. PMID:22226895

  16. Experimental (FT-IR and FT-Raman) and theoretical (HF and DFT) investigation, IR intensity, Raman activity and frequency estimation analyses on 1-bromo-4-chlorobenzene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udayakumar, V.; Periandy, S.; Ramalingam, S.

    2011-09-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 1-bromo-4-chlorobenzene (1-Br-4-CB) have been recorded using Bruker IFS 66V spectrometer in the region of 4000-100 cm -1. Ab-initio-HF (HF/6-311+G (d, p)) and DFT (B3LYP/6-31++G (d, p)/6-311++G (d, p)) calculations have been performed giving energies, optimized structures, harmonic vibrational frequencies, depolarization ratios, IR intensities, Raman activities. The vibrational frequencies are calculated and scaled values are compared with FT-IR and FT-Raman experimental values. Comparison of simulated spectra with the experimental spectra provides important information, the computational method have the ability to describe the vibrational methods. The frequency estimation analysis on HF and DFT is made. The impact of di-substituted halogens on the benzene molecule has also been discussed.

  17. Experimental (FT-IR and FT-Raman) and theoretical (HF and DFT) investigation, IR intensity, Raman activity and frequency estimation analyses on 1-bromo-4-chlorobenzene.

    PubMed

    Udayakumar, V; Periandy, S; Ramalingam, S

    2011-09-01

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 1-bromo-4-chlorobenzene (1-Br-4-CB) have been recorded using Bruker IFS 66V spectrometer in the region of 4000-100 cm(-1). Ab-initio-HF (HF/6-311+G (d, p)) and DFT (B3LYP/6-31++G (d, p)/6-311++G (d, p)) calculations have been performed giving energies, optimized structures, harmonic vibrational frequencies, depolarization ratios, IR intensities, Raman activities. The vibrational frequencies are calculated and scaled values are compared with FT-IR and FT-Raman experimental values. Comparison of simulated spectra with the experimental spectra provides important information, the computational method have the ability to describe the vibrational methods. The frequency estimation analysis on HF and DFT is made. The impact of di-substituted halogens on the benzene molecule has also been discussed. PMID:21550298

  18. Spontaneous regional brain activity links restrained eating to later weight gain among young women.

    PubMed

    Dong, Debo; Jackson, Todd; Wang, Yulin; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Theory and prospective studies have linked restrained eating (RE) to risk for future weight gain and the onset of obesity, but little is known about resting state neural activity that may underlie this association. To address this gap, resting fMRI was used to test the extent to which spontaneous neural activity in regions associated with inhibitory control and food reward account for potential relations between baseline RE levels and changes in body weight among dieters over a one-year interval. Spontaneous regional activity patterns corresponding to RE were assessed among 50 young women using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which measured temporal synchronization of spontaneous fluctuations within a food deprivation condition. Analyses indicated higher baseline RE scores predicted more weight gain at a one-year follow-up. Furthermore, food-deprived dieting women with high dietary restraint scores exhibited more spontaneous local activity in brain regions associated with the expectation and valuation for food reward [i.e., orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)] and reduced spontaneous local activity in inhibitory control regions [i.e., bilateral dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)] at baseline. Notably, the association between baseline RE and follow-up weight gain was mediated by decreased local synchronization of the right DLPFC in particular and, to a lesser degree, increased local synchronization of the right VMPFC. In conjunction with previous research, these findings highlight possible neural mechanisms underlying the relation between RE and risk for weight gain. PMID:26004091

  19. External locus of control contributes to racial disparities in memory and reasoning training gains in ACTIVE.

    PubMed

    Zahodne, Laura B; Meyer, Oanh L; Choi, Eunhee; Thomas, Michael L; Willis, Sherry L; Marsiske, Michael; Gross, Alden L; Rebok, George W; Parisi, Jeanine M

    2015-09-01

    Racial disparities in cognitive outcomes may be partly explained by differences in locus of control. African Americans report more external locus of control than non-Hispanic Whites, and external locus of control is associated with poorer health and cognition. The aims of this study were to compare cognitive training gains between African American and non-Hispanic White participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study and determine whether racial differences in training gains are mediated by locus of control. The sample comprised 2,062 (26% African American) adults aged 65 and older who participated in memory, reasoning, or speed training. Latent growth curve models evaluated predictors of 10-year cognitive trajectories separately by training group. Multiple group modeling examined associations between training gains and locus of control across racial groups. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans evidenced less improvement in memory and reasoning performance after training. These effects were partially mediated by locus of control, controlling for age, sex, education, health, depression, testing site, and initial cognitive ability. African Americans reported more external locus of control, which was associated with smaller training gains. External locus of control also had a stronger negative association with reasoning training gain for African Americans than for Whites. No racial difference in training gain was identified for speed training. Future intervention research with African Americans should test whether explicitly targeting external locus of control leads to greater cognitive improvement following cognitive training. PMID:26237116

  20. External locus of control contributes to racial disparities in memory and reasoning training gains in ACTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Meyer, Oanh L.; Choi, Eunhee; Thomas, Michael L.; Willis, Sherry L.; Marsiske, Michael; Gross, Alden L.; Rebok, George W.; Parisi, Jeanine M.

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparities in cognitive outcomes may be partly explained by differences in locus of control. African Americans report more external locus of control than non-Hispanic Whites, and external locus of control is associated with poorer health and cognition. The aims of this study were to compare cognitive training gains between African American and non-Hispanic White participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study and determine whether racial differences in training gains are mediated by locus of control. The sample comprised 2,062 (26% African American) adults aged 65 and older who participated in memory, reasoning, or speed training. Latent growth curve models evaluated predictors of 10-year cognitive trajectories separately by training group. Multiple group modeling examined associations between training gains and locus of control across racial groups. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans evidenced less improvement in memory and reasoning performance after training. These effects were partially mediated by locus of control, controlling for age, sex, education, health, depression, testing site, and initial cognitive ability. African Americans reported more external locus of control, which was associated with smaller training gains. External locus of control also had a stronger negative association with reasoning training gain for African Americans than for Whites. No racial difference in training gain was identified for speed training. Future intervention research with African Americans should test whether explicitly targeting external locus of control leads to greater cognitive improvement following cognitive training. PMID:26237116

  1. Optimisation of gain matrix with UZAWA algorithm—theory and application to an active panel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrouf, Mhamed; Charon, Willy; Peyraut, François

    2004-03-01

    This paper deals with the gain matrix optimisation in the framework of adaptive mechanical systems with LQG control. The purpose of this optimisation is to provide to the engineer the theoretical tools enabling him to position actuators as well as possible on a structure. It was carried out using a conventional UZAWA algorithm which was adapted to the active system context.

  2. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  3. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  7. Enhanced Raman scattering and photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO heterojunction nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chongqi; Zheng, Yuanhui; Zhan, Yingying; Lin, Xingyi; Zheng, Qi; Wei, Kemei

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we study the enhancement of Raman signals and photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO heterojunctions with an Ag content of 1 at.%, which were synthesized by photochemical deposition of Ag nanoparticles onto pre-synthesized ZnO nanorods. A strong interaction between Ag and ZnO nanocrystals were evidenced by XPS and UV-vis spectroscopy. The binding energy of Ag nanoparticles shifts toward lower energy compared to that of pure Ag nanoparticles, revealing that electrons transfer from Ag to the ZnO nanocrystals. The red shift of the plasmon absorption peak of Ag nanoparticles in Ag/ZnO heterojunctions further confirms the strong interaction between the two components. This strong interaction, arising from the coupling between Ag and ZnO nanocrystals, is responsible for the enhancement of Raman signals and photocatalytic activity of the Ag/ZnO heterojunctions. PMID:21847472

  8. Fifty-ps Raman fiber laser with hybrid active-passive mode locking.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A G; Kharenko, D S; Podivilov, E V; Babin, S A

    2016-07-25

    Actively mode locked Raman lasing in a ring PM-fiber cavity pumped by a linearly polarized Yb-doped fiber laser is studied. At co-propagating pumping, a stochastic pulse with duration defined by the AOM switching time (~15 ns) is generated with the round-trip period. At counter-propagating pumping, one or several sub-ns pulses (within the AOM switching envelope) are formed. It has been found that the formation of such stable multi-pulse structure is defined by the single-pulse energy limit (~20 nJ) set by the second-order Raman generation. Adding a NPE-based saturable absorber in the actively mode locked cavity, results in sufficient shortening of the generated pulses both in single- and multi-pulse regimes (down to 50 ps). A model is developed adequately describing the regimes. PMID:27464081

  9. Generation of unipolar optical pulses in a Raman-active medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, R. M.; Arkhipov, M. V.; Belov, P. A.; Tolmachev, Yu A.; Babushkin, I.

    2016-04-01

    Response of a Raman-active media (RAM) to the excitation by a series of ultrashort (few-cycle) optical pulses propagating at a superluminal velocity is studied theoretically. It is shown that under certain conditions rectangular unipolar pulses (video-pulses) can be generated as the RAM response. The duration, shape and amplitude of these video-pulses can be widely tuned by modifying the pump pulse parameters.

  10. Dietary Fructose and GLUT5 Transporter Activity Contribute to Antipsychotic-Induced Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Palavicino-Maggio, Caroline B; Kuzhikandathil, Eldo V

    2016-09-01

    Receptors for antipsychotics in the hypothalamus contribute to antipsychotics-induced weight gain; however, many of these receptors are also expressed in the intestine. The role of these intestinally-expressed receptors, and their potential modulation of nutrient absorption, have not been investigated in the context of antipsychotics-induced weight gain. Here we tested the effect of dietary fructose and intestinal fructose uptake on clozapine-induced weight gain in mice. Weight gain was determined in wild type mice and mice lacking the GLUT5 fructose transporter that were "orally-administered" 20mg/kg clozapine for 28 days. To assess the role of dietary fructose, clozapine-treated mice were fed controlled diets with different levels of fructose. Effect of clozapine treatment on intestinal fructose transport activity and expression levels of various receptors that bind clozapine, as well as several genes involved in gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis were measured using real-time RT-PCR and western blotting. Oral administration of clozapine significantly increased body weight in wild type C57BL/6 mice but not in GLUT5 null mice. The clozapine-induced weight gain was proportional to the percentage of fructose in the diet. Clozapine-treated mice increased intestinal fructose uptake without changing the intestinal expression level of GLUT5. Clozapine-treated mice expressed significantly higher levels of intestinal H1 histamine receptor in the wild type but not GLUT5 null mice. Clozapine also increased the intestinal expression of fructokinase and several genes involved in gluconeogenesis and lipogenesis. Our results suggest that increased intestinal absorption and metabolism of fructose contributes to clozapine-induced weight gain. Eliminating dietary fructose might prevent antipsychotics-induced weight gain. PMID:27056716

  11. Physical activity and fat mass gain in Mexican school-age children: a cohort study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background In México, the prevalence of unhealthy weight increased from 24% at 6 y to 33% at 12 y of age, opening a window of opportunity to better understand the pathogenesis of obesity. The objective of this study was to explore the association between time spent on medium, vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and concurrent gains in BMI, fat mass (FM) and fat-free mass (FFM), alternately, in a cohort of Mexican children followed from kindergarten (baseline) to 2nd grade elementary school (endline). Methods The MVPA (5-d accelerometry), BMI, FM and FFM (air displacement plethysmography) were measured at baseline and endline. Associations between gains in BMI, FM and FFM and changes in MVPA were examined using lagged and dynamic regression models, controlling for energy intake and demographic variables. Results A total of 205 children were analyzed. Gender affected the effect of MVPA on FM gain. In girls, a high baseline MVPA predicted a lower FM gain (-0.96 kg, p=0.025) compared to low/medium MVPA. Increasing, decreasing or having a persistently high MVPA predicted a lower FM gain (range -1.6 to -1.03 kg, p<0.05) compared to persistently low MVPA. In boys, increases in MVPA were associated with higher gains in BMI (+0.76 kg/m2, p=0.04) and FFM (+1.1 kg, p=0.01) compared to persistently low MVPA. Conclusion These results support a protective role of MVPA on FM gain in girls, suggesting that it may play a crucial role in the development of obesity. Further research on the gender effect of MVPA is warranted to better understand its role in the prevention and control of overweight and obesity. PMID:22839498

  12. Effects of weight gain induced by controlled overfeeding on physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Bray, George A.; Smith, Steven R.; de Jonge, Lilian; Rood, Jennifer; Han, Hongmei; Redman, Leanne M.; Martin, Corby K.

    2014-01-01

    It is unclear whether physical activity changes following long-term overfeeding and in response to different dietary protein intakes. Twenty-five (16 males, 9 females) healthy adults (18–35 yr) with BMI ranging from 19 to 30 kg/m2 enrolled in this inpatient study. In a parallel group design, participants were fed 140% of energy needs, with 5, 15, or 25% of energy from protein, for 56 days. Participants wore an RT3 accelerometer for at least 59 days throughout baseline and during overfeeding and completed 24-h whole room metabolic chamber assessments at baseline and on days 1, 14, and 56 of overfeeding and on day 57, when the baseline energy intake was consumed, to measure percent of time active and spontaneous physical activity (SPA; kcal/day). Changes in activity were also assessed by doubly labeled water (DLW). From accelerometry, vector magnitude (VM), a weight-independent measure of activity, and activity energy expenditure (AEE) increased with weight gain during overfeeding. AEE remained increased after adjusting for changes in body composition. Activity-related energy expenditure (AREE) from DLW and percent activity and SPA in the metabolic chamber increased with overfeeding, but SPA was no longer significant after adjusting for change in body composition. Change in VM and AEE were positively correlated with weight gain; however, change in activity was not affected by protein intake. Overfeeding produces an increase in physical activity and in energy expended in physical activity after adjusting for changes in body composition, suggesting that increased activity in response to weight gain might be one mechanism to support adaptive thermogenesis. PMID:25294214

  13. Active medium gain study of electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolobyanin, Yuriy; Adamenkov, Yuriy; Vyskubenko, Boris; Goryachev, Leonid; Ilyin, Sergey; Kalashnik, Anatoliy; Rakhimova, Tatiana; Rogozhnikov, Georgiy

    2007-05-01

    The paper reports on experimental studies of the active medium gain in supersonic electric-discharge oxygen-iodine laser (DOIL) based on traveling mw discharge. The measurements have included: absolute concentration, yield, and energy efficiency of production of SO in pure oxygen and oxygen-helium mixes at an oxygen partial pressure 3 to 15 Torr. For the gas flow to get rid of atomic oxygen, both heterogeneous mercury oxide coatings of the tube walls and homogeneous additives to the work mix, such as nitrogen oxide, have been used. The active medium of DOIL was formed using a nozzle array of the type of ejector sized as 10*50 mm2. The singlet oxygen-helium mix was supplied through three rows of sonic cylindrical nozzles, while the iodine-carrier gas mix - through two rows of supersonic conical nozzles with a half-opening angle of 10°(arc). The gas-phase iodine was produced in a quartz cell filled with iodine crystals. Room-temperature iodine vapors were picked up with a carrier gas (nitrogen or helium) and thus delivered into the nozzle array. The active medium was investigated by the high-resolution laser diode spectroscopy approach that used the laser type Vortex 6025 purchased from New Focus, Inc. The laser medium gain factor was determined by the intra-cavity approach having a sensitivity about 1*10 -6 cm -1. The static temperature of the medium was determined from the measurements of gain half-width. The gain of the active medium of electric-discharge OIL has been investigated. The DOIL in use was operating on a mix composed as O II:He=1:1 at a total pressure of 6 Torr and flowrate - about 1 mmol/s. With helium as an iodine carrier gas at a flowrate ~3 mmol/s, we have recorded a positive gain in the DOIL medium.

  14. Engineering molecularly-active nanoplasmonic surfaces for DNA detection via colorimetry and Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, Esmaeil; Mabbott, Samuel; Thompson, David; Graham, Duncan; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Clark, Alasdair W.

    2016-03-01

    We report a novel nanophotonic biosensor surface capable of both colorimetric detection and Raman-scattered detection of DNA infection markers at extreme sensitivities. Combining direct-write lithography, dip-pen nanolithography based DNA patterning, and molecular self-assembly, we create molecularly-active plasmonic nanostructures onto which metallic nanoparticles are located via DNA-hybridization. Arraying these structures enables optical surfaces that change state when contacted by specific DNA sequences; shifting the surface color while simultaneously generating strong Raman-scattering signals. Patterning the DNA markers onto the plasmonic surface as micro-scale symbols results in easily identifiable color shifts, making this technique applicable to multiplexed lab-on-a-chip and point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  15. Plasmonic enhancement of Raman optical activity in molecules near metal nanoshells.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Ramiro; Lombardini, Richard; Halas, Naomi J; Johnson, Bruce R

    2009-11-26

    Surface-enhanced Raman optical activity (SEROA) is investigated theoretically for molecules near a metal nanoshell. For this purpose, induced molecular electric dipole, magnetic dipole, and electric quadrupole moments must all be included. The incident field and the induced multipole fields all scatter from the nanoshell, and the scattered waves can be calculated via extended Mie theory. It is straightforward in this framework to calculate the incident frequency dependence of SEROA intensities, i.e., SEROA excitation profiles. The differential Raman scattering is examined in detail for a simple chiroptical model that provides analytical forms for the relevant dynamical molecular response tensors. This allows a detailed investigation into circumstances that simultaneously provide strong enhancement of differential intensities and remain selective for molecules with chirality. PMID:19639972

  16. Gain-Of-Function Mutational Activation of Human TRNA Synthetase Procytokine

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, X.L.; Kapoor, M.; Otero, F.J.; Slike, B.M.; Tsuruta, H.; Frausto, R.; Bates, A.; Ewalt, K.L.; Cheresh, D.A.; Schimmel, P.; /Scripps Res. Inst. /SLAC, SSRL

    2009-04-30

    Disease-causing mutations occur in genes for aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. That some mutations are dominant suggests a gain of function. Native tRNA synthetases, such as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, catalyze aminoacylation and are also procytokines that are activated by natural fragmentation. In principle, however, gain-of-function phenotypes could arise from mutational activation of synthetase procytokines. From crystal structure analysis, we hypothesized that a steric block of a critical Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) motif in full-length TyrRS suppresses the cytokine activity of a natural fragment. To test this hypothesis, we attempted to uncover ELR in the procytokine by mutating a conserved tyrosine (Y341) that tethers ELR. Site-specific proteolytic cleavage and small-angle X-ray scattering established subtle opening of the structure by the mutation. Strikingly, four different assays demonstrated mutational activation of cytokine functions. The results prove the possibilities for constitutive gain-of-function mutations in tRNA synthetases.

  17. Gain-of-Function Mutational Activation of Human tRNA Synthetase Procytokine

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiang-Lei; Kapoor, Mili; Otero, Francella J.; Slike, Bonnie M.; Tsuruta, Hiro; Frausto, Ricardo; Bates, Alison; Ewalt, Karla L.; Cheresh, David A.; Schimmel, Paul

    2008-01-01

    Summary Disease-causing mutations occur in genes for aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. That some mutations are dominant suggests a gain-of-function. Native tRNA synthetases, like TyrRS and TrpRS, catalyze aminoacylation and are also procytokines that are activated by natural fragmentation. In principle, however, gain-of-function phenotypes could arise from mutational activation of synthetase procytokines. From crystal structure analysis we hypothesized that a steric block of a critical ELR motif in full-length TyrRS suppresses the cytokine activity of a natural fragment. To test this hypothesis, we attempted to uncover ELR in the procytokine by mutating a conserved tyrosine (Y341) that tethers ELR. Site-specific proteolytic cleavage and small angle X-ray scattering established subtle opening of the structure by the mutation. Strikingly, four different assays demonstrated mutational activation of cytokine functions. The results prove the possibilities for constitutive gain-of-function mutations in tRNA synthetases. PMID:18096501

  18. Gain-of-function mutational activation of human tRNA synthetase procytokine.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiang-Lei; Kapoor, Mili; Otero, Francella J; Slike, Bonnie M; Tsuruta, Hiro; Frausto, Ricardo; Bates, Alison; Ewalt, Karla L; Cheresh, David A; Schimmel, Paul

    2007-12-01

    Disease-causing mutations occur in genes for aminoacyl tRNA synthetases. That some mutations are dominant suggests a gain of function. Native tRNA synthetases, such as tyrosyl-tRNA synthetase (TyrRS) and tryptophanyl-tRNA synthetase, catalyze aminoacylation and are also procytokines that are activated by natural fragmentation. In principle, however, gain-of-function phenotypes could arise from mutational activation of synthetase procytokines. From crystal structure analysis, we hypothesized that a steric block of a critical Glu-Leu-Arg (ELR) motif in full-length TyrRS suppresses the cytokine activity of a natural fragment. To test this hypothesis, we attempted to uncover ELR in the procytokine by mutating a conserved tyrosine (Y341) that tethers ELR. Site-specific proteolytic cleavage and small-angle X-ray scattering established subtle opening of the structure by the mutation. Strikingly, four different assays demonstrated mutational activation of cytokine functions. The results prove the possibilities for constitutive gain-of-function mutations in tRNA synthetases. PMID:18096501

  19. [Raman spectral analysis of theanine].

    PubMed

    Chen, Yong-Jian; Chen, Rong; Li, Yong-Zeng; Huang, Zu-Fang; Chen, Jie-Si; Lin, Duo; Xi, Gang-Qin

    2011-11-01

    The L-theanine was tested using confocal Raman microscopy. Obvious Raman bands were showed in the range of 250 -1 700 and 2 800-3 000 cm(-1). The Raman bands were assigned with a preliminary analysis and the characteristic vibrational modes were gained in different range of wave numbers. Eight strong Raman bands were observed in the Raman spectra at 321, 900, 938, 1 153, 1 312, 1 358, 1 454 and 1 647 cm(-1), respectively. They are the characteristic Raman bands of L-theanine. The results showed that Raman spectroscopy might be a new kind of precise, direct and fast detecting method for theanine. PMID:22242495

  20. Representation of potential information gain to measure the price of anarchy on ISR activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Peña, Hector J.; Hirsch, Michael; Karwan, Mark; Nagi, Rakesh; Sudit, Moises

    2013-05-01

    One of the main technical challenges facing intelligence analysts today is effectively determining information gaps from huge amounts of collected data. Moreover, getting the right information to/from the right person (e.g., analyst, warfighter on the edge) at the right time in a distributed environment has been elusive to our military forces. Synchronization of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities to maximize the efficient utilization of limited resources (both in quantity and capabilities) has become critically important to increase the accuracy and timeliness of overall information gain. Given this reality, we are interested in quantifying the degradation of solution quality (i.e., information gain) as a centralized system synchronizing ISR activities (from information gap identification to information collection and dissemination) moves to a more decentralized framework. This evaluation extends the concept of price of anarchy, a measure of the inefficiency of a system when agents maximize decisions without coordination, by considering different levels of decentralization. Our initial research representing the potential information gain in geospatial and time discretized spaces is presented. This potential information gain map can represent a consolidation of Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield products as input to automated ISR synchronization tools. Using the coordination of unmanned vehicles (UxVs) as an example, we developed a mathematical programming model for multi-perspective optimization in which each UxV develops its own fight plan to support mission objectives based only on its perspective of the environment (i.e., potential information gain map). Information is only exchanged when UxVs are part of the same communication network.

  1. Pregnant women's perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition using Theory of Planned Behavior constructs.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara M; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2016-02-01

    A better understanding of women's perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women's perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23-39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women's weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:26335313

  2. Exploring the active site structure of photoreceptor proteins by Raman optical activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Unno, Masashi

    2015-03-01

    Understanding protein function at the atomic level is a major challenge in a field of biophysics and requires the combined efforts of structural and functional methods. We use photoreceptor proteins as a model system to understand in atomic detail how a chromophore and a protein interact to sense light and send a biological signal. A potential technique for investigating molecular structures is Raman optical activity (ROA), which is a spectroscopic method with a high sensitivity to the structural details of chiral molecules. However, its application to photoreceptor proteins has not been reported. Thus we have constructed ROA spectrometer using near-infrared (NIR) laser excitation at 785 nm. The NIR excitation enables us to measure ROA spectra for a variety of biological samples, including photoreceptor proteins, without fluorescence from the samples. In the present study, we have applied the NIR-ROA to bacteriorhodopsin (BR) and photoactive yellow protein (PYP). BR is a light-driven proton pump and contains a protonated Schiff base of retinal as a chromophore. PYP is a blue light receptor, and this protein has the 4-hydroxycinnamyl chromophore, which is covalently linked to Cys69 through a thiolester bond. We have successfully obtained the ROA spectra of the chromophore within a protein environment. Furthermore, calculations of the ROA spectra utilizing density functional theory provide detailed structural information, such as data on out-of-plane distortions of the chromophore. The structural information obtained from the ROA spectra includes the positions of hydrogen atoms, which are usually not detected in the crystal structures of biological samples.

  3. Investigation of biochemical property changes in activation-induced CD 8 + T cell apoptosis using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Ju; Ahn, Hyung Joon; Lee, Gi-Ja; Jung, Gyeong Bok; Lee, Gihyun; Kim, Dohyun; Shin, Jae-Ho; Jin, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2015-07-01

    The study was to investigate the changes in biochemical properties of activated mature CD8+ T cells related to apoptosis at a molecular level. We confirmed the activation and apoptosis of CD8+ T cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and atomic force microscopy and then performed Raman spectral measurements on activated mature CD8+ T cells and cellular deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). In the activated mature CD8+ T cells, there were increases in protein spectra at 1002 and 1234 cm-1. In particular, to assess the apoptosis-related DNA spectral signatures, we investigated the spectra of the cellular DNA isolated from resting and activated mature CD8+ T cells. Raman spectra at 765 to 786 cm-1 and 1053 to 1087 cm-1 were decreased in activated mature DNA. In addition, we analyzed Raman spectrum using the multivariate statistical method including principal component analysis. Raman spectra of activated mature DNA are especially well-discriminated from those of resting DNA. Our findings regarding the biochemical and structural changes associated with apoptosis in activated mature T cells and cellular DNA according to Raman spectroscopy provide important insights into allospecific immune responses generated after organ transplantation, and may be useful for therapeutic manipulation of the immune response.

  4. Activation of Si implants into InAs characterized by Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lind, A. G.; Martin, T. P.; Sorg, V. C.; Kennon, E. L.; Truong, V. Q.; Aldridge, H. L.; Hatem, C.; Thompson, M. O.; Jones, K. S.

    2016-03-01

    Studies of implant activation in InAs have not been reported presumably because of challenges associated with junction leakage. The activation of 20 keV, Si+ implants into lightly doped (001) p-type bulk InAs performed at 100 °C as a function of annealing time and temperature was measured via Raman scattering. Peak shift of the L+ coupled phonon-plasmon mode after annealing at 700 °C shows that active n-type doping levels ≈5 × 1019 cm-3 are possible for ion implanted Si in InAs. These values are comparable to the highest reported active carrier concentrations of 8-12 × 1019 cm-3 for growth-doped n-InAs. Raman scattering is shown to be a viable, non-contact technique to measure active carrier concentration in instances where contact-based methods such as Hall effect produce erroneous measurements or junction leakage prevents the measurement of shallow n+ layers, which cannot be effectively isolated from the bulk.

  5. On the Theory of High-Power Ultrashort Pulse Propagation in Raman-Active Media

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belenov, E. M.; Isakov, V. A.; Kanavin, A. P.; Smetanin, I. V.

    1996-01-01

    The propagation of an intense femtosecond pulse in a Raman-active medium is analyzed. An analytic solution which describes in explicit form the evolution of the light pulse is derived. The field of an intense light wave undergoes a substantial transformation as the wave propagates through the medium. The nature of this transformation can change over time scales comparable to the period of the optical oscillations. As a result, the pulse of sufficiently high energy divides into stretched and compressed domains where the field decreases and increases respectively.

  6. Nanoporous gold as a highly active substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Kucheyev, S O; Hayes, J R; Biener, J; Hamza, A V

    2006-03-28

    Colloidal solutions of metal nanoparticles are currently among most studied substrates for sensors based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). However, such substrates often suffer from not being cost-effective, reusable, or stable. Here, we develop nanoporous Au as a highly active, tunable, a.ordable, stable, bio-compatible, and reusable SERS substrate. Nanoporous Au is prepared by a facile process of free corrosion of AgAu alloys followed by annealing. Results show that nanofoams with average pore sizes of {approx} 250 nm exhibit the largest SERS signal for 632.8 nm excitation. This is attributed to the electromagnetic SERS enhancement mechanism with additional field localization within pores.

  7. Surface enhanced Raman scattering, antibacterial and antifungal active triangular gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitha, S. L.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2013-02-01

    Shape controlled syntheses of gold nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as their optical, electronic, magnetic and biological properties are strongly dependent on the size and shape of the particles. Here is a report on the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth reduced gold nanoparticles consisting of triangular and spherical like particles, using 2-aminothiophenol (2-ATP) and crystal violet (CV) as probe molecules. Nanoparticles prepared with a minimum leaf broth concentration, having a greater number of triangular like particles exhibit a SERS activity of the order of 107. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibit efficient antibacterial activity against the tested gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Investigations on the antifungal activity of the synthesized nanoparticles against Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum positive is also discussed.

  8. Antenna gain of actively compensated free-space optical communication systems under strong turbulence conditions.

    PubMed

    Juarez, Juan C; Brown, David M; Young, David W

    2014-05-19

    Current Strehl ratio models for actively compensated free-space optical communications terminals do not accurately predict system performance under strong turbulence conditions as they are based on weak turbulence theory. For evaluation of compensated systems, we present an approach for simulating the Strehl ratio with both low-order (tip/tilt) and higher-order (adaptive optics) correction. Our simulation results are then compared to the published models and their range of turbulence validity is assessed. Finally, we propose a new Strehl ratio model and antenna gain equation that are valid for general turbulence conditions independent of the degree of compensation. PMID:24921373

  9. Differential modulation of activity related to the anticipation of monetary gains and losses across the menstrual cycle.

    PubMed

    Bayer, Janine; Bandurski, Pia; Sommer, Tobias

    2013-11-01

    Estradiol and progesterone interact with the dopaminergic and other neurotransmitter systems that are involved in the processing of rewards. On the systems level, these hormones modulate responses to stimulants as well as neuronal activity related to the anticipation of monetary gains. As different mechanisms might underlie the processing of gains and losses, the current study aims to investigate whether neural correlates of gain and loss anticipation are differentially modulated by menstrual cycle phases. Therefore, young, naturally cycling women were examined by means of functional neuroimaging during performing a modified version of the 'Monetary Incentive Delay' task in the early follicular and in the luteal menstrual cycle phase. During the low hormone early follicular phase, the anticipation of high vs. low gains and losses was associated with activity in a largely overlapping network of brain areas. However, high hormone levels in the luteal phase affected brain activity in these areas differentially during the anticipation of high vs. low gains and losses. In particular, the orbitofrontal cortex showed a reduced sensitivity to gain magnitude, whereas the ventral striatum and the anterior cingulate showed a reduced sensitivity to loss magnitude. In summary, the high amount of progesterone and estradiol in the luteal phase decreased activity related to the anticipation of monetary gains and losses in different brain areas, suggesting that hormones modulate different processes during the anticipation of gain and loss magnitude. PMID:23981052

  10. Vibrational Raman optical activity of 1-phenylethanol and 1-phenylethylamine: revisiting old friends.

    PubMed

    Kapitán, Josef; Johannessen, Christian; Bour, Petr; Hecht, Lutz; Barron, Laurence D

    2009-01-01

    The samples used for the first observations of vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) in 1972, namely both enantiomers of 1-phenylethanol and 1-phenylethylamine, have been revisited using a modern commercial ROA instrument together with state-of-the-art ab initio calculations. The simulated ROA spectra reveal for the first time the vibrational origins of the first reported ROA signals, which comprised similar couplets in the alcohol and amine in the spectral range approximately 280-400 cm(-1). The results demonstrate how easy and routine ROA measurements have become, and how current ab initio quantum-chemical calculations are capable of simulating experimental ROA spectra quite closely provided sufficient averaging over accessible conformations is included. Assignment of absolute configuration is, inter alia, completely secure from results of this quality. Anharmonic corrections provided small improvements in the simulated Raman and ROA spectra. The importance of conformational averaging emphasized by this and previous related work provides the underlying theoretical background to ROA studies of dynamic aspects of chiral molecular and biomolecular structure and behavior. PMID:19544353

  11. Individual Differences in Striatum Activity to Food Commercials Predict Weight Gain in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yokum, Sonja; Gearhardt, Ashley N.; Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adolescents view thousands of food commercials annually, but little is known about how individual differences in neural response to food commercials relate to weight gain. To add to our understanding of individual risk factors for unhealthy weight gain and environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic, we tested the associations between reward region (striatum and orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]) responsivity to food commercials and future change in Body Mass Index (BMI). Design and Methods Adolescents (N = 30) underwent a scan session at baseline while watching a television show edited to include 20 food commercials and 20 non-food commercials. BMI was measured at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Results Activation in the striatum, but not OFC, in response to food commercials relative to non-food commercials and in response to food commercials relative to the television show was positively associated with change in BMI over 1-year follow-up. Baseline BMI did not moderate these effects. Conclusions The results suggest that there are individual differences in neural susceptibility to food advertising. These findings highlight a potential mechanism for the impact of food marketing on adolescent obesity. PMID:25155745

  12. Raman spectroscopy-an innovative and versatile tool to follow the respirational activity and carbonate biomineralization of important cave bacteria.

    PubMed

    Keiner, Robert; Frosch, Torsten; Hanf, Stefan; Rusznyak, Anna; Akob, Denise M; Küsel, Kirsten; Popp, Jürgen

    2013-09-17

    Raman gas spectrometry is introduced as a unique tool for the investigation of the respiratory activity that is indicative for growth of bacteria involved in biomineralization. Growth of these bacteria cannot be monitored using conventional turbidity-based optical density measurements due to concomitant mineral formation in the medium. The respiratory activity of carbonate-precipitating Arthrobacter sulfonivorans , isolated from the recently discovered Herrenberg Cave, was investigated during its lifecycle by means of innovative cavity-enhanced Raman gas analysis. This method allowed rapid and nonconsumptive online quantification of CO2 and O2 in situ in the headspace of the bacterial culture. Carbon dioxide production rates of A. sulfonivorans showed two maxima due to its pleomorphic growth lifecycle. In contrast, only one maximum was observed in control organism Pseudomonas fluorescens with a one-stage lifecycle. Further insight into the biomineralization process over time was provided by a combination of Raman macro- and microspectroscopy. With the help of this spatially resolved chemical imaging of the different types of calcium carbonate minerals, it was elucidated that the surface of the A. sulfonivorans bacterial cells served as nuclei for biomineralization of initially spherical vaterite precipitates. These vaterite biominerals continued growing as chemically stable rock-forming calcite crystals with rough edges. Thus, the utilization of innovative Raman multigas spectroscopy, combined with Raman mineral analysis, provided novel insights into microbial-mediated biomineralization and, therefore, provides a powerful methodology in the field of environmental sciences. PMID:23972095

  13. Rhythmic auditory cortex activity at multiple timescales shapes stimulus-response gain and background firing.

    PubMed

    Kayser, Christoph; Wilson, Caroline; Safaai, Houman; Sakata, Shuzo; Panzeri, Stefano

    2015-05-20

    The phase of low-frequency network activity in the auditory cortex captures changes in neural excitability, entrains to the temporal structure of natural sounds, and correlates with the perceptual performance in acoustic tasks. Although these observations suggest a causal link between network rhythms and perception, it remains unknown how precisely they affect the processes by which neural populations encode sounds. We addressed this question by analyzing neural responses in the auditory cortex of anesthetized rats using stimulus-response models. These models included a parametric dependence on the phase of local field potential rhythms in both stimulus-unrelated background activity and the stimulus-response transfer function. We found that phase-dependent models better reproduced the observed responses than static models, during both stimulation with a series of natural sounds and epochs of silence. This was attributable to two factors: (1) phase-dependent variations in background firing (most prominent for delta; 1-4 Hz); and (2) modulations of response gain that rhythmically amplify and attenuate the responses at specific phases of the rhythm (prominent for frequencies between 2 and 12 Hz). These results provide a quantitative characterization of how slow auditory cortical rhythms shape sound encoding and suggest a differential contribution of network activity at different timescales. In addition, they highlight a putative mechanism that may implement the selective amplification of appropriately timed sound tokens relative to the phase of rhythmic auditory cortex activity. PMID:25995464

  14. Differential Classical Conditioning Selectively Heightens Response Gain of Neural Population Activity in Human Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Song, Inkyung; Keil, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Neutral cues, after being reliably paired with noxious events, prompt defensive engagement and amplified sensory responses. To examine the neurophysiology underlying these adaptive changes, we quantified the contrast-response function of visual cortical population activity during differential aversive conditioning. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) were recorded while participants discriminated the orientation of rapidly flickering grating stimuli. During each trial, luminance contrast of the gratings was slowly increased and then decreased. Right-tilted gratings (CS+) were paired with loud white noise but left-tilted gratings (CS−) were not. The contrast-following waveform envelope of ssVEPs showed selective amplification of the CS+ only during the high-contrast stage of the viewing epoch. Findings support the notion that motivational relevance, learned in a time frame of minutes, affects vision through a response gain mechanism. PMID:24981277

  15. Measurements and Effects of the Raman Active Nuclear Distribution in the Condensed Phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palese, Stephen Paul

    1995-01-01

    Heterodyne optical Kerr effect spectroscopy was used to follow the induced transient birefringence within condensed phase systems. These experiments determine the low frequency Raman active distribution which is impulsively excited by the applied ultrashort electromagnetic field. The transform of the time domain response shows the frequency distribution responsible for the free induction decay (FID) of the ensemble of excited oscillators. This distribution is important for structural reorganization of the system in response to excited state species. In order to address concerns regarding energy relaxation, the roles of homogeneous and inhomogeneous contributions to the FID must be determined. Inhomogeneous contributions, which result from locally varying environments within the macroscopic system, carry no information regarding the coupling between the excited species and the bath system, while homogeneous contributions are directly related bath coupling mechanisms. Representative examples of liquid (water) and conjugated polymer (Poly-phenylene vinylene) systems comprise these studies. For water, temperature and isotope dependencies are utilized to determine the relative homogeneous and inhomogeneous contributions to the observed FID within a multi-mode Brownian oscillator model. Within this model, it is found that the low frequency Raman active distribution is mainly broadened by inhomogeneous mechanisms. The decomposition of the third order response into these contributions is not unambiguous and higher order responses are calculated for the extracted water spectrum in the homogeneous limit, inhomogeneous limit, and dynamically evolving case. These calculations show that higher order Raman responses are capable of directly discriminating between these mechanisms with no constraints regarding the inhomogeneous and homogeneous lineshape functional forms. Experiments of this nature can therefore extract the time scale of the coupling to the bath important for

  16. Rhodopsin determinants for transducin activation: a gain-of-function approach.

    PubMed

    Natochin, Michael; Gasimov, Karim G; Moussaif, Mustapha; Artemyev, Nikolai O

    2003-09-26

    Three cytoplasmic loops in the G protein-coupled receptor rhodopsin, C2, C3, and C4, have been implicated as key sites for binding and activation of the visual G protein transducin. Non-helical portions of the C2- and C3-loops and the cytoplasmic helix-8 from the C4 loop were targeted for a "gain-of-function" mutagenesis to identify rhodopsin residues critical for transducin activation. Mutant opsins with residues 140-148 (C2-loop), 229-244 (C3-loop), or 310-320 (C4-loop) substituted by poly-Ala sequences of equivalent lengths served as templates for mutagenesis. The template mutants with poly-Ala substitutions in the C2- and C3-loops formed the 500-nm absorbing pigments but failed to activate transducin. Reverse substitutions of the Ala residues by rhodopsin residues have been generated in each of the templates. Significant ( approximately 50%) restoration of the rhodopsin/transducin coupling was achieved with re-introduction of residues Cys140/Lys141 and Arg147/Phe148 into the C2 template. The reverse substitutions of the C3-loop residues Thr229/Val230 and Ser240/Thr242/Thr243/Gln244 produced a pigment with a full capacity for transducin activation. The C4 template mutant was unable to bind 11-cis-retinal, and the presence of Asn310/Lys311 was required for correct folding of the protein. Subsequent mutagenesis of the C4-loop revealed the role of Phe313 and Met317. On the background of Asn310/Lys311, the inclusion of Phe313 and Met317 produced a mutant pigment with the potency of transducin activation equal to that of the wild-type rhodopsin. Overall, our data support the role of the three cytoplasmic loops of rhodopsin and suggest that residues adjacent to the transmembrane helices are most important for transducin activation. PMID:12860986

  17. GABAergic neural activity involved in salicylate-induced auditory cortex gain enhancement.

    PubMed

    Lu, J; Lobarinas, E; Deng, A; Goodey, R; Stolzberg, D; Salvi, R J; Sun, W

    2011-08-25

    Although high doses of sodium salicylate impair cochlear function, it paradoxically enhances sound-evoked activity in the auditory cortex (AC) and augments acoustic startle reflex responses, neural and behavioral metrics associated with hyperexcitability and hyperacusis. To explore the neural mechanisms underlying salicylate (SS)-induced hyperexcitability and "increased central gain," we examined the effects of GABA receptor agonists and antagonists on SS-induced hyperexcitability in the AC and startle reflex responses. Consistent with our previous findings, local or systemic application of SS significantly increased the amplitude of sound-evoked AC neural activity, but generally reduced spontaneous activity in the AC. Systemic injection of SS also significantly increased the acoustic startle reflex. S-baclofen or R-baclofen, GABA-B agonists, which suppressed sound-evoked AC neural firing rate and local field potentials, also suppressed the SS-induced enhancement of the AC field potential and the acoustic startle reflex. Local application of vigabatrin, which enhances GABA concentration in the brain, suppressed the SS-induced enhancement of AC firing rate. Systemic injection of vigabatrin also reduced the SS-induced enhancement of acoustic startle reflex. Collectively, these results suggest that the sound-evoked behavioral and neural hyperactivity induced by SS may arise from a SS-induced suppression of GABAergic inhibition in the AC. PMID:21664433

  18. An active loudness model suggesting tinnitus as increased central noise and hyperacusis as increased nonlinear gain

    PubMed Central

    Zeng, Fan-Gang

    2012-01-01

    The present study uses a systems engineering approach to delineate the relationship between tinnitus and hyperacusis as a result of either hearing loss in the ear or an imbalanced state in the brain. Specifically examined is the input–output function, or loudness growth as a function of intensity in both normal and pathological conditions. Tinnitus reduces the output dynamic range by raising the floor, while hyperacusis reduces the input dynamic range by lowering the ceiling or sound tolerance level. Tinnitus does not necessarily steepen the loudness growth function but hyperacusis always does. An active loudness model that consists of an expansion stage following a compression stage can account for these key properties in tinnitus and hyperacusis loudness functions. The active loudness model suggests that tinnitus is a result of increased central noise, while hyperacusis is due to increased nonlinear gain. The active loudness model also generates specific predictions on loudness growth in tinnitus, hyperacusis, hearing loss or any combinations of the three conditions. These predictions need to be verified by experimental data and have explicit implications for treatment of tinnitus and hyperacusis. PMID:22641191

  19. Time-encoded Raman scattering (TICO-Raman) with Fourier domain mode locked (FDML) lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpf, Sebastian; Eibl, Matthias; Wieser, Wolfgang; Klein, Thomas; Huber, Robert

    2015-07-01

    We present a new concept for performing stimulated Raman spectroscopy and microscopy by employing rapidly wavelength swept Fourier Domain Mode locked (FDML) lasers [1]. FDML lasers are known for fastest imaging in swept-source optical coherence tomography [2, 3]. We employ this continuous and repetitive wavelength sweep to generate broadband, high resolution stimulated Raman spectra with a new, time-encoded (TICO) concept [4]. This allows for encoding and detecting the stimulated Raman gain on the FDML laser intensity directly in time. Therefore we use actively modulated pump lasers, which are electronically synchronized to the FDML laser, in combination with a fast analog-to-digital converter (ADC) at 1.8 GSamples/s. We present hyperspectral Raman images with color-coded, molecular contrast.

  20. Dehydrated Hereditary Stomatocytosislinked to gain-of-function mutations in mechanically activated PIEZO1 ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Albuisson, Juliette; Murthy, Swetha E.; Bandell, Michael; Coste, Bertrand; Louis-dit-Picard, Hélène; Mathur, Jayanti; Fénéant-Thibault, Madeleine; Tertian, Gérard; de Jaureguiberry, Jean-Pierre; Syfuss, Pierre-Yves; Cahalan, Stuart; Garçon, Loic; Toutain, Fabienne; Rohrlich, Pierre Simon; Delaunay, Jean; Picard, Véronique; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2013-01-01

    Dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHS) is a genetic condition with defective red blood cell (RBC) membrane properties that causes an imbalance in intracellular cation concentrations. Recently, two missense mutations inthe mechanically activated PIEZO1(FAM38A) ion channel were associated with DHS. However, it is not known how these mutations affect PIEZO1 function. Here, by combining linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing in a large pedigree and Sanger sequencing in two additional kindreds and 11 unrelated DHS cases, we identifythree novel missense mutations and one recurrent duplication in PIEZO1, demonstrating that it is the major gene for DHS. All the DHS-associated mutations locate at C-terminal half of PIEZO1. Remarkably, we find that all PIEZO1 mutations give rise to mechanically activated currents that inactivate more slowly than wild-type currents. This gain-of-function PIEZO1 phenotype provides insight that helps to explain the increased permeability of cations in RBCs of DHS patients. Our findings also suggest a new role for mechanotransduction in RBC biology and pathophysiology. PMID:23695678

  1. Integrated Raman and angular scattering microscopy reveals chemical and morphological differences between activated and nonactivated CD8+ T lymphocytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Zachary J.; Wang, Jyh-Chiang E.; Quataert, Sally A.; Berger, Andrew J.

    2010-05-01

    Integrated Raman and angular-scattering microscopy (IRAM) is a multimodal platform capable of noninvasively probing both the chemistry and morphology of a single cell without prior labeling. Using this system, we are able to detect activation-dependent changes in the Raman and elastic-scattering signals from CD8+ T cells stimulated with either Staphylococcal enterotoxin B (SEB) or phorbol myristate acetate (PMA). In both cases, results obtained from the IRAM instrument correlate well with results obtained from traditional fluorescence-based flow cytometry for paired samples. SEB-mediated activation was distinguished from resting state in CD8+ T cells by an increase in the number and mean size of small (~500-nm) elastic scatterers as well as a decrease in Raman bands, indicating changes in nuclear content. PMA-mediated activation induced a different profile in CD8+ T cells from SEB, showing a similar increase in small elastic scatterers but a different Raman change, with elevation of cellular protein and lipid bands. These results suggest the potential of this multimodal, label-free optical technique for studying processes in single cells.

  2. Fusing Passive and Active Sensed Images to Gain Infrared-Textured 3d Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weinmann, M.; Hoegner, L.; Leitloff, J.; Stilla, U.; Hinz, S.; Jutzi, B.

    2012-07-01

    Obtaining a 3D description of man-made and natural environments is a basic task in Computer Vision, Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing. New active sensors provide the possibility of capturing range information by images with a single measurement. With this new technique, image-based active ranging is possible which allows for capturing dynamic scenes, e.g. with moving pedestrians or moving vehicles. The currently available range imaging devices usually operate within the close-infrared domain to capture range and furthermore active and passive intensity images. Depending on the application, a 3D description with additional spectral information such as thermal-infrared data can be helpful and offers new opportunities for the detection and interpretation of human subjects and interactions. Therefore, thermal-infrared data combined with range information is promising. In this paper, an approach for mapping thermal-infrared data on range data is proposed. First, a camera calibration is carried out for the range imaging system (PMD[vision] CamCube 2.0) and the thermal-infrared system (InfraTec VarioCAM hr). Subsequently, a registration of close-infrared and thermal infrared intensity images derived from different sensor devices is performed. In this context, wavelength independent properties are selected in order to derive point correspondences between the different spectral domains. Finally, the thermal infrared images are enhanced with information derived from data acquired with the range imaging device and the enhanced IR texture is projected onto the respective 3D point cloud data for gaining appropriate infrared-textured 3D models. The feasibility of the proposed methodology is demonstrated for an experimental setup which is well-suited for investigating these proposed possibilities. Hence, the presented work is a first step towards the development of methods for combined thermal-infrared and range representation.

  3. Low threshold, actively Q-switched Nd 3+:YVO 4 self-Raman laser and frequency doubled 588 nm yellow laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Baoshan; Tan, Huiming; Peng, Jiying; Miao, Jieguang; Gao, Lanlan

    2007-03-01

    We reported an actively Q-switched, intracavity Nd3+:YVO4 self-Raman laser at 1176 nm with low threshold and high efficiency. From the extracavity frequency doubling by use of LBO nonlinear crystal, over 3.5 mW, 588 nm yellow laser is achieved. The maximum Raman laser output at is 182 mW with 1.8 W incident pump power. The threshold is only 370 mW at a pulse repetition frequency of 5 kHz. The optical conversion efficiency from incident to the Raman laser is 10%, and 1.9% from Raman laser to the yellow.

  4. Persistence or Change in Leisure-Time Physical Activity Habits and Waist Gain During Early Adulthood: A Twin-Study

    PubMed Central

    Rottensteiner, Mirva; Pietiläinen, Kirsi H.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Kujala, Urho M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective To determine the relationship between persistence or change in leisure-time physical activity habits and waist gain among young adults. Design and Methods Population-based cohort study among 3383 Finnish twin individuals (1578 men) from five birth cohorts (1975–1979), who answered questionnaires at mean ages of 24.4 y (SD 0.9) and 33.9 y (SD 1.2), with reported self-measured waist circumference. Persistence or change in leisure-time physical activity habits was defined based on thirds of activity metabolic equivalent h/day during follow-up (mean 9.5 y; SD 0.7). Results Decreased activity was linked to greater waist gain compared to increased activity (3.6 cm, P<0.001 for men; 3.1 cm, P<0.001 for women). Among same-sex activity discordant twin pairs, twins who decreased activity gained an average 2.8 cm (95%CI 0.4 to 5.1, P=0.009) more waist than their co-twins who increased activity (n=85 pairs); among MZ twin pairs (n=43), the difference was 4.2 cm (95%CI 1.2 to 7.2, P=0.008). Conclusions Among young adults, an increase in leisure-time physical activity or staying active during a decade of follow-up was associated with less waist gain, but any decrease in activity level, regardless baseline activity, led to waist gain that was similar to that associated with being persistently inactive. PMID:24839266

  5. Gaining Proficiency through Task-Based Activities in the Portuguese Classroom (Beginning and Intermediate Year Case Studies)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones-Kellogg, Rebecca

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes a task-based activity used at the United States Military Academy, in their first- through third-semester Portuguese language sequence "Proficiencies" (Proficiências). The stand-alone task-based activity can be an effective tool in gaining foreign-language proficiency at even the lowest levels of classroom instruction…

  6. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Active Plasmonic Nanoparticles with Ultrasmall Interior Nanogap for Multiplex Quantitative Detection and Cancer Cell Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiuxing; Zhu, Zhi; Zhu, Bingqing; Ma, Yanli; Lin, Bingqian; Liu, Rudi; Song, Yanling; Lin, Hui; Tu, Song; Yang, Chaoyong

    2016-08-01

    Due to its large enhancement effect, nanostructure-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technology had been widely applied for bioanalysis and cell imaging. However, most SERS nanostructures suffer from poor signal reproducibility, which hinders the application of SERS nanostructures in quantitative detection. We report an etching-assisted approach to synthesize SERS-active plasmonic nanoparticles with 1 nm interior nanogap for multiplex quantitative detection and cancer cell imaging. Raman dyes and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) thiol (mPEG-SH) were attached to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to prepare gold cores. Next, Ag atoms were deposited on gold cores in the presence of Pluronic F127 to form a Ag shell. HAuCl4 was used to etch the Ag shell and form an interior nanogap in Au@AgAuNPs, leading to increased Raman intensity of dyes. SERS intensity distribution of Au@AgAuNPs was found to be more uniform than that of aggregated AuNPs. Finally, Au@AgAuNPs were used for multiplex quantitative detection and cancer cell imaging. With the advantages of simple and rapid preparation of Au@AgAuNPs with highly uniform, stable, and reproducible Raman intensity, the method reported here will widen the applications of SERS-active nanoparticles in diagnostics and imaging. PMID:27385563

  7. Phosphorylation of Mutationally Introduced Tyrosine in the Activation Loop of HER2 Confers Gain-of-Function Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Zexi; Wan, Xiaobo; Hao, Rui; Zhang, Heng; Li, Li; Li, Lin; Xie, Qiang; Wang, Peng; Gao, Yibo; Chen, She; Wei, Min; Luan, Zhidong; Zhang, Aiqun; Huang, Niu; Chen, Liang

    2015-01-01

    Amplification, overexpression, and somatic mutation of the HER2 gene have been reported to play a critical role in tumorigenesis of various cancers. The HER2 H878Y mutation was recently reported in 11% of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patients. However, its functional impact on the HER2 protein and its role in tumorigenesis has not been determined. Here, we show that HER2 H878Y is a gain-of-function mutation. Y878 represents a phosphorylation site, and phospho-Y878 interacts with R898 residue to stabilize the active conformation of HER2, thereby enhancing its kinase activity. H878Y mutant is transforming and the transformed cells are sensitive to HER2 kinase inhibitors. Thus, our study reveals the following novel mechanism underlying the tumorigenic function of the HER2 H878Y mutation: the introduction of a tyrosine residue into the kinase activation loop via mutagenesis modulates the conformation of the kinase, thereby enhancing its activity. PMID:25853726

  8. Alkyne-tag Raman imaging of bio-active small molecules in live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Jun; Palonpon, Almar F.; Yamakoshi, Hiroyuki; Dodo, Kosuke; Kawata, Satoshi; Sodeoka, Mikiko; Fujita, Katsumasa

    2015-12-01

    Raman microscopy is useful for molecular imaging and analysis of biological specimens. Here, we used alkyne containing a carbon-carbon triple bond as a Raman tag for observing small molecules in live cells. Alkyne tags can maintain original properties of target molecules with providing high chemical specificity owing to its distinct peak in a Raman-silent window of biomolecules. For demonstrations, alkyne-tagged thymidine and coenzyme Q analogue in live cells were visualized with high-spatial resolution. We extended the application of alkyne-tag imaging to visualize cell organelles and specific lipid components in artificial monolayer membranes.

  9. Raman Optical Activity Spectra for Large Molecules through Molecules-in-Molecules Fragment-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Jovan Jose, K V; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2016-02-01

    We present an efficient method for the calculation of the Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra for large molecules through the molecules-in-molecules (MIM) fragment-based method. The relevant higher energy derivatives from smaller fragments are used to build the property tensors of the parent molecule to enable the extension of the MIM method for evaluating ROA spectra (MIM-ROA). Two factors were found to be particularly important in yielding accurate results. First, the link-atom tensor components are projected back onto the corresponding host and supporting atoms through the Jacobian projection method, yielding a mathematically rigorous method. Second, the long-range interactions between fragments are taken into account by using a less computationally expensive lower level of theory. The performance of the MIM-ROA model is calibrated on the enantiomeric pairs of 10 carbohydrate benchmark molecules, with strong intramolecular interactions. The vibrational frequencies and ROA intensities are accurately reproduced relative to the full, unfragmented, results for these systems. In addition, the MIM-ROA method is employed to predict the ROA spectra of d-maltose, α-D-cyclodextrin, and cryptophane-A, yielding spectra in excellent agreement with experiment. The accuracy and performance of the benchmark systems validate the MIM-ROA model for exploring ROA spectra of large molecules. PMID:26760444

  10. Raman Spectroscopy of Cocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, Frank; Reardon, Paul; Ochoa, Romulo; Abourahma, Heba; Marti, Marcus; Dimeo, Rachel

    2010-02-01

    Cocrystals are a class of compounds that consist of two or more molecules that are held together by hydrogen bonding. Pharmaceutical cocrystals are those that contain an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) as one of the components. Pharmaceutical cocrystals are of particular interest and have gained a lot of attention in recent years because they offer the ability to modify the physical properties of the API, like solubility and bioavailability, without altering the chemical structure of the API. The APIs that we targeted for our studies are theophylline (Tp) and indomethacin (Ind). These compounds have been mixed with complementary coformers (cocrystal former) that include acetamide (AcONH2), melamine (MLM), nicotinic acid (Nic-COOH), 4-cyanopyridine (4-CNPy) and 4-aminopyridine (4-NH2Py). Raman spectroscopy has been used to characterize these cocrystals. Spectra of the cocrystals were compared to those of the coformers to analyze for peak shifts, specifically those corresponding to hydrogen bonding. A 0.5 m CCD Spex spectrometer was used, in a micro-Raman setup, for spectral analysis. An Argon ion Coherent laser at 514.5 nm was used as the excitation source. )

  11. FBG sensor system based on wavelength-swept active mode-locking laser with RSOA gain medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Hyo-jin; Lee, Hwi Don; Jeong, Myong Yung; Kim, Chang-Seok; Lee, Ju Han

    2011-05-01

    We performed an experiment of wavelength-swept laser based on active mode-locking on reflective semiconductor optical amplifier (RSOA). Since this laser does not have a wavelength-selecting filter, it can achieve a high sweeping speed and reduce the component cost and size. Compared to the conventional SOA gain medium, RSOA shows a merit of higher efficiency of cross gain modulation due to the twice propagation of active gain region. We applied this laser to Fiber Bragg grating (FBG) strain sensor system which can have faster data acquisition speed than conventional wavelength-swept laser method. The linear response of FBG peak for the applied strain is monitored using the proposed laser source.

  12. Gain-of-Function Mutant p53 Promotes Cell Growth and Cancer Cell Metabolism via Inhibition of AMPK Activation

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Ge; Wang, Jiping; Zhao, Mei; Xie, Tong-Xin; Tanaka, Noriaki; Sano, Daisuke; Patel, Ameeta A.; Ward, Alexandra M; Sandulache, Vlad; Jasser, Samar A.; Skinner, Heath D.; Fitzgerald, Alison Lea; Osman, Abdullah A.; Wei, Yongkun; Xia, Xuefeng; Songyang, Zhou; Mills, Gordon B.; Hung, Mien-Chie; Caulin, Carlos; Liang, Jiyong; Myers, Jeffrey N.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Many mutant p53 proteins (mutp53s) exert oncogenic gain-of-function (GOF) properties, but the mechanisms mediating these functions remain poorly defined. We show here that GOF mutp53s inhibit AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) signaling in head and neck cancer cells. Conversely, downregulation of GOF mutp53s enhances AMPK activation under energy stress, decreasing the activity of the anabolic factors acetyl-CoA carboxylase and ribosomal protein S6 and inhibiting aerobic glycolytic potential and invasive cell growth. Under conditions of energy stress, GOF mutp53s, but not wild-type p53, preferentially bind to the AMPKα subunit and inhibit AMPK activation. Given the importance of AMPK as an energy sensor and tumor suppressor that inhibits anabolic metabolism, our findings reveal that direct inhibition of AMPK activation is an important mechanism through which mutp53s can gain oncogenic function. PMID:24857548

  13. Structure-activity relations of 2-(methylthio)benzimidazole by FTIR, FT-Raman, NMR, DFT and conceptual DFT methods.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, V; Raj, Arushma; Ravindran, P; Mohan, S

    2014-01-24

    The vibrational fundamental modes of 2-(methylthio)benzimidazole (2MTBI) have been analysed by combining FTIR, FT-Raman and quantum chemical calculations. The structural parameters of the compound are determined from the optimised geometry by B3LYP with 6-31G(∗∗), 6-311++G(∗∗) and cc-pVTZ basis sets and giving energies, harmonic vibrational frequencies, depolarisation ratios, IR intensities and Raman activities. (1)H and (13)C NMR spectra have been analysed and (1)H and (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance chemical shifts are calculated using the gauge independent atomic orbital (GIAO) method. The structure-activity relationship of the compound is also investigated by conceptual DFT methods. The chemical reactivity and site selectivity of the molecule has been determined with the help of global and local reactivity descriptors. PMID:24184580

  14. Gaining A Geological Perspective Through Active Learning in the Large Lecture Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapp, J. L.; Richardson, R. M.; Slater, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    NATS 101 A Geological Perspective is a general education course taken by non science majors. We offer 600 seats per semester, with four large lecture sections taught by different faculty members. In the past we have offered optional once a week study groups taught by graduate teaching assistants. Students often feel overwhelmed by the science and associated jargon, and many are prone to skipping lectures altogether. Optional study groups are only attended by ~50% of the students. Faculty members find the class to be a lot of work, mainly due to the grading it generates. Activities given in lecture are often short multiple choice or true false assignments, limiting the depth of understanding we can evaluate. Our students often lack math and critical thinking skills, and we spend a lot of time in lecture reintroducing ideas students should have already gotten from the text. In summer 2007 we were funded to redesign the course. Our goals were to 1) cut the cost of running the course, and 2) improve student learning. Under our redesign optional study groups were replaced by once a week mandatory break out sessions where students complete activities that have been introduced in lecture. Break out sessions substitute for one hour of lecture, and are run by undergraduate preceptors and graduate teaching assistants (GTAs). During the lecture period, lectures themselves are brief with a large portion of the class devoted to active learning in small groups. Weekly reading quizzes are submitted via the online course management system. Break out sessions allow students to spend more time interacting with their fellow students, undergraduate preceptors, and GTAs. They get one on one help in break out sessions on assignments designed to enhance the lecture material. The active lecture format means less of their time is devoted to listening passively to a lecture, and more time is spent peer learning an interacting with the instructor. Completing quizzes online allows students

  15. Steps Ahead: Adaptation of physical activity and dietary guidelines for reducing unhealthy weight gain in the Lower Misissippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of our study was to test the effectiveness of adapting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2010) (DG), with and without a physical activity (PA) component, in reducing weight gain in the Lower Mississippi Delta region (LMD) of the United States. A sample of 121 White and African-Americ...

  16. The Effects of Activity and Gain Based Virtual Material on Student's Success, Permanency and Attitudes towards Science Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tas, Erol

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to research the effects of a student gains and activity based virtual material on students' success, permanence and attitudes towards science lesson, developed for science and technology lesson 6th grade "Systems in our body" unit. The study, which had a quasi-experimental design, was conducted with…

  17. The fate and toxicity of Raman-active silica-gold nanoparticles in mice.

    PubMed

    Thakor, Avnesh S; Luong, Richard; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Lin, Frank I; Kempen, Paul; Zavaleta, Cristina; Chu, Pauline; Massoud, Tarik F; Sinclair, Robert; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2011-04-20

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical imaging method that is based on the Raman effect, the inelastic scattering of a photon when energy is absorbed from light by a surface. Although Raman spectroscopy is widely used for chemical and molecular analysis, its clinical application has been hindered by the inherently weak nature of the Raman effect. Raman-silica-gold-nanoparticles (R-Si-Au-NPs) overcome this limitation by producing larger Raman signals through surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Because we are developing these particles for use as targeted molecular imaging agents, we examined the acute toxicity and biodistribution of core polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ylated R-Si-Au-NPs after different routes of administration in mice. After intravenous administration, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs were removed from the circulation by macrophages in the liver and spleen (that is, the reticuloendothelial system). At 24 hours, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs elicited a mild inflammatory response and an increase in oxidative stress in the liver, which subsided by 2 weeks after administration. No evidence of significant toxicity was observed by measuring clinical, histological, biochemical, or cardiovascular parameters for 2 weeks. Because we are designing targeted PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs (for example, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs labeled with an affibody that binds specifically to the epidermal growth factor receptor) to detect colorectal cancer after administration into the bowel lumen, we tested the toxicity of the core nanoparticle after administration per rectum. We observed no significant bowel or systemic toxicity, and no PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs were detected systemically. Although additional studies are required to investigate the long-term effects of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs and their toxicity when carrying the targeting moiety, the results presented here support the idea that PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs can be safely used in living subjects, especially when administered rectally. PMID:21508310

  18. THE FATE AND TOXICITY OF RAMAN ACTIVE SILICA-GOLD NANOPARTICLES IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    THAKOR, AVNESH S; LUONG, RICHARD; PAULMURUGAN, RAMASAMY; LIN, FRANK I; KEMPEN, PAUL; ZAVALETA, CRISTINA; CHU, PAULINE; MASSOUD, TARIK F; SINCLAIR, ROBERT; GAMBHIR, SANJIV S

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical imaging modality which analyses the Raman effect in which energy is exchanged between light and matter. Although Raman spectroscopy has been widely used for chemical and molecular analysis, its use in clinical applications has been hindered by the inherently weak nature of the Raman effect. Raman-silica-gold-nanoparticles (R-Si-Au-NPs) overcome this limitation by producing high Raman signals via Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering. Targeted polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ylated R-Si-Au-NPs (e.g. PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs labeled with an affibody which binds specifically to the epidermal growth factor receptor) are currently being designed to detect colorectal cancer after administration into the bowel lumen. With this approach, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs are not expected to enter the systemic circulation and would be removed from the body via defecation. We examined the acute toxicity and biodistribution of core PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs after different routes of administration in mice. After intravenous administration, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs were removed from the circulation by marcophages in the liver and spleen (i.e. the reticuloendothelial system). At 24 hours, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs elicited a mild inflammatory response and an increase in oxidative stress in the liver, which subsided by 2 weeks. No evidence of significant toxicity was observed by measuring clinical, histological, biochemical or cardiovascular parameters for 2 weeks. Notably, after administration per rectum, we observed no significant bowel or systemic toxicity and no PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs were detected systemically. Although additional studies are required to investigate the long-term effects of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs, these initial results support the idea that they can be safely used in living subjects, especially when administered rectally. PMID:21508310

  19. 78 FR 74125 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Measuring Educational Gain in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Reporting System for Adult Education AGENCY: Department of Education (ED), Office of Vocational and Adult... available to the public for any reason. SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The Department of Education (ED), in... of Collection: Measuring Educational Gain in the National Reporting System for Adult Education....

  20. 20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... consider activities like taking care of yourself, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance... work activity that involves doing significant physical or mental activities. Your work may...

  1. 20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... consider activities like taking care of yourself, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance... work activity that involves doing significant physical or mental activities. Your work may...

  2. 20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... consider activities like taking care of yourself, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance... work activity that involves doing significant physical or mental activities. Your work may...

  3. 20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consider activities like taking care of yourself, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance... work activity that involves doing significant physical or mental activities. Your work may...

  4. 20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... consider activities like taking care of yourself, household tasks, hobbies, therapy, school attendance... work activity that involves doing significant physical or mental activities. Your work may...

  5. Advancements in the application of NanoSIMS and Raman microspectroscopy to investigate the activity of microbial cells in soils.

    PubMed

    Eichorst, Stephanie A; Strasser, Florian; Woyke, Tanja; Schintlmeister, Arno; Wagner, Michael; Woebken, Dagmar

    2015-10-01

    The combined approach of incubating environmental samples with stable isotope-labeled substrates followed by single-cell analyses through high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) or Raman microspectroscopy provides insights into the in situ function of microorganisms. This approach has found limited application in soils presumably due to the dispersal of microbial cells in a large background of particles. We developed a pipeline for the efficient preparation of cell extracts from soils for subsequent single-cell methods by combining cell detachment with separation of cells and soil particles followed by cell concentration. The procedure was evaluated by examining its influence on cell recoveries and microbial community composition across two soils. This approach generated a cell fraction with considerably reduced soil particle load and of sufficient small size to allow single-cell analysis by NanoSIMS, as shown when detecting active N2-fixing and cellulose-responsive microorganisms via (15)N2 and (13)C-UL-cellulose incubations, respectively. The same procedure was also applicable for Raman microspectroscopic analyses of soil microorganisms, assessed via microcosm incubations with a (13)C-labeled carbon source and deuterium oxide (D2O, a general activity marker). The described sample preparation procedure enables single-cell analysis of soil microorganisms using NanoSIMS and Raman microspectroscopy, but should also facilitate single-cell sorting and sequencing. PMID:26324854

  6. Advancements in the application of NanoSIMS and Raman microspectroscopy to investigate the activity of microbial cells in soils

    PubMed Central

    Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Strasser, Florian; Woyke, Tanja; Schintlmeister, Arno; Wagner, Michael; Woebken, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    The combined approach of incubating environmental samples with stable isotope-labeled substrates followed by single-cell analyses through high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) or Raman microspectroscopy provides insights into the in situ function of microorganisms. This approach has found limited application in soils presumably due to the dispersal of microbial cells in a large background of particles. We developed a pipeline for the efficient preparation of cell extracts from soils for subsequent single-cell methods by combining cell detachment with separation of cells and soil particles followed by cell concentration. The procedure was evaluated by examining its influence on cell recoveries and microbial community composition across two soils. This approach generated a cell fraction with considerably reduced soil particle load and of sufficient small size to allow single-cell analysis by NanoSIMS, as shown when detecting active N2-fixing and cellulose-responsive microorganisms via 15N2 and 13C-UL-cellulose incubations, respectively. The same procedure was also applicable for Raman microspectroscopic analyses of soil microorganisms, assessed via microcosm incubations with a 13C-labeled carbon source and deuterium oxide (D2O, a general activity marker). The described sample preparation procedure enables single-cell analysis of soil microorganisms using NanoSIMS and Raman microspectroscopy, but should also facilitate single-cell sorting and sequencing. PMID:26324854

  7. Risperidone-induced weight gain and reduced locomotor activity in juvenile female rats: The role of histaminergic and NPY pathways.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jiamei; De Santis, Michael; He, Meng; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) such as risperidone are increasingly prescribed (mostly for off-label use) to children and adolescents for treating various mental disorders. SGAs cause serious weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects. This study aimed to establish an animal model of risperidone-induced weight gain in female juvenile rats, and to investigate the effects of risperidone on the expression of hypothalamic histaminergic H1 receptors (H1R) and neuropeptides, and their association with weight gain. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated orally with risperidone (0.3mg/kg, 3 times/day) or vehicle (control) starting from postnatal day (PD) 23 (±1 day) for 3 weeks (a period corresponding to the childhood-adolescent period in humans). In the female juvenile rats, risperidone treatment increased food intake and body weight gain, which started to appear after 12 days' treatment. Risperidone also significantly decreased the locomotor activity of the female rats. Consistently, risperidone significantly elevated mRNA expression of hypothalamic H1R, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) compared to controls, and H1R and NPY levels were correlated with risperidone enhanced weight gain and food intake in the female juvenile rats. However, risperidone did not affect hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggested that risperidone elevated appetite and body weight gain in juveniles via regulation of the hypothalamic H1R, NPY and AgRP pathways, as well as by reducing activity. PMID:25782398

  8. Solvated states of poly-L-alanine α-helix explored by Raman optical activity.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Shigeki; Furukawa, Tatsuya; Bouř, Petr; Ozaki, Yukihiro

    2014-05-22

    Raman optical activity (ROA) reveals surprising details of the secondary structure of polypeptides and proteins in solution phase. Yet specific spectral features, such as in the extended amide III region of hydrated α-helix, did not seem explicable by the generally accepted sensitivity of ROA to the local conformation. This is reconciled in the present study by simulations of ROA spectra for model α-helical structures. Two positive ROA peaks often observed at around 1340 and 1300 cm(-1) for polypeptides and proteins have been assigned to two types of solvated α-helices; one is stable in hydrophilic environment where amide groups make hydrogen bonds to solvent molecules or polar side chains (∼1340 cm(-1)), and the other is supported by a hydrophobic environment without the possibility of external hydrogen bonds (∼1300 cm(-1)). For poly-L-alanine (PLA), regarded as a good model of α-helical structure, the experimentally observed relative intensity ratio of the two ROA bands has been explained by a conformational equilibrium depending on the solvent polarity. The intensities of the bands reflect solvated and unsolvated α-helical geometries, with peptide backbone torsional angles (ϕi+1, ψi) of (-66°, -41°) and (-59°, -44°), respectively. Quantum-mechanical simulations of the ROA spectra utilizing the normal mode optimization and Cartesian tensor transfer methods indicate, however, that the change in dielectric constant of the solvent is the main factor for the spectral intensity change, whereas the influence of the conformational change is minor. PMID:24758541

  9. Subtherapeutic levels of antibiotics in poultry feeds and their effects on weight gain, feed efficiency, and bacterial cholyltaurine hydrolase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Feighner, S D; Dashkevicz, M P

    1987-01-01

    A radiochemical method was developed to estimate cholyltaurine hydrolase potentials and rates of cholyltaurine hydrolysis in chicken intestinal homogenates. This method was used to monitor the effects of antibiotic feed additives on cholyltaurine hydrolase activity. Avoparcin, bacitracin methylenedisalisylic acid, efrotomycin, lincomycin, penicillin G procaine, and virginiamycin improved rate of weight gain and feed conversion of chicks and decreased cholyltaurine hydrolase activity in ileal homogenates relative to those of nonmedicated control birds. The results provided the first evidence that feeding selected antibiotics at subtherapeutic levels can affect bile acid-transforming enzymes in small-intestinal homogenates. The inverse relationship between growth performance and cholyltaurine hydrolase activity raises the possibility that specific inhibitors of this enzyme may promote weight gain and feed conversion in livestock and thereby reduce or eliminate the need for antibiotic feed additives. PMID:3566269

  10. Wavelength dependent resonance Raman band intensity of broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy of malachite green in ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Qiongyan; He, Yuhan; Xu, Mei; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Zhaohui

    2015-03-01

    Resonance broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy of malachite green in ethanol has been performed. With a tuning picosecond visible laser source and a broadband Raman probe, the Raman gain and loss spectra have been measured simultaneously. By scanning the Raman pump across the first absorption band of the molecule, we found that the resonant Raman bands could be only seen when the pump laser tuned in the range of the red edge of the S1←S0 transition. Dispersive lineshapes of resonant Raman bands have been observed in the Raman loss spectra, while the line shape is normal (same as spontaneous Raman) in the Raman gain spectra. Although, the resonant bands in the loss spectrum are usually stronger than that in the gain spectrum, the band intensities of both loss and gain linearly increase with the pump energy. The relative magnitude of each corresponding resonant band in the Raman loss and gain varies with the pump wavelength. Mode specified Raman excitation profiles have been obtained through broadband stimulated Raman measurement.

  11. Relationship between Sociodemographics, Dietary Intake, and Physical Activity with Gestational Weight Gain among Pregnant Women in Rafsanjan City, Iran

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimi, Fatemeh; Tabatabaei, Seyed Zia; Fathollahi, Mahmood Sheikh; Mun, Chan Yoke; Nazari, Mozhgan

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Gestational weight gain (GWG) is a determinant of health and nutrition of mothers and offspring. However, many factors associated with GWG are not completely understood. The present study assessed the relationship between sociodemographics, dietary intake, and physical activity with GWG in 308 Iranian pregnant women attending government healthcare centres in Rafsanjan city, Iran. Women gained an average of 12.87±3.57 kg during pregnancy while 54% did not gain weight within the Institute of Medicine (IOM)-recommended range. Univariate logistic models showed that gestaional weight gain was related to age, pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), energy intake, and sitting time. Cumulative logit model showed positive relationship between age (p=0.0137) and pre-pregnancy BMI (p<0.0001) with GWG. All pregnant women should be counselled on achieving the reccomended GWG to prevent adverse maternal and prenatal outcomes. Pre-pregnancy and gestational nutritional status and physical activity should be emphasized in antenatal care. PMID:25995733

  12. Tunable infrared source employing Raman mixing

    DOEpatents

    Byer, Robert L.; Herbst, Richard L.

    1980-01-01

    A tunable source of infrared radiation is obtained by irradiating an assemblage of Raman active gaseous atoms or molecules with a high intensity pumping beam of coherent radiation at a pump frequency .omega..sub.p to stimulate the generation of Stokes wave energy at a Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s and to stimulate the Raman resonant mode at the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R within the irradiated assemblage where the pump frequency .omega..sub.p minus the Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s is equal to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R. The stimulated assemblage is irradiated with a tunable source of coherent radiation at a frequency .omega..sub.i to generate the output infrared radiation of the frequency .omega..sub.0 which is related to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R and the input wave .omega..sub.i by the relation .omega..sub.0 =.omega..sub.i .+-..omega..sub.R. In one embodiment the interaction between the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i is collinear and the ratio of the phase velocity mismatch factor .DELTA.k to the electric field exponential gain coefficient T is within the range of 0.1 to 5. In another embodiment the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i have velocity vectors k.sub.p and k.sub.i which cross at an angle to each other to compensate for phase velocity mismatches in the medium. In another embodiment, the Stokes wave energy .omega..sub.s is generated by pump energy .omega..sub.p in a first Raman cell and .omega..sub.s, .omega..sub.i and .omega..sub.p are combined in a second Raman mixing cell to produce the output at .omega..sub.i.

  13. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: A Discovery-Based Activity for the General Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgsmiller, Karen L.; O'Connell, Dylan J.; Klauenberg, Kathryn M.; Wilson, Peter M.; Stromberg, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    A discovery-based method is described for incorporating the concepts of IR and Raman spectroscopy into the general chemistry curriculum. Students use three sets of springs to model the properties of single, double, and triple covalent bonds. Then, Gaussian 03W molecular modeling software is used to illustrate the relationship between bond…

  14. Star-like gold nanoparticles as highly active substrate for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morasso, Carlo; Mehn, Dora; Vanna, Renzo; Bedoni, Marzia; Pascual García, César; Prosperi, Davide; Gramatica, Furio

    2013-02-01

    Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a popular method in bio-analytical chemistry and a potentially powerful enabling technology for in vitro diagnostics. SERS combines the excellent chemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy with the good sensitivity provided by enhancement of the signal that is observed when a molecule is located on (or very close to) the surface of nanostructured metallic materials. Star-like gold nanoparticles (SGN) are a new class of multibranched nanoparticles that in the last few years have attracted the attention of SERS community for their plasmonic properties. In this work we present a new method to prepare star-like gold nanoparticles with a simple one step protocol at room temperature using hydroquinone as reducing agent. Besides we compare the enhancement of Raman signal of malachite green, a dye commonly employed as label in biological studies, by star-like gold nanoparticles having different size, directly in liquid. This study shows that SGN provide good enhancement of Raman signal and that the effect of their dimension is strongly dependent on the wavelength used. Moreover preliminary results suggest that SGN produced using this method are characterized by good physical-chemical properties and they can be functionalized using the standard thiol chemistry. Overall, these results suggest that star-like gold nanoparticles produced through this method could be used for the further development of highly specific and sensitive SERS-based bio-analytical tests.

  15. Evaluation of thiol Raman activities and pKa values using internally referenced Ramanbased pH titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwandaratne, Nuwanthi

    Thiols are one of the most important classes of chemicals used broadly in organic synthesis, biological chemistry, and nanosciences. Thiol pKa values are key indicators of thiol reactivity and functionality. This study is an internally-referenced Raman-based pH titration method that enables reliable quantification of thiol pKa values for both mono- and di-thiols in water. The degree of thiol ionization is monitored directly using the peak intensity of the S-H stretching feature relative to an internal reference peak as a function of solution pH. The thiol pKa values and Raman activity relative to its internal reference were then determined by curve-fitting the experimental data with equations derived on the basis of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Using this Raman titration method, first and second thiol pKa values for 1,2-benzenedithol in water were determined for the first time. This method is convenient to implement and its underlying theory is easy to follow.

  16. High-efficiency diode-pumped actively Q-switched ceramic Nd:YAG/BaWO₄ Raman laser operating at 1666 nm.

    PubMed

    Zhang, H N; Chen, X H; Wang, Q P; Zhang, X Y; Chang, J; Gao, L; Shen, H B; Cong, Z H; Liu, Z J; Tao, X T; Li, P

    2014-05-01

    A diode-pumped actively Q-switched Raman laser employing BaWO4 as the Raman active medium and a ceramic Nd:YAG laser operating at 1444 nm as the pump source is demonstrated. The first-Stokes-Raman generation at 1666 nm is achieved. With a pump power of 20.3 W and pulse repetition frequency rate of 5 kHz, a maximum output power of 1.21 W is obtained, which is the highest output power for a 1.6 μm Raman laser. The corresponding optical-to-optical conversion efficiency is 6%; the pulse energy and peak power are 242 μJ and 8.96 kW, respectively. PMID:24784068

  17. Gain-Scheduled Approximations to H-Infinity Controllers for the F/A-18 Active Aeroelastic Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lind, Rick

    1999-01-01

    The Active Aeroelastic Wing will demonstrate technologies related to aeroservoelastic effects such as wing twist and load minimization. This paper presents a control design based on H-infinity synthesis that simultaneously considers the multiple objectives associated with handling qualities, actuator limitations, and loads. The controller is realized as a filter and gain set approximation to a state-space H-infinity controller. This approximation allows scheduling of the controller over a flight envelope.

  18. Longevity of optically activated, high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches

    SciTech Connect

    Loubriel, G.M.; Zutavern, F.J.; Mar, A.

    1997-08-01

    The longevity of high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) has been extended to well over 10 million pulses by reducing the density of carriers at the semiconductor to metal interface. This was achieved by reducing the density in the vertical and lateral directions. The first was achieved by varying the spatial distribution of the trigger light thereby widening the current filaments that are characteristic of the high gain switches. The authors reduced the carrier density in the vertical direction by using ion implantation. These results were obtained for currents of about 10 A, current duration of 3.5 ns, and switched voltage of {approximately}2 kV. At currents of {approximately}70 A, the switches last for 0.6 million pulses. In order to improve the performance at high currents new processes such as deep diffusion and epitaxial growth of contacts are being pursued. To guide this effort the authors measured a carrier density of 6 x 10{sup 18} electrons (or holes)/cm{sup 3} in filaments that carry a current of 5 A.

  19. Longevity improvement of optically activated, high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches

    SciTech Connect

    MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; O'MALLEY,MARTIN W.; HELGESON,WESLEY D.; BROWN,DARWIN JAMES; HJALMARSON,HAROLD P.; BACA,ALBERT G.

    2000-03-02

    The longevity of high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) has been extended to over 100 million pulses at 23A, and over 100 pulses at 1kA. This is achieved by improving the ohmic contacts by doping the semi-insulating GaAs underneath the metal, and by achieving a more uniform distribution of contact wear across the entire switch by distributing the trigger light to form multiple filaments. This paper will compare various approaches to doping the contacts, including ion implantation, thermal diffusion, and epitaxial growth. The device characterization also includes examination of the filament behavior using open-shutter, infra-red imaging during high gain switching. These techniques provide information on the filament carrier densities as well as the influence that the different contact structures and trigger light distributions have on the distribution of the current in the devices. This information is guiding the continuing refinement of contact structures and geometries for further improvements in switch longevity.

  20. Pregnant women’s perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition using Theory of Planned Behavior constructs

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of women’s perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women’s perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23–39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women’s weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:26335313

  1. Selective melamine detection in multiple sample matrices with a portable Raman instrument using surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy-active gold nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mecker, Laura C; Tyner, Katherine M; Kauffman, John F; Arzhantsev, Sergey; Mans, Daniel J; Gryniewicz-Ruzicka, Connie M

    2012-07-01

    Melamine adulteration of food and pharmaceutical products is a major concern and there is a growing need to protect the public from exposure to contaminated or adulterated products. One approach to reduce this threat is to develop a portable method for on-site rapid testing. We describe a universal and selective method for the detection of melamine in a variety of solid matrices at the 100-200 μg L(-1) level by surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) with gold nanoparticles. With minimal sample preparation and the use of a portable Raman spectrometer, this work will lead to field-based screening for melamine adulteration. Citrate coated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) were investigated for both colorimetric and Raman-based responses. Several non-hazardous solvents were evaluated in order to develop a melamine extraction procedure safe for field applications. Au NP agglomerates formed by the addition of isopropanol (IPA) prior to sample introduction enhanced the Raman signal for melamine and eliminated matrix interference for substrate formation. The melamine Raman signal resulted in a 10(5) enhancement through the use of Au NP agglomerates. To our knowledge, we have developed the first portable SERS method using Au NPs to selectively screen for the presence of melamine adulteration in a variety of food and pharmaceutical matrices, including milk powder, infant formula, lactose, povidone, whey protein, wheat bran and wheat gluten. PMID:22704375

  2. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity of niobium surface after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Victor G.; Vlakhov, Emil S.; Stan, George E.; Zamfirescu, Marian; Albu, Catalina; Mihailescu, Natalia; Negut, Irina; Luculescu, Catalin; Socol, Marcela; Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Ion N.

    2015-11-01

    The chemical modification of the niobium (Nb) surface after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses was investigated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The physical-chemical analyses indicated that the laser treatment results in oxidation of the Nb surface, as well as in the formation of Nb hydrides. Remarkably, after the samples' washing in ethanol, a strong Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) signal originating from the toluene residual traces was evidenced. Further, it was observed that the laser irradiated Nb surface is able to provide a SERS enhancement of ˜1.3 × 103 times for rhodamine 6G solutions. Thus, for the first time it was shown that Nb/Nb oxide surfaces could exhibit SERS functionality, and so one can expect applications in biological/biochemical screening or for sensing of dangerous environmental substances.

  3. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity of niobium surface after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Victor G.; Vlakhov, Emil S.; Stan, George E.; Socol, Marcela; Zamfirescu, Marian; Albu, Catalina; Mihailescu, Natalia; Negut, Irina; Luculescu, Catalin; Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Ion N.

    2015-11-28

    The chemical modification of the niobium (Nb) surface after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses was investigated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The physical-chemical analyses indicated that the laser treatment results in oxidation of the Nb surface, as well as in the formation of Nb hydrides. Remarkably, after the samples' washing in ethanol, a strong Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) signal originating from the toluene residual traces was evidenced. Further, it was observed that the laser irradiated Nb surface is able to provide a SERS enhancement of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 3} times for rhodamine 6G solutions. Thus, for the first time it was shown that Nb/Nb oxide surfaces could exhibit SERS functionality, and so one can expect applications in biological/biochemical screening or for sensing of dangerous environmental substances.

  4. Controlled growth of concave gold nanobars with high surface-enhanced Raman-scattering and excellent catalytic activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin-fei; Zhang, Chun-yang

    2013-07-01

    Highly monodispersed concave gold nanobars with 24 high-index {730} facets are synthesized through a seed-mediated growth in aqueous solution. The transformation from the truncated rectangular nanobars to rectangular nanobars, then transitional products, and final concave rectangular nanobars is observed with the fine control of silver nitrate in the growth solution, and their corresponding transverse surface plasmons can be well tuned, too. These concave gold nanobars exhibit good optical property, excellent catalytic activity, and high surface-enhanced Raman-scattering (SERS) response. PMID:23689955

  5. Using a photochemical method and chitosan to prepare surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kuang-Hsuan; Chang, Chia-Ming

    2012-06-01

    In this paper, we report a new strategy for the preparation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs), using a photochemical method and the presence of chitosan (Ch). First, Ag substrates were subjected to electrochemical oxidation/reduction cycles (ORCs) in deoxygenated aqueous solutions containing 0.1 M HNO(3) and 1 g L(-1) Ch (pH 6.9, adjusted by adding 1 M NaOH), resulting in Ag(+)-Ch complexes. These substrates were then irradiated with UV light at various wavelengths to yield the SERS-active Ag NPs. A stronger SERS effect was observed on the SERS-active Ag NPs prepared by using UV irradiation at 310 nm. The pH of the solution and the presence of Ch during the preparation process both affected the resulting SERS activities. PMID:22595427

  6. Doped Contacts for High-Longevity Optically Activated, High Gain GaAs Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches

    SciTech Connect

    MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; O'MALLEY,MARTIN W.; HELGESON,WESLEY D.; BROWN,DARWIN JAMES; HJALMARSON,HAROLD P.; BACA,ALBERT G.; THORNTON,R.L.; DONALDSON,R.D.

    1999-12-17

    The longevity of high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) has been extended to over 100 million pulses. This was achieved by improving the ohmic contacts through the incorporation of a doped layer that is very effective in the suppression of filament formation, alleviating current crowding. Damage-free operation is now possible with virtually infinite expected lifetime at much higher current levels than before. The inherent damage-free current capacity of the bulk GaAs itself depends on the thickness of the doped layers and is at least 100A for a dopant diffusion depth of 4pm. The contact metal has a different damage mechanism and the threshold for damage ({approx}40A) is not further improved beyond a dopant diffusion depth of about 2{micro}m. In a diffusion-doped contact switch, the switching performance is not degraded when contact metal erosion occurs, unlike a switch with conventional contacts. This paper will compare thermal diffusion and epitaxial growth as approaches to doping the contacts. These techniques will be contrasted in terms of the fabrication issues and device characteristics.

  7. Doped Contacts for High-Longevity Optically Activated, High Gain GaAs Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Brown, D.J.; Donaldson, R.D.; Helgeson, W.D.; Hjalmarson, H.P.; Loubriel, G.M.; Mar, A.; O'Malley, M.W.; Thornton, R.L.; Zutavern, F.J.

    1999-08-05

    The longevity of high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) has been extended to over 50 million pulses. This was achieved by improving the ohmic contacts through the incorporation of a doped layer beneath the PCSS contacts which is very effective in the suppression of filament formation and alleviating current crowding to improve the longevity of PCSS. Virtually indefinite, damage-free operation is now possible at much higher current levels than before. The inherent damage-free current capacity of the switch depends on the thickness of the doped layers and is at least 100A for a dopant diffusion depth of 4pm. The contact metal has a different damage mechanism and the threshold for damage ({approximately}40A) is not further improved beyond a dopant diffusion depth of about 2{micro}m. In a diffusion-doped contact switch, the switching performance is not degraded when contact metal erosion occurs. This paper will compare thermal diffusion and epitaxial growth as approaches to doping the contacts. These techniques will be contrasted in terms of the fabrication issues and device characteristics.

  8. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering detection of DNA derived from the West Nile virus genome using magnetic capture of Raman-active gold nanoparticles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A model paramagnetic nanoparticle (MNP) assay is demonstrated for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of DNA oligonucleotides derived from the West Nile virus (WNV) genome. Detection is based on the capture of WNV target sequences by hybridization with complementary oligonucleotide pr...

  9. Arctigenin Inhibits Adipogenesis by Inducing AMPK Activation and Reduces Weight Gain in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Dae-Seung; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Soyoung; Kim, Su-Jin; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-09-01

    Although arctigenin (ARC) has been reported to have some pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and antioxidant, there have been no reports on the anti-obesity effect of ARC. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ARC has an anti-obesity effect and mediates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. We investigated the anti-adipogenic effect of ARC using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, whether ARC can inhibit weight gain was investigated. We found that ARC reduced weight gain, fat pad weight, and triglycerides in HFD-induced obese mice. ARC also inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) in in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ARC induced the AMPK activation resulting in down-modulation of adipogenesis-related factors including PPARγ, C/EBPα, fatty acid synthase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase. This study demonstrates that ARC can reduce key adipogenic factors by activating the AMPK in vitro and in vivo and suggests a therapeutic implication of ARC for obesity treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2067-2077, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26852013

  10. Optical fiber Raman amplifier and distributed fiber Raman sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Zaixuan; Jin, Shangzhong; Liu, Honglin; Kim, Insoo S.; Wang, Jianfeng; Wu, Xiaobiao; Guo, Ning; Liu, Tao; Yu, Xiangdong

    2003-06-01

    The backscattering spectrum of optical fiber has been measured by use 1427 nm Raman laser and Q8384 optical spectrum analyzer and Stokes and anti-Stokes ZX band backscattering spectrum has been first observed and discussed, ZX band frequency shift is 1THz, bandwidth 3THz(3dB). Optimum design of S-band negative dispersion DCF discrete fiber Raman amplifier has been researched by OPTIAMP DESIGN 3.3 SOFTWARE (made in Canada Optiwave Corporation) and gain spectrum and gain vs. power of DCF discrete fiber Raman amplifier have been measured, practical including Stokes ZX band backscattering gain effect. Pump on/off small signal gain is 13dB (pump power 700mw; fiber 5.1km) and gain band width is 88nm (1440nm-1528nm). The operation principle, configuration and performance of distributed fiber Raman temperature sensors system has been researched. Amplification of anti-Stokes spontaneity Raman scattering (ARS) effect of fiber and its temperature effect has been first observed and discussed. It has been applied to 30km distributed FRS system.

  11. Raman scattering in crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.F.

    1988-09-30

    A tutorial presentation is given of Raman scattering in crystals. The physical concepts are emphasized rather than the detailed mathematical formalism. Starting with an introduction to the concepts of phonons and conservation laws, the effects of photon-phonon interactions are presented. This interaction concept is shown for a simple cubic crystal and is extended to a uniaxial crystal. The correlation table method is used for determining the number and symmetry of the Raman active modes. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the relative ease of using this group theoretical method and the predictions are compared with measured Raman spectra. 37 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Raman Crystallography and Other Biochemical Applications of Raman Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Paul R.

    2006-05-01

    Recent studies using a Raman microscope have shown that single protein crystals provide an ideal platform to undertake Raman difference spectroscopic analyses under nonresonance conditions. This approach, termed Raman crystallography, provides a means of characterizing chemical events within the crystal such as ligand binding and enzyme reactions. In many cases Raman crystallography goes hand in hand with X-ray crystallographic studies because the Raman results can inform the X-ray crystallographer about the status of chemical events in the crystal prior to flash freezing and X-ray analysis. In turn, the combined data from the Raman and X-ray analyses are highly synergistic and offer novel perspectives on structure and dynamics in enzyme active sites. In a related area, protein misfolding, Raman microscopy can provide detailed insights into the chemistry of the amyloid plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease and into the intermediates on the α-synuclein protein misfolding pathway implicated in Parkinson's disease.

  13. Study of Droplet Activation in Thin Clouds Using Ground-Based Raman Lidar and Ancillary Remote Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosoldi, Marco; Madonna, Fabio; Gumà Claramunt, Pilar; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-06-01

    A methodology for the study of cloud droplet activation based on the measurements performed with ground-based multi-wavelength Raman lidars and ancillary remote sensors collected at CNR-IMAA observatory, Potenza, South Italy, is presented. The study is focused on the observation of thin warm clouds. Thin clouds are often also optically thin: this allows the cloud top detection and the full profiling of cloud layers using ground-based Raman lidar. Moreover, broken clouds are inspected to take advantage of their discontinuous structure in order to study the variability of optical properties and water vapor content in the transition from cloudy regions to cloudless regions close to the cloud boundaries. A statistical study of this variability leads to identify threshold values for the optical properties, enabling the discrimination between clouds and cloudless regions. These values can be used to evaluate and improve parameterizations of droplet activation within numerical models. A statistical study of the co-located Doppler radar moments allows to retrieve droplet size and vertical velocities close to the cloud base. First evidences of a correlation between droplet vertical velocities measured at the cloud base and the aerosol effective radius observed in the cloud-free regions of the broken clouds are found.

  14. Controlled growth of concave gold nanobars with high surface-enhanced Raman-scattering and excellent catalytic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin-Fei; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2013-06-01

    Highly monodispersed concave gold nanobars with 24 high-index {730} facets are synthesized through a seed-mediated growth in aqueous solution. The transformation from the truncated rectangular nanobars to rectangular nanobars, then transitional products, and final concave rectangular nanobars is observed with the fine control of silver nitrate in the growth solution, and their corresponding transverse surface plasmons can be well tuned, too. These concave gold nanobars exhibit good optical property, excellent catalytic activity, and high surface-enhanced Raman-scattering (SERS) response.Highly monodispersed concave gold nanobars with 24 high-index {730} facets are synthesized through a seed-mediated growth in aqueous solution. The transformation from the truncated rectangular nanobars to rectangular nanobars, then transitional products, and final concave rectangular nanobars is observed with the fine control of silver nitrate in the growth solution, and their corresponding transverse surface plasmons can be well tuned, too. These concave gold nanobars exhibit good optical property, excellent catalytic activity, and high surface-enhanced Raman-scattering (SERS) response. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S19, Tables S1-S3 and relevant theoretical calculations. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr01363d

  15. Topological Raman band in the carbon nanohorn.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ken-ichi; Sekine, Yoshiaki; Tateno, Kouta; Gotoh, Hideki

    2013-09-13

    Raman spectroscopy has been used in chemistry and physics to investigate the fundamental process involving light and phonons. The carbon nanohorn introduces a new subject to Raman spectroscopy, namely topology. We show theoretically that a photoexcited carrier with a nonzero winding number activates a topological D Raman band through the Aharonov-Bohm effect. The topology-induced D Raman band can be distinguished from the ordinary D Raman band for a graphene edge by its peak position. PMID:24074113

  16. Coupled-resonator vertical-cavity lasers with two active gain regions

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.

    2003-05-20

    A new class of coupled-resonator vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers has been developed. These lasers have multiple resonant cavities containing regions of active laser media, resulting in a multi-terminal laser component with a wide range of novel properties.

  17. Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, L.J. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented.

  18. Geophysical Monitoring of Active Infiltration Experiments for Recharge Estimation: Gains and Pains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noell, U.; Lamparter, A.; Houben, G.; Koeniger, P.; Stoeckl, L.; Guenther, T.

    2014-12-01

    Drinking water supply on the island of Langeoog, North Sea, solely depends on groundwater from a freshwater lens. The correct estimation of the recharge rate is critical for a sustainable use of the resource. Extensive hydrogeological and geophysical studies have revealed differences in groundwater recharge by a factor of two and more between the top of the dunes and the dune valleys. The most convincing proof of these differences in recharge is based on isotope analysis (age dating) but boreholes are scarce and a direct proof of recharge is desired. For this purpose active infiltration experiments are performed and geophysically monitored. Former applications of this method in sand and loess soil gave evidence for the applicability of the geophysical observation when combined with tensiometers installed in situ at depth. These results showed firstly that in sandy soil the water reaches the groundwater table quicker than anticipated due to the water repellent characteristic of the dry sand, inhibiting the lateral spreading of the water. The studies also revealed that in loess preferential flow is initiated by ponding and that sprinkling caused very slow movement of water within the unsaturated zone and the water remained near the surface. On the island of Langeoog field experiments underlined the importance of water repellency on the dune surface, indicating that the rain water runs off superficially into the dune valleys where higher recharge is found. The active infiltration zone of the experiment covers an area of some 7m² and includes steeper parts of the dune. The infiltration will vary depending on rainfall intensity and duration, original water content and vegetation cover. What results can we reliably expect from the active experiment and what additional measurements are required to back up the findings? Results are ambiguous with regard to the quantitative assessment but the processes can be visualized by geophysical monitoring in situ.

  19. Flexible and Adhesive Surface Enhance Raman Scattering Active Tape for Rapid Detection of Pesticide Residues in Fruits and Vegetables.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jiaming; Huang, Youju; Kannan, Palanisamy; Zhang, Lei; Lin, Zhenyu; Zhang, Jiawei; Chen, Tao; Guo, Longhua

    2016-02-16

    The efficient extraction of targets from complex surfaces is vital for technological applications ranging from environmental pollutant monitoring to analysis of explosive traces and pesticide residues. In our present study, we proposed a proof-of-concept surface enhance Raman scattering (SERS) active substrate serving directly to the rapid extraction and detection of target molecules. The novel substrate was constructed by decorating the commercial tape with colloidal gold nanoparticles (Au NPs), which simultaneously provides SERS activity and "sticky" of adhesive. The utility of SERS tape was demonstrated by directly extracting pesticide residues in fruits and vegetables via a simple and viable "paste and peel off" approach. The obtained strong and easily distinguishable SERS signals allow us to detect various pesticide residues such as parathion-methyl, thiram, and chlorpyrifos in the real samples with complex surfaces including green vegetable, cucumber, orange, and apple. PMID:26810698

  20. Dendritic cells treated with resveratrol during differentiation from monocytes gain substantial tolerogenic properties upon activation

    PubMed Central

    Švajger, Urban; Obermajer, Nataša; Jeras, Matjaž

    2010-01-01

    Resveratrol is a polyphenol that acts on multiple molecular targets important for cell differentiation and activation. Dendritic cells (DCs) are a functionally diverse cell type and represent the most potent antigen-presenting cells of the immune system. In this study, we investigated resveratrol-induced effects on DCs during their differentiation and maturation. Our results show that resveratrol induces DC-associated tolerance, particularly when applied during DC differentiation. Costimulatory molecules CD40, CD80 and CD86 were down-regulated, as was the expression of major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class II molecules. Surface expression of inhibitory immunoglobulin-like transcript 3 (ILT3) and ILT4 molecules was induced, while human leucocyte antigen (HLA)-G expression was not affected. Resveratrol-treated DCs lost the ability to produce interleukin (IL)-12p70 after activation, but had an increased ability to produce IL-10. Such DCs were poor stimulators of allogeneic T cells and had lowered ability to induce CD4+ T-cell migration. Furthermore, treated cells were able to generate allogeneic IL-10-secreting T cells, but were not competent in inducing FoxP3 expression These tolerogenic effects are probably associated with the effect of resveratrol on multiple molecular targets through which it interferes with DC differentiation and nuclear factor (NF)-κB translocation. Our data provide new insights into the molecular and functional mechanisms of the tolerogenic effects that resveratrol exerts on DCs. PMID:20002210

  1. Comparative studies on extracts from Hericium erinaceus by different polarity reagents to gain higher antioxidant activities

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, SHENGJUAN; WANG, YULIANG; ZHANG, XIAOLONG

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a source of exogenous antioxidants that has been traditionally used in China for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-associated disease. In the present study, the bioactive compounds of H. erinaceus were extracted with the following eight representative reagents: n-Hexane, xylene, chloroform, anhydrous ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, anhydrous ethanol and distilled water. The in vitro antioxidant activities were also evaluated. All of the extracted compounds exhibited reducing power and scavenging activity against 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion free radicals. In addition, the antioxidant capacities varied with the used chemical reagents and exhibited dose-dependent effects. Extracts from anhydrous ethanol, chloroform and acetone were capable of inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The anhydrous ethanol extracts were observed to have significant levels of antioxidant compounds since they had a strong reducing power, high scavenging rates against DPPH and superoxide anion-free radicals (>90%), and high inhibition rates on lipid peroxidation (>60%). The present study will provide reference data for the antioxidant applications of H. erinaceus in pharmaceutical use and disease prevention. PMID:27347087

  2. Size-selective concentration and label-free characterization of protein aggregates using a Raman active nanofluidic device.

    PubMed

    Choi, Inhee; Huh, Yun Suk; Erickson, David

    2011-02-21

    Trace detection and physicochemical characterization of protein aggregates have a large impact in understanding and diagnosing many diseases, such as ageing-related neurodegeneration and systemic amyloidosis, for which the formation of protein aggregates is one of the pathological hallmarks. Here we demonstrate an innovative label-free method for detecting and characterizing small amounts of early stage protein aggregates using a Raman active nanofluidic device. Sub-micrometre channels formed by a novel elastomeric collapse technique enable the separation and concentration of matured protein aggregates from small protein molecules. The Raman enhancement by gold nanoparticle clusters fixed below a micro/nanofluidic junction allows characterization of intrinsic properties of protein aggregates at concentration levels (∼fM) much lower than can be done with traditional analytical tools. With our device we show for the first time the concentration dependence of protein aggregation over these low concentration ranges. We expect that our method could facilitate definitive diagnosis and possible therapeutics of diseases at early stages. PMID:21120240

  3. Lasing properties of selectively pumped Raman-active Nd{sup 3+}-doped molybdate and tungstate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Doroshenko, Maxim E; Ivleva, Lyudmila I; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Kosmyna, M B; Komar', V K; Sulc, J; Jelinkova, H

    2006-08-31

    The lasing efficiency of Nd{sup 3+} ions is studied in laser materials capable of self-Raman frequency conversion. The lasing properties of tungstate and molybdate crystals with the scheelite structure (SrWO{sub 4}, BaWO{sub 4}, PbWO{sub 4}, SrMoO{sub 4}, PbMoO{sub 4}) activated with neodymium ions are investigated upon longitudinal pumping by a 750-nm alexandrite laser or a 800-nm diode laser. The slope lasing efficiency obtained for a Nd{sup 3+}:PbMoO{sub 4} laser emitting at 1054 nm is 54.3% for the total lasing efficiency of 46%, which is the best result for all the crystals with the scheelite structure studied so far. The simultaneous Q-switched lasing and self-Raman frequency conversion were demonstrated in neodymium-doped SrWO{sub 4}, PbWO{sub 4}, and BaWO{sub 4} crystals. (papers devoted to the 90th anniversary of a.m.prokhorov)

  4. Health/Service Providers' Perspectives on Barriers to Healthy Weight Gain and Physical Activity in Pregnant, Urban First Nations Women.

    PubMed

    Darroch, Francine E; Giles, Audrey R

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to examine health/service providers' perspectives of barriers to healthy weight gain and physical activity for urban, pregnant First Nations women in Ottawa, Canada. Through the use of semi-structured interviews, we explored 15 health/service providers' perspectives on the complex barriers their clients face. By using a postcolonial feminist lens and a social determinants of health framework, we identified three social determinants of health that the health/service providers believed to have the greatest influence on their clients' weight gain and physical activity during pregnancy: poverty, education, and colonialism. Our findings are then contextualized within existing Statistics Canada and the Ottawa Neighbourhood Study data. We found that health/service providers are in a position to challenge colonial relations of power. We conclude by urging health/service providers, researchers, and policymakers alike to take into consideration the ways in which these social determinants of health and their often synergistic effects affect urban First Nations women during pregnancy. PMID:25779985

  5. Raman Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Donald L.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature on Raman spectroscopy from late 1981 to late 1983. Topic areas include: instrumentation and sampling; liquids and solutions; gases and matrix isolation; biological molecules; polymers; high-temperature and high-pressure studies; Raman microscopy; thin films and surfaces; resonance-enhanced and surface-enhanced spectroscopy; and…

  6. Gain control of synaptic response function in cerebellar nuclear neurons by a calcium-activated potassium conductance.

    PubMed

    Feng, Steven Si; Lin, Risa; Gauck, Volker; Jaeger, Dieter

    2013-10-01

    Small conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (SK) current provides an important modulator of excitatory synaptic transmission, which undergoes plastic regulation via multiple mechanisms. We examined whether inhibitory input processing is also dependent on SK current in the cerebellar nuclei (CN) where inhibition provides the only route of information transfer from the cerebellar cortical Purkinje cells. We employed dynamic clamping in conjunction with computer simulations to address this question. We found that SK current plays a critical role in the inhibitory synaptic control of spiking output. Specifically, regulation of SK current density resulted in a gain control of spiking output, such that low SK current promoted large output signaling for large inhibitory cell input fluctuations due to Purkinje cell synchronization. In contrast, smaller nonsynchronized Purkinje cell input fluctuations were not amplified. Regulation of SK density in the CN therefore would likely lead to important consequences for the transmission of synchronized Purkinje cell activity to the motor system. PMID:23605187

  7. GQ-16, a Novel Peroxisome Proliferator-activated Receptor γ (PPARγ) Ligand, Promotes Insulin Sensitization without Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Amato, Angélica A.; Rajagopalan, Senapathy; Lin, Jean Z.; Carvalho, Bruno M.; Figueira, Ana C. M.; Lu, Jenny; Ayers, Stephen D.; Mottin, Melina; Silveira, Rodrigo L.; Souza, Paulo C. T.; Mourão, Rosa H. V.; Saad, Mário J. A.; Togashi, Marie; Simeoni, Luiz A.; Abdalla, Dulcinéia S. P.; Skaf, Munir S.; Polikparpov, Igor; Lima, Maria C. A.; Galdino, Suely L.; Brennan, Richard G.; Baxter, John D.; Pitta, Ivan R.; Webb, Paul; Phillips, Kevin J.; Neves, Francisco A. R.

    2012-01-01

    The recent discovery that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) targeted anti-diabetic drugs function by inhibiting Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of the receptor has provided a new viewpoint to evaluate and perhaps develop improved insulin-sensitizing agents. Herein we report the development of a novel thiazolidinedione that retains similar anti-diabetic efficacy as rosiglitazone in mice yet does not elicit weight gain or edema, common side effects associated with full PPARγ activation. Further characterization of this compound shows GQ-16 to be an effective inhibitor of Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of PPARγ. The structure of GQ-16 bound to PPARγ demonstrates that the compound utilizes a binding mode distinct from other reported PPARγ ligands, although it does share some structural features with other partial agonists, such as MRL-24 and PA-082, that have similarly been reported to dissociate insulin sensitization from weight gain. Hydrogen/deuterium exchange studies reveal that GQ-16 strongly stabilizes the β-sheet region of the receptor, presumably explaining the compound's efficacy in inhibiting Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation of Ser-273. Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that the partial agonist activity of GQ-16 results from the compound's weak ability to stabilize helix 12 in its active conformation. Our results suggest that the emerging model, whereby “ideal” PPARγ-based therapeutics stabilize the β-sheet/Ser-273 region and inhibit Cdk5-mediated phosphorylation while minimally invoking adipogenesis and classical agonism, is indeed a valid framework to develop improved PPARγ modulators that retain antidiabetic actions while minimizing untoward effects. PMID:22584573

  8. Regulation of Nucleotide Metabolism by Mutant p53 Contributes to its Gain-of-Function Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kollareddy, Madhusudhan; Dimitrova, Elizabeth; Vallabhaneni, Krishna C.; Chan, Adriano; Le, Thuc; Chauhan, Krishna M.; Carrero, Zunamys I.; Ramakrishnan, Gopalakrishnan; Watabe, Kounosuke; Haupt, Ygal; Haupt, Sue; Pochampally, Radhika; Boss, Gerard R.; Romero, Damian G.; Radu, Caius G.; Martinez, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Mutant p53 (mtp53) is an oncogene that drives cancer cell proliferation. Here we report that mtp53 associates with the promoters of numerous nucleotide metabolism genes (NMG). Mtp53 knockdown reduces NMG expression and substantially depletes nucleotide pools, which attenuates GTP dependent protein (GTPase) activity and cell invasion. Addition of exogenous guanosine or GTP restores the invasiveness of mtp53 knockdown cells, suggesting that mtp53 promotes invasion by increasing GTP. Additionally, mtp53 creates a dependency on the nucleoside salvage pathway enzyme deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) for the maintenance of a proper balance in dNTP pools required for proliferation. These data indicate that mtp53 harboring cells have acquired a synthetic sick or lethal phenotype relationship with the nucleoside salvage pathway. Finally, elevated expression of NMG correlates with mutant p53 status and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Thus, mtp53’s control of nucleotide biosynthesis has both a driving and sustaining role in cancer development. PMID:26067754

  9. When your pain signifies my gain: neural activity while evaluating outcomes based on another person's pain.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fang; Zhu, Xiangru; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2016-01-01

    The overlap between pain and reward processing pathways leds researchers to hypothesize that there are interactions between them in the human brain. Two hypotheses have been proposed. The "competition hypothesis" posits that reward can reduce pain-related neural activity and vice versa. The "salience hypothesis" suggests that the motivational salience of pain and reward can be mutually reinforced. However, no study has tested these two hypotheses from temporal perspective as we know. In the present study, pictures depicted other people in painful or non-painful situations were used to indicate the valence of outcomes in a gambling task. The event-related potential results revealed an interaction between another person's pain and outcome valence in multiple time stages. Specifically, the amplitudes of the N1 and P3 were enhanced in the win condition compared with the loss condition when the outcome was indicated by painful picture. This interactions between pain and reward support the salience hypothesis but not the competition hypothesis. The present results provide evidence from human subjects that support the salience hypothesis, which claims that observing other people's pain can enhance the salience of reward. PMID:27193060

  10. D38-cholesterol as a Raman active probe for imaging intracellular cholesterol storage.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-García, Alba; Pfisterer, Simon G; Riezman, Howard; Ikonen, Elina; Potma, Eric O

    2016-06-01

    We generated a highly deuterated cholesterol analog (D38-cholesterol) and demonstrated its use for selective vibrational imaging of cholesterol storage in mammalian cells. D38-cholesterol produces detectable signals in stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging, is rapidly taken up by cells, and is efficiently metabolized by acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase to form cholesteryl esters. Using hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol, we visualized cholesterol storage in lipid droplets. We found that some lipid droplets accumulated preferentially unesterified D38-cholesterol, whereas others stored D38-cholesteryl esters. In steroidogenic cells, D38-cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols were partitioned into distinct sets of lipid droplets. Thus, hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol demonstrates a heterogeneous incorporation of neutral lipid species, i.e., free cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and triacylglycerols, between individual lipid droplets in a cell. PMID:26719944

  11. D38-cholesterol as a Raman active probe for imaging intracellular cholesterol storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso-García, Alba; Pfisterer, Simon G.; Riezman, Howard; Ikonen, Elina; Potma, Eric O.

    2016-06-01

    We generated a highly deuterated cholesterol analog (D38-cholesterol) and demonstrated its use for selective vibrational imaging of cholesterol storage in mammalian cells. D38-cholesterol produces detectable signals in stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging, is rapidly taken up by cells, and is efficiently metabolized by acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase to form cholesteryl esters. Using hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol, we visualized cholesterol storage in lipid droplets. We found that some lipid droplets accumulated preferentially unesterified D38-cholesterol, whereas others stored D38-cholesteryl esters. In steroidogenic cells, D38-cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols were partitioned into distinct sets of lipid droplets. Thus, hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol demonstrates a heterogeneous incorporation of neutral lipid species, i.e., free cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and triacylglycerols, between individual lipid droplets in a cell.

  12. Study of Droplet Activation in Thin Clouds Using Ground-based Raman Lidar and Ancillary Remote Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosoldi, Marco; Madonna, Fabio; Gumà Claramunt, Pilar; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Studies on global climate change show that the effects of aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) on the Earth's radiation balance and climate, also known as indirect aerosol effects, are the most uncertain among all the effects involving the atmospheric constituents and processes (Stocker et al., IPCC, 2013). Droplet activation is the most important and challenging process in the understanding of ACI. It represents the direct microphysical link between aerosols and clouds and it is probably the largest source of uncertainty in estimating indirect aerosol effects. An accurate estimation of aerosol-clouds microphysical and optical properties in proximity and within the cloud boundaries represents a good frame for the study of droplet activation. This can be obtained by using ground-based profiling remote sensing techniques. In this work, a methodology for the experimental investigation of droplet activation, based on ground-based multi-wavelength Raman lidar and Doppler radar technique, is presented. The study is focused on the observation of thin liquid water clouds, which are low or midlevel super-cooled clouds characterized by a liquid water path (LWP) lower than about 100 gm-2(Turner et al., 2007). These clouds are often optically thin, which means that ground-based Raman lidar allows the detection of the cloud top and of the cloud structure above. Broken clouds are primarily inspected to take advantage of their discontinuous structure using ground based remote sensing. Observations are performed simultaneously with multi-wavelength Raman lidars, a cloud Doppler radar and a microwave radiometer at CIAO (CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory: www.ciao.imaa.cnr.it), in Potenza, Southern Italy (40.60N, 15.72E, 760 m a.s.l.). A statistical study of the variability of optical properties and humidity in the transition from cloudy regions to cloud-free regions surrounding the clouds leads to the identification of threshold values for the optical properties, enabling the

  13. Preparation of Ag{sub 2}S-Graphene nanocomposite from a single source precursor and its surface-enhanced Raman scattering and photoluminescent activity

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Shugang; Liu Xiaoheng Wang Xin

    2011-11-15

    Ag{sub 2}S-Graphene nanocomposite was prepared via a relatively facile hydrothermal method, using a single-source molecular (silver diethyldithiocarbamate [Ag(DDTC)]) as precursor and graphene sheets as a support material. The composite was characterized by X-ray power diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, Raman spectra and fluorescence spectroscopy. The experimental results show that the Ag{sub 2}S-Graphene nanocomposite displays surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity for graphene oxide and reveals relatively better fluorescence property compared with pure Ag{sub 2}S. Highlights: {yields} Ag{sub 2}S nanoparticles are deposited on graphene sheets via a single source precursor. {yields} Graphene oxide is reduced to graphene in the hydrothermal reaction process. {yields} Ag{sub 2}S-Graphene system displays surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity and relatively better fluorescence property.

  14. Investigation of activated oxygen molecules on the surface of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals by Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J. Q.; Xiong, S. J.; Wu, X. L.; Shen, J. C.; Li, T. H.; College of Electronic Engineering, Guangxi Normal University, Guilin 541004 ; Chu, Paul K.

    2013-09-07

    Activation of surface oxygen molecules on cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals (NCs) is investigated. As the annealing temperature under O{sub 2} is increased, the strong Raman band at 965 cm{sup −1} previously never assigned weakens gradually, while the intensity of the 378 cm{sup −1} Raman band arising from Y{sup 3+}-O{sup 2−} vibration increases. X-ray diffraction reveals no structural change during annealing and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and theoretical calculation suggest that the interstitial oxygen O{sub 2}{sup 2−} connected to the F centers gives rise to the 965 cm{sup −1} Raman band. The results provide direct evidence of the existence of activated oxygen ions on Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} NCs.

  15. Thermoregulation of water foraging honeybees--balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and functional requirements.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

    2010-12-01

    Foraging honeybees are subjected to considerable variations of microclimatic conditions challenging their thermoregulatory ability. Solar heat is a gain in the cold but may be a burden in the heat. We investigated the balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and physiological functions of water foraging Apis mellifera carnica honeybees in the whole range of ambient temperatures (T(a)) and solar radiation they are likely to be exposed in their natural environment in Middle Europe. The mean thorax temperature (T(th)) during foraging stays was regulated at a constantly high level (37.0-38.5 °C) in a broad range of T(a) (3-30 °C). At warmer conditions (T(a)=30-39 °C) T(th) increased to a maximal level of 45.3 °C. The endothermic temperature excess (difference of T(body)-T(a) of living and dead bees) was used to assess the endogenously generated temperature elevation as a correlate of energy turnover. Up to a T(a) of ∼30 °C bees used solar heat gain for a double purpose: to reduce energetic expenditure and to increase T(th) by about 1-3 °C to improve force production of flight muscles. At higher T(a) they exhibited cooling efforts to get rid of excess heat. A high T(th) also allowed regulation of the head temperature high enough to guarantee proper function of the bees' suction pump even at low T(a). This shortened the foraging stays and this way reduced energetic costs. With decreasing T(a) bees also reduced arrival body weight and crop loading to do both minimize costs and optimize flight performance. PMID:20705071

  16. Thermoregulation of water foraging honeybees—Balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and functional requirements

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

    2010-01-01

    Foraging honeybees are subjected to considerable variations of microclimatic conditions challenging their thermoregulatory ability. Solar heat is a gain in the cold but may be a burden in the heat. We investigated the balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and physiological functions of water foraging Apis mellifera carnica honeybees in the whole range of ambient temperatures (Ta) and solar radiation they are likely to be exposed in their natural environment in Middle Europe. The mean thorax temperature (Tth) during foraging stays was regulated at a constantly high level (37.0–38.5 °C) in a broad range of Ta (3–30 °C). At warmer conditions (Ta = 30–39 °C) Tth increased to a maximal level of 45.3 °C. The endothermic temperature excess (difference of Tbody − Ta of living and dead bees) was used to assess the endogenously generated temperature elevation as a correlate of energy turnover. Up to a Ta of ∼30 °C bees used solar heat gain for a double purpose: to reduce energetic expenditure and to increase Tth by about 1–3 °C to improve force production of flight muscles. At higher Ta they exhibited cooling efforts to get rid of excess heat. A high Tth also allowed regulation of the head temperature high enough to guarantee proper function of the bees’ suction pump even at low Ta. This shortened the foraging stays and this way reduced energetic costs. With decreasing Ta bees also reduced arrival body weight and crop loading to do both minimize costs and optimize flight performance. PMID:20705071

  17. Gain-of-function mutations in the mechanically activated ion channel PIEZO2 cause a subtype of Distal Arthrogryposis

    PubMed Central

    Coste, Bertrand; Houge, Gunnar; Murray, Michael F.; Stitziel, Nathan; Bandell, Michael; Giovanni, Monica A.; Philippakis, Anthony; Hoischen, Alexander; Riemer, Gunnar; Steen, Unni; Steen, Vidar Martin; Mathur, Jayanti; Cox, James; Lebo, Matthew; Rehm, Heidi; Weiss, Scott T.; Wood, John N.; Maas, Richard L.; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2013-01-01

    Mechanotransduction, the pathway by which mechanical forces are translated to biological signals, plays important but poorly characterized roles in physiology. PIEZOs are recently identified, widely expressed, mechanically activated ion channels that are hypothesized to play a role in mechanotransduction in mammals. Here, we describe two distinct PIEZO2 mutations in patients with a subtype of Distal Arthrogryposis Type 5 characterized by generalized autosomal dominant contractures with limited eye movements, restrictive lung disease, and variable absence of cruciate knee ligaments. Electrophysiological studies reveal that the two PIEZO2 mutations affect biophysical properties related to channel inactivation: both E2727del and I802F mutations cause the PIEZO2-dependent, mechanically activated currents to recover faster from inactivation, while E2727del also causes a slowing of inactivation. Both types of changes in kinetics result in increased channel activity in response to a given mechanical stimulus, suggesting that Distal Arthrogryposis Type 5 can be caused by gain-of-function mutations in PIEZO2. We further show that overexpression of mutated PIEZO2 cDNAs does not cause constitutive activity or toxicity to cells, indicating that the observed phenotype is likely due to a mechanotransduction defect. Our studies identify a type of channelopathy and link the dysfunction of mechanically activated ion channels to developmental malformations and joint contractures. PMID:23487782

  18. High Basal Activity of the PTPN22 Gain-of-Function Variant Blunts Leukocyte Responsiveness Negatively Affecting IL-10 Production in ANCA Vasculitis

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Yali; Yang, Jiajin; Colby, Kerry; Hogan, Susan L.; Hu, Yichun; Jennette, Caroline E.; Berg, Elisabeth A.; Zhang, Youkang; Jennette, J. Charles; Falk, Ronald J.; Preston, Gloria A.

    2012-01-01

    Consequences of expression of the protein tyrosine phosphatase nonreceptor 22 (PTPN22) gain-of-function variant were evaluated in leukocytes from patients with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic autoantibody (ANCA) disease. The frequency of the gain-of-function allele within the Caucasian patient cohort was 22% (OR 1.45), compared to general American Caucasian population (16.5%, p = 0.03). Examination of the basal phosphatase activity of PTPN22 gain-of-function protein indicated persistently elevated activity in un-stimulated peripheral leukocytes, while basal activity was undetectable in leukocytes from patients without the gain-of-function variant. To examine consequences of persistently high PTPN22 activity, the activation status of ERK and p38 MAPK were analyzed. While moderate levels of activated ERK were observed in controls, it was undetectable in leukocytes expressing PTPN22 gain-of-function protein and instead p38MAPK was up-regulated. IL-10 transcription, reliant on the ERK pathway, was negatively affected. Over the course of disease, patients expressing variant PTPN22 did not show a spike in IL-10 transcription as they entered remission in contrast to controls, implying that environmentally triggered signals were blunted. Sustained activity of PTPN22, due to the gain-of-function mutation, acts as a dominant negative regulator of ERK activity leading to blunted cellular responsiveness to environmental stimuli and expression of protective cytokines. PMID:22880107

  19. Guided-mode-resonance-coupled plasmonic-active SiO2 nanotubes for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Xiaobin; Hasan, Dihan; Wang, Lei; Chakravarty, Swapnajit; Chen, Ray T.; Fan, D. L.; Wang, Alan X.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate by integrating plasmonic-active SiO2 nanotubes into Si3N4 gratings. First, the dielectric grating that is working under guided mode resonance (GMR) provides enhanced electric field for localized surface plasmon polaritons on the surface of metallic nanoparticles. Second, we use SiO2 nanotubes with densely assembled silver nanoparticles to provide a large amount of “hot spots” without significantly damping the GMR mode of the grating. Experimental measurement on Rhodamine-6G shows a constant enhancement factor of 8 ∼ 10 in addition to the existing SERS effect across the entire surface of the SiO2 nanotubes. PMID:22685345

  20. Raman optical activity spectra and conformational elucidation of chiral drugs. The case of the antiangiogenic aeroplysinin-1.

    PubMed

    Nieto-Ortega, Belén; Casado, Juan; Blanch, Ewan W; López Navarrete, Juan T; Quesada, Ana R; Ramírez, Francisco J

    2011-04-01

    We present the determination of the conformational properties of aeroplysinin-1 in aqueous solution by means of a combined experimental and theoretical Raman optical activity (ROA) and vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) study. Aeroplysinin-1 is an antiangiogenic drug extracted from the sponge Aplysina cavernicola which has been proved to be a valuable candidate for the treatment of cancer and other antiangiogenic diseases. Our study shows that this molecule possesses the 1S,6R absolute configuration in aqueous solution, where only two conformers are present to a significant level. We discuss in detail the relationships between the chiro-optical ROA and VCD features, and the structural properties of various energy accessible conformers are described. The present work is one of the first studies in which both ROA and VCD have been used as complementary tools for the determination of absolute configuration and dominant solution-state conformations of an unknown therapeutically significant molecule. PMID:21401047

  1. Multiwatts narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Taylor, Luke; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico

    2008-07-21

    Up to 4.8 W, approximately 10 MHz, 1178 nm laser is obtained by Raman amplification of a distributed feedback diode laser in standard single mode fibers pumped by an 1120 nm Yb fiber laser. More than 10% efficiency and 27 dB amplification is achieved, limited by onset of stimulated Brillouin scattering. The ratio of Raman to Brillouin gain coefficient of a fiber is identified as a figure of merit for building a narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifier. PMID:18648406

  2. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic and DFT studies of anti-cancer active molecule N-{(meta-ferrocenyl) Benzoyl} - L-Alanine - Glycine ethyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, T. S.; Kenny, Peter T. M.; Manimaran, D.; Joe, I. Hubert

    2015-06-01

    FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of N-{(meta-ferrocenyl) Benzoyl} - L-alanine - glycine ethyl ester were recorded in solid phase. The optimized molecular geometry, the vibrational wavenumbers, the infrared intensities and the Raman scattering intensities were calculated by using density functional method(B3LYP) with 6-31G(d, p) basis set. Vibrational assignment of the molecule was done by using potential energy distribution analysis. Natural bond orbital analysis, Mulliken charge analysis and HOMO-LUMO energy were used to elucidate the reasons for intra molecular charge transfer. Docking studies were conducted to predict its anticancer activity.

  3. Raman Spectrometry.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gardiner, Derek J.

    1980-01-01

    Reviews mainly quantitative analytical applications in the field of Raman spectrometry. Includes references to other reviews, new and analytically untested techniques, and novel sampling and instrument designs. Cites 184 references. (CS)

  4. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Monique; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jaap; de Vet, Emely

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of healthy weight. Methods We assigned 270 gaming (i.e. ≥2 hours/week non-active video game time) adolescents randomly to an intervention group (n = 140) (receiving active video games and encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (n = 130). BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds were measured at baseline, at four and ten months follow-up (primary outcomes). Sedentary screen time, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks, and process measures (not at baseline) were assessed with self-reports at baseline, one, four and ten months follow-up. Multi-level-intention to treat-regression analyses were conducted. Results The control group decreased significantly more than the intervention group on BMI-SDS (β = 0.074, 95%CI: 0.008;0.14), and sum of skinfolds (β = 3.22, 95%CI: 0.27;6.17) (overall effects). The intervention group had a significantly higher decrease in self-reported non-active video game time (β = -1.76, 95%CI: -3.20;-0.32) and total sedentary screen time (Exp (β = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.74;0.88) than the control group (overall effects). The process evaluation showed that 14% of the adolescents played the Move video games every week ≥1 hour/week during the whole intervention period. Conclusions The active video game intervention did not result in lower values on anthropometrics in a group of ‘excessive’ non-active video gamers (mean ~ 14 hours/week) who primarily were of healthy weight compared to a control group throughout a ten-month-period. Even some effects in the unexpected direction were found, with the control group showing lower BMI

  5. Increased wavelength options in the visible and ultraviolet for Raman lasers operating on dual Raman modes.

    PubMed

    Mildren, R P; Piper, J A

    2008-03-01

    We report increased wavelength options from Raman lasers for Raman media having two Raman modes of similar gain coefficient. For an external-cavity potassium gadolinium tungstate Raman laser pumped at 532 nm, we show that two sets of Stokes orders are generated simultaneously by appropriate orientation of the Raman crystal, and also wavelengths that correspond to sums of the two Raman modes. Up to 14 visible Stokes lines were observed in the wavelength range 555-675 nm. The increase in Stokes wavelengths also enables a much greater selection of wavelengths to be accessed via intracavity nonlinear sum frequency and difference frequency mixing. For example, we demonstrate 30 output wavelength options for a wavelength-selectable 271-321 nm Raman laser with intracavity sum frequency mixing in BBO. We also present a theoretical analysis that enables prediction of wavelength options for dual Raman mode systems. PMID:18542414

  6. Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gerrard, D.L.; Bowley, H.J.

    1986-04-01

    The period of this review is from late 1983 to late 1985. During this time over 5000 papers have appeared in the scientific literature dealing with many applications of Raman spectroscopy and extending its use to several new areas of study. As in the previous review in this series most of the applications relevant to solids are covered in one or other of the ten categories, which are the same as those used previously. However, aspects relating to solids which are not covered elsewhere include general reviews and the specific field of semiconductors. This is an area of great current interest in terms of Raman spectroscopy and the characterization of semiconductor materials and surfaces has been reported. Raman scattering also provides a new probe for the elucidation of structural properties of microcrystalline silicon and resonance Raman scattering in silicon at elevated temperatures has been studied. Many studies on carbon have also appeared in the literature including that of the various types of carbon, the use of Raman scattering to investigate disorder and crystallite formation in annealed carbon, in situ studies of intercalation kinetics, structural aspects of cokes and coals, and instrumentation for coal gasification. Raman spectroscopy has been applied to such diverse systems as organic crystals, the determination of modifications in layered crystals, the detection of explosives on silica gel or carbon, diagnostics of heterogeneous chemical processes, and a study of tungsten-halogen bulbs. Laser Raman spectroscopy has also been coupled with liquid chromatography and phase-resolved background suppression has been used to enhance Raman spectra. 397 references.

  7. Weight gain and inflammation regulate aromatase expression in male adipose tissue, as evidenced by reporter gene activity.

    PubMed

    Polari, L; Yatkin, E; Martínez Chacón, M G; Ahotupa, M; Smeds, A; Strauss, L; Zhang, F; Poutanen, M; Saarinen, N; Mäkelä, S I

    2015-09-01

    Obesity and white adipose tissue (WAT) inflammation are associated with enhanced aromatization in women, but little is known about the regulation of aromatase (CYP19A1) gene expression in male WAT. We investigated the impact of weight gain and WAT inflammation on the regulation of CYP19A1 in males, by utilizing the hARO-Luc aromatase reporter mouse model containing a >100-kb 5'-region of the human CYP19A1 gene. We show that hARO-Luc reporter activity is enhanced in WAT of mice with increased adiposity and inflammation. Dexamethasone and TNFα, as well as forskolin and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate, upregulate hARO-Luc activity, suggesting the involvement of promoters I.4 and I.3/II. Furthermore, we show that diet enriched with antioxidative plant polyphenols attenuates WAT inflammation and hARO-Luc activity in obese males. In conclusion, our data suggest that obesity-associated WAT inflammation leads to increased peripheral CYP19A1 expression in males, and that polyphenol-enriched diet may have the potential to attenuate excessive aromatization in WAT of obese men. PMID:26054748

  8. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active Au/SiO2 nanocomposites prepared using sonoelectrochemical pulse deposition methods.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chun-Chao; Yang, Kuang-Hsuan; Liu, Yu-Chuan; Hsu, Ting-Chu; Mai, Fu-Der

    2012-09-26

    For improving signals, reproducibility, and stabilities of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), numerous technologies have recently been reported in the literature. However, the fabrication processes are usually complicated. It is well-known that nanoparticles (NPs) of Au and SiO(2) are SERS active and inactive materials, respectively. In this work, a simple synthesis route based on sonoelectrochemical pulse deposition (SEPD) methods has been developed to synthesize effectively SERS-active Au/SiO(2) nanocomposites (NCs) with an enhancement factor of 5.4 × 10(8). Experimental results indicate that pH value of solution and addition of SiO(2) NPs before and after oxidation-reduction cycles (ORCs) can significantly influence the corresponding SERS activities. Encouragingly, the SERS of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) adsorbed on the developed Au/SiO(2) NCs exhibits a higher intensity by more than 1 order of magnitude, as compared with that of R6G adsorbed on Au NPs synthesized using the same method. Moreover, this improved SERS activity is successfully verified from the mechanisms of electromagnetic (EM) and chemical (CHEM) enhancements. PMID:22934654

  9. Quantitative evaluation on activated property-tunable bulk liquid water with reduced hydrogen bonds using deconvoluted Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Mai, Fu-Der; Yang, Kuang-Hsuan; Chen, Liang-Yih; Yang, Chih-Ping; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Interesting properties of water with distinguishable hydrogen-bonding structure on interfacial phase or in confined environment have drawn wide attentions. However, these unique properties of water are only found within the interfacial phase and confined environment, thus, their applications are limited. In addition, quantitative evaluation on these unique properties associating with the enhancement of water's physical and chemical activities represents a notable challenge. Here we report a practicable production of free-standing liquid water at room temperature with weak hydrogen-bonded structure naming Au nanoparticles (NPs)-treated (AuNT) water via treating by plasmon-induced hot electron transfer occurred on resonantly illuminated gold NPs (AuNPs). Compared to well-known untreated bulk water (deionized water), the prepared AuNT water exhibits many distinct activities in generally physical and chemical reactions, such as high solubilities to NaCl and O2. Also, reducing interaction energy within water molecules provides lower overpotential and higher efficiency in electrolytic hydrogen production. In addition, these enhanced catalytic activities of AuNT water are tunable by mixing with deionized water. Also, most of these tunable activities are linearly proportional to its degree of nonhydrogen-bonded structure (DNHBS), which is derived from the O-H stretching in deconvoluted Raman spectrum. PMID:25471522

  10. Soluble guanylate cyclase is activated differently by excess NO and by YC-1: Resonance Raman spectroscopic evidence†

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Derbyshire, Emily R.; Soldatova, Alexandra V.; Marletta, Michael A.; Spiro, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Modulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activity by nitric oxide (NO) involves two distinct steps. Low level activation of sGC is achieved by the stoichiometric binding of NO (1-NO) to the heme cofactor, while much higher activation is achieved by the binding of additional NO (xsNO) at a non-heme site. Addition of the allosteric activator YC-1 to the 1-NO form leads to activity comparable to xsNO state. In this study the mechanisms of sGC activation were investigated using electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopic methods. RR spectroscopy confirmed that the 1-NO form contains 5-coordinate NO-heme and showed that the addition of NO to the 1-NO form has no significant effect on the spectrum. In contrast, addition of YC-1 to either the 1-NO or xsNO forms alters the RR spectrum significantly, indicating a protein-induced change in the heme geometry. This change in the heme geometry was also observed when BAY 41-2272 was added to the xsNO form. Bands assigned to bending and stretching motions of the vinyl and propionate substituents change intensity in a pattern suggesting altered tilting of the pyrrole rings to which they are attached. In addition, the N-O stretching frequency increases, with no change in the Fe-NO frequency, an effect modeled via DFT calculations as resulting from a small opening of the Fe-N-O angle. These spectral differences demonstrate different mechanisms of activation by synthetic activators, such as YC-1 and BAY 41-2272, and excess NO. PMID:20459051

  11. Antimicrobial activity, structural evaluation and vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) study of pyrrole containing vinyl derivatives.

    PubMed

    Singh, R N; Rawat, Poonam; Sahu, Sangeeta; Kumar, Yashvinder

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present structural and vibrational study of three vinylpyrrole derivatives: 2-Cyano-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-acrylamide (CPA), 1-(1H-Pyrrol-2-yl)-Pent-1-en-3-one (PP) and 1-(1H-Pyrrol-2-yl)-but-1-en-3-one (PB), using ab initio, DFT and experimental approaches. The quantum chemical calculation have been performed on B3LYP method and 6-311+G(d,p) basis set. The experimental FT-IR and Raman wavenumbers were compared with the respective theoretical values obtained from DFT calculations and found to agree well. The experimental FT-IR and Raman study clearly indicate that the compound exist as dimer in solid state. The binding energies of (CPA), (PP) and (PB) dimers are found to be 20.95, 18.75 and 19.18 kcal/mol, respectively. The vibrational analysis shows red shifts in v(N-H) and v(C=O) stretching as result of dimer formation. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. Topological and energetic parameters reveal the nature of interactions in dimer. The local electronic descriptors analyses were used to predict the reactive sites in the molecule. Calculated first static hyperpolarizability of CPA, PP and PB is found to be 10.41×10(-30), 18.93×10(-30), 18.29×10(-30) esu, respectively, shows that investigated molecules will have non-linear optical response and might be used as non-linear optical (NLO) material. These vinylpyrrole compounds (CPA), (PP) and (PB) showed antifungal and antibacterial activity against Aspergillus niger and gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtili. PMID:26513227

  12. Antimicrobial activity, structural evaluation and vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) study of pyrrole containing vinyl derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. N.; Rawat, Poonam; Sahu, Sangeeta; Kumar, Yashvinder

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present structural and vibrational study of three vinylpyrrole derivatives: 2-Cyano-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-acrylamide (CPA), 1-(1H-Pyrrol-2-yl)-Pent-1-en-3-one (PP) and 1-(1H-Pyrrol-2-yl)-but-1-en-3-one (PB), using ab initio, DFT and experimental approaches. The quantum chemical calculation have been performed on B3LYP method and 6-311 + G(d,p) basis set. The experimental FT-IR and Raman wavenumbers were compared with the respective theoretical values obtained from DFT calculations and found to agree well. The experimental FT-IR and Raman study clearly indicate that the compound exist as dimer in solid state. The binding energies of (CPA), (PP) and (PB) dimers are found to be 20.95, 18.75 and 19.18 kcal/mol, respectively. The vibrational analysis shows red shifts in vN-H and vCdbnd O stretching as result of dimer formation. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. Topological and energetic parameters reveal the nature of interactions in dimer. The local electronic descriptors analyses were used to predict the reactive sites in the molecule. Calculated first static hyperpolarizability of CPA, PP and PB is found to be 10.41 × 10- 30, 18.93 × 10- 30, 18.29 × 10- 30 esu, respectively, shows that investigated molecules will have non-linear optical response and might be used as non-linear optical (NLO) material. These vinylpyrrole compounds (CPA), (PP) and (PB) showed antifungal and antibacterial activity against Aspergillus niger and gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtili.

  13. Vibrational imaging of glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fanghao; Chen, Zhixing; Zhang, Luyuan; Shen, Yihui; Wei, Lu; Min, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is consumed as an energy source by virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Its uptake activity closely reflects the cellular metabolic status in various pathophysiological transformations, such as diabetes and cancer. Extensive efforts such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy have been made to specifically image glucose uptake activity but all with technical limitations. Here, we report a new platform to visualize glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues with subcellular resolution and minimal perturbation. A novel glucose analogue with a small alkyne tag (carbon-carbon triple bond) is developed to mimic natural glucose for cellular uptake, which can be imaged with high sensitivity and specificity by targeting the strong and characteristic alkyne vibration on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope to generate a quantitative three dimensional concentration map. Cancer cells with differing metabolic characteristics can be distinguished. Heterogeneous uptake patterns are observed in tumor xenograft tissues, neuronal culture and mouse brain tissues with clear cell-cell variations. Therefore, by offering the distinct advantage of optical resolution but without the undesirable influence of bulky fluorophores, our method of coupling SRS with alkyne labeled glucose will be an attractive tool to study energy demands of living systems at the single cell level.

  14. The Relationship of Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour with Gestational Weight Gain and Birth Weight

    PubMed Central

    Ruifrok, Anneloes E.; Althuizen, Ellen; Oostdam, Nicolette; van Mechelen, Willem; de Groot, Christianne J. M.; van Poppel, Mireille N. M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective. To evaluate the relationship of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behaviour with gestational weight gain (GWG) and birth weight. Design. Combined data from two prospective studies: (1) nulliparous pregnant women without BMI restrictions and (2) overweight and obese pregnant women at risk for gestational diabetes. Methods. Daily PA and sedentary behaviour were measured with an accelerometer around 15 and at 32–35 weeks of gestation. The association between time spent in moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA) and in sedentary activities with GWG and birth weight was determined. Main outcome measures were GWG between 15 and 32 weeks of gestation, average GWG per week, and birth weight. Results. We studied 111 women. Early in pregnancy, 32% of women spent ≥30 minutes/day in at least moderate PA versus 12% in late pregnancy. No significant associations were found between time spent in MVPA or sedentary behaviour with GWG or birth weight. Conclusions. We found no relation between MVPA and sedentary behaviour with GWG or birth weight. The small percentage of women meeting the recommended levels of PA indicates the need to inform and support pregnant women to maintain regular PA, as there seems to be no adverse effect on birth weight and maintaining PA increases overall health. PMID:25309754

  15. Actively phase-controlled coupling between plasmonic waveguides via in-between gain-assisted nanoresonator: nanoscale optical logic gates.

    PubMed

    Ho, Kum-Song; Han, Yong-Ha; Ri, Chol-Song; Im, Song-Jin

    2016-08-15

    The development of nanoscale optical logic gates has attracted immense attention due to increasing demand for ultrahigh-speed and energy-efficient optical computing and data processing, however, suffers from the difficulty in precise control of phase difference of the two optical signals. We propose a novel conception of nanoscale optical logic gates based on actively phase-controlled coupling between two plasmonic waveguides via an in-between gain-assisted nanoresonator. Precise control of phase difference between the two plasmonic signals can be performed by manipulating pumping rate at an appropriate frequency detuning, enabling a high contrast between the output logic states "1" and "0." Without modification of the structural parameters, different logic functions can be provided. This active nanoscale optical logic device is expected to be quite energy-efficient with ideally low energy consumption on the order of 0.1 fJ/bit. Analytical calculations and numerical experiments demonstrate the validity of the proposed concept. PMID:27519077

  16. Unequal prognostic potentials of p53 gain-of-function mutations in human cancers associate with drug-metabolizing activity.

    PubMed

    Xu, J; Wang, J; Hu, Y; Qian, J; Xu, B; Chen, H; Zou, W; Fang, J-Y

    2014-01-01

    Mutation of p53 is the most common genetic change in human cancer, causing complex effects including not only loss of wild-type function but also gain of novel oncogenic functions (GOF). It is increasingly likely that p53-hotspot mutations may confer different types and magnitudes of GOF, but the evidences are mainly supported by cellular and transgenic animal models. Here we combine large-scale cancer genomic data to characterize the prognostic significance of different p53 mutations in human cancers. Unexpectedly, only mutations on the Arg248 and Arg282 positions displayed significant association with shorter patient survival, but such association was not evident for other hotspot GOF mutations. Gene set enrichment analysis on these mutations revealed higher activity of drug-metabolizing enzymes, including the CYP3A4 cytochrome P450. Ectopic expression of p53 mutant R282W in H1299 and SaOS2 cells significantly upregulated CYP3A4 mRNA and protein levels, and cancer cell lines bearing mortality-associated p53 mutations display higher CYP3A4 expression and resistance to several CYP3A4-metabolized chemotherapeutic drugs. Our results suggest that p53 mutations have unequal GOF activities in human cancers, and future evaluation of p53 as a cancer biomarker should consider which mutation is present in the tumor, rather than having comparison between wild-type and mutant genotypes. PMID:24603336

  17. Allele-specific silencing of mutant p53 attenuates dominant-negative and gain-of-function activities

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Swathi V.; Parrales, Alejandro; Begani, Priya; Narkar, Akshay; Adhikari, Amit S.; Martinez, Luis A.; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Many p53 hotspot mutants not only lose the transcriptional activity, but also show dominant-negative (DN) and oncogenic gain-of-function (GOF) activities. Increasing evidence indicates that knockdown of mutant p53 (mutp53) in cancer cells reduces their aggressive properties, suggesting that survival and proliferation of cancer cells are, at least partially, dependent on the presence of mutp53. However, these p53 siRNAs can downregulate both wild-type p53 (wtp53) and mutp53, which limits their therapeutic applications. In order to specifically deplete mutp53, we have developed allele-specific siRNAs against p53 hotspot mutants and validated their biological effects in the absence or presence of wtp53. First, the mutp53-specific siRNAs selectively reduced protein levels of matched p53 mutants with minimal reduction in wtp53 levels. Second, downregulation of mutp53 in cancer cells expressing a mutp53 alone (p53mut) resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation and migration. Third, transfection of mutp53-specific siRNAs in cancer cells expressing both wtp53 and mutp53 also reduced cell proliferation and migration with increased transcripts of p53 downstream target genes, which became further profound when cells were treated with an MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a or a chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin. These results indicate that depletion of mutp53 by its specific siRNA restored endogenous wtp53 activity in cells expressing both wtp53 and mutp53. This is the first study demonstrating biological effects and therapeutic potential of allele-specific silencing of mutp53 by mutp53-specific siRNAs in cancer cells expressing both wtp53 and mutp53, thus providing a novel strategy towards targeted cancer therapies. PMID:26700961

  18. Titanium-enhanced Raman microcavity laser.

    PubMed

    Deka, Nishita; Maker, Ashley J; Armani, Andrea M

    2014-03-15

    Whispering gallery mode microcavities are ideally suited to form microlaser devices because the high circulating intensity within the cavity results in ultralow lasing thresholds. However, to achieve low-threshold Raman lasing in silica devices, it is necessary to have quality factors above 100 million. One approach to circumvent this restriction is to intercalate a sensitizer into the silica, which increases the Raman gain. In the present work, we demonstrate a Raman laser based on a titanium sensitized silica solgel coated toroidal microcavity. By tuning the concentration of the Ti, the Raman efficiency improves over 3× while maintaining sub-mW thresholds. PMID:24690786

  19. Multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy study of supported vanadia catalysts: Structure identification and quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zili

    2014-10-20

    Revealing the structure of supported metal oxide catalysts is a prerequisite for establishing the structure - catalysis relationship. Among a variety of characterization techniques, multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy, combining resonance Raman and non-resonance Raman with different excitation wavelengths, has recently emerged as a particularly powerful tool in not only identifying but also quantifying the structure of supported metal oxide clusters. In our review, we make use of two supported vanadia systems, VOx/SiO2 and VOx/CeO2, as examples to showcase how one can employ this technique to investigate the heterogeneous structure of active oxide clusters and to understand the complex interaction between the oxide clusters and the support. Moreover, the qualitative and quantitative structural information gained from the multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy can be utilized to provide fundamental insights for designing more efficient supported metal oxide catalysts.

  20. Multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy study of supported vanadia catalysts: Structure identification and quantification

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Wu, Zili

    2014-10-20

    Revealing the structure of supported metal oxide catalysts is a prerequisite for establishing the structure - catalysis relationship. Among a variety of characterization techniques, multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy, combining resonance Raman and non-resonance Raman with different excitation wavelengths, has recently emerged as a particularly powerful tool in not only identifying but also quantifying the structure of supported metal oxide clusters. In our review, we make use of two supported vanadia systems, VOx/SiO2 and VOx/CeO2, as examples to showcase how one can employ this technique to investigate the heterogeneous structure of active oxide clusters and to understand the complex interaction between themore » oxide clusters and the support. Moreover, the qualitative and quantitative structural information gained from the multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy can be utilized to provide fundamental insights for designing more efficient supported metal oxide catalysts.« less

  1. Tuning the surface enhanced Raman scattering and catalytic activities of gold nanorods by controlled coating of platinum.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Vipul; Sinha, Niraj; Dutt, Sunil; Chawla, Mohit; Siril, Prem Felix

    2016-02-01

    Galvanic replacement of silver (Ag) by platinum (Pt) on bi-metallic nanorods (NRs) having gold (Au) core and silver shell (Au@Ag) resulted in discontinuous coating of Pt over Au (Au@Pt-DC) NRs. However, a novel method has been developed in this work for the preparation of Au NRs having smooth and continuous coating of Pt (Au@Pt-C NRs) using galvanic replacement reaction of Au@Ag NRs in presence of sulphuric acid. Selective blocking by the bisulfate ions that are adsorbed on Pt surface, preventing Pt on Pt deposition seems to be the mechanism of formation of Au@Pt-C NRs. Effect of the nature of Pt shell (i.e. whether continuous or discontinuous) on SERS activity of the NRs was investigated with methylene blue (MB) as a reporter molecule. The specific enhancement of the Raman signals were in the order Au@ Pt-C NRsactivity than Au and Au@Pt-C NRs. PMID:26520825

  2. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy-active substrates: adapting the shape of plasmonic nanoparticles for different biological applications.

    PubMed

    Vitol, Elina A; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury

    2014-04-01

    We discuss the relationship between the shape of plasmonic nanoparticles and the biological surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications which they can enable. As a step forward in developing SERS-active substrates adapted to a particular application, we demonstrate that a modification of the widely used protocol for the sodium citrate mediated reduction of chloroauric acid, which is typically employed only for obtaining spherical gold nanoparticles, can yield flat polygonal nanoparticles at room temperature and a decreased amount of the reducing agent. The significant advantage of the described approach is that it allows for synthesis of nanoparticles with different geometries using a well-established synthesis protocol without the need for any additional chemicals or special synthesis apparatus. By contrasting spherical and anisotropically shaped nanoparticles, we demonstrate that multifaceted nanoparticles with sharp edges are better suitable for SERS analysis of low concentration analytes requiring strong SERS enhancement. On the other hand, gold nanoparticles with isotropic shapes, while giving a smaller enhancement, can provide a more reproducible SERS signal. This is important for analytical applications of complex biological systems where large SERS enhancement may not always be required, whereas data reproducibility and minimal false positive rate are imperative. Using a SERS-active substrate comprising isotropically shaped gold nanoparticles, we demonstrate the differences between Gram-negative (E. coli) and Gram-positive (S. aureus) bacteria, attributable to the outer membrane and peptidoglycan layer, with the level of detail which has not been previously reported with optical spectroscopic techniques. PMID:24734732

  3. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active Au/TiO{sub 2} films prepared by electrochemical and photochemical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Kuang-Hsuan; Chang, Chia-Ming

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: In the presence of TiO{sub 2} NPs before the ORCs the optimal wavelength of UV light resulting in the strongest SERS effect being 310 nm. Display Omitted Highlights: ► SERS-active Au/TiO{sub 2} prepared by electrochemical and photochemical methods. ► UV light of 310 nm is suitable for obtaining Au/TiO{sub 2} with strong SERS effect. ► Presence of TiO{sub 2} before ORCs is responsible for obtaining SERS-active Au/TiO{sub 2}. -- Abstract: In this work, we report a new strategy for the preparation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active Au/TiO{sub 2}(P25) nanocomposites (NCs), using electrochemical and photochemical methods. First, Au substrates were subjected to electrochemical oxidation–reduction cycles (ORCs) in a deoxygenated aqueous solution containing 0.1 M HCl and 1 mM TiO{sub 2}. After the ORC treatment AuCl{sub 4}{sup −}-adsorbed TiO{sub 2} complexes were produced in the solution. These complex-containing substrates were then irradiated with UV light at 310 nm to synthesize Au/TiO{sub 2} NCs with strong SERS activities for probe molecules of rhodamine 6G (R6G) and conductive polymers of polypyrrole (PPy). Experimental results indicated that the wavelength of UV light and the presence of TiO{sub 2} before and after the ORC procedure during the preparation process both affected the resulting SERS activities.

  4. Indirect flat-panel detector with avalanche gain: Fundamental feasibility investigation for SHARP-AMFPI (scintillator HARP active matrix flat panel imager)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Wei; Li Dan; Reznik, Alla; Lui, B.J.M.; Hunt, D.C.; Rowlands, J.A.; Ohkawa, Yuji; Tanioka, Kenkichi

    2005-09-15

    An indirect flat-panel imager (FPI) with avalanche gain is being investigated for low-dose x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator CsI(Tl) to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called HARP (high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor). The final electronic image is read out using an active matrix array of thin film transistors (TFT). We call the proposed detector SHARP-AMFPI (scintillator HARP active matrix flat panel imager). The advantage of the SHARP-AMFPI is its programmable gain, which can be turned on during low dose fluoroscopy to overcome electronic noise, and turned off during high dose radiography to avoid pixel saturation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the important design considerations for SHARP-AMFPI such as avalanche gain, which depends on both the thickness d{sub Se} and the applied electric field E{sub Se} of the HARP layer. To determine the optimal design parameter and operational conditions for HARP, we measured the E{sub Se} dependence of both avalanche gain and optical quantum efficiency of an 8 {mu}m HARP layer. The results were used in a physical model of HARP as well as a linear cascaded model of the FPI to determine the following x-ray imaging properties in both the avalanche and nonavalanche modes as a function of E{sub Se}: (1) total gain (which is the product of avalanche gain and optical quantum efficiency); (2) linearity; (3) dynamic range; (4) gain nonuniformity resulting from thickness nonuniformity; and (5) effects of direct x-ray interaction in HARP. Our results showed that a HARP layer thickness of 8 {mu}m can provide adequate avalanche gain and sufficient dynamic range for x-ray imaging applications to permit quantum limited operation over the range of exposures needed for radiography and fluoroscopy.

  5. Indirect flat-panel detector with avalanche gain: fundamental feasibility investigation for SHARP-AMFPI (scintillator HARP active matrix flat panel imager).

    PubMed

    Zhao, Wei; Li, Dan; Reznik, Alla; Lui, B J M; Hunt, D C; Rowlands, J A; Ohkawa, Yuji; Tanioka, Kenkichi

    2005-09-01

    An indirect flat-panel imager (FPI) with avalanche gain is being investigated for low-dose x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator CsI(Tl) to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called HARP (high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor). The final electronic image is read out using an active matrix array of thin film transistors (TFT). We call the proposed detector SHARP-AMFPI (scintillator HARP active matrix flat panel imager). The advantage of the SHARP-AMFPI is its programmable gain, which can be turned on during low dose fluoroscopy to overcome electronic noise, and turned off during high dose radiography to avoid pixel saturation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the important design considerations for SHARP-AMFPI such as avalanche gain, which depends on both the thickness d(Se) and the applied electric field E(Se) of the HARP layer. To determine the optimal design parameter and operational conditions for HARP, we measured the E(Se) dependence of both avalanche gain and optical quantum efficiency of an 8 microm HARP layer. The results were used in a physical model of HARP as well as a linear cascaded model of the FPI to determine the following x-ray imaging properties in both the avalanche and nonavalanche modes as a function of E(Se): (1) total gain (which is the product of avalanche gain and optical quantum efficiency); (2) linearity; (3) dynamic range; (4) gain nonuniformity resulting from thickness nonuniformity; and (5) effects of direct x-ray interaction in HARP. Our results showed that a HARP layer thickness of 8 microm can provide adequate avalanche gain and sufficient dynamic range for x-ray imaging applications to permit quantum limited operation over the range of exposures needed for radiography and fluoroscopy. PMID:16266110

  6. Raman Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Shona; Priore, Ryan J.; Nelson, Matthew P.; Treado, Patrick J.

    2012-07-01

    The past decade has seen an enormous increase in the number and breadth of imaging techniques developed for analysis in many industries, including pharmaceuticals, food, and especially biomedicine. Rather than accept single-dimensional forms of information, users now demand multidimensional assessment of samples. High specificity and the need for little or no sample preparation make Raman imaging a highly attractive analytical technique and provide motivation for continuing advances in its supporting technology and utilization. This review discusses the current tools employed in Raman imaging, the recent advances, and the major applications in this ever-growing analytical field.

  7. Stimulated Raman amplification, oscillation, and linewidth in barium nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCray, Christopher J.; Chyba, Thomas H.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of Raman gain in a Ba(NO3)2 crystal are reported at 532 nm using a Raman oscillator/amplifier arrangement for differential absorption lidar measurements of ozone. The experimentally determined gain coefficient will be compared with theoretical results. The effect of single and multi-longitudinal mode pumping upon the amplification process will be discussed. Measurement of the Raman linewidth for 1st 2nd and 3d stokes shifts arc presented.

  8. Laser-MBE of nickel nanowires using AAO template: a new active substrate of surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lisheng; Fang, Yan; Zhang, Pengxiang

    2008-01-01

    The highly ordered anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template was fabricated using aluminum anodizing in electrolytes with two-step method, which apertures were about 50-80nm. The nickel nanowires with about 40-70nm in diameter was prepared on the AAO template by laser-MBE (molecular beam epitaxy). And high quality Raman spectra of SudanII were obtained on the glass covered with the nickel nanowires. On the nickel nanowires there are both surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) and tip enhanced Raman scattering (TERS). The new observations not only enlarge the range of SERS applications, but also imply a possible new enhancement mechanism. Otherwise the Raman and SERS frequencies of SudanII molecule were calculated using, respectively, DFT and B3PW91. PMID:17627875

  9. Developing Continuous-Wave Raman Lasers Using Solid Para-Hydrogen and Barium Nitrate for Molecular Spectroscopy Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Evans, William R.; Momose, Takamasa; McCall, Benjamin J.

    2012-06-01

    Many interesting molecular targets have vibrational transitions between 5 and 10 μm. However, widely tunable continuous-wave laser sources in this region are extremely rare. One possible solution to this situation is with continuous-wave Raman lasers. We will present our recent work toward the construction of two continuous-wave Raman lasers: one using solid para-hydrogen as the Raman shifting medium, and the other using barium nitrate. Solid para-hydrogen is a promising medium for a continuous-wave Raman laser because of its high Raman gain coefficient (18 cm/MW, almost 400 times higher than any room-temperature crystal), wide spectral transmission window (transparent from ˜100 nm to ˜30 μm), its nature as a ``quantum crystal," and its large Raman shift (4150 cm-1 in the solid). We will also describe our more recent work designing and constructing a continuous-wave Raman laser in barium nitrate. Barium nitrate has the advantage of being the room-temperature crystal with the highest Raman gain coefficient, as well as being highly transparent from 350 to 1800 nm. Barium nitrate has been used as a continuous-wave Raman shifter for several years. Our recent work builds upon this foundation, combining lessons learned from our work with solid para-hydrogen. Our design is the first barium nitrate Raman laser using an actively-locked, doubly-resonant laser cavity. This holds the promise of requiring much lower threshold pump powers than previous setups. We will discuss some of the details in designing and building these lasers. Finally, we will report on the current state of our projects as well as anticipated future work.

  10. A Time-Encoded Technique for fibre-based hyperspectral broadband stimulated Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpf, Sebastian; Eibl, Matthias; Wieser, Wolfgang; Klein, Thomas; Huber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Raman sensing and microscopy are among the most specific optical technologies to identify the chemical compounds of unknown samples, and to enable label-free biomedical imaging. Here we present a method for stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopy and imaging with a time-encoded (TICO) Raman concept. We use continuous wave, rapidly wavelength-swept probe lasers and combine them with a short-duty-cycle actively modulated pump laser. Hence, we achieve high stimulated Raman gain signal levels, while still benefitting from the narrow linewidth and low noise of continuous wave operation. Our all-fibre TICO-Raman setup uses a Fourier domain mode-locked laser source to achieve a unique combination of high speed, broad spectral coverage (750-3,150 cm-1) and high resolution (0.5 cm-1). The Raman information is directly encoded and acquired in time. We demonstrate quantitative chemical analysis of a solvent mixture and hyperspectral Raman microscopy with molecular contrast of plant cells.

  11. A Time-Encoded Technique for fibre-based hyperspectral broadband stimulated Raman microscopy.

    PubMed

    Karpf, Sebastian; Eibl, Matthias; Wieser, Wolfgang; Klein, Thomas; Huber, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Raman sensing and microscopy are among the most specific optical technologies to identify the chemical compounds of unknown samples, and to enable label-free biomedical imaging. Here we present a method for stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopy and imaging with a time-encoded (TICO) Raman concept. We use continuous wave, rapidly wavelength-swept probe lasers and combine them with a short-duty-cycle actively modulated pump laser. Hence, we achieve high stimulated Raman gain signal levels, while still benefitting from the narrow linewidth and low noise of continuous wave operation. Our all-fibre TICO-Raman setup uses a Fourier domain mode-locked laser source to achieve a unique combination of high speed, broad spectral coverage (750-3,150 cm(-1)) and high resolution (0.5 cm(-1)). The Raman information is directly encoded and acquired in time. We demonstrate quantitative chemical analysis of a solvent mixture and hyperspectral Raman microscopy with molecular contrast of plant cells. PMID:25881792

  12. A Time-Encoded Technique for fibre-based hyperspectral broadband stimulated Raman microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Karpf, Sebastian; Eibl, Matthias; Wieser, Wolfgang; Klein, Thomas; Huber, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Raman sensing and microscopy are among the most specific optical technologies to identify the chemical compounds of unknown samples, and to enable label-free biomedical imaging. Here we present a method for stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopy and imaging with a time-encoded (TICO) Raman concept. We use continuous wave, rapidly wavelength-swept probe lasers and combine them with a short-duty-cycle actively modulated pump laser. Hence, we achieve high stimulated Raman gain signal levels, while still benefitting from the narrow linewidth and low noise of continuous wave operation. Our all-fibre TICO-Raman setup uses a Fourier domain mode-locked laser source to achieve a unique combination of high speed, broad spectral coverage (750–3,150 cm−1) and high resolution (0.5 cm−1). The Raman information is directly encoded and acquired in time. We demonstrate quantitative chemical analysis of a solvent mixture and hyperspectral Raman microscopy with molecular contrast of plant cells. PMID:25881792

  13. Formation of Raman Scattering Wings around H alpha, H beta, and Pa alpha in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Seok-Jun; Heo, Jeong-Eun; Di Mille, Francesco; Angeloni, Rodolfo; Palma, Tali; Lee, Hee-Won

    2015-12-01

    Powered by a supermassive black hole with an accretion disk, the spectra of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) are characterized by prominent emission lines including Balmer lines. The unification schemes of AGNs require the existence of a thick molecular torus that may hide the broad emission line region from the view of observers near the equatorial direction. In this configuration, one may expect that the far-UV radiation from the central engine can be Raman scattered by neutral hydrogen to reappear around Balmer and Paschen emission lines, which can be identified with broad wings. We produce Hα, Hβ, and Paα wings using a Monte Carlo technique to investigate their properties. The neutral scattering region is assumed to be a cylindrical torus specified by the inner and outer radii and the height. While the covering factor of the scattering region affects the overall strengths of the wings, the wing widths are primarily dependent on the neutral hydrogen column density {N}{{H} {{I}}} being roughly proportional to {N}{{H} {{I}}}1/2. In particular, with {N}{{H} {{I}}}={10}23 {{cm}}-2 the Hα wings typically show a width ∼ 2× {10}4 {km} {{{s}}}-1. We also find that Hα and Paα wing profiles are asymmetric with the red part stronger than the blue part and an opposite behavior is seen for Hβ wings.

  14. Aggregation-Induced Resonance Raman Optical Activity (AIRROA) and Time-Dependent Helicity Switching of Astaxanthin Supramolecular Assemblies.

    PubMed

    Dudek, Monika; Zajac, Grzegorz; Kaczor, Agnieszka; Baranska, Malgorzata

    2016-08-18

    New methods for enhancing the Raman optical activity (ROA) signal are desirable due to the low efficiency of ROA, demanding otherwise high sample concentrations, high laser powers, and/or long acquisition times. Previously, we have demonstrated a new phenomenon, aggregation-induced resonance ROA (AIRROA), that produces significant enhancement of the ROA signal provided that the excitation wavelength coincides with the absorption of the measured species and that the electronic circular dichroism (ECD) signal in the range of this absorption is nonzero. In this work, analyzing three very different supramolecular astaxanthin aggregates (H1, H2, and J), we confirm the phenomenon and demonstrate that aggregation itself is not enough to enhance the ROA signal and that the above-mentioned conditions are necessary for induction of the resonance ROA effect. Additionally, by analyzing the changes in the ECD spectra of the H1 assembly, we demonstrate that the supramolecular helicity sign switches with time, which is dependent on the prevalence of kinetic or thermodynamic stabilization of the obtained aggregates. PMID:27438433

  15. Chiral sensing of amino acids and proteins chelating with Eu(III) complexes by Raman optical activity spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Kessler, Jiří; Bouř, Petr

    2016-09-14

    Chiroptical spectroscopy of lanthanides sensitively reflects their environment and finds various applications including probing protein structures. However, the measurement is often hampered by instrumental detection limits. In the present study circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) of a europium complex induced by amino acids is monitored by Raman optical activity (ROA) spectroscopy, which enables us to detect weak CPL bands invisible to conventional CPL spectrometers. In detail, the spectroscopic response to the protonation state could be studied, e.g. histidine at pH = 2 showed an opposite sign of the strongest CPL band in contrast to that at pH = 7. The spectra were interpreted qualitatively on the basis of the ligand-field theory and related to CPL induced by an external magnetic field. Free energy profiles obtained by molecular dynamic simulations for differently charged alanine and histidine forms are in qualitative agreement with the spectroscopic data. The sensitivity and specificity of the detection promise future applications in probing peptide and protein side chains, chemical imaging and medical diagnosis. This potential is observed for human milk and hen egg-white lysozymes; these proteins have a similar structure, but very different induced CPL spectra. PMID:27523964

  16. Does Structured Quizzing with Process Specific Feedback Lead to Learning Gains in an Active Learning Geoscience Classroom?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palsole, S.; Serpa, L. F.

    2013-12-01

    There is a great realization that efficient teaching in the geosciences has the potential to have far reaching effects in outreach to decision and policy makers (Herbert, 2006; Manduca & Mogk, 2006). This research in turn informs educators that the geosciences by the virtue of their highly integrative nature play an important role in serving as an entry point into STEM disciplines and helping developing a new cadre of geoscientists, scientists and a general population with an understanding of science. Keeping these goals in mind we set to design introductory geoscience courses for non-majors and majors that move away from the traditional lecture models which don't necessarily contribute well to knowledge building and retention ((Handelsman et al., 2007; Hake, 1997) to a blended active learning classroom where basic concepts and didactic information is acquired online via webquests, lecturettes and virtual field trips and the face to face portions of the class are focused on problem solving exercises. The traditional way to ensure that students are prepared for the in-class activity is to have the students take a quiz online to demonstrate basic competency. In the process of redesign, we decided to leverage the technology to build quizzes that are highly structured and map to a process (formation of divergent boundaries for example) or sets of earth processes that we needed the students to know before in-class activities. The quizzes can be taken multiple times and provide process specific feedback, thus serving as a heuristic to the students to ensure they have acquired the necessary competency. The heuristic quizzes were developed and deployed over a year with the student data driving the redesign process to ensure synchronicity. Preliminary data analysis indicates a positive correlation between higher student scores on in-class application exercises and time spent on the process quizzes. An assessment of learning gains also indicate a higher degree of self

  17. Raman-active modes of a-GeSe2 and a-GeS2: A first-principles study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Koblar; Briley, Arlin; Grossman, Shau; Porezag, Dirk V.; Pederson, Mark R.

    1999-12-01

    We have used a recently developed computational technique based on density-functional theory to study the Raman-active modes of amorphous GeSe2 and GeS2. Vibrational modes and the associated Raman activities for three cluster building blocks of the glasses are calculated directly from first principles. The positions of the calculated symmetric-stretch modes in the cluster models are in excellent agreement with sharp features in the observed spectra. Moreover, simulated spectra based on the cluster results are in good agreement with experiment, accounting for all the observed features in the bond-stretch region of the spectra. The cluster results suggest a new interpretation for the 250 cm-1 mode appearing in the spectra of Ge-rich samples in the GexS1-x family.

  18. A Newly Identified CG301269 Improves Lipid and Glucose Metabolism Without Body Weight Gain Through Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor α and γ

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun Woo; Lee, Joo-Won; Kim, Woo Sik; Choe, Sung Sik; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Park, Ho Seon; Shin, Hyun Jung; Lee, Gha Young; Shin, Dongkyu; Lee, Hanjae; Lee, Jun Hee; Choi, Eun Bok; Lee, Hyeon Kyu; Chung, Heekyoung; Park, Seung Bum; Park, Kyong Soo; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Ro, Seonggu; Kim, Jae Bum

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)-α/γ dual agonists have been developed to alleviate metabolic disorders. However, several PPARα/γ dual agonists are accompanied with unwanted side effects, including body weight gain, edema, and tissue failure. This study investigated the effects of a novel PPARα/γ dual agonist, CG301269, on metabolic disorders both in vitro and in vivo. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Function of CG301269 as a PPARα/γ dual agonist was assessed in vitro by luciferase reporter assay, mammalian one-hybrid assay, and analyses of PPAR target genes. In vitro profiles on fatty acid oxidation and inflammatory responses were acquired by fatty acid oxidation assay and quantitative (q)RT-PCR of proinflammatory genes. In vivo effect of CG301269 was examined in db/db mice. Total body weight and various tissue weights were measured, and hepatic lipid profiles were analyzed. Systemic glucose and insulin tolerance were measured, and the in vivo effect of CG301269 on metabolic genes and proinflammatory genes was examined by qRT-PCR. RESULTS CG301269 selectively stimulated the transcriptional activities of PPARα and PPARγ. CG301269 enhanced fatty acid oxidation in vitro and ameliorated insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in vivo. In db/db mice, CG301269 reduced inflammatory responses and fatty liver, without body weight gain. CONCLUSIONS We demonstrate that CG301269 exhibits beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism by simultaneous activation of both PPARα and PPARγ. Our data suggest that CG301269 would be a potential lead compound against obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:21270261

  19. Multistaged stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1980-01-01

    A multistaged Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier for providing a high gain Stokes output signal. The amplifier uses a plurality of optically coupled capillary waveguide amplifiers and one or more regenerative amplifiers to increase Stokes gain to a level sufficient for power amplification. Power amplification is provided by a multifocused Raman gain cell or a large diameter capillary waveguide. An external source of CO.sub.2 laser radiation can be injected into each of the capillary waveguide amplifier stages to increase Raman gain. Devices for injecting external sources of CO.sub.2 radiation include: dichroic mirrors, prisms, gratings and Ge Brewster plates. Alternatively, the CO.sub.2 input radiation to the first stage can be coupled and amplified between successive stages.

  20. Net Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielker, David

    2008-01-01

    The Easter conference 2008 had several activities which for the author raised the same questions on cube nets in some work with eight-year-olds some time ago. In this article, the author muses on some problems from the Easter conference regarding nets of shapes. (Contains 1 note.)

  1. PAPERS DEVOTED TO THE 90TH ANNIVERSARY OF A.M.PROKHOROV: Lasing properties of selectively pumped Raman-active Nd3+-doped molybdate and tungstate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basiev, Tasoltan T.; Doroshenko, Maxim E.; Ivleva, Lyudmila I.; Osiko, Vyacheslav V.; Kosmyna, M. B.; Komar', V. K.; Sulc, J.; Jelinkova, H.

    2006-08-01

    The lasing efficiency of Nd3+ ions is studied in laser materials capable of self-Raman frequency conversion. The lasing properties of tungstate and molybdate crystals with the scheelite structure (SrWO4, BaWO4, PbWO4, SrMoO4, PbMoO4) activated with neodymium ions are investigated upon longitudinal pumping by a 750-nm alexandrite laser or a 800-nm diode laser. The slope lasing efficiency obtained for a Nd3+:PbMoO4 laser emitting at 1054 nm is 54.3% for the total lasing efficiency of 46%, which is the best result for all the crystals with the scheelite structure studied so far. The simultaneous Q-switched lasing and self-Raman frequency conversion were demonstrated in neodymium-doped SrWO4, PbWO4, and BaWO4 crystals.

  2. Anti-Stokes generation in a continuous-wave Raman laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Sytil Kathleen

    The continuous-wave Raman laser system differs from other Raman systems in that it uses cavity enhancement to augment the pump laser source rather than a high-power pulsed laser source. Through interactions of the pump laser with the Raman active medium, all Raman systems can produce both red-shifted, Stokes, emission and blue-shifted, anti-Stokes, emission. Previous, continuous-wave Raman laser systems have focused on the Stokes emission. This dissertation presents theory and data on the anti-Stokes emission. Specifically, it investigates the anti-Stokes mode structure and the emitted power as a function of input pump power, detuning, pressure, and mode combination. In order to be able to compare theory to data, the existing semi-classical CW Raman laser theory is extended to include the possibility that the spatial mode of any of the three fields (pump, Stokes, or anti-Stokes) is not the fundamental spatial mode. Numerical simulations of this theory are used to understand the behavior of the CW Raman system. All the data is compared to the theory, with varying degrees of success. The pump laser used in this research is a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG at 532 nm and the Raman active medium is H2. This combination results in Stokes and anti-Stokes wavelengths of 683 nm and 435 nm, respectively. Five methods were found in this research for increasing the amount of anti-Stokes emitted: increasing the input pump power, detuning from gain line-center of the Stokes emission, increasing the reflectivity of the cavity mirrors at the anti-Stokes wavelength, switching to a higher-order spatial mode, and decreasing the H2 pressure within the Raman cavity. In general, it was found that the higher-order anti-Stokes modes did not agree with a single theoretical spatial mode. Superpositions were formed of multiple theoretical spatial modes giving intensity distribution across the profile similar to the measured profile. Three theoretical spatial mode symmetries were investigated

  3. Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator

    MedlinePlus

    ... Newsroom Dietary Guidelines Communicator’s Guide Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator You are here Home / Online Tools Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Print Share Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Calculator Pregnancy Weight Gain Intro ...

  4. Enhanced gain and narrow linewidth of an optical cavity by the Doppler effect in a four-level atomic system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Yandong; Yang, Aihong; Zhang, Huiyun; Li, Peng; Jiang, Lin; Zhang, Luyin

    2013-07-01

    A scheme for high gain and narrow linewidth of an optical cavity with a four-level atomic system is proposed by the Doppler effect via active Raman gain (ARG) process. Atomic motion leads to Doppler frequency shift which induces constructive interference for the linear susceptibility. The enhanced normal dispersion greatly narrows the cavity linewidth, and the amplified gain gives rise to a high cavity transmission. Simulation results show that the cavity linewidth based on ARG is about one order of magnitude narrower than that based on electromagnetically-induced transparency under the same conditions, and the cavity transmission intensity could be enhanced by nearly 30 times.

  5. Gain of function AMP-activated protein kinase γ3 mutation (AMPKγ3R200Q) in pig muscle increases glycogen storage regardless of AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Tracy L; Park, Sungkwon; Roach, Peter J; Gerrard, David E

    2016-06-01

    Chronic activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) increases glycogen content in skeletal muscle. Previously, we demonstrated that a mutation in the ryanodine receptor (RyR1(R615C)) blunts AMPK phosphorylation in longissimus muscle of pigs with a gain of function mutation in the AMPKγ3 subunit (AMPKγ3(R200Q)); this may decrease the glycogen storage capacity of AMPKγ3(R200Q) + RyR1(R615C) muscle. Therefore, our aim in this study was to utilize our pig model to understand how AMPKγ3(R200Q) and AMPK activation contribute to glycogen storage and metabolism in muscle. We selected and bred pigs in order to generate offspring with naturally occurring AMPKγ3(R200Q), RyR1(R615C), and AMPKγ3(R200Q) + RyR1(R615C) mutations, and also retained wild-type littermates (control). We assessed glycogen content and parameters of glycogen metabolism in longissimus muscle. Regardless of RyR1(R615C), AMPKγ3(R200Q) increased the glycogen content by approximately 70%. Activity of glycogen synthase (GS) without the allosteric activator glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) was decreased in AMPKγ3(R200Q) relative to all other genotypes, whereas both AMPKγ3(R200Q) and AMPKγ3(R200Q) + RyR1(R615C) muscle exhibited increased GS activity with G6P. Increased activity of GS with G6P was not associated with increased abundance of GS or hexokinase 2. However, AMPKγ3(R200Q) enhanced UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2 (UGP2) expression approximately threefold. Although UGP2 is not generally considered a rate-limiting enzyme for glycogen synthesis, our model suggests that UGP2 plays an important role in increasing flux to glycogen synthase. Moreover, we have shown that the capacity for glycogen storage is more closely related to the AMPKγ3(R200Q) mutation than activity. PMID:27302990

  6. Fast vibrational imaging of single cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Delong; Wang, Ping; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2014-08-19

    Traditionally, molecules are analyzed in a test tube. Taking biochemistry as an example, the majority of our knowledge about cellular content comes from analysis of fixed cells or tissue homogenates using tools such as immunoblotting and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These tools can indicate the presence of molecules but do not provide information on their location or interaction with each other in real time, restricting our understanding of the functions of the molecule under study. For real-time imaging of labeled molecules in live cells, fluorescence microscopy is the tool of choice. Fluorescent labels, however, are too bulky for small molecules such as fatty acids, amino acids, and cholesterol. These challenges highlight a critical need for development of chemical imaging platforms that allow in situ or in vivo analysis of molecules. Vibrational spectroscopy based on spontaneous Raman scattering is widely used for label-free analysis of chemical content in cells and tissues. However, the Raman process is a weak effect, limiting its application for fast chemical imaging of a living system. With high imaging speed and 3D spatial resolution, coherent Raman scattering microscopy is enabling a new approach for real-time vibrational imaging of single cells in a living system. In most experiments, coherent Raman processes involve two excitation fields denoted as pump at ωp and Stokes at ωs. When the beating frequency between the pump and Stokes fields (ωp - ωs) is resonant with a Raman-active molecular vibration, four major coherent Raman scattering processes occur simultaneously, namely, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) at (ωp - ωs) + ωp, coherent Stokes Raman scattering (CSRS) at ωs - (ωp - ωs), stimulated Raman gain (SRG) at ωs, and stimulated Raman loss (SRL) at ωp. In SRG, the Stokes beam experiences a gain in intensity, whereas in SRL, the pump beam experiences a loss. Both SRG and SRL belong to stimulated Raman scattering (SRS

  7. Fast Vibrational Imaging of Single Cells and Tissues by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Traditionally, molecules are analyzed in a test tube. Taking biochemistry as an example, the majority of our knowledge about cellular content comes from analysis of fixed cells or tissue homogenates using tools such as immunoblotting and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. These tools can indicate the presence of molecules but do not provide information on their location or interaction with each other in real time, restricting our understanding of the functions of the molecule under study. For real-time imaging of labeled molecules in live cells, fluorescence microscopy is the tool of choice. Fluorescent labels, however, are too bulky for small molecules such as fatty acids, amino acids, and cholesterol. These challenges highlight a critical need for development of chemical imaging platforms that allow in situ or in vivo analysis of molecules. Vibrational spectroscopy based on spontaneous Raman scattering is widely used for label-free analysis of chemical content in cells and tissues. However, the Raman process is a weak effect, limiting its application for fast chemical imaging of a living system. With high imaging speed and 3D spatial resolution, coherent Raman scattering microscopy is enabling a new approach for real-time vibrational imaging of single cells in a living system. In most experiments, coherent Raman processes involve two excitation fields denoted as pump at ωp and Stokes at ωs. When the beating frequency between the pump and Stokes fields (ωp – ωs) is resonant with a Raman-active molecular vibration, four major coherent Raman scattering processes occur simultaneously, namely, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) at (ωp – ωs) + ωp, coherent Stokes Raman scattering (CSRS) at ωs – (ωp – ωs), stimulated Raman gain (SRG) at ωs, and stimulated Raman loss (SRL) at ωp. In SRG, the Stokes beam experiences a gain in intensity, whereas in SRL, the pump beam experiences a loss. Both SRG and SRL belong to

  8. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection of multiple viral antigens using magnetic capture of SERS-active nanoparticles

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A highly sensitive immunoassay based on surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectroscopy has been developed for multiplex detection of surface envelope and capsid antigens of the viral zoonotic pathogens West Nile virus (WNV) and Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV). Detection was mediated by antibo...

  9. Bright emission from a random Raman laser

    PubMed Central

    Hokr, Brett H.; Bixler, Joel N.; Cone, Michael T.; Mason, John D.; Beier, Hope T.; Noojin, Gary D.; Petrov, Georgi I.; Golovan, Leonid A.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Random lasers are a developing class of light sources that utilize a highly disordered gain medium as opposed to a conventional optical cavity. Although traditional random lasers often have a relatively broad emission spectrum, a random laser that utilizes vibration transitions via Raman scattering allows for an extremely narrow bandwidth, on the order of 10 cm−1. Here we demonstrate the first experimental evidence of lasing via a Raman interaction in a bulk three-dimensional random medium, with conversion efficiencies on the order of a few percent. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the complex spatial and temporal dynamics of nonlinear processes in turbid media. In addition to providing a large signal, characteristic of the Raman medium, the random Raman laser offers us an entirely new tool for studying the dynamics of gain in a turbid medium. PMID:25014073

  10. Engineering plasmonic nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkhasova, Polina

    This dissertation focuses on the development of novel nanotags encapsulated in an intricate Au-Ag nanostructure that uniquely functions both as a reporter and ultra-sensitive substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements. Hollow Au-Ag alloy nanoshells with a porous wall were synthesized by galvanic replacement reaction, and were subsequently loaded with Raman-active label molecules. The open structure of the nanoshells was filled with Ag via citrate reduction, entrapping label molecules in the process. The resultant nanotags have been shown to be individually SERS-active for the entrapped label molecules and robust for SERS measurements of analytes. We have shown that the SERS intensity of the molecular beacon is insensitive to environmental variants such as an external analyte 1,2-Di-(4-pyridyl)ethylene (BPE) and can be reliably used as an internal reference for quantitative measurements. Theoretical quantum chemical calculations and experimental studies revealed that surface-adsorbed poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) used during nanotag formation which provides steric hindrance to promote colloidal stability actually enables highly selective SERS detection of analytes of various types and surface charge with enhancement factors as high as 108, depending on pH. Fully characterized nanotags were immobilized in the cladding air channels of suspended core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) to assess critical parameters such as nanoparticle coverage density and fiber length, both of which play an important role in the competitive interplay between accumulative Raman signal gain and attenuation loss, in order for the development of optimal SERS-active PCF optofluidic platform. We show that in the region where accumulative Raman gain dominates, the length of PCF can be exploited for enhanced measurement sensitivity.

  11. Application of the Correlation Method to Vibrational Spectra of C60 and Other Fullerenes: Predicting the Number of IR- and Raman-Active Bands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamoto, Kazuo; McKinney, Michael A.

    2000-06-01

    The C60 molecule (Buckyball/soccer ball) exhibits only 4 IR and 10 Raman bands although it possesses 174 (3 x 60 - 6) normal vibrations. This striking reduction in the number of observed bands is evidently due to the molecule's extremely high symmetry (Ih point group). First, the 120 symmetry elements of its truncated icosahedral structure are identified and the local (site) symmetry of the carbon atoms (Cc) is determined. Use of molecular models greatly facilitates the process in determining the local and molecular symmetries. Then the correlation method is used to derive a table that classifies the 174 normal vibrations into the respective symmetry species of the Ih point group. In this method, symmetry properties of atomic displacements in terms of the local point group (Cc) are correlated with those in terms of the molecular point group (Ih). After the normal vibrations are classified into respective symmetry species, the numbers of IR- and Raman-active vibrations can be determined by the symmetry selection rules for IR and Raman spectra. The vibrational spectra of C60 and C70 (rugby ball) are analyzed by the above procedure, and the results obtained for C28, C32, C50, and dodecahedrane are provided.

  12. Cascaded-cladding-pumped cascaded Raman fiber amplifier.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Huawei; Zhang, Lei; Feng, Yan

    2015-06-01

    The conversion efficiency of double-clad Raman fiber laser is limited by the cladding-to-core area ratio. To get high conversion efficiency, the inner-cladding-to-core area ratio has to be less than about 8, which limits the brightness enhancement. To overcome the problem, a cascaded-cladding-pumped cascaded Raman fiber laser with multiple-clad fiber as the Raman gain medium is proposed. A theoretical model of Raman fiber amplifier with multiple-clad fiber is developed, and numerical simulation proves that the proposed scheme can improve the conversion efficiency and brightness enhancement of cladding pumped Raman fiber laser. PMID:26072764

  13. Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Gerrard, D.L.; Bowley, H.J.

    1988-06-15

    The period of this review is from late 1985 to late 1987. During this time over 6000 papers have been published in the scientific literature dealing with many applications of Raman spectroscopy and extending its use to new areas of study. This article covers only those papers that are relevant to the analytical chemist and this necessitates a highly selective approach. There are some areas that have been the subject of many papers with relatively few being of analytical interest. In such cases the reader is referred to appropriate reviews which are detailed in this section.

  14. Measurements and simulations of the optical gain and anti-reflection coating modal reflectivity in quantum cascade lasers with multiple active region stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidaux, Y.; Terazzi, R.; Bismuto, A.; Gresch, T.; Blaser, S.; Muller, A.; Faist, J.

    2015-09-01

    We report spectrally resolved gain measurements and simulations for quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) composed of multiple heterogeneous stacks designed for broadband emission in the mid-infrared. The measurement method is first demonstrated on a reference single active region QCL based on a double-phonon resonance design emitting at 7.8 μm. It is then extended to a three-stack active region based on bound-to-continuum designs with a broadband emission range from 7.5 to 10.5 μm. A tight agreement is found with simulations based on a density matrix model. The latter implements exhaustive microscopic scattering and dephasing sources with virtually no fitting parameters. The quantitative agreement is furthermore assessed by measuring gain coefficients obtained by studying the threshold current dependence with the cavity length. These results are particularly relevant to understand fundamental gain mechanisms in complex semiconductor heterostructure QCLs and to move towards efficient gain engineering. Finally, the method is extended to the measurement of the modal reflectivity of an anti-reflection coating deposited on the front facet of the broadband QCL.

  15. Activation of the prefrontal cortex by unilateral transcranial direct current stimulation leads to an asymmetrical effect on risk preference in frames of gain and loss.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hang; Huang, Daqiang; Wang, Siqi; Zheng, Haoli; Luo, Jun; Chen, Shu

    2016-10-01

    Previous brain imaging and brain stimulation studies have suggested that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be critical in regulating risk-taking behavior, although its specific causal effect on people's risk preference remains controversial. This paper studied the independent modulation of the activity of the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using various configurations of transcranial direct current stimulation. We designed a risk-measurement table and adopted a within-subject design to compare the same participant's risk preference before and after unilateral stimulation when presented with different frames of gain and loss. The results confirmed a hemispheric asymmetry and indicated that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has an asymmetric effect on risk preference regarding frames of gain and loss. Enhancing the activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex significantly decreased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the gain frame, whereas it increased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the loss frame. Our findings provide important information regarding the impact of transcranial direct current stimulation on the risk preference of healthy participants. The effects observed in our experiment compared with those of previous studies provide further evidence of the effects of hemispheric and frame-dependent asymmetry. These findings may be helpful in understanding the neural basis of risk preference in humans, especially when faced with decisions involving possible gain or loss relative to the status quo. PMID:27507423

  16. Measurements and simulations of the optical gain and anti-reflection coating modal reflectivity in quantum cascade lasers with multiple active region stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Bidaux, Y.; Terazzi, R.; Bismuto, A.; Gresch, T.; Blaser, S.; Muller, A.; Faist, J.

    2015-09-07

    We report spectrally resolved gain measurements and simulations for quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) composed of multiple heterogeneous stacks designed for broadband emission in the mid-infrared. The measurement method is first demonstrated on a reference single active region QCL based on a double-phonon resonance design emitting at 7.8 μm. It is then extended to a three-stack active region based on bound-to-continuum designs with a broadband emission range from 7.5 to 10.5 μm. A tight agreement is found with simulations based on a density matrix model. The latter implements exhaustive microscopic scattering and dephasing sources with virtually no fitting parameters. The quantitative agreement is furthermore assessed by measuring gain coefficients obtained by studying the threshold current dependence with the cavity length. These results are particularly relevant to understand fundamental gain mechanisms in complex semiconductor heterostructure QCLs and to move towards efficient gain engineering. Finally, the method is extended to the measurement of the modal reflectivity of an anti-reflection coating deposited on the front facet of the broadband QCL.

  17. Electrospun nanofibrous membranes surface-decorated with silver nanoparticles as flexible and active/sensitive substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lifeng; Gong, Xiao; Bao, Ying; Zhao, Yong; Xi, Min; Jiang, Chaoyang; Fong, Hao

    2012-10-01

    The development of novel nanomaterials with well-controlled morphologies/structures to achieve excellent activities/sensitivities in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is crucial in advancing the high-performance SERS detections of chemical and biological species. In this study, amidoxime surface-functionalized polyacrylonitrile (ASFPAN) nanofibrous membranes surface-decorated with silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs) were prepared via the technique of electrospinning followed by the method of seed-mediated electroless plating. High SERS activities/sensitivities were observed from the ASFPAN-Ag NPs nanofibrous membranes, while the density and size of Ag NPs had an important impact on the SERS activity/sensitivity. The results confirmed that the enhancement of Raman signals is due to the presence of hot spots between/among Ag NPs on the nanofiber surfaces. Electrospun nanofibrous membranes surface-decorated with Ag NPs were mechanical flexible/resilient and could be used as highly active/sensitive SERS substrates for a broad range of applications. PMID:22974488

  18. Toward label-free Raman-activated cell sorting of cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascut, Flavius C.; Goh, Huey T.; George, Vinoj; Denning, Chris; Notingher, Ioan

    2011-04-01

    Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) has been recently proposed for label-free phenotypic identification of human embryonic stem cells (hESC)-derived cardiomyocytes. However, the methods used for measuring the Raman spectra led to acquisition times of minutes per cell, which is prohibitive for rapid cell sorting applications. In this study we evaluated two measurement strategies that could reduce the measurement time by a factor of more than 100. We show that sampling individual cells with a laser beam focused to a line could eliminate the need of cell raster scanning and achieve high prediction accuracies (>95% specificity and >96% sensitivity) with acquisition times ~5 seconds per cell. However, the use of commercially-available higher power lasers could potentially lead to sorting speeds of ~10 cells per s. This would start to progress RMS to the field of cell sorting for applications such as enrichment and purification of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes.

  19. The orientation of protoberberine alkaloids and their binding activities to human serum albumin by surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yu; Bai, Xueyuan; Wang, Yingping; Zhao, Daqing

    2011-03-01

    Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique are reliably used to compare relative intensity shifts and to investigate the adsorption geometry of protoberberine alkaloids on Ag nanoparticles. We report joint application of fluorescence and SERS spectroscopy to study the interaction between protoberberine alkaloids and human serum albumin (HSA). We propose SERS technique to improve the quenching interaction caused by protoberberine alkaloids which are used to be applied in recognition process of fluorescent drugs with large biomolecules. The fluorescence results show that the fluorescence intensity of HSA is significantly decreased in presence of protoberberine alkaloids. The SERS technique demonstrates obvious advantages over direct measurements in discriminating and identifying pharmaceutical molecules. By means of this method, we are able to detect important information concerning the orientation of protoberberine alkaloids when interacting with HSA. We also show that the nitrogen atom is free, but a benzene ring and two adjacent methoxy groups are involved in the spontaneously electrostatic inducement and subsequently binding with HSA.

  20. Identification of Raman-active phonon modes in oriented platelets of InN and polycrystalline InN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyck, J. S.; Kim, K.; Limpijumnong, S.; Lambrecht, W. R. L.; Kash, K.; Angus, J. C.

    2000-04-01

    We report on micro-Raman studies on both randomly oriented polycrystals and groups of oriented, faceted platelets of indium nitride grown from the melt at subatmospheric pressures. Phonon modes were assigned as A1TO=445, E1TO=472, E2(2)=488, and A1LO=588 cm-1. The FWHM of the E2(2) peak of 2.5 cm -1 is the narrowest reported to date for InN. The measured TO phonon frequencies were compared to those calculated from first principles and excellent agreement was found. The results are discussed in the context of previously reported Raman experiments on heteroepitaxial, and hence strained, layers of InN.

  1. Multisection optical parametric-Raman hybrid amplifier for terabit+ WDM systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaur, Gaganpreet; Kaur, Gurmeet; Sharma, Sanjay

    2016-05-01

    We demonstrate flat-gain wide bandwidth Raman-Fiber optical parametric hybrid amplifier for wavelength division multiplexed systems (WDM). Raman-parametric amplifiers exploit system non-linearities which are otherwise inevitable in evolving WDM systems. Investigations show that the pumps of parametric amplifier and Raman amplifier can be carefully selected at wavelengths, to give gain over complementary bandwidth regions, resulting in wide bandwidth with low gain ripple. Results show a flat gain of 24.3 dB for 12 × 100 Gbps WDM system with lowest ripple of less than 2.78 dB reported over 220 nm bandwidth for Raman-FOPA hybrid.

  2. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games –i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors in youth. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effects of a family oriented active game intervention, incorporating several motivational elements, on anthropometrics and health behaviors in adolescents. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with non-active gaming adolescents aged 12 – 16 years old randomly allocated to a ten month intervention (receiving active games, as well as an encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (receiving active games after the intervention period). Primary outcomes are adolescents’ measured BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds. Secondary outcomes are adolescents’ self-reported time spent playing active and non-active games, other sedentary activities and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, a process evaluation is conducted, assessing the sustainability of the active games, enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived barriers for active game play, game context, injuries from active game play, activity replacement and intention to continue playing the active games. Discussion This is the first adequately powered RCT including normal weight adolescents, evaluating a reasonably long period of provision of and exposure to active games. Next, strong elements are the incorporating motivational elements for active game play and a comprehensive process evaluation. This trial will provide evidence regarding the potential contribution of active games in prevention of excessive weight gain in

  3. Focused-ion-beam-fabricated Au nanorods coupled with Ag nanoparticles used as surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrate for analyzing trace melamine constituents in solution.

    PubMed

    Sivashanmugan, Kundan; Liao, Jiunn-Der; Liu, Bernard Haochih; Yao, Chih-Kai

    2013-10-24

    A well-ordered Au-nanorod array with a controlled tip ring diameter (Au_NRsd) was fabricated using the focused ion beam method. Au_NRsd was then coupled with Ag nanoparticles (Ag NPs) to bridge the gaps among Au nanorods. The effect of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) on Au_NRsd and Ag NPs/Au_NRsd was particularly verified using crystal violet (CV) as the molecular probe. Raman intensity obtained from a characteristic peak of CV on Au_NRsd was estimated by an enhancement factor of ≈10(7) in magnitude, which increased ≈10(12) in magnitude for that on Ag NPs/Au_NRsd. A highly SERS-active Ag NPs/Au_NRsd was furthermore applied for the detection of melamine (MEL) at very low concentrations. Raman-active peaks of MEL (10(-3) to 10(-12)M) in water or milk solution upon Au_NRsd or Ag NPs/Au_NRsd were well distinguished. The peaks at 680 and 702 cm(-1) for MEL molecules were found suitable to be used as the index for sensing low-concentration MEL in a varied solution, while that at 1051 cm(-1) was practical to interpret MEL molecules in water or milk solution bonded with Au (i.e., Au_NRsd) or Ag (i.e., Ag NPs/Au_NRsd) surface. At the interface of Ag NPs/Au_NRsd and MEL molecules in milk solution, a laser-induced electromagnetic field or hotspot effect was produced and competent to sense low-concentration MEL molecules interacting with Ag and Au surfaces. Accordingly, Ag NPs/Au_NRsd is very promising to be used as a fast and sensitive tool for screening MEL in complex matrices such as adulteration in e.g., food and pharmaceutical products. PMID:24120168

  4. Development of high-sensitive, reproducible colloidal surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy active substrate using silver nanocubes for potential biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasna, Kudilatt; Lakshmi, Kiran; Ezhuthachan Jayaraj, Madambi Kunjukuttan; Kumar, Kumaran Rajeev; Matham, Murukeshan Vadakke

    2016-04-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has emerged as one of the thrust research areas that could find potential applications in bio and chemical sensing. We developed colloidal SERS active substrate with excellent sensitivity and high reproducibility using silver nanocube (AgNC) synthesized via the solvothermal method. Finite-difference time-domain simulation was carried out in detail to visualize dipole generation in the nanocube during localized surface plasmon resonance and to locate the respective hot spots in AgNC responsible for the huge Raman enhancement. The prediction is verified by the SERS analysis of the synthesized nanocubes using Rhodamine 6G molecule. An excellent sensitivity with a detection limit of 10-17 M and a very high enhancement factor of 1.2×108 confirms the "hot spots" in the nanocube. SERS activity is also carried out for crystal violet and for food adulterant Sudan I molecule. Finally, label-free DNA detection is performed to demonstrate the versatility of SERS as a potential biosensor.

  5. Temporal properties of the solid-state intracavity Raman laser using the traveling-wave method

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Shuanghong; Zhang Jun; Wang Shumei; Zhang Xingyu; Wang Qingpu

    2007-11-15

    In this paper, traveling-wave (TW) equations of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) process are deduced in detail with the phonon lifetime and backward Raman scattering considered. The numerical methods of second-order accuracy are deduced for TW equations of the SRS process. Spontaneous Raman scattering is simulated by including the stochastic shot-noise sources in phonon wave equations. The TW method is adopted to simulate the evolution of the fundamental laser inside actively Q-switched lasers, and the numerical results show periodical self-modulation of actively Q-switched pulses, which were also studied experimentally. The theoretical results were in good agreement with the experimental ones. The self-mode locking of intracavity Raman lasers are investigated numerically by adopting the TW method. It is found that the mode locking of the Stokes laser is due to the resonator net gain. The dependences of the mode-locking effect on the resonator length, transverse relaxation time of laser medium, and phonon lifetime of the Raman medium are studied numerically.

  6. Gold and silver nanoparticle monomers are non-SERS-active: a negative experimental study with silica-encapsulated Raman-reporter-coated metal colloids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuying; Walkenfort, Bernd; Yoon, Jun Hee; Schlücker, Sebastian; Xie, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) are the most commonly employed plasmonic substrates in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) experiments. Computer simulations show that monomers of Ag and Au nanocrystals ("spherical" NPs) do not exhibit a notable plasmonic enhancement, i.e., they are essentially non-SERS-active. However, in experiments, SERS enhanced by spherical NP colloids has been frequently reported. This implies that the monomers do not have strong SERS activity, but detectable enhancement should more or less be there. Because of the gap between theory and practice, it is important to demonstrate experimentally how SERS-active the metal colloid actually is and, in case a SERS signal is observed, where it originates from. In particular the aggregation of the colloid, induced by high centrifugal forces in washing steps or due to a harsh ionic environment of the suspension medium, should be controlled since it is the very high SERS activity of NP clusters which dominates the overall SERS signal of the colloid. We report here the experimental evaluation of the SERS activity of 80 nm Au and Ag NP monomers. Instead of showing fancy nanostructures and super SERS enhancement, we present the method on how to obtain negative experimental data. In this approach, no SERS signal was obtained from the colloid with a Raman reporter on the metal surface when the NPs were encapsulated carefully within a thick silica shell. Without silica encapsulation, if a very low centrifugation speed is used for the washing steps, only a negligible SERS signal can be detected even at very high NP concentrations. In contrast, strong SERS signals can be detected when the NPs are suspended in acidic solutions. These results indicate that Au and Ag NP monomers essentially exhibit no SERS activity of practical relevance. PMID:25491599

  7. Structural dynamics of phenylisothiocyanate in the light-absorbing excited states: Resonance Raman and complete active space self-consistent field calculation study

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, Bing Xue, Jia-Dan Zheng, Xuming E-mail: zxm@zstu.edu.cn; Fang, Wei-Hai E-mail: fangwh@dnu.edu.cn

    2014-05-21

    The excited state structural dynamics of phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) after excitation to the light absorbing S{sub 2}(A′), S{sub 6}(A′), and S{sub 7}(A′) excited states were studied by using the resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete active space self-consistent field method calculations. The UV absorption bands of PITC were assigned. The vibrational assignments were done on the basis of the Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and FT-infrared measurements, the density-functional theory computations, and the normal mode analysis. The A-, B-, and C-bands resonance Raman spectra in cyclohexane, acetonitrile, and methanol solvents were, respectively, obtained at 299.1, 282.4, 266.0, 252.7, 228.7, 217.8, and 208.8 nm excitation wavelengths to probe the corresponding structural dynamics of PITC. The results indicated that the structural dynamics in the S{sub 2}(A′), S{sub 6}(A′), and S{sub 7}(A′) excited states were very different. The conical intersection point CI(S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}) were predicted to play important role in the low-lying excited state decay dynamics. Two major decay channels were predicted for PITC upon excitation to the S{sub 2}(A′) state: the radiative S{sub 2,min} → S{sub 0} transition and the nonradiative S{sub 2} → S{sub 1} internal conversion via CI(S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}). The differences in the decay dynamics between methyl isothiocyanate and PITC in the first light absorbing excited state were discussed. The role of the intersystem crossing point ISC(S{sub 1}/T{sub 1}) in the excited state decay dynamics of PITC is evaluated.

  8. Raman spectra of selected transuranium trihalides in the solid state

    SciTech Connect

    Wilmarth, W.R.; Begun, G.M.; Haire, R.G.; Peterson, J.R.

    1988-10-15

    Raman spectral data have been obtained from a number of transuranium trihalides in the solid state. The Raman spectra of these actinide compounds are reported and compared to the published Raman spectra of isostructural compounds. Tentative symmetry assignments have been made for the observed Raman-active lattice vibrations based on nuclear site symmetry analysis of their respective crystal structures and comparisons to the symmetry assignments made for isostructural lanthanide compounds. The Raman spectral data obtained in this study represent a partial data base for the use of Raman spectroscopy for identifying the crystal structures exhibited by these and isostructural compounds.

  9. Everyone Gains: Extracurricular Activities in High School and Higher SAT® Scores. Research Report No. 2005-2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Everson, Howard T.; Millsap, Roger E.

    2005-01-01

    This report presents evidence that links participation in extracurricular activities (ECAs) in high school with higher SAT Reasoning Test™ (SAT®) scores. Using structural equation models (SEMs) with latent means, we analyzed data from a national sample of college-bound high school students. A series of structural equation models--isolating the…

  10. Comprehensive quantum chemical and spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR) investigations of O-desmethyltramadol hydrochloride an active metabolite in tramadol - An analgesic drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjunan, V.; Santhanam, R.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.

    2014-03-01

    O-desmethyltramadol is one of the main metabolites of tramadol widely used clinically and has analgesic activity. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of O-desmethyl tramadol hydrochloride are recorded in the solid phase in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. The observed fundamentals are assigned to different normal modes of vibration. Theoretical studies have been performed as its hydrochloride salt. The structure of the compound has been optimised with B3LYP method using 6-31G** and cc-pVDZ basis sets. The optimised bond length and bond angles are correlated with the X-ray data. The experimental wavenumbers were compared with the scaled vibrational frequencies determined by DFT methods. The IR and Raman intensities are determined with B3LYP method using cc-pVDZ and 6-31G(d,p) basic sets. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces of the molecule are constructed by using B3LYP/cc-pVDZ method to display electrostatic potential (electron + nuclei) distribution. The electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured. Natural bond orbital analysis of O-desmethyltramadol hydrochloride has been performed to indicate the presence of intramolecular charge transfer. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule have been anlysed.

  11. FT-IR, dispersive Raman, NMR, DFT and antimicrobial activity studies on 2-(Thiophen-2-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünal, Arslan; Eren, Bilge

    2013-10-01

    2-(Thiophen-2-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole (TBI) was synthesized under microwave conditions and was characterized by FT-IR, dispersive Raman, 1H-, 13C-, DEPT-, HETCOR-NMR spectroscopies and density functional theory (DFT) computations. The FT-IR and dispersive Raman spectra of TBI were recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1. The experimental vibrational spectra were interpreted with the help of normal coordinate analysis based on DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) theory level for the more stable tautomeric form (Tautomer 1). The complete vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. A satisfactory consistency between the experimental and theoretical findings was obtained. The frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), atomic charges and NMR shifts of the two stable tautomeric forms were also obtained at the same theory level without any symmetry restrictions. In addition, the title compound was screened for its antimicrobial activity and was found to be exhibit antifungal and antibacterial effects.

  12. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of Ag, Au and Cu nanoclusters on TiO 2-nanotubes/Ti substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roguska, Agata; Kudelski, Andrzej; Pisarek, Marcin; Opara, Magdalena; Janik-Czachor, Maria

    2011-07-01

    Tubular arrays of TiO 2 nanotubes (ranging in diameter from 40 to 110 nm) on a Ti substrate were used as a support for Ag, Au or Cu deposits obtained by the sputter deposition technique, where the amount of metal varied from 0.01 to 0.2 mg/cm 2. Those composite supports were intended for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) investigations. Composite samples were studied with the aid of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) to reveal their characteristic morphological and chemical features. Raman spectra of pyridine (as a probe molecule) were measured at different cathodic potentials ranging from -0.2 down to -1.2 V after the pyridine had been adsorbed on the metal-covered TiO 2 nanotube/Ti substrates. In addition, SERS spectra on a bulk standard activated Ag, Au and Cu substrates were also measured. The SERS activity of the composite samples was strongly dependent on the amount of metal deposit, e.g. at and above 0.06 mg Ag/cm 2, the intensity of SERS signal was even higher than that for the Ag reference substrate. The high activity of these composites is mainly a result of their specific morphology. The high SERS sensitivity on the surface morphology of the substrate made it possible to monitor very small temporal changes in the Ag metal clusters. This rearrangement was not detectable with microscopic (SEM) or microanalytical (AES) methods. The SERS activity of Au or Cu clusters was distinctly lower than those of Ag. The spectral differences exhibited by the three kinds of composites as compared to the reference metal samples are discussed.

  13. Deep ultraviolet diamond Raman laser.

    PubMed

    Granados, Eduardo; Spence, David J; Mildren, Richard P

    2011-05-23

    We present a synchronously pumped diamond Raman laser operating at 275.7 nm pumped by the 4th harmonic of a mode locked Nd:YVO4 laser. The laser had a threshold pump pulse energy of 5.8 nJ and generated up to 0.96 nJ pulses at 10.3% conversion efficiency. The results agree well with a numerical model that includes two-photon absorption of the pump and Stokes beams and uses a Raman gain coefficient of diamond of 100 cm/GW. We also report on the observation of nanometer scale two-photon assisted etching of the diamond crystal surfaces. PMID:21643343

  14. Cardiovascular responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation and comparison of different methods to evaluate baroreflex gain in conscious mice using telemetry.

    PubMed

    Braga, Valdir A; Burmeister, Melissa A; Sharma, Ram V; Davisson, Robin L

    2008-10-01

    Peripheral chemoreceptors located in the carotid bodies are the primary sensors of systemic hypoxia. Although the pattern of responses elicited by peripheral chemoreceptor activation is well established in rats, lambs, and rabbits, the cardiovascular responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation in conscious mice have not been delineated. Here we report that stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors by potassium cyanide (KCN) in conscious mice elicits a unique biphasic response in blood pressure that is characterized by an initial and robust rise followed by a decrease in blood pressure, which is accompanied by a marked reduction in heart rate. The depressor and bradycardic responses to KCN were abolished by muscarinic receptor blockade with atropine, and the pressor response was abolished by alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin, suggesting that vagal and sympathetic drive to the heart and sympathetic drive to the vasculature mediate these cardiovascular responses. These studies characterized the chemoreflex in conscious mice and established the reliability of using them for studying hypoxia-related diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea. In another series of experiments, two methods for analyzing baroreflex sensitivity were compared: the classical pharmacological approach using phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside (i.e., the Oxford technique) or the sequence method for analyzing spontaneous baroreflex activity. Our findings indicate that both methods are reliable, and the sequence method certainly has its benefits as a predictive tool in the context of long-term noninvasive studies using telemetry. However, for absolute determination of baroreflex function, analysis of spontaneous baroreflex activity should be complemented by the classical pharmacological method. PMID:18667715

  15. Applications of Raman Spectroscopy to Virology and Microbial Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harz, Michaela; Stöckel, Stephan; Ciobotă, Valerian; Cialla, Dana; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    This chapter reports from the utilization of Raman spectroscopic techniques like Raman microscopy, Raman optical activity (ROA), UV-resonance Raman (UVRR)-spectroscopy, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) for the investigation of viruses and microorganisms, especially bacteria and yeasts for medical and pharmaceutical applications. The application of these Raman techniques allows for the analysis of chemical components of cells and subcellular regions, as well as the monitoring of chemical differences occurring as a result of the growth of microorganisms. In addition, the interaction of microorganisms with active pharmaceutical agents can be investigated. In combination with chemometric methods Raman spectroscopy can also be applied to identify microorganisms both in micro colonies and even on single cells.

  16. Micro-mirror arrays for Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, W. M.

    2015-03-01

    In this research we study Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies as non-destructive and noninvasive methods for probing biological material and "living systems." Particularly for a living material any probe need be non-destructive and non-invasive, as well as provide real time measurement information and be cost effective to be generally useful. Over the past few years the components needed to measure weak and complex processes such as Raman scattering have evolved substantially with the ready availability of lasers, dichroic filters, low noise and sensitive detectors, digitizers and signal processors. A Raman spectrum consists of a wavelength or frequency spectrum that corresponds to the inelastic (Raman) photon signal that results from irradiating a "Raman active" material. Raman irradiation of a material usually and generally uses a single frequency laser. The Raman fingerprint spectrum that results from a Raman interaction can be determined from the frequencies scattered and received by an appropriate detector. Spectra are usually "digitized" and numerically matched to a reference sample or reference material spectra in performing an analysis. Fortunately today with the many "commercial off-the-shelf" components that are available, weak intensity effects such as Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy can be used for a number of analysis applications. One of the experimental limitations in Raman measurement is the spectrometer itself. The spectrometer is the section of the system that either by interference plus detection or by dispersion plus detection that "signal" amplitude versus energy/frequency signals are measured. Particularly in Raman spectroscopy, optical signals carrying desired "information" about the analyte are extraordinarily weak and require special considerations when measuring. We will discuss here the use of compact spectrometers and a micro-mirror array system (used is the digital micro-mirror device (DMD) supplied by the DLP® Products group of

  17. Observation of Raman active phonon with Fano lineshape in quasi-one-dimensional superconductor K2Cr3As3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, W.-L.; Li, H.; Dai, X.; L, H. W.; Shi, Y.-G.; Luo, J. L.; Hu, Jiangping; Richard, P.; Ding, H.; Extreme Condition Team; Condensed Matter Theory Team

    We study the polarization-resolved phononic Raman scattering in the recent discovered quasi-one-dimensional superconductor K2Cr3As3. With support from first-principles calculations, we characterize several phonons, among which one mode has a Fano lineshape, indicative of an electron-phonon coupling. While the common expectation of an electron-phonon coupling is the conventional superconducting mechanism, we show that this mode is related to the in-plane Cr vibration, which modulates the exchange coupling between the first nearest Cr neighbors. Our result support the presence of magnetic fluctuations coupled to the electrons via the lattice. We acknowledge MOST (2010CB923000, 2011CBA001000, 2011CBA00102, 2012CB821403 and 2013CB921703), NSFC (11004232, 11034011/A0402, 11234014, 11274362 and 11474330) of China and by the Strategic Priority Research Program (B) of the Chinese Academy of Sciences, Grant No. XDB07020100.

  18. Templated Growth of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering-Active Branched Gold Nanoparticles within Radial Mesoporous Silica Shells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles are widely used as probes or substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), due to their characteristic plasmon resonances in the visible and near-IR spectral ranges. Aiming at obtaining a versatile system with high SERS performance, we developed the synthesis of quasi-monodisperse, nonaggregated gold nanoparticles protected by radial mesoporous silica shells. The radial mesoporous channels were used as templates for the growth of gold tips branching out from the cores, thereby improving the plasmonic performance of the particles while favoring the localization of analyte molecules at high electric field regions: close to the tips, inside the pores. The method, which additionally provides control over tip length, was successfully applied to gold nanoparticles with various shapes, leading to materials with highly efficient SERS performance. The obtained nanoparticles are stable in ethanol and water upon thermal consolidation and can be safely stored as a powder. PMID:26370658

  19. Templated Growth of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering-Active Branched Gold Nanoparticles within Radial Mesoporous Silica Shells.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Ortiz, Marta N; Sentosun, Kadir; Bals, Sara; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2015-10-27

    Noble metal nanoparticles are widely used as probes or substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), due to their characteristic plasmon resonances in the visible and near-IR spectral ranges. Aiming at obtaining a versatile system with high SERS performance, we developed the synthesis of quasi-monodisperse, nonaggregated gold nanoparticles protected by radial mesoporous silica shells. The radial mesoporous channels were used as templates for the growth of gold tips branching out from the cores, thereby improving the plasmonic performance of the particles while favoring the localization of analyte molecules at high electric field regions: close to the tips, inside the pores. The method, which additionally provides control over tip length, was successfully applied to gold nanoparticles with various shapes, leading to materials with highly efficient SERS performance. The obtained nanoparticles are stable in ethanol and water upon thermal consolidation and can be safely stored as a powder. PMID:26370658

  20. Polarization pulling in Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Wang, S H; Xu, Xinchuan; Wai, P K A

    2016-04-01

    We proposed a theoretical model to investigate the polarization pulling effect in bi-directionally pumped degenerate Raman assisted fiber optical parameter amplifiers (RA-FOPAs) using randomly birefringent fibers. The contributions of chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion (PMD), Raman gain, and nonlinear effects to the phase matching in RA-FOPAs are investigated. We characterize four different states of polarization pulling in RA-FOPAs. We found that broadband polarization attraction can be obtained in the optimum phase-matching state of the bi-directionally pumped RA-FOPAs when the parametric pump power is chosen to avoid deep saturation of the Raman gain. PMID:27136985

  1. Collapsible high gain antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cribb, H. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A lightweight small high gain antenna which is capable of being packaged in a collapsed form and automatically expanded when in use is described. The antenna includes a cylindrical housing having a rod with a piston adjacent to one end extending through it. Attached to the outer end of the rod in a normally collapsed state is a helical wire coil. When the gas producing means is activated the piston and rod are shifted outwardly to expand the wire coil. A latch is provided for holding the helical coil in the expanded position.

  2. New Surface-Enhanced Raman Sensing Chip Designed for On-Site Detection of Active Ricin in Complex Matrices Based on Specific Depurination.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ji-Jun; Sun, Jie-Fang; Lui, Rui; Zhang, Zong-Mian; Liu, Jing-Fu; Xie, Jian-Wei

    2016-01-27

    Quick and accurate on-site detection of active ricin has very important realistic significance in view of national security and defense. In this paper, optimized single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides named poly(21dA), which function as a depurination substrate of active ricin, were screened and chemically attached on gold nanoparticles (AuNPs, ∼100 nm) via the Au-S bond [poly(21dA)-AuNPs]. Subsequently, poly(21dA)-AuNPs were assembled on a dihydrogen lipoic-acid-modified Si wafer (SH-Si), thus forming the specific surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) chip [poly(21dA)-AuNPs@SH-Si] for depurination of active ricin. Under optimized conditions, active ricin could specifically hydrolyze multiple adenines from poly(21dA) on the chip. This depurination-induced composition change could be conveniently monitored by measuring the distinct attenuation of the SERS signature corresponding to adenine. To improve sensitivity of this method, a silver nanoshell was deposited on post-reacted poly(21dA)-AuNPs, which lowered the limit of detection to 8.9 ng mL(-1). The utility of this well-controlled SERS chip was successfully demonstrated in food and biological matrices spiked with different concentrations of active ricin, thus showing to be very promising assay for reliable and rapid on-site detection of active ricin. PMID:26719952

  3. Effects of Human Activities on the Composition of Organic Carbon in Estuaries: Insights Gained Through Lipid Biomarker Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canuel, E. A.

    2002-12-01

    Applications of organic geochemistry have expanded in recent decades to include studies within fields as diverse as ecology and ecosystem science, biogeochemistry, and environmental geochemistry. In part, this expansion has occurred in response to increasing human impacts on the environment which are manifested to a large extent in freshwater and estuarine environments. Human influences to these regions include alterations in carbon and nutrient flow, changes in sedimentation and the introduction of industrial and petroleum products. Organic geochemists bring new tools and insights to these areas improving our ability to trace specific components of organic matter. These approaches have the capacity to improve our understanding of the role nearshore regions play in the global carbon cycle, better identification of the sources and mode of delivery of natural and anthropogenic organic molecules, and an improved understanding of the fate of organic molecules including remineralization, transformation, or burial in sediments. Chesapeake Bay and San Francisco Bay are the largest estuaries in the continental U.S.A. and provide an interesting comparison for understanding processes influencing the composition of estuarine particulate organic matter (POM). Both estuaries have also been heavily impacted by human activities thus providing an opportunity to investigate how anthropogenic activities influence POM quantity and quality. Results from biomarker analysis of suspended POM and surficial sediments collected from each estuary will be presented and summarized in this talk. Stable isotopic signatures and lipid biomarker compounds reveal spatial variations in organic matter sources along the salinity continuum of each estuary with a stronger terrigeneous signature at the freshwater end-member. In addition, temporal variations in freshwater inflow and phytoplankton production influenced the sources and reactivity of POM. This talk will demonstrate that results from biomarker

  4. Natural Killer Cell-Based Therapies Targeting Cancer: Possible Strategies to Gain and Sustain Anti-Tumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, Carin I. M.; Sarhan, Dhifaf; Chrobok, Michael; Duru, Adil D.; Alici, Evren

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells were discovered 40 years ago, by their ability to recognize and kill tumor cells without the requirement of prior antigen exposure. Since then, NK cells have been seen as promising agents for cell-based cancer therapies. However, NK cells represent only a minor fraction of the human lymphocyte population. Their skewed phenotype and impaired functionality during cancer progression necessitates the development of clinical protocols to activate and expand to high numbers ex vivo to be able to infuse sufficient numbers of functional NK cells to the cancer patients. Initial NK cell-based clinical trials suggested that NK cell-infusion is safe and feasible with almost no NK cell-related toxicity, including graft-versus-host disease. Complete remission and increased disease-free survival is shown in a small number of patients with hematological malignances. Furthermore, successful adoptive NK cell-based therapies from haploidentical donors have been demonstrated. Disappointingly, only limited anti-tumor effects have been demonstrated following NK cell infusion in patients with solid tumors. While NK cells have great potential in targeting tumor cells, the efficiency of NK cell functions in the tumor microenvironment is yet unclear. The failure of immune surveillance may in part be due to sustained immunological pressure on tumor cells resulting in the development of tumor escape variants that are invisible to the immune system. Alternatively, this could be due to the complex network of immune-suppressive compartments in the tumor microenvironment, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated macrophages, and regulatory T cells. Although the negative effect of the tumor microenvironment on NK cells can be transiently reverted by ex vivo expansion and long-term activation, the aforementioned NK cell/tumor microenvironment interactions upon reinfusion are not fully elucidated. Within this context, genetic modification of NK cells

  5. Natural Killer Cell-Based Therapies Targeting Cancer: Possible Strategies to Gain and Sustain Anti-Tumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Carin I M; Sarhan, Dhifaf; Chrobok, Michael; Duru, Adil D; Alici, Evren

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells were discovered 40 years ago, by their ability to recognize and kill tumor cells without the requirement of prior antigen exposure. Since then, NK cells have been seen as promising agents for cell-based cancer therapies. However, NK cells represent only a minor fraction of the human lymphocyte population. Their skewed phenotype and impaired functionality during cancer progression necessitates the development of clinical protocols to activate and expand to high numbers ex vivo to be able to infuse sufficient numbers of functional NK cells to the cancer patients. Initial NK cell-based clinical trials suggested that NK cell-infusion is safe and feasible with almost no NK cell-related toxicity, including graft-versus-host disease. Complete remission and increased disease-free survival is shown in a small number of patients with hematological malignances. Furthermore, successful adoptive NK cell-based therapies from haploidentical donors have been demonstrated. Disappointingly, only limited anti-tumor effects have been demonstrated following NK cell infusion in patients with solid tumors. While NK cells have great potential in targeting tumor cells, the efficiency of NK cell functions in the tumor microenvironment is yet unclear. The failure of immune surveillance may in part be due to sustained immunological pressure on tumor cells resulting in the development of tumor escape variants that are invisible to the immune system. Alternatively, this could be due to the complex network of immune-suppressive compartments in the tumor microenvironment, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated macrophages, and regulatory T cells. Although the negative effect of the tumor microenvironment on NK cells can be transiently reverted by ex vivo expansion and long-term activation, the aforementioned NK cell/tumor microenvironment interactions upon reinfusion are not fully elucidated. Within this context, genetic modification of NK cells

  6. Loop laser cavities with self-pumped phase-conjugate mirrors in low-gain active media for phase-locked multichannel laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Gavrilov, A V; Ershkov, M N; Smetanin, Sergei N; Fedin, Aleksandr V; Bel'kov, K A; Boreysho, A S; Lebedev, V F

    2011-03-31

    It is proved that lasers with different loop cavities with self-pumped phase-conjugate mirrors in low-gain active media can operate under injection of external laser radiation and can be used for the development of diode-pumped phase-locked multichannel neodymium laser systems operating both on the fundamental laser transition with the wavelength {lambda} = 1.06 {mu}m and on the transition with {lambda} = 1.34 {mu}m. The phase-conjugate oscillation thresholds in the case of injection of an external signal are determined for a multiloop cavity configuration and an increased number of active elements in the cavity. It is shown that phase-conjugate oscillation can occur even if the single-pass gain of the active element is as low as only {approx}2. Under high-power side diode pumping of a multiloop Nd:YAG laser, single-mode output radiation was achieved at {lambda} = 1.064 {mu}m with a pulse energy up to 0.75 J, a pulse repetition rate up to 25 Hz, an average power up to 18.3 W, and an efficiency up to 20%. In a multiloop Nd:YAG laser with three active elements in the cavity, single-mode radiation at {lambda} = 1.34 {mu}m was obtained with a pulse energy up to 0.96 J, a pulse repetition rate up to 10 Hz, and an average power up to 8.5 W. (control of laser radiation parameters)

  7. When your pain signifies my gain: neural activity while evaluating outcomes based on another person’s pain

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Fang; Zhu, Xiangru; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-jia

    2016-01-01

    The overlap between pain and reward processing pathways leds researchers to hypothesize that there are interactions between them in the human brain. Two hypotheses have been proposed. The “competition hypothesis” posits that reward can reduce pain-related neural activity and vice versa. The “salience hypothesis” suggests that the motivational salience of pain and reward can be mutually reinforced. However, no study has tested these two hypotheses from temporal perspective as we know. In the present study, pictures depicted other people in painful or non-painful situations were used to indicate the valence of outcomes in a gambling task. The event-related potential results revealed an interaction between another person’s pain and outcome valence in multiple time stages. Specifically, the amplitudes of the N1 and P3 were enhanced in the win condition compared with the loss condition when the outcome was indicated by painful picture. This interactions between pain and reward support the salience hypothesis but not the competition hypothesis. The present results provide evidence from human subjects that support the salience hypothesis, which claims that observing other people’s pain can enhance the salience of reward. PMID:27193060

  8. Inhibition of PRC2 Activity by a Gain-of-Function H3 Mutation Found in Pediatric Glioblastoma

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Peter W.; Müller, Manuel M.; Koletsky, Matthew S.; Cordero, Francisco; Lin, Shu; Banaszynski, Laura A.; Garcia, Benjamin A.; Muir, Tom W.; Becher, Oren J.; Allis, C. David

    2014-01-01

    Sequencing of pediatric gliomas has identified missense mutations Lys27Met (K27M) and Gly34Arg/Val (G34R/V) in genes encoding histone H3.3 (H3F3A) and H3.1 (HIST3H1B). We report that human diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) containing the K27M mutation display significantly lower overall amounts of H3 with trimethylated lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and that histone H3K27M transgenes are sufficient to reduce the amounts of H3K27me3 in vitro and in vivo. We find that H3K27M inhibits the enzymatic activity of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 through interaction with the EZH2 subunit. In addition, transgenes containing lysine-to-methionine substitutions at other known methylated lysines (H3K9 and H3K36) are sufficient to cause specific reduction in methylation through inhibition of SET-domain enzymes. We propose that K-to-M substitutions may represent a mechanism to alter epigenetic states in a variety of pathologies. PMID:23539183

  9. Inhibition of PRC2 activity by a gain-of-function H3 mutation found in pediatric glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Peter W; Müller, Manuel M; Koletsky, Matthew S; Cordero, Francisco; Lin, Shu; Banaszynski, Laura A; Garcia, Benjamin A; Muir, Tom W; Becher, Oren J; Allis, C David

    2013-05-17

    Sequencing of pediatric gliomas has identified missense mutations Lys27Met (K27M) and Gly34Arg/Val (G34R/V) in genes encoding histone H3.3 (H3F3A) and H3.1 (HIST3H1B). We report that human diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) containing the K27M mutation display significantly lower overall amounts of H3 with trimethylated lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and that histone H3K27M transgenes are sufficient to reduce the amounts of H3K27me3 in vitro and in vivo. We find that H3K27M inhibits the enzymatic activity of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 through interaction with the EZH2 subunit. In addition, transgenes containing lysine-to-methionine substitutions at other known methylated lysines (H3K9 and H3K36) are sufficient to cause specific reduction in methylation through inhibition of SET-domain enzymes. We propose that K-to-M substitutions may represent a mechanism to alter epigenetic states in a variety of pathologies. PMID:23539183

  10. Dodecahedral Au@Pd nanocrystals with high-index facets and excellent electrocatalytic activity and highly efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lin-Fei; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2013-07-01

    We synthesize the three-fold symmetric shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals, enclosed predominantly by high-index {541} facets with kinks, through the simultaneous reduction of Au and Pd ions in the presence of triangular Au nanocrystal seeds in aqueous solution at room-temperature. The obtained shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of ethanol and unique near-field enhancement property with a highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response. These excellent properties can be ascribed to the presence of sharp corners and edges as well as high-index faceted Pd-rich shell in the shield-like Au@Pd core-shell structure. We also investigate the mechanism for the formation of three-fold symmetric shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals. PMID:23719781

  11. A Randomized Trial on the Effect of Bone Tissue on Vibration-induced Muscle Strength Gain and Vibration-induced Reflex Muscle Activity

    PubMed Central

    Cidem, Muharrem; Karacan, İlhan; Diraçoğlu, Demirhan; Yıldız, Aysel; Küçük, Suat Hayri; Uludağ, Murat; Gün, Kerem; Özkaya, Murat; Karamehmetoğlu, Şafak Sahir

    2014-01-01

    Background: Whole-body vibration (WBV) induces reflex muscle activity and leads to increased muscle strength. However, little is known about the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance. Tonic vibration reflex is the most commonly cited mechanism to explain the effects of whole-body vibration on muscular performance, although there is no conclusive evidence that tonic vibration reflex occurs. The bone myoregulation reflex is another neurological mechanism used to explain the effects of vibration on muscular performance. Bone myoregulation reflex is defined as a reflex mechanism in which osteocytes exposed to cyclic mechanical loading induce muscle activity. Aims: The aim of this study was to assess whether bone tissue affected vibration-induced reflex muscle activity and vibration-induced muscle strength gain. Study Design: A prospective, randomised, controlled, double-blind, parallel-group clinical trial. Methods: Thirty-four participants were randomised into two groups. High-magnitude whole-body vibration was applied in the exercise group, whereas low-magnitude whole-body vibration exercises were applied in the control group throughout 20 sessions. Hip bone mineral density, isokinetic muscle strength, and plasma sclerostin levels were measured. The surface electromyography data were processed to obtain the Root Mean Squares, which were normalised by maximal voluntarily contraction. Results: In the exercise group, muscle strength increased in the right and left knee flexors (23.9%, p=0.004 and 27.5%, p<0.0001, respectively). However, no significant change was observed in the knee extensor muscle strength. There was no significant change in the knee muscle strength in the control group. The vibration-induced corrected Root Mean Squares of the semitendinosus muscle was decreased by 2.8 times (p=0.005) in the exercise group, whereas there was no change in the control group. Sclerostin index was decreased by 15

  12. Dodecahedral Au@Pd nanocrystals with high-index facets and excellent electrocatalytic activity and highly efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering enhancement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lin-Fei; Zhang, Chun-Yang

    2013-06-01

    We synthesize the three-fold symmetric shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals, enclosed predominantly by high-index {541} facets with kinks, through the simultaneous reduction of Au and Pd ions in the presence of triangular Au nanocrystal seeds in aqueous solution at room-temperature. The obtained shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of ethanol and unique near-field enhancement property with a highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response. These excellent properties can be ascribed to the presence of sharp corners and edges as well as high-index faceted Pd-rich shell in the shield-like Au@Pd core-shell structure. We also investigate the mechanism for the formation of three-fold symmetric shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals.We synthesize the three-fold symmetric shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals, enclosed predominantly by high-index {541} facets with kinks, through the simultaneous reduction of Au and Pd ions in the presence of triangular Au nanocrystal seeds in aqueous solution at room-temperature. The obtained shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals exhibit superior electrocatalytic activity for the oxidation of ethanol and unique near-field enhancement property with a highly sensitive surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) response. These excellent properties can be ascribed to the presence of sharp corners and edges as well as high-index faceted Pd-rich shell in the shield-like Au@Pd core-shell structure. We also investigate the mechanism for the formation of three-fold symmetric shield-like Au@Pd core-shell nanocrystals. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr00695f

  13. Cavity-enhanced Raman microscopy of individual carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hümmer, Thomas; Noe, Jonathan; Hofmann, Matthias S.; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Högele, Alexander; Hunger, David

    2016-07-01

    Raman spectroscopy reveals chemically specific information and provides label-free insight into the molecular world. However, the signals are intrinsically weak and call for enhancement techniques. Here, we demonstrate Purcell enhancement of Raman scattering in a tunable high-finesse microcavity, and utilize it for molecular diagnostics by combined Raman and absorption imaging. Studying individual single-wall carbon nanotubes, we identify crucial structural parameters such as nanotube radius, electronic structure and extinction cross-section. We observe a 320-times enhanced Raman scattering spectral density and an effective Purcell factor of 6.2, together with a collection efficiency of 60%. Potential for significantly higher enhancement, quantitative signals, inherent spectral filtering and absence of intrinsic background in cavity-vacuum stimulated Raman scattering render the technique a promising tool for molecular imaging. Furthermore, cavity-enhanced Raman transitions involving localized excitons could potentially be used for gaining quantum control over nanomechanical motion and open a route for molecular cavity optomechanics.

  14. Multipolar, time-dynamical model for the loss compensation and lasing of a spherical plasmonic nanoparticle spaser immersed in an active gain medium.

    PubMed

    Veltri, Alessandro; Chipouline, Arkadi; Aradian, Ashod

    2016-01-01

    The plasmonic response of a metal nanoparticle in the presence of surrounding gain elements is studied, using a space and time-dependent model, which integrates a quantum formalism to describe the gain and a classical treatment for the metal. Our model fully takes into account the influence of the system geometry (nanosphere) and offers for the first time, the possibility to describe the temporal evolution of the fields and the coupling among the multipolar modes of the particle. We calculate the lasing threshold value for all multipoles of the spaser, and demonstrate that the dipolar one is lowest. The onset of the lasing instability, in the linear regime, is then studied both with and without external field forcing. We also study the behaviour of the system below the lasing threshold, with the external field, demonstrating the existence of an amplification regime where the nanoparticle's plasmon is strongly enhanced as the threshold is approached. Finally, a qualitative discussion is provided on later, non-linear stages of the dynamics and the approach to the steady-state of the spaser; in particular, it is shown that, for the considered geometry, the spasing is necessarily multi-modal and multipolar modes are always activated. PMID:27625072

  15. Comprehensive quantification of tablets with multiple active pharmaceutical ingredients using transmission Raman spectroscopy--a proof of concept study.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Julia; Owen, Andrew; Matousek, Pavel

    2015-11-10

    Transmission Raman spectroscopy is a potent new tool for content uniformity testing in pharmaceutical manufacturing enabling rapid bulk sampling of a material by non-destructive means. In this proof-of-concept study, we present, for the first time, comprehensive quantification of all the constituents in a set of tablets consisting of 5 components (3 APIs and 2 excipients) by this method. The nominal concentration of individual components ranged from 1 to 85% (w/w). Two multivariate partial least-squares approaches have been used to calibrate concentration models consisting of 40 handmade tablets covering 20 sample points. These models successfully predicted all the components in a set of 10 validation tablets covering 5 different sample points. A single model for all components (PLS2) and 5 individual models each optimised for one component (PLS1) performed similarity and have been used to demonstrate that specificity of prediction has been achieved through using a multifactor orthogonal DoE for sample preparation. The ability to determine multiple analyte concentrations in one single measurement further establishes this procedure and its benefits for assay and content uniformity testing. PMID:26263055

  16. Preventing Raman Lasing in High-Q WGM Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute

    2007-01-01

    A generic design has been conceived to suppress the Raman effect in whispering- gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators that have high values of the resonance quality factor (Q). Although it is possible to exploit the Raman effect (even striving to maximize the Raman gain to obtain Raman lasing), the present innovation is intended to satisfy a need that arises in applications in which the Raman effect inhibits the realization of the full potential of WGM resonators as frequency-selection components. Heretofore, in such applications, it has been necessary to operate high-Q WGM resonators at unattractively low power levels to prevent Raman lasing. (The Raman-lasing thresholds of WGM optical resonators are very low and are approximately proportional to Q(sup -2)). Heretofore, two ways of preventing Raman lasting at high power levels have been known, but both entail significant disadvantages: A resonator can be designed so that the optical field is spread over a relatively large mode volume to bring the power density below the threshold. For any given combination of Q and power level, there is certain mode volume wherein Raman lasing does not start. Unfortunately, a resonator that has a large mode volume also has a high spectral density, which is undesirable in a typical photonic application. A resonator can be cooled to the temperature of liquid helium, where the Raman spectrum is narrower and, therefore, the Raman gain is lower. However, liquid-helium cooling is inconvenient. The present design overcomes these disadvantages, making it possible to operate a low-spectral-density (even a single-mode) WGM resonator at a relatively high power level at room temperature, without risk of Raman lasing.

  17. Spectroscopic characteristic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, 1H and 13C NMR), theoretical calculations and biological activity of alkali metal homovanillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonowicz, M.; Kowczyk-Sadowy, M.; Piekut, J.; Regulska, E.; Lewandowski, W.

    2016-04-01

    The structural and vibrational properties of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium homovanillates were investigated in this paper. Supplementary molecular spectroscopic methods such as: FT-IR, FT-Raman in the solid phase, UV and NMR were applied. The geometrical parameters and energies were obtained from density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with 6-311++G** basis set calculations. The geometry of the molecule was fully optimized, vibrational spectra were calculated and fundamental vibrations were assigned. Geometric and magnetic aromaticity indices, atomic charges, dipole moments, HOMO and LUMO energies were also calculated. The microbial activity of investigated compounds was tested against Bacillus subtilis (BS), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), Escherichia coli (EC), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Candida albicans (CA). The relationship between the molecular structure of tested compounds and their antimicrobial activity was studied. The principal component analysis (PCA) was applied in order to attempt to distinguish the biological activities of these compounds according to selected band wavenumbers. Obtained data show that the FT-IR spectra can be a rapid and reliable analytical tool and a good source of information for the quantitative analysis of the relationship between the molecular structure of the compound and its biological activity.

  18. Visual Contrast Sensitivity Improvement by Right Frontal High-Beta Activity Is Mediated by Contrast Gain Mechanisms and Influenced by Fronto-Parietal White Matter Microstructure.

    PubMed

    Quentin, Romain; Elkin Frankston, Seth; Vernet, Marine; Toba, Monica N; Bartolomeo, Paolo; Chanes, Lorena; Valero-Cabré, Antoni

    2016-06-01

    Behavioral and electrophysiological studies in humans and non-human primates have correlated frontal high-beta activity with the orienting of endogenous attention and shown the ability of the latter function to modulate visual performance. We here combined rhythmic transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and diffusion imaging to study the relation between frontal oscillatory activity and visual performance, and we associated these phenomena to a specific set of white matter pathways that in humans subtend attentional processes. High-beta rhythmic activity on the right frontal eye field (FEF) was induced with TMS and its causal effects on a contrast sensitivity function were recorded to explore its ability to improve visual detection performance across different stimulus contrast levels. Our results show that frequency-specific activity patterns engaged in the right FEF have the ability to induce a leftward shift of the psychometric function. This increase in visual performance across different levels of stimulus contrast is likely mediated by a contrast gain mechanism. Interestingly, microstructural measures of white matter connectivity suggest a strong implication of right fronto-parietal connectivity linking the FEF and the intraparietal sulcus in propagating high-beta rhythmic signals across brain networks and subtending top-down frontal influences on visual performance. PMID:25899709

  19. Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1980-01-01

    A device for producing stimulated Raman scattering of CO.sub.2 laser radiation by rotational states in a diatomic molecular gas utilizing a Stokes injection signal. The system utilizes a cryogenically cooled waveguide for extending focal interaction length. The waveguide, in conjunction with the Stokes injection signal, reduces required power density of the CO.sub.2 radiation below the breakdown threshold for the diatomic molecular gas. A Fresnel rhomb is employed to circularly polarize the Stokes injection signal and CO.sub.2 laser radiation in opposite circular directions. The device can be employed either as a regenerative oscillator utilizing optical cavity mirrors or as a single pass amplifier. Additionally, a plurality of Raman gain cells can be staged to increase output power magnitude. Also, in the regenerative oscillator embodiment, the Raman gain cell cavity length and CO.sub.2 cavity length can be matched to provide synchronism between mode locked CO.sub.2 pulses and pulses produced within the Raman gain cell.

  20. Improved multiple-pass Raman spectrometer.

    PubMed

    KC, Utsav; Silver, Joel A; Hovde, David C; Varghese, Philip L

    2011-08-20

    An improved Raman gain spectrometer for flame measurements of gas temperature and species concentrations is described. This instrument uses a multiple-pass optical cell to enhance the incident light intensity in the measurement volume. The Raman signal is 83 times larger than from a single pass, and the Raman signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) in room-temperature air of 153 is an improvement over that from a single-pass cell by a factor of 9.3 when the cell is operated with 100 passes and the signal is integrated over 20 laser shots. The SNR improvement with the multipass cell is even higher for flame measurements at atmospheric pressure, because detector readout noise is more significant for single-pass measurements when the gas density is lower. Raman scattering is collected and dispersed in a spectrograph with a transmission grating and recorded with a fast gated CCD array detector to help eliminate flame interferences. The instrument is used to record spontaneous Raman spectra from N(2), CO(2), O(2), and CO in a methane-air flame. Curve fits of the recorded Raman spectra to detailed simulations of nitrogen spectra are used to determine the flame temperature from the shapes of the spectral signatures and from the ratio of the total intensities of the Stokes and anti-Stokes signals. The temperatures measured are in good agreement with radiation-corrected thermocouple measurements for a range of equivalence ratios. PMID:21857704

  1. Theory of femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Y; Zhang, Donghui; McCamant, David W; Kukura, Philipp; Mathies, Richard A

    2004-08-22

    Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is a new technique that produces high-resolution (time-resolved) vibrational spectra from either the ground or excited electronic states of molecules, free from background fluorescence. FSRS uses simultaneously a narrow bandwidth approximately 1-3 ps Raman pump pulse with a continuum approximately 30-50 fs Stokes probe pulse to produce sharp Raman gains, at positions corresponding to vibrational transitions in the sample, riding on top of the continuum Stokes probe spectrum. When FSRS is preceded by a femtosecond actinic pump pulse that initiates the photochemistry of interest, time-resolved Raman spectroscopy can be carried out. We present two theoretical approaches to FSRS: one is based on a coupling of Raman pump and probe light waves with the vibrations in the medium, and another is a quantum-mechanical description. The latter approach is used to discuss the conditions of applicability and limitations of the coupled-wave description. Extension of the quantum-mechanical description to the case where the Raman pump beam is on resonance with an excited electronic state, as well as when FSRS is used to probe a nonstationary vibrational wave packet prepared by an actinic pump pulse, is also discussed. PMID:15303930

  2. The Study of Electromagnetic Wave Propogation in Photonic Crystals Via Planewave Based Transfer (Scattering) Matrix Method with Active Gain Material Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Ming LI

    2007-12-01

    In this dissertation, a set of numerical simulation tools are developed under previous work to efficiently and accurately study one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional(2D), 2D slab and three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal structures and their defects effects by means of spectrum (transmission, reflection, absorption), band structure (dispersion relation), and electric and/or magnetic fields distribution (mode profiles). Furthermore, the lasing property and spontaneous emission behaviors are studied when active gain materials are presented in the photonic crystal structures. Various physical properties such as resonant cavity quality factor, waveguide loss, propagation group velocity of electromagnetic wave and light-current curve (for lasing devices) can be obtained from the developed software package.

  3. Global expression profiling reveals gain-of-function onco-genic activity of a mutated thyroid hormone receptor in thyroid carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Changxue; Mishra, Alok; Zhu, Yuelin J; Meltzer, Paul; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are critical in regulating gene expression in normal physiological processes. Decreased expression and/or somatic mutations of TRs have been shown to be associated several types of human cancers including liver, breast, lung, and thyroid. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which mutated TRs promote carcinogenesis, an animal model of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) (Thrbpv/pv mice) was used in the present study. The Thrbpv/pv mouse harbors a knockin dominant negative PV mutation, identified in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone. To understand whether oncogenic actions of PV involve not only the loss of normal TR functions but also gain-of-function activities, we compared the gene expression profiles of thyroid lesions in Thrbpv/pv mice and Thra1-/- Thrb-/- mice that also spontaneously develop FTC, but with less severe malignancy. Analysis of the cDNA microarray data derived from microdissected thyroid tumor cells of these two mice showed contrasting global gene expression profiles. With stringent selection using 2.5-fold change (p<0.01) in cDNA microarray analysis, 241 genes with altered gene expression were identified. Nearly half of the genes (n=103: 42.7% of total) with altered gene expression in thyroid tumor cells of Thrbpv/pv mice were associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis; some of these genes function as oncogenes in human thyroid cancers. The remaining genes were found to function in transcriptional regulation, RNA processing, cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cytoskeleton modification. These results indicate that the more aggressive thyroid tumor progression in Thrbpv/pv mice was not due simply to the loss of tumor suppressor functions of TR via mutation but also, importantly, to gain-of-function in the oncogenic activities of PV to drive thyroid carcinogenesis. Thus, the present study identifies a novel mechanism by which a mutated TRβ evolves with an oncogenic advantage to promote

  4. DNA polymorphisms and transcript abundance of PRKAG2 and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase in the rumen are associated with gain and feed intake in beef steers.

    PubMed

    Lindholm-Perry, A K; Kuehn, L A; Oliver, W T; Kern, R J; Cushman, R A; Miles, J R; McNeel, A K; Freetly, H C

    2014-08-01

    Beef steers with variation in feed efficiency phenotypes were evaluated previously on a high-density SNP panel. Ten markers from rs110125325-rs41652818 on bovine chromosome 4 were associated with average daily gain (ADG). To identify the gene(s) in this 1.2-Mb region responsible for variation in ADG, genotyping with 157 additional markers was performed. Several markers (n = 41) were nominally associated with ADG, and three of these, including the only marker to withstand Bonferroni correction, were located within the protein kinase, AMP-activated, gamma 2 non-catalytic subunit (PRKAG2) gene. An additional population of cross-bred steers (n = 406) was genotyped for validation. One marker located within the PRKAG2 loci approached a significant association with gain. To evaluate PRKAG2 for differences in transcript abundance, we measured expression in the liver, muscle, rumen and intestine from steers (n = 32) with extreme feed efficiency phenotypes collected over two seasons. No differences in PRKAG2 transcript abundance were detected in small intestine, liver or muscle. Correlation between gene expression level of PRKAG2 in rumen and average daily feed intake (ADFI) was detected in both seasons (P < 0.05); however, the direction differed by season. Lastly, we evaluated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK), of which PRKAG2 is a subunit, for differences among ADG and ADFI and found that the phosphorylated form of AMPK was associated with ADFI in the rumen. These data suggest that PRKAG2 and its mature protein, AMPK, are involved in feed efficiency traits in beef steers. This is the first evidence to suggest that rumen AMPK may be contributing to ADFI in cattle. PMID:24730749

  5. Manifestations of nonlinear optical effects in a novel SRS-active crystal—natural topaz, Al2(F1-x(OH)x)2SiO4: many-phonon χ(3)-lasing, more than sesqui-octave Stokes and anti-Stokes multi-wavelength comb lasing, cascaded and cross-cascaded χ(3)↔χ(3) Raman-induced interactions under single- and dual-wavelength picosecond collinear coherent pumping, THG and combined SRS-promoting phonon modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminskii, A. A.; Lux, O.; Rhee, H.; Eichler, H. J.; Yoneda, H.; Shirakawa, A.; Ueda, K.; Rückamp, R.; Bohatý, L.; Becker, P.

    2013-07-01

    Natural crystals of topaz, Al2(F1-x(OH)x)2SiO4 were found to be an attractive Raman gain material and a subject for the investigation of different χ(3)-nonlinear optical effects. We present several manifestations of photon-phonon interactions related to SRS and RFWM processes initiated by picosecond excitations at room and cryogenic (≈9 K) temperature. Among them are octave-spanning Stokes and anti-Stokes generation in the visible and near-IR spectral range, combined SRS-active phonon modes, cross-cascaded up-conversion, χ(3)↔χ(3) lasing, as well as THG via self-sum frequency parametric generation. All recorded Raman-induced lasing lines are identified and attributed to the promoting χ(3)-vibration transitions. Based on the experimental data, theoretical simulations employing Fourier analysis are performed to demonstrate the potential of wide SRS frequency combs in terms of ultra-short pulse generation. On the 50th anniversary of the discovery of stimulated Raman scattering.

  6. Eye-safe actively Q-switched diode-pumped lasers with intracavity Raman conversion in YVO4, KGd(WO4)2, PbWO4, and Ba(NO3)2 crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dashkevich, V. I.; Shpak, P. V.; Voitikov, S. V.; Chulkov, R. V.; Grabtchikov, A. S.; Cheshev, E. A.; El-Desouki, M.; Orlovich, V. A.

    2015-09-01

    We have investigated the self-Raman and intracavity Raman frequency conversion of the end-diode-pumped acoustooptic Q-switched Nd:YVO4 laser radiation to eye-safe radiation. The 1st Stokes oscillation in YVO4 (Nd:YVO4), KGd(WO4)2, PbWO4, and Ba(NO3)2 crystals excited by the laser radiation at a wavelength of 1342 nm permits obtaining oscillations at 1524, 1496 or 1527, 1527, and 1562 nm wavelengths, respectively. We have obtained pulsed lasing with a repetition rate of 2-20 kHz, an output energy of 37-95 μJ, and a duration of 6-8 ns. We propose a model of the actively Q-switched intracavity Raman laser taking into account the real switching off/on times of the actively Q-switch and the excited state absorption in the active medium. We used this model to simulate the dynamics of the self-Raman Nd:YVO4 laser. The proposed model gives results that agree fairly well with the experimental data.

  7. The study of electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic crystals via planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method with active gain material applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming

    In this dissertation, a set of numerical simulation tools are developed under previous work to efficiently and accurately study one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), 2D slab and three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal structures and their defects effects by means of spectrum (transmission, reflection, absorption), band structure (dispersion relation), and electric and/or magnetic fields distribution (mode profiles). Further more, the lasing property and spontaneous emission behaviors are studied when active gain materials are presented in the photonic crystal structures. First, the planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method (TMM) is described in every detail along with a brief review of photonic crystal history (Chapter 1 and 2). As a frequency domain method, TMM has the following major advantages over other numerical methods: (1) the planewave basis makes Maxwell's Equations a linear algebra problem and there are mature numerical package to solve linear algebra problem such as Lapack and Scalapack (for parallel computation). (2) Transfer (scattering) matrix method make 3D problem into 2D slices and link all slices together via the scattering matrix (S matrix) which reduces computation time and memory usage dramatically and makes 3D real photonic crystal devices design possible; and this also makes the simulated domain no length limitation along the propagation direction (ideal for waveguide simulation). (3) It is a frequency domain method and calculation results are all for steady state, without the influences of finite time span convolution effects and/or transient effects. (4) TMM can treat dispersive material (such as metal at visible light) naturally without introducing any additional computation; and meanwhile TMM can also deal with anisotropic material and magnetic material (such as perfectly matched layer) naturally from its algorithms. (5) Extension of TMM to deal with active gain material can be done through an iteration procedure with gain

  8. Gain-of-Function Mutations in the Toll-Like Receptor Pathway: TPL2-Mediated ERK1/ERK2 MAPK Activation, a Path to Tumorigenesis in Lymphoid Neoplasms?

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Simon; Martel, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoid neoplasms form a family of cancers affecting B-cells, T-cells, and NK cells. The Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) signaling adapter molecule MYD88 is the most frequently mutated gene in these neoplasms. This signaling adaptor relays signals from TLRs to downstream effector pathways such as the Nuclear Factor kappa B (NFκB) and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways to regulate innate immune responses. Gain-of-function mutations such as MYD88[L265P] activate downstream signaling pathways in absence of cognate ligands for TLRs, resulting in increased cellular proliferation and survival. This article reports an analysis of non-synonymous somatic mutations found in the TLR signaling network in lymphoid neoplasms. In accordance with previous reports, mutations map to MYD88 pro-inflammatory signaling and not TRIF-mediated Type I IFN production. Interestingly, the analysis of somatic mutations found downstream of the core TLR-signaling network uncovered a strong association with the ERK1/2 MAPK cascade. In support of this analysis, heterologous expression of MYD88[L265P] in HEK293 cells led to ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation in addition to NFκB activation. Moreover, this activation is dependent on the protein kinase Tumor Promoting Locus 2 (TPL2), activated downstream of the IKK complex. Activation of ERK1/2 would then lead to activation, amongst others, of MYC and hnRNPA1, two proteins previously shown to contribute to tumor formation in lymphoid neoplasms. Taken together, this analysis suggests that TLR-mediated ERK1/2 activation via TPL2 may be a novel path to tumorigenesis. Therefore, the hypothesis proposed is that inhibition of ERK1/2 MAPK activation would prevent tumor growth downstream of MYD88[L265]. It will be interesting to test whether pharmacological inhibitors of this pathway show efficacy in primary tumor cells derived from hematologic malignancies such as Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia, where the majority of the cells carry the MYD88[L265P

  9. Raman Lidar (RL) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, RK

    2009-03-01

    The Raman lidar at the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (SGPRL) is an active, ground-based laser remote sensing instrument that measures height and time resolved profiles of water vapor mixing ratio and several cloud- and aerosol-related quantities. The system is a non-commercial custom-built instrument developed by Sandia National Laboratories specifically for the ARM Program. It is fully computer automated, and will run unattended for many days following a brief (~5-minute) startup period. The self-contained system (requiring only external electrical power) is housed in a climate-controlled 8’x8’x20’ standard shipping container.

  10. FT-IR, Raman and DFT study of 2-amino-5-fluorobenzoic acid and its biological activity with other halogen (Cl, Br) substitution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, T. S.; Hubert, Joe I.

    2011-07-01

    The Fourier-transform Raman and infrared spectra of 2-amino-5-fluoro benzoic acid has been recorded and analyzed. The optimized geometry of the other halogen substitution (Cl, Br) have been computed with the help of density functional theory. The detailed interpretation of vibrational spectra of 2-amino-5-fluoro benzoic acid have performed in terms of potential energy distribution analysis. Natural bond orbital analysis on 2-amino-5-fluoro benzoic acid, 2-amino-5-chloro benzoic acid and 2-amino-5-bromo benzoic acid has been carried out for various intramolecular interactions that are responsible for the stabilization of the molecule. The p Ka values of 2-amino-5-fluoro benzoic acid, 2-amino-5-chloro benzoic acid and 2-amino-5-bromo benzoic acid are computed using MOPAC and it is related with HOMO-LUMO energy difference obtained from Gaussian 03 software. The biological activity of 2-amino-5-fluoro benzoic acid has been predicted based on these values. The inhibition activity of 2-amino-5-bromo benzoic acid with the protein tyrosine kinase 3LQ8 is simulated by using Autodock software.

  11. FT-IR, Raman and DFT study of 2-amino-5-fluorobenzoic acid and its biological activity with other halogen (Cl, Br) substitution.

    PubMed

    Xavier, T S; Joe, I Hubert

    2011-07-01

    The Fourier-transform Raman and infrared spectra of 2-amino-5-fluoro benzoic acid has been recorded and analyzed. The optimized geometry of the other halogen substitution (Cl, Br) have been computed with the help of density functional theory. The detailed interpretation of vibrational spectra of 2-amino-5-fluoro benzoic acid have performed in terms of potential energy distribution analysis. Natural bond orbital analysis on 2-amino-5-fluoro benzoic acid, 2-amino-5-chloro benzoic acid and 2-amino-5-bromo benzoic acid has been carried out for various intramolecular interactions that are responsible for the stabilization of the molecule. The pKa values of 2-amino-5-fluoro benzoic acid, 2-amino-5-chloro benzoic acid and 2-amino-5-bromo benzoic acid are computed using MOPAC and it is related with HOMO-LUMO energy difference obtained from Gaussian 03 software. The biological activity of 2-amino-5-fluoro benzoic acid has been predicted based on these values. The inhibition activity of 2-amino-5-bromo benzoic acid with the protein tyrosine kinase 3LQ8 is simulated by using Autodock software. PMID:21497545

  12. Analysis of lipsticks using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gardner, P; Bertino, M F; Weimer, R; Hazelrigg, E

    2013-10-10

    In this study, 80 lipsticks were obtained and evaluated using Raman spectroscopy at excitation wavelengths of 532 and 780 nm. Fluorescence severely limited analysis with the 532 nm line while the 780 nm line proved useful for all samples analyzed. It was possible to differentiate 95% of the lipsticks evaluated based on one or more Raman peaks. However, there were no peak trends observed that could be used to identify a manufacturer or categorize a sample. In situ analysis of lipstick smears was found to be possible even from several Raman active substrates, but was occasionally limited by background fluorescence and in extreme cases, photodegradation. PMID:24053867

  13. Rotating samples in FT-RAMAN spectrometers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Paepe, A. T. G.; Dyke, J. M.; Hendra, P. J.; Langkilde, F. W.

    1997-11-01

    It is customary to rotate samples in Raman spectroscopy to avoid absorption or sample heating. In FT-Raman experiments the rotation is always shown (typically 30-60 rpm) because higher speeds are thought to generate noise in the spectra. In this article we show that more rapid rotation is possible. A tablet containing maleic acid and one made up of sub-millimetre silica particles with metoprolol succinate as active ingredient were rotated at different speeds, up to 6760 rpm. The FT-Raman spectra were recorded and studied. We conclude that it is perfectly acceptable to rotate samples up to 1500 rpm.

  14. Enhancing the efficiency of silicon Raman converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, Nathalie; Sipe, John E.; Thienpont, Hugo

    2010-05-01

    We propose a silicon ring Raman converter in which the spatial variation of the Raman gain along the ring for TE polarization is used to quasi-phase-match the CARS process. If in addition the pump, Stokes, and anti-Stokes waves involved in the CARS interaction are resonantly enhanced by the ring structure, the Stokes-to-anti-Stokes conversion efficiency can be increased by at least four orders of magnitude over that of one-dimensional perfectly phase-matched silicon Raman converters, and can reach values larger than unity with relatively low input pump intensities. These improvements in conversion performance could substantially expand the practical applicability of the CARS process for optical wavelength conversion.

  15. Acting to gain information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  16. Remote Raman measurement techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, D. A.

    1981-02-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  17. Remote Raman measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  18. Remote Raman Measurement Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leonard, Donald A.

    1981-02-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  19. Design of double-pass discrete Raman amplifier and the impairments induced by Rayleigh backscattering.

    PubMed

    Tang, M; Shum, P; Gong, Y

    2003-08-11

    We report on the investigation of discrete Raman fiber amplifier in double-pass configuration based on the dispersion-compensated fiber and high reflection FBG. We proved in simulation and experiments that the double-pass configuration requires nearly 50% less pump power and the same fiber length to provide the same Raman gain and double-dispersion-compensation performance compared to the typical counter-pumped Raman amplifier. We also analyzed the equivalent noise figure (NF) and the Rayleigh backscattering impairments. The theoretical results shown that the impact of multipath interference (MPI) noise is the dominating limitation factor of this system operated at very high Raman gain region. PMID:19466071

  20. Single gain peak from modulation instability in As2Se3 chalcogenide glass photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Helin; Yang, Aijun

    2016-09-01

    With the As2Se3 photonic crystal fiber (PCF), the effect of pump power and wavelength on modulation instability (MI) gain is studied in detail. Due to high Raman scattering effect and high nonlinearity of As2Se3 PCF, ultra-broadband MI gain is obtained when appropriate pump power and wavelength is chosen, and the optimal MI gain bandwidth reaches 2812 nm. More importantly, competing between Raman scattering and four-wave mixing results in a single gain peak observed in the anti-Stokes region of As2Se3 PCF when pump power is higher than about 3000 W, while there is no gain spectrum in the fiber Stokes region. The phenomenon is found for the first time, and the obtained single gain peak mainly results from Raman scattering effect.

  1. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  2. Efficient surface plasmon amplification in gain-assisted silver nanotubes and associated dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, HaiQun; Jiang, ShuMin; Wu, DaJian

    2015-04-21

    SPASER (surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) properties in active SiO{sub 2}–Ag nanotubes and associated dimers have been investigated by using the scattering theory and the finite element method. In the active Ag nanotube, as the gain coefficient of the core increases to a critical value, a super-resonance occurs. The SPASER phenomenon also can be found in the active Ag nanotube dimer. The strong couplings between two nanotubes lead to larger gain threshold for the active Ag nanotube dimer compared with the active Ag nanotube. At the super-resonance, the maximal surface enhanced Raman scattering factor at the “hot spot” in the active Ag nanotube dimer can achieve about 8 × 10{sup 18}, which is large enough for single molecule detection. Furthermore, with increasing the separation between two Ag nanotubes, the gain threshold value for the super-resonance of the active Ag nanotube dimer decreases, while the corresponding super-resonance wavelength increases first and then decreases.

  3. Fabrication of silver nanoparticles embedded into polyvinyl alcohol (Ag/PVA) composite nanofibrous films through electrospinning for antibacterial and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhijie; Wu, Yunping; Wang, Zhihua; Zou, Xueyan; Zhao, Yanbao; Sun, Lei

    2016-12-01

    Silver nanoparticle-embedded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were prepared through electrospinning technique, using as antimicrobial agents and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in liquid phase, followed by evenly dispersing in PVA solution. After electrospinning of the mixed solution at room temperature, the PVA embedded with Ag NPs (Ag/PVA) composite nanofibers were obtained. The morphologies and structures of the as-synthesized Ag nanoparticles and Ag/PVA fibers were characterized by the techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Ag NPs have an average diameter of 13.8nm, were found to be uniformly dispersed in PVA nanofibers. The Ag/PVA nanofibers provided robust antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) microorganisms. It's also found that Ag/PVA nanofibers make a significant contribution to the high sensitivity of SERS to 4-mercaptophenol (4-MPh) molecules. PMID:27612736

  4. Incorporation of low energy activated nitrogen onto HOPG surface: Chemical states and thermal stability studies by in-situ XPS and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Maneesh; Shasha, Michal; Michaelson, Shaul; Hoffman, Alon

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we report the chemical states analysis of activated nitrogen incorporated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface under well-controlled conditions. Nitrogen incorporation is carried out by two different processes: an indirect RF nitrogen plasma and low energy (1 keV) N2+ implantation. Bonding configuration, concentration and thermal stability of the incorporated nitrogen species by aforesaid processes are systematically compared by in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Relatively large concentration of nitrogen is incorporated onto RF nitride HOPG surface (16.2 at.%), compared to N2+ implanted HOPG surface (7.7 at.%). The evolution of N 1s components (N1, N2, N3) with annealing temperature is comprehensively discussed, which indicates that the formation and reorganization of local chemical bonding states are determined by the process of nitridation and not by the prior chemical conditioning (i.e., amorphization or hydrogenation) of the HOPG surface. A combined XPS and Raman spectroscopy studies revealed that N2+ implantation process resulted in a high level of defects to the HOPG surface, which cannot be annealed-out by heat treatment up to 1000 °C. On the other hand, the RF nitrogen plasma process did not produce a high level of surface defects, while incorporating nearly the same amount of stable nitrogen species.

  5. ACTIVE MEDIA: Gain dynamics in a pulsed laser amplifier on CO-He, CO-N2 and CO-O2 gas mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetoshkin, S. V.; Ionin, Andrei A.; Klimachev, Yu M.; Kozlov, A. Yu; Kotkov, A. A.; Rulev, O. A.; Seleznev, L. V.; Sinitsyn, D. V.

    2007-02-01

    Small-signal gain (SSG) dynamics G(t) in the active medium of a pulsed laser amplifier operating on the v+1→vP(J) vibrational-rotational transitions of the CO molecule, including high (v > 15) vibrational transitions, is studied experimentally. It is demonstrated that as the vibrational number increases from 7 to 31, G changes with time slower, while Gmax decreases in this case by three times. It is found that at a fixed value of v the rate of the SSG rise increases with increasing the rotational number J > 6. It is shown that in oxygen-containing gas mixtures (CO:O2 = 1:19) the value of Gmax at low vibrational levels (for v < 13) can substantially exceed Gmax in mixtures containing nitrogen (CO:N2 = 1:19) instead of oxygen. It is found that the efficiency (47%) of a CO laser on mixtures with a high concentration of oxygen considerably exceeds the efficiency (30%) of a CO laser operating on a nitrogen-containing mixture.

  6. Theoretical studies of Resonance Enhanced Stimulated Raman Scattering (RESRS) of frequency-doubled Alexandrite laser wavelength in cesium vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, Nabil M.

    1987-01-01

    The solutions for the imaginary susceptibility of the Raman field transition with arbitrary relaxation rates and field strengths are examined for three different sets of relaxation rates. These rates correspond to: (1) Far Infrared (FIR) Raman lasers in the diabatic collision regime without consideration of coupled population decay in a closed system, (2) Raman FIR lasers in the diabatic collision regime with coupled population conserving decay, and (3) IR Raman gain in cesium vapor. The model is further expanded to include Doppler broadening and used to predict the peak gain as a function of detuning for a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser-pumped cesium vapor gain cell.

  7. Raman Tensors and their application in structural studies of biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Masamichi; Benevides, James M.; Thomas, George J.

    2009-01-01

    The Raman scattering of a molecule is generated by interactions of its electrons with incident light. The electric vector of the Raman scattered light is related to the electric vector of the incident light through a characteristic Raman tensor. A unique Raman tensor exists for each Raman-active molecular vibrational mode. In the case of biologically important macromolecules Raman tensors have been determined for a few hundred vibrational Raman bands. These include proteins and their amino acid constituents, as well as nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and their nucleotide constituents. In this review Raman tensors for 39 representative vibrational Raman bands of biological molecules are considered. We present details of the Raman tensor determinations and discuss their application in structural studies of filamentous bacteriophages (fd, Pf1, Pf3 and PH75), fowl feather rachis and eyespots of the protists, Chlamydomonas and Euglena. PMID:19282645

  8. Cascade Raman soliton fiber ring laser

    SciTech Connect

    Gouveia-Neto, A.S.; Gomes, A.S.L.; Taylor, J.R.; Ainslie, B.J.; Craig, S.P.

    1987-11-01

    Pulses as short as 200 fsec at 1.5 ..mu..m and 230 fsec at 1.6 ..mu..m have been generated through a cascade Raman, solitonlike process in a fiber ring oscillator. A dispersion-shifted (lambda/sub 0/ = 1.46 ..mu..m) single-mode fiber was used as the gain medium, which was synchronously pumped by a cw mode-locked Nd:YAG laser operated at 1.32 ..mu..m.

  9. RAMAN MICROSPECTROSCOPY AND IMAGING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although the Raman effect was discovered in 1928 by C.V. Raman it received little attention as a spectroscopic method until lasers (high intensity monochromatic light sources) were employed as sources. Recent developments to include improved detectors and filters, techniques to suppress of fluoresc...

  10. Portable raman explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Scharff, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  11. Aperture combined Raman laser

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, C.; Tang, K.; Howton, C.; Muller, D.; Hunter, R.O. Jr.

    1983-01-01

    Excimer lasers, while able to produce large powers and energies, are limited to a few discrete wavelengths. Efficient Raman shifting promises the availability of a much broader wavelength range. A method was developed which both Raman shifts and allows for multiple pump beams.

  12. A single amino acid substitution in a chitinase of the legume Medicago truncatula is sufficient to gain Nod-factor hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan-Yue; Cai, Jie; Li, Ru-Jie; Liu, Wei; Wagner, Christian; Wong, Kam-Bo; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The symbiotic interaction between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes depends on lipo-chitooligosaccharidic Nod-factors (NFs). The NF hydrolase MtNFH1 of Medicago truncatula is a symbiotic enzyme that hydrolytically inactivates NFs with a C16 : 2 acyl chain produced by the microsymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. MtNFH1 is related to class V chitinases (glycoside hydrolase family 18) but lacks chitinase activity. Here, we investigated the substrate specificity of MtNFH1-related proteins. MtCHIT5a and MtCHIT5b of M. truncatula as well as LjCHIT5 of Lotus japonicus showed chitinase activity, suggesting a role in plant defence. The enzymes failed to hydrolyse NFs from S. meliloti. NFs from Rhizobium leguminosarum with a C18 : 4 acyl moiety were neither hydrolysed by these chitinases nor by MtNFH1. Construction of chimeric proteins and further amino acid replacements in MtCHIT5b were performed to identify chitinase variants that gained the ability to hydrolyse NFs. A single serine-to-proline substitution was sufficient to convert MtCHIT5b into an NF-cleaving enzyme. MtNFH1 with the corresponding proline-to-serine substitution failed to hydrolyse NFs. These results are in agreement with a substrate-enzyme model that predicts NF cleavage when the C16 : 2 moiety is placed into a distinct fatty acid-binding cleft. Our findings support the view that MtNFH1 evolved from the ancestral MtCHIT5b by gene duplication and subsequent symbiosis-related neofunctionalization. PMID:27383628

  13. A single amino acid substitution in a chitinase of the legume Medicago truncatula is sufficient to gain Nod-factor hydrolase activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan-Yue; Cai, Jie; Li, Ru-Jie; Liu, Wei; Wagner, Christian; Wong, Kam-Bo; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes depends on lipo-chitooligosaccharidic Nod-factors (NFs). The NF hydrolase MtNFH1 of Medicago truncatula is a symbiotic enzyme that hydrolytically inactivates NFs with a C16 : 2 acyl chain produced by the microsymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. MtNFH1 is related to class V chitinases (glycoside hydrolase family 18) but lacks chitinase activity. Here, we investigated the substrate specificity of MtNFH1-related proteins. MtCHIT5a and MtCHIT5b of M. truncatula as well as LjCHIT5 of Lotus japonicus showed chitinase activity, suggesting a role in plant defence. The enzymes failed to hydrolyse NFs from S. meliloti. NFs from Rhizobium leguminosarum with a C18 : 4 acyl moiety were neither hydrolysed by these chitinases nor by MtNFH1. Construction of chimeric proteins and further amino acid replacements in MtCHIT5b were performed to identify chitinase variants that gained the ability to hydrolyse NFs. A single serine-to-proline substitution was sufficient to convert MtCHIT5b into an NF-cleaving enzyme. MtNFH1 with the corresponding proline-to-serine substitution failed to hydrolyse NFs. These results are in agreement with a substrate-enzyme model that predicts NF cleavage when the C16 : 2 moiety is placed into a distinct fatty acid-binding cleft. Our findings support the view that MtNFH1 evolved from the ancestral MtCHIT5b by gene duplication and subsequent symbiosis-related neofunctionalization. PMID:27383628

  14. Ciliary neurotrophic factor activates leptin-like pathways and reduces body fat, without cachexia or rebound weight gain, even in leptin-resistant obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, P. D.; Anderson, K. D.; Sleeman, M. W.; Wong, V.; Tan, J.; Hijarunguru, A.; Corcoran, T. L.; Murray, J. D.; Thabet, K. E.; Yancopoulos, G. D.; Wiegand, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) was first characterized as a trophic factor for motor neurons in the ciliary ganglion and spinal cord, leading to its evaluation in humans suffering from motor neuron disease. In these trials, CNTF caused unexpected and substantial weight loss, raising concerns that it might produce cachectic-like effects. Countering this possibility was the suggestion that CNTF was working via a leptin-like mechanism to cause weight loss, based on the findings that CNTF acts via receptors that are not only related to leptin receptors, but also similarly distributed within hypothalamic nuclei involved in feeding. However, although CNTF mimics the ability of leptin to cause fat loss in mice that are obese because of genetic deficiency of leptin (ob/ob mice), CNTF is also effective in diet-induced obesity models that are more representative of human obesity, and which are resistant to leptin. This discordance again raised the possibility that CNTF might be acting via nonleptin pathways, perhaps more analogous to those activated by cachectic cytokines. Arguing strongly against this possibility, we now show that CNTF can activate hypothalamic leptin-like pathways in diet-induced obesity models unresponsive to leptin, that CNTF improves prediabetic parameters in these models, and that CNTF acts very differently than the prototypical cachectic cytokine, IL-1. Further analyses of hypothalamic signaling reveals that CNTF can suppress food intake without triggering hunger signals or associated stress responses that are otherwise associated with food deprivation; thus, unlike forced dieting, cessation of CNTF treatment does not result in binge overeating and immediate rebound weight gain. PMID:11259650

  15. Experimental realization of a two-photon Raman laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, William J.

    1999-11-01

    This thesis describes the development of a novel quantum oscillator known as a two-photon Raman laser. It is based on two-photon stimulated emission in strongly driven potassium atoms. Two-photon lasers were first proposed in the 1960's, but only recently have such devices been experimentally realized. The two-photon Raman laser is an important step forward as it provides the first opportunity to study the turn-on behavior, instabilities, and noise properties of a pure two-photon optical device. The necessary ingredients for a two-photon laser are a medium displaying two-photon laser beam amplification and an optical resonator. In my two-photon Raman laser the amplification arises from a multi-photon process in which state-prepared potassium atoms undergo two-photon Raman transitions. This amplification process was studied using a high-density, small-Doppler-width potassium atomic beam that was driven by a strong pump laser and probed by a weak probe laser. I observed two-photon Raman amplification for a range of pump laser frequencies, atomic beam number densities, and probe beam powers. The two-photon Raman gain is linearly dependent on the input probe power as expected for a two-photon process. This gain mechanism is also spectrally isolated from other mechanisms occurring in strongly driven potassium atoms. The optical resonator consists of a sub-confocal high finesse cavity. The cavity is constructed so that the two-photon Raman process will lase while all other processes are suppressed. The cavity buildup is sufficient to support lasing given the maximum two-photon Raman gain observed in the amplification experiment. Using this apparatus I have observed two-photon lasing. In agreement with theoretical predictions, an external photon source is required to initiate two-photon lasing. I initiated the two-photon laser using an externally injected pulse of light and using a frequency degenerate one-photon process. The two-photon Raman laser threshold was mapped as

  16. SRS in the strong-focusing regime for Raman amplifiers.

    PubMed

    McKay, Aaron; Mildren, Richard P; Coutts, David W; Spence, David J

    2015-06-01

    The theoretical analysis of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) in crystalline amplifiers with a tightly-focused pump geometry is presented. We predict the minimum Stokes seed power required for an efficient Raman power amplifier and verify this result experimentally. Conversion of a pump to a Stokes beam in a single-pass diamond amplifier is demonstrated using nanosecond pulses with gains of 5.8 from a 1.2-kW peak-power Stokes seed beam. The results demonstrate the possibility of amplifying and combining high-power continuous-wave lasers using current diamond Raman laser technology. PMID:26072857

  17. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral investigation, computed IR intensity and Raman activity analysis and frequency estimation analysis on 4-chloro-2-bromoacetophenone using HF and DFT calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalingam, S.; Anbusrinivasan, P.; Periandy, S.

    2011-02-01

    In this work, the experimental and theoretical spectra of 4-chloro-2-bromoacetophenone (4C2BAP) are studied. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of title molecule have been recorded in the region 4000-100 cm -1. The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state have been calculated by using Hartree-Fock and density functional method (B3LYP) with the 6-31G (d, p) and 6-311G (d, p) basis sets. The vibrational frequencies are calculated and scaled values are compared with the experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The DFT (B3LYP/6-311G (d, p)) calculations are more reliable than the ab initio HF/6-311G (d, p) calculations for the vibrational study of 4C2BAP. The optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) are compared with experimental values of the molecule. The alteration of vibrational bands of the carbonyl and acetyl groups due to the presence of halogens (Cl and Br) in the base molecule is also investigated from their characteristic region of linked spectrum.

  18. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectral investigation, computed IR intensity and Raman activity analysis and frequency estimation analysis on 4-chloro-2-bromoacetophenone using HF and DFT calculations.

    PubMed

    Ramalingam, S; Anbusrinivasan, P; Periandy, S

    2011-02-01

    In this work, the experimental and theoretical spectra of 4-chloro-2-bromoacetophenone (4C2BAP) are studied. FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of title molecule have been recorded in the region 4000-100 cm(-1). The structural and spectroscopic data of the molecule in the ground state have been calculated by using Hartree-Fock and density functional method (B3LYP) with the 6-31G (d, p) and 6-311G (d, p) basis sets. The vibrational frequencies are calculated and scaled values are compared with the experimental FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra. The DFT (B3LYP/6-311G (d, p)) calculations are more reliable than the ab initio HF/6-311G (d, p) calculations for the vibrational study of 4C2BAP. The optimized geometric parameters (bond lengths and bond angles) are compared with experimental values of the molecule. The alteration of vibrational bands of the carbonyl and acetyl groups due to the presence of halogens (Cl and Br) in the base molecule is also investigated from their characteristic region of linked spectrum. PMID:21216662

  19. Digital automatic gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uzdy, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Performance analysis, used to evaluated fitness of several circuits to digital automatic gain control (AGC), indicates that digital integrator employing coherent amplitude detector (CAD) is best device suited for application. Circuit reduces gain error to half that of conventional analog AGC while making it possible to automatically modify response of receiver to match incoming signal conditions.

  20. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... trying to do so can have many causes. Metabolism slows down as you age . This can cause weight gain if you eat too much, eat the wrong foods, or do not get enough exercise. Drugs that can cause weight gain include: Birth control ...

  1. Health gain versus equity.

    PubMed

    Scott-Samuel, A

    1992-05-01

    A new organisation, the Association for Public Health, has just been formed 'to help deliver real health gain for the population'. Alex Scott-Samuel suggests that the concept of 'health gain' is counter to health equality and needs wider debate. PMID:1624317

  2. Invention and Gain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Robert J.; Dixon, Stacey

    1989-01-01

    Gain analysis is applied to the invention of the sewing needle as well as different sewing implements and modes of sewing. The analysis includes a two-subject experiment. To validate the generality of gain heuristics and underlying switching processes, the invention of the assembly line is also analyzed. (TJH)

  3. Nanosilver-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic determination of DNA methyltransferase activity through real-time hybridization chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping Ping; Liu, Hui; Zhen, Shu Jun; Li, Chun Mei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-11-15

    In this manuscript, a nanosilver enhanced SERS strategy was successfully constructed for the determination of DNA methyltransferase activity in soulution combined with hybridization chain reaction (HCR). The proposed method was mainly on the basis of excellent separation ability of magnetic microparticles (MMPs), HCR as signal amplification unit and assembled AgNPs as enhancement substrate. In the presence of M. SssI MTase, the duplex sequence (5'-CCGG-3') tethered to MMPs was methylated, which cannot be cleaved by HpaII endonuclease. The resulted DNA skeleton captured on MMPs then triggered the HCR reaction, generated a polymerized and extended symmetrical sequence, in which more biotin terminal was available for the conjugation of AgNPs-SA, leading to significantly amplified SERS response. When it was used to analyze M. SssI activity, a linear equation ∆ISERS=1215.32+446.80 cM.SssI was obtained with the M. SssI activity ranged from 0.1 to 10.0 U with the correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.97. The most important advantage of this method is the combination of SERS and HCR in solution for the first time and its good selectivity, which enabled the detection of even one-base mismatched sequence. The new assay method holds great promising application to be a versatile platform for sensitive, high-throughput detection, and the screening of new anticancer drugs on DNA MTase. PMID:26086442

  4. Raman characterization of platinum diselenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O’Brien, Maria; McEvoy, Niall; Motta, Carlo; Zheng, Jian-Yao; Berner, Nina C.; Kotakoski, Jani; Elibol, Kenan; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Meyer, Jannik C.; Yim, Chanyoung; Abid, Mohamed; Hallam, Toby; Donegan, John F.; Sanvito, Stefano; Duesberg, Georg S.

    2016-06-01

    Platinum diselenide (PtSe2) is a newly discovered 2D material which is of great interest for applications in electronics and catalysis. PtSe2 films were synthesized by thermally assisted selenization of predeposited platinum films and scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed the crystal structure of these films to be 1T. Raman scattering of these films was studied as a function of film thickness, laser wavelength and laser polarization. E g and A 1g Raman active modes were identified using polarization measurements in the Raman setup. These modes were found to display a clear position and intensity dependence with film thickness, for multiple excitation wavelengths, and their peak positions agree with simulated phonon dispersion curves for PtSe2. These results highlight the practicality of using Raman spectroscopy as a prime characterization technique for newly synthesized 2D materials.

  5. PRECONCEPTION PREDICTORS OF WEIGHT GAIN DURING PREGNANCY

    PubMed Central

    Weisman, Carol S.; Hillemeier, Marianne M.; Downs, Danielle Symons; Chuang, Cynthia H.; Dyer, Anne-Marie

    2010-01-01

    Objectives We examined preconception (prepregnancy) predictors of pregnancy weight gain and weight gain that exceeds the 2009 Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations based on pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI), in a prospective study. Methods Data are from a population-based cohort study of 1,420 women who were interviewed at baseline and 2 years later. The analytic sample includes 103 women who were not pregnant at baseline and gave birth to full-term singletons during the follow-up period. Preconception maternal weight category as well as health behaviors, psychosocial stress, parity, and age were examined as predictors of pregnancy weight gain and of weight gain in excess of the IOM recommendations using multiple linear and logistic regression analysis. Results Pregnancy weight gain averaged 33.01 pounds, with 51% of women gaining weight in excess of the 2009 IOM recommendations for their preconception weight category. Preconception overweight (BMI = 25–29.9) increased the odds of excessive pregnancy weight gain nearly threefold, whereas preconception physical activity levels meeting activity guidelines reduced the odds of excessive weight gain but was marginally statistically significant. Conclusion Although future research examining the role of physical activity in relation to pregnancy weight gain is needed, preconception overweight and physical activity levels are prime targets for interventions to avoid excessive pregnancy weight gain. PMID:20133152

  6. Raman Scattering of Azafullerene C48N12

    SciTech Connect

    Manaa, M R

    2004-09-22

    Raman scattering activities and Raman-active frequencies are reported for the minimum energy structure of azafullerene C{sub 48}N{sub 12} at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. Analysis of the vibrational spectrum shows that the most intense IR and Raman bands are those associated with C-C vibrations, and that strong IR and Raman C-N vibrations occur below 1400 cm{sup -1}. Together with the recently reported infrared, optical absorption and x-ray spectroscopies, a complete identification of this cluster should now be feasible.

  7. Solid state Raman image amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmes, Lonnie K.; Murray, James T.; Austin, William L.; Powell, Richard C.

    1998-07-01

    Lite Cycles has developed a new type of eye-safe, range-gated, lidar sensing element based on Solid-state Raman Image Amplification (SSRIA) in a solid-state optical crystal. SSRIA can amplify low-level infrared images with gains greater than 106 with the addition of only quantum-limited noise. The high gains from SSRIA can compensate for low quantum efficiency detectors and can reduce the need for detector cooling. The range-gate of SSRIA is controlled by the pulsewidth of the pump laser and can be as short as 30 - 100 cm for nanosecond pulses and less than 5 mm if picosecond pulses are used. SSRIA results in higher SNR images throughout a broad range of incident light levels, in contrast to the increasing noise factor with reduced gain in image intensified CCDs. A theoretical framework for the optical resolution of SSRIA is presented and it is shown that SSRIA can produce higher resolution than ICCDs. SSRIA is also superior in rejecting unwanted sunlight background, further increasing image SNR, and can be used for real-time optical signal processing. Applications for military use include eye-safe imaging lidars that can be used for autonomous vehicle identification and targeting.

  8. Raman-Enhanced Phase-Sensitive Fibre Optical Parametric Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Xuelei; Guo, Xiaojie; Shu, Chester

    2016-02-01

    Phase-sensitive amplification is of great research interest owing to its potential in noiseless amplification. One key feature in a phase-sensitive amplifier is the gain extinction ratio defined as the ratio of the maximum to the minimum gains. It quantifies the capability of the amplifier in performing low-noise amplification for high phase-sensitive gain. Considering a phase-sensitive fibre optical parametric amplifier for linear amplification, the gain extinction ratio increases with the phase-insensitive parametric gain achieved from the same pump. In this work, we use backward Raman amplification to increase the phase-insensitive parametric gain, which in turn improves the phase-sensitive operation. Using a 955 mW Raman pump, the gain extinction ratio is increased by 9.2 dB. The improvement in the maximum phase-sensitive gain is 18.7 dB. This scheme can significantly boost the performance of phase-sensitive amplification in a spectral range where the parametric pump is not sufficiently strong but broadband Raman amplification is available.

  9. Raman-Enhanced Phase-Sensitive Fibre Optical Parametric Amplifier

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xuelei; Guo, Xiaojie; Shu, Chester

    2016-01-01

    Phase-sensitive amplification is of great research interest owing to its potential in noiseless amplification. One key feature in a phase-sensitive amplifier is the gain extinction ratio defined as the ratio of the maximum to the minimum gains. It quantifies the capability of the amplifier in performing low-noise amplification for high phase-sensitive gain. Considering a phase-sensitive fibre optical parametric amplifier for linear amplification, the gain extinction ratio increases with the phase-insensitive parametric gain achieved from the same pump. In this work, we use backward Raman amplification to increase the phase-insensitive parametric gain, which in turn improves the phase-sensitive operation. Using a 955 mW Raman pump, the gain extinction ratio is increased by 9.2 dB. The improvement in the maximum phase-sensitive gain is 18.7 dB. This scheme can significantly boost the performance of phase-sensitive amplification in a spectral range where the parametric pump is not sufficiently strong but broadband Raman amplification is available. PMID:26830136

  10. Serine Substitution of Proline at Codon 151 of TP53 Confers Gain of Function Activity Leading to Anoikis Resistance and Tumor Progression of Head and Neck Cancer Cells

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Tong-Xin; Zhou, Ge; Zhao, Mei; Sano, Daisuke; Jasser, Samar A; Brennan, Richard G; Myers, Jeffrey N.

    2012-01-01

    Objectives/Hypothesis Mutation of the TP53 gene occurs in over half the cases of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). However, little is known about how specific TP53 mutations affect tumor progression. The objective of this study is to determine the gain of function of mutant p53 with a proline-to-serine substitution at codon 151. Study Design Laboratory based study. Methods A panel of HNSCC cell lines was determined with anoikis assays and orthotopic mouse experiments were performed. TP53 was sequenced. The shRNA knockdown and over-expression approaches were used for testing mutant p53 functions. The crystal structure of the p53 protein was analyzed using an in silico approach. Results An anoikis resistant cell line, Tu138, was found to have a proline-to-serine substitution at codon 151 of TP53, which results in loss of wild-type p53 transcriptional activity. Moreover, the mutant p53 was shown to promote anoikis resistance and soft agar growth. Using an in silico approach based on the crystal structure of wild type p53 protein, substitution of proline by serine at position 151 would create a cavity in a hydrophobic pocket, the loss of van der Waals contacts and the thermodynamically unfavorable placement of a polar group, the hydroxyl oxygen atom of the serine, within a hydrophobic region, all of which likely cause a locally altered structure. Conclusions Our data suggest that mutation at position 151 leads to a structural alteration, which results in significant functional changes in the p53 protein that impact tumor progression. PMID:23625637

  11. Dietary restraint and gestational weight gain

    PubMed Central

    Mumford, Sunni L.; Siega-Riz, Anna Maria; Herring, Amy; Evenson, Kelly R.

    2008-01-01

    Objective To determine whether a history of preconceptional dieting and restrained eating was related to higher weight gains in pregnancy. Design Dieting practices were assessed among a prospective cohort of pregnant women using the Revised Restraint Scale. Women were classified on three separate subscales as restrained eaters, dieters, and weight cyclers. Subjects Participants included 1,223 women in the Pregnancy, Infection and Nutrition Study. Main outcome measures Total gestational weight gain and adequacy of weight gain (ratio of observed/expected weight gain based on Institute of Medicine (IOM) recommendations). Statistical analyses performed Multiple linear regression was used to model the two weight gain outcomes, while controlling for potential confounders including physical activity and weight gain attitudes. Results There was a positive association between each subscale and total weight gain, as well as adequacy of weight gain. Women classified as cyclers gained an average of 2 kg more than non-cyclers, and showed higher observed/expected ratios by 0.2 units. Among restrained eaters and dieters, there was a differential effect by BMI. With the exception of underweight women, all other weight status women with a history of dieting or restrained eating gained more weight during pregnancy and had higher adequacy of weight gain ratios. In contrast, underweight women with a history of restrained eating behaviors gained less weight compared to underweight women without those behaviors. Conclusions Restrained eating behaviors were associated with weight gains above the IOM recommendations for normal, overweight, and obese women, and weight gains below the recommendations for underweight women. Excessive gestational weight gain is of concern given its association with postpartum weight retention. The dietary restraint tool is useful for identifying women who would benefit from nutritional counseling prior to or during pregnancy in regards to achieving targeted

  12. Raman spectroscopy for the microbiological characterization and identification of medically relevant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamasha, Khozima Mahmoud

    The detection and identification of pathogenic bacteria has become more important than ever due to the increase of potential bioterrorism threats and the high mortality rate of bacterial infections worldwide. Raman spectroscopy has recently gained popularity as an attractive robust approach for the molecular characterization, rapid identification, and accurate classification of a wide range of bacteria. In this dissertation, Raman spectroscopy utilizing advanced statistical techniques was used to identify and discriminate between different pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial strains of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial species by probing the molecular compositions of the cells. The five-carbon sugar xylitol, which cannot be metabolized by the oral and nasopharyngeal bacteria, had been recognized by clinicians as a preventive agents for dental caries and many studies have demonstrated that xylitol causes a reduction in otitis media (chronic inner ear infections) and other nasopharyngeal infections. Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the uptake and metabolic activity of xylitol in pathogenic (viridans group Streptococcus) and nonpathogenic (E. coli) bacteria by taking their Raman spectra before xylitol exposure and after growing with xylitol and quantifying the significant differences in the molecular vibrational modes due to this exposure. The results of this study showed significant stable spectral changes in the S. viridians bacteria induced by xylitol and those changes were not the same as in some E. coli strains. Finally, Raman spectroscopy experiments were conducted to provide important information about the function of a certain protein (wag31) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a relative non-pathogenic bacterium called Mycobacterium smegmatis. Raman spectra of conditional mutants of bacteria expressing three different phosphorylation forms of wag31 were collected and analyzed. The results show that that the phosphorylation of wag31

  13. Fabrication of tunable plasmonic substrates using a table-top gold coater and a hot plate, their optical characterization, and surface enhanced Raman activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, A.; Krishnan, A.

    2015-10-01

    We present a simple scalable technique for repeatable fabrication of large area (cm2) electromagnetic hot spots using tunable Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) substrates and their k-space microscopic imaging characterization. The substrates were fabricated simply using a low vacuum air plasma scanning electron microscope gold coater and annealing using a hot plate. The measured permittivity profile and optical transmission characteristics of such substrates showed large changes before and after annealing, with clear changes in the occurrence and position of the LSPR in the visible spectrum. Furthermore, the LSPR wavelength of these substrates was tuned from 537 nm to 630 nm using cyclic deposition and annealing. It was observed that every anneal step could be used to blue shift the resonance, while a deposition step could be used to red shift the resonance, thus giving rise to a wide tunability. We also present the k-space images of the substrates using narrowband fluorescence leakage radiation microscopy and broadband polarization microscopy. The enhanced scattering in these substrates was clearly imaged in the k-space, and the color content in the broadband k-space images correlates well with the spectral characteristics of these substrates that can be used in commercial quality testing without a spectrometer. The optical characteristics of the substrates were attributed to the morphology evolution verified using scanning probe microscopy. A single particle model based simulation was used to evaluate the optical response. The substrates were then tested for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) activity using control experiments involving Rhodamine 6G dye in PMMA matrix of different concentrations with analyte volumes of approximately 200 pl and analytical enhancements of >3 ×104 (net enhancement >1.8 ×107 ) were obtained. The limit of detection was ≈ 10-8 M in low volume (≈200 pl) analyte, reaching the regime of few molecule detection. To

  14. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  15. The many facets of Raman spectroscopy for biomedical analysis.

    PubMed

    Krafft, Christoph; Popp, Jürgen

    2015-01-01

    A critical review is presented on the use of linear and nonlinear Raman microspectroscopy in biomedical diagnostics of bacteria, cells, and tissues. This contribution is combined with an overview of the achievements of our research group. Linear Raman spectroscopy offers a wealth of chemical and molecular information. Its routine clinical application poses a challenge due to relatively weak signal intensities and confounding overlapping effects. Nonlinear variants of Raman spectroscopy such as coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) have been recognized as tools for rapid image acquisition. Imaging applications benefit from the fact that contrast is based on the chemical composition and molecular structures in a label-free and nondestructive manner. Although not label-free, surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has also been recognized as a complementary biomedical tool to increase sensitivity. The current state of the art is evaluated, illustrative examples are given, future developments are pointed out, and important reviews and references from the current literature are selected. The topics are identification of bacteria and single cells, imaging of single cells, Raman activated cell sorting, diagnosis of tissue sections, fiber optic Raman spectroscopy, and progress in coherent Raman scattering in tissue diagnosis. The roles of networks-such as Raman4clinics and CLIRSPEC on a European level-and early adopters in the translation, dissemination, and validation of new methods are discussed. PMID:25428454

  16. Scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active-matrix flat panel imager: Zero-spatial frequency x-ray imaging properties of the solid-state SHARP sensor structure

    PubMed Central

    Wronski, M.; Zhao, W.; Tanioka, K.; DeCrescenzo, G.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: The authors are investigating the feasibility of a new type of solid-state x-ray imaging sensor with programmable avalanche gain: scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active matrix flat panel imager (SHARP-AMFPI). The purpose of the present work is to investigate the inherent x-ray detection properties of SHARP and demonstrate its wide dynamic range through programmable gain. Methods: A distributed resistive layer (DRL) was developed to maintain stable avalanche gain operation in a solid-state HARP. The signal and noise properties of the HARP-DRL for optical photon detection were investigated as a function of avalanche gain both theoretically and experimentally, and the results were compared with HARP tube (with electron beam readout) used in previous investigations of zero spatial frequency performance of SHARP. For this new investigation, a solid-state SHARP x-ray image sensor was formed by direct optical coupling of the HARP-DRL with a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. The x-ray sensitivity of this sensor was measured as a function of avalanche gain and the results were compared with the sensitivity of HARP-DRL measured optically. The dynamic range of HARP-DRL with variable avalanche gain was investigated for the entire exposure range encountered in radiography/fluoroscopy (R/F) applications. Results: The signal from HARP-DRL as a function of electric field showed stable avalanche gain, and the noise associated with the avalanche process agrees well with theory and previous measurements from a HARP tube. This result indicates that when coupled with CsI for x-ray detection, the additional noise associated with avalanche gain in HARP-DRL is negligible. The x-ray sensitivity measurements using the SHARP sensor produced identical avalanche gain dependence on electric field as the optical measurements with HARP-DRL. Adjusting the avalanche multiplication gain in HARP-DRL enabled a very wide dynamic range which encompassed all

  17. Scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active-matrix flat panel imager: Zero-spatial frequency x-ray imaging properties of the solid-state SHARP sensor structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wronski, M.; Zhao, W.; Tanioka, K.; DeCrescenzo, G.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: The authors are investigating the feasibility of a new type of solid-state x-ray imaging sensor with programmable avalanche gain: scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active matrix flat panel imager (SHARP-AMFPI). The purpose of the present work is to investigate the inherent x-ray detection properties of SHARP and demonstrate its wide dynamic range through programmable gain. Methods: A distributed resistive layer (DRL) was developed to maintain stable avalanche gain operation in a solid-state HARP. The signal and noise properties of the HARP-DRL for optical photon detection were investigated as a function of avalanche gain both theoretically and experimentally, and the results were compared with HARP tube (with electron beam readout) used in previous investigations of zero spatial frequency performance of SHARP. For this new investigation, a solid-state SHARP x-ray image sensor was formed by direct optical coupling of the HARP-DRL with a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. The x-ray sensitivity of this sensor was measured as a function of avalanche gain and the results were compared with the sensitivity of HARP-DRL measured optically. The dynamic range of HARP-DRL with variable avalanche gain was investigated for the entire exposure range encountered in radiography/fluoroscopy (R/F) applications. Results: The signal from HARP-DRL as a function of electric field showed stable avalanche gain, and the noise associated with the avalanche process agrees well with theory and previous measurements from a HARP tube. This result indicates that when coupled with CsI for x-ray detection, the additional noise associated with avalanche gain in HARP-DRL is negligible. The x-ray sensitivity measurements using the SHARP sensor produced identical avalanche gain dependence on electric field as the optical measurements with HARP-DRL. Adjusting the avalanche multiplication gain in HARP-DRL enabled a very wide dynamic range which encompassed all

  18. A Simple Raman Spectrometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blond, J. P.; Boggett, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some basic physical ideas about light scattering and describes a simple Raman spectrometer, a single prism monochromator and a multiplier detector. This discussion is intended for British undergraduate physics students. (HM)

  19. Raman spectroscopic analysis of whole blood acetylcholinesterase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilcox, Phillip G.; Kang, Jin U.

    2014-06-01

    Raman spectra were taken from whole sheep's blood with varying levels of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition using 229 and 532 nm laser excitation wavelengths. AChE levels were inhibited using the organophosphates malathion, paraoxon-ethyl, and octamethyldiphosphoramide and confirmed using the Ellman method. This AChE activity level was investigated with the Raman spectra and analyzed using a partial least squares calibration and cross validation to determine if the AChE activity could be predicted from the Raman spectrum. Correlation scores of 0.78 and 0.26 between the measured and predicted AChE activity were observed using 229 and 532 nm excitation, respectively. A estimate limit of detection was found to be approximately 0.01 ΔA/min.

  20. Auger resonant Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, Y.; LeBrun, T.; MacDonald, M.; Southworth, S.H.

    1995-08-01

    As noted above, traditional spectroscopy of the electronic structure of the inner shells of atoms, molecules, and solids is limited by the lifetime broadening of the core-excited states. This limitation can also be avoided with the non-radiative analog of X-ray Raman scattering - resonant Auger Raman spectroscopy. We have used this technique to study the K-shell excitation spectrum of argon as the photon energy is continuously scanned across threshold.

  1. DNA polymorphisms and transcript abundance of PRKAG2 and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase in the rumen are associated with gain and feed intake in beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef steers with variation in feed efficiency phenotypes were evaluated previously on a high density SNP panel. Ten markers from rs110125325-rs41652818 on bovine chromosome 4 were associated with average daily gain (ADG). To identify the gene(s) in this 1.2Mb region responsible for variation in AD...

  2. Raman spectrometric studies of selected lanthanide tribromides and trichlorides

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel, J.F.

    1988-03-01

    Laser Raman spectroscopy was used to identify the crystal structures of lanthanide and actinide compounds. The phonon Raman spectrum is characteristic of the particular crystal structure. GdCl/sub 3/ exhibits two crystal structures, the UCl/sub 3/-type hexagonal and the PuBr/sub 3/-type orthorhombic. In the literature it is reported that the low temperature form is orthorhombic; results of experiments here suggest that it is hexagonal. Interconversion between these two forms can be accomplished with temperature andor pressure. In the present work laser Raman spectrometry was used to monitor crystal structure changes in GdCl/sub 3/ as a function of temperature or pressure to determine the temperature or pressure at which the hexagonal-to-orthorhombic transformation occurs. Raman spectroscopy was also used to determine the symmetry assignments for the Raman-active bands of a single crystal. Raman spectra of polycrystalline NdBr/sub 3/ have been recorded at room temperature and pressure and at approximately 100/degree/K. In addition, polarized Raman spectra of a single crystal NdBr/sub 3/ have been measured. Based on these polarization measurements, symmetry assignments of eight Raman-active modes were made. These assignments are useful in interpreting the phonon Raman spectrum of any compound exhibiting the PuBr/sub 3/-type orthorhombic structure. 24 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. Electromagnetically induced gain in molecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Nandini; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2009-12-01

    We report electromagnetically induced gain in a highly degenerate two-level rotational vibrational molecular system. Using two photon (Raman-type) interaction with right and left circularly polarized pump and probe waves, the Zeeman coherence is established within the manifold of degenerate sublevels belonging to a rotational vibrational eigenstate. We analytically and numerically calculate the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility for a Doppler-broadened molecular transition for an arbitrary high rotational angular momentum (J≥20) . It is shown that for a Q -type open transition, a weak probe will experience an electromagnetically induced gain in presence of a strong copropagating pump wave. The inversionless gain originates due to cancellation of absorption from the interference of the coupled Λ - and V-type excitation channels in an N -type configuration. A detailed analysis of the optical susceptibility as a function of Doppler detuning explains how the gain bands are generated in a narrow transparency window from the overlapping contributions of different velocity groups. It is shown that the orientation dependent coherent interaction in presence of a strong pump induces narrow resonances for the probe susceptibility. The locations, intensity, and sign (positive or negative susceptibility) of these resonances are decided by the frequency detuning of the Doppler group and the strength of the coupling field. The availability of high power tunable quantum cascade lasers covering a spectral region from about 4 to 12μm opens up the possibility of investigating the molecular vibrational rotational transitions for a variety of coherent effects.

  4. Highly sensitive detection of nanoparticles with a self-referenced and self-heterodyned whispering-gallery Raman microlaser

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Zhu, Jiangang; Yang, Xu; Peng, Bo; Yilmaz, Huzeyfe; He, Lina; Monifi, Faraz; Huang, Steven He; Long, Gui Lu; Yang, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Optical whispering-gallery-mode resonators (WGMRs) have emerged as promising platforms for label-free detection of nano-objects. The ultimate sensitivity of WGMRs is determined by the strength of the light–matter interaction quantified by quality factor/mode volume, Q/V, and the resolution is determined by Q. To date, to improve sensitivity and precision of detection either WGMRs have been doped with rare-earth ions to compensate losses and increase Q or plasmonic resonances have been exploited for their superior field confinement and lower V. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, enhanced detection of single-nanoparticle-induced mode splitting in a silica WGMR via Raman gain-assisted loss compensation and WGM Raman microlaser. In particular, the use of the Raman microlaser provides a dopant-free, self-referenced, and self-heterodyned scheme with a detection limit ultimately determined by the thermorefractive noise. Notably, we detected and counted individual nanoparticles with polarizabilities down to 3.82 × 10−6 μm3 by monitoring a heterodyne beatnote signal. This level of sensitivity is achieved without exploiting plasmonic effects, external references, or active stabilization and frequency locking. Single nanoparticles are detected one at a time; however, their characterization by size or polarizability requires ensemble measurements and statistical averaging. This dopant-free scheme retains the inherited biocompatibility of silica and could find widespread use for sensing in biological media. The Raman laser and operation band of the sensor can be tailored for the specific sensing environment and the properties of the targeted materials by changing the pump laser wavelength. This scheme also opens the possibility of using intrinsic Raman or parametric gain for loss compensation in other systems where dissipation hinders progress and limits applications. PMID:25197086

  5. Preparation of a Superhydrophobic and Peroxidase-like Activity Array Chip for H2O2 Sensing by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi; Park, Yeonju; Chen, Lei; Zhao, Bing; Jung, Young Mee; Cong, Qian

    2015-10-28

    In this paper, we propose a novel and simple method for preparing a dual-biomimetic functional array possessing both superhydrophobic and peroxidase-like activity that can be used for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensing. The proposed method is an integration innovation that combines the above two properties and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We integrated a series of well-ordered arrays of Au points (d = 1 mm) onto a superhydrophobic copper (Cu)/silver (Ag) surface by replicating an arrayed molybdenum template. Instead of using photoresists and the traditional lithography method, we utilized a chemical etching method (a substitution reaction between Cu and HAuCl4) with a Cu/Ag superhydrophobic surface as the barrier layer, which has the benefit of water repellency. The as-prepared Au points were observed to possess peroxidase-like activity, allowing for catalytic oxidation of the chromogenic molecule o-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (OPD). Oxidation was evidenced by a color change in the presence of H2O2, which allows the array chip to act as an H2O2 sensor. In this study, the water repellency of the superhydrophobic surface was used to fabricate the array chip and increase the local reactant concentration during the catalytic reaction. As a result, the catalytic reaction occurred when only 2 μL of an aqueous sample (OPD/H2O2) was placed onto the Au point, and the enzymatic product, 2,3-diaminophenazine, showed a SERS signal distinguishable from that of OPD after mixing with 2 μL of colloidal Au. Using the dual-biomimetic functional array chip, quantitative analysis of H2O2 was performed by observing the change in the SERS spectra, which showed a concentration-dependent behavior for H2O2. This method allows for the detection of H2O2 at concentrations as low as 3 pmol per 2 μL of sample, which is a considerable advantage in H2O2 analysis. The as-prepared substrate was convenient for H2O2 detection because only a small amount of sample was required in

  6. Raman structural studies of the nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, Bahne C.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation have been to define the structures of charged active mass, discharged active mass, and related precursor materials (alpha-phases), with the purpose of better understanding the chemical and electrochemical reactions, including failure mechanisms and cobalt incorporation, so that the nickel electrode may be improved. Although our primary tool has been Raman spectroscopy, the structural conclusions drawn from the Raman data have been supported and augmented by three other analysis methods: infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (in particular EXAFS, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy).

  7. Progress report of FY 1998 activities: The application of Kalman filtering to derive water vapor profiles from combined ground-based sensors: Raman lidar, microwave radiometers, GPS, and radiosondes

    SciTech Connect

    Edgeworth R. Westwater; Yong Han

    1999-10-01

    Previously, the proposers have delivered to ARM a documented algorithm, that is now applied operationally, and which derives water vapor profiles from combined remote sensor measurements of water vapor radiometers, cloud-base ceilometers, and radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS). With the expanded deployment of a Raman lidar at the CART Central Facility, high quality, high vertical-resolution, water vapor profiles will be provided during nighttime clear conditions, and during clear daytime conditions, to somewhat lower altitudes. The object of this effort is to use Kalman Filtering, previously applied to the combination of nighttime Raman lidar and microwave radiometer data, to derive high-quality water vapor profiles, during non-precipitating conditions, from data routinely available at the CART site. Input data to the algorithm would include: Raman lidar data, highly quality-controlled data of integrated moisture from microwave radiometers and GPS, RASS, and radiosondes. The focus of this years activities has been on the intercomparison of data obtained during the Water Vapor Intensive Operating Period'97 at the SGP CART site in central Oklahoma.

  8. Progress report of FY 1997 activities: The application of Kalman filtering to derive water vapor profiles from combined ground-based sensors: Raman lidar, microwave radiometers, GPS, and radiosondes

    SciTech Connect

    Edgeworth R. Westwater; Yong Han

    1997-10-05

    Previously, the proposers have delivered to ARM a documented algorithm, that is now applied operationally, and which derives water vapor profiles from combined remote sensor measurements of water vapor radiometers, cloud-base ceilometers, and radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS). With the expanded deployment of a Raman lidar at the CART Central Facility, high quality, high vertical-resolution, water vapor profiles will be provided during nighttime clear conditions, and during clear daytime conditions, to somewhat lower altitudes. The object of this proposal was to use Kalman Filtering, previously applied to the combination of nighttime Raman lidar and microwave radiometer data, to derive high-quality water vapor profiles, during non-precipitating conditions, from data routinely available at the CART site. Input data to the algorithm would include: Raman lidar data, highly quality-controlled data of integrated moisture from microwave radiometers and GPS, RASS, and radiosondes. The algorithm will include recently-developed quality control procedures for radiometers. The focus of this years activities has been on the intercomparison of data obtained during an intensive operating period at the SGP CART site in central Oklahoma.

  9. Analysis of Raman lasing without inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Paul Martin

    1999-12-01

    Properties of lasing without inversion were studied analytically and numerically using Maple computer assisted algebra software. Gain for probe electromagnetic field without population inversion in detuned three level atomic schemes has been found. Matter density matrix dynamics and coherence is explored using Pauli matrices in 2-level systems and Gell-Mann matrices in 3-level systems. It is shown that extreme inversion produces no coherence and hence no lasing. Unitary transformation from the strict field-matter Hamiltonian to an effective two-photon Raman Hamiltonian for multilevel systems has been derived. Feynman diagrams inherent in the derivation show interesting physics. An additional picture change was achieved and showed cw gain possible. Properties of a Raman-like laser based on injection of 3- level coherently driven Λ-type atoms whose Hamiltonian contains the Raman Hamiltonian and microwave coupling the two bottom states have been studied in the limits of small and big photon numbers in the drive field. Another picture change removed the microwave coupler to all orders and simplified analysis. New possibilities of inversionless generation were found.

  10. Simultaneous Dual-Wavelength Operation of Nd-Doped Yttrium Orthovanadate Self-Raman Laser at 1175 nm and Undoped Gadolinium Orthovanadate Raman Laser at 1174 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, Hongbin; Wang, Qingpu; Zhang, Xingyu; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Chu; Chen, Xiaohan; Cong, Zhenhua; Bai, Fen; Liu, Zhaojun

    2013-04-01

    A diode-pumped actively Q-switched Nd-doped yttrium orthovanadate self-Raman emission at 1175 nm and undoped gadolinium orthovanadate Raman emission at 1174 nm dual-wavelength laser is demonstrated. With the pump power of 20.5 W and pulse repetition frequency of 20 kHz, the maximum dual-wavelength output power of 1.52 W was obtained, which contained a 0.71 W 1174 nm Raman laser component and a 0.81 W 1175 nm self-Raman laser component. The corresponding dual-wavelength Raman pulse width was 14.8 ns. Experimental results indicated that the dual-wavelength Raman laser with a small wavelength separation was effectively realized through simultaneous self-Raman and Raman shift.

  11. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  12. Raman Barcode for Counterfeit Drug Product Detection.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Latevi S; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2016-05-01

    Potential infiltration of counterfeit drug products-containing the wrong or no active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-into the bona fide drug supply poses a significant threat to consumers worldwide. Raman spectroscopy offers a rapid, nondestructive avenue to screen a high throughput of samples. Traditional qualitative Raman identification is typically done with spectral correlation methods that compare the spectrum of a reference sample to an unknown. This is often effective for pure materials but is quite challenging when dealing with drug products that contain different formulations of active and inactive ingredients. Typically, reliable identification of drug products using common spectral correlation algorithms can only be made if the specific product under study is present in the library of reference spectra, thereby limiting the scope of products that can be screened. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the Raman barcode for identification of drug products by comparing the known peaks in the API reference spectrum to the peaks present in the finished drug product under study. This method requires the transformation of the Raman spectra of both API and finished drug products into a barcode representation by assigning zero intensity to every spectral frequency except the frequencies that correspond to Raman peaks. By comparing the percentage of nonzero overlap between the expected API barcode and finished drug product barcode, the identity of API present can be confirmed. In this study, 18 approved finished drug products and nine simulated counterfeits were successfully identified with 100% accuracy utilizing this method. PMID:27043140

  13. All-normal dispersion supercontinuum generation in the near-infrared by Raman conversion in standard optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louot, Christophe; Capitaine, Erwan; Shalaby, Badr M.; Krupa, Katarzyna; Tonello, Alessandro; Pagnoux, Dominique; Lefort, Claire; Leproux, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate all-normal dispersion supercontinuum generation in the 1080 nm-1600 nm range by propagating subnanosecond pulses in a high numerical aperture standard optical fiber. The extreme saturation of the Raman gain provides a flat spectrum in the considered range, making this broadband source particularly suitable for coherent Raman spectroscopy. This unusual regime of supercontinuum generation (Raman gain saturation regime) is investigated through an experimental spectrotemporal study. The possibility of operating spectrometer-free time-coded coherent Raman spectroscopy is introduced.

  14. Correlation between Active Center Structure and Enhanced Dioxygen Binding in Co(salen) Nanoparticles: Characterization by In Situ Infrared, Raman, and X-ray Absorption Spectroscopies

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson,C.; Long, B.; Nguyen, J.; Day, V.; Borovik, A.; Subramaniam, B.; Guzman, J.

    2008-01-01

    The structure and ligand environment of Co(salen) nanoparticles and unprocessed Co(salen) have been determined by the combined application of infrared, Raman, X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES), and extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopies, and X-ray diffraction (XRD) experiments before and during interaction with O2. The Co(salen) nanoparticles were prepared by the precipitation with compressed antisolvent (PCA) technique using commercially obtained Co(salen) [denoted as unprocessed Co(salen)] as the parent compound. The unprocessed Co(salen) particles exist as dimer species with a square-pyramidal coordination geometry that display no measurable O2 binding at room temperature. In sharp contrast, the Co(salen) nanoparticles show near-stoichiometric O2 adsorption, as demonstrated by microbalance gas binding experiments. The spectroscopy results indicate the presence of CoII centers with distorted tetrahedral geometry in the Co(salen) nanoparticles with no evidence of metallic Co clusters, confirmed by the lack of Co-Co contributions at bonding distances in the EXAFS spectra and the presence of characteristic features of CoII in the XANES spectra. The EXAFS data also indicate that there are on average two Co-N and two Co-O bonds with a distance of 1.81 {+-} 0.02 and 1.90 {+-} 0.02 Angstroms, respectively, consistent with typical metal salen structures. Upon O2 binding on the Co(salen) nanoparticles, the XANES results indicate oxidation of the CoII to CoIII, consistent with the vibrational data showing new bands associated with oxygen species bonded to Co centers and the increase in the oxygen coordination number from 1.8 to 2.9 in the EXAFS data. The results indicate that the enhanced O2 binding properties of Co(salen) nanoparticles are related to the unique distorted tetrahedral geometry, which is not observed in the unprocessed samples that contain mainly dimers with square planar geometry. The results presented here provide a

  15. Early metabolic adaptation in C57BL/6 mice resistant to high fat diet induced weight gain involves an activation of mitochondrial oxidative pathways.

    PubMed

    Boulangé, Claire L; Claus, Sandrine P; Chou, Chieh J; Collino, Sebastiano; Montoliu, Ivan; Kochhar, Sunil; Holmes, Elaine; Rezzi, Serge; Nicholson, Jeremy K; Dumas, Marc E; Martin, François-Pierre J

    2013-04-01

    We investigated the short-term (7 days) and long-term (60 days) metabolic effect of high fat diet induced obesity (DIO) and weight gain in isogenic C57BL/6 mice and examined the specific metabolic differentiation between mice that were either strong-responders (SR), or non-responders (NR) to weight gain. Mice (n = 80) were fed a standard chow diet for 7 days prior to randomization into a high-fat (HF) (n = 56) or a low-fat (LF) (n = 24) diet group. The (1)H NMR urinary metabolic profiles of LF and HF mice were recorded 7 and 60 days after the diet switch. On the basis of the body weight gain (BWG) distribution of HF group, we identified NR mice (n = 10) and SR mice (n = 14) to DIO. Compared with LF, HF feeding increased urinary excretion of glycine conjugates of β-oxidation intermediate (hexanoylglycine), branched chain amino acid (BCAA) catabolism intermediates (isovalerylglycine, α-keto-β-methylvalerate and α-ketoisovalerate) and end-products of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) metabolism (N1-methyl-2-pyridone-5-carboxamide, N1-methyl-4-pyridone-3-carboxamide) suggesting up-regulation of mitochondrial oxidative pathways. In the HF group, NR mice excreted relatively more hexanoylglycine, isovalerylglycine, and fewer tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle intermediate (succinate) in comparison to SR mice. Thus, subtle regulation of ketogenic pathways in DIO may alleviate the saturation of the TCA cycle and mitochondrial oxidative metabolism. PMID:23473242

  16. Raman gas analyzer applicability to monitoring of gaseous air pollution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrov, D. V.; Matrosov, I. I.; Tikhomirov, A. A.

    2015-11-01

    It is shown that the main problem, arising when designing a stationary Raman gas analyzer intended to monitor gaseous air pollutions, is to get SRS signals of sufficient intensity. The engineering solutions are presented that provide the required sensitivity (~ 50-100 ppb). It is achieved by compressing a gas medium under analysis and gaining intensity of the exciting laser radiation.

  17. Wide-Field Raman Imaging of Dental Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Shan; Li, Bolan; Akkus, Anna; Akkus, Ozan; Lang, Lisa

    2014-01-01

    Detection of dental caries at the onset remains as a great challenge in dentistry. Raman spectroscopy could be successfully applied towards detecting caries since it is sensitive to the amount of the Raman active mineral crystals, the most abundant component of enamel. Effective diagnosis requires full examination of a tooth surface via a Raman mapping. Point-scan Raman mapping is not clinically relevant (feasible) due to lengthy data acquisition time. In this work, a wide-field Raman imaging system was assembled based on a high-sensitivity 2D CCD camera for imaging the mineralization status of teeth with lesions. Wide-field images indicated some lesions to be hypomineralized and others to be hypermineralized. The observations of wide-field Raman imaging were in agreement with point-scan Raman mapping. Therefore, sound enamel and lesions can be discriminated by Raman imaging of the mineral content. In conclusion, wide-field Raman imaging is a potentially useful tool for visualization of dental lesions in the clinic. PMID:24781363

  18. Raman rogue waves in a partially mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Runge, Antoine F J; Aguergaray, Claude; Broderick, Neil G R; Erkintalo, Miro

    2014-01-15

    We report on an experimental study of spectral fluctuations induced by intracavity Raman conversion in a passively partially mode-locked, all-normal dispersion fiber laser. Specifically, we use dispersive Fourier transformation to measure single-shot spectra of Raman-induced noise-like pulses, demonstrating that for low cavity gain values Raman emission is sporadic and follows rogue-wave-like probability distributions, while a saturated regime with Gaussian statistics is obtained for high pump powers. Our experiments further reveal intracavity rogue waves originating from cascaded Raman dynamics. PMID:24562136

  19. Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic investigation on Lamiaceae plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösch, P.; Popp, J.; Kiefer, W.

    1999-05-01

    The essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgaris are studied by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The containing monoterpenes can be identified by their Raman spectra. Further the essential oils are investigated in their natural environment, the so-called oil cells of these Lamiaceae plants, with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). This method has the advantage to enhance Raman signals and furthermore the SERS effect leads to fluorescence quenching.

  20. A theoretical/experimental program to develop active optical pollution sensors: Quantitative remote Raman lidar measurements of pollutants from stationary sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poultney, S. K.; Brumfield, M. L.; Siviter, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Typical pollutant gas concentrations at the stack exits of stationary sources can be estimated to be about 500 ppm under the present emission standards. Raman lidar has a number of advantages which makes it a valuable tool for remote measurements of these stack emissions. Tests of the Langley Research Center Raman lidar at a calibration tank indicate that night measurements of SO2 concentrations and stack opacity are possible. Accuracies of 10 percent are shown to be achievable from a distance of 300 m within 30 min integration times for 500 ppm SO2 at the stack exits. All possible interferences were examined quantitatively (except for the fluorescence of aerosols in actual stack emissions) and found to have negligible effect on the measurements. An early test at an instrumented stack is strongly recommended.

  1. Laser-driven growth of silver nanoplates on p-Type GaAs substrates and their surface-enhanced raman scattering activity.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; Pelton, M.

    2009-03-20

    Contact between aqueous solutions of silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) and pristine surfaces of p-type gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafers results in essentially no reaction at room temperature and in the dark. The galvanic reactions between the GaAs wafers and AgNO{sub 3} can be triggered under illumination of laser beams with power densities higher than a critical value ({approx}15 mW/cm{sup 2} for a 630 nm laser), resulting in the growth of silver (Ag) nanoplates on the GaAs surface. The density and dimensions (including both thickness and edge length) of the resulting nanoplates can be readily tuned by controlling the growth time and laser power density. The as-grown Ag nanoplates on the substrates significantly enhance Raman signals of interesting molecules and serve as a new class of promising surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates for sensitive chemical detection.

  2. Lattice parameters and Raman-active phonon modes of (In{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x})₂O₃ for x<0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Kranert, Christian Lenzner, Jörg; Jenderka, Marcus; Lorenz, Michael; Wenckstern, Holger von; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius

    2014-07-07

    We present X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy investigations of (In{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x})₂O₃ thin films and bulk-like ceramics in dependence of their composition. The thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition have a continuous lateral composition spread allowing the determination of phonon mode properties and lattice parameters with high sensitivity to the composition from a single 2-in. wafer. In the regime of low indium concentration, the phonon energies depend linearly on the composition and show a good agreement between both sample types. We determined the slopes of these dependencies for eight different Raman modes. While the lattice parameters of the ceramics follow Vegard's rule, deviations are observed for the thin films. Further, we found indications of the high-pressure phase InGaO₃ II in the thin films above a critical indium concentration, its value depending on the type of substrate.

  3. Near-field enhanced ultraviolet resonance Raman spectroscopy using aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna.

    PubMed

    Li, Ling; Fang Lim, Shuang; Puretzky, Alexander A; Riehn, Robert; Hallen, H D

    2012-09-10

    An aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna is combined with the resonance Raman effect in the deep ultraviolet to dramatically increase the sensitivity of Raman spectra to a small volume of material, such as benzene used here. We further demonstrate gradient-field Raman peaks for several strong infrared modes. We achieve a gain of [Formula: see text] in signal intensity from the near field enhancement due to the surface plasmon resonance in the aluminum nanostructure. The on-line resonance enhancement contributes another factor of several thousands, limited by the laser line width. Thus, an overall gain of hundreds of million is achieved. PMID:23066168

  4. Raman spectroscopy of composites

    SciTech Connect

    Young, R.J.; Andrews, M.C.; Yang, X.; Huang, Y.L.; Gu, X.; Day, R.J.

    1994-12-31

    It is demonstrated that Raman Spectroscopy can be used to follow the micromechanics of the deformation of high-performance fibers within composites. The technique can be applied to a wide range of fiber systems including aramids, carbon and ceramic (using fluorescence spectroscopy) fibers. Well-defined Raman spectra are obtained and the position of the Raman bands shift on the application of stress or strain. It is possible to determine the point-to-point variation of strain along an individual fiber inside a transparent matrix under any general state of stress or strain. Examples are given of the use of the technique to study a variety of phenomena in a wide range of composite systems. The phenomena investigated include thermal stresses, fiber/matrix adhesion, matrix yielding for both fragmentation and pull-out tests. The systems studied include aramid/epoxy, carbon/epoxy and ceramic-fiber/glass composites.

  5. Raman spectroscopy in astrobiology.

    PubMed

    Jorge Villar, Susana E; Edwards, Howell G M

    2006-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is proposed as a valuable analytical technique for planetary exploration because it is sensitive to organic and inorganic compounds and able to unambiguously identify key spectral markers in a mixture of biological and geological components; furthermore, sample manipulation is not required and any size of sample can be studied without chemical or mechanical pretreatment. NASA and ESA are considering the adoption of miniaturised Raman spectrometers for inclusion in suites of analytical instrumentation to be placed on robotic landers on Mars in the near future to search for extinct or extant life signals. In this paper we review the advantages and limitations of Raman spectroscopy for the analysis of complex specimens with relevance to the detection of bio- and geomarkers in extremophilic organisms which are considered to be terrestrial analogues of possible extraterrestial life that could have developed on planetary surfaces. PMID:16456933

  6. A simple analytic model of a cw multicascade fibre Raman laser

    SciTech Connect

    Bufetov, Igor' A; Dianov, Evgenii M

    2000-10-31

    A simple model of a multicascade fibre Raman laser is considered and analytic expressions are obtained for its output characteristics. The efficiency of the Raman laser is shown to be determined to a considerable extent by the lumped optical loss of the cavity. A proposal is made to estimate the quality of optical fibres as an active medium for multicascade fibre Raman lasers from the efficiency of the model Raman laser. (lasers)

  7. FT-Raman Spectroscopy: A Catalyst for the Raman Explosion?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Bruce

    2007-01-01

    The limitations of Fourier transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy, which is used to detect and analyze the scattered radiation, are discussed. FT-Raman has served to revitalize a field that was lagging and the presence of Raman instrumentation as a routine analytical tool is established for the foreseeable future.

  8. Theoretical studies of Resonance Enhanced Stimulated Raman Scattering (RESRS) of frequency-doubled Alexandrite laser wavelength in cesium vapor. Progress report, January-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Lawandy, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    The solutions for the imaginary susceptibility of the Raman field transition with arbitrary relaxation rates and field strengths are examined for three different sets of relaxation rates. These rates correspond to: (1) Far Infrared (FIR) Raman lasers in the diabatic collision regime without consideration of coupled population decay in a closed system, (2) Raman FIR lasers in the diabatic collision regime with coupled population conserving decay, and (3) IR Raman gain in cesium vapor. The model is further expanded to include Doppler broadening and used to predict the peak gain as a function of detuning for a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser-pumped cesium vapor gain cell.

  9. Fiber enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frosch, T.; Yan, D.; Hanf, S.; Popp, J.

    2014-05-01

    Fiber enhanced Raman sensing is presented for versatile and extremely sensitive analysis of pharmaceutical drugs and biogenic gases. Elaborated micro-structured optical fibers guide the light with very low losses within their hollow core and provide at the same time a miniaturized sample container for the analytes. Thus, fiber enhanced Raman spectroscopy (FERS) allows for chemically selective detection of minimal sample amounts with high sensitivity. Two examples are presented in this contribution: (i) the detection of picomolar concentrations of pharmaceutical drugs; and (ii) the analysis of biogenic gases within a complex mixture of gases with analytical sensitivities in the ppm range.

  10. Advanced Raman water vapor lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Melfi, S. Harvey; Ferrare, Richard A.; Evans, Keith A.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Staley, O. Glenn; Disilvestre, Raymond W.; Gorin, Inna; Kirks, Kenneth R.; Mamakos, William A.

    1992-01-01

    Water vapor and aerosols are important atmospheric constituents. Knowledge of the structure of water vapor is important in understanding convective development, atmospheric stability, the interaction of the atmosphere with the surface, and energy feedback mechanisms and how they relate to global warming calculations. The Raman Lidar group at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) developed an advanced Raman Lidar for use in measuring water vapor and aerosols in the earth's atmosphere. Drawing on the experience gained through the development and use of our previous Nd:YAG based system, we have developed a completely new lidar system which uses a XeF excimer laser and a large scanning mirror. The additional power of the excimer and the considerably improved optical throughput of the system have resulted in approximately a factor of 25 improvement in system performance for nighttime measurements. Every component of the current system has new design concepts incorporated. The lidar system consists of two mobile trailers; the first (13m x 2.4m) houses the lidar instrument, the other (9.75m x 2.4m) is for system control, realtime data display, and analysis. The laser transmitter is a Lambda Physik LPX 240 iCC operating at 400 Hz with a XeF gas mixture (351 nm). The telescope is a .75m horizontally mounted Dall-Kirkham system which is bore sited with a .8m x 1.1m elliptical flat which has a full 180 degree scan capability - horizon to horizon within a plane perpendicular to the long axis of the trailer. The telescope and scan mirror assembly are mounted on a 3.65m x .9m optical table which deploys out the rear of the trailer through the use of a motor driven slide rail system. The Raman returns from water vapor (403 nm), nitrogen (383 nm) and oxygen (372 nm) are measured in addition to the direct Rayleigh/Mie backscatter (351). The signal from each of these is split at about a 5/95 ratio between two photomultiplier detectors. The 5 percent detector is used for

  11. High purity efficient first Stokes Raman laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiaomeng; Liu, Qinyong; Li, Daijun; Du, Keming

    2015-02-01

    The subject of the solid-state Raman frequency conversion to the yellow frequency spectra has been an active topic since the mid 1990's, because of its application in bio-medical and astronomy fields. However, the yellow laser performance is often limited because of the cascade conversion to second or higher Stokes. This cascade conversion not only limits the conversion efficiency and the output power of the first Stokes, but also degrades the pulse and the beam profile of the first Stokes. We present a type of polarization coupled Raman resonator, in which the higher order ( the second Stokes and higher ) laser output can be dramatically suppressed. Our Raman resonator is pumped by a Q-switched and frequency doubled slab laser, and we can get an almost pure (P559/(P559 +P532)>99%) 559 nm yellow light output with an efficiency over 39% from 532 nm to 559 nm. The resonator includes a high reflection rear mirror, a KGW crystal, a polarization coupled input/output element, and a high reflection output coupler of 559 nm (R559 nm = 0.6). Furthermore, we have proposed an improvement of this polarization coupled Raman resonator. The theoretical calculations of the temporal and spatial dependent Raman conversion equations show that the conversion efficiency of the first order Stokes is greatly enhanced with an additionalλ/2 waveplate for 589 nm and the BBO crystal.

  12. Raman solitons with group velocity dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skryabin, D. V.; Yulin, A. V.

    2006-10-01

    We consider the coupled propagation of the pump and Stokes waves in a Raman active medium accounting for the group velocity walk off and group velocity dispersion. Interplay of the Raman coherence and the dispersion can lead to the formation of a complete band gap in the spectrum of linear waves consisting of the two consecutive subgaps located at different frequencies. Using an approximate analytic technique, we find exponentially localized solitons residing in the complete gap, and find algebraic solitons when the gap is closed. Feasibility of observation of these structures in hollow fibers is discussed.

  13. S-band multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser utilizing fiber Bragg grating and Raman amplifier in the ring cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anwar, Nur Elina; Ahmad Hambali, N. A. M.; Sohaimi, M. Syazwan; M. Shahimin, M.; A. Wahid, M. H.; Yusof, N. Roshidah; Malek, A. Zakiah

    2015-08-01

    This paper is focusing on simulation and analyzed of S-band multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser performance utilizing fiber Bragg grating and Raman amplifier in ring cavity by using Optisystem software. Raman amplifieraverage power model is employed for signal amplification. This laser system is operates in S-band wavelength region due to vast demanding on transmitting the information. Multi-wavelength fiber lasers based on hybrid Brillouin-Raman gain configuration supported by Rayleigh scattering effect have attracted significant research interest due to its ability to produced multi-wavelength signals from a single light source. In multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber, single mode fiber is utilized as the nonlinear gain medium. From output results, 90 % output coupling ratio has ability to provide the maximum average output power of 43 dBm at Brillouin pump power of 20 dBm and Raman pump power of 14 dBm. Furthermore, multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser utilizing fiber Bragg grating and Raman amplifier is capable of generated 7 Brillouin Stokes signals at 1480 nm, 1510 nm and 1530 nm.

  14. Amoco technique gains support

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Amoco Corp.`s low-cost horizontal drilling technique and equipment are gaining acceptance in the oilpatch after five years of design and fine-tuning work. The system is purely mechanical, and it`s designed to operate with a workover rig instead of a drilling rig. It`s engineered to drill short-radius horizontal wells with lateral sup to 1,000 feet, so far.

  15. Nanoplasmonic Raman detection of bromate in water.

    PubMed

    Kulakovich, O S; Shabunya-Klyachkovskaya, E V; Matsukovich, A S; Rasool, Kashif; Mahmoud, Khaled A; Gaponenko, S V

    2016-01-25

    The possibility of using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection method for bromate-anion determination and quantitative evaluation in water has been demonstrated for the first time. The decreasing of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) Raman peaks intensity has been used as the analytical signal corresponding to the catalytic oxidation by bromate. Electrostatically immobilized silver nanoparticles have been proven as efficient SERS-active substrate. A linear relationship between the Raman intensity of Rh6G as a function of BrO(3)(-) was observed in the range of 0 - 10(-7) М and the detect limit was as low as 10(-10) M (nearly 0.01 μg/L). The results prove the potential of the proposed method for further application in the development of new portable SERS-based sensors for drinking water monitoring with high sensitivity, simplicity and the low cost. PMID:26832571

  16. A laser gyro with a four-mirror square resonator: quantitative estimation of the dependence of the synchronisation zone parameters of the frequencies of counterpropagating waves on the active-medium gain

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarenko, Evgenii A

    2012-05-31

    For a laser gyro with a four-mirror square resonator (with a perimeter of 20 cm) we have calculated, on the basis of the previously developed [see Bondarenko E.A. Quantum Electron., 41, 824 (2011)] model, the dependence of the parameters of the synchronisation zone of the frequencies of counterpropagating waves on the active-medium gain. The results obtained are in qualitative agreement with known experimental data for gyroscopes with three-mirror resonators.

  17. Old-age, survivors, and disability insurance and Supplemental Security Income for the aged, blind, and disabled; substantial gainful activity amounts; "services" for trial work period purposes--monthly amounts; student child earned income exclusion. Social Security Administration. Final rules.

    PubMed

    2000-12-29

    We are revising the rules to automatically adjust each year, based on any increases in the national average wage index, the average monthly earnings guideline we use to determine whether work done by persons with impairments other than blindness is substantial gainful activity; provide that we will ordinarily find that an employee whose average monthly earnings are not greater than the "primary substantial gainful activity amount," has not engaged in substantial gainful activity without considering other information beyond the employee's earnings; increase the minimum amount of monthly earnings and the minimum number of self-employed work hours in month that we consider shows that a person receiving title II Social Security benefits based on disability is performing or has performed "services" during a trial work period, and automatically adjust the earnings amount each year thereafter; increase the maximum monthly and yearly Student Earned Income Exclusion amounts we use in determining Supplemental Security Income (SSI) Program eligibility and payment amounts for student children, and automatically adjust the monthly and yearly exclusion amounts each year thereafter. We are revising these rules as part of our efforts to encourage individuals with disabilities to test their ability to work and keep working. We expect that these changes will provide greater incentives for many beneficiaries to attempt to work or, if already working, to continue to work or increase their work effort. PMID:11503739

  18. The Athena Raman Spectrometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Alian; Haskin, Larry A.; Jolliff, Bradley; Wdowiak, Tom; Agresti, David; Lane, Arthur L.

    2000-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy provides a powerful tool for in situ mineralogy, petrology, and detection of water and carbon. The Athena Raman spectrometer is a microbeam instrument intended for close-up analyses of targets (rock or soils) selected by the Athena Pancam and Mini-TES. It will take 100 Raman spectra along a linear traverse of approximately one centimeter (point-counting procedure) in one to four hours during the Mars' night. From these spectra, the following information about the target will extracted: (1) the identities of major, minor, and trace mineral phases, organic species (e.g., PAH or kerogen-like polymers), reduced inorganic carbon, and water-bearing phases; (2) chemical features (e.g. Mg/Fe ratio) of major minerals; and (3) rock textural features (e.g., mineral clusters, amygdular filling and veins). Part of the Athena payload, the miniaturized Raman spectrometer has been under development in a highly interactive collaboration of a science team at Washington University and the University of Alabama at Birmingham, and an engineering team at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. The development has completed the brassboard stage and has produced the design for the engineering model.

  19. Gain-assisted control of the Goos-Haenchen shift

    SciTech Connect

    Ziauddin,; Qamar, Sajid

    2011-11-15

    A gain-assisted model is considered to study the Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift behavior in the reflected and transmitted light. In this model, a probe light is incident on a cavity containing three-level dilute gaseous atomic medium. The atom-field interaction follows two-photon Raman transitions, and the dielectric susceptibility of the medium exhibits dispersion and gain properties [L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature (London) 406, 227 (2000)]. Under appropriate conditions, two gain peaks are observed with anomalous dispersion between the peaks, whereas normal dispersion can be observed at and around the gain maxima. The manipulation of the detuning associated with the probe light field which interacts with the intracavity medium during its propagation through the cavity can lead to a control over negative and positive GH shift in the reflected and transmitted light beam via the anomalous and normal dispersion of the medium.

  20. Helicopter high gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T. B.; Nunn, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    High gain control is explored through a design study of the CH-47B helicopter. The plans are designed to obtain the maximum bandwidth possible given the hardware constraints. Controls are designed with modal control theory to specific bandwidths and closed loop mode shapes. Comparisons are made to an earlier complementary filter approach. Bandwidth improvement by removal of limitations is explored in order to establish hardware and mechanization options. Improvements in the pitch axis control system and in the rate gyro sensor noise characteristics in all axes are discussed. The use of rotor state feedback is assessed.

  1. Timing jitter of Raman solitons.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Gengji; Xin, Ming; Kaertner, Franz X; Chang, Guoqing

    2015-11-01

    We study the relative intensity noise (RIN) and timing jitter of a Raman soliton. We demonstrate that the RIN of an excitation pulse causes center-wavelength fluctuations of the resulting Raman soliton which translates by fiber dispersion into relative timing jitter (RTJ) between the Raman soliton and the excitation pulse. The Raman soliton's absolute timing jitter is dominated by the excitation pulse's timing jitter at low frequency and by the RTJ at high frequency. The experimental study reveals that RTJ can be significantly reduced by reducing the accumulated fiber dispersion (e.g., using less dispersive fibers with shorter length) experienced by the Raman soliton. PMID:26512530

  2. Cicada wing decorated by silver nanoparticles as low-cost and active/sensitive substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Zhang, Chang Xing; Deng, Li; Zhang, Guo Xin; Xu, Hai Jun; Sun, Xiao Ming

    2014-06-01

    A green, low-cost and highly efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was achieved by a chemical deposition of silver nanoparticles on a cicada wing, which has the large-scale nanosized protrusions on its surface. Employing the already-formed Ag/cicada wing as substrate for SERS detection, the detection limit for rhodamine 6G could reach 10-7M, the Raman enhancement factor of the substrate was as large as 106 and the relative standard deviation remains lower than 7%. The three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation results showed that two types of inter-Ag-nanoparticle nanogaps in the formed geometry created a huge number of SERS "hot spots" where the electromagnetic field is substantially amplified and contributes to the higher SERS sensitivity. Meanwhile, the water contact angle of the SERS substrate is roughly 150°, which indicates the super-hydrophobic surface of the substrate. This feature may be conducive to the gathering of target molecules during the SERS detection, which in turn further improves the detection limit of target molecules. In order to improve the application of the substrate, thiram was used as the probe molecule, and the detection limit also reached 10-7 M. Meanwhile, the calibration of the Raman peak intensities of Rhodamine 6G and thiram allowed their quantitative detection. Therefore, the green and low-cost SERS substrates could be used for fast and quantitative detection of trace organic molecules. Our findings may contribute to the development of the green and low-cost SERS substrates and will allow the fast and quantitative detection of trace organic molecules.

  3. Proximal and point detection of contaminated surfaces using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guicheteau, Jason A.; Christesen, Steven D.; Tripathi, Ashish; Emmons, Erik D.; Wilcox, Phillip G.; Emge, Darren K.; Pardoe, Ian J.; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-11-01

    We are actively investigating the use of Raman spectroscopy for proximal standoff detection of chemicals and explosive materials on surfaces. These studies include Raman Chemical Imaging of contaminated fingerprints for forensic attribution and the assessments of commercial handheld or portable Raman instruments operating with near-infrared (IR) as well as ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation specifically developed for on-the-move reconnaissance of chemical contamination. As part of these efforts, we have measured the Raman cross sections of chemical agents, toxic industrial chemicals, and explosives from the UV to NIR. We have also measured and modeled the effect interrogation angle has on the Raman return from droplets on man-made surfaces. Realistic droplet distributions have been modeled and tested against variations in surface scan patterns and laser spot size for determining the optimum scan characteristics for detection of relevant surface contamination.

  4. Role of Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Cerys A; Lewis, Paul D; Dunstan, Peter R; Harris, Dean A

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cancer in the United Kingdom and is the second largest cause of cancer related death in the United Kingdom after lung cancer. Currently in the United Kingdom there is not a diagnostic test that has sufficient differentiation between patients with cancer and those without cancer so the current referral system relies on symptomatic presentation in a primary care setting. Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) are forms of vibrational spectroscopy that offer a non-destructive method to gain molecular information about biological samples. The techniques offer a wide range of applications from in vivo or in vitro diagnostics using endoscopic probes, to the use of micro-spectrometers for analysis of biofluids. The techniques have the potential to detect molecular changes prior to any morphological changes occurring in the tissue and therefore could offer many possibilities to aid the detection of CRC. The purpose of this review is to look at the current state of diagnostic technology in the United Kingdom. The development of Raman spectroscopy and SERS in clinical applications relation for CRC will then be discussed. Finally, future areas of research of Raman/SERS as a clinical tool for the diagnosis of CRC are also discussed. PMID:27190582

  5. Cavity-enhanced Raman microscopy of individual carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Hümmer, Thomas; Noe, Jonathan; Hofmann, Matthias S.; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Högele, Alexander; Hunger, David

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy reveals chemically specific information and provides label-free insight into the molecular world. However, the signals are intrinsically weak and call for enhancement techniques. Here, we demonstrate Purcell enhancement of Raman scattering in a tunable high-finesse microcavity, and utilize it for molecular diagnostics by combined Raman and absorption imaging. Studying individual single-wall carbon nanotubes, we identify crucial structural parameters such as nanotube radius, electronic structure and extinction cross-section. We observe a 320-times enhanced Raman scattering spectral density and an effective Purcell factor of 6.2, together with a collection efficiency of 60%. Potential for significantly higher enhancement, quantitative signals, inherent spectral filtering and absence of intrinsic background in cavity-vacuum stimulated Raman scattering render the technique a promising tool for molecular imaging. Furthermore, cavity-enhanced Raman transitions involving localized excitons could potentially be used for gaining quantum control over nanomechanical motion and open a route for molecular cavity optomechanics. PMID:27402165

  6. Remote Raman Sensor System for Testing of Rocks and Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Christopher S.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Ismail, Syed; Sanford, Stephen P.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani

    2007-01-01

    Recent and future explorations of Mars and lunar surfaces through rovers and landers have spawned great interest in developing an instrument that can perform in-situ analysis of minerals on planetary surfaces. Several research groups have anticipated that for such analysis, Raman spectroscopy is the best suited technique because it can unambiguously provide the composition and structure of a material. A remote pulsed Raman spectroscopy system for analyzing minerals was demonstrated at NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with the University of Hawaii. This system utilizes a 532 nm pulsed laser as an excitation wavelength, and a telescope with a 4-inch aperture for collecting backscattered radiation. A spectrograph equipped with a super notch filter for attenuating Rayleigh scattering is used to analyze the scattered signal. To form the Raman spectrum, the spectrograph utilizes a holographic transmission grating that simultaneously disperses two spectral tracks on the detector for increased spectral range. The spectrum is recorded on an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera system, which provides high gain to allow detection of inherently weak Stokes lines. To evaluate the performance of the system, Raman standards such as calcite and naphthalene are analyzed. Several sets of rock and gemstone samples obtained from Ward s Natural Science are tested using the Raman spectroscopy system. In addition, Raman spectra of combustible substances such acetone and isopropanol are also obtained. Results obtained from those samples and combustible substances are presented.

  7. Cavity-enhanced Raman microscopy of individual carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hümmer, Thomas; Noe, Jonathan; Hofmann, Matthias S; Hänsch, Theodor W; Högele, Alexander; Hunger, David

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy reveals chemically specific information and provides label-free insight into the molecular world. However, the signals are intrinsically weak and call for enhancement techniques. Here, we demonstrate Purcell enhancement of Raman scattering in a tunable high-finesse microcavity, and utilize it for molecular diagnostics by combined Raman and absorption imaging. Studying individual single-wall carbon nanotubes, we identify crucial structural parameters such as nanotube radius, electronic structure and extinction cross-section. We observe a 320-times enhanced Raman scattering spectral density and an effective Purcell factor of 6.2, together with a collection efficiency of 60%. Potential for significantly higher enhancement, quantitative signals, inherent spectral filtering and absence of intrinsic background in cavity-vacuum stimulated Raman scattering render the technique a promising tool for molecular imaging. Furthermore, cavity-enhanced Raman transitions involving localized excitons could potentially be used for gaining quantum control over nanomechanical motion and open a route for molecular cavity optomechanics. PMID:27402165

  8. Applications of Group Theory: Infrared and Raman Spectra of the Isomers of cis- and trans-1,2-DICHLOROETHYLENE

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craig, Norman C.

    2015-06-01

    A study of the vibrational spectra of cis- and trans-1,2-dichloroethylene provides an excellent way for undergraduates to gain experience with the application of group theory in the physical chemistry laboratory. Although the group vibrations are similar for these two molecules, the selection rules for infrared (IR) and Raman spectra differ significantly. Most of the transitions for the fundamentals of the cis isomer of C2v symmetry are both IR and Raman active. Mutual exclusion for the vibrational transitions applies to the centrosymmetric trans isomer of C2h symmetry. Thus, half the transitions for the trans isomer are IR active and half are Raman active. The two isomers are volatile enough that gas-phase IR spectra can be recorded at room temperature. Band shapes in gas-phase IR spectra provide additional evidence for assignments of fundamentals. The two isomers are small enough that good quality quantum chemical calculations of harmonic frequencies can be done by students with commercial software.

  9. Stimulated Raman scattering holography for time-resolved imaging of methane gas.

    PubMed

    Amer, Eynas; Gren, Per; Edenharder, Stefan; Sjödahl, Mikael

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, pulsed digital holographic detection is coupled to the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) process for imaging gases. A Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (532 nm) has been used to pump methane gas (CH4) at pressures up to 12 bars. The frequency-tripled (355 nm) beam from the same laser was used to pump an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The Stokes beam (from the OPO) has been tuned to 629.93 nm so that the frequency difference between the pump (532 nm) and the Stokes beams fits a Raman active vibrational mode of the methane molecule (2922  cm-1). The pump beam has been spatially modulated with fringes produced in a Michelson interferometer. The pump and the Stokes beams were overlapped in time, space, and polarization on the gas molecules, resulting in a stimulated Raman gain of the Stokes beam and a corresponding loss of the pump beam through the SRS process. The resulting gain of the Stokes beam has been detected using pulsed digital holography by blending it with a reference beam on the detector. Two holograms of the Stokes beam, without and with the pump beam fringes present, were recorded. Intensity maps calculated from the recorded digital holograms showed amplification of the Stokes beam at the position of overlap with the pump beam fringes and the gas molecules. The gain of the Stokes beam has been separated from the background in the Fourier domain. A gain of about 4.5% at a pump beam average intensity of 4  MW/cm2 and a Stokes beam intensity of 0.16  MW/cm2 have been recorded at a gas pressure of 12 bars. The gain decreased linearly with decreasing gas pressure. The results show that SRS holography is a promising technique to pinpoint a specific species and record its spatial and temporal distribution. PMID:27140351

  10. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1983-07-19

    Disclosed is a regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO[sub 2] laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplifier Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO[sub 2] laser pump signal. 6 figs.

  11. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-01-27

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.

  12. Ring cavity for a raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1983-07-19

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO.sub.2 laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplifier Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO.sub.2 laser pump signal.

  13. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifir

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-01-27

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.

  14. 150 W highly-efficient Raman fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Taylor, Luke R; Calia, Domenico Bonaccini

    2009-12-21

    We report a more than 150 W spectrally-clean continuous wave Raman fiber laser at 1120 nm with an optical efficiency of 85%. A approximately 30 m standard single mode silica fiber is used as Raman gain fiber to avoid second Stokes emission. A spectrally asymmetric resonator (in the sense of mirror reflection bandwidth) with usual fiber Bragg gratings is designed to minimize the laser power lost into the unwanted direction, even when the effective reflectivity of the rear fiber Bragg grating becomes as low as 81.5%. PMID:20052078

  15. Prismatic louver active façades for natural illumination and thermal energy gain in high-rise and commercial buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachokostas, A.; Volkmann, C.; Madamopoulos, N.

    2013-06-01

    High-rise and commercial buildings in urban centers present a great challenge in terms of their energy consumption. Due to maximization of rentable square footage, the preferred urban façade system over the past 50 years has been the "curtain wall", only a few inches thick and comprised of modular steel or aluminum framing and predominant glass infills. The perceived Achilles heel of these modern glass façade systems is their thermal inefficiency: They are inadequate thermal barriers and exhibit excessive solar gain. The excessive solar gain has a negative impact on lighting and cooling loads of the entire building. This negative impact will be further exacerbated with rising energy costs. However, rather than view the glass façade's uncontrolled solar gain merely as a weakness contributing to higher energy consumption, the condition could indeed be considered as related to an energy solution. These glass façades can be retrofitted to operate as a provider of daylight and energy for the rest of the building, taking advantage of the overexposure to the sun. With today's technology, the sun's abundant renewable energy can be the driving force for the energy transition of these building envelopes. Illumination, thermal energy, and electricity production can be directly supplied from the sun, and when correctly and efficiently managed, they can lead to a significantly less energy-intensive building stock. We propose a multi-purpose, prismatic, louver-based façade to perform both daylight and thermal energy harvesting with a goal of offering a better daylight environment for the occupants, and reduce the energy consumption and carbon footprint of the building. While decentralized air-conditioning units are commonly accepted as façade "plug-ins", such decentralization could be utilized with more benefits by passively managing the interior space conditions, without using any extra power. Just as living organisms respond and adapt to the environmental changes in

  16. FT-IR, FT-Raman and DFT study of 3,3'-bis (trifluoromethyl) benzophenone and its biological activity with other halogen (Cl, Br) atoms.

    PubMed

    Mahalakshmi, G; Balachandran, V

    2014-04-24

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 3,3'-bis (trifluoromethyl) benzophenone (TFMBP) were recorded and analyzed. Natural bond orbital analysis on TFMBP, 3,3'-bis (trichloromethyl) benzophenone (TCMBP) and 3,3'-bis (tribromomethyl) benzophenone (TBMBP) has been carried out for various intramolecular interactions that are responsible for the stabilization of the molecule. HOMO-LUMO energy gap of the halogen substitution (Cl, Br) has been computed with the help of density functional theory. The statistical thermodynamic functions (heat capacity, entropy, vibrational partition function and Gibbs energy) were obtained for the range of temperature 100-1000 K. The polarizability, first hyperpolarizability, anisotropy polarizability invariant has been computed using quantum chemical calculations. The infrared and Raman spectra were also predicted from the calculated intensities. Comparison of the experimental and theoretical spectra values provides important information about the ability of the computational method to describe the vibrational modes. UV-VIS spectral analyses of TFMBP have been researched by theoretical calculations. In order to understand electronic transitions of the compound, TD-DFT calculations on electronic absorption spectra in gas phase and solvent (DMSO and Chloroform) were performed. The calculated frontier orbital energies, absorption wavelengths (λ), oscillator strengths (ƒ) and excitation energies (E) for gas phase and solvent (water and methanol) are also illustrated. PMID:24503154

  17. Lattice parameters and Raman-active phonon modes of β-(Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}){sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Kranert, Christian Jenderka, Marcus; Lenzner, Jörg; Lorenz, Michael; Wenckstern, Holger von; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius

    2015-03-28

    We present X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy investigations of a (100)-oriented (Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film on MgO (100) and bulk-like ceramics in dependence on their composition. The thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition has a continuous lateral composition spread allowing to determine precisely the dependence of the phonon mode properties and lattice parameters on the chemical composition. For x < 0.4, we observe the single-phase β-modification. Its lattice parameters and phonon energies depend linearly on the composition. We determined the slopes of these dependencies for the individual lattice parameters and for nine Raman lines, respectively. While the lattice parameters of the ceramics follow Vegard's rule, deviations are observed for the thin film. This deviation has only a small effect on the phonon energies, which show a reasonably good agreement between thin film and ceramics.

  18. Fluctuation effects on the Raman scattering from the charge-density-wave system TTF-TCNQ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Y.; Eldridge, J. E.

    1998-08-01

    The resonant Raman spectrum of TTF-TCNQ has been measured from room temperature to 10 K, using a Fourier Raman spectrometer. Only features due to the TCNQ molecule are observed. New Raman lines appear at temperatures below 150 K as the fluctuating charge-density wave (CDW) occurs. The intensity of the new Raman lines increases with decreasing temperature. In addition to the Raman allowed modes, we observe numerous lines originating from the usually infrared-active-only modes, which become Raman active via the Fröhlich interaction in the fluctuating and static CDW phases. The appearance of the strong out-of-plane intramolecular B3u vibrational modes of TCNQ confirms an earlier x-ray study that found that the CDW on the TCNQ chain involved such an out-of-plane distortion of the TCNQ molecule. The condensation of the longitudinal acoustic phonon is also observed in the Raman spectrum.

  19. Stimulated Raman photoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Zhang, Hao F.; Noojin, Gary D.; Denton, Michael L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2010-01-01

    Achieving label-free, molecular-specific imaging with high spatial resolution in deep tissue is often considered the grand challenge of optical imaging. To accomplish this goal, significant optical scattering in tissues has to be overcome while achieving molecular specificity without resorting to extrinsic labeling. We demonstrate the feasibility of developing such an optical imaging modality by combining the molecularly specific stimulated Raman excitation with the photoacoustic detection. By employing two ultrashort excitation laser pulses, separated in frequency by the vibrational frequency of a targeted molecule, only the specific vibrational level of the target molecules in the illuminated tissue volume is excited. This targeted optical absorption generates ultrasonic waves (referred to as stimulated Raman photoacoustic waves) which are detected using a traditional ultrasonic transducer to form an image following the design of the established photoacoustic microscopy. PMID:21059930

  20. Comprehensive quantum chemical and spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR) investigations of O-desmethyltramadol hydrochloride an active metabolite in tramadol--an analgesic drug.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, V; Santhanam, R; Marchewka, M K; Mohan, S

    2014-03-25

    O-desmethyltramadol is one of the main metabolites of tramadol widely used clinically and has analgesic activity. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of O-desmethyl tramadol hydrochloride are recorded in the solid phase in the regions 4000-400 cm(-1) and 4000-100 cm(-1), respectively. The observed fundamentals are assigned to different normal modes of vibration. Theoretical studies have been performed as its hydrochloride salt. The structure of the compound has been optimised with B3LYP method using 6-31G(**) and cc-pVDZ basis sets. The optimised bond length and bond angles are correlated with the X-ray data. The experimental wavenumbers were compared with the scaled vibrational frequencies determined by DFT methods. The IR and Raman intensities are determined with B3LYP method using cc-pVDZ and 6-31G(d,p) basic sets. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces of the molecule are constructed by using B3LYP/cc-pVDZ method to display electrostatic potential (electron+nuclei) distribution. The electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured. Natural bond orbital analysis of O-desmethyltramadol hydrochloride has been performed to indicate the presence of intramolecular charge transfer. The (1)H and (13)C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule have been anlysed. PMID:24316546

  1. C. V. Raman and the Discovery of the Raman Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajinder

    In 1928 the Indian physicist C. V. Raman (1888-1970) discovered the effect named after him virtually simultaneously with the Russian physicists G. S. Landsberg (1890-1957) and L. I. Mandelstam (1879-1944). I first provide a biographical sketch of Raman through his years in Calcutta (1907-1932) and Bangalore (after 1932). I then discuss his scientific work in acoustics, astronomy, and optics up to 1928, including his views on Albert Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis and on Arthur Holly Compton's discovery of the Compton effect, with particular reference to Compton's debate on it with William Duane in Toronto in 1924, which Raman witnessed. I then examine Raman's discovery of the Raman effect and its reception among physicists. Finally, I suggest reasons why Landsberg and Mandelstam did not share the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1930 with Raman.

  2. Central Gain Control in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Benjamin D.; Rodrigues, Paulo V.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders. PMID:25386157

  3. The STAT3 HIES mutation is a gain-of-function mutation that activates genes via AGG-element carrying promoters.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li; Ji, Jin-Jun; Le, Wangping; Xu, Yan S; Dou, Dandan; Pan, Jieli; Jiao, Yifeng; Zhong, Tianfei; Wu, Dehong; Wang, Yumei; Wen, Chengping; Xie, Guan-Qun; Yao, Feng; Zhao, Heng; Fan, Yong-Sheng; Chin, Y Eugene

    2015-10-15

    Cytokine or growth factor activated STAT3 undergoes multiple post-translational modifications, dimerization and translocation into nuclei, where it binds to serum-inducible element (SIE, 'TTC(N3)GAA')-bearing promoters to activate transcription. The STAT3 DNA binding domain (DBD, 320-494) mutation in hyper immunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES), called the HIES mutation (R382Q, R382W or V463Δ), which elevates IgE synthesis, inhibits SIE binding activity and sensitizes genes such as TNF-α for expression. However, the mechanism by which the HIES mutation sensitizes STAT3 in gene induction remains elusive. Here, we report that STAT3 binds directly to the AGG-element with the consensus sequence 'AGG(N3)AGG'. Surprisingly, the helical N-terminal region (1-355), rather than the canonical STAT3 DBD, is responsible for AGG-element binding. The HIES mutation markedly enhances STAT3 AGG-element binding and AGG-promoter activation activity. Thus, STAT3 is a dual specificity transcription factor that promotes gene expression not only via SIE- but also AGG-promoter activity. PMID:26384563

  4. Performance study of macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid optical fiber amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahran, O.

    2015-10-01

    In this paper, we present an analytical study of a (macro-bending EDFA)/Raman hybrid optical amplifier. The bending radius is 4 mm with EDFA length 10 m with forward pump power in the range (100-500 mW) and Raman amplifier length (12-55 km) with backward pump power variations (80-200 mW) is considered in our model. Due to bending loss in EDFA, the gain of hybrid amplifier is increased to ~7 dB more than the normal EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier and the noise figure is decreased by ~2 dB rather than without macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier. The signal to noise ratio (OSNR) calculations shows a better performance of macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier than without macro-bending one. A flat gain is obtained in the signal wavelength region (1560-1600 nm), which is the L-band. The calculated results for macro-bending case are compared with experimental results of normal case by Lee et al., in the L-band showing an increase in the gain, reduction in the noise figure and more gain flatness at the input signal -20 dBm for macro-bending EDFA/Raman hybrid amplifier.

  5. Optimization of a Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier based on dual-order stimulated Raman scattering using a single-pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaohui; Zhao, Chun-Liu; Wen, Yang Jing; Lu, Chao; Wang, Yixin; Chen, Jian

    2006-09-01

    Based on dual-order stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of a single 1395 nm Raman fiber laser in 75 km single mode fiber and its corresponding dispersion compensation module, a hybrid Raman/Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) for long wavelength band (L-band) amplification is realized by inserting a segment of EDF within the span. By comparing the performance of gain and noise in four hybrid amplifiers with different span configurations, we find that the distribution of the secondary L-band amplification obtained from the EDF along the link has a great influence on the performance of the hybrid amplifier. Both gain and noise performance of hybrid amplifier can be improved significantly by optimizing the location of the EDF. Moreover, we can extend the flat gain bandwidth from L-band to central wavelength band (C-band) plus L-band by recycling the residual first-order SRS to pump a segment of EDF with proper length.

  6. Molecular selectivity of graphene-enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shengxi; Ling, Xi; Liang, Liangbo; Song, Yi; Fang, Wenjing; Zhang, Jin; Kong, Jing; Meunier, Vincent; Dresselhaus, Mildred S

    2015-05-13

    experimentally supported by the change of the UV-visible absorption spectra of molecules when in contact with graphene and these conclusions are theoretically corroborated by first-principles calculations. These research findings are important for gaining fundamental insights into the graphene-molecule interaction and the chemical mechanism in Raman enhancement, as well as for advancing the role of such understanding both in guiding chemical and molecule detection applications and in medical and biological technology developments. PMID:25821897

  7. Magnetron sputtering of silver nanowires using anodic aluminum oxide template: a new active substrate of surface enhanced Raman scattering and an investigation of its enhanced mechanism.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lisheng; Zhang, Pengxiang; Fang, Yan

    2007-05-22

    A high quality anodic aluminum oxide (AAO) template with ordered apertures about 50-80 nm was fabricated by anodizing aluminum in electrolytes through a two-step method, and silver nanowires with diameters from 40 nm to 70 nm were prepared on this AAO template by magnetron sputtering. On the glass covered with silver nanowires, high quality surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) spectra of sudan II (C18H16N2O) with enhancement factors of 10(5) were obtained. And comparison of SERS spectra on silver nanowires with the SERS spectra of silver colloids indicates that main enhanced mode is lightning rod effect of nanorods on the Sudan II/silver nanowires system. PMID:17481411

  8. Specific Anti-Leukemic Activity of the Peptide Warnericin RK and Analogues and Visualization of Their Effect on Cancer Cells by Chemical Raman Imaging.

    PubMed

    Loiseau, Clémence; Augenstreich, Jacques; Marchand, Adrienne; Harté, Etienne; Garcia, Martine; Verdon, Julien; Mesnil, Marc; Lecomte, Sophie; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides can be used as therapeutic agents against cancer cells. Warnericin RK and derivatives (WarnG20D and WarnF14V) were tested on various, solid tumor or leukemia, cancer cells. These peptides appeared to be cytotoxic on all the cell types tested, cancerous as well healthy, but very interestingly displayed no deleterious effect on healthy mononuclear cells. The mode of action of the peptide was proposed to be membranolytic, using chemical Raman imaging. Addition of peptide induced a large disorganization of the membrane leading to the loss of the content of inner compartments of Jurkat cell, whereas no effect was observed on the healthy mononuclear cells. The less hemolytic peptides WarnG20D and WarnF14V could be good candidates for the leukemia treatment. PMID:27598770

  9. Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.; Tsvetkov, M.; Bagratashvily, V.

    2013-07-01

    In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm-1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva.

  10. Teacher-and Child-Managed Academic Activities in Preschool and Kindergarten and Their Influence on Children's Gains in Emergent Academic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Annika K. E.; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool ("n"?=?8) and kindergarten ("n"?=?8) classrooms revealed that classrooms differed…

  11. Raman Amplification and Tunable Pulse Delays in Silicon Waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Premaratne, Malin; Garanovich, Ivan L.; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Agrawal, Govind P.

    2010-10-07

    The nonlinear process of stimulated Raman scattering is important for silicon photonics as it enables optical amplification and lasing. However, generally employed numerical approaches provide very little insight into the contribution of different silicon Raman amplifier (SRA) parameters. In this paper, we solve the coupled pump-signal equations analytically and derive an exact formula for the envelope of a signal pulse when picosecond optical pulses are amplified inside a SRA pumped by a continuous-wave laser beam. Our solution is valid for an arbitrary pulse shape and fully accounts for the Raman gain-dispersion effects, including temporal broadening and group-velocity reduction. Our results are useful for optimizing the performance of SRAs and for engineering controllable signal delays.

  12. Cochlear gain control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Heijden, Marcel

    2005-03-01

    The nonlinear auditory phenomena of compression, suppression, and distortion are known to have a cochlear-mechanical origin. An instantaneous nonlinear transfer function is often assumed to underlie these phenomena, but there are experimental indications that auditory nonlinearity is sluggish rather than instantaneous. This study analyzes the consequences of such sluggishness, using automatic gain control (AGC) as a model noninstantaneous nonlinearity. The distinctive characteristic of AGC, its delayed action, is shown to produce a number of observable and measurable effects that distinguish AGC from instantaneous nonlinearities. A major class of such AGC-specific effects concerns the phase of aural distortion products. For example, the phase of the cancellation tone in the classical psychoacoustic cancellation paradigm is linearly related to the frequency spacing of the primary tones in an AGC, as opposed to the square-law relationship produced by an instantaneous nonlinearity. These and other predictions are confronted with experimental data from the literature. The impact of putative AGC-related delays on the interpretation of distortion product otoacoustic emissions (DPOAEs) is discussed. Detailed suggestions are made for experiments specifically aimed at determining whether cochlear nonlinearity is instantaneous or delayed. .

  13. Managing price, gaining profit.

    PubMed

    Marn, M V; Rosiello, R L

    1992-01-01

    The fastest and most effective way for a company to realize maximum profit is to get its pricing right. The right price can boost profit faster than increasing volume will; the wrong price can shrink it just as quickly. Yet many otherwise tough-minded managers miss out on significant profits because they shy away from pricing decisions for fear that they will alienate their customers. Worse, if management isn't controlling its pricing policies, there's a good chance that the company's clients are manipulating them to their own advantage. McKinsey & Company's Michael Marn and Robert Rosiello show managers how to gain control of the pricing puzzle and capture untapped profit potential by using two basic concepts: the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band. The pocket price waterfall reveals how price erodes between a company's invoice figure and the actual amount paid by the customer--the transaction price. It tracks the volume purchase discounts, early payment bonuses, and frequent customer incentives that squeeze a company's profits. The pocket price band plots the range of pocket prices over which any given unit volume of a single product sells. Wide price bands are commonplace: some manufacturers' transaction prices for a given product range 60%; one fastener supplier's price band ranged up to 500%. Managers who study their pocket price waterfalls and bands can identify unnecessary discounting at the transaction level, low-performance accounts, and misplaced marketing efforts. The problems, once identified, are typically easy and inexpensive to remedy. PMID:10121318

  14. Raman Spectroscopy Cell-based Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Notingher, Ioan

    2007-01-01

    One of the main challenges faced by biodetection systems is the ability to detect and identify a large range of toxins at low concentrations and in short times. Cell-based biosensors rely on detecting changes in cell behaviour, metabolism, or induction of cell death following exposure of live cells to toxic agents. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for studying cellular biochemistry. Different toxic chemicals have different effects on living cells and induce different time-dependent biochemical changes related to cell death mechanisms. Cellular changes start with membrane receptor signalling leading to cytoplasmic shrinkage and nuclear fragmentation. The potential advantage of Raman spectroscopy cell-based systems is that they are not engineered to respond specifically to a single toxic agent but are free to react to many biologically active compounds. Raman spectroscopy biosensors can also provide additional information from the time-dependent changes of cellular biochemistry. Since no cell labelling or staining is required, the specific time dependent biochemical changes in the living cells can be used for the identification and quantification of the toxic agents. Thus, detection of biochemical changes of cells by Raman spectroscopy could overcome the limitations of other biosensor techniques, with respect to detection and discrimination of a large range of toxic agents. Further developments of this technique may also include integration of cellular microarrays for high throughput in vitro toxicological testing of pharmaceuticals and in situ monitoring of the growth of engineered tissues.

  15. On Comparing Transition Rate Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuterberg, Sven-Eric

    This report is about the problem of making transition or enrollment rate gains comparable. It is shown that measures based on the proportions themselves, i.e. the difference between proportions, the proportion ratio and the residual gain ratio do not make the gains comparable. Instead a non-linear transformation has to be done. Two such…

  16. Should I Gain Weight?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of moderate to vigorous physical activity every day. Strength training , when done safely, is a healthy way to ... you've hit puberty, the right amount of strength training will help your muscles become stronger and have ...

  17. Terahertz-wave parametric gain of stimulated polariton scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takida, Yuma; Shikata, Jun-ichi; Nawata, Kouji; Tokizane, Yu; Han, Zhengli; Koyama, Mio; Notake, Takashi; Hayashi, Shin'ichiro; Minamide, Hiroaki

    2016-04-01

    We have experimentally determined the terahertz- (THz-) wave parametric gain of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) by phonon-polaritons in LiNb O3 . Our approach is based on ultrabright THz-wave generation from SRS under stimulated Brillouin scattering suppression with subnanosecond pump pulses. To obtain the frequency dependence of the parametric gain, we measured the crystal-length dependence of the THz-wave output directly using a surface-coupling configuration. We found that the product of the parametric gain and the threshold crystal length is constant throughout the tuning range. Our result provides a physical basis for the design and performance enhancement of SRS-based ultrabright tabletop THz-wave sources for various applications.

  18. Airflow models gaining clout

    SciTech Connect

    Post, N.M.

    1994-10-10

    Move over, mock-ups. So long, smoke bombs. Take a walk, wind tunnels. Computational fluid dynamics, a spaceage simulation technique, is gaining velocity in the building community. And the design of inner spaces may never be the same. CFD is an equation-intensive computer modeling method that can simulate transient and steady-state airflow patterns and temperature gradients, indoors or out. CFD is used to downsize heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, locate air outlets, and in general, create spaces that offer creature comfort, provide quality air and use less energy. The method is good for new construction, retrofits and forensic work, for example to investigate a building fire or a contaminant. In a room, CFD helps engineers consider, over a period of time, the combined impacts of ventilation, size, shape, contents, weather, even fenestration. For its first decade or two, CFD stayed the near-exclusive domain of aerospace, defense and electronics. With few exceptions, the building community could not afford the supercomputers that were needed to run the tens of thousands of equations involved. However, in the past few years, thanks to the increasing power and decreasing cost of computers, CFD simulation became practical. Curtain wall designers are even using it, though not without some controversy. Indoor air quality specialists, smoke and fire-spread researchers, laboratory designers, energy engineers, code writers, architects, and plant and building engineers are uncharacteristically upbeat about the tool. {open_quotes}CFD modeling is so many light years ahead of design tools that exist,{close_quotes} says Mariano Rodriguez, director of research and development for architect The Hillier Group, Princeton, N.J. {open_quotes}It`s the next step up from a wind tunnel test, and you don`t need a $300,000 wind tunnel.{close_quotes}

  19. Transcriptional responses to loss or gain of function of the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene uncover biological processes modulated by LRRK2 activity

    PubMed Central

    Nikonova, Elena V.; Xiong, Yulan; Tanis, Keith Q.; Dawson, Valina L.; Vogel, Robert L.; Finney, Eva M.; Stone, David J.; Reynolds, Ian J.; Kern, Jonathan T.; Dawson, Ted M.

    2012-01-01

    Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 gene (LRRK2) are the most common genetic cause of Parkinson's disease (PD) and cause both autosomal dominant familial and sporadic PD. Currently, the physiological and pathogenic activities of LRRK2 are poorly understood. To decipher the biological functions of LRRK2, including the genes and pathways modulated by LRRK2 kinase activity in vivo, we assayed genome-wide mRNA expression in the brain and peripheral tissues from LRRK2 knockout (KO) and kinase hyperactive G2019S (G2019S) transgenic mice. Subtle but significant differences in mRNA expression were observed relative to wild-type (WT) controls in the cortex, striatum and kidney of KO animals, but only in the striatum in the G2019S model. In contrast, robust, consistent and highly significant differences were identified by the direct comparison of KO and G2019S profiles in the cortex, striatum, kidney and muscle, indicating opposite effects on mRNA expression by the two models relative to WT. Ribosomal and glycolytic biological functions were consistently and significantly up-regulated in LRRK2 G2019S compared with LRRK2 KO tissues. Genes involved in membrane-bound organelles, oxidative phosphorylation, mRNA processing and the endoplasmic reticulum were down-regulated in LRRK2 G2019S mice compared with KO. We confirmed the expression patterns of 35 LRRK2-regulated genes using quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. These findings provide the first description of the transcriptional responses to genetically modified LRRK2 activity and provide preclinical target engagement and/or pharmacodynamic biomarker strategies for LRRK2 and may inform future therapeutic strategies for LRRK2-associated PD. PMID:21972245

  20. Reducing gain shifts in photomultiplier tubes

    DOEpatents

    Cohn, Charles E.

    1976-01-01

    A means is provided for reducing gain shifts in multiplier tubes due to varying event count rates. It includes means for limiting the number of cascaded, active dynodes of the multiplier tube to a predetermined number with the last of predetermined number of dynodes being the output terminal of the tube. This output is applied to an amplifier to make up for the gain sacrificed by not totally utilizing all available active stages of the tube. Further reduction is obtained by illuminating the predetermined number of dynodes with a light source of such intensity that noise appearing at the output dynode associated with the illumination is negligible.

  1. Raman Scattering in the Magnetized Semiconductor Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankauskas, Zigmantas; Kvedaras, Vygaudas; Balevičius, Saulius

    2005-04-01

    Radio frequency (RF) magnetoplasmic waves known as helicons will propagate in solid-state plasmas when a strong magnetic field is applied. In our device the helicons were excited by RFs (the range 100-2000 MHz) much higher than the helicon generation frequency (the main peak at 20 MHz). The excitation of helicons in this case may be described by the effect similar to the Combination Scattering (Raman effect) when a part of the high RF wave energy that passes through the active material is absorbed and re-emitted by the magnetized solid-state plasma. It is expedient to call this experimental device a Helicon Maser (HRM) and the higher frequency e/m field - a pumping field. In full analogy with the usual Raman maser (or laser) the magnetized semiconductor sample plays the role of active material and the connecting cable - the role of high quality external resonator.

  2. Raman Scattering in the Magnetized Semiconductor Plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankauskas, Zigmantas; Kvedaras, Vygaudas; Balevičius, Saulius

    Radio frequency (RF) magnetoplasmic waves known as helicons will propagate in solid-state plasmas when a strong magnetic field is applied. In our device the helicons were excited by RFs (the range 100-2000 MHz) much higher than the helicon generation frequency (the main peak at 20 MHz). The excitation of helicons in this case may be described by the effect similar to the Combination Scattering (Raman effect) when a part of the high RF wave energy that passes through the active material is absorbed and re-emitted by the magnetized solid-state plasma. It is expedient to call this experimental device a Helicon Maser (HRM) and the higher frequency e/m field - a pumping field. In full analogy with the usual Raman maser (or laser) the magnetized semiconductor sample plays the role of active material and the connecting cable - the role of high quality external resonator.

  3. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dosimeter and probe

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1995-03-21

    A dosimeter and probe for measuring exposure to chemical and biological compounds is disclosed. The dosimeter or probe includes a collector which may be analyzed by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The collector comprises a surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active material having a coating applied thereto to improve the adsorption properties of the collector. The collector may also be used in automated sequential devices, in probe array devices. 10 figures.

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dosimeter and probe

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1995-01-01

    A dosimeter and probe for measuring exposure to chemical and biological compounds is disclosed. The dosimeter or probe includes a collector which may be analyzed by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The collector comprises a surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active material having a coating applied thereto to improve the adsorption properties of the collector. The collector may also be used in automated sequential devises, in probe array devices.

  5. Raman accumulator as a fusion laser driver

    DOEpatents

    George, E. Victor; Swingle, James C.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for simultaneous laser pulse amplification and compression, using multiple pass Raman scattering in one Raman cell and pulse switchout from the optical cavity through use of a dichroic device associated with the Raman cell.

  6. Raman accumulator as a fusion laser driver

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.; Swingle, J.C.

    1982-03-31

    Apparatus for simultaneous laser pulse amplification and compression, using multiple pass Raman scattering in one Raman cell and pulse switchout from the optical cavity through use of a dichroic device associated with the Raman cell.

  7. Airborne Raman lidar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heaps, Wm. S.; Burris, J.

    1996-12-01

    We designed and tested an airborne lidar system using Raman scattering to make simultaneous measurements of methane, water vapor, and temperature in a series of flights on a NASA-operated C-130 aircraft. We present the results for methane detection, which show that the instrument has the requisite sensitivity to atmospheric trace gases. Ultimately these measurements can be used to examine the transport of chemically processed air from within the polar vortex to mid-latitudinal regions and the exchange of stratospheric air between tropical and mid-latitudinal regions.

  8. Broadband stimulated Raman backscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Landgraf, B.; Aurand, B.; Lehmann, G.; Gangolf, T.; Schnell, M.; Kühl, T.; Spielmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    Broadband amplification employing stimulated Raman backscattering is demonstrated. Using seed pulses with a bandwidth of about 200 nm, we study the amplification in a wide spectral range in a single laser shot. With chirped pump pulses and a Ne gas jet, we observed under optimized conditions, amplification in a range of about 80 nm, which is sufficient to support the amplification of sub-20 fs pulses. This broad amplification range is also in excellent agreement with PIC simulations. The conversion efficiency is at certain wavelengths as high as 1.2% and was measured to be better than 6 × 10‑3 on average.

  9. Raman effects in the infrared supercontinuum generation in soft-glass PCFs

    PubMed Central

    Kalashnikov, V.L.; Sorokin, E.; Sorokina, I.T.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of the Raman gain spectra in the SF6 and SF57 highly-nonlinear-glasses demonstrated twice as high Raman shift in comparison with the fused silica. Numerical simulation predicted that a large Raman shift in combination with high nonlinearity can significantly reduce the required input pulse intensity for supercontinuum in these glasses, retaining the necessary degree of coherence. We found, that the degradation of the SC coherence due to Raman soliton jitter can be effectively controlled by a correct choice of input intensity and fiber length. Also it was found, that high degree of coherence correlates with the spectrum shape in the vicinity of the Raman threshold, providing an convenient experimental observable. PMID:20975981

  10. Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clary, Candace Elise

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and most fatal malignant brain tumor, is highly infiltrative and incurable. Although improved prognosis has been demonstrated by surgically resecting the bulk tumor, a lack of clear borders at the tumor margins complicates the selection decision during surgery. This dissertation investigates the potential of Raman spectroscopy for distinguishing between normal and malignant brain tissue and sets the groundwork for a surgical diagnostic guide for resection of gross malignant gliomas. These studies revealed that Raman spectroscopy was capable of discriminating between normal scid mouse brain tissue and human xenograft tumors induced in those mice. The spectra of normal and malignant tissue were normalized by dividing by the respective magnitudes of the peaks near 1440 cm -1. Spectral differences include the shape of the broad peaks near 1440 cm-1 and 1660 cm-1 and the relative magnitudes of the peaks at 1264 cm-1, 1287 cm-1, 1297 cm-1, 1556 cm -1, 1586 cm-1, 1614 cm-1, and 1683 cm-1. From these studies emerged questions regarding how to objectively normalize and compare spectra for future automation. Some differences in the Raman spectra were shown to be inherent in the disease states of the cells themselves via differences in the Raman spectra of normal human astrocytes in culture and cultured cells derived from GBM tumors. The spectra of astrocytes and glioma cells were normalized by dividing by the respective magnitudes of the peaks near 1450 cm-1. The differences between the Raman spectra of normal and transformed cells include the ratio of the 1450 cm-1/1650 cm-1 peaks and the relative magnitudes of the peaks at 1181 cm-1, 1191 cm-1, 1225 cm-1, 1263 cm -1, 1300 cm-1, 1336 cm-1, 1477 cm-1, 1494 cm-1, and 1695 cm -1. Previous Raman spectroscopic studies of biological cells have shown that the magnitude of the Raman signal decreases over time, indicating sample damage. Cells exposed to laser excitation at similar power

  11. Understanding the effects of dopant impurities on quaternary chalcogenide system properties by investigating and modeling local vibrational modes and Raman lineshapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarswat, Prashant; Free, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Cu2ZnSnSxgained attention as a p-type absorber layer due to its attractive properties such as optimum band gap, high absorption coefficient, and use of low cost elements. However, impurities in CZTSSe produce detrimental effects, which limit the device performance. Phonon dispersion in most of the semiconductors is found to be susceptible to the pairing between atoms within the lattice. Hence, a change in phonon dispersion can be used to investigate the effects of foreign impurities on such pairing. Thus a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of free holes on the optical phonons of doped CZTSSe system as well as to evaluate asymmetry in the Raman lineshape. When irradiated with photons, doped CZTS possibly produces a continuum of inter-valence band electronic excitations, which can envelop the Raman-active phonon energy. Such overlap between the electronic continuum and discrete state can cause interference effects in CZTSSe. It was observed that Raman lineshape becomes more asymmetric, wider, and shifts towards lower frequency when laser power density increased. All these observations were found for Raman A mode as well as E (TO, LO) mode for doped CZTSSe samples.

  12. Highly narrow nanogap-containing Au@Au core-shell SERS nanoparticles: size-dependent Raman enhancement and applications in cancer cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chongya; Shen, Jianlei; Yan, Juan; Zhong, Jian; Qin, Weiwei; Liu, Rui; Aldalbahi, Ali; Zuo, Xiaolei; Song, Shiping; Fan, Chunhai; He, Dannong

    2016-01-28

    Cellular imaging technologies employing metallic surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) tags have gained much interest toward clinical diagnostics, but they are still suffering from poor controlled distribution of hot spots and reproducibility of SERS signals. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of high narrow nanogap-containing Au@Au core-shell SERS nanoparticles (GCNPs) for the identification and imaging of proteins overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells. First, plasmonic nanostructures are made of gold nanoparticles (∼15 nm) coated with gold shells, between which a highly narrow and uniform nanogap (∼1.1 nm) is formed owing to polyA anchored on the Au cores. The well controlled distribution of Raman reporter molecules, such as 4,4'-dipyridyl (44DP) and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), are readily encoded in the nanogap and can generate strong, reproducible SERS signals. In addition, we have investigated the size-dependent SERS activity of GCNPs and found that with the same laser wavelength, the Raman enhancement discriminated between particle sizes. The maximum Raman enhancement was achieved at a certain threshold of particle size (∼76 nm). High narrow nanogap-containing Au@Au core-shell SERS tags (GCTs) were prepared via the functionalization of hyaluronic acid (HA) on GCNPs, which recognized the CD44 receptor, a tumor-associated surface biomarker. And it was shown that GCTs have a good targeting ability to tumour cells and promising prospects for multiplex biomarker detection. PMID:26701141

  13. Making colourful sense of Raman images of single cells.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Lorna; Hollywood, Katherine A; Goodacre, Royston

    2015-03-21

    In order to understand biological systems it is important to gain pertinent information on the spatial localisation of chemicals within cells. With the relatively recent advent of high-resolution chemical imaging this is being realised and one rapidly developing area of research is the Raman mapping of single cells, an approach whose success has vast potential for numerous areas of biomedical research. However, there is a danger of undermining the potential routine use of Raman mapping due to a lack of consistency and transparency in the way false-shaded Raman images are constructed. In this study we demonstrate, through the use of simulated data and real Raman maps of single human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells, how changes in the application of colour shading can dramatically alter the final Raman images. In order to avoid ambiguity and potential subjectivity in image interpretation we suggest that data distribution plots are used to aid shading approaches and that extreme care is taken to use the most appropriate false-shading for the biomedical question under investigation. PMID:25666258

  14. High power, high efficiency diode pumped Raman fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Yaakov; Fromzel, Viktor; Zhang, Jun; Dahan, Asaf; Ter-Gabrielyan, Nikolay; Pattnaik, Radha K.; Dubinskii, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a high power high efficiency Raman fiber laser pumped directly by a laser diode module at 976 nm. 80 Watts of CW power were obtained at a wavelength of 1020 nm with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 53%. When working quasi-CW, at a duty cycle of 30%, 85 W of peak power was produced with an efficiency of 60%. A commercial graded-index (GRIN) core fiber acts as the Raman fiber in a power oscillator configuration, which includes spectral selection to prevent generation of the 2nd Stokes. In addition, significant brightness enhancement of the pump beam is attained due to the Raman gain distribution profile in the GRIN fiber. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest power Raman fiber laser directly pumped by laser diodes, which also exhibits a record efficiency for such a laser. In addition, it is the highest power Raman fiber laser (regardless of pumping source) demonstrated based on a GRIN fiber.

  15. Investigation of germanium Raman lasers for the mid-infrared.

    PubMed

    De Leonardis, Francesco; Troia, Benedetto; Soref, Richard A; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2015-06-29

    In this paper we present a detailed theoretical investigation of integrated racetrack Raman lasers based on the germanium material system operating in the mid-infrared beyond the germanium two-photon absorption cut-off wavelength of 3.17 μm. The effective Raman gain has been estimated in waveguides based on germanium-on-silicon, germanium-on-SOI and germanium-on-Si3N4 technology platforms as a function of their crystallographic orientations. Furthermore, general design guidelines have been determined by means of a comparative analysis of Raman laser performance, i.e. the threshold power, polarization and directionality of the excited Stokes signals as a function of racetrack cavity length and directional-coupler dimensions. Finally, the emitted Raman laser power has been evaluated as a function of overall propagation losses and operative wavelengths up to 3.8 μm, while the time dynamics of Raman lasers has been simulated assuming continuous and pulse waves as input pump signals. PMID:26191733

  16. emGain: Determination of EM gain of CCD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daigle, Olivier; Carignan, Claude; Blais-Ouellette, Sebastien

    2012-01-01

    The determination of the EM gain of the CCD is best done by fitting the histogram of many low-light frames. Typically, the dark+CIC noise of a 30ms frame itself is a sufficient amount of signal to determine accurately the EM gain with about 200 512x512 frames. The IDL code emGain takes as an input a cube of frames and fit the histogram of all the pixels with the EM stage output probability function. The function returns the EM gain of the frames as well as the read-out noise and the mean signal level of the frames.

  17. Biological imaging with coherent Raman scattering microscopy: a tutorial

    PubMed Central

    Alfonso-García, Alba; Mittal, Richa; Lee, Eun Seong; Potma, Eric O.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract. Coherent Raman scattering (CRS) microscopy is gaining acceptance as a valuable addition to the imaging toolset of biological researchers. Optimal use of this label-free imaging technique benefits from a basic understanding of the physical principles and technical merits of the CRS microscope. This tutorial offers qualitative explanations of the principles behind CRS microscopy and provides information about the applicability of this nonlinear optical imaging approach for biological research. PMID:24615671

  18. Metal vapor Raman frequency shifter

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, D.W.; Liu, C.; Weaver, L.A.

    1980-12-16

    Shifted Raman radiation for an all-hot Raman discharge cell is produced by external laser pumping of a metal halide medium in the cell during an afterglow period following dissociation of the metal halide medium into metal atoms and before recombination to form the original species of the metal halide medium.

  19. Standoff explosives trace detection and imaging by selective stimulated Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bremer, Marshall T.; Dantus, Marcos

    2013-08-01

    We introduce a sensitive method for laser based standoff detection of chemicals based on stimulated Raman scattering. Selective excitation of a particular Raman transition is detected by measuring the diffusely reflected laser light from a distant surface. The method simultaneously measures stimulated Raman loss and gain within a single laser shot and is insensitive to the optical properties (reflectivity/absorptivity) of the substrate. We demonstrate the specificity and sensitivity by detecting and imaging nanogram analyte micro-crystals on paper, fabric, and plastic substrates at 1 to 10 m standoff distance using only 10 mW of laser power from a single femtosecond laser.

  20. 25.5  fs dissipative soliton diamond Raman laser.

    PubMed

    Lin, Jipeng; Spence, David J

    2016-04-15

    We have demonstrated a dissipative soliton diamond Raman laser that generates 25.5 fs pulses. Synchronously pumped by a 128 fs Ti:sapphire laser, the Raman cavity employed a pair of chirped mirrors to optimize the group delay dispersion, resulting in a Stokes field with 125 nm of spectral bandwidth from 840 to 965 nm. The Stokes pulse formation can be described as a dissipative soliton balancing self-phase modulation, normal dispersion, and gain due to stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). PMID:27082364