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Sample records for active raman gain

  1. Enhanced optical precursors by Doppler effect via active Raman gain process.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yandong; Niu, Yueping; Zhang, Lida; Yang, Aihong; Jiang, Lin; Gong, Shangqing

    2012-08-15

    A scheme for enhancing precursor pulse by Doppler effect is proposed in a room-temperature active-Raman-gain medium. Due to abnormal dispersion between two gain peaks, main fields are advanced and constructively interfere with optical precursors, which leads to enhancement of the transient pulse at the rise edge of the input. Moreover, after Doppler averaging, the abnormal dispersion intensifies and the constructive interference between precursors and main fields is much strengthened, which boosts the transient spike. Simulation results demonstrate that the peak intensity of precursors could be enhanced nearly 20 times larger than that of the input.

  2. Enhanced optical precursors by Doppler effect via active Raman gain process.

    PubMed

    Peng, Yandong; Niu, Yueping; Zhang, Lida; Yang, Aihong; Jiang, Lin; Gong, Shangqing

    2012-08-15

    A scheme for enhancing precursor pulse by Doppler effect is proposed in a room-temperature active-Raman-gain medium. Due to abnormal dispersion between two gain peaks, main fields are advanced and constructively interfere with optical precursors, which leads to enhancement of the transient pulse at the rise edge of the input. Moreover, after Doppler averaging, the abnormal dispersion intensifies and the constructive interference between precursors and main fields is much strengthened, which boosts the transient spike. Simulation results demonstrate that the peak intensity of precursors could be enhanced nearly 20 times larger than that of the input. PMID:23381248

  3. Lossless Airy Surface Polaritons in a Metamaterial via Active Raman Gain

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qi; Tan, Chaohua; Huang, Guoxiang

    2016-01-01

    We propose a scheme to realize a lossless propagation of linear and nonlinear Airy surface polaritons (SPs) via active Raman gain (ARG). The system we suggest is a planar interface superposed by a negative index metamaterial (NIMM) and a dielectric, where three-level quantum emitters are doped. By using the ARG from the quantum emitters and the destructive interference effect between the electric and magnetic responses from the NIMM, we show that not only the Ohmic loss of the NIMM but also the light absorption of the quantum emitters can be completely eliminated. As a result, non-diffractive Airy SPs may propagate for very long distance without attenuation. We also show that the Kerr nonlinearity of the system can be largely enhanced due to the introduction of the quantum emitters and hence lossless Airy surface polaritonic solitons with very low power can be generated in the system. PMID:26891795

  4. Image formation using stimulated raman scattering gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bespalov, V. G.; Makarov, E. A.; Stasel'ko, D. I.

    2016-07-01

    Theoretical analysis of the spatial, noise, and energy characteristics of an amplifier has been performed in the mode of spectral and time selection using subnanosecond stimulated Raman Scattering gain of weak echo signals in crystalline active media that are known for high (up to 10-1 cm/MW) gain coefficients. The possibility to reach high gain values has been demonstrated for weak signals from objects at acceptable angular sizes of the field of vision of an amplifier. To provide a signal-to-noise ratio that exceeds unity over the entire field of vision, the number of photons at the input to an amplifier that is required has to exceed the number of its resolution elements. Accurate determination of the possibilities of recording of weak echo signals and quality of images of targets that are obtained using amplifiers under stimulated Raman Scattering requires additional special experiments.

  5. Giant Raman gain in silicon nanocrystals

    PubMed Central

    Sirleto, Luigi; Antonietta Ferrara, Maria; Nikitin, Timur; Novikov, Sergei; Khriachtchev, Leonid

    2012-01-01

    Nanostructured silicon has generated a lot of interest in the past decades as a key material for silicon-based photonics. The low absorption coefficient makes silicon nanocrystals attractive as an active medium in waveguide structures, and their third-order nonlinear optical properties are crucial for the development of next generation nonlinear photonic devices. Here we report the first observation of stimulated Raman scattering in silicon nanocrystals embedded in a silica matrix under non-resonant excitation at infrared wavelengths (~1.5 μm). Raman gain is directly measured as a function of the silicon content. A giant Raman gain from the silicon nanocrystals is obtained that is up to four orders of magnitude greater than in crystalline silicon. These results demonstrate the first Raman amplifier based on silicon nanocrystals in a silica matrix, thus opening new perspectives for the realization of more efficient Raman lasers with ultra-small sizes, which would increase the synergy between electronic and photonic devices. PMID:23187620

  6. Raman gains of ADP and KDP crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Qing-Hua; Wang, Bo; Xu, Xin-Guang; Wang, Zheng-Ping; Sun, Xun; Zhang, Fang; Zhang, Li-Song; Liu, Bao-An; Chai, Xiang-Xu

    2015-04-01

    In this paper, the Raman gain coefficients of ammonium dihydrogen phosphate (ADP) and potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) crystals are measured. By using a pump source of a 30-ps, 532-nm laser, the gain coefficients of ADP and KDP are 1.22 cm/GW, and 0.91 cm/GW, respectively. While for a 20-ps, 355-nm pump laser, the gain coefficients of these two crystals are similar, which are 1.95 cm/GW for ADP and 1.86 for KDP. The present results indicate that for ultra-violet frequency conversion, the problem of stimulated Raman scattering for ADP crystal will not be more serious than that for KDP crystal. Considering other advantages such the larger nonlinear optical coefficient, higher laser damage threshold, and lower noncritical phase-matching temperature, it can be anticipated that ADP will be a powerful competitor to KDP in large aperture, high energy third-harmonic generation or fourth-harmonic generation applications. Project supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 51323002 and 51402173), the Independent Innovation Foundation of Shandong University, China (Grant Nos. IIFSDU and 2012JC016), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents in University, China (Grant No. NCET-10-0552), the Fund from the Key Laboratory of Neutron Physics, China Academy of Engineering Physics (Grant No. 2014BB07), and the Natural Science Foundation for Distinguished Young Scholar of Shandong Province, China (Grant No. JQ201218).

  7. Enhancement of stimulated Raman scattering of weak-gain Raman modes in a pendant drop by dye-lasing gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pu, Xiao-Yun; Yang, Zheng; Lee, Wing-Kee

    2004-02-01

    The enhancement of stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of weak-gain Raman modes in pendant drops is accomplished by overlapping Stokes wavelengths of the Raman modes with the Rhodamine 640 dye-lasing gain region (called the gain-overlap method). The dye concentration and the pumping intensity of frequency-doubled Nd:YAG lasers determine the efficiency of the enhancement. We apply the gain-overlap technique at optimal dye concentration and pump intensity to probe minority species in pendant drops formed by binary mixtures. The limits of detectable concentrations of the minority species, methanol in methanol-ethanol and ethanol in ethanol-water (dye-doped) mixtures, are much less than those in undoped mixtures. The smooth fluorescence-lasing spectral curves emitted from dye-doped pendant drops reduce complications in distinguishing SRS signals from quasi-periodic fluorescence-lasing spectra in microdroplets.

  8. Observation of the effective linear polarization induced by the asymmetrical Raman gain of YVO4 crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhuang, Fengjiang; Lin, Zhiyang; Zhu, Siqi

    2016-10-01

    We originally present a linearly polarized Raman radiation emitted from an actively Q-switched Nd:YAG/YVO4 laser. An 1175.25 nm Raman output was achieved using a uniaxial a-cut YVO4 crystal in a Z-shape laser cavity. The stable Raman power of 1.8 W was obtained, corresponding conversion efficiency of 8.8% from 1064 nm to 1175 nm. The Raman radiation with a polarization extinction ratio of 10.4-dB was observed for the first time. Our experimental results demonstrate that the asymmetrical Raman crystal gain can result in a uniform linear polarization and permit emitting orthogonal polarization radiation in a cascaded Raman laser.

  9. Enhancing stimulated Raman scattering of weaker gain Raman modes in microdroplets by seeding and efficient pumping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazumder, Md. Mohiuddin; Fields, Mitchell H.; Hartings, Justin M.; Pu, Xiaoyun; Kwok, Alfred S.; Schaschek, Karl; Chang, Richard K.

    1996-05-01

    High-Q morphology-dependent resonances (MDR's) in microdroplets provide optical feedback for nonlinear processes such as stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). The SRS signal from weaker gain modes or from the minority species in a binary mixture droplet is small, because of depletion of the pump beam by the strongest-gain Raman mode. We present an effective- average Raman gain formula and discuss the factors that contribute to the enhancement of SRS intensity. Spatial overlap between pump wave and SRS wave is an important factor in determining the SRS intensity. We have observed that in a binary mixture microdroplet, the SRS of the majority species is more efficient (because of good spatial overlap) in pumping the minority species than the input laser itself. Laser-induced distortion can couple light efficiently into a droplet. We have used a variable number (3 - 6) of mode-locked 100-psec laser pulses focused on the droplet rim. The SRS emission from a minority species increases as the number of input pulses is increased, because cumulative laser-induced surface distortion couples more energy into the droplet. SRS signal at the Stokes shift of a weaker gain mode or of the mode of a minority species can be enhanced by seeding light at the SRS wavelengths. The seed signal is obtained from the fluorescence of a dye added to the microdroplet or from external coupling of light into the droplet. A lasing dye (Rhodamine 6G) is added to pure ethanol droplet. By using an excimer-pumped tunable dye laser as the excitation source, the weaker gain C-C-O mode (882 cm-1 Stokes shift) of ethanol is overlapped spectrally with the fluorescence and lasing of R6G. The SRS signal of the C-C-O mode is enhanced, because (1) the fluorescence of R6G at the SRS wavelength adds to the spontaneous SRS emission and (2) the gain from population inversion adds to the Raman gain. We have also observed enhanced SRS emission from a minority species (benzene) in dodecane by using internal dye seeding

  10. Raman mode random lasing in ZnS-β-carotene random gain media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bingi, Jayachandra; Warrier, Anita R.; Vijayan, C.

    2013-06-01

    Raman mode random lasing is demonstrated in ZnS-β-carotene random gain media at room temperature. A self assembled random medium is prepared with ZnS sub micron spheres synthesized by homogeneous precipitation method. β-Carotene extracted from pale green leaves is embedded in this random medium. The emission band of ZnS random medium (on excitation at 488 nm) overlaps considerably with that of β-carotene, which functions as a gain medium. Here, random medium works as a cavity, leading to Raman mode lasing at 517 nm and 527 nm triggered by stimulated resonance Raman scattering.

  11. Intraband Raman laser gain in a boron nitride coupled quantum well

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moorthy, N. Narayana; Peter, A. John

    2016-05-01

    On-centre impurity related electronic and optical properties are studied in a Boron nitride coupled quantum well. Confined energies for the intraband transition are investigated by studying differential cross section of electron Raman scattering taking into consideration of spatial confinement in a B0.3Ga0.7N/BN coupled quantum well. Raman gain as a function of incident optical pump intensity is computed for constant well width. The enhancement of Raman gain is observed with the application of pump power. The results can be applied for the potential applications for fabricating some optical devices such as optical switches, infrared photo-detectors and electro-optical modulator.

  12. Gain and Raman line-broadening with graphene coated diamond-shape nano-antennas.

    PubMed

    Paraskevaidis, Charilaos; Kuykendall, Tevye; Melli, Mauro; Weber-Bargioni, Alexander; Schuck, P James; Schwartzberg, Adam; Dhuey, Scott; Cabrini, Stefano; Grebel, Haim

    2015-10-01

    Using Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS), we report on intensity-dependent broadening in graphene-deposited broad-band antennas. The antenna gain curve includes both the incident frequency and some of the scattered mode frequencies. By comparing antennas with various gaps and types (bow-tie vs. diamond-shape antennas) we make the case that the line broadening did not originate from strain, thermal or surface potential. Strain, if present, further shifts and broadens those Raman lines that are included within the antenna gain curve.

  13. Sudden gains in behavioural activation for depression.

    PubMed

    Masterson, Ciara; Ekers, David; Gilbody, Simon; Richards, David; Toner-Clewes, Benjamin; McMillan, Dean

    2014-09-01

    Sudden gains have been linked to improved outcomes in cognitive behaviour therapy for depression. The relationship between sudden gains and outcome is less clear in other treatment modalities, including interpersonal psychotherapy and supportive expressive therapy, which may indicate different mechanisms of change between treatment modalities. The current study examined sudden gains in adults meeting diagnostic criteria for depression (N = 40) offered up to 12 sessions of behavioural activation treatment. Sudden gains were found in 42.5% of the sample. Sudden gains occurred early (median pre-gain session 2) and were related to outcome: those who experienced a sudden gain had significantly lower post-treatment scores on the PHQ-9. Furthermore, the proportion meeting the reliable and clinically significant change criteria at end of treatment was higher in the sudden gain group. These findings highlight the importance of understanding the mechanisms by which sudden gains relate to therapy outcome in behavioural activation.

  14. Gain spectrum self controlling device and algorithm for mutiply pumped Raman amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jia Ying

    2004-05-01

    For both forward- and backward-pumped Raman amplifiers, devices to perform gain-spectrum self-control of multi-laser pumps are depicted in this paper. The algorithm supporting the devices is presented also. The function of automatic control is suitable for on-line maintenance of WDM equipment.

  15. [Raman active vibrations of aluminosilicates].

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Yu, Xue-hui; Mo, Xuan-xue; You, Jing-lin; Wang, Chen; Chen, Hui; Jiang, Guo-chang

    2006-10-01

    Raman spectra of aluminosilicate minerals, namely kyanite, andalusite, and sillimanite and K2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses were recorded. Four alumino-silicon tetrahedral model clusters were calculated by self-consistent (SCF) molecular orbital ab-ini-tio calculation of the quantum chem (QC) method. The result shows a decrease tendency in Raman frequencies in the 800-1200 cm(-1) frequency region with increase in four-coordinated Al content, which is assigned to the Si--Onb symmetry stretching vibrations. The Raman spectra in the 700-800 cm(-1) frequency region is attributed to Al-Onb symmetry stretching vibrations. PMID:17205741

  16. [Raman active vibrations of aluminosilicates].

    PubMed

    Pan, Feng; Yu, Xue-hui; Mo, Xuan-xue; You, Jing-lin; Wang, Chen; Chen, Hui; Jiang, Guo-chang

    2006-10-01

    Raman spectra of aluminosilicate minerals, namely kyanite, andalusite, and sillimanite and K2O-Al2O3-SiO2 glasses were recorded. Four alumino-silicon tetrahedral model clusters were calculated by self-consistent (SCF) molecular orbital ab-ini-tio calculation of the quantum chem (QC) method. The result shows a decrease tendency in Raman frequencies in the 800-1200 cm(-1) frequency region with increase in four-coordinated Al content, which is assigned to the Si--Onb symmetry stretching vibrations. The Raman spectra in the 700-800 cm(-1) frequency region is attributed to Al-Onb symmetry stretching vibrations.

  17. Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain.

    PubMed

    Silva, W F; Jacinto, C; Benayas, A; Vazquez de Aldana, J R; Torchia, G A; Chen, F; Tan, Y; Jaque, D

    2010-04-01

    We report the formation of optical waveguides in the self-Raman Nd:YVO(4) laser crystal by femtosecond laser inscription. The confocal fluorescence and Raman images have revealed that the waveguide is constituted by a locally compressed area in which the original fluorescence and Raman gains of the Nd:YVO(4) system are preserved. Thus the obtained structures emerge as promising candidates for highly efficient self-Raman integrated laser sources. PMID:20364168

  18. Femtosecond-laser-written, stress-induced Nd:YVO4 waveguides preserving fluorescence and Raman gain.

    PubMed

    Silva, W F; Jacinto, C; Benayas, A; Vazquez de Aldana, J R; Torchia, G A; Chen, F; Tan, Y; Jaque, D

    2010-04-01

    We report the formation of optical waveguides in the self-Raman Nd:YVO(4) laser crystal by femtosecond laser inscription. The confocal fluorescence and Raman images have revealed that the waveguide is constituted by a locally compressed area in which the original fluorescence and Raman gains of the Nd:YVO(4) system are preserved. Thus the obtained structures emerge as promising candidates for highly efficient self-Raman integrated laser sources.

  19. Steering, splitting, and cloning of an optical beam in a coherently driven Raman gain system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verma, Onkar N.; Dey, Tarak N.

    2015-01-01

    We propose an all-optical antiwaveguide mechanism for steering, splitting, and cloning of an optical beam without diffraction. We use a spatially inhomogeneous pump beam to create an antiwaveguide structure in a Doppler broadened N -type four-level Raman gain medium for a copropagating weak probe beam. We show that a transverse modulated index of refraction and gain due to the spatially dependent pump beam hold the keys to steering, splitting, and cloning of an optical beam. We have also shown that an additional control field permits the propagation of an optical beam through an otherwise gain medium without diffraction and instability. We further discuss how finesse of the cloned images can be increased by changing the detuning of the control field. We arrive at similar results by using homogeneously broadened gain media at higher density.

  20. Maximization of net optical gain in silicon-waveguide Raman amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Rukhlenko, Ivan D; Dissanayake, Chethiya; Premaratne, Malin; Agrawal, Govind P

    2009-03-30

    We present a novel method for maximizing signal gain in continuously pumped silicon-waveguide Raman amplifiers made with silicon-on-insulator technology. Our method allows for pump-power depletion during Raman amplification and makes use of a variational technique. Its use leads to a system of four coupled nonlinear differential equations, whose numerical solution provides the optimal axial profile of the effective mode area along the waveguide length that maximizes the output signal power for a given amplifier length and a preset input (or output) cross-section area. In practice, the optimum profile can be realized by varying the cross-section area of a silicon waveguide along its length by tapering its width appropriately.

  1. High-gain 87 cm-1 Raman line of KYW and its impact on continuous-wave Raman laser operation.

    PubMed

    Sarang, Soumya; Williams, Robert J; Lux, Oliver; Kitzler, Ondrej; McKay, Aaron; Jasbeer, Hadiya; Mildren, Richard P

    2016-09-19

    We report a quasi-continuous-wave external cavity Raman laser based on potassium yttrium tungstate (KYW). Laser output efficiency and spectrum are severely affected by the presence of high gain Raman modes of low frequency (< 250 cm-1) that are characteristic of this crystal class. Output spectra contained frequency combs spaced by the low frequency modes but with the overall pump-to-Stokes conversion efficiency at least an order of magnitude lower than that typically obtained in other crystal Raman lasers. We elucidate the primary factors affecting laser performance by measuring the Raman gain coefficients of the low energy modes and numerically modeling the cascading dynamics. For a pump polarization aligned to the Ng crystallo-optic axis, the 87 cm-1 Raman mode has a gain coefficient of 9.2 cm/GW at 1064 nm and a dephasing time T2 = 9.6 ps, which are both notably higher than for the 765 cm-1 mode usually considered to be the prominent Raman mode of KYW. The implications for continuous-wave Raman laser design and the possible advantages for applications are discussed. PMID:27661886

  2. Efficient use of hybrid Genetic Algorithms in the gain optimization of distributed Raman amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Neto, B; Teixeira, A L J; Wada, N; André, P S

    2007-12-24

    In this paper, we propose an efficient and accurate method that combines the Genetic Algorithm (GA) with the Nelder-Mead method in order to obtain the gain optimization of distributed Raman amplifiers. By using these two methods together, the advantages of both are combined: the convergence of the GA and the high accuracy of the Nelder-Mead. To enhance the convergence of the GA, several features were examined and correlated with fitting errors. It is also shown that when the right moment to switch between methods is chosen, the computation time can be reduced by a factor of two.

  3. Actively mode-locked Raman fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuezong; Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Huawei; Fan, Tingwei; Feng, Yan

    2015-07-27

    Active mode-locking of Raman fiber laser is experimentally investigated for the first time. An all fiber connected and polarization maintaining loop cavity of ~500 m long is pumped by a linearly polarized 1120 nm Yb fiber laser and modulated by an acousto-optic modulator. Stable 2 ns width pulse train at 1178 nm is obtained with modulator opening time of > 50 ns. At higher power, pulses become longer, and second order Raman Stokes could take place, which however can be suppressed by adjusting the open time and modulation frequency. Transient pulse evolution measurement confirms the absence of relaxation oscillation in Raman fiber laser. Tuning of repetition rate from 392 kHz to 31.37 MHz is obtained with harmonic mode locking. PMID:26367642

  4. Elaboration and optimization of tellurite-based materials for raman gain application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guery, Guillaume

    Tellurite-based oxide glasses have been investigated as promising materials for Raman gain applications, due to their good linear and nonlinear optical properties and their wide transparency windows in the near- and midwave infrared spectral region. Furthermore, their interesting thermal properties, i.e. low glass transition temperature and ability to be drawn into optical fibers, make tellurite-based glasses excellent candidates for optical fiber amplifiers. The estimation of the strength and spectral distribution of Raman gain in materials is commonly approximated from the spontaneous Raman scattering cross-section measurement. For development of tellurite-based glasses as Raman amplifiers, understanding the relationship between glass structure, vibrational response, and nonlinear optical properties (NLO) represents a key point. This dissertation provides an answer to the fundamental question of the PhD study: "What is the impact of the glass structure on Raman gain properties of tellurite glasses?" This dissertation summarizes findings on different tellurite-based glass families: the TeO2-TaO5/2-ZnO, TeO2-BiO 3/2-ZnO and TeO2-NbO5/2 glass networks. The influence of glass modifiers has been shown on the glass' properties. Introduction of tantalum oxide or zinc oxide has been shown to increase the glass' stability against crystallization, quantified by DeltaT, where DeltaT = Tx -Tg. Added to the variation of the glass viscosity, this attribute is critical in fabricating optical fibers and for the use of these materials in fiber-based Raman gain applications. The role of ZnO in the tellurite network and the mechanism for structural modification has been determined. This addition results in not only the largest DeltaT reported for these highly nonlinear glasses to date, but coincides with a commensurate decrease of the refractive index. A hydroxyl purification has been developed that when employed, resulted in high purity preform materials exhibiting a limited

  5. Pump scheme for gain-flattened Raman fiber amplifiers using improved particle swarm optimization and modified shooting algorithm.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Hai-ming; Xie, Kang; Wang, Ya-fei

    2010-05-24

    An effective pump scheme for the design of broadband and flat gain spectrum Raman fiber amplifiers is proposed. This novel approach uses a new shooting algorithm based on a modified Newton-Raphson method and a contraction factor to solve the two point boundary problems of Raman coupled equations more stably and efficiently. In combination with an improved particle swarm optimization method, which improves the efficiency and convergence rate by introducing a new parameter called velocity acceptability probability, this scheme optimizes the wavelengths and power levels for the pumps quickly and accurately. Several broadband Raman fiber amplifiers in C+L band with optimized pump parameters are designed. An amplifier of 4 pumps is designed to deliver an average on-off gain of 13.3 dB for a bandwidth of 80 nm, with about +/-0.5 dB in band maximum gain ripples.

  6. Anharmonic effects on Raman-active phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Canonico, Michael John

    This dissertation explores anharmonic properties of semiconductor materials associated with strain and phonon lifetime using Raman spectroscopy. In recent years, extensive research and development of strain engineered advanced complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices utilizing high-k dielectrics and metal gate technology has been conducted to meet the challenges imposed by fundamental limits of device scaling. From a development and manufacturing viewpoint, the metrology required to drive these new technologies is critical to their success. In particular, UV-Raman spectroscopy has been extensively used to measure wafer and device strain due to the high spatial and spectral resolution coupled with an ultra-short optical penetration depth in Si. However, the strain-shift coefficients reported in the literature, which correlate the shift in Raman frequency with strain, have typically been measured in the visible portion of the spectrum and appear to differ from their UV counter-parts. This work presents a detailed measurement of the strain-shift coefficients in the UV at 325 and 364nm for Si, Ge, and Si:C and SiGe alloys. In addition, the temperature dependence of the frequencies and linewidths of the Raman-active longitudinal-optic (LO) phonons in GaAs and AlAs III-V semiconductor compounds is presented. Contrary to early theoretical predictions, the low temperature lifetime of the LO phonon is similar for the two materials with tau = 9.5 ps and 9.7 ps in GaAs and AlAs, respectively. The discrepancy between theory and experiment is caused by the accidental degeneracy between the AlAs LO phonon frequency and a Van Hove singularity in the two-phonon density of states. A new expression, based on the frequency dependence of the phonon self-energy, is derived to model the phonon lifetime.

  7. Stimulated Raman spectroscopy and nanoscopy of molecules using near field photon induced forces without resonant electronic enhancement gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamma, Venkata Ananth; Huang, Fei; Nowak, Derek; Kumar Wickramasinghe, H.

    2016-06-01

    We report on stimulated Raman spectroscopy and nanoscopy of molecules, excited without resonant electronic enhancement gain, and recorded using near field photon induced forces. Photon-induced interaction forces between the sharp metal coated silicon tip of an Atomic Force Microscope (AFM) and a sample resulting from stimulated Raman excitation were detected. We controlled the tip to sample spacing using the higher order flexural eigenmodes of the AFM cantilever, enabling the tip to come very close to the sample. As a result, the detection sensitivity was increased compared with previous work on Raman force microscopy. Raman vibrational spectra of azobenzene thiol and l-phenylalanine were measured and found to agree well with published results. Near-field force detection eliminates the need for far-field optical spectrometer detection. Recorded images show spatial resolution far below the optical diffraction limit. Further optimization and use of ultrafast pulsed lasers could push the detection sensitivity towards the single molecule limit.

  8. Vibrational Raman optical activity of biological molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, L. D.; Gargaro, A. R.; Hecht, Lutz; Wen, Z. Q.; Hug, W.

    1991-05-01

    Advances in Raman optical activity (ROA) instrumentation based on the employment of a backscattering geometry together with a cooled CCD detector have now enhanced the sensitivity to the level necessary to provide vibrational ROA spectra of biological molecules in aqueous solution. Preliminary results on peptides and proteins show features originating in coupled Ca-H and N-H deformations of the peptide backbone which appear to be sensitive to the secondary conformation. Also carbohydrates show many features that appear to be characteristic of the central aspects of carbohydrate architecture with effects from the glycosidic link in di- and oligosaccharides particularly prominent. 1.

  9. Cascaded gain fibers for increasing output power and the stimulated Brillouin scattering threshold of narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Nagel, J A; Temyanko, V; Dobler, J T; Likhachev, M E; Bubnov, M M; Dianov, E M; Peyghambarian, N

    2016-05-20

    We show both experimentally and theoretically a method to increase the stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) threshold and output power of narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifiers. This method employs two or more fibers with varying concentrations of the Raman gain material dopant such as GeO2 or P2O5 in silicate-based glasses. These fibers are then cascaded to form an amplifier gain stage, disrupting the buildup of SBS that normally occurs in single continuous fibers. The numerical model shown is applicable to arbitrary amplifier systems for gain stage optimization and increased power scaling. We give experimental results for phosphosilicate fibers that agree well with simulation predictions that support the numerical model used. PMID:27411133

  10. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity, defined. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Substantial Gainful Activity § 220.141 Substantial gainful...

  11. 20 CFR 220.141 - Substantial gainful activity, defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) Substantial work activity. Substantial work activity is work activity that involves doing significant physical... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Substantial gainful activity, defined. 220... RETIREMENT ACT DETERMINING DISABILITY Substantial Gainful Activity § 220.141 Substantial gainful...

  12. Vibrational Raman optical activity of biological molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barron, L. D.; Hecht, Lutz; Wen, Z. Q.; Ford, Steven J.; Bell, A. F.

    1993-06-01

    Advances in Raman optical activity (ROA) instrumentation based on the employment of a backscattering geometry together with a cooled backthinned CCD detector, a holographic notch filter, and a high-efficiency single-grating spectrograph have now enhanced the sensitivity to the level necessary to provide vibrational ROA spectra of most biological molecules in aqueous solution. Results on peptides and proteins show features originating in coupled C(alpha )-H and N-H deformations of the peptide backbone which appear to be sensitive to the secondary conformation including loop and turn structures. Also carbohydrates show many features characteristic of the central aspects of carbohydrate architecture, with effects from the glycosidic link in oligosaccharides particularly prominent. Preliminary ROA spectra of pyrimidine nucleosides appear to reflect the mutual orientation of the sugar and base rings and the dominant furanose conformations.

  13. Vibrational Raman optical activity of ketose monosaccharides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bell, Alasdair F.; Hecht, Lutz; Barron, Laurence D.

    1995-07-01

    The vibrational Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra of the four ketose sugars D-fructose, L-sorbose, D-tagatose and D-psicose in aqueous solution, which have been measured in backscattering in the range ≈250-1500 cm -1, are reported. These results are combined with those from a previous ROA study of aldose and pentose sugars in an attempt to establish new vibrational assignments and to verify old ones. The high information content of these spectra provides a new perspective on all the central features of monosaccharide stereochemistry including dominant anomeric configuration, ring conformation, exocyclic CH 2OH group conformation and relative disposition of the hydroxyl groups around the ring.

  14. Actively Q-switched Raman fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, A. G.; Podivilov, E. V.; Babin, S. A.

    2015-03-01

    A new scheme providing actively Q-switched operation of a Raman fiber laser (RFL) has been proposed and tested. The RFL consists of a 1 km single-mode fiber with a switchable loop mirror at one end and an angled cleaved output end. An 1080 nm pulse with microsecond duration is generated at the output by means of acousto-optic switching of the mirror at ~30 kHz in the presence of 6 W backward pumping at 1030 nm. In the proposed scheme, the generated pulse energy is defined by the pump energy distributed along the passive fiber, which amounts to 30 μJ in our case. The available pump energy may be increased by means of fiber lengthening. Pulse shortening is also expected.

  15. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416....910 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means work that— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties; and (b) Is done (or intended) for...

  16. 20 CFR 416.910 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 416....910 Meaning of substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity means work that— (a) Involves doing significant and productive physical or mental duties; and (b) Is done (or intended) for...

  17. Steady-state Raman gain coefficients of potassium-gadolinium tungstate at the wavelength of 532 nm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chulkov, R.; Markevich, V.; Orlovich, V.; El-Desouki, M.

    2015-12-01

    Stokes generation has been considered under the Fourier-limited nanosecond pulse excitation to find Raman gain coefficients in potassium-gadolinium tungstate. Data of numerical simulation under spontaneous Stokes initiation, light diffraction, and optical feedback have been compared with experimental results to reveal coefficient values of 14 ± 3 and 11 ± 3 cm/GW for the p[mm]p and p[gg]p sample orientations, respectively, at 532 nm wavelength.

  18. Raman gain induced mode evolution and on-demand coupling control in whispering-gallery-mode microcavities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xu; Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Peng, Bo; Yilmaz, Huzeyfe; Lei, Fu-Chuan; Long, Gui-Lu; Yang, Lan

    2015-11-16

    Waveguide-coupled optical resonators have played an important role in a wide range of applications including optical communication, sensing, nonlinear optics, slow/fast light, and cavity QED. In such a system, the coupling regimes strongly affect the resonance feature in the light transmission spectra, and hence the performance and outcomes of the applications. Therefore it is crucial to control the coupling between the waveguide and the microresonator. In this work, we investigated a fiber-taper coupled whispering-gallery-mode microresonator system, in which the coupling regime is traditionally controlled by adjusting the distance between the resonator and the fiber-taper mechanically. We propose and experimentally demonstrate that by utilizing Raman gain one can achieve on-demand control of the coupling regime without any mechanical movement in the resonator system. Particularly, the application of Raman gain is accompanied by Q enhancement. We also show that with the help of Raman gain control, the transitions between various coupling regimes can affect the light transmission spectra so as to provide better resolvability and signal amplification. This all-optical approach is also suitable for monolithically integrated and packaged waveguide-resonator systems, whose coupling regime is fixed at the time of manufacturing. It provides an effective route to control the light transmission in a waveguide-couple resonator system without mechanically moving individual optical components. PMID:26698440

  19. Gainful Activity and Intimate Partner Aggression in Emerging Adulthood*

    PubMed Central

    Alvira-Hammond, Marta; Longmore, Monica A.; Manning, Wendy D.; Giordano, Peggy C.

    2014-01-01

    Although intimate partner aggression crosses social class boundaries, education and income are important predictors. Yet given that emerging adulthood is a transitional period, completed education and employment, as single measures, are not ideal indicators of socioeconomic status for young people. We examined associations between self-reports of gainful activity, defined as enrollment in school or full-time employment, and intimate partner aggression among young adults in dating, cohabiting, or married relationships (N=648). Both men and women's participation in gainful activity was negatively associated with aggression. We found that when neither partner was gainfully active, individuals reported higher frequency of physical aggression. In cases of gainful activity asymmetry, the gender of the gainfully active partner did not predict intimate partner aggression. Additionally, we found no evidence that the association between gainful activity and frequency of intimate partner aggression differed by union type. PMID:25309829

  20. Raman spectra of semiconductor nanoparticles: Disorder-activated phonons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ingale, Alka; Rustagi, K. C.

    1998-09-01

    We present Raman spectra of four semiconductor doped glasses and a single crystal of CdS0.55Se0.45 in the range 30-800 cm-1 in the backscattering geometry. This includes the first-order Raman scattering from the disorder-activated zone-edge phonons and the LO phonons. TO phonon modes are not observed, as in bulk CdS, for the excitation well above the lowest gap. We show that the asymmetric line profile of the LO phonon structure can be understood as a composite of two phonon modes: the zone center and the zone edge phonons. Disorder-activated modes in the (30-130)-cm-1 range and the higher-order Raman spectra are also observed and found to be consistent with this assignment.

  1. Realization of all-optical switch and diode via Raman gain process using a Kerr field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abbas, Muqaddar; Qamar, Sajid; Qamar, Shahid

    2016-08-01

    The idea of optical photonic crystal, which is generated using two counter-propagating fields, is revisited to study gain-assisted all-optical switch and diode using Kerr field. Two counter-propagating fields with relative detuning Δ ν generate standing-wave field pattern which interacts with a four-level atomic system. The standing-wave field pattern acts like a static photonic crystal for Δ ν =0 , however, it behaves as a moving photonic crystal for Δ ν \

  2. Enhanced Raman sensitivity using an actively stabilized external resonator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, David J.; Glugla, Manfred; Penzhorn, Ralf-Dieter

    2001-04-01

    An enhancement up to 250-fold in laser Raman signals for real-time gas analysis has been achieved within an actively stabilized external resonator (ASER), whose length is actively matched to the single-frequency excitation laser using the Pound-Drever technique. With the Raman cell present, enhancements up to 50-fold are achieved, and the resulting detection limit for hydrogen in ambient-pressure gas mixtures is about ten parts-per-million in a 1 min analysis period at unity signal-to-noise ratio. Based upon the recent development of a fiber-pumped Nd:YVO4 laser with single-frequency output exceeding 5 W at 532 nm, this highly sensitive instrument is applied to detection of tritiated gases, wherein the compactness and low heat of this laser head permit placing the entire optical system, including laser head, charge coupled Raman detector, and ASER, within the glove box necessary for secondary containment of tritium, thereby accomplishing a robust, highly sensitive Raman analytical system for hazardous substances.

  3. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  4. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  5. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  6. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  7. 20 CFR 404.1510 - Meaning of substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Meaning of substantial gainful activity. 404.1510 Section 404.1510 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Definition of Disability §...

  8. Synchronized and timing-stabilized pulse generation from a gain-switched laser diode for stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunaga, Kyoya; Fang, Yi-Cheng; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Ozeki, Yasuyuki

    2016-03-01

    We present a picosecond laser source based on a gain-switched laser diode (GS-LD) that can be applied to stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. A 1.06-μm GS-LD was used to generate 14-ps pulses at a repetition rate of 38 MHz. The GS-LD was driven by 200-ps electrical pulses, which were triggered through a toggle flip-flop (T-FF). As a result, the GS-LD pulses were subharmonically synchronized to Ti:sapphire laser (TSL) pulses at a repetition rate of 76 MHz. We investigated the timing jitter of GS-LD pulses and found it to be less than 2.5 ps. We also show that the trigger delay can be less sensitive to the optical power of TSL pulses by controlling the threshold voltage of the T-FF. As a result, GS-LD pulses sufficiently overlapped with TSL pulses even when we scanned the wavelength of the TSL pulses. We demonstrate the SRS imaging of HeLa cells with GS-LD pulses and TSL pulses, proving that GS-LD is readily applicable to SRS microscopy as a compact and stable pulse source.

  9. High-efficient diode-pumped actively Q-switched Nd:YAG/KTP Raman laser at 1096 nm wavelength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Su, Fufang; Zhang, Xingyu; Wang, Weitao; Cong, Zhenhua; Shi, Men; Yang, Xiuqin; Kong, Weijin; Ma, Lili; Wu, Wendi

    2013-09-01

    With Nd:YAG as the gain medium and KTP crystal as the Raman medium, the characteristics of an LD pumped intracavity actively Q-switched Nd:YAG/KTP Raman laser at 1096 nm wavelength were studied. The output characteristics of 1096 nm were investigated. At a pulse repetition rate of 30 kHz an average power up to 1.97 W was obtained with the incident pump power of 11.75 W, corresponding to a diode-to-Stokes conversion efficiency of 16.8%.

  10. Nonlinear infrared generation in alkali metal vapors: Steady state susceptibilities and dynamic behavior. Effective relaxation rates and preliminary Raman gain predictions for the Cs system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, N. M.

    1986-01-01

    Effective relaxation rates for atomic cesium pumped by doubled Alexandrite radiation are presented. Laser radiation levels are 8S 1/2 and 9S 1/2; resonance levels 3 = 8P 1/2 and 8P 1/2, respectively. In addition, Raman gain is represented in two graphs which plot chi per atom (10 to the -13 power) at Raman peak versus the infrared wave number per centimeter and the corresponding doubled Alexandrite wave number. One graph covers resonance level 8P, the other 9P; in both cases cesium is pumped with a peak pulse height of 0.5 MW in a 200 micron diameter spot size.

  11. Active rc filter permits easy trade-off of amplifier gain and sensitivity to gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kerwin, W. J.; Shaffer, C. V.

    1968-01-01

    Passive RC network was designed with zeros of transmission in the right half of the complex frequency plane in the feedback loop of a simple negative-gain amplifier. The proper positioning provides any desired trade-off between amplifier gain and sensitivity to amplifier gain.

  12. 20 CFR 416.972 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... work activity that involves doing significant physical or mental activities. Your work may be... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity... Activity § 416.972 What we mean by substantial gainful activity. Substantial gainful activity is...

  13. Resonance Raman Optical Activity of Single Walled Chiral Carbon Nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Péter R; Koltai, János; Surján, Péter R; Kürti, Jenő; Szabados, Ágnes

    2016-07-21

    Resonance (vibrational) Raman Optical Activity (ROA) spectra of six chiral single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) are studied by theoretical means. Calculations are performed imposing line group symmetry. Polarizability tensors, computed at the π-electron level, are differentiated with respect to DFT normal modes to generate spectral intensities. This computational protocol yields a ROA spectrum in good agreement with the only experiment on SWCNT, available at present. In addition to the conventional periodic electric dipole operator we introduce magnetic dipole and electric quadrupole operators, suitable for conventional k-space calculations. Consequences of the complex nature of the wave function on the scattering cross section are discussed in detail. The resonance phenomenon is accounted for by the short time approximation. Involvement of fundamental vibrations in the region of the intermediate frequency modes is found to be more notable in ROA than in Raman spectra. Calculations indicate exceptionally strong resonance enhancement of SWCNT ROA signals. Resonance ROA profile of the (6,5) tube shows an interesting sign change that may be exploited experimentally for SWCNT identification. PMID:27315548

  14. Evaluation of Thiol Raman Activities and pKa Values Using Internally Referenced Raman-Based pH Titration.

    PubMed

    Suwandaratne, Nuwanthi; Hu, Juan; Siriwardana, Kumudu; Gadogbe, Manuel; Zhang, Dongmao

    2016-04-01

    Thiols, including organothiol and thiol-containing biomolecules, are among the most important classes of chemicals that are used broadly in organic synthesis, biological chemistry, and nanosciences. Thiol pKa values are key indicators of thiol reactivity and functionality. Reported herein is an internally referenced Raman-based pH titration method that enables reliable quantification of thiol pKa values for both mono- and dithiols in water. The degree of thiol ionization is monitored directly using the peak intensity of the S-H stretching feature in the 2600 cm(-1) region relative to an internal reference peak as a function of the titration solution's pH. The thiol pKa values and Raman activity relative to its internal reference were then determined by curve fitting the experimental data with equations derived on the basis of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Using this Raman titration method, we determined for the first time the first and second thiol pKa values for 1,2-benzenedithiol in water. This Raman-based method is convenient to implement, and its underlying theory is easy to follow. It should therefore have broad application for thiol pKa determinations and verification.

  15. Active Raman sounding of the earth's water vapor field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tratt, David M.; Whiteman, David N.; Demoz, Belay B.; Farley, Robert W.; Wessel, John E.

    2005-01-01

    The typically weak cross-sections characteristic of Raman processes has historically limited their use in atmospheric remote sensing to nighttime application. However, with advances in instrumentation and techniques, it is now possible to apply Raman lidar to the monitoring of atmospheric water vapor, aerosols and clouds throughout the diurnal cycle. Upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric measurements of water vapor using Raman lidar are also possible but are limited to nighttime and require long integration times. However, boundary layer studies of water vapor variability can now be performed with high temporal and spatial resolution. This paper will review the current state-of-the-art of Raman lidar for high-resolution measurements of the atmospheric water vapor, aerosol and cloud fields. In particular, we describe the use of Raman lidar for mapping the vertical distribution and variability of atmospheric water vapor, aerosols and clouds throughout the evolution of dynamic meteorological events. The ability of Raman lidar to detect and characterize water in the region of the tropopause and the importance of high-altitude water vapor for climate-related studies and meteorological satellite performance are discussed.

  16. Active Raman sounding of the earth's water vapor field.

    PubMed

    Tratt, David M; Whiteman, David N; Demoz, Belay B; Farley, Robert W; Wessel, John E

    2005-08-01

    The typically weak cross-sections characteristic of Raman processes has historically limited their use in atmospheric remote sensing to nighttime application. However, with advances in instrumentation and techniques, it is now possible to apply Raman lidar to the monitoring of atmospheric water vapor, aerosols and clouds throughout the diurnal cycle. Upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric measurements of water vapor using Raman lidar are also possible but are limited to nighttime and require long integration times. However, boundary layer studies of water vapor variability can now be performed with high temporal and spatial resolution. This paper will review the current state-of-the-art of Raman lidar for high-resolution measurements of the atmospheric water vapor, aerosol and cloud fields. In particular, we describe the use of Raman lidar for mapping the vertical distribution and variability of atmospheric water vapor, aerosols and clouds throughout the evolution of dynamic meteorological events. The ability of Raman lidar to detect and characterize water in the region of the tropopause and the importance of high-altitude water vapor for climate-related studies and meteorological satellite performance are discussed. PMID:16029854

  17. Active Raman sounding of the earth's water vapor field.

    PubMed

    Tratt, David M; Whiteman, David N; Demoz, Belay B; Farley, Robert W; Wessel, John E

    2005-08-01

    The typically weak cross-sections characteristic of Raman processes has historically limited their use in atmospheric remote sensing to nighttime application. However, with advances in instrumentation and techniques, it is now possible to apply Raman lidar to the monitoring of atmospheric water vapor, aerosols and clouds throughout the diurnal cycle. Upper tropospheric and lower stratospheric measurements of water vapor using Raman lidar are also possible but are limited to nighttime and require long integration times. However, boundary layer studies of water vapor variability can now be performed with high temporal and spatial resolution. This paper will review the current state-of-the-art of Raman lidar for high-resolution measurements of the atmospheric water vapor, aerosol and cloud fields. In particular, we describe the use of Raman lidar for mapping the vertical distribution and variability of atmospheric water vapor, aerosols and clouds throughout the evolution of dynamic meteorological events. The ability of Raman lidar to detect and characterize water in the region of the tropopause and the importance of high-altitude water vapor for climate-related studies and meteorological satellite performance are discussed.

  18. Design of Raman active nanoparticles for SERS-based detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garza, Javier T.; Cote, Gerard L.

    2016-03-01

    Timely detection of cardiac biomarkers is needed to diagnose acute myocardial infarction, implement the appropriate early treatment, and significantly reduce the chance of mortality. Ideally, for maximizing patient impact, a point of care device needs to be designed that is fast, sensitive, reliable, and small enough to be used in the ambulance and emergency department. Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) is a sensitive optical technique that can potentially be used to quantify the cardiac biomarkers of interest. In this work, silver nanoparticles were functionalized with a Raman reporter molecule and human cardiac Troponin I (cTnI) as an essential component of binding assays. Aggregated nanoparticles with the Raman reporter molecules were encapsulated in a silica shell to form SERS hotspots. Besides having a specific Raman spectra and binding affinity to cardiac Troponin I antibodies, the nanoparticles were designed to exhibit stability by using silica and polyethylene glycol (PEG) as part of the bioconjugation strategy. The specific narrow peaks from the Raman reporter molecule SERS signal allow for potential multiplexing capabilities as different Raman reporter molecules can be used in functionalized nanoparticles with different cardiac biomarkers. The SERS spectrum of the functionalized nanoparticles was measured to assess its potential to be used in an assay.

  19. Calculation of Raman optical activity spectra for vibrational analysis.

    PubMed

    Mutter, Shaun T; Zielinski, François; Popelier, Paul L A; Blanch, Ewan W

    2015-05-01

    By looking back on the history of Raman Optical Activity (ROA), the present article shows that the success of this analytical technique was for a long time hindered, paradoxically, by the deep level of detail and wealth of structural information it can provide. Basic principles of the underlying theory are discussed, to illustrate the technique's sensitivity due to its physical origins in the delicate response of molecular vibrations to electromagnetic properties. Following a short review of significant advances in the application of ROA by UK researchers, we dedicate two extensive sections to the technical and theoretical difficulties that were overcome to eventually provide predictive power to computational simulations in terms of ROA spectral calculation. In the last sections, we focus on a new modelling strategy that has been successful in coping with the dramatic impact of solvent effects on ROA analyses. This work emphasises the role of complementarity between experiment and theory for analysing the conformations and dynamics of biomolecules, so providing new perspectives for methodological improvements and molecular modelling development. For the latter, an example of a next-generation force-field for more accurate simulations and analysis of molecular behaviour is presented. By improving the accuracy of computational modelling, the analytical capabilities of ROA spectroscopy will be further developed so generating new insights into the complex behaviour of molecules.

  20. Origin invariance in vibrational resonance Raman optical activity

    SciTech Connect

    Vidal, Luciano N. Cappelli, Chiara; Egidi, Franco; Barone, Vincenzo

    2015-05-07

    A theoretical investigation on the origin dependence of the vibronic polarizabilities, isotropic and anisotropic rotational invariants, and scattering cross sections in Resonance Raman Optical Activity (RROA) spectroscopy is presented. Expressions showing the origin dependence of these polarizabilities were written in the resonance regime using the Franck-Condon (FC) and Herzberg-Teller (HT) approximations for the electronic transition moments. Differently from the far-from-resonance scattering regime, where the origin dependent terms cancel out when the rotational invariants are calculated, RROA spectrum can exhibit some origin dependence even for eigenfunctions of the electronic Hamiltonian. At the FC level, the RROA spectrum is completely origin invariant if the polarizabilities are calculated using a single excited state or for a set of degenerate states. Otherwise, some origin effects can be observed in the spectrum. At the HT level, RROA spectrum is origin dependent even when the polarizabilities are evaluated from a single excited state but the origin effect is expected to be small in this case. Numerical calculations performed for (S)-methyloxirane, (2R,3R)-dimethyloxirane, and (R)-4-F-2-azetidinone at both FC and HT levels using the velocity representation of the electric dipole and quadrupole transition moments confirm the predictions of the theory and show the extent of origin effects and the effectiveness of suggested ways to remove them.

  1. A tunable photonic temporal integrator with ultra-long integration time windows based on Raman-gain assisted phase-shifted silicon Bragg gratings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Shuqian; Deng, Ye; Huang, Ningbo; Tang, Jian; Zhu, Ninghua; Li, Ming

    2016-08-01

    A tunable photonic temporal integrator based on Raman-gain assisted phase-shifted silicon Bragg gratings is proposed and theoretically demonstrated. The proposed temporal photonic integrator is constructed using a silicon-on-insulator (SOI) π-phase-shifted Bragg grating, with a 25 V reverse bias applied to the p-i-n rib waveguide. Key feature of our design is that the length of integration time window could be widely tuned by simply changing the optical power of the pump light and could be extended to very long when the pump power is approaching lasing threshold. In addition, this scheme also has the potential for on-chip integration with other silicon photonics components.

  2. Goos-Hänchen shifts of partially coherent light beams from a cavity with a four-level Raman gain medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziauddin; Lee, Ray-Kuang; Qamar, Sajid

    2016-09-01

    We theoretically investigate spatial and angular Goos-Hänchen (GH) shifts (both negative and positive) in the reflected light for a partial coherent light incident on a cavity. A four-level Raman gain atomic medium is considered in a cavity. The effects of spatial coherence, beam width, and mode index of partial coherent light fields on spatial and angular GH shifts are studied. Our results reveal that a large magnitude of negative and positive GH shifts in the reflected light is achievable with the introduction of partial coherent light fields. Furthermore, the amplitude of spatial (negative and positive) GH shifts are sharply affected by the partial coherent light beam as compared to angular (negative and positive) GH shifts in the reflected light.

  3. Synthesis and characterization of mixed monolayer protected gold nanorods and their Raman activities

    SciTech Connect

    Mlambo, Mbuso; Mdluli, Phumlani S.; Shumbula, Poslet; Mpelane, Siyasanga; Moloto, Nosipho; Skepu, Amanda; Tshikhudo, Robert

    2013-10-15

    Graphical abstract: Gold nanorods surface functionalization. - Highlights: • Mixed monolayer protected gold nanorods. • Surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. • HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin as a Raman active compound. - Abstract: The cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) gold nanorods (AuNRs) were prepared by seed-mediated route followed by the addition of a Raman active compound (HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin) on the gold nanorods surfaces. Different stoichiometric mixtures of HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin and HS-PEG-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}COOH were evaluated for their Raman activities. The lowest stoichiometric ratio HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin adsorbed on gold nanorods surface was detected and enhanced by Raman spectroscopy. The produced mixed monolayer protected gold nanorods were characterized by UV-vis spectrometer for optical properties, transmission electron microscope (TEM) for structural properties (shape and aspect ratio) and their zeta potentials (charges) were obtained from ZetaSizer to determine the stability of the produced mixed monolayer protected gold nanorods. The Raman results showed a surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) enhancement at the lowest stoichiometric ratio of 1% HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin compared to high ratio of 50% HS-(CH{sub 2}){sub 11}-NHCO-coumarin on the surface of gold nanorods.

  4. Identification of active fluorescence stained bacteria by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krause, Mario; Beyer, Beatrice; Pietsch, Christian; Radt, Benno; Harz, Michaela; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    2008-04-01

    Microorganisms can be found everywhere e.g. in food both as useful ingredients or harmful contaminations causing food spoilage. Therefore, a fast and easy to handle analysis method is needed to detect bacteria in different kinds of samples like meat, juice or air to decide if the sample is contaminated by harmful microorganisms. Conventional identification methods in microbiology require always cultivation and therefore are time consuming. In this contribution we present an analysis approach to identify fluorescence stained bacteria on strain level by means of Raman spectroscopy. The stained bacteria are highlighted and can be localized easier against a complex sample environment e.g. in food. The use of Raman spectroscopy in combination with chemometrical methods allows the identification of single bacteria within minutes.

  5. 26 CFR 7.105-2 - Substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ..., institutional therapy or training, school attendance, clubs, social programs, and similar activities is not... relative for one or two hours a day by performing duties such as washing dishes, answering...

  6. 26 CFR 7.105-2 - Substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ..., institutional therapy or training, school attendance, clubs, social programs, and similar activities is not... relative for one or two hours a day by performing duties such as washing dishes, answering...

  7. 26 CFR 7.105-2 - Substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., institutional therapy or training, school attendance, clubs, social programs, and similar activities is not.... Example (1). Before retirement on disability, taxpayer worked for a hotel as night desk clerk. After retirement, the taxpayer is hired by another hotel as night desk clerk at a rate of pay exceeding the...

  8. Generation of synchronized picosecond pulses by a 1.06-µm gain-switched laser diode for stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Kyoya; Fang, Yi-Cheng; Yokoyama, Hiroyuki; Ozeki, Yasuyuki

    2016-05-01

    We propose that a gain-switched laser diode (GS-LD) can be used as a picosecond laser source for stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy. We employed a 1.06-µm GS-LD to generate ~13-ps pulses at a repetition rate of 38 MHz and amplified them to >100 mW with Yb-doped fiber amplifiers. The GS-LD was driven by 200-ps electrical pulses, which were triggered through a toggle flip-flop (T-FF) so that the GS-LD pulses were synchronized to Ti:sapphire laser (TSL) pulses at a repetition rate of 76 MHz. We found the timing jitter of GS-LD pulses to be approximately 2.7 ps in a jitter bandwidth of 7 MHz. We also show that the delay of electrical pulses can be less sensitive to the optical power of TSL pulses by controlling the threshold voltage of the T-FF. We demonstrate the SRS imaging of polymer beads and of HeLa cells with GS-LD pulses and TSL pulses, proving that GS-LD is readily applicable to SRS microscopy as a compact and stable pulse source. PMID:27137575

  9. Surface enhanced Raman optical activity of molecules on orientationally averaged substrates: theory of electromagnetic effects.

    PubMed

    Janesko, Benjamin G; Scuseria, Gustavo E

    2006-09-28

    We present a model for electromagnetic enhancements in surface enhanced Raman optical activity (SEROA) spectroscopy. The model extends previous treatments of SEROA to substrates, such as metal nanoparticles in solution, that are orientationally averaged with respect to the laboratory frame. Our theoretical treatment combines analytical expressions for unenhanced Raman optical activity with molecular polarizability tensors that are dressed by the substrate's electromagnetic enhancements. We evaluate enhancements from model substrates to determine preliminary scaling laws and selection rules for SEROA. We find that dipolar substrates enhance Raman optical activity (ROA) scattering less than Raman scattering. Evanescent gradient contributions to orientationally averaged ROA scale to first or higher orders in the gradient of the incident plane-wave field. These evanescent gradient contributions may be large for substrates with quadrupolar responses to the plane-wave field gradient. Some substrates may also show a ROA contribution that depends only on the molecular electric dipole-electric dipole polarizability. These conclusions are illustrated via numerical calculations of surface enhanced Raman and ROA spectra from (R)-(-)-bromochlorofluoromethane on various model substrates.

  10. Nonlinear infrared generation in alkali metal vapors: steady state susceptibilities and dynamic behavior. Effective relaxation rates and preliminary Raman gain predictions for the Cs system. Technical progress report, 1 July-31 December 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Lawandy, N.M.

    1986-12-01

    Effective relaxation rates for atomic cesium pumped by doubled Alexandrite radiation are presented. Laser radiation levels are 8S 1/2 and 9S 1/2; resonance levels 3 = 8P 1/2 and 8P 1/2, respectively. In addition, Raman gain is represented in two graphs which plot chi per atom (10 to the -13 power) at Raman peak versus the infrared wave number per centimeter and the corresponding doubled Alexandrite wave number. One graph covers resonance level 8P, the other 9P; in both cases cesium is pumped with a peak pulse height of 0.5 MW in a 200 micron diameter spot size.

  11. Femtoliter silver cups as surface enhanced Raman scattering active containers.

    PubMed

    Bhuvana, T; Kulkarni, G U

    2009-01-28

    Femtoliter capacity Ag cups formed by the pulsed laser ablation of an Ag foil have been tried out as substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements. The cups are formed as the impinging droplets from the laser plume undergo a flow pattern before freezing into cup-like structures, resulting in a surface roughness (approximately 35 nm) that makes them ideal for SERS studies. The internal volume of the cups is in the femtoliter (10(-15) l) range, well suited for small-scale reactions, particularly in biological studies. The cups exhibit enhancement factors of the order of 10(6) with the analyte molecule thiophenol. Individual cups have been dosed attoliter quantities (10(-18) l) of the analyte and detected. PMID:19417320

  12. Preservation of fluorescence and Raman gain in the buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}(Nd:KGW) by femtosecond laser writing

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Xiaoyu; Qu Shiliang; Tan Yang; Chen Feng

    2011-02-20

    We report on the preservation of fluorescence and Raman gain in low-repetition-rate femtosecond laser written buried channel waveguides in neodymium-doped KGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2}. The propagation loss index, profile reconstruction, and calculation of the modal intensity distribution by the beam propagation method of the waveguide are presented. Microluminescence spectra of the waveguides show that the fluorescence properties of Nd{sup 3+} ions are not significantly affected by the waveguide formation processing, which indicates a fairly good potential for further laser actions in a compact device. Micro-Raman spectra are also performed to reveal the preservation of the characteristic 768 and 901 cm{sup -1} Raman mode intensities in the guiding regions.

  13. Neighborhood factors associated with physical activity and adequacy of weight gain during pregnancy

    EPA Science Inventory

    Healthy diet, physical activity, smoking, and adequate weight gain are all associated with maternal health and fetal growth during pregnancy. Neighborhood characteristics have been associated with poor maternal and child health outcomes, yet conceptualization of potential mechani...

  14. Modeling the gain and bandwidth of submicron active layer n+-i-p+ avalanche photodiode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Majumder, Kanishka; Das, N. R.

    2012-10-01

    The electron initiated avalanche gain and bandwidth are calculated for thin submicron GaAs n+-i-p+ avalanche photodiode. A model is used to estimate the avalanche build-up of carriers in the active multiplication layer considering the dead-space effect. In the model, the carriers are identified both by their energy and position in the multiplication region. The excess energy of the carriers above threshold is assumed to be equally distributed among the carriers generated after impact ionization. The gain versus bias and bandwidth versus gain characteristics of the device are also demonstrated for different active layer thicknesses of the APD.

  15. Intracavity Raman lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Band, Y.B.; Ackerhalt, J.R.; Krasinski, J.S.; Heller, D.F.

    1989-02-01

    Experimental and theoretical studies of intracavity Raman lasers are presented. Advantages of intracavity Raman lasers, particularly for low-emission cross section and broadly tunable vibronic gain media, are described. Experimental studies of a hydrogen gas Raman laser pumped inside the cavity of an alexandrite laser are presented. A theoretical model of the dynamics of a unidirectional intracavity Raman ring laser is developed and solved analytically. This model is adapted to simulate experiments.

  16. Probing the Raman-active acoustic vibrations of nanoparticles with extraordinary spectral resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wheaton, Skyler; Gelfand, Ryan M.; Gordon, Reuven

    2015-01-01

    Colloidal quantum dots, viruses, DNA and all other nanoparticles have acoustic vibrations that can act as ‘fingerprints’ to identify their shape, size and mechanical properties, yet high-resolution Raman spectroscopy in this low-energy range has been lacking. Here, we demonstrate extraordinary acoustic Raman (EAR) spectroscopy to measure the Raman-active vibrations of single isolated nanoparticles in the 0.1-10 cm-1 range with ˜0.05 cm-1 resolution, to resolve peak splitting from material anisotropy and to probe the low-frequency modes of biomolecules. EAR employs a nanoaperture laser tweezer that can select particles of interest and manipulate them once identified. We therefore believe that this nanotechnology will enable expanded capabilities for the study of nanoparticles in the materials and life sciences.

  17. Maintaining a High Physical Activity Level Over 20 Years and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Hankinson, Arlene L.; Daviglus, Martha L.; Bouchard, Claude; Carnethon, Mercedes; Lewis, Cora E.; Schreiner, Pamela J.; Liu, Kiang; Sidney, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Context Data supporting physical activity guidelines to prevent long-term weight gain are sparse, particularly during the period when the highest risk of weight gain occurs. Objective To evaluate the relationship between habitual activity levels and changes in body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference over 20 years. Design, Setting, and Participants The Coronary Artery Risk Development in Young Adults (CARDIA) study is a prospective longitudinal study with 20 years of follow-up, 1985-86 to 2005-06. Habitual activity was defined as maintaining high, moderate, and low activity levels based on sex-specific tertiles of activity scores at baseline. Participants comprised a population-based multi-center cohort (Chicago, Illinois; Birmingham, Alabama; Minneapolis, Minnesota; and Oakland, California) of 3554 men and women aged 18 to 30 years at baseline. Main Outcome Measures Average annual changes in BMI and waist circumference Results Over 20 years, maintaining high levels of activity was associated with smaller gains in BMI and waist circumference compared with low activity levels after adjustment for race, baseline BMI, age, education, cigarette smoking status, alcohol use, and energy intake. Men maintaining high activity gained 2.6 fewer kilograms (+ 0.15 BMI units per year; 95 % confidence interval [CI] 0.11-0.18 vs +0.20 in the lower activity group; 95% CI, 0.17-0.23) and women maintaining higher activity gained 6.1 fewer kilograms (+0.17 BMI units per year; 95 % CI, 0.12-0.21 vs. +0.30 in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.25-0.34). Men maintaining high activity gained 3.1 fewer centimeters in waist circumference (+0.52 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.43-0.61 cm vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75) and women maintaining higher activity gained 3.8 fewer centimeters (+0.49 cm per year; 95 % CI, 0.39-0.58 vs 0.67 cm in the lower activity group; 95 % CI, 0.60-0.75). Conclusion Maintaining high activity levels through young adulthood may lessen

  18. Anterior cingulate activity to monetary loss and basal ganglia activity to monetary gain uniquely contribute to the feedback negativity

    PubMed Central

    Foti, Dan; Weinberg, Anna; Bernat, Edward M.; Proudfit, Greg H.

    2014-01-01

    Objective The feedback negativity (FN) is an event-related potential that differentiates unfavorable versus favorable outcomes. Although thought to reflect error-related activity within the anterior cingulate cortex, recent work indicates the FN may also reflect reward-related activity that has been linked to the basal ganglia. To date, it remains unclear how to reconcile these conflicting perspectives. Methods We decomposed the FN by applying time-frequency analysis to isolate activity unique to monetary losses and gains. The FN was recorded from 84 individuals during a laboratory gambling task. Results Two signals contributed to the FN elicited by unpredictable outcomes: theta activity (4-7 Hz) was increased following monetary loss, and delta activity (< 3 Hz) was increased following monetary gain. Predictable outcomes elicited delta but not theta activity. Source analysis revealed distinct generators, with loss-related theta localized to the anterior cingulate cortex and gain-related delta to a possible source in the striatum. Symptoms of depression, anxiety, and stress reactivity were specifically associated with blunted gain-related delta. Conclusions The FN may be a composite of loss- and gain-related neural activity, reflecting distinct facets of reward processing. Significance Gain-related delta activity may provide unique information about reward dysfunction in major depression and other internalizing psychopathology. PMID:25454338

  19. Active mode-locking of mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers with short gain recovery time.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongrui; Belyanin, Alexey

    2015-02-23

    We investigate the dynamics of actively modulated mid-infrared quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) using space- and time-domain simulations of coupled density matrix and Maxwell equations with resonant tunneling current taken into account. We show that it is possible to achieve active mode locking and stable generation of picosecond pulses in high performance QCLs with a vertical laser transition and a short gain recovery time by bias modulation of a short section of a monolithic Fabry-Perot cavity. In fact, active mode locking in QCLs with a short gain recovery time turns out to be more robust to the variation of parameters as compared to previously studied lasers with a long gain recovery time. We investigate the effects of spatial hole burning and phase locking on the laser output.

  20. Years of Life Gained Due to Leisure-Time Physical Activity in the United States

    PubMed Central

    Janssen, Ian; Carson, Valerie; Lee, I-Min; Katzmarzyk, Peter T.; Blair, Steven N.

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity is an important modifiable risk factor for non-communicable disease. The degree to which physical activity affects the life expectancy of Americans is unknown. This study estimated the potential years of life gained due to leisure-time physical activity across the adult lifespan in the United States. Methods Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (2007–2010), National Health Interview Study mortality linkage (1990–2006), and US Life Tables (2006) were used to estimate and compare life expectancy at each age of adult life for inactive (no moderate-to-vigorous physical activity), somewhat active (some moderate-to-vigorous activity but <500 metabolic equivalent min/week) and active (≥500 metabolic equivalent min/week of moderate-to-vigorous activity) adults. Analyses were conducted in 2012. Results Somewhat active and active non-Hispanic white men had a life expectancy at age 20 that was around 2.4 years longer than the inactive men; this life expectancy advantage was 1.2 years at age 80. Similar observations were made in non-Hispanic white women, with a higher life expectancy within the active category of 3.0 years at age 20 and 1.6 years at age 80. In non-Hispanic black women, as many as 5.5 potential years of life were gained due to physical activity. Significant increases in longevity were also observed within somewhat active and active non-Hispanic black men; however, among Hispanics the years of life gained estimates were more variable and not significantly different from 0 years gained. Conclusions Leisure-time physical activity is associated with increases in longevity in the United States. PMID:23253646

  1. Enhanced Raman scattering and photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO heterojunction nanocrystals.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chongqi; Zheng, Yuanhui; Zhan, Yingying; Lin, Xingyi; Zheng, Qi; Wei, Kemei

    2011-10-01

    In this work, we study the enhancement of Raman signals and photocatalytic activity of Ag/ZnO heterojunctions with an Ag content of 1 at.%, which were synthesized by photochemical deposition of Ag nanoparticles onto pre-synthesized ZnO nanorods. A strong interaction between Ag and ZnO nanocrystals were evidenced by XPS and UV-vis spectroscopy. The binding energy of Ag nanoparticles shifts toward lower energy compared to that of pure Ag nanoparticles, revealing that electrons transfer from Ag to the ZnO nanocrystals. The red shift of the plasmon absorption peak of Ag nanoparticles in Ag/ZnO heterojunctions further confirms the strong interaction between the two components. This strong interaction, arising from the coupling between Ag and ZnO nanocrystals, is responsible for the enhancement of Raman signals and photocatalytic activity of the Ag/ZnO heterojunctions. PMID:21847472

  2. Fifty-ps Raman fiber laser with hybrid active-passive mode locking.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsov, A G; Kharenko, D S; Podivilov, E V; Babin, S A

    2016-07-25

    Actively mode locked Raman lasing in a ring PM-fiber cavity pumped by a linearly polarized Yb-doped fiber laser is studied. At co-propagating pumping, a stochastic pulse with duration defined by the AOM switching time (~15 ns) is generated with the round-trip period. At counter-propagating pumping, one or several sub-ns pulses (within the AOM switching envelope) are formed. It has been found that the formation of such stable multi-pulse structure is defined by the single-pulse energy limit (~20 nJ) set by the second-order Raman generation. Adding a NPE-based saturable absorber in the actively mode locked cavity, results in sufficient shortening of the generated pulses both in single- and multi-pulse regimes (down to 50 ps). A model is developed adequately describing the regimes. PMID:27464081

  3. Generation of unipolar optical pulses in a Raman-active medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arkhipov, R. M.; Arkhipov, M. V.; Belov, P. A.; Tolmachev, Yu A.; Babushkin, I.

    2016-04-01

    Response of a Raman-active media (RAM) to the excitation by a series of ultrashort (few-cycle) optical pulses propagating at a superluminal velocity is studied theoretically. It is shown that under certain conditions rectangular unipolar pulses (video-pulses) can be generated as the RAM response. The duration, shape and amplitude of these video-pulses can be widely tuned by modifying the pump pulse parameters.

  4. Spontaneous regional brain activity links restrained eating to later weight gain among young women.

    PubMed

    Dong, Debo; Jackson, Todd; Wang, Yulin; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Theory and prospective studies have linked restrained eating (RE) to risk for future weight gain and the onset of obesity, but little is known about resting state neural activity that may underlie this association. To address this gap, resting fMRI was used to test the extent to which spontaneous neural activity in regions associated with inhibitory control and food reward account for potential relations between baseline RE levels and changes in body weight among dieters over a one-year interval. Spontaneous regional activity patterns corresponding to RE were assessed among 50 young women using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which measured temporal synchronization of spontaneous fluctuations within a food deprivation condition. Analyses indicated higher baseline RE scores predicted more weight gain at a one-year follow-up. Furthermore, food-deprived dieting women with high dietary restraint scores exhibited more spontaneous local activity in brain regions associated with the expectation and valuation for food reward [i.e., orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)] and reduced spontaneous local activity in inhibitory control regions [i.e., bilateral dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)] at baseline. Notably, the association between baseline RE and follow-up weight gain was mediated by decreased local synchronization of the right DLPFC in particular and, to a lesser degree, increased local synchronization of the right VMPFC. In conjunction with previous research, these findings highlight possible neural mechanisms underlying the relation between RE and risk for weight gain. PMID:26004091

  5. Spontaneous regional brain activity links restrained eating to later weight gain among young women.

    PubMed

    Dong, Debo; Jackson, Todd; Wang, Yulin; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Theory and prospective studies have linked restrained eating (RE) to risk for future weight gain and the onset of obesity, but little is known about resting state neural activity that may underlie this association. To address this gap, resting fMRI was used to test the extent to which spontaneous neural activity in regions associated with inhibitory control and food reward account for potential relations between baseline RE levels and changes in body weight among dieters over a one-year interval. Spontaneous regional activity patterns corresponding to RE were assessed among 50 young women using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which measured temporal synchronization of spontaneous fluctuations within a food deprivation condition. Analyses indicated higher baseline RE scores predicted more weight gain at a one-year follow-up. Furthermore, food-deprived dieting women with high dietary restraint scores exhibited more spontaneous local activity in brain regions associated with the expectation and valuation for food reward [i.e., orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)] and reduced spontaneous local activity in inhibitory control regions [i.e., bilateral dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)] at baseline. Notably, the association between baseline RE and follow-up weight gain was mediated by decreased local synchronization of the right DLPFC in particular and, to a lesser degree, increased local synchronization of the right VMPFC. In conjunction with previous research, these findings highlight possible neural mechanisms underlying the relation between RE and risk for weight gain.

  6. External locus of control contributes to racial disparities in memory and reasoning training gains in ACTIVE

    PubMed Central

    Zahodne, Laura B.; Meyer, Oanh L.; Choi, Eunhee; Thomas, Michael L.; Willis, Sherry L.; Marsiske, Michael; Gross, Alden L.; Rebok, George W.; Parisi, Jeanine M.

    2015-01-01

    Racial disparities in cognitive outcomes may be partly explained by differences in locus of control. African Americans report more external locus of control than non-Hispanic Whites, and external locus of control is associated with poorer health and cognition. The aims of this study were to compare cognitive training gains between African American and non-Hispanic White participants in the Advanced Cognitive Training for Independent and Vital Elderly (ACTIVE) study and determine whether racial differences in training gains are mediated by locus of control. The sample comprised 2,062 (26% African American) adults aged 65 and older who participated in memory, reasoning, or speed training. Latent growth curve models evaluated predictors of 10-year cognitive trajectories separately by training group. Multiple group modeling examined associations between training gains and locus of control across racial groups. Compared to non-Hispanic Whites, African Americans evidenced less improvement in memory and reasoning performance after training. These effects were partially mediated by locus of control, controlling for age, sex, education, health, depression, testing site, and initial cognitive ability. African Americans reported more external locus of control, which was associated with smaller training gains. External locus of control also had a stronger negative association with reasoning training gain for African Americans than for Whites. No racial difference in training gain was identified for speed training. Future intervention research with African Americans should test whether explicitly targeting external locus of control leads to greater cognitive improvement following cognitive training. PMID:26237116

  7. The relationship between trunk muscle activation and trunk stiffness: examining a non-constant stiffness gain.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen H M; McGill, Stuart M

    2010-12-01

    The relationship between muscle activation, force and stiffness needs to be known to interpret the stability state of the spine. To test the relationship between these variables, a quick release approach was used to match quantified torso stiffness with an EMG activation-based estimate of individual muscle stiffnesses. The relationship between activation, force and stiffness was modelled as k = q x F/l, where k, F and l are muscle stiffness, force and length, respectively, and q is the dimensionless stiffness gain relating these variables. Under the tested experimental scenario, the 'stiffness gain', q, which linked activation with stiffness, demonstrated a decreasing trend with increasing levels of torso muscle activation. This highlights the likelihood that the choice of a single q value may be over simplistic to relate force to stiffness in muscles that control the spine. This has implications for understanding the potential for spine instability in situations requiring high muscular demand.

  8. Insulin enhances the gain of arterial baroreflex control of muscle sympathetic nerve activity in humans.

    PubMed

    Young, Colin N; Deo, Shekhar H; Chaudhary, Kunal; Thyfault, John P; Fadel, Paul J

    2010-09-15

    Recent animal studies indicate that insulin increases arterial baroreflex control of lumbar sympathetic nerve activity; however, the extent to which these findings can be extrapolated to humans is unknown. To begin to address this, muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA) and arterial blood pressure were measured in 19 healthy subjects (27 ± 1 years) before, and for 120 min following, two common methodologies used to evoke sustained increases in plasma insulin: a mixed meal and a hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp. Weighted linear regression analysis between MSNA and diastolic blood pressure was used to determine the gain (i.e. sensitivity) of arterial baroreflex control of MSNA. Plasma insulin was significantly elevated within 30 min following meal intake (34 ± 6 uIU ml(1); P < 0.05) and remained above baseline for up to 120 min. Similarly, after meal intake, arterial baroreflex-MSNA gain for burst incidence and total MSNA was increased and remained elevated for the duration of the protocol (e.g. burst incidence gain: 3.29 ± 0.54 baseline vs. 5.64 ± 0.67 bursts (100 heart beats)(1) mmHg(1) at 120 min; P < 0.05). During the hyperinsulinaemic euglycaemic clamp, in which insulin was elevated to postprandial concentrations (42 ± 6 μIU ml(1); P < 0.05), while glucose was maintained constant, arterial baroreflex-MSNA gain was similarly enhanced (e.g. burst incidence gain: 2.44 ± 0.29 baseline vs. 4.74 ± 0.71 bursts (100 heart beats)(1) mmHg(1) at 120 min; P < 0.05). Importantly, during time control experiments, with sustained fasting insulin concentrations, the arterial baroreflex-MSNA gain remained unchanged. These findings demonstrate, for the first time in healthy humans, that increases in plasma insulin enhance the gain of arterial baroreflex control of MSNA.

  9. Surface enhanced Raman scattering based sensitive detection of histone demethylase activity using a formaldehyde-selective reactive probe.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu; Deng, Xianghua; Liu, Jinwen; Tang, Hao; Jiang, Jianhui

    2013-10-01

    A novel surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) based assay using a formaldehyde-selective reactive probe for sensitive detection of activity of histone demethylases (HDMs) by direct observation of by-product formaldehyde was reported.

  10. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  11. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  12. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  13. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  14. 20 CFR 404.1572 - What we mean by substantial gainful activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false What we mean by substantial gainful activity. 404.1572 Section 404.1572 Employees' Benefits SOCIAL SECURITY ADMINISTRATION FEDERAL OLD-AGE, SURVIVORS AND DISABILITY INSURANCE (1950- ) Determining Disability and Blindness Substantial...

  15. Simulating surface-enhanced Raman optical activity using atomistic electrodynamics-quantum mechanical models.

    PubMed

    Chulhai, Dhabih V; Jensen, Lasse

    2014-10-01

    Raman optical activity has proven to be a powerful tool for probing the geometry of small organic and biomolecules. It has therefore been expected that the same mechanisms responsible for surface-enhanced Raman scattering may allow for similar enhancements in surface-enhanced Raman optical activity (SEROA). However, SEROA has proved to be an experimental challenge and mirror-image SEROA spectra of enantiomers have so far not been measured. There exists a handful of theories to simulate SEROA, all of which treat the perturbed molecule as a point-dipole object. To go beyond these approximations, we present two new methods to simulate SEROA: the first is a dressed-tensors model that treats the molecule as a point-dipole and point-quadrupole object; the second method is the discrete interaction model/quantum mechanical (DIM/QM) model, which considers the entire charge density of the molecule. We show that although the first method is acceptable for small molecules, it fails for a medium-sized one such as 2-bromohexahelicene. We also show that the SEROA mode intensities and signs are highly sensitive to the nature of the local electric field and gradient, the orientation of the molecule, and the surface plasmon frequency width. Our findings give some insight into why experimental SEROA, and in particular observing mirror-image SEROA for enantiomers, has been difficult.

  16. Plasmonic enhancement of Raman optical activity in molecules near metal nanoshells.

    PubMed

    Acevedo, Ramiro; Lombardini, Richard; Halas, Naomi J; Johnson, Bruce R

    2009-11-26

    Surface-enhanced Raman optical activity (SEROA) is investigated theoretically for molecules near a metal nanoshell. For this purpose, induced molecular electric dipole, magnetic dipole, and electric quadrupole moments must all be included. The incident field and the induced multipole fields all scatter from the nanoshell, and the scattered waves can be calculated via extended Mie theory. It is straightforward in this framework to calculate the incident frequency dependence of SEROA intensities, i.e., SEROA excitation profiles. The differential Raman scattering is examined in detail for a simple chiroptical model that provides analytical forms for the relevant dynamical molecular response tensors. This allows a detailed investigation into circumstances that simultaneously provide strong enhancement of differential intensities and remain selective for molecules with chirality. PMID:19639972

  17. Engineering molecularly-active nanoplasmonic surfaces for DNA detection via colorimetry and Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heydari, Esmaeil; Mabbott, Samuel; Thompson, David; Graham, Duncan; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Clark, Alasdair W.

    2016-03-01

    We report a novel nanophotonic biosensor surface capable of both colorimetric detection and Raman-scattered detection of DNA infection markers at extreme sensitivities. Combining direct-write lithography, dip-pen nanolithography based DNA patterning, and molecular self-assembly, we create molecularly-active plasmonic nanostructures onto which metallic nanoparticles are located via DNA-hybridization. Arraying these structures enables optical surfaces that change state when contacted by specific DNA sequences; shifting the surface color while simultaneously generating strong Raman-scattering signals. Patterning the DNA markers onto the plasmonic surface as micro-scale symbols results in easily identifiable color shifts, making this technique applicable to multiplexed lab-on-a-chip and point-of-care diagnostic applications.

  18. Activation in the VTA and Nucleus Accumbens Increases in Anticipation of Both Gains and Losses

    PubMed Central

    Carter, R. McKell; MacInnes, Jeff J.; Huettel, Scott A.; Adcock, R. Alison

    2009-01-01

    To represent value for learning and decision making, the brain must encode information about both the motivational relevance and affective valence of anticipated outcomes. The nucleus accumbens (NAcc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA) are thought to play key roles in representing these and other aspects of valuation. Here, we manipulated the valence (i.e., monetary gain or loss) and personal relevance (i.e., self-directed or charity-directed) of anticipated outcomes within a variant of the monetary incentive delay task. We scanned young-adult participants using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), utilizing imaging parameters targeted for the NAcc and VTA. For both self-directed and charity-directed trials, activation in the NAcc and VTA increased to anticipated gains, as predicted by prior work, but also increased to anticipated losses. Moreover, the magnitude of responses in both regions was positively correlated for gains and losses, across participants, while an independent reward-sensitivity covariate predicted the relative difference between and gain- and loss-related activation on self-directed trials. These results are inconsistent with the interpretation that these regions reflect anticipation of only positive-valence events. Instead, they indicate that anticipatory activation in reward-related regions largely reflects the motivational relevance of an upcoming event. PMID:19753142

  19. Interleukin-18 activates skeletal muscle AMPK and reduces weight gain and insulin resistance in mice.

    PubMed

    Lindegaard, Birgitte; Matthews, Vance B; Brandt, Claus; Hojman, Pernille; Allen, Tamara L; Estevez, Emma; Watt, Matthew J; Bruce, Clinton R; Mortensen, Ole H; Syberg, Susanne; Rudnicka, Caroline; Abildgaard, Julie; Pilegaard, Henriette; Hidalgo, Juan; Ditlevsen, Susanne; Alsted, Thomas J; Madsen, Andreas N; Pedersen, Bente K; Febbraio, Mark A

    2013-09-01

    Circulating interleukin (IL)-18 is elevated in obesity, but paradoxically causes hypophagia. We hypothesized that IL-18 may attenuate high-fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistance by activating AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK). We studied mice with a global deletion of the α-isoform of the IL-18 receptor (IL-18R(-/-)) fed a standard chow or HFD. We next performed gain-of-function experiments in skeletal muscle, in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. We show that IL-18 is implicated in metabolic homeostasis, inflammation, and insulin resistance via mechanisms involving the activation of AMPK in skeletal muscle. IL-18R(-/-) mice display increased weight gain, ectopic lipid deposition, inflammation, and reduced AMPK signaling in skeletal muscle. Treating myotubes or skeletal muscle strips with IL-18 activated AMPK and increased fat oxidation. Moreover, in vivo electroporation of IL-18 into skeletal muscle activated AMPK and concomitantly inhibited HFD-induced weight gain. In summary, IL-18 enhances AMPK signaling and lipid oxidation in skeletal muscle implicating IL-18 in metabolic homeostasis.

  20. Effect of the upper limbs muscles activity on the mechanical energy gain in pole vaulting.

    PubMed

    Frère, Julien; Göpfert, Beat; Slawinski, Jean; Tourny-chollet, Claire

    2012-04-01

    The shoulder muscles are highly solicited in pole vaulting and may afford energy gain. The objective of this study was to determine the bilateral muscle activity of the upper-limbs to explain the actions performed by the vaulter to bend the pole and store elastic energy. Seven experienced athletes performed 5-10 vaults which were recorded using two video cameras (50Hz). The mechanical energy of the centre of gravity (CG) was computed, while surface electromyographic (EMG) profiles were recorded from 5 muscles bilateral: deltoideus, infraspinatus, biceps brachii, triceps, and latissimus dorsi muscles. The level of intensity from EMG profile was retained in four sub phases between take-off (TO1) and complete pole straightening (PS). The athletes had a mean mechanical energy gain of 22% throughout the pole vault, while the intensities of deltoideus, biceps brachii, and latissimus dorsi muscles were sub phases-dependent (p<0.05). Stabilizing the glenohumeral joint (increase of deltoideus and biceps brachii activity) and applying a pole bending torque (increase of latissimus dorsi activity) required specific muscle activation. The gain in mechanical energy of the vaulter could be linked to an increase in muscle activation, especially from latissimusdorsi muscles.

  1. Muscle activity during functional coordination training: implications for strength gain and rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Jørgensen, Marie B; Andersen, Lars L; Kirk, Niels; Pedersen, Mogens T; Søgaard, Karen; Holtermann, Andreas

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate if different types, body positions, and levels of progression of functional coordination exercises can provide sufficiently high levels of muscle activity to improve strength of the neck, shoulder, and trunk muscles. Nine untrained women were familiarized with 7 functional coordination exercises 12 times during 4 weeks before testing. Surface electromyographic (EMG) activity was obtained from rectus abdominus, erector spinae, obliquus externus, and trapezius during the exercises with 2-4 levels of progression. Electromyography was normalized to the maximal EMG activity during maximal voluntary contractions, and a p value < 0.05 was considered significant. All recorded muscles reached sufficiently high levels of activity during the coordination exercises for strength gain (>60% of maximal EMG activity). Type of exercise played a significant role for the attained muscle activity. Body position during the exercises was important for the activity of the erector spinae, and level of progression was important for the activity of the trapezius. The findings indicate that depending on type, body position, and level of progression, functional coordination training can be performed with a muscle activity sufficient for strength gain. Functional coordination training may therefore be a good choice for prevention or rehabilitation of musculoskeletal pain or injury in the neck, shoulder, or trunk muscles.

  2. Simulation of Raman optical activity of multi-component monosaccharide samples.

    PubMed

    Melcrová, Adéla; Kessler, Jiří; Bouř, Petr; Kaminský, Jakub

    2016-01-21

    Determination of the saccharide structure in solution is a laborious process that can be significantly enhanced by optical spectroscopies. Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra are particularly sensitive to the chirality and conformation. However, the interpretation of them is largely dependent on computational tools providing a limited precision only. To understand the limitations and the link between spectral shapes and the structure, in the present study we measured and interpreted using a combination of molecular dynamics (MD) and density functional theory (DFT) Raman and ROA spectra of glucose and mannose solutions. Factors important for analyses of mixtures of conformers, anomers, and different monosaccharides are discussed as well. The accuracy of the simulations was found to be strongly dependent on the quality of the hydration model; the dielectric continuum solvent model provided lower accuracy than averaging of many solvent-solute clusters. This was due to different conformer weighting rather than direct involvement of water molecules in scattering recorded as ROA. However, the cluster-based simulations also failed to correctly reproduce the ratios of principal monosaccharide forms. The best results were obtained by a combined MD/DFT simulation, with the ratio of α- and β-anomers and the -CH2OH group rotamers determined experimentally by NMR. Then a decomposition of experimental spectra into calculated subspectra provided realistic results even for the glucose and mannose mixtures. Raman spectra decomposition provided a better overall accuracy (∼5%) than ROA (∼10%). The combination of vibrational spectroscopy with theoretical simulations represents a powerful tool for analysing the saccharide structure. Conversely, the ROA and Raman data can be used to verify the quality of MD force fields and other parameters of computational modeling. PMID:26689801

  3. Investigation of biochemical property changes in activation-induced CD 8 + T cell apoptosis using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Young Ju; Ahn, Hyung Joon; Lee, Gi-Ja; Jung, Gyeong Bok; Lee, Gihyun; Kim, Dohyun; Shin, Jae-Ho; Jin, Kyung-Hyun; Park, Hun-Kuk

    2015-07-01

    The study was to investigate the changes in biochemical properties of activated mature CD8+ T cells related to apoptosis at a molecular level. We confirmed the activation and apoptosis of CD8+ T cells by fluorescence-activated cell sorting and atomic force microscopy and then performed Raman spectral measurements on activated mature CD8+ T cells and cellular deoxyribose nucleic acid (DNA). In the activated mature CD8+ T cells, there were increases in protein spectra at 1002 and 1234 cm-1. In particular, to assess the apoptosis-related DNA spectral signatures, we investigated the spectra of the cellular DNA isolated from resting and activated mature CD8+ T cells. Raman spectra at 765 to 786 cm-1 and 1053 to 1087 cm-1 were decreased in activated mature DNA. In addition, we analyzed Raman spectrum using the multivariate statistical method including principal component analysis. Raman spectra of activated mature DNA are especially well-discriminated from those of resting DNA. Our findings regarding the biochemical and structural changes associated with apoptosis in activated mature T cells and cellular DNA according to Raman spectroscopy provide important insights into allospecific immune responses generated after organ transplantation, and may be useful for therapeutic manipulation of the immune response.

  4. Representation of potential information gain to measure the price of anarchy on ISR activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortiz-Peña, Hector J.; Hirsch, Michael; Karwan, Mark; Nagi, Rakesh; Sudit, Moises

    2013-05-01

    One of the main technical challenges facing intelligence analysts today is effectively determining information gaps from huge amounts of collected data. Moreover, getting the right information to/from the right person (e.g., analyst, warfighter on the edge) at the right time in a distributed environment has been elusive to our military forces. Synchronization of Intelligence, Surveillance, and Reconnaissance (ISR) activities to maximize the efficient utilization of limited resources (both in quantity and capabilities) has become critically important to increase the accuracy and timeliness of overall information gain. Given this reality, we are interested in quantifying the degradation of solution quality (i.e., information gain) as a centralized system synchronizing ISR activities (from information gap identification to information collection and dissemination) moves to a more decentralized framework. This evaluation extends the concept of price of anarchy, a measure of the inefficiency of a system when agents maximize decisions without coordination, by considering different levels of decentralization. Our initial research representing the potential information gain in geospatial and time discretized spaces is presented. This potential information gain map can represent a consolidation of Intelligence Preparation of the Battlefield products as input to automated ISR synchronization tools. Using the coordination of unmanned vehicles (UxVs) as an example, we developed a mathematical programming model for multi-perspective optimization in which each UxV develops its own fight plan to support mission objectives based only on its perspective of the environment (i.e., potential information gain map). Information is only exchanged when UxVs are part of the same communication network.

  5. Pregnant women's perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition using Theory of Planned Behavior constructs.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Kara M; Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N; Pate, Russell R

    2016-02-01

    A better understanding of women's perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women's perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23-39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women's weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed.

  6. Silver clusters onto nanosized colloidal silica as novel surface-enhanced Raman scattering active substrates.

    PubMed

    Muniz-Miranda, Maurizio

    2003-06-01

    A new method is proposed for obtaining surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrates by photochemical reduction of silver nitrate onto colloidal silica. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and UV-visible absorption spectroscopy are employed to investigate the nanoscale structure of the materials. High quality SERS spectra are obtained from different organic ligands to check the efficiency of these substrates. A marked stability of the colloidal suspension is ensured by the scarce tendency of the Ag-doped silica particles to aggregate by either aging or adsorption of ligand.

  7. Silver nanoparticles deposited on porous silicon as a surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrate.

    PubMed

    Zeiri, Leila; Rechav, Katya; Porat, Ze'ev; Zeiri, Yehuda

    2012-03-01

    Silver nanoparticles were deposited spontaneously from their aqueous solution on a porous silicon (PS) layer. The PS acts both as a reducing agent and as the substrate on which the nanoparticles nucleate. At higher silver ion concentrations, layers of nanoparticle aggregates were formed on the PS surface. The morphology of the metallic layers and their SERS activity were influenced by the concentrations of the silver ion solutions used for deposition. Raman measurements of rhodamine 6G (R6G) and crystal violet (CV) adsorbed on these surfaces showed remarkable enhancement of up to about 10 orders of magnitude.

  8. The asymmetry of (-)α-pinene as revealed from its raman optical activity spectrum.

    PubMed

    Wang, Peijie; Fang, Yan; Wu, Guozhen

    2013-10-01

    An algorithm is employed to retrieve the differential bond polarizabilities of the C-C bonds from the Raman optical activity (ROA) spectrum of (-)α-pinene. (-)α-pinene possesses two asymmetric centers (carbon atoms) and a local mirror symmetry. These differential bond polarizabilities show the characteristics of the asymmetry around the asymmetric carbons with respect to the mirror reflection. This analysis is accompanied along with the ROA mode signatures and the calculated β(G ')(2) and β(A)(2) which show the ROA coupling mechanisms involving the electric/magnetic dipoles and the electric dipole/quadrupole, respectively.

  9. A deformable nanoplasmonic membrane reveals universal correlations between plasmon resonance and surface enhanced Raman scattering.

    PubMed

    Kang, Minhee; Kim, Jae-Jun; Oh, Young-Jae; Park, Sang-Gil; Jeong, Ki-Hun

    2014-07-01

    A quantitative correlation between plasmon resonance and surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) signals is revealed by using a novel active plasmonic method, that is, a deformable nanoplasmonic membrane. A single SERS peak has the maximum gain at the corresponding plasmon resonance wavelength, which has the maximum extinction product of an excitation and the corresponding Raman scattering wavelengths.

  10. Surface enhanced Raman scattering, antibacterial and antifungal active triangular gold nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smitha, S. L.; Gopchandran, K. G.

    2013-02-01

    Shape controlled syntheses of gold nanoparticles have attracted a great deal of attention as their optical, electronic, magnetic and biological properties are strongly dependent on the size and shape of the particles. Here is a report on the surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity of Cinnamomum zeylanicum leaf broth reduced gold nanoparticles consisting of triangular and spherical like particles, using 2-aminothiophenol (2-ATP) and crystal violet (CV) as probe molecules. Nanoparticles prepared with a minimum leaf broth concentration, having a greater number of triangular like particles exhibit a SERS activity of the order of 107. The synthesized nanoparticles exhibit efficient antibacterial activity against the tested gram negative bacterium Escherichia coli and gram positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. Investigations on the antifungal activity of the synthesized nanoparticles against Aspergillus niger and Fusarium oxysporum positive is also discussed.

  11. Chemical stability of plasmon-active silver tips for tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalbacova, Jana; Rodriguez, Raul D.; Desale, Vivek; Schneider, Maximilian; Amin, Ihsan; Jordan, Rainer; Zahn, Dietrich R. T.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanostructures are used in tip- and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy due to their high electric field enhancement over almost the entire visible spectral range. However, the low chemical stability of silver, compared to other noble metals, promotes silver sulfide and sulfate formation which decreases its plasmonic activity. This is why silver tips are usually prepared on the same day of the experiments or are disregarded in favour of gold that is chemically more stable. Since silver degradation cannot be avoided, we hypothesized that a protection layer may be able to minimize or control degradation. In this contribution, we report the successful preparation of 4-biphenylthiol and 4'-nitro-4-biphenylthiol self-assembled monolayers on silver tips in order to protect them against tarnishing and to investigate the effect on the life-time of the plasmonic activity. The electrochemically etched wire surface was probed via Raman spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The best long term stability and resistance against corrosion was shown by a monolayer of 4-biphenylthiol formed from dimethylformamide which did not display any degradation of the metallic tip during the observed period. Here, we demonstrate an easy and straightforward approach towards increasing the chemical stability of silver TERS-active probes.

  12. Preventing weight gain through exercise and physical activity in the elderly: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Stehr, Mareike D; von Lengerke, Thomas

    2012-05-01

    This review examines the role of exercise and physical activity for preventing weight gain in older people. A structured search using MeSH-vocabulary and Title/Abstract-searches was conducted in PubMed for January 2000 to June 2011, identifying weight gain and exercise or physical activity as study topics, and aged adults as target group. In study selection, all types of exercise and physical activity and any measure of weight change in aged adults (≥65 years) or postmenopausal women were considered. N=9 primary studies were identified. All were conducted in the US, with one study additionally including samples from Canada and the UK. Three studies focused on aged adults, while six concentrated specifically on postmenopausal women. Forms of exercise or physical activity comprised self-reported exercise history in four studies and low, moderate or high intensity exercise interventions in five studies. Four studies combined exercise with a hypocaloric diet and included comparison groups receiving either diet only, health education, stretching or a delayed intervention (one study each). Exercise was associated with weight loss (1.1-6 kg) in all intervention studies, all of which studied an overweight sample, and with weight maintenance in most observational studies, all of which studied a general population or otherwise overweight-unspecific sample. In sum, exercise and physical activity can effectively prevent weight gain in older adults and postmenopausal women either in terms of weight loss or maintenance. They can preserve lean body mass and thus are important for the balance between potentially positive and negative effects of weight reduction in later life. In addition, since all intervention studies were conducted with an overweight sample, it seems that primordial prevention (in terms of preventing the development of risk factors such as excess weight in the first place) might be a neglected issue in geriatric and postmenopausal prevention.

  13. Cherenkov-Raman maser. Doctoral thesis

    SciTech Connect

    Busby, K.O.

    1980-05-01

    The first observations of coherent microwave radiation resulting from Cherenkov-Raman backscattering have been made and are reported. An extensive experimental investigation of vacuum Raman backscattering has also been made. Theoretical models are presented to calculate the frequency and the gain at interaction for both the Raman and the Cerenkov-Raman backscattering interactions. Experimental data are compared to theoretical predictions.

  14. Structure-activity relationships in gold nanoparticle dimers and trimers for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wustholz, Kristin L; Henry, Anne-Isabelle; McMahon, Jeffrey M; Freeman, R Griffith; Valley, Nicholas; Piotti, Marcelo E; Natan, Michael J; Schatz, George C; Van Duyne, Richard P

    2010-08-11

    Understanding the detailed relationship between nanoparticle structure and activity remains a significant challenge for the field of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. To this end, the structural and optical properties of individual plasmonic nanoantennas comprised of Au nanoparticle assemblies that are coated with organic reporter molecules and encapsulated by a SiO(2) shell have been determined using correlated transmission electron microscopy (TEM), dark-field Rayleigh scattering microscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) microscopy, and finite element method (FEM) calculations. The distribution of SERS enhancement factors (EFs) for a structurally and optically diverse set of nanoantennas is remarkably narrow. For a collection of 30 individual nanoantennas ranging from dimers to heptamers, the EFs vary by less than 2 orders of magnitude. Furthermore, the EFs for the hot-spot-containing nanoparticles are uncorrelated to aggregation state and localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) wavelength but are crucially dependent on the size of the interparticle gap. This study demonstrates that the creation of hot spots, where two particles are in subnanometer proximity or have coalesced to form crevices, is paramount to achieving maximum SERS enhancements.

  15. Time-encoded Raman scattering (TICO-Raman) with Fourier domain mode locked (FDML) lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpf, Sebastian; Eibl, Matthias; Wieser, Wolfgang; Klein, Thomas; Huber, Robert

    2015-07-01

    We present a new concept for performing stimulated Raman spectroscopy and microscopy by employing rapidly wavelength swept Fourier Domain Mode locked (FDML) lasers [1]. FDML lasers are known for fastest imaging in swept-source optical coherence tomography [2, 3]. We employ this continuous and repetitive wavelength sweep to generate broadband, high resolution stimulated Raman spectra with a new, time-encoded (TICO) concept [4]. This allows for encoding and detecting the stimulated Raman gain on the FDML laser intensity directly in time. Therefore we use actively modulated pump lasers, which are electronically synchronized to the FDML laser, in combination with a fast analog-to-digital converter (ADC) at 1.8 GSamples/s. We present hyperspectral Raman images with color-coded, molecular contrast.

  16. Individual Differences in Striatum Activity to Food Commercials Predict Weight Gain in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Yokum, Sonja; Gearhardt, Ashley N.; Harris, Jennifer L.; Brownell, Kelly D.; Stice, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Objective Adolescents view thousands of food commercials annually, but little is known about how individual differences in neural response to food commercials relate to weight gain. To add to our understanding of individual risk factors for unhealthy weight gain and environmental contributions to the obesity epidemic, we tested the associations between reward region (striatum and orbitofrontal cortex [OFC]) responsivity to food commercials and future change in Body Mass Index (BMI). Design and Methods Adolescents (N = 30) underwent a scan session at baseline while watching a television show edited to include 20 food commercials and 20 non-food commercials. BMI was measured at baseline and 1-year follow-up. Results Activation in the striatum, but not OFC, in response to food commercials relative to non-food commercials and in response to food commercials relative to the television show was positively associated with change in BMI over 1-year follow-up. Baseline BMI did not moderate these effects. Conclusions The results suggest that there are individual differences in neural susceptibility to food advertising. These findings highlight a potential mechanism for the impact of food marketing on adolescent obesity. PMID:25155745

  17. Determinants of Pregnant Women's Online Self-Regulatory Activities for Appropriate Gestational Weight Gain.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hye Kyung; Niederdeppe, Jeff; Guillory, Jamie; Graham, Meredith; Olson, Christine; Gay, Geri

    2015-01-01

    This study examined psychosocial and sociodemographic factors associated with pregnant women's use of Web-based tools to set and monitor personal goals for healthy diet and physical activity. These tools were made available to women participating in a randomized trial testing a Web-based intervention to promote appropriate gestational weight gain. We used data from a baseline survey of pregnant women assigned to the intervention group and log data on women's use of various intervention features (N = 873). Women who believed that appropriate gestational weight gain would lead to healthy outcomes for their child were more likely to engage in online goal-setting and self-monitoring. Less positive outcome expectancy beliefs about the relationship between their own weight and baby's health partially explains why some at risk subpopulations (e.g., African-American women) were less likely to utilize online self-regulatory tools. This study specifies key psychosocial and motivational factors that guide the construction and monitoring of goals among pregnant women. These findings offer guidance for the design of interventions to promote self-regulatory techniques by identifying groups for whom those features are most likely to be useful, as well as psychological determinants of their use.

  18. Differential Classical Conditioning Selectively Heightens Response Gain of Neural Population Activity in Human Visual Cortex

    PubMed Central

    Song, Inkyung; Keil, Andreas

    2015-01-01

    Neutral cues, after being reliably paired with noxious events, prompt defensive engagement and amplified sensory responses. To examine the neurophysiology underlying these adaptive changes, we quantified the contrast-response function of visual cortical population activity during differential aversive conditioning. Steady-state visual evoked potentials (ssVEPs) were recorded while participants discriminated the orientation of rapidly flickering grating stimuli. During each trial, luminance contrast of the gratings was slowly increased and then decreased. Right-tilted gratings (CS+) were paired with loud white noise but left-tilted gratings (CS−) were not. The contrast-following waveform envelope of ssVEPs showed selective amplification of the CS+ only during the high-contrast stage of the viewing epoch. Findings support the notion that motivational relevance, learned in a time frame of minutes, affects vision through a response gain mechanism. PMID:24981277

  19. Association of Proton Pump Inhibitor (PPI) Use with Energy Intake, Physical Activity, and Weight Gain

    PubMed Central

    Czwornog, Jennifer L.; Austin, Gregory L.

    2015-01-01

    Studies suggest proton pump inhibitor (PPI) use impacts body weight regulation, though the effect of PPIs on energy intake, energy extraction, and energy expenditure is unknown. We used data on 3073 eligible adults from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Medication use, energy intake, diet composition, and physical activity were extracted from NHANES. Multivariate regression models included confounding variables. Daily energy intake was similar between PPI users and non-users (p = 0.41). Diet composition was similar between the two groups, except that PPI users consumed a slightly greater proportion of calories from fat (34.5% vs. 33.2%; p = 0.02). PPI users rated themselves as being as physically active as their age/gender-matched peers and reported similar frequencies of walking or biking. However, PPI users were less likely to have participated in muscle-strengthening activities (OR: 0.53; 95% CI: 0.30–0.95). PPI users reported similar sedentary behaviors to non-users. Male PPI users had an increase in weight (of 1.52 ± 0.59 kg; p = 0.021) over the previous year compared to non-users, while female PPI users had a non-significant increase in weight. The potential mechanisms for PPI-associated weight gain are unclear as we did not find evidence for significant differences in energy intake or markers of energy expenditure. PMID:26492268

  20. Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering Active Plasmonic Nanoparticles with Ultrasmall Interior Nanogap for Multiplex Quantitative Detection and Cancer Cell Imaging.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiuxing; Zhu, Zhi; Zhu, Bingqing; Ma, Yanli; Lin, Bingqian; Liu, Rudi; Song, Yanling; Lin, Hui; Tu, Song; Yang, Chaoyong

    2016-08-01

    Due to its large enhancement effect, nanostructure-based surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technology had been widely applied for bioanalysis and cell imaging. However, most SERS nanostructures suffer from poor signal reproducibility, which hinders the application of SERS nanostructures in quantitative detection. We report an etching-assisted approach to synthesize SERS-active plasmonic nanoparticles with 1 nm interior nanogap for multiplex quantitative detection and cancer cell imaging. Raman dyes and methoxy poly(ethylene glycol) thiol (mPEG-SH) were attached to gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) to prepare gold cores. Next, Ag atoms were deposited on gold cores in the presence of Pluronic F127 to form a Ag shell. HAuCl4 was used to etch the Ag shell and form an interior nanogap in Au@AgAuNPs, leading to increased Raman intensity of dyes. SERS intensity distribution of Au@AgAuNPs was found to be more uniform than that of aggregated AuNPs. Finally, Au@AgAuNPs were used for multiplex quantitative detection and cancer cell imaging. With the advantages of simple and rapid preparation of Au@AgAuNPs with highly uniform, stable, and reproducible Raman intensity, the method reported here will widen the applications of SERS-active nanoparticles in diagnostics and imaging. PMID:27385563

  1. Dehydrated Hereditary Stomatocytosislinked to gain-of-function mutations in mechanically activated PIEZO1 ion channels

    PubMed Central

    Albuisson, Juliette; Murthy, Swetha E.; Bandell, Michael; Coste, Bertrand; Louis-dit-Picard, Hélène; Mathur, Jayanti; Fénéant-Thibault, Madeleine; Tertian, Gérard; de Jaureguiberry, Jean-Pierre; Syfuss, Pierre-Yves; Cahalan, Stuart; Garçon, Loic; Toutain, Fabienne; Rohrlich, Pierre Simon; Delaunay, Jean; Picard, Véronique; Jeunemaitre, Xavier; Patapoutian, Ardem

    2013-01-01

    Dehydrated hereditary stomatocytosis (DHS) is a genetic condition with defective red blood cell (RBC) membrane properties that causes an imbalance in intracellular cation concentrations. Recently, two missense mutations inthe mechanically activated PIEZO1(FAM38A) ion channel were associated with DHS. However, it is not known how these mutations affect PIEZO1 function. Here, by combining linkage analysis and whole-exome sequencing in a large pedigree and Sanger sequencing in two additional kindreds and 11 unrelated DHS cases, we identifythree novel missense mutations and one recurrent duplication in PIEZO1, demonstrating that it is the major gene for DHS. All the DHS-associated mutations locate at C-terminal half of PIEZO1. Remarkably, we find that all PIEZO1 mutations give rise to mechanically activated currents that inactivate more slowly than wild-type currents. This gain-of-function PIEZO1 phenotype provides insight that helps to explain the increased permeability of cations in RBCs of DHS patients. Our findings also suggest a new role for mechanotransduction in RBC biology and pathophysiology. PMID:23695678

  2. Alkyne-tag Raman imaging of bio-active small molecules in live cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ando, Jun; Palonpon, Almar F.; Yamakoshi, Hiroyuki; Dodo, Kosuke; Kawata, Satoshi; Sodeoka, Mikiko; Fujita, Katsumasa

    2015-12-01

    Raman microscopy is useful for molecular imaging and analysis of biological specimens. Here, we used alkyne containing a carbon-carbon triple bond as a Raman tag for observing small molecules in live cells. Alkyne tags can maintain original properties of target molecules with providing high chemical specificity owing to its distinct peak in a Raman-silent window of biomolecules. For demonstrations, alkyne-tagged thymidine and coenzyme Q analogue in live cells were visualized with high-spatial resolution. We extended the application of alkyne-tag imaging to visualize cell organelles and specific lipid components in artificial monolayer membranes.

  3. Activation of New Raman Modes by Inversion Symmetry Breaking in Type II Weyl Semimetal Candidate T'-MoTe2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Yu; Goldstein, Thomas; Venkataraman, Dhandapani; Ramasubramaniam, Ashwin; Yan, Jun

    2016-09-14

    We synthesized distorted octahedral (T') molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) and investigated its vibrational properties with Raman spectroscopy, density functional theory, and symmetry analysis. Compared to results from the high-temperature centrosymmetric monoclinic (T'mo) phase, four new Raman bands emerge in the low-temperature orthorhombic (T'or) phase, which was recently predicted to be a type II Weyl semimetal. Crystal-angle-dependent, light-polarization-resolved measurements indicate that all the observed Raman peaks belong to two categories: those vibrating along the zigzag Mo atomic chain (z-modes) and those vibrating in the mirror plane (m-modes) perpendicular to the zigzag chain. Interestingly, the low-energy shear z-mode and shear m-mode, absent from the T'mo spectra, become activated when sample cooling induces a phase transition to the T'or crystal structure. We interpret this observation as a consequence of inversion-symmetry breaking, which is crucial for the existence of Weyl fermions in the layered crystal. Our temperature-dependent Raman measurements further show that both the high-energy m-mode at ∼130 cm(-1) and the low-energy shear m-mode at ∼12 cm(-1) provide useful gauges for monitoring the broken inversion symmetry in the crystal. PMID:27517466

  4. Activation of New Raman Modes by Inversion Symmetry Breaking in Type II Weyl Semimetal Candidate T'-MoTe2.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shao-Yu; Goldstein, Thomas; Venkataraman, Dhandapani; Ramasubramaniam, Ashwin; Yan, Jun

    2016-09-14

    We synthesized distorted octahedral (T') molybdenum ditelluride (MoTe2) and investigated its vibrational properties with Raman spectroscopy, density functional theory, and symmetry analysis. Compared to results from the high-temperature centrosymmetric monoclinic (T'mo) phase, four new Raman bands emerge in the low-temperature orthorhombic (T'or) phase, which was recently predicted to be a type II Weyl semimetal. Crystal-angle-dependent, light-polarization-resolved measurements indicate that all the observed Raman peaks belong to two categories: those vibrating along the zigzag Mo atomic chain (z-modes) and those vibrating in the mirror plane (m-modes) perpendicular to the zigzag chain. Interestingly, the low-energy shear z-mode and shear m-mode, absent from the T'mo spectra, become activated when sample cooling induces a phase transition to the T'or crystal structure. We interpret this observation as a consequence of inversion-symmetry breaking, which is crucial for the existence of Weyl fermions in the layered crystal. Our temperature-dependent Raman measurements further show that both the high-energy m-mode at ∼130 cm(-1) and the low-energy shear m-mode at ∼12 cm(-1) provide useful gauges for monitoring the broken inversion symmetry in the crystal.

  5. Structure sensitive in situ Raman study of iron passive films using SERS-active Fe/Au(111) substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allongue, P.; Joiret, S.

    2005-03-01

    This work describes the preparation of well-defined Fe/Au(111) /mica substrates for in situ Raman studies of the iron passive film with surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). It is a two-step technique in which a SERS active (111) epitaxial gold substrate is prepared by resistive evaporation on mica. An epitaxial Fe(110) film is then electrodeposited to serve as iron electrode. It is shown that the SERS enhancement factor depends primarily on the good matching between the gold film plasmon resonance wavelength λP and the excitation wavelength. The iron thickness is the second main parameter controlling the SERS enhancement factor with a maximum found for a thickness of 20 monolayers. Under optimized conditions an amplification factor of 5×104 is demonstrated with respect to the case of a bulk polycrystalline iron substrate. This technique allows the recording of Raman spectra of nm-thick passive films within a few seconds only, which opens up to nearly real-time bias-dependent investigations of the chemistry at the electrochemical interface. In addition, taking advantage of the well-defined structure of the Fe(110)/Au(111)/ mica substrates, we present a preliminary structure-sensitive in situ Raman study of the iron passive film formed in a borate solution of pH8.4 . It is thought that this simple approach of promoting SERS should find more general interest for the electrochemistry community.

  6. Raman Spectroscopy of Cocrystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rooney, Frank; Reardon, Paul; Ochoa, Romulo; Abourahma, Heba; Marti, Marcus; Dimeo, Rachel

    2010-02-01

    Cocrystals are a class of compounds that consist of two or more molecules that are held together by hydrogen bonding. Pharmaceutical cocrystals are those that contain an active pharmaceutical ingredient (API) as one of the components. Pharmaceutical cocrystals are of particular interest and have gained a lot of attention in recent years because they offer the ability to modify the physical properties of the API, like solubility and bioavailability, without altering the chemical structure of the API. The APIs that we targeted for our studies are theophylline (Tp) and indomethacin (Ind). These compounds have been mixed with complementary coformers (cocrystal former) that include acetamide (AcONH2), melamine (MLM), nicotinic acid (Nic-COOH), 4-cyanopyridine (4-CNPy) and 4-aminopyridine (4-NH2Py). Raman spectroscopy has been used to characterize these cocrystals. Spectra of the cocrystals were compared to those of the coformers to analyze for peak shifts, specifically those corresponding to hydrogen bonding. A 0.5 m CCD Spex spectrometer was used, in a micro-Raman setup, for spectral analysis. An Argon ion Coherent laser at 514.5 nm was used as the excitation source. )

  7. Sensitivity- and effort-gain analysis: multilead ECG electrode array selection for activation time imaging.

    PubMed

    Hintermüller, Christoph; Seger, Michael; Pfeifer, Bernhard; Fischer, Gerald; Modre, Robert; Tilg, Bernhard

    2006-10-01

    Methods for noninvasive imaging of electric function of the heart might become clinical standard procedure the next years. Thus, the overall procedure has to meet clinical requirements as an easy and fast application. In this paper, we propose a new electrode array which improves the resolution of methods for activation time imaging considering clinical constraints such as easy to apply and compatibility with routine leads. For identifying the body-surface regions where the body surface potential (BSP) is most sensitive to changes in transmembrane potential (TMP), a virtual array method was used to compute local linear dependency (LLD) maps. The virtual array method computes a measure for the LLD in every point on the body surface. The most suitable number and position of the electrodes within the sensitive body surface regions was selected by constructing effort gain (EG) plots. Such a plot depicts the relative attainable rank of the leadfield matrix in relation to the increase in number of electrodes required to build the electrode array. The attainable rank itself was computed by a detector criterion. Such a criterion estimates the maximum number of source space eigenvectors not covered by noise when being mapped to the electrode space by the leadfield matrix and recorded by a detector. From the sensitivity maps, we found that the BSP is most sensitive to changes in TMP on the upper left frontal and dorsal body surface. These sensitive regions are covered best by an electrode array consisting of two L-shaped parts of approximately 30 cm x 30 cm and approximately 20 cm x 20 cm. The EG analysis revealed that the array meeting clinical requirements best and improving the resolution of activation time imaging consists of 125 electrodes with a regular horizontal and vertical spacing of 2-3 cm.

  8. Raman amplification of matter waves

    SciTech Connect

    Schneble, Dominik; Campbell, Gretchen K.; Streed, Erik W.; Boyd, Micah; Pritchard, David E.; Ketterle, Wolfgang

    2004-04-01

    We demonstrate a Raman amplifier for matter waves, where the amplified atoms and the gain medium are in two different hyperfine states. This amplifier is based on a form of superradiance that arises from self-stimulated Raman scattering in a Bose-Einstein condensate.

  9. Raman Optical Activity Spectra for Large Molecules through Molecules-in-Molecules Fragment-Based Approach.

    PubMed

    Jovan Jose, K V; Raghavachari, Krishnan

    2016-02-01

    We present an efficient method for the calculation of the Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra for large molecules through the molecules-in-molecules (MIM) fragment-based method. The relevant higher energy derivatives from smaller fragments are used to build the property tensors of the parent molecule to enable the extension of the MIM method for evaluating ROA spectra (MIM-ROA). Two factors were found to be particularly important in yielding accurate results. First, the link-atom tensor components are projected back onto the corresponding host and supporting atoms through the Jacobian projection method, yielding a mathematically rigorous method. Second, the long-range interactions between fragments are taken into account by using a less computationally expensive lower level of theory. The performance of the MIM-ROA model is calibrated on the enantiomeric pairs of 10 carbohydrate benchmark molecules, with strong intramolecular interactions. The vibrational frequencies and ROA intensities are accurately reproduced relative to the full, unfragmented, results for these systems. In addition, the MIM-ROA method is employed to predict the ROA spectra of d-maltose, α-D-cyclodextrin, and cryptophane-A, yielding spectra in excellent agreement with experiment. The accuracy and performance of the benchmark systems validate the MIM-ROA model for exploring ROA spectra of large molecules.

  10. The fate and toxicity of Raman-active silica-gold nanoparticles in mice.

    PubMed

    Thakor, Avnesh S; Luong, Richard; Paulmurugan, Ramasamy; Lin, Frank I; Kempen, Paul; Zavaleta, Cristina; Chu, Pauline; Massoud, Tarik F; Sinclair, Robert; Gambhir, Sanjiv S

    2011-04-20

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical imaging method that is based on the Raman effect, the inelastic scattering of a photon when energy is absorbed from light by a surface. Although Raman spectroscopy is widely used for chemical and molecular analysis, its clinical application has been hindered by the inherently weak nature of the Raman effect. Raman-silica-gold-nanoparticles (R-Si-Au-NPs) overcome this limitation by producing larger Raman signals through surface-enhanced Raman scattering. Because we are developing these particles for use as targeted molecular imaging agents, we examined the acute toxicity and biodistribution of core polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ylated R-Si-Au-NPs after different routes of administration in mice. After intravenous administration, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs were removed from the circulation by macrophages in the liver and spleen (that is, the reticuloendothelial system). At 24 hours, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs elicited a mild inflammatory response and an increase in oxidative stress in the liver, which subsided by 2 weeks after administration. No evidence of significant toxicity was observed by measuring clinical, histological, biochemical, or cardiovascular parameters for 2 weeks. Because we are designing targeted PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs (for example, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs labeled with an affibody that binds specifically to the epidermal growth factor receptor) to detect colorectal cancer after administration into the bowel lumen, we tested the toxicity of the core nanoparticle after administration per rectum. We observed no significant bowel or systemic toxicity, and no PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs were detected systemically. Although additional studies are required to investigate the long-term effects of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs and their toxicity when carrying the targeting moiety, the results presented here support the idea that PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs can be safely used in living subjects, especially when administered rectally.

  11. THE FATE AND TOXICITY OF RAMAN ACTIVE SILICA-GOLD NANOPARTICLES IN MICE

    PubMed Central

    THAKOR, AVNESH S; LUONG, RICHARD; PAULMURUGAN, RAMASAMY; LIN, FRANK I; KEMPEN, PAUL; ZAVALETA, CRISTINA; CHU, PAULINE; MASSOUD, TARIK F; SINCLAIR, ROBERT; GAMBHIR, SANJIV S

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy is an optical imaging modality which analyses the Raman effect in which energy is exchanged between light and matter. Although Raman spectroscopy has been widely used for chemical and molecular analysis, its use in clinical applications has been hindered by the inherently weak nature of the Raman effect. Raman-silica-gold-nanoparticles (R-Si-Au-NPs) overcome this limitation by producing high Raman signals via Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering. Targeted polyethylene glycol (PEG)-ylated R-Si-Au-NPs (e.g. PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs labeled with an affibody which binds specifically to the epidermal growth factor receptor) are currently being designed to detect colorectal cancer after administration into the bowel lumen. With this approach, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs are not expected to enter the systemic circulation and would be removed from the body via defecation. We examined the acute toxicity and biodistribution of core PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs after different routes of administration in mice. After intravenous administration, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs were removed from the circulation by marcophages in the liver and spleen (i.e. the reticuloendothelial system). At 24 hours, PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs elicited a mild inflammatory response and an increase in oxidative stress in the liver, which subsided by 2 weeks. No evidence of significant toxicity was observed by measuring clinical, histological, biochemical or cardiovascular parameters for 2 weeks. Notably, after administration per rectum, we observed no significant bowel or systemic toxicity and no PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs were detected systemically. Although additional studies are required to investigate the long-term effects of PEG-R-Si-Au-NPs, these initial results support the idea that they can be safely used in living subjects, especially when administered rectally. PMID:21508310

  12. Gaining A Geological Perspective Through Active Learning in the Large Lecture Classroom

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kapp, J. L.; Richardson, R. M.; Slater, S. J.

    2008-12-01

    NATS 101 A Geological Perspective is a general education course taken by non science majors. We offer 600 seats per semester, with four large lecture sections taught by different faculty members. In the past we have offered optional once a week study groups taught by graduate teaching assistants. Students often feel overwhelmed by the science and associated jargon, and many are prone to skipping lectures altogether. Optional study groups are only attended by ~50% of the students. Faculty members find the class to be a lot of work, mainly due to the grading it generates. Activities given in lecture are often short multiple choice or true false assignments, limiting the depth of understanding we can evaluate. Our students often lack math and critical thinking skills, and we spend a lot of time in lecture reintroducing ideas students should have already gotten from the text. In summer 2007 we were funded to redesign the course. Our goals were to 1) cut the cost of running the course, and 2) improve student learning. Under our redesign optional study groups were replaced by once a week mandatory break out sessions where students complete activities that have been introduced in lecture. Break out sessions substitute for one hour of lecture, and are run by undergraduate preceptors and graduate teaching assistants (GTAs). During the lecture period, lectures themselves are brief with a large portion of the class devoted to active learning in small groups. Weekly reading quizzes are submitted via the online course management system. Break out sessions allow students to spend more time interacting with their fellow students, undergraduate preceptors, and GTAs. They get one on one help in break out sessions on assignments designed to enhance the lecture material. The active lecture format means less of their time is devoted to listening passively to a lecture, and more time is spent peer learning an interacting with the instructor. Completing quizzes online allows students

  13. Advancements in the application of NanoSIMS and Raman microspectroscopy to investigate the activity of microbial cells in soils

    PubMed Central

    Eichorst, Stephanie A.; Strasser, Florian; Woyke, Tanja; Schintlmeister, Arno; Wagner, Michael; Woebken, Dagmar

    2015-01-01

    The combined approach of incubating environmental samples with stable isotope-labeled substrates followed by single-cell analyses through high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) or Raman microspectroscopy provides insights into the in situ function of microorganisms. This approach has found limited application in soils presumably due to the dispersal of microbial cells in a large background of particles. We developed a pipeline for the efficient preparation of cell extracts from soils for subsequent single-cell methods by combining cell detachment with separation of cells and soil particles followed by cell concentration. The procedure was evaluated by examining its influence on cell recoveries and microbial community composition across two soils. This approach generated a cell fraction with considerably reduced soil particle load and of sufficient small size to allow single-cell analysis by NanoSIMS, as shown when detecting active N2-fixing and cellulose-responsive microorganisms via 15N2 and 13C-UL-cellulose incubations, respectively. The same procedure was also applicable for Raman microspectroscopic analyses of soil microorganisms, assessed via microcosm incubations with a 13C-labeled carbon source and deuterium oxide (D2O, a general activity marker). The described sample preparation procedure enables single-cell analysis of soil microorganisms using NanoSIMS and Raman microspectroscopy, but should also facilitate single-cell sorting and sequencing. PMID:26324854

  14. Advancements in the application of NanoSIMS and Raman microspectroscopy to investigate the activity of microbial cells in soils.

    PubMed

    Eichorst, Stephanie A; Strasser, Florian; Woyke, Tanja; Schintlmeister, Arno; Wagner, Michael; Woebken, Dagmar

    2015-10-01

    The combined approach of incubating environmental samples with stable isotope-labeled substrates followed by single-cell analyses through high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) or Raman microspectroscopy provides insights into the in situ function of microorganisms. This approach has found limited application in soils presumably due to the dispersal of microbial cells in a large background of particles. We developed a pipeline for the efficient preparation of cell extracts from soils for subsequent single-cell methods by combining cell detachment with separation of cells and soil particles followed by cell concentration. The procedure was evaluated by examining its influence on cell recoveries and microbial community composition across two soils. This approach generated a cell fraction with considerably reduced soil particle load and of sufficient small size to allow single-cell analysis by NanoSIMS, as shown when detecting active N2-fixing and cellulose-responsive microorganisms via (15)N2 and (13)C-UL-cellulose incubations, respectively. The same procedure was also applicable for Raman microspectroscopic analyses of soil microorganisms, assessed via microcosm incubations with a (13)C-labeled carbon source and deuterium oxide (D2O, a general activity marker). The described sample preparation procedure enables single-cell analysis of soil microorganisms using NanoSIMS and Raman microspectroscopy, but should also facilitate single-cell sorting and sequencing.

  15. Wavelength dependent resonance Raman band intensity of broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy of malachite green in ethanol.

    PubMed

    Cen, Qiongyan; He, Yuhan; Xu, Mei; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Zhaohui

    2015-03-21

    Resonance broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy of malachite green in ethanol has been performed. With a tuning picosecond visible laser source and a broadband Raman probe, the Raman gain and loss spectra have been measured simultaneously. By scanning the Raman pump across the first absorption band of the molecule, we found that the resonant Raman bands could be only seen when the pump laser tuned in the range of the red edge of the S1←S0 transition. Dispersive lineshapes of resonant Raman bands have been observed in the Raman loss spectra, while the line shape is normal (same as spontaneous Raman) in the Raman gain spectra. Although, the resonant bands in the loss spectrum are usually stronger than that in the gain spectrum, the band intensities of both loss and gain linearly increase with the pump energy. The relative magnitude of each corresponding resonant band in the Raman loss and gain varies with the pump wavelength. Mode specified Raman excitation profiles have been obtained through broadband stimulated Raman measurement.

  16. Wavelength dependent resonance Raman band intensity of broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy of malachite green in ethanol

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cen, Qiongyan; He, Yuhan; Xu, Mei; Wang, Jingjing; Wang, Zhaohui

    2015-03-01

    Resonance broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy of malachite green in ethanol has been performed. With a tuning picosecond visible laser source and a broadband Raman probe, the Raman gain and loss spectra have been measured simultaneously. By scanning the Raman pump across the first absorption band of the molecule, we found that the resonant Raman bands could be only seen when the pump laser tuned in the range of the red edge of the S1←S0 transition. Dispersive lineshapes of resonant Raman bands have been observed in the Raman loss spectra, while the line shape is normal (same as spontaneous Raman) in the Raman gain spectra. Although, the resonant bands in the loss spectrum are usually stronger than that in the gain spectrum, the band intensities of both loss and gain linearly increase with the pump energy. The relative magnitude of each corresponding resonant band in the Raman loss and gain varies with the pump wavelength. Mode specified Raman excitation profiles have been obtained through broadband stimulated Raman measurement.

  17. The Effects of Activity and Gain Based Virtual Material on Student's Success, Permanency and Attitudes towards Science Lesson

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tas, Erol

    2015-01-01

    The main objective of this study is to research the effects of a student gains and activity based virtual material on students' success, permanence and attitudes towards science lesson, developed for science and technology lesson 6th grade "Systems in our body" unit. The study, which had a quasi-experimental design, was conducted with…

  18. Steps Ahead: Adaptation of physical activity and dietary guidelines for reducing unhealthy weight gain in the Lower Misissippi Delta

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of our study was to test the effectiveness of adapting the Dietary Guidelines for Americans (2010) (DG), with and without a physical activity (PA) component, in reducing weight gain in the Lower Mississippi Delta region (LMD) of the United States. A sample of 121 White and African-Americ...

  19. Tunable infrared source employing Raman mixing

    DOEpatents

    Byer, Robert L.; Herbst, Richard L.

    1980-01-01

    A tunable source of infrared radiation is obtained by irradiating an assemblage of Raman active gaseous atoms or molecules with a high intensity pumping beam of coherent radiation at a pump frequency .omega..sub.p to stimulate the generation of Stokes wave energy at a Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s and to stimulate the Raman resonant mode at the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R within the irradiated assemblage where the pump frequency .omega..sub.p minus the Stokes frequency .omega..sub.s is equal to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R. The stimulated assemblage is irradiated with a tunable source of coherent radiation at a frequency .omega..sub.i to generate the output infrared radiation of the frequency .omega..sub.0 which is related to the Raman mode frequency .omega..sub.R and the input wave .omega..sub.i by the relation .omega..sub.0 =.omega..sub.i .+-..omega..sub.R. In one embodiment the interaction between the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i is collinear and the ratio of the phase velocity mismatch factor .DELTA.k to the electric field exponential gain coefficient T is within the range of 0.1 to 5. In another embodiment the pump wave energy .omega..sub.p and the tunable input wave energy .omega..sub.i have velocity vectors k.sub.p and k.sub.i which cross at an angle to each other to compensate for phase velocity mismatches in the medium. In another embodiment, the Stokes wave energy .omega..sub.s is generated by pump energy .omega..sub.p in a first Raman cell and .omega..sub.s, .omega..sub.i and .omega..sub.p are combined in a second Raman mixing cell to produce the output at .omega..sub.i.

  20. Acquisition of pro-oxidant activity of fALS-linked SOD1 mutants as revealed using circular dichroism and UV-resonance Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimaki, Nobuhiro; Nishiya, Ken; Miura, Takashi; Nakabayashi, Takakazu

    2016-11-01

    The acquisition of pro-oxidant activity of the mutated form of human Cu, Zn-superoxide dismutase (SOD1) has been investigated to clarify the relationship between mutations in SOD1 and the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Ala4 → Val (A4V) and Gly93 → Ala (G93A) mutants, which are representative ALS-linked SOD1 mutants, have been found to exhibit both the denaturation and the gain of pro-oxidant activity after incubation in the apo-form at a physiological condition of 37 °C and pH 7.4 and the rebinding of Cu2+. These characteristics are similar to those previously reported for the His43 → Arg (H43R) mutant. UV-resonance Raman spectra indicated that the coordination structure of the Cu-binding site catalyzing the oxidation reaction is the same among the denatured A4V, G93A, and H43R. Since wild-type SOD1 does not exhibit the denaturation in its apo-form at 37 °C and pH 7.4, the instability of the protein structure due to mutation can be considered as a significant factor that induces the denaturation and the subsequent pro-oxidant activity.

  1. UV Raman spectroscopic studies on active sites and synthesis mechanisms of transition metal-containing microporous and mesoporous materials.

    PubMed

    Fan, Fengtao; Feng, Zhaochi; Li, Can

    2010-03-16

    Microporous and mesoporous materials are widely used as catalysts and catalyst supports. Although the incorporation of transition metal ions into the framework of these materials (by isomorphous substitution of Al and Si) is an effective means of creating novel catalytic activity, the characterization of the transition metal species within these materials is difficult. Both the low concentration of the highly dispersed transition metal and the coexistence of extraframework transition metal species present clear challenges. Moreover, the synthetic mechanisms that operate under the highly inhomogeneous conditions of hydrothermal synthesis are far from well understood. A useful technique for addressing these challenges is UV Raman spectroscopy, which is a powerful technique for catalyst characterization and particularly for transition metal-containing microporous and mesoporous materials. Conventional Raman spectroscopy, using visible and IR wavelengths, often fails to provide the information needed for proper characterization as a result of fluorescence interference. But shifting the excitation source to the UV range addresses this difficulty: interference from fluorescence (which typically occurs at 300-700 nm or greater) is greatly diminished. Moreover, signal intensity is enhanced because Raman intensity is proportional to the fourth power of the scattered light frequency. In this Account, we review recent advances in UV Raman spectroscopic characterization of (i) highly dispersed transition metal oxides on supports, (ii) transition metal ions in the framework of microporous and mesoporous materials, and (iii) the synthetic mechanisms involved in making microporous materials. By taking advantage of the strong UV resonance Raman effect, researchers have made tremendous progress in the identification of isolated transition metal ions incorporated in the framework of microporous and mesoporous materials such as TS-1, Ti-MCM-41, Fe-ZSM-5, and Fe-SBA-15. The synthetic

  2. 78 FR 74125 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Measuring Educational Gain in the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Reporting System for Adult Education AGENCY: Department of Education (ED), Office of Vocational and Adult... of Collection: Measuring Educational Gain in the National Reporting System for Adult Education. OMB... (NRS) for adult education. This information is used by the Secretary to determine the suitability...

  3. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering active substrates by liquid flame spray deposited and inkjet printed silver nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saarinen, Jarkko J.; Valtakari, Dimitar; Haapanen, Janne; Salminen, Turkka; Mäkelä, Jyrki M.; Uozumi, Jun

    2014-05-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrates were made via liquid flame spray deposition and inkjet printing of silver nanoparticles. Both processes are suitable for cost-effective fabrication of large-area SERS substrates. Crystal violet (CV) solutions were used as target molecules and in both samples the detection limit was approximately 10 nM. In addition, sintering temperature of the inkjet printed silver nanoparticles was found to have a large effect on the SERS activity with the higher curing temperature of 200 °C resulting in contamination layer on silver and cancelation of the SERS signal. This layer was characterized using an X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  4. Mechanochemical C-H bond activation: rapid and regioselective double cyclopalladation monitored by in situ Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Juribašić, Marina; Užarević, Krunoslav; Gracin, Davor; Ćurić, Manda

    2014-09-14

    The first direct mechanochemical transition-metal-mediated activation of strong phenyl C-H bonds is reported. The mechanochemical procedure, resulting in cyclopalladated complexes, is quantitative and significantly faster than solution synthesis and allows highly regioselective activation of two C-H bonds by palladium(II) acetate in asymmetrically substituted azobenzene. Milling is monitored by in situ solid-state Raman spectroscopy which in combination with quantum-chemical calculations enabled characterization of involved reaction species, direct insight into the dynamics and reaction pathways, as well as the optimization of a milling process.

  5. Infrared and Raman Spectroscopy: A Discovery-Based Activity for the General Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Borgsmiller, Karen L.; O'Connell, Dylan J.; Klauenberg, Kathryn M.; Wilson, Peter M.; Stromberg, Christopher J.

    2012-01-01

    A discovery-based method is described for incorporating the concepts of IR and Raman spectroscopy into the general chemistry curriculum. Students use three sets of springs to model the properties of single, double, and triple covalent bonds. Then, Gaussian 03W molecular modeling software is used to illustrate the relationship between bond…

  6. Star-like gold nanoparticles as highly active substrate for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morasso, Carlo; Mehn, Dora; Vanna, Renzo; Bedoni, Marzia; Pascual García, César; Prosperi, Davide; Gramatica, Furio

    2013-02-01

    Surface Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (SERS) is a popular method in bio-analytical chemistry and a potentially powerful enabling technology for in vitro diagnostics. SERS combines the excellent chemical specificity of Raman spectroscopy with the good sensitivity provided by enhancement of the signal that is observed when a molecule is located on (or very close to) the surface of nanostructured metallic materials. Star-like gold nanoparticles (SGN) are a new class of multibranched nanoparticles that in the last few years have attracted the attention of SERS community for their plasmonic properties. In this work we present a new method to prepare star-like gold nanoparticles with a simple one step protocol at room temperature using hydroquinone as reducing agent. Besides we compare the enhancement of Raman signal of malachite green, a dye commonly employed as label in biological studies, by star-like gold nanoparticles having different size, directly in liquid. This study shows that SGN provide good enhancement of Raman signal and that the effect of their dimension is strongly dependent on the wavelength used. Moreover preliminary results suggest that SGN produced using this method are characterized by good physical-chemical properties and they can be functionalized using the standard thiol chemistry. Overall, these results suggest that star-like gold nanoparticles produced through this method could be used for the further development of highly specific and sensitive SERS-based bio-analytical tests.

  7. Evaluation of thiol Raman activities and pKa values using internally referenced Ramanbased pH titration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwandaratne, Nuwanthi

    Thiols are one of the most important classes of chemicals used broadly in organic synthesis, biological chemistry, and nanosciences. Thiol pKa values are key indicators of thiol reactivity and functionality. This study is an internally-referenced Raman-based pH titration method that enables reliable quantification of thiol pKa values for both mono- and di-thiols in water. The degree of thiol ionization is monitored directly using the peak intensity of the S-H stretching feature relative to an internal reference peak as a function of solution pH. The thiol pKa values and Raman activity relative to its internal reference were then determined by curve-fitting the experimental data with equations derived on the basis of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation. Using this Raman titration method, first and second thiol pKa values for 1,2-benzenedithol in water were determined for the first time. This method is convenient to implement and its underlying theory is easy to follow.

  8. Risperidone-induced weight gain and reduced locomotor activity in juvenile female rats: The role of histaminergic and NPY pathways.

    PubMed

    Lian, Jiamei; De Santis, Michael; He, Meng; Deng, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Second generation antipsychotic drugs (SGAs) such as risperidone are increasingly prescribed (mostly for off-label use) to children and adolescents for treating various mental disorders. SGAs cause serious weight gain/obesity and other metabolic side-effects. This study aimed to establish an animal model of risperidone-induced weight gain in female juvenile rats, and to investigate the effects of risperidone on the expression of hypothalamic histaminergic H1 receptors (H1R) and neuropeptides, and their association with weight gain. Female Sprague Dawley rats were treated orally with risperidone (0.3mg/kg, 3 times/day) or vehicle (control) starting from postnatal day (PD) 23 (±1 day) for 3 weeks (a period corresponding to the childhood-adolescent period in humans). In the female juvenile rats, risperidone treatment increased food intake and body weight gain, which started to appear after 12 days' treatment. Risperidone also significantly decreased the locomotor activity of the female rats. Consistently, risperidone significantly elevated mRNA expression of hypothalamic H1R, neuropeptide Y (NPY), and agouti-related peptide (AgRP) compared to controls, and H1R and NPY levels were correlated with risperidone enhanced weight gain and food intake in the female juvenile rats. However, risperidone did not affect hypothalamic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) mRNA expression. Therefore, these results suggested that risperidone elevated appetite and body weight gain in juveniles via regulation of the hypothalamic H1R, NPY and AgRP pathways, as well as by reducing activity.

  9. Highly sensitive immunoassay based on Raman reporter-labeled immuno-Au aggregates and SERS-active immune substrate.

    PubMed

    Song, Chunyuan; Wang, Zhuyuan; Zhang, Ruohu; Yang, Jing; Tan, Xuebin; Cui, Yiping

    2009-12-15

    A highly sensitive immunoassay based on surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) has been developed with a novel immune marker named as Raman reporter-labeled immuno-Au aggregates on a SERS-active immune substrate. The features of those immune aggregates were characterized by UV-vis extinction spectra, TEM images, SEM pictures and SERS spectra. It is found that stable gold aggregates in appropriate morphologies can be induced by mixing proper amounts of reporter molecules with gold nanoparticles. Based on those reporter-labeled Au aggregates, the immune aggregates with high stability can be prepared successfully by immobilizing antibody to the surface of the aggregates. Using those easily prepared aggregates showing strong SERS activity and high bio-specificity, a highly effective SERS-based immunoassay has been performed. Moreover, a SERS-active immune substrate has been introduced to replace a typical immune substrate without any SERS activity. Our experimental results indicate that the SERS-active immune substrate makes a certain contribution to the highly sensitive immunoassay. As a result, with this proposed immunoassay structure, the concentration detection of human-IgG was performed and a calibration curve was obtained in the range from 100ngmL(-1) to 100fgmL(-1). This work opens a new avenue for sensitive immunoassay and other biochemical analysis based on SERS.

  10. Raman-amplification and polarization-dependence measurement in a methane Raman shifter seeded by a liquid Raman oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Go, Chun-Soo; Lee, Jai-Hyung; Chang, Joon-Sung

    1995-05-01

    We perform Raman amplification in a high-pressure methane cell seeded by a low-threshold liquid Raman oscillator. The Raman frequency of the oscillator medium, dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO), is tuned when it is mixed with water to fit the Raman frequency of methane. The Raman gain in this configuration is not so sensitive to the methane pressure, and the conversion efficiency is high. Using this configuration, we measure the polarization dependence of the Raman amplifier. An experiment is performed for three typical polarization states. Complete gain suppression is expected in some polarization states, but there is a little gain because of the incompleteness of the polarization state. Theoretically the results are analyzed when the x and the y components of the scattered waves are coupled.

  11. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity of niobium surface after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Ivanov, Victor G.; Vlakhov, Emil S.; Stan, George E.; Socol, Marcela; Zamfirescu, Marian; Albu, Catalina; Mihailescu, Natalia; Negut, Irina; Luculescu, Catalin; Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Ion N.

    2015-11-28

    The chemical modification of the niobium (Nb) surface after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses was investigated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The physical-chemical analyses indicated that the laser treatment results in oxidation of the Nb surface, as well as in the formation of Nb hydrides. Remarkably, after the samples' washing in ethanol, a strong Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) signal originating from the toluene residual traces was evidenced. Further, it was observed that the laser irradiated Nb surface is able to provide a SERS enhancement of ∼1.3 × 10{sup 3} times for rhodamine 6G solutions. Thus, for the first time it was shown that Nb/Nb oxide surfaces could exhibit SERS functionality, and so one can expect applications in biological/biochemical screening or for sensing of dangerous environmental substances.

  12. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity of niobium surface after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivanov, Victor G.; Vlakhov, Emil S.; Stan, George E.; Zamfirescu, Marian; Albu, Catalina; Mihailescu, Natalia; Negut, Irina; Luculescu, Catalin; Socol, Marcela; Ristoscu, Carmen; Mihailescu, Ion N.

    2015-11-01

    The chemical modification of the niobium (Nb) surface after irradiation with femtosecond laser pulses was investigated by scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, grazing incidence X-ray diffraction, and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The physical-chemical analyses indicated that the laser treatment results in oxidation of the Nb surface, as well as in the formation of Nb hydrides. Remarkably, after the samples' washing in ethanol, a strong Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) signal originating from the toluene residual traces was evidenced. Further, it was observed that the laser irradiated Nb surface is able to provide a SERS enhancement of ˜1.3 × 103 times for rhodamine 6G solutions. Thus, for the first time it was shown that Nb/Nb oxide surfaces could exhibit SERS functionality, and so one can expect applications in biological/biochemical screening or for sensing of dangerous environmental substances.

  13. All-oxide Raman-active traps for light and matter: probing redox homeostasis model reactions in aqueous environment.

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Ivano; Depero, L E

    2014-04-01

    Core-shell colloidal crystals can act as very efficient traps for light and analytes. Here it is shown that Raman-active probes can be achieved using SiO2-TiO2 core-shell beads. These systems are successfully tested in monitoring of glutathione redox cycle at physiological concentration in aqueous environment, without need of any interfering enhancers. These materials represent a promising alternative to conventional, metal-based SERS probes for investigating chemical and biochemical reactions under real working conditions.

  14. Longevity improvement of optically activated, high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches

    SciTech Connect

    MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; O'MALLEY,MARTIN W.; HELGESON,WESLEY D.; BROWN,DARWIN JAMES; HJALMARSON,HAROLD P.; BACA,ALBERT G.

    2000-03-02

    The longevity of high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) has been extended to over 100 million pulses at 23A, and over 100 pulses at 1kA. This is achieved by improving the ohmic contacts by doping the semi-insulating GaAs underneath the metal, and by achieving a more uniform distribution of contact wear across the entire switch by distributing the trigger light to form multiple filaments. This paper will compare various approaches to doping the contacts, including ion implantation, thermal diffusion, and epitaxial growth. The device characterization also includes examination of the filament behavior using open-shutter, infra-red imaging during high gain switching. These techniques provide information on the filament carrier densities as well as the influence that the different contact structures and trigger light distributions have on the distribution of the current in the devices. This information is guiding the continuing refinement of contact structures and geometries for further improvements in switch longevity.

  15. Signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) gain-of-function mutations and disseminated coccidioidomycosis and histoplasmosis

    PubMed Central

    Sampaio, Elizabeth P.; Hsu, Amy P.; Pechacek, Joseph; Bax, Hannelore I.; Dias, Dalton L.; Paulson, Michelle L.; Chandrasekaran, Prabha; Rosen, Lindsey B.; Carvalho, Daniel S.; Ding, Li; Vinh, Donald C.; Browne, Sarah K.; Datta, Shrimati; Milner, Joshua D.; Kuhns, Douglas B.; Long Priel, Debra A.; Sadat, Mohammed A.; Shiloh, Michael; De Marco, Brendan; Alvares, Michael; Gillman, Jason W.; Ramarathnam, Vivek; de la Morena, Maite; Bezrodnik, Liliana; Moreira, Ileana; Uzel, Gulbu; Johnson, Daniel; Spalding, Christine; Zerbe, Christa S.; Wiley, Henry; Greenberg, David E.; Hoover, Susan E.; Rosenzweig, Sergio D.; Galgiani, John N.; Holland, Steven M.

    2013-01-01

    Background Impaired signaling in the IFN-γ/IL-12 pathway causes susceptibility to severe disseminated infections with mycobacteria and dimorphic yeasts. Dominant gain-of-function mutations in signal transducer and activator of transcription 1 (STAT1) have been associated with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis. Objective We sought to identify the molecular defect in patients with disseminated dimorphic yeast infections. Methods PBMCs, EBV-transformed B cells, and transfected U3A cell lines were studied for IFN-γ/IL-12 pathway function. STAT1 was sequenced in probands and available relatives. Interferon-induced STAT1 phosphorylation, transcriptional responses, protein-protein interactions, target gene activation, and function were investigated. Results We identified 5 patients with disseminated Coccidioides immitis or Histoplasma capsulatum with heterozygous missense mutations in the STAT1 coiled-coil or DNA-binding domains. These are dominant gain-of-function mutations causing enhanced STAT1 phosphorylation, delayed dephosphorylation, enhanced DNA binding and transactivation, and enhanced interaction with protein inhibitor of activated STAT1. The mutations caused enhanced IFN-γ–induced gene expression, but we found impaired responses to IFN-γ restimulation. Conclusion Gain-of-function mutations in STAT1 predispose to invasive, severe, disseminated dimorphic yeast infections, likely through aberrant regulation of IFN-γ–mediated inflammation. PMID:23541320

  16. Pregnant women’s perceptions of weight gain, physical activity, and nutrition using Theory of Planned Behavior constructs

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sara; Liu, Jihong; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2016-01-01

    A better understanding of women’s perceptions of weight gain and related behaviors during pregnancy is necessary to inform behavioral interventions. We used the Theory of Planned Behavior (TPB) to examine pregnant women’s perceptions and intentions toward weight gain, physical activity (PA), and nutrition using a mixed methods study design. Women between 20 and 30 weeks gestation (n = 189) were recruited to complete an Internet-based survey. Salient beliefs toward weight gain, PA, and nutrition were captured through open-ended responses and content analyzed into themes. TPB constructs (attitude, subjective norm, perceived behavioral control, intentions) were examined using Pearson correlations and hierarchical linear regression models. Salient beliefs were consistent with the existing literature in non-pregnant populations, with the addition of many pregnancy-specific beliefs. TPB constructs accounted for 23–39 % of the variance in weight gain, PA, and nutrition intentions, and made varying contributions across outcomes. The TPB is a useful framework for examining women’s weight-related intentions during pregnancy. Study implications for intervention development are discussed. PMID:26335313

  17. Raman Crystallography and Other Biochemical Applications of Raman Microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carey, Paul R.

    2006-05-01

    Recent studies using a Raman microscope have shown that single protein crystals provide an ideal platform to undertake Raman difference spectroscopic analyses under nonresonance conditions. This approach, termed Raman crystallography, provides a means of characterizing chemical events within the crystal such as ligand binding and enzyme reactions. In many cases Raman crystallography goes hand in hand with X-ray crystallographic studies because the Raman results can inform the X-ray crystallographer about the status of chemical events in the crystal prior to flash freezing and X-ray analysis. In turn, the combined data from the Raman and X-ray analyses are highly synergistic and offer novel perspectives on structure and dynamics in enzyme active sites. In a related area, protein misfolding, Raman microscopy can provide detailed insights into the chemistry of the amyloid plaques associated with Alzheimer's disease and into the intermediates on the α-synuclein protein misfolding pathway implicated in Parkinson's disease.

  18. Raman scattering in crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Edwards, D.F.

    1988-09-30

    A tutorial presentation is given of Raman scattering in crystals. The physical concepts are emphasized rather than the detailed mathematical formalism. Starting with an introduction to the concepts of phonons and conservation laws, the effects of photon-phonon interactions are presented. This interaction concept is shown for a simple cubic crystal and is extended to a uniaxial crystal. The correlation table method is used for determining the number and symmetry of the Raman active modes. Finally, examples are given to illustrate the relative ease of using this group theoretical method and the predictions are compared with measured Raman spectra. 37 refs., 17 figs., 6 tabs.

  19. Observation of power gain in an inductive pulsed power system with an optically activated semiconductor closing and opening switch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kung, Chun C.; Funk, Eric E.; Chauchard, Eve A.; Rhee, M. J.; Lee, Chi H.; Yan, Li

    1991-03-01

    Peak power gain greater than 15 was obtained with a current charged transmission line and an optically activated semiconductor opening switch. The optical pulse used for activating the switch is generated by a Nd:glass laser emitting at 1. 054 pm. It has a slow rise-time (''--''2OO uS) and a fast fall-time (s1O uS). In the experiment a 2 kV output voltage pulse was achieved with a 5 mm cube GaAs p-i-n diode sitch at 500 V charging voltage.

  20. Astronomical liquid mirrors as highly ultrasensitive, broadband-operational surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active substrates.

    PubMed

    Lu, Tai-Yen; Lee, Yang-Chun; Yen, Yu-Ting; Yu, Chen-Chieh; Chen, Hsuen-Li

    2016-03-15

    In this study, we found that an astronomical liquid mirror can be prepared as a highly ultrasensitive, low-cost, highly reproducible, broadband-operational surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active substrate. Astronomical liquid mirrors are highly specularly reflective because of their perfectly dense-packed silver nanoparticles; they possess a large number and high density of hot spots that experience a very high intensity electric field, resulting in excellent SERS performance. When using the liquid mirror-based SERS-active substrate to detect 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP), we obtained measured analytical enhancement factors (AEFs) of up to 2.7×10(12) and detection limits as low as 10(-15) M. We also found that the same liquid mirror could exhibit superior SERS capability at several distinct wavelengths (532, 632.8, and 785 nm). The presence of hot spots everywhere in the liquid mirror provided highly repeatable Raman signals from low concentrations of analytes. In addition, the astronomical liquid mirrors could be transferred readily onto cheap, flexible, and biodegradable substrates and still retain their excellent SERS performance, suggesting that they might find widespread applicability in various (bio)chemical detection fields.

  1. Study of Droplet Activation in Thin Clouds Using Ground-Based Raman Lidar and Ancillary Remote Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosoldi, Marco; Madonna, Fabio; Gumà Claramunt, Pilar; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2016-06-01

    A methodology for the study of cloud droplet activation based on the measurements performed with ground-based multi-wavelength Raman lidars and ancillary remote sensors collected at CNR-IMAA observatory, Potenza, South Italy, is presented. The study is focused on the observation of thin warm clouds. Thin clouds are often also optically thin: this allows the cloud top detection and the full profiling of cloud layers using ground-based Raman lidar. Moreover, broken clouds are inspected to take advantage of their discontinuous structure in order to study the variability of optical properties and water vapor content in the transition from cloudy regions to cloudless regions close to the cloud boundaries. A statistical study of this variability leads to identify threshold values for the optical properties, enabling the discrimination between clouds and cloudless regions. These values can be used to evaluate and improve parameterizations of droplet activation within numerical models. A statistical study of the co-located Doppler radar moments allows to retrieve droplet size and vertical velocities close to the cloud base. First evidences of a correlation between droplet vertical velocities measured at the cloud base and the aerosol effective radius observed in the cloud-free regions of the broken clouds are found.

  2. Inverse Raman effect: applications and detection techniques

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, L.J. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    The processes underlying the inverse Raman effect are qualitatively described by comparing it to the more familiar phenomena of conventional and stimulated Raman scattering. An experession is derived for the inverse Raman absorption coefficient, and its relationship to the stimulated Raman gain is obtained. The power requirements of the two fields are examined qualitatively and quantitatively. The assumption that the inverse Raman absorption coefficient is constant over the interaction length is examined. Advantages of the technique are discussed and a brief survey of reported studies is presented.

  3. Broadband coherent light generation in Raman-active crystals driven by femtosecond laser fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhi, Miaochan

    I studied a family of closely connected topics related to the production and application of ultrashort laser pulses. I achieved broadband cascade Raman generation in crystals, producing mutually coherent frequency sidebands which can possibly be used to synthesize optical pulses as short as a fraction of a femtosecond (fs). Unlike generation using gases, there is no need for a cumbersome vacuum system when working with room temperature crystals. Our method, therefore, shows promise for a compact system. One problem for sideband generation in solids is phase matching, because the dispersion is significant. I solved this problem by using non-collinear geometry. I observed what to our knowledge is a record-large number of spectral sidebands generated in a popular Raman crystal PbWO4 covering infrared, visible, and ultraviolet spectral regions, when I applied two 50 fs laser pulses tuned close to the Raman resonance. Similar generation in diamond was also observed, which shows that the method is universal. When a third probe pulse is applied, a very interesting 2-D color array is generated in both crystals. As many as 40 anti-Stokes and 5 Stokes sidebands are generated when a pair of time-delayed linear chirped pulses are applied to the PbWO4 crystal. This shows that pulses with picosecond duration, which is on the order of the coherence decay time, is more effective for sidebands generation than Fourier transform limited fs pulses. I also studied the technique of fs coherent Raman anti-Stokes scattering (CARS) which is used as a tool for detecting dipicolinic acid, the marker molecule for bacterial spores. I observed that there is a maximum when the concentration dependence of the near-resonant CARS signal is measured. I presented a model to describe this behavior, and found an analytical solution that agrees with our experimental data. Theoretically, I explored a possible application for single-cycle pulses: laser induced nuclear fusion. I performed both classical

  4. Determinants of Developmental Gain in Daily Activities in Young Children with Cerebral Palsy.

    PubMed

    Kruijsen-Terpstra, Anne J A; Ketelaar, Marjolijn; Verschuren, Olaf; Smits, Dirk-Wouter; Jongmans, Marian J; Gorter, Jan Willem

    2014-09-18

    ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to examine which child and family characteristics at the child's age of 2 years are determinants of development of self-care and mobility activities over a period of 2 years in young children with cerebral palsy (CP). Longitudinal data of 92 children, representing all levels of the Gross Motor Function Classification System (GMFCS), were analyzed. Children's self-care and mobility activities were assessed with the Functional Skills Scale of the Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory. Development of self-care and mobility activities was related to several child determinants but no family determinants. GMFCS, type of CP, intellectual capacity, and epilepsy were related to the development of self-care and mobility activities, while manual ability and spasticity were related to development of mobility activities. Multivariate analysis indicated that GMFCS and intellectual capacity were the strongest determinants of development of self-care activities, and GMFCS was the strongest determinant of development of mobility activities. The change in self-care and mobility activities was less favorable in severely affected children with severe disability. Knowledge of GMFCS level and intellectual capacity is important in anticipating change over time and goal setting in young children with CP.

  5. Doped Contacts for High-Longevity Optically Activated, High Gain GaAs Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches

    SciTech Connect

    MAR,ALAN; LOUBRIEL,GUILLERMO M.; ZUTAVERN,FRED J.; O'MALLEY,MARTIN W.; HELGESON,WESLEY D.; BROWN,DARWIN JAMES; HJALMARSON,HAROLD P.; BACA,ALBERT G.; THORNTON,R.L.; DONALDSON,R.D.

    1999-12-17

    The longevity of high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) has been extended to over 100 million pulses. This was achieved by improving the ohmic contacts through the incorporation of a doped layer that is very effective in the suppression of filament formation, alleviating current crowding. Damage-free operation is now possible with virtually infinite expected lifetime at much higher current levels than before. The inherent damage-free current capacity of the bulk GaAs itself depends on the thickness of the doped layers and is at least 100A for a dopant diffusion depth of 4pm. The contact metal has a different damage mechanism and the threshold for damage ({approx}40A) is not further improved beyond a dopant diffusion depth of about 2{micro}m. In a diffusion-doped contact switch, the switching performance is not degraded when contact metal erosion occurs, unlike a switch with conventional contacts. This paper will compare thermal diffusion and epitaxial growth as approaches to doping the contacts. These techniques will be contrasted in terms of the fabrication issues and device characteristics.

  6. Doped Contacts for High-Longevity Optically Activated, High Gain GaAs Photoconductive Semiconductor Switches

    SciTech Connect

    Baca, A.G.; Brown, D.J.; Donaldson, R.D.; Helgeson, W.D.; Hjalmarson, H.P.; Loubriel, G.M.; Mar, A.; O'Malley, M.W.; Thornton, R.L.; Zutavern, F.J.

    1999-08-05

    The longevity of high gain GaAs photoconductive semiconductor switches (PCSS) has been extended to over 50 million pulses. This was achieved by improving the ohmic contacts through the incorporation of a doped layer beneath the PCSS contacts which is very effective in the suppression of filament formation and alleviating current crowding to improve the longevity of PCSS. Virtually indefinite, damage-free operation is now possible at much higher current levels than before. The inherent damage-free current capacity of the switch depends on the thickness of the doped layers and is at least 100A for a dopant diffusion depth of 4pm. The contact metal has a different damage mechanism and the threshold for damage ({approximately}40A) is not further improved beyond a dopant diffusion depth of about 2{micro}m. In a diffusion-doped contact switch, the switching performance is not degraded when contact metal erosion occurs. This paper will compare thermal diffusion and epitaxial growth as approaches to doping the contacts. These techniques will be contrasted in terms of the fabrication issues and device characteristics.

  7. Raman Spectroscopy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gerrard, Donald L.

    1984-01-01

    Reviews literature on Raman spectroscopy from late 1981 to late 1983. Topic areas include: instrumentation and sampling; liquids and solutions; gases and matrix isolation; biological molecules; polymers; high-temperature and high-pressure studies; Raman microscopy; thin films and surfaces; resonance-enhanced and surface-enhanced spectroscopy; and…

  8. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering activities of carbon nanotubes decorated with silver nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaolei; Zhang, Jie; Quan, Jiamin; Wang, Ning; Zhu, Yong

    2016-10-01

    We synthesized a carbon nanotube (CNT) loaded with silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) composite as an effective surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate via a low-cost, simple citrate reduction method. The hybrid materials were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis) spectrophotometer and Raman spectroscopy. Rhodamine 6G (R6G) was used as the probe analyte. The experimental results indicated that the detection concentration level was down to 10(-14) M. Additionally, we discussed the uniformity by conducting SERS position mapping within an area of 5 μm × 5 μm; meanwhile, we performed time-course SERS mapping experiments to study the evaporation process of probe molecules of the prepared samples. Finally, we simulated the electromagnetic field distribution based on SEM images (obtained the ratio of surface area to the area of silver particles) by the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method.

  9. Arctigenin Inhibits Adipogenesis by Inducing AMPK Activation and Reduces Weight Gain in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Dae-Seung; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Soyoung; Kim, Su-Jin; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-09-01

    Although arctigenin (ARC) has been reported to have some pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and antioxidant, there have been no reports on the anti-obesity effect of ARC. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ARC has an anti-obesity effect and mediates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. We investigated the anti-adipogenic effect of ARC using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, whether ARC can inhibit weight gain was investigated. We found that ARC reduced weight gain, fat pad weight, and triglycerides in HFD-induced obese mice. ARC also inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) in in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ARC induced the AMPK activation resulting in down-modulation of adipogenesis-related factors including PPARγ, C/EBPα, fatty acid synthase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase. This study demonstrates that ARC can reduce key adipogenic factors by activating the AMPK in vitro and in vivo and suggests a therapeutic implication of ARC for obesity treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2067-2077, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Arctigenin Inhibits Adipogenesis by Inducing AMPK Activation and Reduces Weight Gain in High-Fat Diet-Induced Obese Mice.

    PubMed

    Han, Yo-Han; Kee, Ji-Ye; Park, Jinbong; Kim, Hye-Lin; Jeong, Mi-Young; Kim, Dae-Seung; Jeon, Yong-Deok; Jung, Yunu; Youn, Dong-Hyun; Kang, JongWook; So, Hong-Seob; Park, Raekil; Lee, Jong-Hyun; Shin, Soyoung; Kim, Su-Jin; Um, Jae-Young; Hong, Seung-Heon

    2016-09-01

    Although arctigenin (ARC) has been reported to have some pharmacological effects such as anti-inflammation, anti-cancer, and antioxidant, there have been no reports on the anti-obesity effect of ARC. The aim of this study is to investigate whether ARC has an anti-obesity effect and mediates the AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) pathway. We investigated the anti-adipogenic effect of ARC using 3T3-L1 pre-adipocytes and human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAMSCs). In high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mice, whether ARC can inhibit weight gain was investigated. We found that ARC reduced weight gain, fat pad weight, and triglycerides in HFD-induced obese mice. ARC also inhibited the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) and CCAAT/enhancer-binding protein alpha (C/EBPα) in in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, ARC induced the AMPK activation resulting in down-modulation of adipogenesis-related factors including PPARγ, C/EBPα, fatty acid synthase, adipocyte fatty acid-binding protein, and lipoprotein lipase. This study demonstrates that ARC can reduce key adipogenic factors by activating the AMPK in vitro and in vivo and suggests a therapeutic implication of ARC for obesity treatment. J. Cell. Biochem. 117: 2067-2077, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26852013

  11. Gain and kinetics of activation in the G-protein cascade of phototransduction.

    PubMed Central

    Lamb, T D

    1996-01-01

    The guanine nucleotide binding protein (G protein) cascade underlying phototransduction is one of the best understood of all signaling pathways. The diffusional interactions of the proteins underlying the cascade have been analyzed, both at a macroscopic level and also in terms of the stochastic nature of the molecular contacts. In response to a single activated rhodopsin (R*) formed as a result of a single photon hit, it can be shown that molecules of the G-protein transducin will be activated approximately linearly with time. This, in turn, will cause the number of activated molecules of the effector protein (the phosphodiesterase) also to increase linearly with time. These kinetics of protein activation provide an accurate description of the time course of the rising phase of the photoreceptor's electrical response over a wide range of flash intensities. Recent estimates indicate that at room temperature each R* triggers activation of the phosphodiesterase at a rate of 1000-2000 subunits.s-1. Now that a quantitative description of the activation steps in transduction has been obtained, perhaps the greatest challenge for the future is to provide a comprehensive description of the shutoff reactions, so that a complete account of the photoreceptor's response to light can be achieved. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:8570596

  12. Lasing properties of selectively pumped Raman-active Nd{sup 3+}-doped molybdate and tungstate crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Doroshenko, Maxim E; Ivleva, Lyudmila I; Osiko, Vyacheslav V; Kosmyna, M B; Komar', V K; Sulc, J; Jelinkova, H

    2006-08-31

    The lasing efficiency of Nd{sup 3+} ions is studied in laser materials capable of self-Raman frequency conversion. The lasing properties of tungstate and molybdate crystals with the scheelite structure (SrWO{sub 4}, BaWO{sub 4}, PbWO{sub 4}, SrMoO{sub 4}, PbMoO{sub 4}) activated with neodymium ions are investigated upon longitudinal pumping by a 750-nm alexandrite laser or a 800-nm diode laser. The slope lasing efficiency obtained for a Nd{sup 3+}:PbMoO{sub 4} laser emitting at 1054 nm is 54.3% for the total lasing efficiency of 46%, which is the best result for all the crystals with the scheelite structure studied so far. The simultaneous Q-switched lasing and self-Raman frequency conversion were demonstrated in neodymium-doped SrWO{sub 4}, PbWO{sub 4}, and BaWO{sub 4} crystals. (papers devoted to the 90th anniversary of a.m.prokhorov)

  13. Coupled-resonator vertical-cavity lasers with two active gain regions

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.

    2003-05-20

    A new class of coupled-resonator vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers has been developed. These lasers have multiple resonant cavities containing regions of active laser media, resulting in a multi-terminal laser component with a wide range of novel properties.

  14. New electrochemical procedure for obtaining surface enhanced Raman scattering active polythiophene films on platinum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazzaoui, E. A.; Aeiyach, S.; Aubard, J.; Felidj, N.; Lévi, G.; Sakmeche, N.; Lacaze, P. C.

    1998-06-01

    A new electrochemical procedure for obtaining Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) spectra of silver islands polybithiophene composite films is described. During the electropolymerization process which consists to use silver dodecylsulfate micellar aqueous solution mixed with bithiophene and LiClO4, silver cations are reduced, thus giving metallic silver particles embedded within the polybithiophene (PbT) film. Both doped and undoped PbT species display SERS spectra with exaltation factors varying between 40 and 200 with respect to the film prepared in sodium dodecylsulfate. Vibrational characterization of both doped and undoped species show that the amount of the polymer structural defects are more important in the oxidized species than in the reduced ones. This general method allows to synthesize various polymeric films displaying SERS effect and appears very promising for the structural study of these materials. Nous décrivons un procédé original pour synthétiser par voie électrochimique des films formés d'un composite de polybithiophène et d'îlots d'argent qui présentent des Spectres de Diffusion Raman Exaltée de Surface (DRES). Au cours de l'électropolymérisation d'une solution aqueuse micellaire de bithiophène en présence de dodécylsulfate d'argent (AgDS) et de LiClO4, les ions argent présents dans la solution se complexent avec le soufre du bithiophène et pénètrent dans le film polymère où ils sont réduits sous forme d'argent métallique. Les spectres Raman des deux formes réduite et oxydée du film ainsi obtenu présentent un effet DRES important avec un facteur d'exaltation variant entre 40 et 200 par rapport au même film électrosynthétisé en présence de dodécylsulfate de sodium (SDS). L'analyse vibrationnelle des deux formes redox montre que le taux de défauts est plus important dans la forme oxydée que dans la forme réduite. Cette méthode de polymérisation très générale, qui permet d'obtenir des polymères

  15. Cortical activation changes underlying stimulation-induced behavioural gains in chronic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Bachtiar, Velicia; O'Shea, Jacinta; Allman, Claire; Bosnell, Rosemary Ann; Kischka, Udo; Matthews, Paul McMahan; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation, a form of non-invasive brain stimulation, is showing increasing promise as an adjunct therapy in rehabilitation following stroke. However, although significant behavioural improvements have been reported in proof-of-principle studies, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The rationale for transcranial direct current stimulation as therapy for stroke is that therapeutic stimulation paradigms increase activity in ipsilesional motor cortical areas, but this has not previously been directly tested for conventional electrode placements. This study was performed to test directly whether increases in ipsilesional cortical activation with transcranial direct current stimulation are associated with behavioural improvements in chronic stroke patients. Patients at least 6 months post-first stroke participated in a behavioural experiment (n = 13) or a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment (n = 11), each investigating the effects of three stimulation conditions in separate sessions: anodal stimulation to the ipsilesional hemisphere; cathodal stimulation to the contralesional hemisphere; and sham stimulation. Anodal (facilitatory) stimulation to the ipsilesional hemisphere led to significant improvements (5–10%) in response times with the affected hand in both experiments. This improvement was associated with an increase in movement-related cortical activity in the stimulated primary motor cortex and functionally interconnected regions. Cathodal (inhibitory) stimulation to the contralesional hemisphere led to a functional improvement only when compared with sham stimulation. We show for the first time that the significant behavioural improvements produced by anodal stimulation to the ipsilesional hemisphere are associated with a functionally relevant increase in activity within the ipsilesional primary motor cortex in patients with a wide range of disabilities following stroke. PMID:22155982

  16. Cortical activation changes underlying stimulation-induced behavioural gains in chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Stagg, Charlotte Jane; Bachtiar, Velicia; O'Shea, Jacinta; Allman, Claire; Bosnell, Rosemary Ann; Kischka, Udo; Matthews, Paul McMahan; Johansen-Berg, Heidi

    2012-01-01

    Transcranial direct current stimulation, a form of non-invasive brain stimulation, is showing increasing promise as an adjunct therapy in rehabilitation following stroke. However, although significant behavioural improvements have been reported in proof-of-principle studies, the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. The rationale for transcranial direct current stimulation as therapy for stroke is that therapeutic stimulation paradigms increase activity in ipsilesional motor cortical areas, but this has not previously been directly tested for conventional electrode placements. This study was performed to test directly whether increases in ipsilesional cortical activation with transcranial direct current stimulation are associated with behavioural improvements in chronic stroke patients. Patients at least 6 months post-first stroke participated in a behavioural experiment (n = 13) or a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment (n = 11), each investigating the effects of three stimulation conditions in separate sessions: anodal stimulation to the ipsilesional hemisphere; cathodal stimulation to the contralesional hemisphere; and sham stimulation. Anodal (facilitatory) stimulation to the ipsilesional hemisphere led to significant improvements (5-10%) in response times with the affected hand in both experiments. This improvement was associated with an increase in movement-related cortical activity in the stimulated primary motor cortex and functionally interconnected regions. Cathodal (inhibitory) stimulation to the contralesional hemisphere led to a functional improvement only when compared with sham stimulation. We show for the first time that the significant behavioural improvements produced by anodal stimulation to the ipsilesional hemisphere are associated with a functionally relevant increase in activity within the ipsilesional primary motor cortex in patients with a wide range of disabilities following stroke.

  17. Preparation of Ag{sub 2}S-Graphene nanocomposite from a single source precursor and its surface-enhanced Raman scattering and photoluminescent activity

    SciTech Connect

    Pan Shugang; Liu Xiaoheng Wang Xin

    2011-11-15

    Ag{sub 2}S-Graphene nanocomposite was prepared via a relatively facile hydrothermal method, using a single-source molecular (silver diethyldithiocarbamate [Ag(DDTC)]) as precursor and graphene sheets as a support material. The composite was characterized by X-ray power diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, Field-emission scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared, Raman spectra and fluorescence spectroscopy. The experimental results show that the Ag{sub 2}S-Graphene nanocomposite displays surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activity for graphene oxide and reveals relatively better fluorescence property compared with pure Ag{sub 2}S. Highlights: {yields} Ag{sub 2}S nanoparticles are deposited on graphene sheets via a single source precursor. {yields} Graphene oxide is reduced to graphene in the hydrothermal reaction process. {yields} Ag{sub 2}S-Graphene system displays surface-enhanced Raman scattering activity and relatively better fluorescence property.

  18. Investigation of activated oxygen molecules on the surface of Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals by Raman scattering

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, J. Q.; Xiong, S. J.; Wu, X. L.; Shen, J. C.; Li, T. H.; Chu, Paul K.

    2013-09-07

    Activation of surface oxygen molecules on cubic Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} nanocrystals (NCs) is investigated. As the annealing temperature under O{sub 2} is increased, the strong Raman band at 965 cm{sup −1} previously never assigned weakens gradually, while the intensity of the 378 cm{sup −1} Raman band arising from Y{sup 3+}-O{sup 2−} vibration increases. X-ray diffraction reveals no structural change during annealing and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and theoretical calculation suggest that the interstitial oxygen O{sub 2}{sup 2−} connected to the F centers gives rise to the 965 cm{sup −1} Raman band. The results provide direct evidence of the existence of activated oxygen ions on Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} NCs.

  19. D38-cholesterol as a Raman active probe for imaging intracellular cholesterol storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alfonso-García, Alba; Pfisterer, Simon G.; Riezman, Howard; Ikonen, Elina; Potma, Eric O.

    2016-06-01

    We generated a highly deuterated cholesterol analog (D38-cholesterol) and demonstrated its use for selective vibrational imaging of cholesterol storage in mammalian cells. D38-cholesterol produces detectable signals in stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging, is rapidly taken up by cells, and is efficiently metabolized by acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase to form cholesteryl esters. Using hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol, we visualized cholesterol storage in lipid droplets. We found that some lipid droplets accumulated preferentially unesterified D38-cholesterol, whereas others stored D38-cholesteryl esters. In steroidogenic cells, D38-cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols were partitioned into distinct sets of lipid droplets. Thus, hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol demonstrates a heterogeneous incorporation of neutral lipid species, i.e., free cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and triacylglycerols, between individual lipid droplets in a cell.

  20. D38-cholesterol as a Raman active probe for imaging intracellular cholesterol storage.

    PubMed

    Alfonso-García, Alba; Pfisterer, Simon G; Riezman, Howard; Ikonen, Elina; Potma, Eric O

    2016-06-01

    We generated a highly deuterated cholesterol analog (D38-cholesterol) and demonstrated its use for selective vibrational imaging of cholesterol storage in mammalian cells. D38-cholesterol produces detectable signals in stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) imaging, is rapidly taken up by cells, and is efficiently metabolized by acyl-CoA cholesterol acyltransferase to form cholesteryl esters. Using hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol, we visualized cholesterol storage in lipid droplets. We found that some lipid droplets accumulated preferentially unesterified D38-cholesterol, whereas others stored D38-cholesteryl esters. In steroidogenic cells, D38-cholesteryl esters and triacylglycerols were partitioned into distinct sets of lipid droplets. Thus, hyperspectral SRS imaging of D38-cholesterol demonstrates a heterogeneous incorporation of neutral lipid species, i.e., free cholesterol, cholesteryl esters, and triacylglycerols, between individual lipid droplets in a cell.

  1. Study of Droplet Activation in Thin Clouds Using Ground-based Raman Lidar and Ancillary Remote Sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rosoldi, Marco; Madonna, Fabio; Gumà Claramunt, Pilar; Pappalardo, Gelsomina

    2015-04-01

    Studies on global climate change show that the effects of aerosol-cloud interactions (ACI) on the Earth's radiation balance and climate, also known as indirect aerosol effects, are the most uncertain among all the effects involving the atmospheric constituents and processes (Stocker et al., IPCC, 2013). Droplet activation is the most important and challenging process in the understanding of ACI. It represents the direct microphysical link between aerosols and clouds and it is probably the largest source of uncertainty in estimating indirect aerosol effects. An accurate estimation of aerosol-clouds microphysical and optical properties in proximity and within the cloud boundaries represents a good frame for the study of droplet activation. This can be obtained by using ground-based profiling remote sensing techniques. In this work, a methodology for the experimental investigation of droplet activation, based on ground-based multi-wavelength Raman lidar and Doppler radar technique, is presented. The study is focused on the observation of thin liquid water clouds, which are low or midlevel super-cooled clouds characterized by a liquid water path (LWP) lower than about 100 gm-2(Turner et al., 2007). These clouds are often optically thin, which means that ground-based Raman lidar allows the detection of the cloud top and of the cloud structure above. Broken clouds are primarily inspected to take advantage of their discontinuous structure using ground based remote sensing. Observations are performed simultaneously with multi-wavelength Raman lidars, a cloud Doppler radar and a microwave radiometer at CIAO (CNR-IMAA Atmospheric Observatory: www.ciao.imaa.cnr.it), in Potenza, Southern Italy (40.60N, 15.72E, 760 m a.s.l.). A statistical study of the variability of optical properties and humidity in the transition from cloudy regions to cloud-free regions surrounding the clouds leads to the identification of threshold values for the optical properties, enabling the

  2. Comparative studies on extracts from Hericium erinaceus by different polarity reagents to gain higher antioxidant activities

    PubMed Central

    JIANG, SHENGJUAN; WANG, YULIANG; ZHANG, XIAOLONG

    2016-01-01

    Hericium erinaceus (H. erinaceus) is a source of exogenous antioxidants that has been traditionally used in China for the prevention and treatment of oxidative stress-associated disease. In the present study, the bioactive compounds of H. erinaceus were extracted with the following eight representative reagents: n-Hexane, xylene, chloroform, anhydrous ether, ethyl acetate, acetone, anhydrous ethanol and distilled water. The in vitro antioxidant activities were also evaluated. All of the extracted compounds exhibited reducing power and scavenging activity against 1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) and superoxide anion free radicals. In addition, the antioxidant capacities varied with the used chemical reagents and exhibited dose-dependent effects. Extracts from anhydrous ethanol, chloroform and acetone were capable of inhibiting lipid peroxidation. The anhydrous ethanol extracts were observed to have significant levels of antioxidant compounds since they had a strong reducing power, high scavenging rates against DPPH and superoxide anion-free radicals (>90%), and high inhibition rates on lipid peroxidation (>60%). The present study will provide reference data for the antioxidant applications of H. erinaceus in pharmaceutical use and disease prevention. PMID:27347087

  3. Multiwatts narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Taylor, Luke; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico

    2008-07-21

    Up to 4.8 W, approximately 10 MHz, 1178 nm laser is obtained by Raman amplification of a distributed feedback diode laser in standard single mode fibers pumped by an 1120 nm Yb fiber laser. More than 10% efficiency and 27 dB amplification is achieved, limited by onset of stimulated Brillouin scattering. The ratio of Raman to Brillouin gain coefficient of a fiber is identified as a figure of merit for building a narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifier.

  4. Multiwatts narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Taylor, Luke; Bonaccini Calia, Domenico

    2008-07-21

    Up to 4.8 W, approximately 10 MHz, 1178 nm laser is obtained by Raman amplification of a distributed feedback diode laser in standard single mode fibers pumped by an 1120 nm Yb fiber laser. More than 10% efficiency and 27 dB amplification is achieved, limited by onset of stimulated Brillouin scattering. The ratio of Raman to Brillouin gain coefficient of a fiber is identified as a figure of merit for building a narrow linewidth fiber Raman amplifier. PMID:18648406

  5. Gain control of synaptic response function in cerebellar nuclear neurons by a calcium-activated potassium conductance.

    PubMed

    Feng, Steven Si; Lin, Risa; Gauck, Volker; Jaeger, Dieter

    2013-10-01

    Small conductance Ca(2+)-activated potassium (SK) current provides an important modulator of excitatory synaptic transmission, which undergoes plastic regulation via multiple mechanisms. We examined whether inhibitory input processing is also dependent on SK current in the cerebellar nuclei (CN) where inhibition provides the only route of information transfer from the cerebellar cortical Purkinje cells. We employed dynamic clamping in conjunction with computer simulations to address this question. We found that SK current plays a critical role in the inhibitory synaptic control of spiking output. Specifically, regulation of SK current density resulted in a gain control of spiking output, such that low SK current promoted large output signaling for large inhibitory cell input fluctuations due to Purkinje cell synchronization. In contrast, smaller nonsynchronized Purkinje cell input fluctuations were not amplified. Regulation of SK density in the CN therefore would likely lead to important consequences for the transmission of synchronized Purkinje cell activity to the motor system. PMID:23605187

  6. Regulation of Nucleotide Metabolism by Mutant p53 Contributes to its Gain-of-Function Activities

    PubMed Central

    Kollareddy, Madhusudhan; Dimitrova, Elizabeth; Vallabhaneni, Krishna C.; Chan, Adriano; Le, Thuc; Chauhan, Krishna M.; Carrero, Zunamys I.; Ramakrishnan, Gopalakrishnan; Watabe, Kounosuke; Haupt, Ygal; Haupt, Sue; Pochampally, Radhika; Boss, Gerard R.; Romero, Damian G.; Radu, Caius G.; Martinez, Luis A.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY Mutant p53 (mtp53) is an oncogene that drives cancer cell proliferation. Here we report that mtp53 associates with the promoters of numerous nucleotide metabolism genes (NMG). Mtp53 knockdown reduces NMG expression and substantially depletes nucleotide pools, which attenuates GTP dependent protein (GTPase) activity and cell invasion. Addition of exogenous guanosine or GTP restores the invasiveness of mtp53 knockdown cells, suggesting that mtp53 promotes invasion by increasing GTP. Additionally, mtp53 creates a dependency on the nucleoside salvage pathway enzyme deoxycytidine kinase (dCK) for the maintenance of a proper balance in dNTP pools required for proliferation. These data indicate that mtp53 harboring cells have acquired a synthetic sick or lethal phenotype relationship with the nucleoside salvage pathway. Finally, elevated expression of NMG correlates with mutant p53 status and poor prognosis in breast cancer patients. Thus, mtp53’s control of nucleotide biosynthesis has both a driving and sustaining role in cancer development. PMID:26067754

  7. When your pain signifies my gain: neural activity while evaluating outcomes based on another person's pain.

    PubMed

    Cui, Fang; Zhu, Xiangru; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-Jia

    2016-01-01

    The overlap between pain and reward processing pathways leds researchers to hypothesize that there are interactions between them in the human brain. Two hypotheses have been proposed. The "competition hypothesis" posits that reward can reduce pain-related neural activity and vice versa. The "salience hypothesis" suggests that the motivational salience of pain and reward can be mutually reinforced. However, no study has tested these two hypotheses from temporal perspective as we know. In the present study, pictures depicted other people in painful or non-painful situations were used to indicate the valence of outcomes in a gambling task. The event-related potential results revealed an interaction between another person's pain and outcome valence in multiple time stages. Specifically, the amplitudes of the N1 and P3 were enhanced in the win condition compared with the loss condition when the outcome was indicated by painful picture. This interactions between pain and reward support the salience hypothesis but not the competition hypothesis. The present results provide evidence from human subjects that support the salience hypothesis, which claims that observing other people's pain can enhance the salience of reward. PMID:27193060

  8. Increased wavelength options in the visible and ultraviolet for Raman lasers operating on dual Raman modes.

    PubMed

    Mildren, R P; Piper, J A

    2008-03-01

    We report increased wavelength options from Raman lasers for Raman media having two Raman modes of similar gain coefficient. For an external-cavity potassium gadolinium tungstate Raman laser pumped at 532 nm, we show that two sets of Stokes orders are generated simultaneously by appropriate orientation of the Raman crystal, and also wavelengths that correspond to sums of the two Raman modes. Up to 14 visible Stokes lines were observed in the wavelength range 555-675 nm. The increase in Stokes wavelengths also enables a much greater selection of wavelengths to be accessed via intracavity nonlinear sum frequency and difference frequency mixing. For example, we demonstrate 30 output wavelength options for a wavelength-selectable 271-321 nm Raman laser with intracavity sum frequency mixing in BBO. We also present a theoretical analysis that enables prediction of wavelength options for dual Raman mode systems.

  9. FT-IR and Raman spectroscopic and DFT studies of anti-cancer active molecule N-{(meta-ferrocenyl) Benzoyl} - L-Alanine - Glycine ethyl ester

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xavier, T. S.; Kenny, Peter T. M.; Manimaran, D.; Joe, I. Hubert

    2015-06-01

    FT-Raman and FT-IR spectra of N-{(meta-ferrocenyl) Benzoyl} - L-alanine - glycine ethyl ester were recorded in solid phase. The optimized molecular geometry, the vibrational wavenumbers, the infrared intensities and the Raman scattering intensities were calculated by using density functional method(B3LYP) with 6-31G(d, p) basis set. Vibrational assignment of the molecule was done by using potential energy distribution analysis. Natural bond orbital analysis, Mulliken charge analysis and HOMO-LUMO energy were used to elucidate the reasons for intra molecular charge transfer. Docking studies were conducted to predict its anticancer activity.

  10. Raman intensities of liquids: Absolute scattering activities and electro-optical parameters (EOPs) of arsenate and selenate ions in aqueous solutions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eysel, Hans H.; Wagner, Rüdiger

    1993-04-01

    Absolute Raman scattering activities of aqueous solutions of sodium arsenate and sodium selenate have been measured against NaClO 4 as an external standard. Electro-optical parameters (EOPs) for the AsO and SeO bonds were calculated. Changes of the previously published force fields (GVFF) were necessary to adjust the eigenvectors to the experimental frequencies and intensities in aqueous environment. Equilibrium bond polarizabilities were estimated from refractive index measurements in connection with Raman intensities of bending modes. The EOPs of these two isoelectronic compounds are discussed in comparison with the series phosphate, sulphate, perchlorate.

  11. Experimental study of Raman-active two-level systems and the boson peak in LaF3-doped fluorite mixed crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, J. J.; Sievers, A. J.

    2002-09-01

    A broad spectral distribution of two-level systems (TLS) displaying only A1g symmetry, not Eg or T2g, is observed in the low-frequency, low-temperature Raman spectra of fluorite single crystal hosts doped with large amounts of LaF3. The observed range of each TLS spectrum is found to be independent of the dopant concentration although each of the three crystalline hosts, CaF2, SrF2, and BaF2, displays a slightly different cutoff frequency. In a somewhat higher frequency range but still far below the Brillouin Zone TA phonon mode frequency, a boson peak, showing Eg symmetry, is also observed and its strength is proportional to the defect-induced vibrational Raman activity for the three crystal lattices. A surprising property is that for all three host crystals the boson peak center frequency increases with increasing lattice disorder. The strengths of the TLS spectra show distinctively different La3+ concentration dependencies in each host, which is also different from that observed for the boson peaks. By comparing the density of state of TLS derived from the Raman scattering to the P¯ density of states value determined from the earlier specific heat measurements, the number density of Raman-active TLS is separated from the coupling coefficient. When the total number density of Raman-active TLS is examined versus different physical properties it is found that lattice disorder, not the LaF3 concentration per se, is the important variable. The experimental results are consistent with a model where the TLS number density is controlled by the law of mass action with the ``effective'' temperature associated with the production of TLS determined by the frozen-in lattice disorder. Good agreement is found for the number density of TLS versus concentration as determined from the present Raman scattering data and the previous far infrared measurements when the far infrared dipole moment is used as a single fitting parameter. However, in contrast with the far infrared

  12. Thermoregulation of water foraging honeybees--balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and functional requirements.

    PubMed

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

    2010-12-01

    Foraging honeybees are subjected to considerable variations of microclimatic conditions challenging their thermoregulatory ability. Solar heat is a gain in the cold but may be a burden in the heat. We investigated the balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and physiological functions of water foraging Apis mellifera carnica honeybees in the whole range of ambient temperatures (T(a)) and solar radiation they are likely to be exposed in their natural environment in Middle Europe. The mean thorax temperature (T(th)) during foraging stays was regulated at a constantly high level (37.0-38.5 °C) in a broad range of T(a) (3-30 °C). At warmer conditions (T(a)=30-39 °C) T(th) increased to a maximal level of 45.3 °C. The endothermic temperature excess (difference of T(body)-T(a) of living and dead bees) was used to assess the endogenously generated temperature elevation as a correlate of energy turnover. Up to a T(a) of ∼30 °C bees used solar heat gain for a double purpose: to reduce energetic expenditure and to increase T(th) by about 1-3 °C to improve force production of flight muscles. At higher T(a) they exhibited cooling efforts to get rid of excess heat. A high T(th) also allowed regulation of the head temperature high enough to guarantee proper function of the bees' suction pump even at low T(a). This shortened the foraging stays and this way reduced energetic costs. With decreasing T(a) bees also reduced arrival body weight and crop loading to do both minimize costs and optimize flight performance. PMID:20705071

  13. Thermoregulation of water foraging honeybees—Balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and functional requirements

    PubMed Central

    Kovac, Helmut; Stabentheiner, Anton; Schmaranzer, Sigurd

    2010-01-01

    Foraging honeybees are subjected to considerable variations of microclimatic conditions challenging their thermoregulatory ability. Solar heat is a gain in the cold but may be a burden in the heat. We investigated the balancing of endothermic activity with radiative heat gain and physiological functions of water foraging Apis mellifera carnica honeybees in the whole range of ambient temperatures (Ta) and solar radiation they are likely to be exposed in their natural environment in Middle Europe. The mean thorax temperature (Tth) during foraging stays was regulated at a constantly high level (37.0–38.5 °C) in a broad range of Ta (3–30 °C). At warmer conditions (Ta = 30–39 °C) Tth increased to a maximal level of 45.3 °C. The endothermic temperature excess (difference of Tbody − Ta of living and dead bees) was used to assess the endogenously generated temperature elevation as a correlate of energy turnover. Up to a Ta of ∼30 °C bees used solar heat gain for a double purpose: to reduce energetic expenditure and to increase Tth by about 1–3 °C to improve force production of flight muscles. At higher Ta they exhibited cooling efforts to get rid of excess heat. A high Tth also allowed regulation of the head temperature high enough to guarantee proper function of the bees’ suction pump even at low Ta. This shortened the foraging stays and this way reduced energetic costs. With decreasing Ta bees also reduced arrival body weight and crop loading to do both minimize costs and optimize flight performance. PMID:20705071

  14. Quantitative evaluation on activated property-tunable bulk liquid water with reduced hydrogen bonds using deconvoluted Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Mai, Fu-Der; Yang, Kuang-Hsuan; Chen, Liang-Yih; Yang, Chih-Ping; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Interesting properties of water with distinguishable hydrogen-bonding structure on interfacial phase or in confined environment have drawn wide attentions. However, these unique properties of water are only found within the interfacial phase and confined environment, thus, their applications are limited. In addition, quantitative evaluation on these unique properties associating with the enhancement of water's physical and chemical activities represents a notable challenge. Here we report a practicable production of free-standing liquid water at room temperature with weak hydrogen-bonded structure naming Au nanoparticles (NPs)-treated (AuNT) water via treating by plasmon-induced hot electron transfer occurred on resonantly illuminated gold NPs (AuNPs). Compared to well-known untreated bulk water (deionized water), the prepared AuNT water exhibits many distinct activities in generally physical and chemical reactions, such as high solubilities to NaCl and O2. Also, reducing interaction energy within water molecules provides lower overpotential and higher efficiency in electrolytic hydrogen production. In addition, these enhanced catalytic activities of AuNT water are tunable by mixing with deionized water. Also, most of these tunable activities are linearly proportional to its degree of nonhydrogen-bonded structure (DNHBS), which is derived from the O-H stretching in deconvoluted Raman spectrum. PMID:25471522

  15. Quantitative evaluation on activated property-tunable bulk liquid water with reduced hydrogen bonds using deconvoluted Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsiao-Chien; Mai, Fu-Der; Yang, Kuang-Hsuan; Chen, Liang-Yih; Yang, Chih-Ping; Liu, Yu-Chuan

    2015-01-01

    Interesting properties of water with distinguishable hydrogen-bonding structure on interfacial phase or in confined environment have drawn wide attentions. However, these unique properties of water are only found within the interfacial phase and confined environment, thus, their applications are limited. In addition, quantitative evaluation on these unique properties associating with the enhancement of water's physical and chemical activities represents a notable challenge. Here we report a practicable production of free-standing liquid water at room temperature with weak hydrogen-bonded structure naming Au nanoparticles (NPs)-treated (AuNT) water via treating by plasmon-induced hot electron transfer occurred on resonantly illuminated gold NPs (AuNPs). Compared to well-known untreated bulk water (deionized water), the prepared AuNT water exhibits many distinct activities in generally physical and chemical reactions, such as high solubilities to NaCl and O2. Also, reducing interaction energy within water molecules provides lower overpotential and higher efficiency in electrolytic hydrogen production. In addition, these enhanced catalytic activities of AuNT water are tunable by mixing with deionized water. Also, most of these tunable activities are linearly proportional to its degree of nonhydrogen-bonded structure (DNHBS), which is derived from the O-H stretching in deconvoluted Raman spectrum.

  16. Antimicrobial activity, structural evaluation and vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) study of pyrrole containing vinyl derivatives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, R. N.; Rawat, Poonam; Sahu, Sangeeta; Kumar, Yashvinder

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present structural and vibrational study of three vinylpyrrole derivatives: 2-Cyano-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-acrylamide (CPA), 1-(1H-Pyrrol-2-yl)-Pent-1-en-3-one (PP) and 1-(1H-Pyrrol-2-yl)-but-1-en-3-one (PB), using ab initio, DFT and experimental approaches. The quantum chemical calculation have been performed on B3LYP method and 6-311 + G(d,p) basis set. The experimental FT-IR and Raman wavenumbers were compared with the respective theoretical values obtained from DFT calculations and found to agree well. The experimental FT-IR and Raman study clearly indicate that the compound exist as dimer in solid state. The binding energies of (CPA), (PP) and (PB) dimers are found to be 20.95, 18.75 and 19.18 kcal/mol, respectively. The vibrational analysis shows red shifts in vN-H and vCdbnd O stretching as result of dimer formation. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. Topological and energetic parameters reveal the nature of interactions in dimer. The local electronic descriptors analyses were used to predict the reactive sites in the molecule. Calculated first static hyperpolarizability of CPA, PP and PB is found to be 10.41 × 10- 30, 18.93 × 10- 30, 18.29 × 10- 30 esu, respectively, shows that investigated molecules will have non-linear optical response and might be used as non-linear optical (NLO) material. These vinylpyrrole compounds (CPA), (PP) and (PB) showed antifungal and antibacterial activity against Aspergillus niger and gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtili.

  17. Antimicrobial activity, structural evaluation and vibrational (FT-IR and FT-Raman) study of pyrrole containing vinyl derivatives.

    PubMed

    Singh, R N; Rawat, Poonam; Sahu, Sangeeta; Kumar, Yashvinder

    2016-02-01

    In this paper we present structural and vibrational study of three vinylpyrrole derivatives: 2-Cyano-3-(1H-pyrrol-2-yl)-acrylamide (CPA), 1-(1H-Pyrrol-2-yl)-Pent-1-en-3-one (PP) and 1-(1H-Pyrrol-2-yl)-but-1-en-3-one (PB), using ab initio, DFT and experimental approaches. The quantum chemical calculation have been performed on B3LYP method and 6-311+G(d,p) basis set. The experimental FT-IR and Raman wavenumbers were compared with the respective theoretical values obtained from DFT calculations and found to agree well. The experimental FT-IR and Raman study clearly indicate that the compound exist as dimer in solid state. The binding energies of (CPA), (PP) and (PB) dimers are found to be 20.95, 18.75 and 19.18 kcal/mol, respectively. The vibrational analysis shows red shifts in v(N-H) and v(C=O) stretching as result of dimer formation. Stability of the molecule arising from hyperconjugative interactions and charge delocalization has been analyzed using NBO analysis. Topological and energetic parameters reveal the nature of interactions in dimer. The local electronic descriptors analyses were used to predict the reactive sites in the molecule. Calculated first static hyperpolarizability of CPA, PP and PB is found to be 10.41×10(-30), 18.93×10(-30), 18.29×10(-30) esu, respectively, shows that investigated molecules will have non-linear optical response and might be used as non-linear optical (NLO) material. These vinylpyrrole compounds (CPA), (PP) and (PB) showed antifungal and antibacterial activity against Aspergillus niger and gram-positive bacteria Bacillus subtili. PMID:26513227

  18. Soluble guanylate cyclase is activated differently by excess NO and by YC-1: Resonance Raman spectroscopic evidence†

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Derbyshire, Emily R.; Soldatova, Alexandra V.; Marletta, Michael A.; Spiro, Thomas G.

    2010-01-01

    Modulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activity by nitric oxide (NO) involves two distinct steps. Low level activation of sGC is achieved by the stoichiometric binding of NO (1-NO) to the heme cofactor, while much higher activation is achieved by the binding of additional NO (xsNO) at a non-heme site. Addition of the allosteric activator YC-1 to the 1-NO form leads to activity comparable to xsNO state. In this study the mechanisms of sGC activation were investigated using electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopic methods. RR spectroscopy confirmed that the 1-NO form contains 5-coordinate NO-heme and showed that the addition of NO to the 1-NO form has no significant effect on the spectrum. In contrast, addition of YC-1 to either the 1-NO or xsNO forms alters the RR spectrum significantly, indicating a protein-induced change in the heme geometry. This change in the heme geometry was also observed when BAY 41-2272 was added to the xsNO form. Bands assigned to bending and stretching motions of the vinyl and propionate substituents change intensity in a pattern suggesting altered tilting of the pyrrole rings to which they are attached. In addition, the N-O stretching frequency increases, with no change in the Fe-NO frequency, an effect modeled via DFT calculations as resulting from a small opening of the Fe-N-O angle. These spectral differences demonstrate different mechanisms of activation by synthetic activators, such as YC-1 and BAY 41-2272, and excess NO. PMID:20459051

  19. Soluble guanylate cyclase is activated differently by excess NO and by YC-1: resonance Raman spectroscopic evidence.

    PubMed

    Ibrahim, Mohammed; Derbyshire, Emily R; Soldatova, Alexandra V; Marletta, Michael A; Spiro, Thomas G

    2010-06-15

    Modulation of soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) activity by nitric oxide (NO) involves two distinct steps. Low-level activation of sGC is achieved by the stoichiometric binding of NO (1-NO) to the heme cofactor, while much higher activation is achieved by the binding of additional NO (xsNO) at a non-heme site. Addition of the allosteric activator YC-1 to the 1-NO form leads to activity comparable to that of the xsNO state. In this study, the mechanisms of sGC activation were investigated using electronic absorption and resonance Raman (RR) spectroscopic methods. RR spectroscopy confirmed that the 1-NO form contains five-coordinate NO-heme and showed that the addition of NO to the 1-NO form has no significant effect on the spectrum. In contrast, addition of YC-1 to either the 1-NO or xsNO forms alters the RR spectrum significantly, indicating a protein-induced change in the heme geometry. This change in the heme geometry was also observed when BAY 41-2272 was added to the xsNO form. Bands assigned to bending and stretching motions of the vinyl and propionate substituents undergo changes in intensity in a pattern suggesting altered tilting of the pyrrole rings to which they are attached. In addition, the N-O stretching frequency increases, with no change in the Fe-NO stretching frequency, an effect modeled via DFT calculations as resulting from a small opening of the Fe-N-O angle. These spectral differences demonstrate different mechanisms of activation by synthetic activators, such as YC-1 and BAY 41-2272, and excess NO. PMID:20459051

  20. Resonance Raman study of the active site of Coprinus cinereus peroxidase.

    PubMed

    Smulevich, G; Feis, A; Focardi, C; Tams, J; Welinder, K G

    1994-12-27

    Resonance Raman (RR) spectra for the resting state ferric and the reduced ferrous forms of recombinant Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP), obtained with different excitation wavelengths and in polarized light, are reported. The spectra are compared with those obtained previously for cytochrome c peroxidase expressed in Escherichia coli [(CCP(MI)] and horseradish peroxidase (HRP-C). Although the enzymic properties of CIP and HRP-C are similar, the RR data show that, in terms of the heme cavity structures, CIP and CCP(MI) are much more closely related to each other than to HRP-C. The ferric state of CIP at neutral pH is characteristic mainly of a five-coordinate high spin heme. However, the lower frequency of the v2 mode and a higher frequency of the v(C = C) vinyl stretching modes for CIP as compared to CCP, indicate a higher degree of vibrational coupling between the two modes in CIP. In addition, CIP is rather unstable under low laser power irradiation as an irreversible transition to a six-coordinate high spin heme followed by a second transition to a six-coordinate low spin heme is observed. This instability of CIP as compared to CCP(MI) is proposed to be a consequence of the presence of a distal Phe54 in CIP rather than the homologous Trp51 in CCP, as Trp51 is hydrogen-bonded to a distal water molecule located above the heme Fe thereby preventing its coordination in CCP. In CIP the FeII-His RR band has two components with frequencies at 230 and 211 cm-1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  1. Stimulated Raman X waves in ultrashort optical pulse filamentation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faccio, Daniele; Averchi, Alessandro; Dubietis, Audrius; Polesana, Paolo; Piskarskas, Algis; di Trapani, Paolo; Couairon, Arnaud

    2007-01-01

    We demonstrate that ultrashort pulse filamentation in liquids with strong Raman gain leads to the spontaneous formation of nonlinear X waves at a Raman-shifted wavelength. We measured as much as 75% energy conversion efficiency into a Raman X wave in ethanol starting from 1ps pulses due to the group velocity matching between the pump and Raman X pulses. Large Raman gain of a weak seed signal was observed in water, associated with a strong spatiotemporal transformation of the seed into an X wave.

  2. Vibrational imaging of glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Fanghao; Chen, Zhixing; Zhang, Luyuan; Shen, Yihui; Wei, Lu; Min, Wei

    2016-03-01

    Glucose is consumed as an energy source by virtually all living organisms, from bacteria to humans. Its uptake activity closely reflects the cellular metabolic status in various pathophysiological transformations, such as diabetes and cancer. Extensive efforts such as positron emission tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and fluorescence microscopy have been made to specifically image glucose uptake activity but all with technical limitations. Here, we report a new platform to visualize glucose uptake activity in live cells and tissues with subcellular resolution and minimal perturbation. A novel glucose analogue with a small alkyne tag (carbon-carbon triple bond) is developed to mimic natural glucose for cellular uptake, which can be imaged with high sensitivity and specificity by targeting the strong and characteristic alkyne vibration on stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscope to generate a quantitative three dimensional concentration map. Cancer cells with differing metabolic characteristics can be distinguished. Heterogeneous uptake patterns are observed in tumor xenograft tissues, neuronal culture and mouse brain tissues with clear cell-cell variations. Therefore, by offering the distinct advantage of optical resolution but without the undesirable influence of bulky fluorophores, our method of coupling SRS with alkyne labeled glucose will be an attractive tool to study energy demands of living systems at the single cell level.

  3. [Laser Raman spectrum analysis of carbendazim pesticide].

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiao-bin; Wu, Rui-mei; Liu, Mu-hua; Zhang, Lu-ling; Lin, Lei; Yan, Lin-yuan

    2014-06-01

    Raman signal of solid and liquid carbendazim pesticide was collected by laser Raman spectrometer. The acquired Raman spectrum signal of solid carbendazim was preprocessed by wavelet analysis method, and the optimal combination of wavelet denoising parameter was selected through mixed orthogonal test. The results showed that the best effect was got with signal to noise ratio (SNR) being 62.483 when db2 wavelet function was used, decomposition level was 2, the threshold option scheme was 'rigisure' and reset mode was 'sln'. According to the vibration mode of different functional groups, the de-noised Raman bands could be divided into 3 areas: 1 400-2 000, 700-1 400 and 200-700 cm(-1). And the de-noised Raman bands were assigned with and analyzed. The characteristic vibrational modes were gained in different ranges of wavenumbers. Strong Raman signals were observed in the Raman spectrum at 619, 725, 964, 1 022, 1 265, 1 274 and 1 478 cm(-1), respectively. These characteristic vibrational modes are characteristic Raman peaks of solid carbendazim pesticide. Find characteristic Raman peaks at 629, 727, 1 001, 1 219, 1 258 and 1 365 cm(-1) in Raman spectrum signal of liquid carbendazim. These characteristic peaks were basically tallies with the solid carbendazim. The results can provide basis for the rapid screening of pesticide residue in food and agricultural products based on Raman spectrum.

  4. Replacing Non-Active Video Gaming by Active Video Gaming to Prevent Excessive Weight Gain in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Simons, Monique; Brug, Johannes; Chinapaw, Mai J. M.; de Boer, Michiel; Seidell, Jaap; de Vet, Emely

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of the current study was to evaluate the effects of and adherence to an active video game promotion intervention on anthropometrics, sedentary screen time and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks among non-active video gaming adolescents who primarily were of healthy weight. Methods We assigned 270 gaming (i.e. ≥2 hours/week non-active video game time) adolescents randomly to an intervention group (n = 140) (receiving active video games and encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (n = 130). BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds were measured at baseline, at four and ten months follow-up (primary outcomes). Sedentary screen time, physical activity, consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and snacks, and process measures (not at baseline) were assessed with self-reports at baseline, one, four and ten months follow-up. Multi-level-intention to treat-regression analyses were conducted. Results The control group decreased significantly more than the intervention group on BMI-SDS (β = 0.074, 95%CI: 0.008;0.14), and sum of skinfolds (β = 3.22, 95%CI: 0.27;6.17) (overall effects). The intervention group had a significantly higher decrease in self-reported non-active video game time (β = -1.76, 95%CI: -3.20;-0.32) and total sedentary screen time (Exp (β = 0.81, 95%CI: 0.74;0.88) than the control group (overall effects). The process evaluation showed that 14% of the adolescents played the Move video games every week ≥1 hour/week during the whole intervention period. Conclusions The active video game intervention did not result in lower values on anthropometrics in a group of ‘excessive’ non-active video gamers (mean ~ 14 hours/week) who primarily were of healthy weight compared to a control group throughout a ten-month-period. Even some effects in the unexpected direction were found, with the control group showing lower BMI

  5. Multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy study of supported vanadia catalysts: Structure identification and quantification

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, Zili

    2014-10-20

    Revealing the structure of supported metal oxide catalysts is a prerequisite for establishing the structure - catalysis relationship. Among a variety of characterization techniques, multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy, combining resonance Raman and non-resonance Raman with different excitation wavelengths, has recently emerged as a particularly powerful tool in not only identifying but also quantifying the structure of supported metal oxide clusters. In our review, we make use of two supported vanadia systems, VOx/SiO2 and VOx/CeO2, as examples to showcase how one can employ this technique to investigate the heterogeneous structure of active oxide clusters and to understand the complex interaction between the oxide clusters and the support. Moreover, the qualitative and quantitative structural information gained from the multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy can be utilized to provide fundamental insights for designing more efficient supported metal oxide catalysts.

  6. Multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy study of supported vanadia catalysts: Structure identification and quantification

    DOE PAGES

    Wu, Zili

    2014-10-20

    Revealing the structure of supported metal oxide catalysts is a prerequisite for establishing the structure - catalysis relationship. Among a variety of characterization techniques, multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy, combining resonance Raman and non-resonance Raman with different excitation wavelengths, has recently emerged as a particularly powerful tool in not only identifying but also quantifying the structure of supported metal oxide clusters. In our review, we make use of two supported vanadia systems, VOx/SiO2 and VOx/CeO2, as examples to showcase how one can employ this technique to investigate the heterogeneous structure of active oxide clusters and to understand the complex interaction between themore » oxide clusters and the support. Moreover, the qualitative and quantitative structural information gained from the multi-wavelength Raman spectroscopy can be utilized to provide fundamental insights for designing more efficient supported metal oxide catalysts.« less

  7. Raman Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stewart, Shona; Priore, Ryan J.; Nelson, Matthew P.; Treado, Patrick J.

    2012-07-01

    The past decade has seen an enormous increase in the number and breadth of imaging techniques developed for analysis in many industries, including pharmaceuticals, food, and especially biomedicine. Rather than accept single-dimensional forms of information, users now demand multidimensional assessment of samples. High specificity and the need for little or no sample preparation make Raman imaging a highly attractive analytical technique and provide motivation for continuing advances in its supporting technology and utilization. This review discusses the current tools employed in Raman imaging, the recent advances, and the major applications in this ever-growing analytical field.

  8. Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy-active substrates: adapting the shape of plasmonic nanoparticles for different biological applications.

    PubMed

    Vitol, Elina A; Friedman, Gary; Gogotsi, Yury

    2014-04-01

    We discuss the relationship between the shape of plasmonic nanoparticles and the biological surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) applications which they can enable. As a step forward in developing SERS-active substrates adapted to a particular application, we demonstrate that a modification of the widely used protocol for the sodium citrate mediated reduction of chloroauric acid, which is typically employed only for obtaining spherical gold nanoparticles, can yield flat polygonal nanoparticles at room temperature and a decreased amount of the reducing agent. The significant advantage of the described approach is that it allows for synthesis of nanoparticles with different geometries using a well-established synthesis protocol without the need for any additional chemicals or special synthesis apparatus. By contrasting spherical and anisotropically shaped nanoparticles, we demonstrate that multifaceted nanoparticles with sharp edges are better suitable for SERS analysis of low concentration analytes requiring strong SERS enhancement. On the other hand, gold nanoparticles with isotropic shapes, while giving a smaller enhancement, can provide a more reproducible SERS signal. This is important for analytical applications of complex biological systems where large SERS enhancement may not always be required, whereas data reproducibility and minimal false positive rate are imperative. Using a SERS-active substrate comprising isotropically shaped gold nanoparticles, we demonstrate the differences between Gram-negative (E. coli) and Gram-positive (S. aureus) bacteria, attributable to the outer membrane and peptidoglycan layer, with the level of detail which has not been previously reported with optical spectroscopic techniques. PMID:24734732

  9. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active Au/TiO{sub 2} films prepared by electrochemical and photochemical methods

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Kuang-Hsuan; Chang, Chia-Ming

    2013-02-15

    Graphical abstract: In the presence of TiO{sub 2} NPs before the ORCs the optimal wavelength of UV light resulting in the strongest SERS effect being 310 nm. Display Omitted Highlights: ► SERS-active Au/TiO{sub 2} prepared by electrochemical and photochemical methods. ► UV light of 310 nm is suitable for obtaining Au/TiO{sub 2} with strong SERS effect. ► Presence of TiO{sub 2} before ORCs is responsible for obtaining SERS-active Au/TiO{sub 2}. -- Abstract: In this work, we report a new strategy for the preparation of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active Au/TiO{sub 2}(P25) nanocomposites (NCs), using electrochemical and photochemical methods. First, Au substrates were subjected to electrochemical oxidation–reduction cycles (ORCs) in a deoxygenated aqueous solution containing 0.1 M HCl and 1 mM TiO{sub 2}. After the ORC treatment AuCl{sub 4}{sup −}-adsorbed TiO{sub 2} complexes were produced in the solution. These complex-containing substrates were then irradiated with UV light at 310 nm to synthesize Au/TiO{sub 2} NCs with strong SERS activities for probe molecules of rhodamine 6G (R6G) and conductive polymers of polypyrrole (PPy). Experimental results indicated that the wavelength of UV light and the presence of TiO{sub 2} before and after the ORC procedure during the preparation process both affected the resulting SERS activities.

  10. Activity-dependent potentiation of recurrent inhibition: a mechanism for dynamic gain control in the siphon withdrawal reflex of Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Fischer, T M; Carew, T J

    1993-03-01

    The siphon withdrawal response (SWR) of Aplysia supports several forms of learning that are under both excitatory and inhibitory control. Here we examine the role of interneuronal processing on the regulation of siphon responses, with an emphasis on the role of inhibition. We focus on the recurrent circuit formed by the excitatory interneuron L29 and the inhibitory interneuron L30, and show that this circuit provides a mechanism for use-dependent regulation of excitatory input onto siphon motor neurons. We utilized a reduced preparation in which input to the SWR circuit was elicited by taps applied to the siphon; tap-evoked EPSPs were measured in LFS siphon motor neurons. We first show that L29 is an important source of excitatory input to LFS motor neurons: voltage-clamp inactivation of a single L29 (out of five) results in a significant reduction of tap-evoked EPSPs. Next, we demonstrate that direct intracellular activation of L29, surprisingly, produces transient inhibition of evoked input to motor neurons that lasts up to 40 sec. We then provide several lines of evidence that the mechanism of L29-induced inhibition is through the recruitment and potentiation of recurrent inhibition from L30: (1) L29 activation results in reduced tap-evoked responses of other (nonactivated) L29s; (2) direct activation of L30 mimics the inhibitory effects produced by L29 activation (LFS neurons receive no direct synaptic input from L30); and (3) the L30 IPSP is significantly potentiated as a result of its own activity, whether produced directly (by L30 activation) or indirectly (through L29 activation). This IPSP potentiation has the same time course as L29-induced inhibition of motor neuron responses. Thus activity-dependent potentiation of L30 transmission can inhibit motor neuron responses, in part through inactivation of the L29 interneuronal pool. Finally, we propose that L29-L30 interactions provide a mechanism for dynamic gain control in the SWR.

  11. Stimulated Raman amplification, oscillation, and linewidth in barium nitrate

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCray, Christopher J.; Chyba, Thomas H.

    1998-01-01

    Measurements of Raman gain in a Ba(NO3)2 crystal are reported at 532 nm using a Raman oscillator/amplifier arrangement for differential absorption lidar measurements of ozone. The experimentally determined gain coefficient will be compared with theoretical results. The effect of single and multi-longitudinal mode pumping upon the amplification process will be discussed. Measurement of the Raman linewidth for 1st 2nd and 3d stokes shifts arc presented.

  12. A Time-Encoded Technique for fibre-based hyperspectral broadband stimulated Raman microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Karpf, Sebastian; Eibl, Matthias; Wieser, Wolfgang; Klein, Thomas; Huber, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Raman sensing and microscopy are among the most specific optical technologies to identify the chemical compounds of unknown samples, and to enable label-free biomedical imaging. Here we present a method for stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopy and imaging with a time-encoded (TICO) Raman concept. We use continuous wave, rapidly wavelength-swept probe lasers and combine them with a short-duty-cycle actively modulated pump laser. Hence, we achieve high stimulated Raman gain signal levels, while still benefitting from the narrow linewidth and low noise of continuous wave operation. Our all-fibre TICO-Raman setup uses a Fourier domain mode-locked laser source to achieve a unique combination of high speed, broad spectral coverage (750–3,150 cm−1) and high resolution (0.5 cm−1). The Raman information is directly encoded and acquired in time. We demonstrate quantitative chemical analysis of a solvent mixture and hyperspectral Raman microscopy with molecular contrast of plant cells. PMID:25881792

  13. A Time-Encoded Technique for fibre-based hyperspectral broadband stimulated Raman microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpf, Sebastian; Eibl, Matthias; Wieser, Wolfgang; Klein, Thomas; Huber, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Raman sensing and microscopy are among the most specific optical technologies to identify the chemical compounds of unknown samples, and to enable label-free biomedical imaging. Here we present a method for stimulated Raman scattering spectroscopy and imaging with a time-encoded (TICO) Raman concept. We use continuous wave, rapidly wavelength-swept probe lasers and combine them with a short-duty-cycle actively modulated pump laser. Hence, we achieve high stimulated Raman gain signal levels, while still benefitting from the narrow linewidth and low noise of continuous wave operation. Our all-fibre TICO-Raman setup uses a Fourier domain mode-locked laser source to achieve a unique combination of high speed, broad spectral coverage (750-3,150 cm-1) and high resolution (0.5 cm-1). The Raman information is directly encoded and acquired in time. We demonstrate quantitative chemical analysis of a solvent mixture and hyperspectral Raman microscopy with molecular contrast of plant cells.

  14. Gain-of-Function Mutations in Tnsc, an Atp-Dependent Transposition Protein That Activates the Bacterial Transposon Tn7

    PubMed Central

    Stellwagen, A. E.; Craig, N. L.

    1997-01-01

    The bacterial transposon Tn7 encodes five genes whose protein products are used in different combinations to direct transposition to different types of target sites. TnsABC+D directs transposition to a specific site in the Escherichia coli chromosome called attTn7, whereas TnsABC+E directs transposition to non-attTn7 sites. These transposition reactions can also recognize and avoid ``immune'' targets that already contain a copy of Tn7. TnsD and TnsE are required to activate TnsABC as well as to select a target site; no transposition occurs with wild-type TnsABC alone. Here, we describe the isolation of TnsC gain-of-function mutants that activate the TnsA+B transposase in the absence of TnsD or TnsE. Some of these TnsC mutants enable the TnsABC machinery to execute transposition without sacrificing its ability to discriminate between different types of targets. Other TnsC mutants appear to constitutively activate the TnsABC machinery so that it bypasses target signals. We also present experiments that suggest that target selection occurs early in the Tn7 transposition pathway in vivo: favorable attTn7 targets appear to promote the excision of Tn7 from the chromosome, whereas immune targets do not allow transposon excision to occur. This work supports the view that TnsC plays a central role in the evaluation and utilization of target DNAs. PMID:9055068

  15. Gain-of-function STAT1 mutations impair STAT3 activity in patients with chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC).

    PubMed

    Zheng, Jie; van de Veerdonk, Frank L; Crossland, Katherine L; Smeekens, Sanne P; Chan, Chun M; Al Shehri, Tariq; Abinun, Mario; Gennery, Andrew R; Mann, Jelena; Lendrem, Dennis W; Netea, Mihai G; Rowan, Andrew D; Lilic, Desa

    2015-10-01

    Signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) triggered production of Th-17 cytokines mediates protective immunity against fungi. Mutations affecting the STAT3/interleukin 17 (IL-17) pathway cause selective susceptibility to fungal (Candida) infections, a hallmark of chronic mucocutaneous candidiasis (CMC). In patients with autosomal dominant CMC, we and others previously reported defective Th17 responses and underlying gain-of-function (GOF) STAT1 mutations, but how this affects STAT3 function leading to decreased IL-17 is unclear. We also assessed how GOF-STAT1 mutations affect STAT3 activation, DNA binding, gene expression, cytokine production, and epigenetic modifications. We excluded impaired STAT3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and sequestration of STAT3 into STAT1/STAT3 heterodimers and confirm significantly reduced transcription of STAT3-inducible genes (RORC/IL-17/IL-22/IL-10/c-Fos/SOCS3/c-Myc) as likely underlying mechanism. STAT binding to the high affinity sis-inducible element was intact but binding to an endogenous STAT3 DNA target was impaired. Reduced STAT3-dependent gene transcription was reversed by inhibiting STAT1 activation with fludarabine or enhancing histone, but not STAT1 or STAT3 acetylation with histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitors trichostatin A or ITF2357. Silencing HDAC1, HDAC2, and HDAC3 indicated a role for HDAC1 and 2. Reduced STAT3-dependent gene transcription underlies low Th-17 responses in GOF-STAT1 CMC, which can be reversed by inhibiting acetylation, offering novel targets for future therapies.

  16. Allele-specific silencing of mutant p53 attenuates dominant-negative and gain-of-function activities

    PubMed Central

    Iyer, Swathi V.; Parrales, Alejandro; Begani, Priya; Narkar, Akshay; Adhikari, Amit S.; Martinez, Luis A.; Iwakuma, Tomoo

    2016-01-01

    Many p53 hotspot mutants not only lose the transcriptional activity, but also show dominant-negative (DN) and oncogenic gain-of-function (GOF) activities. Increasing evidence indicates that knockdown of mutant p53 (mutp53) in cancer cells reduces their aggressive properties, suggesting that survival and proliferation of cancer cells are, at least partially, dependent on the presence of mutp53. However, these p53 siRNAs can downregulate both wild-type p53 (wtp53) and mutp53, which limits their therapeutic applications. In order to specifically deplete mutp53, we have developed allele-specific siRNAs against p53 hotspot mutants and validated their biological effects in the absence or presence of wtp53. First, the mutp53-specific siRNAs selectively reduced protein levels of matched p53 mutants with minimal reduction in wtp53 levels. Second, downregulation of mutp53 in cancer cells expressing a mutp53 alone (p53mut) resulted in significantly decreased cell proliferation and migration. Third, transfection of mutp53-specific siRNAs in cancer cells expressing both wtp53 and mutp53 also reduced cell proliferation and migration with increased transcripts of p53 downstream target genes, which became further profound when cells were treated with an MDM2 inhibitor Nutlin-3a or a chemotherapeutic agent doxorubicin. These results indicate that depletion of mutp53 by its specific siRNA restored endogenous wtp53 activity in cells expressing both wtp53 and mutp53. This is the first study demonstrating biological effects and therapeutic potential of allele-specific silencing of mutp53 by mutp53-specific siRNAs in cancer cells expressing both wtp53 and mutp53, thus providing a novel strategy towards targeted cancer therapies. PMID:26700961

  17. Chiral sensing of amino acids and proteins chelating with Eu(III) complexes by Raman optical activity spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Wu, Tao; Kessler, Jiří; Bouř, Petr

    2016-09-14

    Chiroptical spectroscopy of lanthanides sensitively reflects their environment and finds various applications including probing protein structures. However, the measurement is often hampered by instrumental detection limits. In the present study circularly polarized luminescence (CPL) of a europium complex induced by amino acids is monitored by Raman optical activity (ROA) spectroscopy, which enables us to detect weak CPL bands invisible to conventional CPL spectrometers. In detail, the spectroscopic response to the protonation state could be studied, e.g. histidine at pH = 2 showed an opposite sign of the strongest CPL band in contrast to that at pH = 7. The spectra were interpreted qualitatively on the basis of the ligand-field theory and related to CPL induced by an external magnetic field. Free energy profiles obtained by molecular dynamic simulations for differently charged alanine and histidine forms are in qualitative agreement with the spectroscopic data. The sensitivity and specificity of the detection promise future applications in probing peptide and protein side chains, chemical imaging and medical diagnosis. This potential is observed for human milk and hen egg-white lysozymes; these proteins have a similar structure, but very different induced CPL spectra. PMID:27523964

  18. Indirect flat-panel detector with avalanche gain: Fundamental feasibility investigation for SHARP-AMFPI (scintillator HARP active matrix flat panel imager)

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Wei; Li Dan; Reznik, Alla; Lui, B.J.M.; Hunt, D.C.; Rowlands, J.A.; Ohkawa, Yuji; Tanioka, Kenkichi

    2005-09-15

    An indirect flat-panel imager (FPI) with avalanche gain is being investigated for low-dose x-ray imaging. It is made by optically coupling a structured x-ray scintillator CsI(Tl) to an amorphous selenium (a-Se) avalanche photoconductor called HARP (high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor). The final electronic image is read out using an active matrix array of thin film transistors (TFT). We call the proposed detector SHARP-AMFPI (scintillator HARP active matrix flat panel imager). The advantage of the SHARP-AMFPI is its programmable gain, which can be turned on during low dose fluoroscopy to overcome electronic noise, and turned off during high dose radiography to avoid pixel saturation. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the important design considerations for SHARP-AMFPI such as avalanche gain, which depends on both the thickness d{sub Se} and the applied electric field E{sub Se} of the HARP layer. To determine the optimal design parameter and operational conditions for HARP, we measured the E{sub Se} dependence of both avalanche gain and optical quantum efficiency of an 8 {mu}m HARP layer. The results were used in a physical model of HARP as well as a linear cascaded model of the FPI to determine the following x-ray imaging properties in both the avalanche and nonavalanche modes as a function of E{sub Se}: (1) total gain (which is the product of avalanche gain and optical quantum efficiency); (2) linearity; (3) dynamic range; (4) gain nonuniformity resulting from thickness nonuniformity; and (5) effects of direct x-ray interaction in HARP. Our results showed that a HARP layer thickness of 8 {mu}m can provide adequate avalanche gain and sufficient dynamic range for x-ray imaging applications to permit quantum limited operation over the range of exposures needed for radiography and fluoroscopy.

  19. Different effects of bifeprunox, aripiprazole, and haloperidol on body weight gain, food and water intake, and locomotor activity in rats.

    PubMed

    De Santis, Michael; Pan, Bo; Lian, Jiamei; Huang, Xu-Feng; Deng, Chao

    2014-09-01

    Following on the success of Aripiprazole with its high clinical efficacy and minimal side effects, further antipsychotic drugs (such as Bifeprunox) have been developed based on the same dopamine D2 partial agonist pharmacological profile as Aripiprazole. However clinical trials of Bifeprunox have found differing results to that of its predecessor, without the same significant clinical efficacy. This study has therefore investigated the different effects of 10 week treatment with Aripiprazole (0.75 mg/kg, 3 times per day), Bifeprunox (0.8 mg/kg, 3 times per day) and Haloperidol (0.1mg/kg, 3 times per day) on body weight gain, food and water intake, white fat mass, and 8 week treatment on locomotor activity. Treatment with Bifeprunox was found to significantly reduce all of the measured parameters except white fat mass compared to the control group. However, Aripiprazole and Haloperidol treatment reduced water intake compared to the control, without any significant effects on the other measured parameters. These findings further demonstrate the potential pharmacological differences between Aripiprazole and Bifeprunox, and identify potential weight loss side effects and increased anxiety behaviour with Bifeprunox treatment.

  20. A new non-invasive, quantitative Raman technique for the determination of an active ingredient in pharmaceutical liquids by direct measurement through a plastic bottle.

    PubMed

    Kim, Minjung; Chung, Hoeil; Woo, Youngah; Kemper, Mark S

    2007-03-28

    The concentration of an active pharmaceutical ingredient (povidone) in a commercial eyewash solution has been measured directly through a plastic (low-density polyethylene: LDPE) container using a wide area illumination (WAI) Raman scheme. The WAI scheme allows excitation using a 6mm laser spot (focal length: 248 mm) that is designed to cover a wide sample area. As a result, it has the potential to improve the reliability Raman measurements by significantly enhancing representative sample interrogation, thus improving the reproducibility of sampling. It also decreases the sensitivity of sample placement with regard to the excitation focal plane. Simultaneously, isobutyric anhydride was placed in front of the bottles to use for a synchronous external standard configuration. This helps to correct the problematic variation of Raman intensity from the inherent fluctuation in laser power. Using the WAI Raman scheme combined with the synchronous standard method, the povidone concentration was successfully measured with spectral collection that was performed through a plastic barrier. The conventional Raman scheme was difficult to employ for the same purpose because of the degraded spectral reproducibility resulting from the smaller laser illumination area and the sensitivity of such an approach to the position of the sample bottle. The result from this study suggests that the WAI scheme exhibits a strong potential for the non-destructive quantitative analysis of pharmaceuticals measured directly in plastic containers. Preliminary work also shows that similar measurements can also be made in glass bottles. If implemented, this technique could be utilized as a simple and rugged method for quality assurance of final products in a manner consistent with Process analytical technology (PAT) requirements.

  1. Models for coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering in Raman devices and in spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vermeulen, Nathalie; Debaes, Christof; Thienpont, Hugo

    2010-06-01

    We present our latest findings on the nature and behavior of CARS in active Raman devices, such as Raman converters and Raman lasers, which operate at exact Raman resonance. We demonstrate that the CARS mechanism in these devices actually comprises two opposite and competing interactions, which respectively create and annihilate phonons in the Raman-active medium. Furthermore, we show that both the phase mismatch of the CARS process and the level of pump depletion determine which of these two interactions takes place along the fields' propagation path in the Raman devices. Finally, we compare this CARS model with the model used by the CARS spectroscopy community, and explain that the difference between both models is mainly due to the fact that "CARS" in the context of Raman devices refers to Ramanresonant four-wave mixing, whereas "CARS" in the context of spectroscopy often denotes a two-step Raman interaction.

  2. Operando and in situ Raman studies of alumina-supported vanadium phosphate catalysts in propane ammoxidation reaction: activity, selectivity and active phase formation.

    PubMed

    Mikolajska, Ewelina; Rasmussen, Søren B; Lewandowska, Anna E; Bañares, Miguel A

    2012-02-21

    Alumina-supported VPO materials are efficient catalysts for acrylonitrile production by the propane ammoxidation reaction. In order to understand the structure-activity relationship and the nature of active sites, operando Raman-GC analyses follow the states of vanadium and phosphorous species on an alumina support during ammoxidation. These oxides were supported on γ-alumina by incipient wetness impregnation at a total V + P loading of two monolayers, which led to incipient formation of nanoscaled VPO crystallites possessing a high surface-to-volume ratio. Since catalysis occurs at the catalyst surface, which is related to the surface and outermost layers, this approach allows studying surface species phase transformations near the surface, and relates changes in activity and selectivity to variations in composition and structure. Dispersed surface V(5+) species appear selective to acetonitrile and V(4+) species would promote selectivity to acrylonitrile. This study suggests that V(3+) is probably involved in redox processes during propane ammoxidation and that the balance between these vanadium species would be determined by activation process. PMID:21993840

  3. Multistaged stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1980-01-01

    A multistaged Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier for providing a high gain Stokes output signal. The amplifier uses a plurality of optically coupled capillary waveguide amplifiers and one or more regenerative amplifiers to increase Stokes gain to a level sufficient for power amplification. Power amplification is provided by a multifocused Raman gain cell or a large diameter capillary waveguide. An external source of CO.sub.2 laser radiation can be injected into each of the capillary waveguide amplifier stages to increase Raman gain. Devices for injecting external sources of CO.sub.2 radiation include: dichroic mirrors, prisms, gratings and Ge Brewster plates. Alternatively, the CO.sub.2 input radiation to the first stage can be coupled and amplified between successive stages.

  4. Does Structured Quizzing with Process Specific Feedback Lead to Learning Gains in an Active Learning Geoscience Classroom?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palsole, S.; Serpa, L. F.

    2013-12-01

    There is a great realization that efficient teaching in the geosciences has the potential to have far reaching effects in outreach to decision and policy makers (Herbert, 2006; Manduca & Mogk, 2006). This research in turn informs educators that the geosciences by the virtue of their highly integrative nature play an important role in serving as an entry point into STEM disciplines and helping developing a new cadre of geoscientists, scientists and a general population with an understanding of science. Keeping these goals in mind we set to design introductory geoscience courses for non-majors and majors that move away from the traditional lecture models which don't necessarily contribute well to knowledge building and retention ((Handelsman et al., 2007; Hake, 1997) to a blended active learning classroom where basic concepts and didactic information is acquired online via webquests, lecturettes and virtual field trips and the face to face portions of the class are focused on problem solving exercises. The traditional way to ensure that students are prepared for the in-class activity is to have the students take a quiz online to demonstrate basic competency. In the process of redesign, we decided to leverage the technology to build quizzes that are highly structured and map to a process (formation of divergent boundaries for example) or sets of earth processes that we needed the students to know before in-class activities. The quizzes can be taken multiple times and provide process specific feedback, thus serving as a heuristic to the students to ensure they have acquired the necessary competency. The heuristic quizzes were developed and deployed over a year with the student data driving the redesign process to ensure synchronicity. Preliminary data analysis indicates a positive correlation between higher student scores on in-class application exercises and time spent on the process quizzes. An assessment of learning gains also indicate a higher degree of self

  5. Anti-Stokes generation in a continuous-wave Raman laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murphy, Sytil Kathleen

    The continuous-wave Raman laser system differs from other Raman systems in that it uses cavity enhancement to augment the pump laser source rather than a high-power pulsed laser source. Through interactions of the pump laser with the Raman active medium, all Raman systems can produce both red-shifted, Stokes, emission and blue-shifted, anti-Stokes, emission. Previous, continuous-wave Raman laser systems have focused on the Stokes emission. This dissertation presents theory and data on the anti-Stokes emission. Specifically, it investigates the anti-Stokes mode structure and the emitted power as a function of input pump power, detuning, pressure, and mode combination. In order to be able to compare theory to data, the existing semi-classical CW Raman laser theory is extended to include the possibility that the spatial mode of any of the three fields (pump, Stokes, or anti-Stokes) is not the fundamental spatial mode. Numerical simulations of this theory are used to understand the behavior of the CW Raman system. All the data is compared to the theory, with varying degrees of success. The pump laser used in this research is a frequency-doubled Nd:YAG at 532 nm and the Raman active medium is H2. This combination results in Stokes and anti-Stokes wavelengths of 683 nm and 435 nm, respectively. Five methods were found in this research for increasing the amount of anti-Stokes emitted: increasing the input pump power, detuning from gain line-center of the Stokes emission, increasing the reflectivity of the cavity mirrors at the anti-Stokes wavelength, switching to a higher-order spatial mode, and decreasing the H2 pressure within the Raman cavity. In general, it was found that the higher-order anti-Stokes modes did not agree with a single theoretical spatial mode. Superpositions were formed of multiple theoretical spatial modes giving intensity distribution across the profile similar to the measured profile. Three theoretical spatial mode symmetries were investigated

  6. A Newly Identified CG301269 Improves Lipid and Glucose Metabolism Without Body Weight Gain Through Activation of Peroxisome Proliferator–Activated Receptor α and γ

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyun Woo; Lee, Joo-Won; Kim, Woo Sik; Choe, Sung Sik; Kim, Kyung-Hee; Park, Ho Seon; Shin, Hyun Jung; Lee, Gha Young; Shin, Dongkyu; Lee, Hanjae; Lee, Jun Hee; Choi, Eun Bok; Lee, Hyeon Kyu; Chung, Heekyoung; Park, Seung Bum; Park, Kyong Soo; Kim, Hyo-Soo; Ro, Seonggu; Kim, Jae Bum

    2011-01-01

    OBJECTIVE Peroxisome proliferator–activated receptor (PPAR)-α/γ dual agonists have been developed to alleviate metabolic disorders. However, several PPARα/γ dual agonists are accompanied with unwanted side effects, including body weight gain, edema, and tissue failure. This study investigated the effects of a novel PPARα/γ dual agonist, CG301269, on metabolic disorders both in vitro and in vivo. RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Function of CG301269 as a PPARα/γ dual agonist was assessed in vitro by luciferase reporter assay, mammalian one-hybrid assay, and analyses of PPAR target genes. In vitro profiles on fatty acid oxidation and inflammatory responses were acquired by fatty acid oxidation assay and quantitative (q)RT-PCR of proinflammatory genes. In vivo effect of CG301269 was examined in db/db mice. Total body weight and various tissue weights were measured, and hepatic lipid profiles were analyzed. Systemic glucose and insulin tolerance were measured, and the in vivo effect of CG301269 on metabolic genes and proinflammatory genes was examined by qRT-PCR. RESULTS CG301269 selectively stimulated the transcriptional activities of PPARα and PPARγ. CG301269 enhanced fatty acid oxidation in vitro and ameliorated insulin resistance and hyperlipidemia in vivo. In db/db mice, CG301269 reduced inflammatory responses and fatty liver, without body weight gain. CONCLUSIONS We demonstrate that CG301269 exhibits beneficial effects on glucose and lipid metabolism by simultaneous activation of both PPARα and PPARγ. Our data suggest that CG301269 would be a potential lead compound against obesity and related metabolic disorders. PMID:21270261

  7. Multicolor stimulated Raman scattering microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Fa-Ke; Ji, Minbiao; Fu, Dan; Ni, Xiaohui; Freudiger, Christian W.; Holtom, Gary; Xie, X. Sunney

    2012-08-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) microscopy has opened up a wide range of biochemical imaging applications by probing a particular Raman-active molecule vibrational mode in the specimen. However, the original implementation with picosecond pulse excitation can only realize rapid chemical mapping with a single Raman band. Here we present a novel SRS microscopic technique using a grating-based pulse shaper for excitation and a grating-based spectrograph for detection to achieve simultaneous multicolor SRS imaging with high sensitivity and high acquisition speeds. In particular, we use a linear combination of the measured CH2 and CH3 stretching signals to map the distributions of protein and lipid contents simultaneously.

  8. PAPERS DEVOTED TO THE 90TH ANNIVERSARY OF A.M.PROKHOROV: Lasing properties of selectively pumped Raman-active Nd3+-doped molybdate and tungstate crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basiev, Tasoltan T.; Doroshenko, Maxim E.; Ivleva, Lyudmila I.; Osiko, Vyacheslav V.; Kosmyna, M. B.; Komar', V. K.; Sulc, J.; Jelinkova, H.

    2006-08-01

    The lasing efficiency of Nd3+ ions is studied in laser materials capable of self-Raman frequency conversion. The lasing properties of tungstate and molybdate crystals with the scheelite structure (SrWO4, BaWO4, PbWO4, SrMoO4, PbMoO4) activated with neodymium ions are investigated upon longitudinal pumping by a 750-nm alexandrite laser or a 800-nm diode laser. The slope lasing efficiency obtained for a Nd3+:PbMoO4 laser emitting at 1054 nm is 54.3% for the total lasing efficiency of 46%, which is the best result for all the crystals with the scheelite structure studied so far. The simultaneous Q-switched lasing and self-Raman frequency conversion were demonstrated in neodymium-doped SrWO4, PbWO4, and BaWO4 crystals.

  9. [Raman Lidar measuring tropospheric temperature profiles with many rotational Raman lines].

    PubMed

    Su, Jia; Zhang, Yin-chao; Hu, Shun-xing; Cao, Kai-fa; Zhao, Pei-tao; Wang, Shao-lin; Xie, Jun

    2008-08-01

    Due to lower tropospheric aerosols, the Rayleigh and vibrational Raman methods can't measure lower tropospheric temperature profiles accurately. By using N2 and O2 molecular pure rotational Raman scattering signals, lower tropospheric temperature profiles can be gained without influence of lower tropospheric aerosols. So we decide to use a pure rotational Raman Lidar to get lower tropospheric temperature profiles. At present, because the most light-splitting systems of pure rotational Raman Lidar measure temperature by gaining a single rotational Raman line, the signal to noise ratio (SNR) of these Lidar systems are very low. So we design a new kind of Lidar light-splitting system which can sum different rotational Raman lines and it can improve SNR And we can find the sensitivity of the temperature of the ratios of multi rotational Raman lines is as same as single rotational Raman line's through theoretical analysis. Moreover, we can obtain the temperature profiles with good SNR fromthis new the system with a normal laser and a small telescope up to several kilometers. At last, with the new light-splitting system, the lower tropospheric temperature profiles are measured from 0.3 km to 5 km altitude. They agree well with radiosonde observations, which demonstrate the results of our rotational Raman lidar are reasonable.

  10. Fast Vibrational Imaging of Single Cells and Tissues by Stimulated Raman Scattering Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Conspectus Traditionally, molecules are analyzed in a test tube. Taking biochemistry as an example, the majority of our knowledge about cellular content comes from analysis of fixed cells or tissue homogenates using tools such as immunoblotting and liquid chromatography–mass spectrometry. These tools can indicate the presence of molecules but do not provide information on their location or interaction with each other in real time, restricting our understanding of the functions of the molecule under study. For real-time imaging of labeled molecules in live cells, fluorescence microscopy is the tool of choice. Fluorescent labels, however, are too bulky for small molecules such as fatty acids, amino acids, and cholesterol. These challenges highlight a critical need for development of chemical imaging platforms that allow in situ or in vivo analysis of molecules. Vibrational spectroscopy based on spontaneous Raman scattering is widely used for label-free analysis of chemical content in cells and tissues. However, the Raman process is a weak effect, limiting its application for fast chemical imaging of a living system. With high imaging speed and 3D spatial resolution, coherent Raman scattering microscopy is enabling a new approach for real-time vibrational imaging of single cells in a living system. In most experiments, coherent Raman processes involve two excitation fields denoted as pump at ωp and Stokes at ωs. When the beating frequency between the pump and Stokes fields (ωp – ωs) is resonant with a Raman-active molecular vibration, four major coherent Raman scattering processes occur simultaneously, namely, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) at (ωp – ωs) + ωp, coherent Stokes Raman scattering (CSRS) at ωs – (ωp – ωs), stimulated Raman gain (SRG) at ωs, and stimulated Raman loss (SRL) at ωp. In SRG, the Stokes beam experiences a gain in intensity, whereas in SRL, the pump beam experiences a loss. Both SRG and SRL belong to

  11. Fast vibrational imaging of single cells and tissues by stimulated Raman scattering microscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Delong; Wang, Ping; Slipchenko, Mikhail N; Cheng, Ji-Xin

    2014-08-19

    Traditionally, molecules are analyzed in a test tube. Taking biochemistry as an example, the majority of our knowledge about cellular content comes from analysis of fixed cells or tissue homogenates using tools such as immunoblotting and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These tools can indicate the presence of molecules but do not provide information on their location or interaction with each other in real time, restricting our understanding of the functions of the molecule under study. For real-time imaging of labeled molecules in live cells, fluorescence microscopy is the tool of choice. Fluorescent labels, however, are too bulky for small molecules such as fatty acids, amino acids, and cholesterol. These challenges highlight a critical need for development of chemical imaging platforms that allow in situ or in vivo analysis of molecules. Vibrational spectroscopy based on spontaneous Raman scattering is widely used for label-free analysis of chemical content in cells and tissues. However, the Raman process is a weak effect, limiting its application for fast chemical imaging of a living system. With high imaging speed and 3D spatial resolution, coherent Raman scattering microscopy is enabling a new approach for real-time vibrational imaging of single cells in a living system. In most experiments, coherent Raman processes involve two excitation fields denoted as pump at ωp and Stokes at ωs. When the beating frequency between the pump and Stokes fields (ωp - ωs) is resonant with a Raman-active molecular vibration, four major coherent Raman scattering processes occur simultaneously, namely, coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) at (ωp - ωs) + ωp, coherent Stokes Raman scattering (CSRS) at ωs - (ωp - ωs), stimulated Raman gain (SRG) at ωs, and stimulated Raman loss (SRL) at ωp. In SRG, the Stokes beam experiences a gain in intensity, whereas in SRL, the pump beam experiences a loss. Both SRG and SRL belong to stimulated Raman scattering (SRS

  12. Net Gains

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fielker, David

    2008-01-01

    The Easter conference 2008 had several activities which for the author raised the same questions on cube nets in some work with eight-year-olds some time ago. In this article, the author muses on some problems from the Easter conference regarding nets of shapes. (Contains 1 note.)

  13. Bright emission from a random Raman laser

    PubMed Central

    Hokr, Brett H.; Bixler, Joel N.; Cone, Michael T.; Mason, John D.; Beier, Hope T.; Noojin, Gary D.; Petrov, Georgi I.; Golovan, Leonid A.; Thomas, Robert J.; Rockwell, Benjamin A.; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2014-01-01

    Random lasers are a developing class of light sources that utilize a highly disordered gain medium as opposed to a conventional optical cavity. Although traditional random lasers often have a relatively broad emission spectrum, a random laser that utilizes vibration transitions via Raman scattering allows for an extremely narrow bandwidth, on the order of 10 cm−1. Here we demonstrate the first experimental evidence of lasing via a Raman interaction in a bulk three-dimensional random medium, with conversion efficiencies on the order of a few percent. Furthermore, Monte Carlo simulations are used to study the complex spatial and temporal dynamics of nonlinear processes in turbid media. In addition to providing a large signal, characteristic of the Raman medium, the random Raman laser offers us an entirely new tool for studying the dynamics of gain in a turbid medium. PMID:25014073

  14. Engineering plasmonic nanoparticles for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkhasova, Polina

    This dissertation focuses on the development of novel nanotags encapsulated in an intricate Au-Ag nanostructure that uniquely functions both as a reporter and ultra-sensitive substrate for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) measurements. Hollow Au-Ag alloy nanoshells with a porous wall were synthesized by galvanic replacement reaction, and were subsequently loaded with Raman-active label molecules. The open structure of the nanoshells was filled with Ag via citrate reduction, entrapping label molecules in the process. The resultant nanotags have been shown to be individually SERS-active for the entrapped label molecules and robust for SERS measurements of analytes. We have shown that the SERS intensity of the molecular beacon is insensitive to environmental variants such as an external analyte 1,2-Di-(4-pyridyl)ethylene (BPE) and can be reliably used as an internal reference for quantitative measurements. Theoretical quantum chemical calculations and experimental studies revealed that surface-adsorbed poly(vinyl pyrrolidone) (PVP) used during nanotag formation which provides steric hindrance to promote colloidal stability actually enables highly selective SERS detection of analytes of various types and surface charge with enhancement factors as high as 108, depending on pH. Fully characterized nanotags were immobilized in the cladding air channels of suspended core photonic crystal fiber (PCF) to assess critical parameters such as nanoparticle coverage density and fiber length, both of which play an important role in the competitive interplay between accumulative Raman signal gain and attenuation loss, in order for the development of optimal SERS-active PCF optofluidic platform. We show that in the region where accumulative Raman gain dominates, the length of PCF can be exploited for enhanced measurement sensitivity.

  15. Evaluation of optoelectronic response and Raman active modes in Tb3+ and Eu3+-doped gadolinium oxide (Gd2O3) nanoparticle systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paul, Nibedita; Mohanta, D.

    2016-09-01

    Rare earth oxide (Tb3 + :Gd2O3 and Eu3 + :Gd2O3) nanophosphors are exploited through spectroscopic and microscopic tools with special emphasis on D- F mediated radiative emission and Raman active vibrational modes. Powder X-ray diffraction measurements have revealed cubic crystal structure of the nanosystems and with an average crystallite size varying between ~3.2 and 4.8 nm. Photoluminescence (PL) spectra of Tb3+ doped systems signify intense blue-green (~490 nm) and green (~544 nm) emissions mediated by 5 D 4 → 7 F 6 and 5 D 4 → 7 F 5 transitional events; respectively. In the PL responses of Eu3+ doped nanoparticle systems, we also identify magnetically-driven 5 D 0 → 7 F 1 (~591 nm) and electrically driven 5 D 0 → 7 F 2 (~619 nm) radiative features which seem to improve with increasing doping level. However, the magnitude of Judd-Ofelt (J-O) intensity parameters ( Ω 2, 4), is significantly lowered for the high doping cases. Raman spectra of the undoped and RE doped systems exhibited several Ag and Fg modes in the range of Raman shift ~100-600 cm-1. In the Raman spectra, the peaks located at ~355 cm-1 are assigned to the mixed mode of F g + A g, the line width of which was found to increase with RE doping. Moreover, owing to the enhanced defect concentration in the doped systems than its undoped counterpart, we anticipate a faster phonon relaxation and consequently, a suppression of phonon lifetime in the former case.

  16. Gain of function AMP-activated protein kinase γ3 mutation (AMPKγ3R200Q) in pig muscle increases glycogen storage regardless of AMPK activation.

    PubMed

    Scheffler, Tracy L; Park, Sungkwon; Roach, Peter J; Gerrard, David E

    2016-06-01

    Chronic activation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) increases glycogen content in skeletal muscle. Previously, we demonstrated that a mutation in the ryanodine receptor (RyR1(R615C)) blunts AMPK phosphorylation in longissimus muscle of pigs with a gain of function mutation in the AMPKγ3 subunit (AMPKγ3(R200Q)); this may decrease the glycogen storage capacity of AMPKγ3(R200Q) + RyR1(R615C) muscle. Therefore, our aim in this study was to utilize our pig model to understand how AMPKγ3(R200Q) and AMPK activation contribute to glycogen storage and metabolism in muscle. We selected and bred pigs in order to generate offspring with naturally occurring AMPKγ3(R200Q), RyR1(R615C), and AMPKγ3(R200Q) + RyR1(R615C) mutations, and also retained wild-type littermates (control). We assessed glycogen content and parameters of glycogen metabolism in longissimus muscle. Regardless of RyR1(R615C), AMPKγ3(R200Q) increased the glycogen content by approximately 70%. Activity of glycogen synthase (GS) without the allosteric activator glucose 6-phosphate (G6P) was decreased in AMPKγ3(R200Q) relative to all other genotypes, whereas both AMPKγ3(R200Q) and AMPKγ3(R200Q) + RyR1(R615C) muscle exhibited increased GS activity with G6P. Increased activity of GS with G6P was not associated with increased abundance of GS or hexokinase 2. However, AMPKγ3(R200Q) enhanced UDP-glucose pyrophosphorylase 2 (UGP2) expression approximately threefold. Although UGP2 is not generally considered a rate-limiting enzyme for glycogen synthesis, our model suggests that UGP2 plays an important role in increasing flux to glycogen synthase. Moreover, we have shown that the capacity for glycogen storage is more closely related to the AMPKγ3(R200Q) mutation than activity.

  17. Toward label-free Raman-activated cell sorting of cardiomyocytes derived from human embryonic stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pascut, Flavius C.; Goh, Huey T.; George, Vinoj; Denning, Chris; Notingher, Ioan

    2011-04-01

    Raman micro-spectroscopy (RMS) has been recently proposed for label-free phenotypic identification of human embryonic stem cells (hESC)-derived cardiomyocytes. However, the methods used for measuring the Raman spectra led to acquisition times of minutes per cell, which is prohibitive for rapid cell sorting applications. In this study we evaluated two measurement strategies that could reduce the measurement time by a factor of more than 100. We show that sampling individual cells with a laser beam focused to a line could eliminate the need of cell raster scanning and achieve high prediction accuracies (>95% specificity and >96% sensitivity) with acquisition times ~5 seconds per cell. However, the use of commercially-available higher power lasers could potentially lead to sorting speeds of ~10 cells per s. This would start to progress RMS to the field of cell sorting for applications such as enrichment and purification of hESC-derived cardiomyocytes.

  18. The orientation of protoberberine alkaloids and their binding activities to human serum albumin by surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yu; Bai, Xueyuan; Wang, Yingping; Zhao, Daqing

    2011-03-01

    Raman and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) technique are reliably used to compare relative intensity shifts and to investigate the adsorption geometry of protoberberine alkaloids on Ag nanoparticles. We report joint application of fluorescence and SERS spectroscopy to study the interaction between protoberberine alkaloids and human serum albumin (HSA). We propose SERS technique to improve the quenching interaction caused by protoberberine alkaloids which are used to be applied in recognition process of fluorescent drugs with large biomolecules. The fluorescence results show that the fluorescence intensity of HSA is significantly decreased in presence of protoberberine alkaloids. The SERS technique demonstrates obvious advantages over direct measurements in discriminating and identifying pharmaceutical molecules. By means of this method, we are able to detect important information concerning the orientation of protoberberine alkaloids when interacting with HSA. We also show that the nitrogen atom is free, but a benzene ring and two adjacent methoxy groups are involved in the spontaneously electrostatic inducement and subsequently binding with HSA.

  19. Activation of the prefrontal cortex by unilateral transcranial direct current stimulation leads to an asymmetrical effect on risk preference in frames of gain and loss.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hang; Huang, Daqiang; Wang, Siqi; Zheng, Haoli; Luo, Jun; Chen, Shu

    2016-10-01

    Previous brain imaging and brain stimulation studies have suggested that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be critical in regulating risk-taking behavior, although its specific causal effect on people's risk preference remains controversial. This paper studied the independent modulation of the activity of the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using various configurations of transcranial direct current stimulation. We designed a risk-measurement table and adopted a within-subject design to compare the same participant's risk preference before and after unilateral stimulation when presented with different frames of gain and loss. The results confirmed a hemispheric asymmetry and indicated that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has an asymmetric effect on risk preference regarding frames of gain and loss. Enhancing the activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex significantly decreased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the gain frame, whereas it increased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the loss frame. Our findings provide important information regarding the impact of transcranial direct current stimulation on the risk preference of healthy participants. The effects observed in our experiment compared with those of previous studies provide further evidence of the effects of hemispheric and frame-dependent asymmetry. These findings may be helpful in understanding the neural basis of risk preference in humans, especially when faced with decisions involving possible gain or loss relative to the status quo.

  20. Activation of the prefrontal cortex by unilateral transcranial direct current stimulation leads to an asymmetrical effect on risk preference in frames of gain and loss.

    PubMed

    Ye, Hang; Huang, Daqiang; Wang, Siqi; Zheng, Haoli; Luo, Jun; Chen, Shu

    2016-10-01

    Previous brain imaging and brain stimulation studies have suggested that the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex may be critical in regulating risk-taking behavior, although its specific causal effect on people's risk preference remains controversial. This paper studied the independent modulation of the activity of the right and left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex using various configurations of transcranial direct current stimulation. We designed a risk-measurement table and adopted a within-subject design to compare the same participant's risk preference before and after unilateral stimulation when presented with different frames of gain and loss. The results confirmed a hemispheric asymmetry and indicated that the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has an asymmetric effect on risk preference regarding frames of gain and loss. Enhancing the activity of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex significantly decreased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the gain frame, whereas it increased the participants' degree of risk aversion in the loss frame. Our findings provide important information regarding the impact of transcranial direct current stimulation on the risk preference of healthy participants. The effects observed in our experiment compared with those of previous studies provide further evidence of the effects of hemispheric and frame-dependent asymmetry. These findings may be helpful in understanding the neural basis of risk preference in humans, especially when faced with decisions involving possible gain or loss relative to the status quo. PMID:27507423

  1. Measurements and simulations of the optical gain and anti-reflection coating modal reflectivity in quantum cascade lasers with multiple active region stacks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bidaux, Y.; Terazzi, R.; Bismuto, A.; Gresch, T.; Blaser, S.; Muller, A.; Faist, J.

    2015-09-01

    We report spectrally resolved gain measurements and simulations for quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) composed of multiple heterogeneous stacks designed for broadband emission in the mid-infrared. The measurement method is first demonstrated on a reference single active region QCL based on a double-phonon resonance design emitting at 7.8 μm. It is then extended to a three-stack active region based on bound-to-continuum designs with a broadband emission range from 7.5 to 10.5 μm. A tight agreement is found with simulations based on a density matrix model. The latter implements exhaustive microscopic scattering and dephasing sources with virtually no fitting parameters. The quantitative agreement is furthermore assessed by measuring gain coefficients obtained by studying the threshold current dependence with the cavity length. These results are particularly relevant to understand fundamental gain mechanisms in complex semiconductor heterostructure QCLs and to move towards efficient gain engineering. Finally, the method is extended to the measurement of the modal reflectivity of an anti-reflection coating deposited on the front facet of the broadband QCL.

  2. Measurements and simulations of the optical gain and anti-reflection coating modal reflectivity in quantum cascade lasers with multiple active region stacks

    SciTech Connect

    Bidaux, Y.; Terazzi, R.; Bismuto, A.; Gresch, T.; Blaser, S.; Muller, A.; Faist, J.

    2015-09-07

    We report spectrally resolved gain measurements and simulations for quantum cascade lasers (QCLs) composed of multiple heterogeneous stacks designed for broadband emission in the mid-infrared. The measurement method is first demonstrated on a reference single active region QCL based on a double-phonon resonance design emitting at 7.8 μm. It is then extended to a three-stack active region based on bound-to-continuum designs with a broadband emission range from 7.5 to 10.5 μm. A tight agreement is found with simulations based on a density matrix model. The latter implements exhaustive microscopic scattering and dephasing sources with virtually no fitting parameters. The quantitative agreement is furthermore assessed by measuring gain coefficients obtained by studying the threshold current dependence with the cavity length. These results are particularly relevant to understand fundamental gain mechanisms in complex semiconductor heterostructure QCLs and to move towards efficient gain engineering. Finally, the method is extended to the measurement of the modal reflectivity of an anti-reflection coating deposited on the front facet of the broadband QCL.

  3. Silicon planar lightwave circuits: Raman amplification and polarization processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Tak-Keung

    Silicon photonics is of topical interest because of the possibility of building on the large investments and technological advances already made for microelectronics processing. Although silicon has found many applications for passive optical devices, the development of active (the ability to amplify or generate light) devices using silicon has been a major challenge that has prompted much research. Optical amplification from stimulated Raman scattering in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) waveguides is an attractive possibility. The large Raman coefficient of silicon and small optical mode field profile in planar waveguides make it possible to build amplifiers in lengths short enough to be of practical interest. In this thesis we first studied the inter-relationship between nonlinear absorption (two-photon absorption and free-carrier absorption) and spontaneous Raman scattering in SOI waveguides. The non-degenerate two-photon absorption coefficient of silicon was measured for the first time using a picosecond pump-probe technique. We showed experimentally that free carriers generated by two-photon absorption in SOI waveguides can introduce large losses which limit the useable pump power for Raman amplification at telecommunication wavelengths. Simply increasing the continuous-wave pump power does not achieve higher gain because the induced losses can be greater than the gain from stimulated Raman scattering. Two types of ultrashort pulse sources have been developed for the characterization of planar waveguide devices. A wavelength tunable femtosecond pulse source base on soliton self-frequency shift was successfully built. The soliton pulse source had a repetition rate of 18 MHz and full-width at half-maximum (FWHM) pulse width of 0.9 ps. The second pulse source was the gain-switched distributed feedback (DFB) laser with a pulse compressor. The compressed pulse had repetition rate of 10 GHz and FWHM pulse width of 1.7 ps with excellent pedestal suppression. Potential

  4. Suppression of lasing by stimulated Raman scattering in microdroplets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwok, Alfred S.; Chang, Richard K.

    1993-10-01

    At high input-laser intensity, partial suppression of lasing by intense stimulated Raman scattering of ethanol in a 10(exp - 4) M Rhodamine 6G-doped ethanol droplet can be observed when the Raman signal overlaps with the lasing spectrum. Extra stimulated emission of the Rhodamine 6G can saturate the Rhodamine 6G lasing gain to below threshold, caused by stimulated Raman scattering of ethanol.

  5. Kinetic Crystallography by Raman Microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Carey, Paul R.; Chen, Yuanyuan; Gong, Bo; Kalp, Matthew

    2010-01-01

    Raman spectra, obtained using a Raman microscope, offer an unique and incisive approach to follow interactions and reactions inside a single crystal under soak-in or soak-out conditions. The utility of this approach derives from the finding that the Raman spectra from single macromolecular crystals, under normal (non-resonance) conditions, are extremely stable, with a low “light background,” and provide ideal platforms for Raman difference spectroscopy. In turn, this allows the interrogation of sub-molecular changes in very large and complex macromolecular environments. There is often great synergy with X-ray crystallography, with the Raman spectroscopist providing crystallography colleagues with the best soak-in conditions to generate a targeted intermediate for flash freezing and X-ray analysis. On the other hand, X-ray structures at points along a reaction pathway provide invaluable benchmarks for interpreting the Raman data from populations seen by Raman to be changing in real-time. These principles will be illustrated by two reactions: The first involves a complex, branching reaction pathway underlying the inhibition of β-lactamases by clinically important pharmaceutical compounds, where different combinations of drug and enzyme function in different regions of the pathway. The second shows how temporal data can be derived for several events in the initiation step of RNA synthesis—more specifically, when one GTP molecule is joined to one ATP molecule to form a G•A dimer in the active site of a 115,000 Dalton crystalline RNA polymerase. Finally, we will summarize the extension of Raman microscopy to nucleic acid crystals and the information that has been obtained for RNA-based enzymes. PMID:20797452

  6. The effects of acute stress exposure on striatal activity during Pavlovian conditioning with monetary gains and losses.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Andrea H; Porcelli, Anthony J; Delgado, Mauricio R

    2014-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning involves the association of an inherently neutral stimulus with an appetitive or aversive outcome, such that the neutral stimulus itself acquires reinforcing properties. Across species, this type of learning has been shown to involve subcortical brain regions such as the striatum and the amygdala. It is less clear, however, how the neural circuitry involved in the acquisition of Pavlovian contingencies in humans, particularly in the striatum, is affected by acute stress. In the current study, we investigate the effect of acute stress exposure on Pavlovian conditioning using monetary reinforcers. Participants underwent a partial reinforcement conditioning procedure in which neutral stimuli were paired with high and low magnitude monetary gains and losses. A between-subjects design was used, such that half of the participants were exposed to cold stress while the remaining participants were exposed to a no stress control procedure. Cortisol measurements and subjective ratings were used as measures of stress. We observed an interaction between stress, valence, and magnitude in the ventral striatum, with the peak in the putamen. More specifically, the stress group exhibited an increased sensitivity to magnitude in the gain domain. This effect was driven by those participants who experienced a larger increase in circulating cortisol levels in response to the stress manipulation. Taken together, these results suggest that acute stress can lead to individual differences in circulating cortisol levels which influence the striatum during Pavlovian conditioning with monetary reinforcers.

  7. The effects of acute stress exposure on striatal activity during Pavlovian conditioning with monetary gains and losses

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Andrea H.; Porcelli, Anthony J.; Delgado, Mauricio R.

    2014-01-01

    Pavlovian conditioning involves the association of an inherently neutral stimulus with an appetitive or aversive outcome, such that the neutral stimulus itself acquires reinforcing properties. Across species, this type of learning has been shown to involve subcortical brain regions such as the striatum and the amygdala. It is less clear, however, how the neural circuitry involved in the acquisition of Pavlovian contingencies in humans, particularly in the striatum, is affected by acute stress. In the current study, we investigate the effect of acute stress exposure on Pavlovian conditioning using monetary reinforcers. Participants underwent a partial reinforcement conditioning procedure in which neutral stimuli were paired with high and low magnitude monetary gains and losses. A between-subjects design was used, such that half of the participants were exposed to cold stress while the remaining participants were exposed to a no stress control procedure. Cortisol measurements and subjective ratings were used as measures of stress. We observed an interaction between stress, valence, and magnitude in the ventral striatum, with the peak in the putamen. More specifically, the stress group exhibited an increased sensitivity to magnitude in the gain domain. This effect was driven by those participants who experienced a larger increase in circulating cortisol levels in response to the stress manipulation. Taken together, these results suggest that acute stress can lead to individual differences in circulating cortisol levels which influence the striatum during Pavlovian conditioning with monetary reinforcers. PMID:24904331

  8. EEG oscillatory activity associated to monetary gain and loss signals in a learning task: effects of attentional impulsivity and learning ability.

    PubMed

    De Pascalis, Vilfredo; Varriale, Vincenzo; Rotonda, Marco

    2012-07-01

    This study investigated the influence of individual differences in attentional impulsivity (Att-Imp), learning ability, and learning practice on oscillatory activity and phase synchrony responses to monetary gain and loss signals during an instrumental-learning task in healthy women. We used a trial-by-trial wavelet-based time-frequency analysis of the electroencephalographic (EEG) signal to provide amplitude and inter-site phase synchrony measures from 30 electrodes in theta (4-8 Hz, 350-500 ms), alpha (8-12 Hz, 100-200 ms), beta (13-25 Hz, 100-200 ms), and gamma (30-40 Hz, 350-450 ms) time-frequency ranges. Oscillatory amplitude and inter-site phase synchrony were both greater following loss signals as compared to gain signals in theta, beta, and gamma frequency bands. Low Att-Imp subjects had higher theta activity within a 350-500 ms time window over frontocentral, and centroparietal sites than high Att-Imp subjects. Monetary gain signals elicited higher theta and gamma activities in high Att-Imp individuals and loss signals elicited higher activities to loss signals in low Att-Imp individuals. Good learners showed enhanced intrahemispheric theta synchrony between frontoparietal, and fronto-occipital sites to monetary loss compared to gain signals. In good learners, monetary loss produced an increase of gamma synchrony that enhanced in the second stage of learning. In low Att-Imp individuals, there was a reduction of theta synchrony during the second stage, as compared with the first stage of learning, between temporal, parietal and fronto-parietal brain regions. These findings may offer valuable clues to understand outcome processing, attentional impulsivity, and learning ability. We propose that the punishment-related theta and gamma waves play a leading role in learning process.

  9. Spun fiber Raman amplifiers with reduced polarization impairments.

    PubMed

    Sergeyev, Sergey; Popov, Sergei; Friberg, Ari T

    2008-09-15

    We report a novel vector model of Raman amplification in a fiber with randomly varying birefringence and unidirectional spin profile. Applying the model, we demonstrate for the first time simultaneous mitigation of polarization mode dispersion and polarization dependence of the Raman gain.

  10. Gain- and Loss-Related Brain Activation Are Associated with Information Search Differences in Risky Gambles: An fMRI and Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Trautner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract People differ in the way they approach and handle choices with unsure outcomes. In this study, we demonstrate that individual differences in the neural processing of gains and losses relates to attentional differences in the way individuals search for information in gambles. Fifty subjects participated in two independent experiments. Participants first completed an fMRI experiment involving financial gains and losses. Subsequently, they performed an eye-tracking experiment on binary choices between risky gambles, each displaying monetary outcomes and their respective probabilities. We find that individual differences in gain and loss processing relate to attention distribution. Individuals with a stronger reaction to gains in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex paid more attention to monetary amounts, while a stronger reaction in the ventral striatum to losses was correlated with an increased attention to probabilities. Reaction in the posterior cingulate cortex to losses was also found to correlate with an increased attention to probabilities. Our data show that individual differences in brain activity and differences in information search processes are closely linked. PMID:27679814

  11. Gain- and Loss-Related Brain Activation Are Associated with Information Search Differences in Risky Gambles: An fMRI and Eye-Tracking Study

    PubMed Central

    Trautner, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract People differ in the way they approach and handle choices with unsure outcomes. In this study, we demonstrate that individual differences in the neural processing of gains and losses relates to attentional differences in the way individuals search for information in gambles. Fifty subjects participated in two independent experiments. Participants first completed an fMRI experiment involving financial gains and losses. Subsequently, they performed an eye-tracking experiment on binary choices between risky gambles, each displaying monetary outcomes and their respective probabilities. We find that individual differences in gain and loss processing relate to attention distribution. Individuals with a stronger reaction to gains in the ventromedial prefrontal cortex paid more attention to monetary amounts, while a stronger reaction in the ventral striatum to losses was correlated with an increased attention to probabilities. Reaction in the posterior cingulate cortex to losses was also found to correlate with an increased attention to probabilities. Our data show that individual differences in brain activity and differences in information search processes are closely linked.

  12. Development of high-sensitive, reproducible colloidal surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy active substrate using silver nanocubes for potential biosensing applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hasna, Kudilatt; Lakshmi, Kiran; Ezhuthachan Jayaraj, Madambi Kunjukuttan; Kumar, Kumaran Rajeev; Matham, Murukeshan Vadakke

    2016-04-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) has emerged as one of the thrust research areas that could find potential applications in bio and chemical sensing. We developed colloidal SERS active substrate with excellent sensitivity and high reproducibility using silver nanocube (AgNC) synthesized via the solvothermal method. Finite-difference time-domain simulation was carried out in detail to visualize dipole generation in the nanocube during localized surface plasmon resonance and to locate the respective hot spots in AgNC responsible for the huge Raman enhancement. The prediction is verified by the SERS analysis of the synthesized nanocubes using Rhodamine 6G molecule. An excellent sensitivity with a detection limit of 10-17 M and a very high enhancement factor of 1.2×108 confirms the "hot spots" in the nanocube. SERS activity is also carried out for crystal violet and for food adulterant Sudan I molecule. Finally, label-free DNA detection is performed to demonstrate the versatility of SERS as a potential biosensor.

  13. Active video games as a tool to prevent excessive weight gain in adolescents: rationale, design and methods of a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Excessive body weight, low physical activity and excessive sedentary time in youth are major public health concerns. A new generation of video games, the ones that require physical activity to play the games –i.e. active games- may be a promising alternative to traditional non-active games to promote physical activity and reduce sedentary behaviors in youth. The aim of this manuscript is to describe the design of a study evaluating the effects of a family oriented active game intervention, incorporating several motivational elements, on anthropometrics and health behaviors in adolescents. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial (RCT), with non-active gaming adolescents aged 12 – 16 years old randomly allocated to a ten month intervention (receiving active games, as well as an encouragement to play) or a waiting-list control group (receiving active games after the intervention period). Primary outcomes are adolescents’ measured BMI-SDS (SDS = adjusted for mean standard deviation score), waist circumference-SDS, hip circumference and sum of skinfolds. Secondary outcomes are adolescents’ self-reported time spent playing active and non-active games, other sedentary activities and consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages. In addition, a process evaluation is conducted, assessing the sustainability of the active games, enjoyment, perceived competence, perceived barriers for active game play, game context, injuries from active game play, activity replacement and intention to continue playing the active games. Discussion This is the first adequately powered RCT including normal weight adolescents, evaluating a reasonably long period of provision of and exposure to active games. Next, strong elements are the incorporating motivational elements for active game play and a comprehensive process evaluation. This trial will provide evidence regarding the potential contribution of active games in prevention of excessive weight gain in

  14. Gold and silver nanoparticle monomers are non-SERS-active: a negative experimental study with silica-encapsulated Raman-reporter-coated metal colloids.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yuying; Walkenfort, Bernd; Yoon, Jun Hee; Schlücker, Sebastian; Xie, Wei

    2015-09-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles (NPs) are the most commonly employed plasmonic substrates in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) experiments. Computer simulations show that monomers of Ag and Au nanocrystals ("spherical" NPs) do not exhibit a notable plasmonic enhancement, i.e., they are essentially non-SERS-active. However, in experiments, SERS enhanced by spherical NP colloids has been frequently reported. This implies that the monomers do not have strong SERS activity, but detectable enhancement should more or less be there. Because of the gap between theory and practice, it is important to demonstrate experimentally how SERS-active the metal colloid actually is and, in case a SERS signal is observed, where it originates from. In particular the aggregation of the colloid, induced by high centrifugal forces in washing steps or due to a harsh ionic environment of the suspension medium, should be controlled since it is the very high SERS activity of NP clusters which dominates the overall SERS signal of the colloid. We report here the experimental evaluation of the SERS activity of 80 nm Au and Ag NP monomers. Instead of showing fancy nanostructures and super SERS enhancement, we present the method on how to obtain negative experimental data. In this approach, no SERS signal was obtained from the colloid with a Raman reporter on the metal surface when the NPs were encapsulated carefully within a thick silica shell. Without silica encapsulation, if a very low centrifugation speed is used for the washing steps, only a negligible SERS signal can be detected even at very high NP concentrations. In contrast, strong SERS signals can be detected when the NPs are suspended in acidic solutions. These results indicate that Au and Ag NP monomers essentially exhibit no SERS activity of practical relevance.

  15. Structural dynamics of phenylisothiocyanate in the light-absorbing excited states: Resonance Raman and complete active space self-consistent field calculation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Bing; Xue, Jia-Dan; Zheng, Xuming; Fang, Wei-Hai

    2014-05-01

    The excited state structural dynamics of phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) after excitation to the light absorbing S2(A'), S6(A'), and S7(A') excited states were studied by using the resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete active space self-consistent field method calculations. The UV absorption bands of PITC were assigned. The vibrational assignments were done on the basis of the Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and FT-infrared measurements, the density-functional theory computations, and the normal mode analysis. The A-, B-, and C-bands resonance Raman spectra in cyclohexane, acetonitrile, and methanol solvents were, respectively, obtained at 299.1, 282.4, 266.0, 252.7, 228.7, 217.8, and 208.8 nm excitation wavelengths to probe the corresponding structural dynamics of PITC. The results indicated that the structural dynamics in the S2(A'), S6(A'), and S7(A') excited states were very different. The conical intersection point CI(S2/S1) were predicted to play important role in the low-lying excited state decay dynamics. Two major decay channels were predicted for PITC upon excitation to the S2(A') state: the radiative S2,min → S0 transition and the nonradiative S2 → S1 internal conversion via CI(S2/S1). The differences in the decay dynamics between methyl isothiocyanate and PITC in the first light absorbing excited state were discussed. The role of the intersystem crossing point ISC(S1/T1) in the excited state decay dynamics of PITC is evaluated.

  16. Surface enhanced Raman scattering activity of TiN thin film prepared via nitridation of sol-gel derived TiO2 film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Zhanliang; Wei, Hengyong; Chen, Ying; Wang, Ruisheng; Zhao, Junhong; Lin, Jian; Bu, Jinglong; Wei, Yingna; Cui, Yi; Yu, Yun

    2015-10-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is a powerful and non-destructive analytical technique tool for chemical and biological sensing applications. Metal-free SERS substrates have recently been developed by using semiconductor nanostructures. The optical property of TiN film is similar to that of gold. Besides that, its good chemical inertness and thermodynamic stability make TiN thin film an excellent candidate for SERS. In order to investigate its SERS activity, the TiN thin film was successfully prepared via direct nitridation of the sol-gel derived TiO2 thin film on the quartz substrate using ammonia gas as reducing agent. The crystallite structures and morphology of TiN thin film were determined by XRD, RAMAN and FE-SEM. The results show that the thin film obtained is cubic titanium nitride with a lattice parameter of 4.2349 Å. The surface of TiN thin film is rough and with the particles of 50 nm in average sizes. The thickness of TiN thin film is about 130 nm. The TiN thin film displays a surface Plasmon resonance absorption peak at around 476 nm, which can lead to a strong enhancement of the EM field on the interface. The Raman signal of the probe molecule R6G was greatly enhanced through TiN thin film substrates. The enhancement factor is about 4.1×103 and the detection limit achieves 10-6 M for R6G. The TiN thin film substrate also shows a good reproducibility of SERS performance. The results indicate that TiN thin film is an attractive material with potential application in SERS substrates.

  17. Structural dynamics of phenylisothiocyanate in the light-absorbing excited states: Resonance Raman and complete active space self-consistent field calculation study

    SciTech Connect

    Ouyang, Bing Xue, Jia-Dan Zheng, Xuming E-mail: zxm@zstu.edu.cn; Fang, Wei-Hai E-mail: fangwh@dnu.edu.cn

    2014-05-21

    The excited state structural dynamics of phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) after excitation to the light absorbing S{sub 2}(A′), S{sub 6}(A′), and S{sub 7}(A′) excited states were studied by using the resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete active space self-consistent field method calculations. The UV absorption bands of PITC were assigned. The vibrational assignments were done on the basis of the Fourier transform (FT)-Raman and FT-infrared measurements, the density-functional theory computations, and the normal mode analysis. The A-, B-, and C-bands resonance Raman spectra in cyclohexane, acetonitrile, and methanol solvents were, respectively, obtained at 299.1, 282.4, 266.0, 252.7, 228.7, 217.8, and 208.8 nm excitation wavelengths to probe the corresponding structural dynamics of PITC. The results indicated that the structural dynamics in the S{sub 2}(A′), S{sub 6}(A′), and S{sub 7}(A′) excited states were very different. The conical intersection point CI(S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}) were predicted to play important role in the low-lying excited state decay dynamics. Two major decay channels were predicted for PITC upon excitation to the S{sub 2}(A′) state: the radiative S{sub 2,min} → S{sub 0} transition and the nonradiative S{sub 2} → S{sub 1} internal conversion via CI(S{sub 2}/S{sub 1}). The differences in the decay dynamics between methyl isothiocyanate and PITC in the first light absorbing excited state were discussed. The role of the intersystem crossing point ISC(S{sub 1}/T{sub 1}) in the excited state decay dynamics of PITC is evaluated.

  18. Applications of Raman Spectroscopy to Virology and Microbial Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harz, Michaela; Stöckel, Stephan; Ciobotă, Valerian; Cialla, Dana; Rösch, Petra; Popp, Jürgen

    This chapter reports from the utilization of Raman spectroscopic techniques like Raman microscopy, Raman optical activity (ROA), UV-resonance Raman (UVRR)-spectroscopy, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS), and tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (TERS) for the investigation of viruses and microorganisms, especially bacteria and yeasts for medical and pharmaceutical applications. The application of these Raman techniques allows for the analysis of chemical components of cells and subcellular regions, as well as the monitoring of chemical differences occurring as a result of the growth of microorganisms. In addition, the interaction of microorganisms with active pharmaceutical agents can be investigated. In combination with chemometric methods Raman spectroscopy can also be applied to identify microorganisms both in micro colonies and even on single cells.

  19. Micro-mirror arrays for Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duncan, W. M.

    2015-03-01

    In this research we study Raman and fluorescence spectroscopies as non-destructive and noninvasive methods for probing biological material and "living systems." Particularly for a living material any probe need be non-destructive and non-invasive, as well as provide real time measurement information and be cost effective to be generally useful. Over the past few years the components needed to measure weak and complex processes such as Raman scattering have evolved substantially with the ready availability of lasers, dichroic filters, low noise and sensitive detectors, digitizers and signal processors. A Raman spectrum consists of a wavelength or frequency spectrum that corresponds to the inelastic (Raman) photon signal that results from irradiating a "Raman active" material. Raman irradiation of a material usually and generally uses a single frequency laser. The Raman fingerprint spectrum that results from a Raman interaction can be determined from the frequencies scattered and received by an appropriate detector. Spectra are usually "digitized" and numerically matched to a reference sample or reference material spectra in performing an analysis. Fortunately today with the many "commercial off-the-shelf" components that are available, weak intensity effects such as Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy can be used for a number of analysis applications. One of the experimental limitations in Raman measurement is the spectrometer itself. The spectrometer is the section of the system that either by interference plus detection or by dispersion plus detection that "signal" amplitude versus energy/frequency signals are measured. Particularly in Raman spectroscopy, optical signals carrying desired "information" about the analyte are extraordinarily weak and require special considerations when measuring. We will discuss here the use of compact spectrometers and a micro-mirror array system (used is the digital micro-mirror device (DMD) supplied by the DLP® Products group of

  20. Deep ultraviolet diamond Raman laser.

    PubMed

    Granados, Eduardo; Spence, David J; Mildren, Richard P

    2011-05-23

    We present a synchronously pumped diamond Raman laser operating at 275.7 nm pumped by the 4th harmonic of a mode locked Nd:YVO4 laser. The laser had a threshold pump pulse energy of 5.8 nJ and generated up to 0.96 nJ pulses at 10.3% conversion efficiency. The results agree well with a numerical model that includes two-photon absorption of the pump and Stokes beams and uses a Raman gain coefficient of diamond of 100 cm/GW. We also report on the observation of nanometer scale two-photon assisted etching of the diamond crystal surfaces. PMID:21643343

  1. Detoxification of gold nanorods by conjugation with thiolated poly(ethylene glycol) and their assessment as SERS-active carriers of Raman tags.

    PubMed

    Boca, Sanda C; Astilean, Simion

    2010-06-11

    We present an effective, low cost protocol to reduce the toxicity of gold nanorods induced by the presence of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) on their lateral surface as a result of the synthesis process. Here, we use thiolated methoxy-poly(ethylene) glycol (mPEG-SH) polymer to displace most of the CTAB bilayer cap from the particle surface. The detoxification process, chemical and structural stability of as-prepared mPEG-SH-conjugated gold nanorods were characterized using a number of techniques including localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). In view of future applications as near-infrared (NIR) nanoheaters in localized photothermal therapy of cancer, we investigated the thermal behaviour of mPEG-SH-conjugated gold nanorods above room temperature. We found a critical temperature at around 40 degrees C at which the adsorbed polymer layer is susceptible to undergo conformational changes. Additionally, we believe that such plasmonic nanoprobes could act as SERS-active carriers of Raman tags for application in cellular imaging. In this sense we successfully tested them as effective SERS substrates at 785 nm laser line with p-aminothiophenol (pATP) as a tag molecule.

  2. Comprehensive quantum chemical and spectroscopic (FTIR, FT-Raman, 1H, 13C NMR) investigations of O-desmethyltramadol hydrochloride an active metabolite in tramadol - An analgesic drug

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arjunan, V.; Santhanam, R.; Marchewka, M. K.; Mohan, S.

    2014-03-01

    O-desmethyltramadol is one of the main metabolites of tramadol widely used clinically and has analgesic activity. The FTIR and FT-Raman spectra of O-desmethyl tramadol hydrochloride are recorded in the solid phase in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1, respectively. The observed fundamentals are assigned to different normal modes of vibration. Theoretical studies have been performed as its hydrochloride salt. The structure of the compound has been optimised with B3LYP method using 6-31G** and cc-pVDZ basis sets. The optimised bond length and bond angles are correlated with the X-ray data. The experimental wavenumbers were compared with the scaled vibrational frequencies determined by DFT methods. The IR and Raman intensities are determined with B3LYP method using cc-pVDZ and 6-31G(d,p) basic sets. The total electron density and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces of the molecule are constructed by using B3LYP/cc-pVDZ method to display electrostatic potential (electron + nuclei) distribution. The electronic properties HOMO and LUMO energies were measured. Natural bond orbital analysis of O-desmethyltramadol hydrochloride has been performed to indicate the presence of intramolecular charge transfer. The 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts of the molecule have been anlysed.

  3. FT-IR, dispersive Raman, NMR, DFT and antimicrobial activity studies on 2-(Thiophen-2-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ünal, Arslan; Eren, Bilge

    2013-10-01

    2-(Thiophen-2-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole (TBI) was synthesized under microwave conditions and was characterized by FT-IR, dispersive Raman, 1H-, 13C-, DEPT-, HETCOR-NMR spectroscopies and density functional theory (DFT) computations. The FT-IR and dispersive Raman spectra of TBI were recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm-1 and 4000-100 cm-1. The experimental vibrational spectra were interpreted with the help of normal coordinate analysis based on DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) theory level for the more stable tautomeric form (Tautomer 1). The complete vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. A satisfactory consistency between the experimental and theoretical findings was obtained. The frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), atomic charges and NMR shifts of the two stable tautomeric forms were also obtained at the same theory level without any symmetry restrictions. In addition, the title compound was screened for its antimicrobial activity and was found to be exhibit antifungal and antibacterial effects.

  4. FT-IR, dispersive Raman, NMR, DFT and antimicrobial activity studies on 2-(Thiophen-2-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole.

    PubMed

    Unal, Arslan; Eren, Bilge

    2013-10-01

    2-(Thiophen-2-yl)-1H-benzo[d]imidazole (TBI) was synthesized under microwave conditions and was characterized by FT-IR, dispersive Raman, (1)H-, (13)C-, DEPT-, HETCOR-NMR spectroscopies and density functional theory (DFT) computations. The FT-IR and dispersive Raman spectra of TBI were recorded in the regions 4000-400 cm(-1) and 4000-100 cm(-1). The experimental vibrational spectra were interpreted with the help of normal coordinate analysis based on DFT/B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) theory level for the more stable tautomeric form (Tautomer 1). The complete vibrational assignments were performed on the basis of the potential energy distribution (PED) of the vibrational modes, calculated with scaled quantum mechanical (SQM) method. A satisfactory consistency between the experimental and theoretical findings was obtained. The frontier molecular orbitals (FMOs), atomic charges and NMR shifts of the two stable tautomeric forms were also obtained at the same theory level without any symmetry restrictions. In addition, the title compound was screened for its antimicrobial activity and was found to be exhibit antifungal and antibacterial effects. PMID:23756262

  5. Effect of betulin-containing extract from birch tree bark on α-amylase activity in vitro and on weight gain of broiler chickens in vivo.

    PubMed

    Ilyina, Anna; Arredondo-Valdés, Roberto; Farkhutdinov, Salavat; Segura-Ceniceros, Elda Patricia; Martínez-Hernández, José Luis; Zaynullin, Radik; Kunakova, Rayhana

    2014-03-01

    In vitro effect of betulin-containing extract from Betula pendula Roth. bark on alpha-amylase activity was studied, the kinetic mechanism of interaction was proposed and in vivo effect of betulin-containing extract on weight gain and meat quality of broiler chickens was evaluated. The highest level of inhibitory activity (20%) was detected in extract concentration of 1,000 mg/L. Increased extract concentration did not lead to increased enzyme inhibition. Using Dixon and Cornish-Bowden coordinates, the competitive mechanism of inhibition was demonstrated. Calculated kinetic parameters were: Km equal to 0.6 mg/mL, Vmax equal to 2.6 and 2.1 mM/min from Lineweaver-Burk and Dixon coordinates, respectively and Ki equal to 3,670 ± 230 mg/mL. The partial inhibition of enzyme indicates the existence of low concentration of active inhibitory form, which reaches saturation level with increased extract concentration in applied suspension. Therefore, Ki has an apparent constant character. This partial inhibition of amylase activity observed in in vitro assay did not affect weight gain and meat quality of broiler chickens during in vivo assay. Rather, the tendency to increase the weight of edible parts and muscles compared to diet without additive suggests that the extract may be a potential food additive in poultry farming. Additionally, it could be a source for further pharmaceutical and pharmacological research.

  6. More gain less pain: balance control learning shifts the activation patterns of leg and neck muscles and increases muscular parsimony.

    PubMed

    Iodice, Pierpaolo; Cesinaro, Stefano; Romani, Gian Luca; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Athletes such as skaters or surfers maintain their balance on very unstable platforms. Remarkably, the most skilled athletes seem to execute these feats almost effortlessly. However, the dynamics that lead to the acquisition of a defined and efficient postural strategy are incompletely known. To understand the posture reorganization process due to learning and expertise, we trained twelve participants in a demanding balance/posture maintenance task for 4 months and measured their muscular activity before and after a (predictable) disturbance cued by an auditory signal. The balance training determined significant delays in the latency of participants' muscular activity: from largely anticipatory muscular activity (prior to training) to a mixed anticipatory-compensatory control strategy (after training). After training, the onset of activation was delayed for all muscles, and the sequence of activation systematically reflected the muscle position in the body from top to bottom: neck/upper body muscles were recruited first and in an anticipatory fashion, whereas leg muscles were recruited after the disturbance onset, producing compensatory adjustments. The resulting control strategy includes a mixture of anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments, with a systematic sequence of muscular activation reflecting the different demands of neck and leg muscles. Our results suggest that subjects learned the precise timing of the disturbance onset and used this information to deploy postural adjustments just-in-time and to transfer at least part of the control of posture from anticipatory to less-demanding feedback-based strategies. In turn, this strategy shift increases the cost-efficiency of muscular activity, which is a key signature of skilled performance.

  7. Polarization pulling in Raman assisted fiber optical parametric amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Wang, S H; Xu, Xinchuan; Wai, P K A

    2016-04-01

    We proposed a theoretical model to investigate the polarization pulling effect in bi-directionally pumped degenerate Raman assisted fiber optical parameter amplifiers (RA-FOPAs) using randomly birefringent fibers. The contributions of chromatic dispersion, polarization mode dispersion (PMD), Raman gain, and nonlinear effects to the phase matching in RA-FOPAs are investigated. We characterize four different states of polarization pulling in RA-FOPAs. We found that broadband polarization attraction can be obtained in the optimum phase-matching state of the bi-directionally pumped RA-FOPAs when the parametric pump power is chosen to avoid deep saturation of the Raman gain. PMID:27136985

  8. Templated Growth of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering-Active Branched Gold Nanoparticles within Radial Mesoporous Silica Shells

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Noble metal nanoparticles are widely used as probes or substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), due to their characteristic plasmon resonances in the visible and near-IR spectral ranges. Aiming at obtaining a versatile system with high SERS performance, we developed the synthesis of quasi-monodisperse, nonaggregated gold nanoparticles protected by radial mesoporous silica shells. The radial mesoporous channels were used as templates for the growth of gold tips branching out from the cores, thereby improving the plasmonic performance of the particles while favoring the localization of analyte molecules at high electric field regions: close to the tips, inside the pores. The method, which additionally provides control over tip length, was successfully applied to gold nanoparticles with various shapes, leading to materials with highly efficient SERS performance. The obtained nanoparticles are stable in ethanol and water upon thermal consolidation and can be safely stored as a powder. PMID:26370658

  9. NONLINEAR OPTICS: Intracavity stimulated Raman scattering with feedback at the Stokes frequency in a laser with active mode locking. II

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Apanasevich, Pavel A.; Zaporozhchenko, R. G.; Orlovich, V. A.; Chekhlov, O. V.; Kot, G. G.

    1989-05-01

    An experimental investigation was made of the energy and time characteristics of the Stokes radiation pulses as a function of the mismatch of a Stokes resonator relative to a laser resonator at different hydrogen pressures. An optimal dependence of the energy and duration of the Stokes pulses on the mismatch was observed. A theoretical analysis was made allowing for the phase relationships. This explained the optimum by the transient nature of stimulated Raman scattering, exhaustion of the pump radiation, and nonlinear phase modulation which appeared during energy exchange. A study was made of the time characteristics of the Stokes radiation when a change occurred in the dephasing time of induced molecular vibrations when a buffer gas (helium) was added to hydrogen.

  10. Templated Growth of Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering-Active Branched Gold Nanoparticles within Radial Mesoporous Silica Shells.

    PubMed

    Sanz-Ortiz, Marta N; Sentosun, Kadir; Bals, Sara; Liz-Marzán, Luis M

    2015-10-27

    Noble metal nanoparticles are widely used as probes or substrates for surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), due to their characteristic plasmon resonances in the visible and near-IR spectral ranges. Aiming at obtaining a versatile system with high SERS performance, we developed the synthesis of quasi-monodisperse, nonaggregated gold nanoparticles protected by radial mesoporous silica shells. The radial mesoporous channels were used as templates for the growth of gold tips branching out from the cores, thereby improving the plasmonic performance of the particles while favoring the localization of analyte molecules at high electric field regions: close to the tips, inside the pores. The method, which additionally provides control over tip length, was successfully applied to gold nanoparticles with various shapes, leading to materials with highly efficient SERS performance. The obtained nanoparticles are stable in ethanol and water upon thermal consolidation and can be safely stored as a powder. PMID:26370658

  11. Gain-of-function Mutations in Transient Receptor Potential C6 (TRPC6) Activate Extracellular Signal-regulated Kinases 1/2 (ERK1/2)*

    PubMed Central

    Chiluiza, David; Krishna, Sneha; Schumacher, Valérie A.; Schlöndorff, Johannes

    2013-01-01

    Gain-of-function mutations in the canonical transient receptor potential 6 (TRPC6) gene are a cause of autosomal dominant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis (FSGS). The mechanisms whereby abnormal TRPC6 activity results in proteinuria remain unknown. The ERK1/2 MAPKs are activated in glomeruli and podocytes in several proteinuric disease models. We therefore examined whether FSGS-associated mutations in TRPC6 result in activation of these kinases. In 293T cells and cultured podocytes, overexpression of gain-of-function TRPC6 mutants resulted in increased ERK1/2 phosphorylation, an effect dependent upon channel function. Pharmacologic inhibitor studies implicated several signaling mediators, including calmodulin and calcineurin, supporting the importance of TRPC6-mediated calcium influx in this process. Through medium transfer experiments, we uncovered two distinct mechanisms for ERK activation by mutant TRPC6, a cell-autonomous, EGF receptor-independent mechanism and a non-cell-autonomous mechanism involving metalloprotease-mediated release of a presumed EGF receptor ligand. The inhibitors KN-92 and H89 were able to block both pathways in mutant TRPC6 expressing cells as well as the prolonged elevation of intracellular calcium levels upon carbachol stimulation seen in these cells. However, these effects appear to be independent of their effects on calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II and PKA, respectively. Phosphorylation of Thr-70, Ser-282, and Tyr-31/285 were not necessary for ERK activation by mutant TRPC6, although a phosphomimetic TRPC6 S282E mutant was capable of ERK activation. Taken together, these results identify two pathways downstream of mutant TRPC6 leading to ERK activation that may play a role in the development of FSGS. PMID:23645677

  12. Spectral features of anti-Stokes and Stokes modes generated by stimulated Raman scattering in liquid toluene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadav, Suchita; Kumar, Govind; Vijaya, R.

    2016-10-01

    Stimulated Raman scattering leading to the generation of four first-order Stokes modes at shifts of 862.9, 1035, 2967 and 3086 cm-1, one second-order Stokes mode at a shift of 2032.5 cm-1 and one first-order anti-Stokes mode at a shift of 946.3 cm-1 has been measured in an experiment using liquid toluene. The observed shifts are assigned to the earlier reported Raman shifts of toluene at 786, 1006, 2979, 3060 cm-1 due to ring-breathing mode, ring deformation mode, CH3 stretching mode and CH stretching mode, respectively. Simultaneous measurement of all the Raman modes, including the second-order Stokes and first-order anti-Stokes, and their correct assignment to the vibrational modes of toluene is not reported widely in earlier work. The Raman modes generated from toluene emerge as concentric rings of different diameters. The phase-matching angle for anti-Stokes generation is thus measured and compared with the expected value from calculation. The spectral broadening observed near two of the modes is explained with the help of Raman-active modes of toluene reported earlier by others. Raman shifts, threshold levels, gain and beam profile of all the modes, along with the phase matching of the anti-Stokes mode, are reported.

  13. Remembering with gains and losses: effects of monetary reward and punishment on successful encoding activation of source memories.

    PubMed

    Shigemune, Yayoi; Tsukiura, Takashi; Kambara, Toshimune; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2014-05-01

    The motivation of getting rewards or avoiding punishments reinforces learning behaviors. Although the neural mechanisms underlying the effect of rewards on episodic memory have been demonstrated, there is little evidence of the effect of punishments on this memory. Our functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of monetary rewards and punishments on activation during the encoding of source memories. During encoding, participants memorized words (item) and locations of presented words (source) under 3 conditions (Reward, Punishment, and Control). During retrieval, participants retrieved item and source memories of the words and were rewarded or penalized according to their performance. Source memories encoded with rewards or punishments were remembered better than those without such encoding. fMRI data demonstrated that the ventral tegmental area and substantia nigra and nucleus accumbens activations reflected both the processes of reward and punishment, whereas insular activation increased as a linear function of punishment. Activation in the hippocampus and parahippocampal cortex predicted subsequent retrieval success of source memories. Additionally, correlations between these reward/punishment-related regions and the hippocampus were significant. The successful encoding of source memories could be enhanced by punishments and rewards, and interactions between reward/punishment-related regions and memory-related regions could contribute to memory enhancement by reward and/or punishment.

  14. Imaging with Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yin; Hong, Hao; Cai, Weibo

    2010-09-01

    Raman spectroscopy, based on the inelastic scattering of a photon, has been widely used as an analytical tool in many research fields. Recently, Raman spectroscopy has also been explored for biomedical applications (e.g. cancer diagnosis) because it can provide detailed information on the chemical composition of cells and tissues. For imaging applications, several variations of Raman spectroscopy have been developed to enhance its sensitivity. This review article will provide a brief summary of Raman spectroscopy-based imaging, which includes the use of coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy (CARS, primarily used for imaging the C-H bond in lipids), surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS, for which a variety of nanoparticles can be used as contrast agents), and single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs, with its intrinsic Raman signal). The superb multiplexing capability of SERS-based Raman imaging can be extremely powerful in future research where different agents can be attached to different Raman tags to enable the interrogation of multiple biological events simultaneously in living subjects. The primary limitations of Raman imaging in humans are those also faced by other optical techniques, in particular limited tissue penetration. Over the last several years, Raman spectroscopy imaging has advanced significantly and many critical proof-of-principle experiments have been successfully carried out. It is expected that imaging with Raman Spectroscopy will continue to be a dynamic research field over the next decade.

  15. Low-noise and high-gain Brillouin optical amplifier for narrowband active optical filtering based on a pump-to-signal optoelectronic tracking.

    PubMed

    Souidi, Yahia; Taleb, Fethallah; Zheng, Junbo; Lee, Min Won; Du Burck, Frédéric; Roncin, Vincent

    2016-01-10

    We implement and characterize an optical narrowband amplifier based on stimulated Brillouin scattering with pump-to-signal relative frequency fluctuations overcome thanks to an active pump tracking. We achieve a precise characterization of this amplifier in terms of gain and noise degradation (noise figure). The performances of this stable selective amplification are compared to those of a conventional erbium-doped fiber amplifier in order to highlight the interest of the Brillouin amplification solution for active narrow optical filtering with a bandpass of 10 MHz. Thanks to the simple optoelectronic pump-to-signal tracking, the Brillouin active filter appears as a stable and reliable solution for narrowband optical processing in the coherent optical communication context and optical sensor applications. PMID:26835759

  16. Design of the optical Raman amplifier for the shore station of NEMO phase 2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Amico, A.; NEMO Collaboration

    2011-01-01

    A distributed Raman amplifier system for the NEMO phase 2 project has been simulated. The simulation goal was to optimize the Raman pump wavelengths in order to maximize the gain in the spectral region extending between 1530 and 1563 nm, where the DWDM channels of the data transport system are allocated. The results of the simulated gain will be shown.

  17. Cardiovascular responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation and comparison of different methods to evaluate baroreflex gain in conscious mice using telemetry.

    PubMed

    Braga, Valdir A; Burmeister, Melissa A; Sharma, Ram V; Davisson, Robin L

    2008-10-01

    Peripheral chemoreceptors located in the carotid bodies are the primary sensors of systemic hypoxia. Although the pattern of responses elicited by peripheral chemoreceptor activation is well established in rats, lambs, and rabbits, the cardiovascular responses to peripheral chemoreflex activation in conscious mice have not been delineated. Here we report that stimulation of peripheral chemoreceptors by potassium cyanide (KCN) in conscious mice elicits a unique biphasic response in blood pressure that is characterized by an initial and robust rise followed by a decrease in blood pressure, which is accompanied by a marked reduction in heart rate. The depressor and bradycardic responses to KCN were abolished by muscarinic receptor blockade with atropine, and the pressor response was abolished by alpha-adrenergic receptor blockade with prazosin, suggesting that vagal and sympathetic drive to the heart and sympathetic drive to the vasculature mediate these cardiovascular responses. These studies characterized the chemoreflex in conscious mice and established the reliability of using them for studying hypoxia-related diseases such as obstructive sleep apnea. In another series of experiments, two methods for analyzing baroreflex sensitivity were compared: the classical pharmacological approach using phenylephrine and sodium nitroprusside (i.e., the Oxford technique) or the sequence method for analyzing spontaneous baroreflex activity. Our findings indicate that both methods are reliable, and the sequence method certainly has its benefits as a predictive tool in the context of long-term noninvasive studies using telemetry. However, for absolute determination of baroreflex function, analysis of spontaneous baroreflex activity should be complemented by the classical pharmacological method. PMID:18667715

  18. Cavity-enhanced Raman microscopy of individual carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hümmer, Thomas; Noe, Jonathan; Hofmann, Matthias S.; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Högele, Alexander; Hunger, David

    2016-07-01

    Raman spectroscopy reveals chemically specific information and provides label-free insight into the molecular world. However, the signals are intrinsically weak and call for enhancement techniques. Here, we demonstrate Purcell enhancement of Raman scattering in a tunable high-finesse microcavity, and utilize it for molecular diagnostics by combined Raman and absorption imaging. Studying individual single-wall carbon nanotubes, we identify crucial structural parameters such as nanotube radius, electronic structure and extinction cross-section. We observe a 320-times enhanced Raman scattering spectral density and an effective Purcell factor of 6.2, together with a collection efficiency of 60%. Potential for significantly higher enhancement, quantitative signals, inherent spectral filtering and absence of intrinsic background in cavity-vacuum stimulated Raman scattering render the technique a promising tool for molecular imaging. Furthermore, cavity-enhanced Raman transitions involving localized excitons could potentially be used for gaining quantum control over nanomechanical motion and open a route for molecular cavity optomechanics.

  19. Facile method to prepare poly(S-co-HEA)/Ag nanocomposite particles with high efficient catalytic activity and surface enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chao, Zhiyin; Wang, Lan; Song, Linyong; Zhou, Yifeng; Nie, Wangyan; Chen, Pengpeng

    2015-02-01

    Surface hydroxyl-functionalized poly(styrene-co-hydroxyethyl acrylate) [P(S-co-HEA)] microsphere were used to prepare P(S-co-HEA)/silver composite particles. Based on the weak interaction between silver ions and hydroxyl, silver ions were adsorbed onto the polymer surface and reduced by diethanolamine (DEA). The morphology of P(S-co-HEA)/Ag was easily controlled by the molar ratio of DEA/AgNO3. The composite particles were characterized by SEM, XRD, and UV-vis spectroscopy. The obtained P(S-co-HEA)/Ag particles with small and denser silver nanoparticles showed a high efficient activity to catalyze reduction of methylene blue (MB). While the P(S-co-HEA)/Ag particles with big and denser silver nanoparticles showed highly sensitive Raman enhanced performance.

  20. Intramolecular Enantiomerism in S(+)2,2-dimethyl -1,3-dioxolane-4-methanol: The Interpretation of Raman Optical Activity Intensity.

    PubMed

    Wu, Guozhen; Wang, Peijie

    2015-11-01

    A bond polarizability algorithm was developed and applied to interpret the Raman optical activity (ROA) intensity. It is demonstrated that for the chiral molecule such as S(+)2,2-dimethyl-1,3-dioxolane-4-methanol there exists approximate (or symmetry breaking) mirror reflection that reverses the signs of the differential bond polarizabilities of the pair bond coordinates that are related to each other by the mirror reflection, just like that between the right and left enantiomers. The magnitude difference of the differential bond polarizabilities of the pair bond coordinates becomes smaller as they are farther away from the asymmetric atom. Hence, that the asymmetric atom (center) plays a central role in ROA is confirmed from a spectroscopic viewpoint. Meanwhile, the concept of intramolecular enantiomerism is proposed. PMID:26385122

  1. Laser-Raman spectroscopy of living cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Webb, Sydney J.

    1980-04-01

    Investigations into the laser-Raman shift spectra of bacterial and mammalian cells have revealed that many Raman lines observed at 4-6 K, do not appear in the spectra of cells held at 300 K. At 300 K, Raman activity, at set frequencies, is observed only when the cells are metabolically active; however, the actual live cell spectrum, between 0 and 3400 cm -1, has been found to alter in a specific way with time as the cells' progress through their life cycles. Lines above 300 cm -1, from in vivo Raman active states, appear to shift to higher wave numbers whereas those below 300 cm -1 seem to shift to lower ones. The transient nature of many shift lines observed and the intensity of them when present in the spectrum indicates that, in vivo, a metabolically induced condensation of closely related states occurs at a set time in the life of a living cell. In addition, the calculated ratio between the intensities of Stokes and anti-Stokes lines observed suggests that the metabolically induced “collective” Raman active states are produced, in vivo, by non thermal means. It appears, therefore, that the energetics of the well established cell “time clock” may be studied by laser-Raman spectroscopy; moreover, Raman spectroscopy may yield a new type of information regarding the physics of such biological phenomena as nutrition, virus infection and oncogenesis.

  2. Preventing Raman Lasing in High-Q WGM Resonators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savchenkov, Anatoliy; Matsko, Andrey; Strekalov, Dmitry; Maleki, Lute

    2007-01-01

    A generic design has been conceived to suppress the Raman effect in whispering- gallery-mode (WGM) optical resonators that have high values of the resonance quality factor (Q). Although it is possible to exploit the Raman effect (even striving to maximize the Raman gain to obtain Raman lasing), the present innovation is intended to satisfy a need that arises in applications in which the Raman effect inhibits the realization of the full potential of WGM resonators as frequency-selection components. Heretofore, in such applications, it has been necessary to operate high-Q WGM resonators at unattractively low power levels to prevent Raman lasing. (The Raman-lasing thresholds of WGM optical resonators are very low and are approximately proportional to Q(sup -2)). Heretofore, two ways of preventing Raman lasting at high power levels have been known, but both entail significant disadvantages: A resonator can be designed so that the optical field is spread over a relatively large mode volume to bring the power density below the threshold. For any given combination of Q and power level, there is certain mode volume wherein Raman lasing does not start. Unfortunately, a resonator that has a large mode volume also has a high spectral density, which is undesirable in a typical photonic application. A resonator can be cooled to the temperature of liquid helium, where the Raman spectrum is narrower and, therefore, the Raman gain is lower. However, liquid-helium cooling is inconvenient. The present design overcomes these disadvantages, making it possible to operate a low-spectral-density (even a single-mode) WGM resonator at a relatively high power level at room temperature, without risk of Raman lasing.

  3. Collapsible high gain antenna

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cribb, H. E. (Inventor)

    1973-01-01

    A lightweight small high gain antenna which is capable of being packaged in a collapsed form and automatically expanded when in use is described. The antenna includes a cylindrical housing having a rod with a piston adjacent to one end extending through it. Attached to the outer end of the rod in a normally collapsed state is a helical wire coil. When the gas producing means is activated the piston and rod are shifted outwardly to expand the wire coil. A latch is provided for holding the helical coil in the expanded position.

  4. Theory of femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Lee, Soo-Y; Zhang, Donghui; McCamant, David W; Kukura, Philipp; Mathies, Richard A

    2004-08-22

    Femtosecond broadband stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is a new technique that produces high-resolution (time-resolved) vibrational spectra from either the ground or excited electronic states of molecules, free from background fluorescence. FSRS uses simultaneously a narrow bandwidth approximately 1-3 ps Raman pump pulse with a continuum approximately 30-50 fs Stokes probe pulse to produce sharp Raman gains, at positions corresponding to vibrational transitions in the sample, riding on top of the continuum Stokes probe spectrum. When FSRS is preceded by a femtosecond actinic pump pulse that initiates the photochemistry of interest, time-resolved Raman spectroscopy can be carried out. We present two theoretical approaches to FSRS: one is based on a coupling of Raman pump and probe light waves with the vibrations in the medium, and another is a quantum-mechanical description. The latter approach is used to discuss the conditions of applicability and limitations of the coupled-wave description. Extension of the quantum-mechanical description to the case where the Raman pump beam is on resonance with an excited electronic state, as well as when FSRS is used to probe a nonstationary vibrational wave packet prepared by an actinic pump pulse, is also discussed. PMID:15303930

  5. Stokes injected Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1980-01-01

    A device for producing stimulated Raman scattering of CO.sub.2 laser radiation by rotational states in a diatomic molecular gas utilizing a Stokes injection signal. The system utilizes a cryogenically cooled waveguide for extending focal interaction length. The waveguide, in conjunction with the Stokes injection signal, reduces required power density of the CO.sub.2 radiation below the breakdown threshold for the diatomic molecular gas. A Fresnel rhomb is employed to circularly polarize the Stokes injection signal and CO.sub.2 laser radiation in opposite circular directions. The device can be employed either as a regenerative oscillator utilizing optical cavity mirrors or as a single pass amplifier. Additionally, a plurality of Raman gain cells can be staged to increase output power magnitude. Also, in the regenerative oscillator embodiment, the Raman gain cell cavity length and CO.sub.2 cavity length can be matched to provide synchronism between mode locked CO.sub.2 pulses and pulses produced within the Raman gain cell.

  6. Resonance Raman studies of the heme active site of the homodimeric myoglobin from Nassa mutabilis: a peculiar case.

    PubMed

    Smulevich, G; Mantini, A R; Paoli, M; Coletta, M; Geraci, G

    1995-06-01

    A spectroscopic investigation by resonance Raman has been carried out at pH 7.0 in 0.1 M phosphate buffer on the cooperative homodimeric myoglobin from Nassa mutabilis. The study has been performed on the unligated ferrous form, as well as on the ligated species MbO2 and MbC, and on the ferric form met-Mb. Two v(C = C) vinyl stretching modes have been observed in all the investigated forms, reflecting different degrees of vinyl conjugation with the porphyrin ring, as a consequence of a strongly asymmetric environment for the two side groups of the heme. Furthermore, the ferric form displays a hexacoordinate low-spin heme, which suggests the presence of an endogenous ligand bound to the Fe atom. The frequency of the v(Fe-Im) stretching mode of Mb from Nassa mutabilis shifts down by 4 cm-1 as compared with that of horse heart myoglobin, reflecting a protein-induced proximal strain as a result of heme-heme interaction due to the close proximity of the two hemes in the dimer. The lower frequency of the v(Fe-Im) stretching mode agrees well with the lower affinity for oxygen binding found for Nassa mutabilis Mb and with the slight heme core expansion with respect to horse heart Mb, suggesting a critical role for the Fe-His bond on the heme's function and structure. PMID:7779795

  7. Natural Killer Cell-Based Therapies Targeting Cancer: Possible Strategies to Gain and Sustain Anti-Tumor Activity

    PubMed Central

    Dahlberg, Carin I. M.; Sarhan, Dhifaf; Chrobok, Michael; Duru, Adil D.; Alici, Evren

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells were discovered 40 years ago, by their ability to recognize and kill tumor cells without the requirement of prior antigen exposure. Since then, NK cells have been seen as promising agents for cell-based cancer therapies. However, NK cells represent only a minor fraction of the human lymphocyte population. Their skewed phenotype and impaired functionality during cancer progression necessitates the development of clinical protocols to activate and expand to high numbers ex vivo to be able to infuse sufficient numbers of functional NK cells to the cancer patients. Initial NK cell-based clinical trials suggested that NK cell-infusion is safe and feasible with almost no NK cell-related toxicity, including graft-versus-host disease. Complete remission and increased disease-free survival is shown in a small number of patients with hematological malignances. Furthermore, successful adoptive NK cell-based therapies from haploidentical donors have been demonstrated. Disappointingly, only limited anti-tumor effects have been demonstrated following NK cell infusion in patients with solid tumors. While NK cells have great potential in targeting tumor cells, the efficiency of NK cell functions in the tumor microenvironment is yet unclear. The failure of immune surveillance may in part be due to sustained immunological pressure on tumor cells resulting in the development of tumor escape variants that are invisible to the immune system. Alternatively, this could be due to the complex network of immune-suppressive compartments in the tumor microenvironment, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated macrophages, and regulatory T cells. Although the negative effect of the tumor microenvironment on NK cells can be transiently reverted by ex vivo expansion and long-term activation, the aforementioned NK cell/tumor microenvironment interactions upon reinfusion are not fully elucidated. Within this context, genetic modification of NK cells

  8. Natural Killer Cell-Based Therapies Targeting Cancer: Possible Strategies to Gain and Sustain Anti-Tumor Activity.

    PubMed

    Dahlberg, Carin I M; Sarhan, Dhifaf; Chrobok, Michael; Duru, Adil D; Alici, Evren

    2015-01-01

    Natural killer (NK) cells were discovered 40 years ago, by their ability to recognize and kill tumor cells without the requirement of prior antigen exposure. Since then, NK cells have been seen as promising agents for cell-based cancer therapies. However, NK cells represent only a minor fraction of the human lymphocyte population. Their skewed phenotype and impaired functionality during cancer progression necessitates the development of clinical protocols to activate and expand to high numbers ex vivo to be able to infuse sufficient numbers of functional NK cells to the cancer patients. Initial NK cell-based clinical trials suggested that NK cell-infusion is safe and feasible with almost no NK cell-related toxicity, including graft-versus-host disease. Complete remission and increased disease-free survival is shown in a small number of patients with hematological malignances. Furthermore, successful adoptive NK cell-based therapies from haploidentical donors have been demonstrated. Disappointingly, only limited anti-tumor effects have been demonstrated following NK cell infusion in patients with solid tumors. While NK cells have great potential in targeting tumor cells, the efficiency of NK cell functions in the tumor microenvironment is yet unclear. The failure of immune surveillance may in part be due to sustained immunological pressure on tumor cells resulting in the development of tumor escape variants that are invisible to the immune system. Alternatively, this could be due to the complex network of immune-suppressive compartments in the tumor microenvironment, including myeloid-derived suppressor cells, tumor-associated macrophages, and regulatory T cells. Although the negative effect of the tumor microenvironment on NK cells can be transiently reverted by ex vivo expansion and long-term activation, the aforementioned NK cell/tumor microenvironment interactions upon reinfusion are not fully elucidated. Within this context, genetic modification of NK cells

  9. When your pain signifies my gain: neural activity while evaluating outcomes based on another person’s pain

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Fang; Zhu, Xiangru; Gu, Ruolei; Luo, Yue-jia

    2016-01-01

    The overlap between pain and reward processing pathways leds researchers to hypothesize that there are interactions between them in the human brain. Two hypotheses have been proposed. The “competition hypothesis” posits that reward can reduce pain-related neural activity and vice versa. The “salience hypothesis” suggests that the motivational salience of pain and reward can be mutually reinforced. However, no study has tested these two hypotheses from temporal perspective as we know. In the present study, pictures depicted other people in painful or non-painful situations were used to indicate the valence of outcomes in a gambling task. The event-related potential results revealed an interaction between another person’s pain and outcome valence in multiple time stages. Specifically, the amplitudes of the N1 and P3 were enhanced in the win condition compared with the loss condition when the outcome was indicated by painful picture. This interactions between pain and reward support the salience hypothesis but not the competition hypothesis. The present results provide evidence from human subjects that support the salience hypothesis, which claims that observing other people’s pain can enhance the salience of reward. PMID:27193060

  10. Inhibition of PRC2 activity by a gain-of-function H3 mutation found in pediatric glioblastoma.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Peter W; Müller, Manuel M; Koletsky, Matthew S; Cordero, Francisco; Lin, Shu; Banaszynski, Laura A; Garcia, Benjamin A; Muir, Tom W; Becher, Oren J; Allis, C David

    2013-05-17

    Sequencing of pediatric gliomas has identified missense mutations Lys27Met (K27M) and Gly34Arg/Val (G34R/V) in genes encoding histone H3.3 (H3F3A) and H3.1 (HIST3H1B). We report that human diffuse intrinsic pontine gliomas (DIPGs) containing the K27M mutation display significantly lower overall amounts of H3 with trimethylated lysine 27 (H3K27me3) and that histone H3K27M transgenes are sufficient to reduce the amounts of H3K27me3 in vitro and in vivo. We find that H3K27M inhibits the enzymatic activity of the Polycomb repressive complex 2 through interaction with the EZH2 subunit. In addition, transgenes containing lysine-to-methionine substitutions at other known methylated lysines (H3K9 and H3K36) are sufficient to cause specific reduction in methylation through inhibition of SET-domain enzymes. We propose that K-to-M substitutions may represent a mechanism to alter epigenetic states in a variety of pathologies. PMID:23539183

  11. Nicotine Replacement: Effects on Postcessation Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Janet; And Others

    1989-01-01

    Examined nicotine replacement effects on postcessation weight gain in smoking cessation volunteers. Randomly assigned abstinent subjects to active nicotine or placebo gum conditions for 10 weeks. Analyses revealed strong evidence for gum effect on weight gain, with active gum users gaining mean total of 3.8 pounds compared with 7.8 pounds for…

  12. Spectroscopic characteristic (FT-IR, FT-Raman, UV, 1H and 13C NMR), theoretical calculations and biological activity of alkali metal homovanillates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samsonowicz, M.; Kowczyk-Sadowy, M.; Piekut, J.; Regulska, E.; Lewandowski, W.

    2016-04-01

    The structural and vibrational properties of lithium, sodium, potassium, rubidium and cesium homovanillates were investigated in this paper. Supplementary molecular spectroscopic methods such as: FT-IR, FT-Raman in the solid phase, UV and NMR were applied. The geometrical parameters and energies were obtained from density functional theory (DFT) B3LYP method with 6-311++G** basis set calculations. The geometry of the molecule was fully optimized, vibrational spectra were calculated and fundamental vibrations were assigned. Geometric and magnetic aromaticity indices, atomic charges, dipole moments, HOMO and LUMO energies were also calculated. The microbial activity of investigated compounds was tested against Bacillus subtilis (BS), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA), Escherichia coli (EC), Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and Candida albicans (CA). The relationship between the molecular structure of tested compounds and their antimicrobial activity was studied. The principal component analysis (PCA) was applied in order to attempt to distinguish the biological activities of these compounds according to selected band wavenumbers. Obtained data show that the FT-IR spectra can be a rapid and reliable analytical tool and a good source of information for the quantitative analysis of the relationship between the molecular structure of the compound and its biological activity.

  13. Manifestations of nonlinear optical effects in a novel SRS-active crystal—natural topaz, Al2(F1-x(OH)x)2SiO4: many-phonon χ(3)-lasing, more than sesqui-octave Stokes and anti-Stokes multi-wavelength comb lasing, cascaded and cross-cascaded χ(3)↔χ(3) Raman-induced interactions under single- and dual-wavelength picosecond collinear coherent pumping, THG and combined SRS-promoting phonon modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaminskii, A. A.; Lux, O.; Rhee, H.; Eichler, H. J.; Yoneda, H.; Shirakawa, A.; Ueda, K.; Rückamp, R.; Bohatý, L.; Becker, P.

    2013-07-01

    Natural crystals of topaz, Al2(F1-x(OH)x)2SiO4 were found to be an attractive Raman gain material and a subject for the investigation of different χ(3)-nonlinear optical effects. We present several manifestations of photon-phonon interactions related to SRS and RFWM processes initiated by picosecond excitations at room and cryogenic (≈9 K) temperature. Among them are octave-spanning Stokes and anti-Stokes generation in the visible and near-IR spectral range, combined SRS-active phonon modes, cross-cascaded up-conversion, χ(3)↔χ(3) lasing, as well as THG via self-sum frequency parametric generation. All recorded Raman-induced lasing lines are identified and attributed to the promoting χ(3)-vibration transitions. Based on the experimental data, theoretical simulations employing Fourier analysis are performed to demonstrate the potential of wide SRS frequency combs in terms of ultra-short pulse generation. On the 50th anniversary of the discovery of stimulated Raman scattering.

  14. A highly sensitive nanoscale pH-sensor using Au nanoparticles linked by a multifunctional Raman-active reporter molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawson, Latevi S.; Chan, James W.; Huser, Thomas

    2014-06-01

    Chemical sensing on the nanoscale has been breaking new ground since the discovery of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). For nanoparticles, controlled particle aggregation is necessary to achieve the largest SERS enhancements. Therefore, aggregating agents such as salts or linker molecules are used in conjunction with chemically sensitive reporters in order to develop robust environmentally sensitive SERS probes. While salt-induced colloidal nanosphere aggregates have produced robust SERS signals, their variability in aggregate size contributes significantly to poor SERS signal reproducibility, which can complicate their use in in vitro cellular studies. Such systems often also lack reproducibility in spectral measurements between different nanoparticle clusters. Preaggregation of colloids via linkers followed by surface functionalization with reporter molecules results in the linker occupying valuable SERS hotspot volume which could otherwise be utilized by additional reporter molecules. Ideally, both functionalities should be obtained from a single molecule. Here, we report the use of 3,5-dimercaptobenzoic acid, a single multifunctional molecule that creates SERS hotspots via the controlled aggregation of nanoparticles, and also reports pH values. We show that 3,5-dimercaptobenzoic acid bound to Au nanospheres results in an excellent pH nanoprobe, producing very robust, and highly reproducible SERS signals that can report pH across the entire physiological range with excellent pH resolution. To demonstrate the efficacy of our novel pH reporters, these probes were also used to image both the particle and pH distribution in the cytoplasm of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs).Chemical sensing on the nanoscale has been breaking new ground since the discovery of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). For nanoparticles, controlled particle aggregation is necessary to achieve the largest SERS enhancements. Therefore, aggregating agents such as salts

  15. Design and analysis of a novel multipumped Raman fiber amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Pengcheng; Zhang, Jun; Hu, Lutan; Li, Qu; Chen, Yingli

    2001-10-01

    We design a Raman Fiber Amplifier(RFA) pumped by 1435nm and 1470nm wavelength lasers.Heavy GeO2-doped optical fibers are adopted as gain media for the more symmetrical gain curve.The amplifier is designed to be distributed in two fibers to avoid intense power transferring between the two pump lasers when propagating in single fiber.Considering the spontaneous Raman scattering and the fiber loss,the numerical calculation is made to optimize the design of the RFA to get wide bandwidth and flat gain.

  16. A highly sensitive nanoscale pH-sensor using Au nanoparticles linked by a multifunctional Raman-active reporter molecule.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Latevi S; Chan, James W; Huser, Thomas

    2014-07-21

    Chemical sensing on the nanoscale has been breaking new ground since the discovery of surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). For nanoparticles, controlled particle aggregation is necessary to achieve the largest SERS enhancements. Therefore, aggregating agents such as salts or linker molecules are used in conjunction with chemically sensitive reporters in order to develop robust environmentally sensitive SERS probes. While salt-induced colloidal nanosphere aggregates have produced robust SERS signals, their variability in aggregate size contributes significantly to poor SERS signal reproducibility, which can complicate their use in in vitro cellular studies. Such systems often also lack reproducibility in spectral measurements between different nanoparticle clusters. Preaggregation of colloids via linkers followed by surface functionalization with reporter molecules results in the linker occupying valuable SERS hotspot volume which could otherwise be utilized by additional reporter molecules. Ideally, both functionalities should be obtained from a single molecule. Here, we report the use of 3,5-dimercaptobenzoic acid, a single multifunctional molecule that creates SERS hotspots via the controlled aggregation of nanoparticles, and also reports pH values. We show that 3,5-dimercaptobenzoic acid bound to Au nanospheres results in an excellent pH nanoprobe, producing very robust, and highly reproducible SERS signals that can report pH across the entire physiological range with excellent pH resolution. To demonstrate the efficacy of our novel pH reporters, these probes were also used to image both the particle and pH distribution in the cytoplasm of human induced pluripotent stem cells (hiPSCs).

  17. Multipolar, time-dynamical model for the loss compensation and lasing of a spherical plasmonic nanoparticle spaser immersed in an active gain medium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veltri, Alessandro; Chipouline, Arkadi; Aradian, Ashod

    2016-09-01

    The plasmonic response of a metal nanoparticle in the presence of surrounding gain elements is studied, using a space and time-dependent model, which integrates a quantum formalism to describe the gain and a classical treatment for the metal. Our model fully takes into account the influence of the system geometry (nanosphere) and offers for the first time, the possibility to describe the temporal evolution of the fields and the coupling among the multipolar modes of the particle. We calculate the lasing threshold value for all multipoles of the spaser, and demonstrate that the dipolar one is lowest. The onset of the lasing instability, in the linear regime, is then studied both with and without external field forcing. We also study the behaviour of the system below the lasing threshold, with the external field, demonstrating the existence of an amplification regime where the nanoparticle’s plasmon is strongly enhanced as the threshold is approached. Finally, a qualitative discussion is provided on later, non-linear stages of the dynamics and the approach to the steady-state of the spaser; in particular, it is shown that, for the considered geometry, the spasing is necessarily multi-modal and multipolar modes are always activated.

  18. Multipolar, time-dynamical model for the loss compensation and lasing of a spherical plasmonic nanoparticle spaser immersed in an active gain medium.

    PubMed

    Veltri, Alessandro; Chipouline, Arkadi; Aradian, Ashod

    2016-01-01

    The plasmonic response of a metal nanoparticle in the presence of surrounding gain elements is studied, using a space and time-dependent model, which integrates a quantum formalism to describe the gain and a classical treatment for the metal. Our model fully takes into account the influence of the system geometry (nanosphere) and offers for the first time, the possibility to describe the temporal evolution of the fields and the coupling among the multipolar modes of the particle. We calculate the lasing threshold value for all multipoles of the spaser, and demonstrate that the dipolar one is lowest. The onset of the lasing instability, in the linear regime, is then studied both with and without external field forcing. We also study the behaviour of the system below the lasing threshold, with the external field, demonstrating the existence of an amplification regime where the nanoparticle's plasmon is strongly enhanced as the threshold is approached. Finally, a qualitative discussion is provided on later, non-linear stages of the dynamics and the approach to the steady-state of the spaser; in particular, it is shown that, for the considered geometry, the spasing is necessarily multi-modal and multipolar modes are always activated. PMID:27625072

  19. Multipolar, time-dynamical model for the loss compensation and lasing of a spherical plasmonic nanoparticle spaser immersed in an active gain medium

    PubMed Central

    Veltri, Alessandro; Chipouline, Arkadi; Aradian, Ashod

    2016-01-01

    The plasmonic response of a metal nanoparticle in the presence of surrounding gain elements is studied, using a space and time-dependent model, which integrates a quantum formalism to describe the gain and a classical treatment for the metal. Our model fully takes into account the influence of the system geometry (nanosphere) and offers for the first time, the possibility to describe the temporal evolution of the fields and the coupling among the multipolar modes of the particle. We calculate the lasing threshold value for all multipoles of the spaser, and demonstrate that the dipolar one is lowest. The onset of the lasing instability, in the linear regime, is then studied both with and without external field forcing. We also study the behaviour of the system below the lasing threshold, with the external field, demonstrating the existence of an amplification regime where the nanoparticle’s plasmon is strongly enhanced as the threshold is approached. Finally, a qualitative discussion is provided on later, non-linear stages of the dynamics and the approach to the steady-state of the spaser; in particular, it is shown that, for the considered geometry, the spasing is necessarily multi-modal and multipolar modes are always activated. PMID:27625072

  20. Vibrational Stark Effects of Carbonyl Probes Applied to Reinterpret IR and Raman Data for Enzyme Inhibitors in Terms of Electric Fields at the Active Site.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Samuel H; Boxer, Steven G

    2016-09-15

    IR and Raman frequency shifts have been reported for numerous probes of enzyme transition states, leading to diverse interpretations. In the case of the model enzyme ketosteroid isomerase (KSI), we have argued that IR spectral shifts for a carbonyl probe at the active site can provide a connection between the active site electric field and the activation free energy (Fried et al. Science 2014, 346, 1510-1514). Here we generalize this approach to a much broader set of carbonyl probes (e.g., oxoesters, thioesters, and amides), first establishing the sensitivity of each probe to an electric field using vibrational Stark spectroscopy, vibrational solvatochromism, and MD simulations, and then applying these results to reinterpret data already in the literature for enzymes such as 4-chlorobenzoyl-CoA dehalogenase and serine proteases. These results demonstrate that the vibrational Stark effect provides a general framework for estimating the electrostatic contribution to the catalytic rate and may provide a metric for the design or modification of enzymes. Opportunities and limitations of the approach are also described. PMID:27541577

  1. The investigation of a series of n-hydroxybenzoic acids ( n = p, m, o) on a new surface enhanced Raman scattering active substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Li-Ran; Fang, Yan

    2005-12-01

    Ag nanoparticles, organized on indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, can act as a new surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrate as well as a dry electrode. Compared with the traditional SERS-active substrate, its notable advantage is that the microcosmic changes of the film can be reflected by the SERS spectrum during the investigation of the film's electrical and other macroscopic characteristics. To illuminate the above-mentioned property of this new substrate, a series of n-hydroxybenzoic acids ( n-HBA; n = p, m and o) was tested as probe molecules by SERS technique. These SERS spectra indicate that the significant changes of frequencies as well as intensities, respectively, arise from the changes of the adsorption behavior along with the proportional variation of molecules and silver nanoparticles. Excellent SERS signals prove that the silver nanoparticles-coated ITO is a highly SERS-active substrate and can efficiently reflect the microcosmic property of the film, which suggest it has promising potential of being a new technique for further application in the field of thin-film research.

  2. The investigation of a series of n-hydroxybenzoic acids (n=p, m, o) on a new surface enhanced Raman scattering active substrate.

    PubMed

    Wang, Li-Ran; Fang, Yan

    2005-12-01

    Ag nanoparticles, organized on indium tin oxide (ITO) surface, can act as a new surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) active substrate as well as a dry electrode. Compared with the traditional SERS-active substrate, its notable advantage is that the microcosmic changes of the film can be reflected by the SERS spectrum during the investigation of the film's electrical and other macroscopic characteristics. To illuminate the above-mentioned property of this new substrate, a series of n-hydroxybenzoic acids (n-HBA; n=p, m and o) was tested as probe molecules by SERS technique. These SERS spectra indicate that the significant changes of frequencies as well as intensities, respectively, arise from the changes of the adsorption behavior along with the proportional variation of molecules and silver nanoparticles. Excellent SERS signals prove that the silver nanoparticles-coated ITO is a highly SERS-active substrate and can efficiently reflect the microcosmic property of the film, which suggest it has promising potential of being a new technique for further application in the field of thin-film research.

  3. Normal hematopoiesis and lack of β-catenin activation in osteoblasts of patients and mice harboring Lrp5 gain-of-function mutations☆, ☆☆

    PubMed Central

    Galán-Díez, Marta; Isa, Adiba; Ponzetti, Marco; Nielsen, Morten Frost; Kassem, Moustapha; Kousteni, Stavroula

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblasts are emerging regulators of myeloid malignancies since genetic alterations in them, such as constitutive activation of β-catenin, instigate their appearance. The LDL receptor-related protein 5 (LRP5), initially proposed to be a co-receptor for Wnt proteins, in fact favors bone formation by suppressing gut-serotonin synthesis. This function of Lrp5 occurring in the gut is independent of β-catenin activation in osteoblasts. However, it is unknown whether Lrp5 can act directly in osteoblast to influence other functions that require β-catenin signaling, particularly, the deregulation of hematopoiesis and leukemogenic properties of β-catenin activation in osteoblasts, that lead to development of acute myeloid leukemia (AML). Using mice with gain-of-function (GOF) Lrp5 alleles (Lrp5A214V) that recapitulate the human high bone mass (HBM) phenotype, as well as patients with the T253I HBM Lrp5 mutation, we show here that Lrp5 GOF mutations in both humans and mice do not activate β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts. Consistent with a lack of β-catenin activation in their osteoblasts, Lrp5A214V mice have normal trilinear hematopoiesis. In contrast to leukemic mice with constitutive activation of β-catenin in osteoblasts (Ctnnb1CAosb), accumulation of early myeloid progenitors, a characteristic of AML, myeloid-blasts in blood, and segmented neutrophils or dysplastic megakaryocytes in the bone marrow, are not observed in Lrp5A214V mice. Likewise, peripheral blood count analysis in HBM patients showed normal hematopoiesis, normal percentage of myeloid cells, and lack of anemia. We conclude that Lrp5 GOF mutations do not activate β-catenin signaling in osteoblasts. As a result, myeloid lineage differentiation is normal in HBM patients and mice. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Tumor Microenvironment Regulation of Cancer Cell Survival, Metastasis, Inflammation, and Immune Surveillance edited by Peter Ruvolo and Gregg L. Semenza. PMID:26681532

  4. Analysis of lipsticks using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gardner, P; Bertino, M F; Weimer, R; Hazelrigg, E

    2013-10-10

    In this study, 80 lipsticks were obtained and evaluated using Raman spectroscopy at excitation wavelengths of 532 and 780 nm. Fluorescence severely limited analysis with the 532 nm line while the 780 nm line proved useful for all samples analyzed. It was possible to differentiate 95% of the lipsticks evaluated based on one or more Raman peaks. However, there were no peak trends observed that could be used to identify a manufacturer or categorize a sample. In situ analysis of lipstick smears was found to be possible even from several Raman active substrates, but was occasionally limited by background fluorescence and in extreme cases, photodegradation.

  5. Electride Mediated Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anderson, Mark S. (Inventor)

    2016-01-01

    An electride may provide surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). The electride, a compound where the electrons serve as anions, may be a ceramic electride, such as a conductive ceramic derived from mayenite, or an organic electride, for example. The textured electride surface or electride particles may strongly enhance the Raman scattering of organic or other Raman active analytes. This may also provide a sensitive method for monitoring the chemistry and electronic environment at the electride surface. The results are evidence of a new class of polariton (i.e., a surface electride-polariton resonance mechanism) that is analogous to the surface plasmon-polariton resonance that mediates conventional SERS.

  6. Analysis of lipsticks using Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gardner, P; Bertino, M F; Weimer, R; Hazelrigg, E

    2013-10-10

    In this study, 80 lipsticks were obtained and evaluated using Raman spectroscopy at excitation wavelengths of 532 and 780 nm. Fluorescence severely limited analysis with the 532 nm line while the 780 nm line proved useful for all samples analyzed. It was possible to differentiate 95% of the lipsticks evaluated based on one or more Raman peaks. However, there were no peak trends observed that could be used to identify a manufacturer or categorize a sample. In situ analysis of lipstick smears was found to be possible even from several Raman active substrates, but was occasionally limited by background fluorescence and in extreme cases, photodegradation. PMID:24053867

  7. How common is "parking" among Social Security Disability Insurance beneficiaries? Evidence from the 1999 change in the earnings level of substantial gainful activity.

    PubMed

    Schimmel, Jody; Stapleton, David C; Song, Jae G

    2011-01-01

    Fewer Social Security Disability Insurance (DI) beneficiaries have their earnings suspended or terminated because of work than those who are actually working, partly because beneficiaries "park" earnings at a level below substantial gainful activity (SGA) to retain benefits. We assess the extent of parking by exploiting the 1999 change in the SGA earnings level from $500 to $700 monthly for nonblind beneficiaries using a difference-indifference analysis that compares two annual cohorts of beneficiaries who completed their trial work period, one that was affected by the SGA change and one that was not. Our impact estimates, along with results from other sources, suggest that from 0.2 to 0.4 percent of all DI beneficiaries were parked below the SGA level in the typical month from 2002 through 2006. The SGA change did not yield any difference in mean earnings, although it did result in a small reduction in months spent off of the rolls because of work.

  8. The Study of Electromagnetic Wave Propogation in Photonic Crystals Via Planewave Based Transfer (Scattering) Matrix Method with Active Gain Material Applications

    SciTech Connect

    LI, Ming

    2007-01-01

    In this dissertation, a set of numerical simulation tools are developed under previous work to efficiently and accurately study one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional(2D), 2D slab and three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal structures and their defects effects by means of spectrum (transmission, reflection, absorption), band structure (dispersion relation), and electric and/or magnetic fields distribution (mode profiles). Furthermore, the lasing property and spontaneous emission behaviors are studied when active gain materials are presented in the photonic crystal structures. Various physical properties such as resonant cavity quality factor, waveguide loss, propagation group velocity of electromagnetic wave and light-current curve (for lasing devices) can be obtained from the developed software package.

  9. Raman Lidar (RL) Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Newsom, RK

    2009-03-01

    The Raman lidar at the ARM Climate Research Facility (ACRF) Southern Great Plains (SGP) Central Facility (SGPRL) is an active, ground-based laser remote sensing instrument that measures height and time resolved profiles of water vapor mixing ratio and several cloud- and aerosol-related quantities. The system is a non-commercial custom-built instrument developed by Sandia National Laboratories specifically for the ARM Program. It is fully computer automated, and will run unattended for many days following a brief (~5-minute) startup period. The self-contained system (requiring only external electrical power) is housed in a climate-controlled 8’x8’x20’ standard shipping container.

  10. Global expression profiling reveals gain-of-function onco-genic activity of a mutated thyroid hormone receptor in thyroid carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Changxue; Mishra, Alok; Zhu, Yuelin J; Meltzer, Paul; Cheng, Sheue-yann

    2011-01-01

    Thyroid hormone receptors (TRs) are critical in regulating gene expression in normal physiological processes. Decreased expression and/or somatic mutations of TRs have been shown to be associated several types of human cancers including liver, breast, lung, and thyroid. To understand the molecular mechanisms by which mutated TRs promote carcinogenesis, an animal model of follicular thyroid carcinoma (FTC) (Thrbpv/pv mice) was used in the present study. The Thrbpv/pv mouse harbors a knockin dominant negative PV mutation, identified in a patient with resistance to thyroid hormone. To understand whether oncogenic actions of PV involve not only the loss of normal TR functions but also gain-of-function activities, we compared the gene expression profiles of thyroid lesions in Thrbpv/pv mice and Thra1-/- Thrb-/- mice that also spontaneously develop FTC, but with less severe malignancy. Analysis of the cDNA microarray data derived from microdissected thyroid tumor cells of these two mice showed contrasting global gene expression profiles. With stringent selection using 2.5-fold change (p<0.01) in cDNA microarray analysis, 241 genes with altered gene expression were identified. Nearly half of the genes (n=103: 42.7% of total) with altered gene expression in thyroid tumor cells of Thrbpv/pv mice were associated with tumorigenesis and metastasis; some of these genes function as oncogenes in human thyroid cancers. The remaining genes were found to function in transcriptional regulation, RNA processing, cell proliferation, apoptosis, angiogenesis, and cytoskeleton modification. These results indicate that the more aggressive thyroid tumor progression in Thrbpv/pv mice was not due simply to the loss of tumor suppressor functions of TR via mutation but also, importantly, to gain-of-function in the oncogenic activities of PV to drive thyroid carcinogenesis. Thus, the present study identifies a novel mechanism by which a mutated TRβ evolves with an oncogenic advantage to promote

  11. Remote Raman measurement techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leonard, D. A.

    1981-01-01

    The use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications is surveyed. A feasibility index is defined as a means to characterize the practicality of a given remote Raman measurement application. Specific applications of Raman scattering to the measurement of atmospheric water vapor profiles, methane plumes from liquid natural gas spills, and subsurface ocean temperature profiles are described. This paper will survey the use of laser Raman measurement techniques in remote sensing applications using as examples specific systems that the Computer Genetics Corporation (CGC) group has developed and engineered.

  12. Weight gain - unintentional

    MedlinePlus

    ... as much as 25 to 30 pounds. This weight gain is not simply due to eating more. ... or a dietitian about how to make a healthy eating plan and set ... be causing the weight gain without talking with your provider.

  13. The study of electromagnetic wave propagation in photonic crystals via planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method with active gain material applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming

    In this dissertation, a set of numerical simulation tools are developed under previous work to efficiently and accurately study one-dimensional (1D), two-dimensional (2D), 2D slab and three-dimensional (3D) photonic crystal structures and their defects effects by means of spectrum (transmission, reflection, absorption), band structure (dispersion relation), and electric and/or magnetic fields distribution (mode profiles). Further more, the lasing property and spontaneous emission behaviors are studied when active gain materials are presented in the photonic crystal structures. First, the planewave based transfer (scattering) matrix method (TMM) is described in every detail along with a brief review of photonic crystal history (Chapter 1 and 2). As a frequency domain method, TMM has the following major advantages over other numerical methods: (1) the planewave basis makes Maxwell's Equations a linear algebra problem and there are mature numerical package to solve linear algebra problem such as Lapack and Scalapack (for parallel computation). (2) Transfer (scattering) matrix method make 3D problem into 2D slices and link all slices together via the scattering matrix (S matrix) which reduces computation time and memory usage dramatically and makes 3D real photonic crystal devices design possible; and this also makes the simulated domain no length limitation along the propagation direction (ideal for waveguide simulation). (3) It is a frequency domain method and calculation results are all for steady state, without the influences of finite time span convolution effects and/or transient effects. (4) TMM can treat dispersive material (such as metal at visible light) naturally without introducing any additional computation; and meanwhile TMM can also deal with anisotropic material and magnetic material (such as perfectly matched layer) naturally from its algorithms. (5) Extension of TMM to deal with active gain material can be done through an iteration procedure with gain

  14. Microfluidics and Raman microscopy: current applications and future challenges.

    PubMed

    Chrimes, Adam F; Khoshmanesh, Khashayar; Stoddart, Paul R; Mitchell, Arnan; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh

    2013-07-01

    Raman microscopy systems are becoming increasingly widespread and accessible for characterising chemical species. Microfluidic systems are also progressively finding their way into real world applications. Therefore, it is anticipated that the integration of Raman systems with microfluidics will become increasingly attractive and practical. This review aims to provide an overview of Raman microscopy-microfluidics integrated systems for researchers who are actively interested in utilising these tools. The fundamental principles and application strengths of Raman microscopy are discussed in the context of microfluidics. Various configurations of microfluidics that incorporate Raman microscopy methods are presented, with applications highlighted. Data analysis methods are discussed, with a focus on assisting the interpretation of Raman-microfluidics data from complex samples. Finally, possible future directions of Raman-microfluidic systems are presented.

  15. Gain-of-Function Mutations in the Toll-Like Receptor Pathway: TPL2-Mediated ERK1/ERK2 MAPK Activation, a Path to Tumorigenesis in Lymphoid Neoplasms?

    PubMed Central

    Rousseau, Simon; Martel, Guy

    2016-01-01

    Lymphoid neoplasms form a family of cancers affecting B-cells, T-cells, and NK cells. The Toll-Like Receptor (TLR) signaling adapter molecule MYD88 is the most frequently mutated gene in these neoplasms. This signaling adaptor relays signals from TLRs to downstream effector pathways such as the Nuclear Factor kappa B (NFκB) and Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) pathways to regulate innate immune responses. Gain-of-function mutations such as MYD88[L265P] activate downstream signaling pathways in absence of cognate ligands for TLRs, resulting in increased cellular proliferation and survival. This article reports an analysis of non-synonymous somatic mutations found in the TLR signaling network in lymphoid neoplasms. In accordance with previous reports, mutations map to MYD88 pro-inflammatory signaling and not TRIF-mediated Type I IFN production. Interestingly, the analysis of somatic mutations found downstream of the core TLR-signaling network uncovered a strong association with the ERK1/2 MAPK cascade. In support of this analysis, heterologous expression of MYD88[L265P] in HEK293 cells led to ERK1/2 MAPK phosphorylation in addition to NFκB activation. Moreover, this activation is dependent on the protein kinase Tumor Promoting Locus 2 (TPL2), activated downstream of the IKK complex. Activation of ERK1/2 would then lead to activation, amongst others, of MYC and hnRNPA1, two proteins previously shown to contribute to tumor formation in lymphoid neoplasms. Taken together, this analysis suggests that TLR-mediated ERK1/2 activation via TPL2 may be a novel path to tumorigenesis. Therefore, the hypothesis proposed is that inhibition of ERK1/2 MAPK activation would prevent tumor growth downstream of MYD88[L265]. It will be interesting to test whether pharmacological inhibitors of this pathway show efficacy in primary tumor cells derived from hematologic malignancies such as Waldenstrom's Macroglobulinemia, where the majority of the cells carry the MYD88[L265P

  16. Raman tensors and their application in structural studies of biological systems.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Masamichi; Benevides, James M; Thomas, George J

    2009-01-01

    The Raman scattering of a molecule is generated by interactions of its electrons with incident light. The electric vector of the Raman scattered light is related to the electric vector of the incident light through a characteristic Raman tensor. A unique Raman tensor exists for each Raman-active molecular vibrational mode. In the case of biologically important macromolecules Raman tensors have been determined for a few hundred vibrational Raman bands. These include proteins and their amino acid constituents, as well as nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and their nucleotide constituents. In this review Raman tensors for 39 representative vibrational Raman bands of biological molecules are considered. We present details of the Raman tensor determinations and discuss their application in structural studies of filamentous bacteriophages (fd, Pf1, Pf3 and PH75), fowl feather rachis and eyespots of the protists, Chlamydomonas and Euglena. PMID:19282645

  17. Raman tensors and their application in structural studies of biological systems.

    PubMed

    Tsuboi, Masamichi; Benevides, James M; Thomas, George J

    2009-01-01

    The Raman scattering of a molecule is generated by interactions of its electrons with incident light. The electric vector of the Raman scattered light is related to the electric vector of the incident light through a characteristic Raman tensor. A unique Raman tensor exists for each Raman-active molecular vibrational mode. In the case of biologically important macromolecules Raman tensors have been determined for a few hundred vibrational Raman bands. These include proteins and their amino acid constituents, as well as nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and their nucleotide constituents. In this review Raman tensors for 39 representative vibrational Raman bands of biological molecules are considered. We present details of the Raman tensor determinations and discuss their application in structural studies of filamentous bacteriophages (fd, Pf1, Pf3 and PH75), fowl feather rachis and eyespots of the protists, Chlamydomonas and Euglena.

  18. Raman Tensors and their application in structural studies of biological systems

    PubMed Central

    Tsuboi, Masamichi; Benevides, James M.; Thomas, George J.

    2009-01-01

    The Raman scattering of a molecule is generated by interactions of its electrons with incident light. The electric vector of the Raman scattered light is related to the electric vector of the incident light through a characteristic Raman tensor. A unique Raman tensor exists for each Raman-active molecular vibrational mode. In the case of biologically important macromolecules Raman tensors have been determined for a few hundred vibrational Raman bands. These include proteins and their amino acid constituents, as well as nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and their nucleotide constituents. In this review Raman tensors for 39 representative vibrational Raman bands of biological molecules are considered. We present details of the Raman tensor determinations and discuss their application in structural studies of filamentous bacteriophages (fd, Pf1, Pf3 and PH75), fowl feather rachis and eyespots of the protists, Chlamydomonas and Euglena. PMID:19282645

  19. Single gain peak from modulation instability in As2Se3 chalcogenide glass photonic crystal fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Helin; Yang, Aijun

    2016-09-01

    With the As2Se3 photonic crystal fiber (PCF), the effect of pump power and wavelength on modulation instability (MI) gain is studied in detail. Due to high Raman scattering effect and high nonlinearity of As2Se3 PCF, ultra-broadband MI gain is obtained when appropriate pump power and wavelength is chosen, and the optimal MI gain bandwidth reaches 2812 nm. More importantly, competing between Raman scattering and four-wave mixing results in a single gain peak observed in the anti-Stokes region of As2Se3 PCF when pump power is higher than about 3000 W, while there is no gain spectrum in the fiber Stokes region. The phenomenon is found for the first time, and the obtained single gain peak mainly results from Raman scattering effect.

  20. Acting to gain information

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenchein, Stanley J.; Burns, J. Brian; Chapman, David; Kaelbling, Leslie P.; Kahn, Philip; Nishihara, H. Keith; Turk, Matthew

    1993-01-01

    This report is concerned with agents that act to gain information. In previous work, we developed agent models combining qualitative modeling with real-time control. That work, however, focused primarily on actions that affect physical states of the environment. The current study extends that work by explicitly considering problems of active information-gathering and by exploring specialized aspects of information-gathering in computational perception, learning, and language. In our theoretical investigations, we analyzed agents into their perceptual and action components and identified these with elements of a state-machine model of control. The mathematical properties of each was developed in isolation and interactions were then studied. We considered the complexity dimension and the uncertainty dimension and related these to intelligent-agent design issues. We also explored active information gathering in visual processing. Working within the active vision paradigm, we developed a concept of 'minimal meaningful measurements' suitable for demand-driven vision. We then developed and tested an architecture for ongoing recognition and interpretation of visual information. In the area of information gathering through learning, we explored techniques for coping with combinatorial complexity. We also explored information gathering through explicit linguistic action by considering the nature of conversational rules, coordination, and situated communication behavior.

  1. Coherent Raman Umklappscattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yuan, L.; Lanin, A. A.; Jha, P. K.; Traverso, A. J.; Voronine, D. V.; Dorfman, K. E.; Fedotov, A. B.; Welch, G. R.; Sokolov, A. V.; Zheltikov, A. M.; Scully, M. O.

    2011-10-01

    We identify the conditions for coherent Raman scattering to enable the generation of phase-matched, highly directional, nearly-backward-propagating light beams. Our analysis indicates a unique possibility for standoff detection of trace gases using their rotational and vibrational spectroscopic signals. We demonstrate spatial selectivity of Raman transitions and variability of possible Umklappscattering implementation schemes and laser sources.

  2. Raman crystallography of RNA.

    PubMed

    Gong, Bo; Chen, Jui-Hui; Yajima, Rieko; Chen, Yuanyuan; Chase, Elaine; Chadalavada, Durga M; Golden, Barbara L; Carey, Paul R; Bevilacqua, Philip C

    2009-10-01

    Raman crystallography is the application of Raman spectroscopy to single crystals. This technique has been applied to a variety of protein molecules where it has provided unique information about biopolymer folding, substrate binding, and catalysis. Here, we describe the application of Raman crystallography to functional RNA molecules. RNA represents unique opportunities and challenges for Raman crystallography. One issue that confounds studies of RNA is its tendency to adopt multiple non-functional folds. Raman crystallography has the advantage that it isolates a single state of the RNA within the crystal and can evaluate its fold, metal ion binding properties (ligand identity, stoichiometry, and affinity), proton binding properties (identity, stoichiometry, and affinity), and catalytic potential. In particular, base-specific stretches can be identified and then associated with the binding of metal ions and protons. Because measurements are carried out in the hanging drop at ambient, rather than cryo, conditions and because RNA crystals tend to be approximately 70% solvent, RNA dynamics and conformational changes become experimentally accessible. This review focuses on experimental setup and procedures, acquisition and interpretation of Raman data, and determination of physicochemical properties of the RNA. Raman crystallographic and solution biochemical experiments on the HDV RNA enzyme are summarized and found to be in excellent agreement. Remarkably, characterization of the crystalline state has proven to help rather than hinder functional characterization of functional RNA, most likely because the tendency of RNA to fold heterogeneously is limited in a crystalline environment. Future applications of Raman crystallography to RNA are briefly discussed.

  3. Portable raman explosives detection

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, David Steven; Scharff, Robert J

    2008-01-01

    Recent advances in portable Raman instruments have dramatically increased their application to emergency response and forensics, as well as homeland defense. This paper reviews the relevant attributes and disadvantages of portable Raman spectroscopy, both essentially and instrumentally, to the task of explosives detection in the field.

  4. Theoretical studies of Resonance Enhanced Stimulated Raman Scattering (RESRS) of frequency-doubled Alexandrite laser wavelength in cesium vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawandy, Nabil M.

    1987-01-01

    The solutions for the imaginary susceptibility of the Raman field transition with arbitrary relaxation rates and field strengths are examined for three different sets of relaxation rates. These rates correspond to: (1) Far Infrared (FIR) Raman lasers in the diabatic collision regime without consideration of coupled population decay in a closed system, (2) Raman FIR lasers in the diabatic collision regime with coupled population conserving decay, and (3) IR Raman gain in cesium vapor. The model is further expanded to include Doppler broadening and used to predict the peak gain as a function of detuning for a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser-pumped cesium vapor gain cell.

  5. Experimental realization of a two-photon Raman laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, William J.

    1999-11-01

    This thesis describes the development of a novel quantum oscillator known as a two-photon Raman laser. It is based on two-photon stimulated emission in strongly driven potassium atoms. Two-photon lasers were first proposed in the 1960's, but only recently have such devices been experimentally realized. The two-photon Raman laser is an important step forward as it provides the first opportunity to study the turn-on behavior, instabilities, and noise properties of a pure two-photon optical device. The necessary ingredients for a two-photon laser are a medium displaying two-photon laser beam amplification and an optical resonator. In my two-photon Raman laser the amplification arises from a multi-photon process in which state-prepared potassium atoms undergo two-photon Raman transitions. This amplification process was studied using a high-density, small-Doppler-width potassium atomic beam that was driven by a strong pump laser and probed by a weak probe laser. I observed two-photon Raman amplification for a range of pump laser frequencies, atomic beam number densities, and probe beam powers. The two-photon Raman gain is linearly dependent on the input probe power as expected for a two-photon process. This gain mechanism is also spectrally isolated from other mechanisms occurring in strongly driven potassium atoms. The optical resonator consists of a sub-confocal high finesse cavity. The cavity is constructed so that the two-photon Raman process will lase while all other processes are suppressed. The cavity buildup is sufficient to support lasing given the maximum two-photon Raman gain observed in the amplification experiment. Using this apparatus I have observed two-photon lasing. In agreement with theoretical predictions, an external photon source is required to initiate two-photon lasing. I initiated the two-photon laser using an externally injected pulse of light and using a frequency degenerate one-photon process. The two-photon Raman laser threshold was mapped as

  6. Neutron activation analysis and X-ray Rayleigh and Raman scattering of hair and nail clippings as noninvasive bioindicators for Cu liver status in Labrador Retrievers

    PubMed Central

    Bueno, Maria Izabel Maretti Silveira; Bortoleto, Gisele G.; Hoffmann, Gaby; van den Ingh, Ted S. G. A. M.; Rothuizen, Jan

    2008-01-01

    The heritability of chronic hepatitis in the Labrador Retriever is studied with the aim of identifying the related gene mutation. Identification of cases and controls is largely based on instrumental neutron activation analysis (INAA) Cu determination in liver biopsies. The burden for these companion animals may be reduced if nail clippings and hair (fur) could serve as a noninvasive indicator for the hepatic Cu concentrations. No correlation was found between hepatic Cu concentrations and Cu concentrations in hair and nail samples. However, hair and nail samples were also analyzed by X-ray tube excitation, taking advantage of the X-ray Compton, Rayleigh, and Raman scattering which reflects the organic components such as the type of melanin. Principal component analysis provided first indications that some differentiation between healthy and sick dogs could indeed be obtained from hair and nail analysis. Figure Principal component analysis of scattered region of x-ray fluorescence spectra of Labrador dog nails, demonstrating the differentiation towards dogs with high and low Cu liver levels (respectively positive and negative PC2 values) reflecting hepatitis, as well as gender (PC1: negative values for female and positive values for males) PMID:18264701

  7. Exploring the structure-activity relations of N-carbethoxyphthalimide by combining FTIR, FT-Raman and NMR spectroscopy with DFT electronic structure method.

    PubMed

    Arjunan, V; Govindaraja, S Thillai; Ravindran, P; Mohan, S

    2014-01-01

    The complete vibrational assignment and analysis of N-carbethoxyphthalimide were carried out using the experimental FTIR and FT-Raman data in the range 4000-450 and 4000-100 cm(-1), respectively along with quantum chemical studies of the compound using DFT-B3LYP gradient calculations employing the 6-31G**, 6-311++G** and cc-pVDZ basis sets. The 1H (400 MHz; CDCl3) and 13C (100 MHz;CDCl3) nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectra were also recorded. Due to the partial ionic nature of the carbonyl group, the carbon atoms C1 and C3 in NCEP show downfield effect and the corresponding observed chemical shift of both are observed at 163.76 ppm and the carbon atom C16 in the carbethoxy group also give signal in the downfield at 148.45 ppm. The active sites are determined by molecular electrostatic potential. The possible electronic transitions are determined by HOMO and LUMO orbital shapes and their energies. The structure-chemical reactivity relations of the compound were determined through chemical potential, global hardness, global softness, electronegativity, electrophilicity and local reactivity descriptors by conceptual DFT methods. PMID:24211807

  8. Incorporation of low energy activated nitrogen onto HOPG surface: Chemical states and thermal stability studies by in-situ XPS and Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chandran, Maneesh; Shasha, Michal; Michaelson, Shaul; Hoffman, Alon

    2016-09-01

    In this paper we report the chemical states analysis of activated nitrogen incorporated highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) surface under well-controlled conditions. Nitrogen incorporation is carried out by two different processes: an indirect RF nitrogen plasma and low energy (1 keV) N2+ implantation. Bonding configuration, concentration and thermal stability of the incorporated nitrogen species by aforesaid processes are systematically compared by in-situ X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Relatively large concentration of nitrogen is incorporated onto RF nitride HOPG surface (16.2 at.%), compared to N2+ implanted HOPG surface (7.7 at.%). The evolution of N 1s components (N1, N2, N3) with annealing temperature is comprehensively discussed, which indicates that the formation and reorganization of local chemical bonding states are determined by the process of nitridation and not by the prior chemical conditioning (i.e., amorphization or hydrogenation) of the HOPG surface. A combined XPS and Raman spectroscopy studies revealed that N2+ implantation process resulted in a high level of defects to the HOPG surface, which cannot be annealed-out by heat treatment up to 1000 °C. On the other hand, the RF nitrogen plasma process did not produce a high level of surface defects, while incorporating nearly the same amount of stable nitrogen species.

  9. Fabrication of silver nanoparticles embedded into polyvinyl alcohol (Ag/PVA) composite nanofibrous films through electrospinning for antibacterial and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhijie; Wu, Yunping; Wang, Zhihua; Zou, Xueyan; Zhao, Yanbao; Sun, Lei

    2016-12-01

    Silver nanoparticle-embedded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were prepared through electrospinning technique, using as antimicrobial agents and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in liquid phase, followed by evenly dispersing in PVA solution. After electrospinning of the mixed solution at room temperature, the PVA embedded with Ag NPs (Ag/PVA) composite nanofibers were obtained. The morphologies and structures of the as-synthesized Ag nanoparticles and Ag/PVA fibers were characterized by the techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Ag NPs have an average diameter of 13.8nm, were found to be uniformly dispersed in PVA nanofibers. The Ag/PVA nanofibers provided robust antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) microorganisms. It's also found that Ag/PVA nanofibers make a significant contribution to the high sensitivity of SERS to 4-mercaptophenol (4-MPh) molecules. PMID:27612736

  10. Fabrication of silver nanoparticles embedded into polyvinyl alcohol (Ag/PVA) composite nanofibrous films through electrospinning for antibacterial and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) activities.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhijie; Wu, Yunping; Wang, Zhihua; Zou, Xueyan; Zhao, Yanbao; Sun, Lei

    2016-12-01

    Silver nanoparticle-embedded polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) nanofibers were prepared through electrospinning technique, using as antimicrobial agents and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates. Ag nanoparticles (NPs) were synthesized in liquid phase, followed by evenly dispersing in PVA solution. After electrospinning of the mixed solution at room temperature, the PVA embedded with Ag NPs (Ag/PVA) composite nanofibers were obtained. The morphologies and structures of the as-synthesized Ag nanoparticles and Ag/PVA fibers were characterized by the techniques of transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), ultraviolet-visible absorption spectroscopy (UV-vis), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Ag NPs have an average diameter of 13.8nm, were found to be uniformly dispersed in PVA nanofibers. The Ag/PVA nanofibers provided robust antibacterial activities against both Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Gram-negative Escherichia coli (E. coli) microorganisms. It's also found that Ag/PVA nanofibers make a significant contribution to the high sensitivity of SERS to 4-mercaptophenol (4-MPh) molecules.

  11. Resonance Raman scattering of butadiene: Vibronic activity of a bu mode demonstrates the presence of a 1Ag symmetry excited electronic state at low energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chadwick, Richard R.; Zgierski, Marek Z.; Hudson, Bruce S.

    1991-11-01

    Resonance Raman spectra of buta-1,3-diene-d0 and buta-1,3-diene-1,1,4,4-d4 have been obtained with ultraviolet excitation from 239.5 to 199.9 nm. Activity of the first overtone of mode 24, the bu symmetry CCC chain deformation mode, is observed with excitation energy below the origin of the 1 1Bu state. This vibronic activity of a nontotally symmetric mode is shown to be evidence of resonance with the 2 1Ag state of butadiene. A quantitative analysis of the ratio of intensities of 2ν24 to ν9, the ag symmetry CCC chain deformation mode, demonstrates that enhancement of 2ν24 cannot be due to resonance with the 1 1Bu state. The resonance enhancement behavior of this overtone band also shows that it is of vibronic origin rather than Franck-Condon allowed. The intensity pattern seen for the modes of bu symmetry is fully consistent with the results of a quantitative calculation of vibronic activity for the eight bu symmetry modes. The 2 1Ag electronic state is estimated to be ca. 0.25 eV below the 1 1Bu electronic state. Overtones of out-of-plane C-H bending and CH2 twisting modes are seen with excitation radiation near the peak of the transition to the 2 1Ag state, indicating that the 2 1Ag state of butadiene has appreciably lower resistance to deformation along out-of-plane coordinates than does the ground electronic state. This is consistent with the expectations of semiempirical calculations.

  12. Raman characterization of platinum diselenide thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    O'Brien, Maria; McEvoy, Niall; Motta, Carlo; Zheng, Jian-Yao; Berner, Nina C.; Kotakoski, Jani; Elibol, Kenan; Pennycook, Timothy J.; Meyer, Jannik C.; Yim, Chanyoung; Abid, Mohamed; Hallam, Toby; Donegan, John F.; Sanvito, Stefano; Duesberg, Georg S.

    2016-06-01

    Platinum diselenide (PtSe2) is a newly discovered 2D material which is of great interest for applications in electronics and catalysis. PtSe2 films were synthesized by thermally assisted selenization of predeposited platinum films and scanning transmission electron microscopy revealed the crystal structure of these films to be 1T. Raman scattering of these films was studied as a function of film thickness, laser wavelength and laser polarization. E g and A 1g Raman active modes were identified using polarization measurements in the Raman setup. These modes were found to display a clear position and intensity dependence with film thickness, for multiple excitation wavelengths, and their peak positions agree with simulated phonon dispersion curves for PtSe2. These results highlight the practicality of using Raman spectroscopy as a prime characterization technique for newly synthesized 2D materials.

  13. Raman Scattering of Azafullerene C48N12

    SciTech Connect

    Manaa, M R

    2004-09-22

    Raman scattering activities and Raman-active frequencies are reported for the minimum energy structure of azafullerene C{sub 48}N{sub 12} at the B3LYP/6-31G* level of theory. Analysis of the vibrational spectrum shows that the most intense IR and Raman bands are those associated with C-C vibrations, and that strong IR and Raman C-N vibrations occur below 1400 cm{sup -1}. Together with the recently reported infrared, optical absorption and x-ray spectroscopies, a complete identification of this cluster should now be feasible.

  14. Gain weighted eigenspace assignment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Davidson, John B.; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1994-01-01

    This report presents the development of the gain weighted eigenspace assignment methodology. This provides a designer with a systematic methodology for trading off eigenvector placement versus gain magnitudes, while still maintaining desired closed-loop eigenvalue locations. This is accomplished by forming a cost function composed of a scalar measure of error between desired and achievable eigenvectors and a scalar measure of gain magnitude, determining analytical expressions for the gradients, and solving for the optimal solution by numerical iteration. For this development the scalar measure of gain magnitude is chosen to be a weighted sum of the squares of all the individual elements of the feedback gain matrix. An example is presented to demonstrate the method. In this example, solutions yielding achievable eigenvectors close to the desired eigenvectors are obtained with significant reductions in gain magnitude compared to a solution obtained using a previously developed eigenspace (eigenstructure) assignment method.

  15. Efficient surface plasmon amplification in gain-assisted silver nanotubes and associated dimers

    SciTech Connect

    Yu, HaiQun; Jiang, ShuMin; Wu, DaJian

    2015-04-21

    SPASER (surface plasmon amplification by stimulated emission of radiation) properties in active SiO{sub 2}–Ag nanotubes and associated dimers have been investigated by using the scattering theory and the finite element method. In the active Ag nanotube, as the gain coefficient of the core increases to a critical value, a super-resonance occurs. The SPASER phenomenon also can be found in the active Ag nanotube dimer. The strong couplings between two nanotubes lead to larger gain threshold for the active Ag nanotube dimer compared with the active Ag nanotube. At the super-resonance, the maximal surface enhanced Raman scattering factor at the “hot spot” in the active Ag nanotube dimer can achieve about 8 × 10{sup 18}, which is large enough for single molecule detection. Furthermore, with increasing the separation between two Ag nanotubes, the gain threshold value for the super-resonance of the active Ag nanotube dimer decreases, while the corresponding super-resonance wavelength increases first and then decreases.

  16. Plasmonics: Loss and gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oulton, Rupert F.

    2012-04-01

    Providing sufficient gain to overcome loss remains a fundamental challenge for light amplification in miniaturized plasmonic devices. Ongoing research gives hope for a cautious but optimistic outlook.

  17. Experimental characterization of Raman overlaps between mode-groups

    PubMed Central

    Christensen, Erik N.; Koefoed, Jacob G.; Friis, Søren M. M.; Castaneda, Mario A. Usuga; Rottwitt, Karsten

    2016-01-01

    Mode-division multiplexing has the potential to further increase data transmission capacity through optical fibers. In addition, distributed Raman amplification is a promising candidate for multi-mode signal amplification due to its desirable noise properties and the possibility of mode-equalized gain. In this paper, we present an experimental characterization of the intermodal Raman intensity overlaps of a few-mode fiber using backward-pumped Raman amplification. By varying the input pump power and the degree of higher order mode-excitation for the pump and the signal in a 10 km long two-mode fiber, we are able to characterize all intermodal Raman intensity overlaps. Using these results, we perform a Raman amplification measurement and demonstrate a mode-differential gain of only 0.25 dB per 10 dB overall gain. This is, to the best of our knowledge, the lowest mode differential gain achieved for amplification of mode division multiplexed signals in a single fiber. PMID:27703272

  18. Nanosilver-based surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopic determination of DNA methyltransferase activity through real-time hybridization chain reaction.

    PubMed

    Hu, Ping Ping; Liu, Hui; Zhen, Shu Jun; Li, Chun Mei; Huang, Cheng Zhi

    2015-11-15

    In this manuscript, a nanosilver enhanced SERS strategy was successfully constructed for the determination of DNA methyltransferase activity in soulution combined with hybridization chain reaction (HCR). The proposed method was mainly on the basis of excellent separation ability of magnetic microparticles (MMPs), HCR as signal amplification unit and assembled AgNPs as enhancement substrate. In the presence of M. SssI MTase, the duplex sequence (5'-CCGG-3') tethered to MMPs was methylated, which cannot be cleaved by HpaII endonuclease. The resulted DNA skeleton captured on MMPs then triggered the HCR reaction, generated a polymerized and extended symmetrical sequence, in which more biotin terminal was available for the conjugation of AgNPs-SA, leading to significantly amplified SERS response. When it was used to analyze M. SssI activity, a linear equation ∆ISERS=1215.32+446.80 cM.SssI was obtained with the M. SssI activity ranged from 0.1 to 10.0 U with the correlation coefficient (r(2)) of 0.97. The most important advantage of this method is the combination of SERS and HCR in solution for the first time and its good selectivity, which enabled the detection of even one-base mismatched sequence. The new assay method holds great promising application to be a versatile platform for sensitive, high-throughput detection, and the screening of new anticancer drugs on DNA MTase. PMID:26086442

  19. Raman-Enhanced Phase-Sensitive Fibre Optical Parametric Amplifier.

    PubMed

    Fu, Xuelei; Guo, Xiaojie; Shu, Chester

    2016-01-01

    Phase-sensitive amplification is of great research interest owing to its potential in noiseless amplification. One key feature in a phase-sensitive amplifier is the gain extinction ratio defined as the ratio of the maximum to the minimum gains. It quantifies the capability of the amplifier in performing low-noise amplification for high phase-sensitive gain. Considering a phase-sensitive fibre optical parametric amplifier for linear amplification, the gain extinction ratio increases with the phase-insensitive parametric gain achieved from the same pump. In this work, we use backward Raman amplification to increase the phase-insensitive parametric gain, which in turn improves the phase-sensitive operation. Using a 955 mW Raman pump, the gain extinction ratio is increased by 9.2 dB. The improvement in the maximum phase-sensitive gain is 18.7 dB. This scheme can significantly boost the performance of phase-sensitive amplification in a spectral range where the parametric pump is not sufficiently strong but broadband Raman amplification is available.

  20. Raman-Enhanced Phase-Sensitive Fibre Optical Parametric Amplifier

    PubMed Central

    Fu, Xuelei; Guo, Xiaojie; Shu, Chester

    2016-01-01

    Phase-sensitive amplification is of great research interest owing to its potential in noiseless amplification. One key feature in a phase-sensitive amplifier is the gain extinction ratio defined as the ratio of the maximum to the minimum gains. It quantifies the capability of the amplifier in performing low-noise amplification for high phase-sensitive gain. Considering a phase-sensitive fibre optical parametric amplifier for linear amplification, the gain extinction ratio increases with the phase-insensitive parametric gain achieved from the same pump. In this work, we use backward Raman amplification to increase the phase-insensitive parametric gain, which in turn improves the phase-sensitive operation. Using a 955 mW Raman pump, the gain extinction ratio is increased by 9.2 dB. The improvement in the maximum phase-sensitive gain is 18.7 dB. This scheme can significantly boost the performance of phase-sensitive amplification in a spectral range where the parametric pump is not sufficiently strong but broadband Raman amplification is available. PMID:26830136

  1. Raman spectroscopy for the microbiological characterization and identification of medically relevant bacteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hamasha, Khozima Mahmoud

    The detection and identification of pathogenic bacteria has become more important than ever due to the increase of potential bioterrorism threats and the high mortality rate of bacterial infections worldwide. Raman spectroscopy has recently gained popularity as an attractive robust approach for the molecular characterization, rapid identification, and accurate classification of a wide range of bacteria. In this dissertation, Raman spectroscopy utilizing advanced statistical techniques was used to identify and discriminate between different pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacterial strains of E. coli and Staphylococcus aureus bacterial species by probing the molecular compositions of the cells. The five-carbon sugar xylitol, which cannot be metabolized by the oral and nasopharyngeal bacteria, had been recognized by clinicians as a preventive agents for dental caries and many studies have demonstrated that xylitol causes a reduction in otitis media (chronic inner ear infections) and other nasopharyngeal infections. Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the uptake and metabolic activity of xylitol in pathogenic (viridans group Streptococcus) and nonpathogenic (E. coli) bacteria by taking their Raman spectra before xylitol exposure and after growing with xylitol and quantifying the significant differences in the molecular vibrational modes due to this exposure. The results of this study showed significant stable spectral changes in the S. viridians bacteria induced by xylitol and those changes were not the same as in some E. coli strains. Finally, Raman spectroscopy experiments were conducted to provide important information about the function of a certain protein (wag31) of Mycobacterium tuberculosis using a relative non-pathogenic bacterium called Mycobacterium smegmatis. Raman spectra of conditional mutants of bacteria expressing three different phosphorylation forms of wag31 were collected and analyzed. The results show that that the phosphorylation of wag31

  2. A single amino acid substitution in a chitinase of the legume Medicago truncatula is sufficient to gain Nod-factor hydrolase activity.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lan-Yue; Cai, Jie; Li, Ru-Jie; Liu, Wei; Wagner, Christian; Wong, Kam-Bo; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian

    2016-07-01

    The symbiotic interaction between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes depends on lipo-chitooligosaccharidic Nod-factors (NFs). The NF hydrolase MtNFH1 of Medicago truncatula is a symbiotic enzyme that hydrolytically inactivates NFs with a C16 : 2 acyl chain produced by the microsymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. MtNFH1 is related to class V chitinases (glycoside hydrolase family 18) but lacks chitinase activity. Here, we investigated the substrate specificity of MtNFH1-related proteins. MtCHIT5a and MtCHIT5b of M. truncatula as well as LjCHIT5 of Lotus japonicus showed chitinase activity, suggesting a role in plant defence. The enzymes failed to hydrolyse NFs from S. meliloti. NFs from Rhizobium leguminosarum with a C18 : 4 acyl moiety were neither hydrolysed by these chitinases nor by MtNFH1. Construction of chimeric proteins and further amino acid replacements in MtCHIT5b were performed to identify chitinase variants that gained the ability to hydrolyse NFs. A single serine-to-proline substitution was sufficient to convert MtCHIT5b into an NF-cleaving enzyme. MtNFH1 with the corresponding proline-to-serine substitution failed to hydrolyse NFs. These results are in agreement with a substrate-enzyme model that predicts NF cleavage when the C16 : 2 moiety is placed into a distinct fatty acid-binding cleft. Our findings support the view that MtNFH1 evolved from the ancestral MtCHIT5b by gene duplication and subsequent symbiosis-related neofunctionalization. PMID:27383628

  3. A single amino acid substitution in a chitinase of the legume Medicago truncatula is sufficient to gain Nod-factor hydrolase activity

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lan-Yue; Cai, Jie; Li, Ru-Jie; Liu, Wei; Wagner, Christian; Wong, Kam-Bo; Xie, Zhi-Ping; Staehelin, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The symbiotic interaction between nitrogen-fixing rhizobia and legumes depends on lipo-chitooligosaccharidic Nod-factors (NFs). The NF hydrolase MtNFH1 of Medicago truncatula is a symbiotic enzyme that hydrolytically inactivates NFs with a C16 : 2 acyl chain produced by the microsymbiont Sinorhizobium meliloti 1021. MtNFH1 is related to class V chitinases (glycoside hydrolase family 18) but lacks chitinase activity. Here, we investigated the substrate specificity of MtNFH1-related proteins. MtCHIT5a and MtCHIT5b of M. truncatula as well as LjCHIT5 of Lotus japonicus showed chitinase activity, suggesting a role in plant defence. The enzymes failed to hydrolyse NFs from S. meliloti. NFs from Rhizobium leguminosarum with a C18 : 4 acyl moiety were neither hydrolysed by these chitinases nor by MtNFH1. Construction of chimeric proteins and further amino acid replacements in MtCHIT5b were performed to identify chitinase variants that gained the ability to hydrolyse NFs. A single serine-to-proline substitution was sufficient to convert MtCHIT5b into an NF-cleaving enzyme. MtNFH1 with the corresponding proline-to-serine substitution failed to hydrolyse NFs. These results are in agreement with a substrate-enzyme model that predicts NF cleavage when the C16 : 2 moiety is placed into a distinct fatty acid-binding cleft. Our findings support the view that MtNFH1 evolved from the ancestral MtCHIT5b by gene duplication and subsequent symbiosis-related neofunctionalization. PMID:27383628

  4. Ciliary neurotrophic factor activates leptin-like pathways and reduces body fat, without cachexia or rebound weight gain, even in leptin-resistant obesity.

    PubMed

    Lambert, P D; Anderson, K D; Sleeman, M W; Wong, V; Tan, J; Hijarunguru, A; Corcoran, T L; Murray, J D; Thabet, K E; Yancopoulos, G D; Wiegand, S J

    2001-04-10

    Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) was first characterized as a trophic factor for motor neurons in the ciliary ganglion and spinal cord, leading to its evaluation in humans suffering from motor neuron disease. In these trials, CNTF caused unexpected and substantial weight loss, raising concerns that it might produce cachectic-like effects. Countering this possibility was the suggestion that CNTF was working via a leptin-like mechanism to cause weight loss, based on the findings that CNTF acts via receptors that are not only related to leptin receptors, but also similarly distributed within hypothalamic nuclei involved in feeding. However, although CNTF mimics the ability of leptin to cause fat loss in mice that are obese because of genetic deficiency of leptin (ob/ob mice), CNTF is also effective in diet-induced obesity models that are more representative of human obesity, and which are resistant to leptin. This discordance again raised the possibility that CNTF might be acting via nonleptin pathways, perhaps more analogous to those activated by cachectic cytokines. Arguing strongly against this possibility, we now show that CNTF can activate hypothalamic leptin-like pathways in diet-induced obesity models unresponsive to leptin, that CNTF improves prediabetic parameters in these models, and that CNTF acts very differently than the prototypical cachectic cytokine, IL-1. Further analyses of hypothalamic signaling reveals that CNTF can suppress food intake without triggering hunger signals or associated stress responses that are otherwise associated with food deprivation; thus, unlike forced dieting, cessation of CNTF treatment does not result in binge overeating and immediate rebound weight gain.

  5. Ciliary neurotrophic factor activates leptin-like pathways and reduces body fat, without cachexia or rebound weight gain, even in leptin-resistant obesity.

    PubMed

    Lambert, P D; Anderson, K D; Sleeman, M W; Wong, V; Tan, J; Hijarunguru, A; Corcoran, T L; Murray, J D; Thabet, K E; Yancopoulos, G D; Wiegand, S J

    2001-04-10

    Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) was first characterized as a trophic factor for motor neurons in the ciliary ganglion and spinal cord, leading to its evaluation in humans suffering from motor neuron disease. In these trials, CNTF caused unexpected and substantial weight loss, raising concerns that it might produce cachectic-like effects. Countering this possibility was the suggestion that CNTF was working via a leptin-like mechanism to cause weight loss, based on the findings that CNTF acts via receptors that are not only related to leptin receptors, but also similarly distributed within hypothalamic nuclei involved in feeding. However, although CNTF mimics the ability of leptin to cause fat loss in mice that are obese because of genetic deficiency of leptin (ob/ob mice), CNTF is also effective in diet-induced obesity models that are more representative of human obesity, and which are resistant to leptin. This discordance again raised the possibility that CNTF might be acting via nonleptin pathways, perhaps more analogous to those activated by cachectic cytokines. Arguing strongly against this possibility, we now show that CNTF can activate hypothalamic leptin-like pathways in diet-induced obesity models unresponsive to leptin, that CNTF improves prediabetic parameters in these models, and that CNTF acts very differently than the prototypical cachectic cytokine, IL-1. Further analyses of hypothalamic signaling reveals that CNTF can suppress food intake without triggering hunger signals or associated stress responses that are otherwise associated with food deprivation; thus, unlike forced dieting, cessation of CNTF treatment does not result in binge overeating and immediate rebound weight gain. PMID:11259650

  6. Ciliary neurotrophic factor activates leptin-like pathways and reduces body fat, without cachexia or rebound weight gain, even in leptin-resistant obesity

    PubMed Central

    Lambert, P. D.; Anderson, K. D.; Sleeman, M. W.; Wong, V.; Tan, J.; Hijarunguru, A.; Corcoran, T. L.; Murray, J. D.; Thabet, K. E.; Yancopoulos, G. D.; Wiegand, S. J.

    2001-01-01

    Ciliary Neurotrophic Factor (CNTF) was first characterized as a trophic factor for motor neurons in the ciliary ganglion and spinal cord, leading to its evaluation in humans suffering from motor neuron disease. In these trials, CNTF caused unexpected and substantial weight loss, raising concerns that it might produce cachectic-like effects. Countering this possibility was the suggestion that CNTF was working via a leptin-like mechanism to cause weight loss, based on the findings that CNTF acts via receptors that are not only related to leptin receptors, but also similarly distributed within hypothalamic nuclei involved in feeding. However, although CNTF mimics the ability of leptin to cause fat loss in mice that are obese because of genetic deficiency of leptin (ob/ob mice), CNTF is also effective in diet-induced obesity models that are more representative of human obesity, and which are resistant to leptin. This discordance again raised the possibility that CNTF might be acting via nonleptin pathways, perhaps more analogous to those activated by cachectic cytokines. Arguing strongly against this possibility, we now show that CNTF can activate hypothalamic leptin-like pathways in diet-induced obesity models unresponsive to leptin, that CNTF improves prediabetic parameters in these models, and that CNTF acts very differently than the prototypical cachectic cytokine, IL-1. Further analyses of hypothalamic signaling reveals that CNTF can suppress food intake without triggering hunger signals or associated stress responses that are otherwise associated with food deprivation; thus, unlike forced dieting, cessation of CNTF treatment does not result in binge overeating and immediate rebound weight gain. PMID:11259650

  7. Invention and Gain Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weber, Robert J.; Dixon, Stacey

    1989-01-01

    Gain analysis is applied to the invention of the sewing needle as well as different sewing implements and modes of sewing. The analysis includes a two-subject experiment. To validate the generality of gain heuristics and underlying switching processes, the invention of the assembly line is also analyzed. (TJH)

  8. A Simple Raman Spectrometer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blond, J. P.; Boggett, D. M.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some basic physical ideas about light scattering and describes a simple Raman spectrometer, a single prism monochromator and a multiplier detector. This discussion is intended for British undergraduate physics students. (HM)

  9. Fabrication of tunable plasmonic substrates using a table-top gold coater and a hot plate, their optical characterization, and surface enhanced Raman activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arora, A.; Krishnan, A.

    2015-10-01

    We present a simple scalable technique for repeatable fabrication of large area (cm2) electromagnetic hot spots using tunable Localized Surface Plasmon Resonance (LSPR) substrates and their k-space microscopic imaging characterization. The substrates were fabricated simply using a low vacuum air plasma scanning electron microscope gold coater and annealing using a hot plate. The measured permittivity profile and optical transmission characteristics of such substrates showed large changes before and after annealing, with clear changes in the occurrence and position of the LSPR in the visible spectrum. Furthermore, the LSPR wavelength of these substrates was tuned from 537 nm to 630 nm using cyclic deposition and annealing. It was observed that every anneal step could be used to blue shift the resonance, while a deposition step could be used to red shift the resonance, thus giving rise to a wide tunability. We also present the k-space images of the substrates using narrowband fluorescence leakage radiation microscopy and broadband polarization microscopy. The enhanced scattering in these substrates was clearly imaged in the k-space, and the color content in the broadband k-space images correlates well with the spectral characteristics of these substrates that can be used in commercial quality testing without a spectrometer. The optical characteristics of the substrates were attributed to the morphology evolution verified using scanning probe microscopy. A single particle model based simulation was used to evaluate the optical response. The substrates were then tested for surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) activity using control experiments involving Rhodamine 6G dye in PMMA matrix of different concentrations with analyte volumes of approximately 200 pl and analytical enhancements of >3 ×104 (net enhancement >1.8 ×107 ) were obtained. The limit of detection was ≈ 10-8 M in low volume (≈200 pl) analyte, reaching the regime of few molecule detection. To

  10. Auger resonant Raman spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Azuma, Y.; LeBrun, T.; MacDonald, M.; Southworth, S.H.

    1995-08-01

    As noted above, traditional spectroscopy of the electronic structure of the inner shells of atoms, molecules, and solids is limited by the lifetime broadening of the core-excited states. This limitation can also be avoided with the non-radiative analog of X-ray Raman scattering - resonant Auger Raman spectroscopy. We have used this technique to study the K-shell excitation spectrum of argon as the photon energy is continuously scanned across threshold.

  11. On surface Raman scattering and luminescence radiation in boron carbide.

    PubMed

    Werheit, H; Filipov, V; Schwarz, U; Armbrüster, M; Leithe-Jasper, A; Tanaka, T; Shalamberidze, S O

    2010-02-01

    The discrepancy between Raman spectra of boron carbide obtained by Fourier transform Raman and conventional Raman spectrometry is systematically investigated. While at photon energies below the exciton energy (1.560 eV), Raman scattering of bulk phonons of boron carbide occurs, photon energies exceeding the fundamental absorption edge (2.09 eV) evoke additional patterns, which may essentially be attributed to luminescence or to the excitation of Raman-active processes in the surface region. The reason for this is the very high fundamental absorption in boron carbide inducing a very small penetration depth of the exciting laser radiation. Raman excitations essentially restricted to the boron carbide surface region yield spectra which considerably differ from bulk phonon ones, thus indicating structural modifications.

  12. Coherent Pump-Probe Interactions and Terahertz Intersubband Gain in Semiconductor Quantum Wells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Ansheng; Ning, Cun-Zheng

    1999-01-01

    In recent years there has been considerable interest in intersubband-transition-based infrared semiconductor quantum well (QW) lasers because of their potential applications. In the mid-infrared range, both electrically-injected quantum cascade lasers [1] and optically-pumped multiple QW lasers [2] have been experimentally realized. In these studies, optical gain is due to population inversion between the lasing subbands. It was also proposed that stimulated Raman scattering in QW systems can produce net infrared optical gain [3j. In such a nonlinear optical scheme, the appearance of optical gain that may lead to intersubband Raman lasers does not rely on the population inversion. Since, in tile resonant Raman process (Raman gain is the largest in this case), the pump field induces population redistribution among subbands in the QW s ystem, it seems that a realistic estimate of the optical gain has to include this effect. Perturbative calculations used in the previous work [3] may overestimate the Raman gain. In this paper we present a nonperturbative calculation of terahertz gain of optically-pumped semiconductor step quantum wells. Limiting optical transitions within the conduction band of QW, we solve the pump-field-induced nonequilibrium distribution function for each subband of the QW system from a set of coupled rate equations. Both intrasubband and intersubband relaxation processes in the quantum well system are included. Taking into account the coherent interactions between pump and THz (signal) waves, we we derive the susceptibility of the QW system for the THz field. For a GaAs/AlGaAs step QW, we calculate the Thz gain spectrum for different pump frequencies and intensities. Under moderately strong pumping (approximately 0.3 MW/sq cm), a significant THz gain (approximately 300/m) is predicted. It is also shown that the coherent wave interactions (resonant stimulated Raman processes) contribute significantly to the THz gain.

  13. Single Brillouin frequency shifted S-band multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser utilizing fiber Bragg grating and Raman amplifier in ring cavity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reshak, A. H.; Hambali, N. A. M. Ahmad; Shahimin, M. M.; Wahid, M. H. A.; Anwar, Nur Elina; Alahmed, Zeyad A.; Chyský, J.

    2016-10-01

    This paper is focusing on simulation and analyzing of S-band multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser performance utilizing fiber Bragg grating and Raman amplifier in ring cavity. Raman amplifier-average power model is employed for signal amplification. This laser system is operates in S-band wavelength region due to vast demanding on transmitting the information. Multi-wavelength fiber lasers based on hybrid Brillouin-Raman gain configuration supported by Raman scattering effect have attracted significant research interest due to its ability to produced multi-wavelength signals from a single light source. In multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber, single mode fiber is utilized as the nonlinear gain medium. From output results, 90% output coupling ratio has ability to provide the maximum average output power of 43 dBm at Brillouin pump power of 20 dBm and Raman pump power of 14 dBm. Furthermore, multi-wavelength Brillouin-Raman fiber laser utilizing fiber Bragg grating and Raman amplifier is capable of generated 7 Brillouin Stokes signals at 1480 nm, 1510 nm and 1530 nm.

  14. Raman structural studies of the nickel electrode

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornilsen, Bahne C.

    1994-01-01

    The objectives of this investigation have been to define the structures of charged active mass, discharged active mass, and related precursor materials (alpha-phases), with the purpose of better understanding the chemical and electrochemical reactions, including failure mechanisms and cobalt incorporation, so that the nickel electrode may be improved. Although our primary tool has been Raman spectroscopy, the structural conclusions drawn from the Raman data have been supported and augmented by three other analysis methods: infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and x-ray absorption spectroscopy (in particular EXAFS, Extended X-ray Absorption Fine Structure spectroscopy).

  15. Preventing Weight Gain

    MedlinePlus

    ... If this is the case, preventing further weight gain is a worthy goal. As people age, their body composition gradually shifts — the proportion of muscle decreases and the proportion of fat increases. This ...

  16. Highly sensitive detection of nanoparticles with a self-referenced and self-heterodyned whispering-gallery Raman microlaser.

    PubMed

    Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Zhu, Jiangang; Yang, Xu; Peng, Bo; Yilmaz, Huzeyfe; He, Lina; Monifi, Faraz; Huang, Steven He; Long, Gui Lu; Yang, Lan

    2014-09-16

    Optical whispering-gallery-mode resonators (WGMRs) have emerged as promising platforms for label-free detection of nano-objects. The ultimate sensitivity of WGMRs is determined by the strength of the light-matter interaction quantified by quality factor/mode volume, Q/V, and the resolution is determined by Q. To date, to improve sensitivity and precision of detection either WGMRs have been doped with rare-earth ions to compensate losses and increase Q or plasmonic resonances have been exploited for their superior field confinement and lower V. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, enhanced detection of single-nanoparticle-induced mode splitting in a silica WGMR via Raman gain-assisted loss compensation and WGM Raman microlaser. In particular, the use of the Raman microlaser provides a dopant-free, self-referenced, and self-heterodyned scheme with a detection limit ultimately determined by the thermorefractive noise. Notably, we detected and counted individual nanoparticles with polarizabilities down to 3.82 × 10(-6) μm(3) by monitoring a heterodyne beatnote signal. This level of sensitivity is achieved without exploiting plasmonic effects, external references, or active stabilization and frequency locking. Single nanoparticles are detected one at a time; however, their characterization by size or polarizability requires ensemble measurements and statistical averaging. This dopant-free scheme retains the inherited biocompatibility of silica and could find widespread use for sensing in biological media. The Raman laser and operation band of the sensor can be tailored for the specific sensing environment and the properties of the targeted materials by changing the pump laser wavelength. This scheme also opens the possibility of using intrinsic Raman or parametric gain for loss compensation in other systems where dissipation hinders progress and limits applications. PMID:25197086

  17. Highly sensitive detection of nanoparticles with a self-referenced and self-heterodyned whispering-gallery Raman microlaser

    PubMed Central

    Özdemir, Şahin Kaya; Zhu, Jiangang; Yang, Xu; Peng, Bo; Yilmaz, Huzeyfe; He, Lina; Monifi, Faraz; Huang, Steven He; Long, Gui Lu; Yang, Lan

    2014-01-01

    Optical whispering-gallery-mode resonators (WGMRs) have emerged as promising platforms for label-free detection of nano-objects. The ultimate sensitivity of WGMRs is determined by the strength of the light–matter interaction quantified by quality factor/mode volume, Q/V, and the resolution is determined by Q. To date, to improve sensitivity and precision of detection either WGMRs have been doped with rare-earth ions to compensate losses and increase Q or plasmonic resonances have been exploited for their superior field confinement and lower V. Here, we demonstrate, for the first time to our knowledge, enhanced detection of single-nanoparticle-induced mode splitting in a silica WGMR via Raman gain-assisted loss compensation and WGM Raman microlaser. In particular, the use of the Raman microlaser provides a dopant-free, self-referenced, and self-heterodyned scheme with a detection limit ultimately determined by the thermorefractive noise. Notably, we detected and counted individual nanoparticles with polarizabilities down to 3.82 × 10−6 μm3 by monitoring a heterodyne beatnote signal. This level of sensitivity is achieved without exploiting plasmonic effects, external references, or active stabilization and frequency locking. Single nanoparticles are detected one at a time; however, their characterization by size or polarizability requires ensemble measurements and statistical averaging. This dopant-free scheme retains the inherited biocompatibility of silica and could find widespread use for sensing in biological media. The Raman laser and operation band of the sensor can be tailored for the specific sensing environment and the properties of the targeted materials by changing the pump laser wavelength. This scheme also opens the possibility of using intrinsic Raman or parametric gain for loss compensation in other systems where dissipation hinders progress and limits applications. PMID:25197086

  18. Analysis of Raman lasing without inversion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sheldon, Paul Martin

    1999-12-01

    Properties of lasing without inversion were studied analytically and numerically using Maple computer assisted algebra software. Gain for probe electromagnetic field without population inversion in detuned three level atomic schemes has been found. Matter density matrix dynamics and coherence is explored using Pauli matrices in 2-level systems and Gell-Mann matrices in 3-level systems. It is shown that extreme inversion produces no coherence and hence no lasing. Unitary transformation from the strict field-matter Hamiltonian to an effective two-photon Raman Hamiltonian for multilevel systems has been derived. Feynman diagrams inherent in the derivation show interesting physics. An additional picture change was achieved and showed cw gain possible. Properties of a Raman-like laser based on injection of 3- level coherently driven Λ-type atoms whose Hamiltonian contains the Raman Hamiltonian and microwave coupling the two bottom states have been studied in the limits of small and big photon numbers in the drive field. Another picture change removed the microwave coupler to all orders and simplified analysis. New possibilities of inversionless generation were found.

  19. Progress report of FY 1998 activities: The application of Kalman filtering to derive water vapor profiles from combined ground-based sensors: Raman lidar, microwave radiometers, GPS, and radiosondes

    SciTech Connect

    Edgeworth R. Westwater; Yong Han

    1999-10-01

    Previously, the proposers have delivered to ARM a documented algorithm, that is now applied operationally, and which derives water vapor profiles from combined remote sensor measurements of water vapor radiometers, cloud-base ceilometers, and radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS). With the expanded deployment of a Raman lidar at the CART Central Facility, high quality, high vertical-resolution, water vapor profiles will be provided during nighttime clear conditions, and during clear daytime conditions, to somewhat lower altitudes. The object of this effort is to use Kalman Filtering, previously applied to the combination of nighttime Raman lidar and microwave radiometer data, to derive high-quality water vapor profiles, during non-precipitating conditions, from data routinely available at the CART site. Input data to the algorithm would include: Raman lidar data, highly quality-controlled data of integrated moisture from microwave radiometers and GPS, RASS, and radiosondes. The focus of this years activities has been on the intercomparison of data obtained during the Water Vapor Intensive Operating Period'97 at the SGP CART site in central Oklahoma.

  20. Progress report of FY 1997 activities: The application of Kalman filtering to derive water vapor profiles from combined ground-based sensors: Raman lidar, microwave radiometers, GPS, and radiosondes

    SciTech Connect

    Edgeworth R. Westwater; Yong Han

    1997-10-05

    Previously, the proposers have delivered to ARM a documented algorithm, that is now applied operationally, and which derives water vapor profiles from combined remote sensor measurements of water vapor radiometers, cloud-base ceilometers, and radio acoustic sounding systems (RASS). With the expanded deployment of a Raman lidar at the CART Central Facility, high quality, high vertical-resolution, water vapor profiles will be provided during nighttime clear conditions, and during clear daytime conditions, to somewhat lower altitudes. The object of this proposal was to use Kalman Filtering, previously applied to the combination of nighttime Raman lidar and microwave radiometer data, to derive high-quality water vapor profiles, during non-precipitating conditions, from data routinely available at the CART site. Input data to the algorithm would include: Raman lidar data, highly quality-controlled data of integrated moisture from microwave radiometers and GPS, RASS, and radiosondes. The algorithm will include recently-developed quality control procedures for radiometers. The focus of this years activities has been on the intercomparison of data obtained during an intensive operating period at the SGP CART site in central Oklahoma.

  1. Preparation of a Superhydrophobic and Peroxidase-like Activity Array Chip for H2O2 Sensing by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi; Park, Yeonju; Chen, Lei; Zhao, Bing; Jung, Young Mee; Cong, Qian

    2015-10-28

    In this paper, we propose a novel and simple method for preparing a dual-biomimetic functional array possessing both superhydrophobic and peroxidase-like activity that can be used for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensing. The proposed method is an integration innovation that combines the above two properties and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We integrated a series of well-ordered arrays of Au points (d = 1 mm) onto a superhydrophobic copper (Cu)/silver (Ag) surface by replicating an arrayed molybdenum template. Instead of using photoresists and the traditional lithography method, we utilized a chemical etching method (a substitution reaction between Cu and HAuCl4) with a Cu/Ag superhydrophobic surface as the barrier layer, which has the benefit of water repellency. The as-prepared Au points were observed to possess peroxidase-like activity, allowing for catalytic oxidation of the chromogenic molecule o-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (OPD). Oxidation was evidenced by a color change in the presence of H2O2, which allows the array chip to act as an H2O2 sensor. In this study, the water repellency of the superhydrophobic surface was used to fabricate the array chip and increase the local reactant concentration during the catalytic reaction. As a result, the catalytic reaction occurred when only 2 μL of an aqueous sample (OPD/H2O2) was placed onto the Au point, and the enzymatic product, 2,3-diaminophenazine, showed a SERS signal distinguishable from that of OPD after mixing with 2 μL of colloidal Au. Using the dual-biomimetic functional array chip, quantitative analysis of H2O2 was performed by observing the change in the SERS spectra, which showed a concentration-dependent behavior for H2O2. This method allows for the detection of H2O2 at concentrations as low as 3 pmol per 2 μL of sample, which is a considerable advantage in H2O2 analysis. The as-prepared substrate was convenient for H2O2 detection because only a small amount of sample was required in

  2. Preparation of a Superhydrophobic and Peroxidase-like Activity Array Chip for H2O2 Sensing by Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhi; Park, Yeonju; Chen, Lei; Zhao, Bing; Jung, Young Mee; Cong, Qian

    2015-10-28

    In this paper, we propose a novel and simple method for preparing a dual-biomimetic functional array possessing both superhydrophobic and peroxidase-like activity that can be used for hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensing. The proposed method is an integration innovation that combines the above two properties and surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). We integrated a series of well-ordered arrays of Au points (d = 1 mm) onto a superhydrophobic copper (Cu)/silver (Ag) surface by replicating an arrayed molybdenum template. Instead of using photoresists and the traditional lithography method, we utilized a chemical etching method (a substitution reaction between Cu and HAuCl4) with a Cu/Ag superhydrophobic surface as the barrier layer, which has the benefit of water repellency. The as-prepared Au points were observed to possess peroxidase-like activity, allowing for catalytic oxidation of the chromogenic molecule o-phenylenediamine dihydrochloride (OPD). Oxidation was evidenced by a color change in the presence of H2O2, which allows the array chip to act as an H2O2 sensor. In this study, the water repellency of the superhydrophobic surface was used to fabricate the array chip and increase the local reactant concentration during the catalytic reaction. As a result, the catalytic reaction occurred when only 2 μL of an aqueous sample (OPD/H2O2) was placed onto the Au point, and the enzymatic product, 2,3-diaminophenazine, showed a SERS signal distinguishable from that of OPD after mixing with 2 μL of colloidal Au. Using the dual-biomimetic functional array chip, quantitative analysis of H2O2 was performed by observing the change in the SERS spectra, which showed a concentration-dependent behavior for H2O2. This method allows for the detection of H2O2 at concentrations as low as 3 pmol per 2 μL of sample, which is a considerable advantage in H2O2 analysis. The as-prepared substrate was convenient for H2O2 detection because only a small amount of sample was required in

  3. Raman Barcode for Counterfeit Drug Product Detection.

    PubMed

    Lawson, Latevi S; Rodriguez, Jason D

    2016-05-01

    Potential infiltration of counterfeit drug products-containing the wrong or no active pharmaceutical ingredient (API)-into the bona fide drug supply poses a significant threat to consumers worldwide. Raman spectroscopy offers a rapid, nondestructive avenue to screen a high throughput of samples. Traditional qualitative Raman identification is typically done with spectral correlation methods that compare the spectrum of a reference sample to an unknown. This is often effective for pure materials but is quite challenging when dealing with drug products that contain different formulations of active and inactive ingredients. Typically, reliable identification of drug products using common spectral correlation algorithms can only be made if the specific product under study is present in the library of reference spectra, thereby limiting the scope of products that can be screened. In this paper, we introduce the concept of the Raman barcode for identification of drug products by comparing the known peaks in the API reference spectrum to the peaks present in the finished drug product under study. This method requires the transformation of the Raman spectra of both API and finished drug products into a barcode representation by assigning zero intensity to every spectral frequency except the frequencies that correspond to Raman peaks. By comparing the percentage of nonzero overlap between the expected API barcode and finished drug product barcode, the identity of API present can be confirmed. In this study, 18 approved finished drug products and nine simulated counterfeits were successfully identified with 100% accuracy utilizing this method. PMID:27043140

  4. Scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active-matrix flat panel imager: Zero-spatial frequency x-ray imaging properties of the solid-state SHARP sensor structure

    SciTech Connect

    Wronski, M.; Zhao, W.; Tanioka, K.; DeCrescenzo, G.; Rowlands, J. A.

    2012-11-15

    Purpose: The authors are investigating the feasibility of a new type of solid-state x-ray imaging sensor with programmable avalanche gain: scintillator high-gain avalanche rushing photoconductor active matrix flat panel imager (SHARP-AMFPI). The purpose of the present work is to investigate the inherent x-ray detection properties of SHARP and demonstrate its wide dynamic range through programmable gain. Methods: A distributed resistive layer (DRL) was developed to maintain stable avalanche gain operation in a solid-state HARP. The signal and noise properties of the HARP-DRL for optical photon detection were investigated as a function of avalanche gain both theoretically and experimentally, and the results were compared with HARP tube (with electron beam readout) used in previous investigations of zero spatial frequency performance of SHARP. For this new investigation, a solid-state SHARP x-ray image sensor was formed by direct optical coupling of the HARP-DRL with a structured cesium iodide (CsI) scintillator. The x-ray sensitivity of this sensor was measured as a function of avalanche gain and the results were compared with the sensitivity of HARP-DRL measured optically. The dynamic range of HARP-DRL with variable avalanche gain was investigated for the entire exposure range encountered in radiography/fluoroscopy (R/F) applications. Results: The signal from HARP-DRL as a function of electric field showed stable avalanche gain, and the noise associated with the avalanche process agrees well with theory and previous measurements from a HARP tube. This result indicates that when coupled with CsI for x-ray detection, the additional noise associated with avalanche gain in HARP-DRL is negligible. The x-ray sensitivity measurements using the SHARP sensor produced identical avalanche gain dependence on electric field as the optical measurements with HARP-DRL. Adjusting the avalanche multiplication gain in HARP-DRL enabled a very wide dynamic range which encompassed all

  5. Electromagnetically induced gain in molecular systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Nandini; Patel, C. Kumar N.

    2009-12-01

    We report electromagnetically induced gain in a highly degenerate two-level rotational vibrational molecular system. Using two photon (Raman-type) interaction with right and left circularly polarized pump and probe waves, the Zeeman coherence is established within the manifold of degenerate sublevels belonging to a rotational vibrational eigenstate. We analytically and numerically calculate the third-order nonlinear optical susceptibility for a Doppler-broadened molecular transition for an arbitrary high rotational angular momentum (J≥20) . It is shown that for a Q -type open transition, a weak probe will experience an electromagnetically induced gain in presence of a strong copropagating pump wave. The inversionless gain originates due to cancellation of absorption from the interference of the coupled Λ - and V-type excitation channels in an N -type configuration. A detailed analysis of the optical susceptibility as a function of Doppler detuning explains how the gain bands are generated in a narrow transparency window from the overlapping contributions of different velocity groups. It is shown that the orientation dependent coherent interaction in presence of a strong pump induces narrow resonances for the probe susceptibility. The locations, intensity, and sign (positive or negative susceptibility) of these resonances are decided by the frequency detuning of the Doppler group and the strength of the coupling field. The availability of high power tunable quantum cascade lasers covering a spectral region from about 4 to 12μm opens up the possibility of investigating the molecular vibrational rotational transitions for a variety of coherent effects.

  6. All-normal dispersion supercontinuum generation in the near-infrared by Raman conversion in standard optical fiber

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Louot, Christophe; Capitaine, Erwan; Shalaby, Badr M.; Krupa, Katarzyna; Tonello, Alessandro; Pagnoux, Dominique; Lefort, Claire; Leproux, Philippe; Couderc, Vincent

    2016-03-01

    We demonstrate all-normal dispersion supercontinuum generation in the 1080 nm-1600 nm range by propagating subnanosecond pulses in a high numerical aperture standard optical fiber. The extreme saturation of the Raman gain provides a flat spectrum in the considered range, making this broadband source particularly suitable for coherent Raman spectroscopy. This unusual regime of supercontinuum generation (Raman gain saturation regime) is investigated through an experimental spectrotemporal study. The possibility of operating spectrometer-free time-coded coherent Raman spectroscopy is introduced.

  7. Approximate theory of Stokes amplification and conversion valid at large gain

    SciTech Connect

    Druehl, K.J.; Shakir, S.; Yousaf, M.

    1986-07-01

    We predict Stokes-beam divergence, origin, and gain for large-gain Raman amplifiers as functions of pump-beam divergence and pump power in terms of simple analytical expressions. Stokes divergence is found to peak at a pump power twice above threshold. Results are in excellent agreement with exact computer solutions and explain recent experimental observations.

  8. [Raman spectra of monkey cerebral cortex tissue].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Ji-chun; Guo, Jian-yu; Cai, Wei-ying; Wang, Zu-geng; Sun, Zhen-rong

    2010-01-01

    Monkey cerebral cortex, an important part in the brain to control action and thought activities, is mainly composed of grey matter and nerve cell. In the present paper, the in situ Raman spectra of the cerebral cortex of the birth, teenage and aged monkeys were achieved for the first time. The results show that the Raman spectra for the different age monkey cerebral cortex exhibit most obvious changes in the regions of 1000-1400 and 2800-3000 cm(-1). With monkey growing up, the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1313 and 2885 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH2 chain vibrational mode of lipid become stronger and stronger whereas the relative intensities of the Raman bands at 1338 and 2932 cm(-1) mainly assigned to CH3 chain vibrational mode of protein become weaker and weaker. In addition, the two new Raman bands at 1296 and 2850 cm(-1) are only observed in the aged monkey cerebral cortex, therefore, the two bands can be considered as a character or "marker" to differentiate the caducity degree with monkey growth In order to further explore the changes, the relative intensity ratios of the Raman band at 1313 cm(-1) to that at 1338 cm(-1) and the Raman band at 2885 cm(-1) to that at 2 932 cm(-1), I1313/I1338 and I2885/I2932, which are the lipid-to-protein ratios, are introduced to denote the degree of the lipid content. The results show that the relative intensity ratios increase significantly with monkey growth, namely, the lipid content in the cerebral cortex increases greatly with monkey growth. So, the authors can deduce that the overmuch lipid is an important cause to induce the caducity. Therefore, the results will be a powerful assistance and valuable parameter to study the order of life growth and diagnose diseases.

  9. The effects of physical activity interventions on preventing weight gain and the effects on body composition in young adults with intellectual disabilities: systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Harris, L; Hankey, C; Murray, H; Melville, C

    2015-08-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the literature on randomized controlled trials examining the efficacy of physical activity interventions to prevent weight gain and the effects on body composition in young adults with intellectual disabilities.A systematic search of Medline, Emabse, CINHAL, PsychINFO, Cochrane library and ERIC was conducted from 1946 to September 2014. Eligibility criteria included; randomized controlled trials of a physical activity intervention: objective measure of body weight and body composition; young adults (age range 16-24 years) with intellectual disabilities. Six studies met the eligibility criteria. The interventions varied in their prescription of physical activity including aerobic and strength-based activities. The mean duration of the interventions was 15.3 (range 10-21 weeks). There was no significant effect of physical activity interventions on body weight (weighted mean difference: -0.17 kg, 95% confidence interval, -1.04 kg to 0.72 kg) and body composition outcomes. The meta-analysis showed that physical activity interventions did not prevent weight gain in young adults with intellectual disabilities. Published studies are inadequate to form firm conclusions. Future longer term studies of interventions specifically designed for this population group are required to elucidate the effects of physical activity interventions on body composition and the prevention of weight gain in young adults with intellectual disabilities.

  10. DNA polymorphisms and transcript abundance of PRKAG2 and phosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase in the rumen are associated with gain and feed intake in beef steers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Beef steers with variation in feed efficiency phenotypes were evaluated previously on a high density SNP panel. Ten markers from rs110125325-rs41652818 on bovine chromosome 4 were associated with average daily gain (ADG). To identify the gene(s) in this 1.2Mb region responsible for variation in AD...

  11. Raman and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopic investigation on Lamiaceae plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rösch, P.; Popp, J.; Kiefer, W.

    1999-05-01

    The essential oils of Thymus vulgaris and Origanum vulgaris are studied by means of micro-Raman spectroscopy. The containing monoterpenes can be identified by their Raman spectra. Further the essential oils are investigated in their natural environment, the so-called oil cells of these Lamiaceae plants, with surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). This method has the advantage to enhance Raman signals and furthermore the SERS effect leads to fluorescence quenching.

  12. Raman rogue waves in a partially mode-locked fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Runge, Antoine F J; Aguergaray, Claude; Broderick, Neil G R; Erkintalo, Miro

    2014-01-15

    We report on an experimental study of spectral fluctuations induced by intracavity Raman conversion in a passively partially mode-locked, all-normal dispersion fiber laser. Specifically, we use dispersive Fourier transformation to measure single-shot spectra of Raman-induced noise-like pulses, demonstrating that for low cavity gain values Raman emission is sporadic and follows rogue-wave-like probability distributions, while a saturated regime with Gaussian statistics is obtained for high pump powers. Our experiments further reveal intracavity rogue waves originating from cascaded Raman dynamics. PMID:24562136

  13. Receiver Gain Modulation Circuit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Hollis; Racette, Paul; Walker, David; Gu, Dazhen

    2011-01-01

    A receiver gain modulation circuit (RGMC) was developed that modulates the power gain of the output of a radiometer receiver with a test signal. As the radiometer receiver switches between calibration noise references, the test signal is mixed with the calibrated noise and thus produces an ensemble set of measurements from which ensemble statistical analysis can be used to extract statistical information about the test signal. The RGMC is an enabling technology of the ensemble detector. As a key component for achieving ensemble detection and analysis, the RGMC has broad aeronautical and space applications. The RGMC can be used to test and develop new calibration algorithms, for example, to detect gain anomalies, and/or correct for slow drifts that affect climate-quality measurements over an accelerated time scale. A generalized approach to analyzing radiometer system designs yields a mathematical treatment of noise reference measurements in calibration algorithms. By treating the measurements from the different noise references as ensemble samples of the receiver state, i.e. receiver gain, a quantitative description of the non-stationary properties of the underlying receiver fluctuations can be derived. Excellent agreement has been obtained between model calculations and radiometric measurements. The mathematical formulation is equivalent to modulating the gain of a stable receiver with an externally generated signal and is the basis for ensemble detection and analysis (EDA). The concept of generating ensemble data sets using an ensemble detector is similar to the ensemble data sets generated as part of ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) with exception of a key distinguishing factor. EEMD adds noise to the signal under study whereas EDA mixes the signal with calibrated noise. It is mixing with calibrated noise that permits the measurement of temporal-functional variability of uncertainty in the underlying process. The RGMC permits the evaluation of EDA by

  14. Near-Field Enhanced UV Resonance Raman Spectroscopy Using Aluminum Bow-tie Nano-antenna

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ling; Lim, Shuang Fang; Puretzky, Alexander A; Riehn, Robert; Hallen, Hans

    2012-01-01

    An aluminum bow-tie nano-antenna is combined with the resonance Raman eect in the deep ultraviolet to dramatically increase the sensitivity of Raman spectra to a small volume of material, such as benzene used here. We further demonstrate gradient-eld Raman peaks for several strong IR modes. We achieve a gain of 105 in signal intensity from the near eld enhancement due to the surface plasmon resonance in the aluminum nanostructure. The on-line resonance enhancement contributes another factor of several thousands, limited by the laser line width. Thus, an overall gain of hundreds of million is achieved.

  15. A theoretical/experimental program to develop active optical pollution sensors: Quantitative remote Raman lidar measurements of pollutants from stationary sources

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poultney, S. K.; Brumfield, M. L.; Siviter, J. S.

    1975-01-01

    Typical pollutant gas concentrations at the stack exits of stationary sources can be estimated to be about 500 ppm under the present emission standards. Raman lidar has a number of advantages which makes it a valuable tool for remote measurements of these stack emissions. Tests of the Langley Research Center Raman lidar at a calibration tank indicate that night measurements of SO2 concentrations and stack opacity are possible. Accuracies of 10 percent are shown to be achievable from a distance of 300 m within 30 min integration times for 500 ppm SO2 at the stack exits. All possible interferences were examined quantitatively (except for the fluorescence of aerosols in actual stack emissions) and found to have negligible effect on the measurements. An early test at an instrumented stack is strongly recommended.

  16. Lattice parameters and Raman-active phonon modes of (In{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x})₂O₃ for x<0.4

    SciTech Connect

    Kranert, Christian Lenzner, Jörg; Jenderka, Marcus; Lorenz, Michael; Wenckstern, Holger von; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius

    2014-07-07

    We present X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy investigations of (In{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x})₂O₃ thin films and bulk-like ceramics in dependence of their composition. The thin films grown by pulsed laser deposition have a continuous lateral composition spread allowing the determination of phonon mode properties and lattice parameters with high sensitivity to the composition from a single 2-in. wafer. In the regime of low indium concentration, the phonon energies depend linearly on the composition and show a good agreement between both sample types. We determined the slopes of these dependencies for eight different Raman modes. While the lattice parameters of the ceramics follow Vegard's rule, deviations are observed for the thin films. Further, we found indications of the high-pressure phase InGaO₃ II in the thin films above a critical indium concentration, its value depending on the type of substrate.

  17. Laser-driven growth of silver nanoplates on p-Type GaAs substrates and their surface-enhanced raman scattering activity.

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, Y.; Pelton, M.

    2009-03-20

    Contact between aqueous solutions of silver nitrate (AgNO{sub 3}) and pristine surfaces of p-type gallium arsenide (GaAs) wafers results in essentially no reaction at room temperature and in the dark. The galvanic reactions between the GaAs wafers and AgNO{sub 3} can be triggered under illumination of laser beams with power densities higher than a critical value ({approx}15 mW/cm{sup 2} for a 630 nm laser), resulting in the growth of silver (Ag) nanoplates on the GaAs surface. The density and dimensions (including both thickness and edge length) of the resulting nanoplates can be readily tuned by controlling the growth time and laser power density. The as-grown Ag nanoplates on the substrates significantly enhance Raman signals of interesting molecules and serve as a new class of promising surface-enhanced Raman scattering substrates for sensitive chemical detection.

  18. Theoretical studies of Resonance Enhanced Stimulated Raman Scattering (RESRS) of frequency-doubled Alexandrite laser wavelength in cesium vapor. Progress report, January-June 1987

    SciTech Connect

    Lawandy, N.M.

    1987-01-01

    The solutions for the imaginary susceptibility of the Raman field transition with arbitrary relaxation rates and field strengths are examined for three different sets of relaxation rates. These rates correspond to: (1) Far Infrared (FIR) Raman lasers in the diabatic collision regime without consideration of coupled population decay in a closed system, (2) Raman FIR lasers in the diabatic collision regime with coupled population conserving decay, and (3) IR Raman gain in cesium vapor. The model is further expanded to include Doppler broadening and used to predict the peak gain as a function of detuning for a frequency doubled Alexandrite laser-pumped cesium vapor gain cell.

  19. Raman solitons with group velocity dispersion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skryabin, D. V.; Yulin, A. V.

    2006-10-01

    We consider the coupled propagation of the pump and Stokes waves in a Raman active medium accounting for the group velocity walk off and group velocity dispersion. Interplay of the Raman coherence and the dispersion can lead to the formation of a complete band gap in the spectrum of linear waves consisting of the two consecutive subgaps located at different frequencies. Using an approximate analytic technique, we find exponentially localized solitons residing in the complete gap, and find algebraic solitons when the gap is closed. Feasibility of observation of these structures in hollow fibers is discussed.

  20. Advanced Raman water vapor lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whiteman, David N.; Melfi, S. Harvey; Ferrare, Richard A.; Evans, Keith A.; Ramos-Izquierdo, Luis; Staley, O. Glenn; Disilvestre, Raymond W.; Gorin, Inna; Kirks, Kenneth R.; Mamakos, William A.

    1992-01-01

    Water vapor and aerosols are important atmospheric constituents. Knowledge of the structure of water vapor is important in understanding convective development, atmospheric stability, the interaction of the atmosphere with the surface, and energy feedback mechanisms and how they relate to global warming calculations. The Raman Lidar group at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) developed an advanced Raman Lidar for use in measuring water vapor and aerosols in the earth's atmosphere. Drawing on the experience gained through the development and use of our previous Nd:YAG based system, we have developed a completely new lidar system which uses a XeF excimer laser and a large scanning mirror. The additional power of the excimer and the considerably improved optical throughput of the system have resulted in approximately a factor of 25 improvement in system performance for nighttime measurements. Every component of the current system has new design concepts incorporated. The lidar system consists of two mobile trailers; the first (13m x 2.4m) houses the lidar instrument, the other (9.75m x 2.4m) is for system control, realtime data display, and analysis. The laser transmitter is a Lambda Physik LPX 240 iCC operating at 400 Hz with a XeF gas mixture (351 nm). The telescope is a .75m horizontally mounted Dall-Kirkham system which is bore sited with a .8m x 1.1m elliptical flat which has a full 180 degree scan capability - horizon to horizon within a plane perpendicular to the long axis of the trailer. The telescope and scan mirror assembly are mounted on a 3.65m x .9m optical table which deploys out the rear of the trailer through the use of a motor driven slide rail system. The Raman returns from water vapor (403 nm), nitrogen (383 nm) and oxygen (372 nm) are measured in addition to the direct Rayleigh/Mie backscatter (351). The signal from each of these is split at about a 5/95 ratio between two photomultiplier detectors. The 5 percent detector is used for

  1. Study of the surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy of residual impurities in hydroxylamine-reduced silver colloid and the effects of anions on the colloid activity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Xiao; Gu, Huaimin; Liu, Fangfang

    2012-03-01

    The paper investigated the residual ions in hydroxylamine-reduced silver colloid (HRSC) and the relationship between the condition of HRSC and the enhanced mechanisms of this colloid. We also detected the SERS of MB and studied the effects of anions on the Raman signal. In the case of HRSC, the bands of residual ions diminish while the bands of Ag-anions increase gradually with increasing the concentrations of Cl(-) and NO(3)(-). It means the affinity of residual ions on the silver surface is weaker than that of Cl(-) and NO(3)(-) and the residual ions are replaced gradually by the added Cl(-) or NO(3)(-). The Raman signal of residual ions can be detected by treatment with anions that do not bind strongly to the silver surface, such as SO(4)(2-). The most intense band of Ag-anions bonds can be also observed when adding weakly binding anions to the colloid. However, the anions which make up the Ag-anions bonds are residual Cl(-) and the effect of weakly binding anions is only to aggregate the silver particles. Residual Cl(-) can be replaced by I(-) which has the highest affinity. From the detection of methylene blue (MB), the effects of anions on the enhancement of Raman signal are discussed in detail, and these findings could make the conditions suitable for detecting analytes in high efficiency. This study will have a profound implication to SERS users about their interpretation of SERS spectra when obtaining these anomalous bands.

  2. Nanoplasmonic Raman detection of bromate in water.

    PubMed

    Kulakovich, O S; Shabunya-Klyachkovskaya, E V; Matsukovich, A S; Rasool, Kashif; Mahmoud, Khaled A; Gaponenko, S V

    2016-01-25

    The possibility of using surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) detection method for bromate-anion determination and quantitative evaluation in water has been demonstrated for the first time. The decreasing of Rhodamine 6G (R6G) Raman peaks intensity has been used as the analytical signal corresponding to the catalytic oxidation by bromate. Electrostatically immobilized silver nanoparticles have been proven as efficient SERS-active substrate. A linear relationship between the Raman intensity of Rh6G as a function of BrO(3)(-) was observed in the range of 0 - 10(-7) М and the detect limit was as low as 10(-10) M (nearly 0.01 μg/L). The results prove the potential of the proposed method for further application in the development of new portable SERS-based sensors for drinking water monitoring with high sensitivity, simplicity and the low cost. PMID:26832571

  3. Backward stimulated Raman scattering in water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tcherniega, N.; Sokolovskaia, A.; Kudriavtseva, A. D.; Barille, R.; Rivoire, G.

    2000-07-01

    The backward Stimulated Raman scattering (BSRS) is studied in liquid water. We show that BSRS can be produced by small volumes of active materials. Our experimental results and calculations with different geometries and intensities of excitation allow us to choose the best experimental set-up for BSRS efficiencies. The competition with librational scattering is also observed.

  4. Characteristics of time-gated Raman amplification in GaP-AlGaP semiconductor waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanabe, T.; Suto, K.; Saito, T.; Kimura, T.; Oyama, Y.; Nishizawa, J.

    2003-01-01

    Time-gated Raman amplification in the GaP-AlGaP waveguide is investigated using mode-locked Ti-sapphire pump source with 80 ps pulse width. Logarithmic Raman gain linearly increases with increasing the pump power density as long as the gain is less than about 10 dB. However, with further increasing the pump power it becomes nearly proportional to the square root of the pump power density. This is due to the fact that the equivalent linewidth of the pump pulse is comparable to the spectral full width half maximum of the Raman gain coefficient (24 GHz). Another point is that the amplified pulse broadens as the waveguide length exceeds the optical length corresponding to the pump pulse width because Raman amplification occurs mainly due to backward scattering.

  5. Temporal evolution of "automatic gain-scaling".

    PubMed

    Pruszynski, J Andrew; Kurtzer, Isaac; Lillicrap, Timothy P; Scott, Stephen H

    2009-08-01

    The earliest neural response to a mechanical perturbation, the short-latency stretch response (R1: 20-45 ms), is known to exhibit "automatic gain-scaling" whereby its magnitude is proportional to preperturbation muscle activity. Because gain-scaling likely reflects an intrinsic property of the motoneuron pool (via the size-recruitment principle), counteracting this property poses a fundamental challenge for the nervous system, which must ultimately counter the absolute change in load regardless of the initial muscle activity (i.e., show no gain-scaling). Here we explore the temporal evolution of gain-scaling in a simple behavioral task where subjects stabilize their arm against different background loads and randomly occurring torque perturbations. We quantified gain-scaling in four elbow muscles (brachioradialis, biceps long, triceps lateral, triceps long) over the entire sequence of muscle activity following perturbation onset-the short-latency response, long-latency response (R2: 50-75 ms; R3: 75-105 ms), early voluntary corrections (120-180 ms), and steady-state activity (750-1250 ms). In agreement with previous observations, we found that the short-latency response demonstrated substantial gain-scaling with a threefold increase in background load resulting in an approximately twofold increase in muscle activity for the same perturbation. Following the short-latency response, we found a rapid decrease in gain-scaling starting in the long-latency epoch ( approximately 75-ms postperturbation) such that no significant gain-scaling was observed for the early voluntary corrections or steady-state activity. The rapid decrease in gain-scaling supports our recent suggestion that long-latency responses and voluntary control are inherently linked as part of an evolving sensorimotor control process through similar neural circuitry.

  6. Proximal and point detection of contaminated surfaces using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guicheteau, Jason A.; Christesen, Steven D.; Tripathi, Ashish; Emmons, Erik D.; Wilcox, Phillip G.; Emge, Darren K.; Pardoe, Ian J.; Fountain, Augustus W., III

    2011-11-01

    We are actively investigating the use of Raman spectroscopy for proximal standoff detection of chemicals and explosive materials on surfaces. These studies include Raman Chemical Imaging of contaminated fingerprints for forensic attribution and the assessments of commercial handheld or portable Raman instruments operating with near-infrared (IR) as well as ultraviolet (UV) laser excitation specifically developed for on-the-move reconnaissance of chemical contamination. As part of these efforts, we have measured the Raman cross sections of chemical agents, toxic industrial chemicals, and explosives from the UV to NIR. We have also measured and modeled the effect interrogation angle has on the Raman return from droplets on man-made surfaces. Realistic droplet distributions have been modeled and tested against variations in surface scan patterns and laser spot size for determining the optimum scan characteristics for detection of relevant surface contamination.

  7. Amoco technique gains support

    SciTech Connect

    1995-10-01

    Amoco Corp.`s low-cost horizontal drilling technique and equipment are gaining acceptance in the oilpatch after five years of design and fine-tuning work. The system is purely mechanical, and it`s designed to operate with a workover rig instead of a drilling rig. It`s engineered to drill short-radius horizontal wells with lateral sup to 1,000 feet, so far.

  8. Role of Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy in colorectal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Cerys A; Lewis, Paul D; Dunstan, Peter R; Harris, Dean A

    2016-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the fourth most common cancer in the United Kingdom and is the second largest cause of cancer related death in the United Kingdom after lung cancer. Currently in the United Kingdom there is not a diagnostic test that has sufficient differentiation between patients with cancer and those without cancer so the current referral system relies on symptomatic presentation in a primary care setting. Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) are forms of vibrational spectroscopy that offer a non-destructive method to gain molecular information about biological samples. The techniques offer a wide range of applications from in vivo or in vitro diagnostics using endoscopic probes, to the use of micro-spectrometers for analysis of biofluids. The techniques have the potential to detect molecular changes prior to any morphological changes occurring in the tissue and therefore could offer many possibilities to aid the detection of CRC. The purpose of this review is to look at the current state of diagnostic technology in the United Kingdom. The development of Raman spectroscopy and SERS in clinical applications relation for CRC will then be discussed. Finally, future areas of research of Raman/SERS as a clinical tool for the diagnosis of CRC are also discussed. PMID:27190582

  9. Cavity-enhanced Raman microscopy of individual carbon nanotubes

    PubMed Central

    Hümmer, Thomas; Noe, Jonathan; Hofmann, Matthias S.; Hänsch, Theodor W.; Högele, Alexander; Hunger, David

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy reveals chemically specific information and provides label-free insight into the molecular world. However, the signals are intrinsically weak and call for enhancement techniques. Here, we demonstrate Purcell enhancement of Raman scattering in a tunable high-finesse microcavity, and utilize it for molecular diagnostics by combined Raman and absorption imaging. Studying individual single-wall carbon nanotubes, we identify crucial structural parameters such as nanotube radius, electronic structure and extinction cross-section. We observe a 320-times enhanced Raman scattering spectral density and an effective Purcell factor of 6.2, together with a collection efficiency of 60%. Potential for significantly higher enhancement, quantitative signals, inherent spectral filtering and absence of intrinsic background in cavity-vacuum stimulated Raman scattering render the technique a promising tool for molecular imaging. Furthermore, cavity-enhanced Raman transitions involving localized excitons could potentially be used for gaining quantum control over nanomechanical motion and open a route for molecular cavity optomechanics. PMID:27402165

  10. Cavity-enhanced Raman microscopy of individual carbon nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hümmer, Thomas; Noe, Jonathan; Hofmann, Matthias S; Hänsch, Theodor W; Högele, Alexander; Hunger, David

    2016-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy reveals chemically specific information and provides label-free insight into the molecular world. However, the signals are intrinsically weak and call for enhancement techniques. Here, we demonstrate Purcell enhancement of Raman scattering in a tunable high-finesse microcavity, and utilize it for molecular diagnostics by combined Raman and absorption imaging. Studying individual single-wall carbon nanotubes, we identify crucial structural parameters such as nanotube radius, electronic structure and extinction cross-section. We observe a 320-times enhanced Raman scattering spectral density and an effective Purcell factor of 6.2, together with a collection efficiency of 60%. Potential for significantly higher enhancement, quantitative signals, inherent spectral filtering and absence of intrinsic background in cavity-vacuum stimulated Raman scattering render the technique a promising tool for molecular imaging. Furthermore, cavity-enhanced Raman transitions involving localized excitons could potentially be used for gaining quantum control over nanomechanical motion and open a route for molecular cavity optomechanics. PMID:27402165

  11. Remote Raman Sensor System for Testing of Rocks and Minerals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Christopher S.; Abedin, M. Nurul; Sharma, Shiv K.; Misra, Anupam K.; Ismail, Syed; Sanford, Stephen P.; Elsayed-Ali, Hani

    2007-01-01

    Recent and future explorations of Mars and lunar surfaces through rovers and landers have spawned great interest in developing an instrument that can perform in-situ analysis of minerals on planetary surfaces. Several research groups have anticipated that for such analysis, Raman spectroscopy is the best suited technique because it can unambiguously provide the composition and structure of a material. A remote pulsed Raman spectroscopy system for analyzing minerals was demonstrated at NASA Langley Research Center in collaboration with the University of Hawaii. This system utilizes a 532 nm pulsed laser as an excitation wavelength, and a telescope with a 4-inch aperture for collecting backscattered radiation. A spectrograph equipped with a super notch filter for attenuating Rayleigh scattering is used to analyze the scattered signal. To form the Raman spectrum, the spectrograph utilizes a holographic transmission grating that simultaneously disperses two spectral tracks on the detector for increased spectral range. The spectrum is recorded on an intensified charge-coupled device (ICCD) camera system, which provides high gain to allow detection of inherently weak Stokes lines. To evaluate the performance of the system, Raman standards such as calcite and naphthalene are analyzed. Several sets of rock and gemstone samples obtained from Ward s Natural Science are tested using the Raman spectroscopy system. In addition, Raman spectra of combustible substances such acetone and isopropanol are also obtained. Results obtained from those samples and combustible substances are presented.

  12. Cicada wing decorated by silver nanoparticles as low-cost and active/sensitive substrates for surface-enhanced Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Lei; Zhang, Chang Xing; Deng, Li; Zhang, Guo Xin; Xu, Hai Jun; Sun, Xiao Ming

    2014-06-01

    A green, low-cost and highly efficient surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrate was achieved by a chemical deposition of silver nanoparticles on a cicada wing, which has the large-scale nanosized protrusions on its surface. Employing the already-formed Ag/cicada wing as substrate for SERS detection, the detection limit for rhodamine 6G could reach 10-7M, the Raman enhancement factor of the substrate was as large as 106 and the relative standard deviation remains lower than 7%. The three-dimensional finite-difference time-domain simulation results showed that two types of inter-Ag-nanoparticle nanogaps in the formed geometry created a huge number of SERS "hot spots" where the electromagnetic field is substantially amplified and contributes to the higher SERS sensitivity. Meanwhile, the water contact angle of the SERS substrate is roughly 150°, which indicates the super-hydrophobic surface of the substrate. This feature may be conducive to the gathering of target molecules during the SERS detection, which in turn further improves the detection limit of target molecules. In order to improve the application of the substrate, thiram was used as the probe molecule, and the detection limit also reached 10-7 M. Meanwhile, the calibration of the Raman peak intensities of Rhodamine 6G and thiram allowed their quantitative detection. Therefore, the green and low-cost SERS substrates could be used for fast and quantitative detection of trace organic molecules. Our findings may contribute to the development of the green and low-cost SERS substrates and will allow the fast and quantitative detection of trace organic molecules.

  13. Gain-assisted control of the Goos-Haenchen shift

    SciTech Connect

    Ziauddin,; Qamar, Sajid

    2011-11-15

    A gain-assisted model is considered to study the Goos-Haenchen (GH) shift behavior in the reflected and transmitted light. In this model, a probe light is incident on a cavity containing three-level dilute gaseous atomic medium. The atom-field interaction follows two-photon Raman transitions, and the dielectric susceptibility of the medium exhibits dispersion and gain properties [L. J. Wang, A. Kuzmich, and A. Dogariu, Nature (London) 406, 227 (2000)]. Under appropriate conditions, two gain peaks are observed with anomalous dispersion between the peaks, whereas normal dispersion can be observed at and around the gain maxima. The manipulation of the detuning associated with the probe light field which interacts with the intracavity medium during its propagation through the cavity can lead to a control over negative and positive GH shift in the reflected and transmitted light beam via the anomalous and normal dispersion of the medium.

  14. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-01-27

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.

  15. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1983-07-19

    Disclosed is a regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO[sub 2] laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplifier Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO[sub 2] laser pump signal. 6 figs.

  16. Ring cavity for a raman capillary waveguide amplifier

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, Norman A.

    1983-07-19

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO.sub.2 laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplifier Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO.sub.2 laser pump signal.

  17. Ring cavity for a Raman capillary waveguide amplifir

    DOEpatents

    Kurnit, N.A.

    1981-01-27

    A regenerative ring amplifier and regenerative ring oscillator are described which function to feed back a portion of the Stokes signal to complete the ring cavity. The ring cavity configuration allows the CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal and Stokes signal to copropagate through the Raman capillary waveguide amplifier. A Raman capillary waveguide amplifier is also provided in the return leg of the ring cavity to increase gain without increasing the round trip time. Additionally, the ring cavity can be designed such that the amplified Stokes signal is synchronous with the mode-locked spikes of the incoming CO/sub 2/ laser pump signal.

  18. 150 W highly-efficient Raman fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Taylor, Luke R; Calia, Domenico Bonaccini

    2009-12-21

    We report a more than 150 W spectrally-clean continuous wave Raman fiber laser at 1120 nm with an optical efficiency of 85%. A approximately 30 m standard single mode silica fiber is used as Raman gain fiber to avoid second Stokes emission. A spectrally asymmetric resonator (in the sense of mirror reflection bandwidth) with usual fiber Bragg gratings is designed to minimize the laser power lost into the unwanted direction, even when the effective reflectivity of the rear fiber Bragg grating becomes as low as 81.5%. PMID:20052078

  19. 150 W highly-efficient Raman fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yan; Taylor, Luke R; Calia, Domenico Bonaccini

    2009-12-21

    We report a more than 150 W spectrally-clean continuous wave Raman fiber laser at 1120 nm with an optical efficiency of 85%. A approximately 30 m standard single mode silica fiber is used as Raman gain fiber to avoid second Stokes emission. A spectrally asymmetric resonator (in the sense of mirror reflection bandwidth) with usual fiber Bragg gratings is designed to minimize the laser power lost into the unwanted direction, even when the effective reflectivity of the rear fiber Bragg grating becomes as low as 81.5%.

  20. Stimulated Raman scattering holography for time-resolved imaging of methane gas.

    PubMed

    Amer, Eynas; Gren, Per; Edenharder, Stefan; Sjödahl, Mikael

    2016-05-01

    In this paper, pulsed digital holographic detection is coupled to the stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) process for imaging gases. A Q-switched Nd-YAG laser (532 nm) has been used to pump methane gas (CH4) at pressures up to 12 bars. The frequency-tripled (355 nm) beam from the same laser was used to pump an optical parametric oscillator (OPO). The Stokes beam (from the OPO) has been tuned to 629.93 nm so that the frequency difference between the pump (532 nm) and the Stokes beams fits a Raman active vibrational mode of the methane molecule (2922  cm-1). The pump beam has been spatially modulated with fringes produced in a Michelson interferometer. The pump and the Stokes beams were overlapped in time, space, and polarization on the gas molecules, resulting in a stimulated Raman gain of the Stokes beam and a corresponding loss of the pump beam through the SRS process. The resulting gain of the Stokes beam has been detected using pulsed digital holography by blending it with a reference beam on the detector. Two holograms of the Stokes beam, without and with the pump beam fringes present, were recorded. Intensity maps calculated from the recorded digital holograms showed amplification of the Stokes beam at the position of overlap with the pump beam fringes and the gas molecules. The gain of the Stokes beam has been separated from the background in the Fourier domain. A gain of about 4.5% at a pump beam average intensity of 4  MW/cm2 and a Stokes beam intensity of 0.16  MW/cm2 have been recorded at a gas pressure of 12 bars. The gain decreased linearly with decreasing gas pressure. The results show that SRS holography is a promising technique to pinpoint a specific species and record its spatial and temporal distribution. PMID:27140351

  1. Planetary Surface Exploration Using Raman Spectroscopy on Rovers and Landers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blacksberg, Jordana; Alerstam, E.; Maruyama, Y.; Charbon, E.; Rossman, G. R.

    2013-10-01

    Planetary surface exploration using laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) to probe the composition of rocks has recently become a reality with the operation of the mast-mounted ChemCam instrument onboard the Curiosity rover. Following this success, Raman spectroscopy has steadily gained support as a means for using laser spectroscopy to identify not just composition but mineral phases, without the need for sample preparation. The RLS Raman Spectrometer is included on the payload for the ExoMars mission, and a Raman spectrometer has been included in an example strawman payload for NASA’s Mars 2020 mission. Raman spectroscopy has been identified by the community as a feasible means for pre-selection of samples on Mars for subsequent return to Earth. We present a next-generation instrument that builds on the widely used green-Raman technique to provide a means for performing Raman spectroscopy without the background noise that is often generated by fluorescence of minerals and organics. Microscopic Raman spectroscopy with a laser spot size smaller than the grains of interest can provide surface mapping of mineralogy while preserving morphology. A very small laser spot size 1 µm) is often necessary to identify minor phases that are often of greater interest than the matrix phases. In addition to the difficulties that can be posed by fine-grained material, fluorescence interference from the very same material is often problematic. This is particularly true for many of the minerals of interest that form in environments of aqueous alteration and can be highly fluorescent. We use time-resolved laser spectroscopy to eliminate fluorescence interference that can often make it difficult or impossible to obtain Raman spectra. We will discuss significant advances leading to the feasibility of a compact time-resolved spectrometer, including the development of a new solid-state detector capable of sub-ns time resolution. We will present results on planetary analog

  2. Helicopter high gain control

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cunningham, T. B.; Nunn, E. C.

    1979-01-01

    High gain control is explored through a design study of the CH-47B helicopter. The plans are designed to obtain the maximum bandwidth possible given the hardware constraints. Controls are designed with modal control theory to specific bandwidths and closed loop mode shapes. Comparisons are made to an earlier complementary filter approach. Bandwidth improvement by removal of limitations is explored in order to establish hardware and mechanization options. Improvements in the pitch axis control system and in the rate gyro sensor noise characteristics in all axes are discussed. The use of rotor state feedback is assessed.

  3. Stimulated Raman photoacoustic imaging

    PubMed Central

    Yakovlev, Vladislav V.; Zhang, Hao F.; Noojin, Gary D.; Denton, Michael L.; Thomas, Robert J.; Scully, Marlan O.

    2010-01-01

    Achieving label-free, molecular-specific imaging with high spatial resolution in deep tissue is often considered the grand challenge of optical imaging. To accomplish this goal, significant optical scattering in tissues has to be overcome while achieving molecular specificity without resorting to extrinsic labeling. We demonstrate the feasibility of developing such an optical imaging modality by combining the molecularly specific stimulated Raman excitation with the photoacoustic detection. By employing two ultrashort excitation laser pulses, separated in frequency by the vibrational frequency of a targeted molecule, only the specific vibrational level of the target molecules in the illuminated tissue volume is excited. This targeted optical absorption generates ultrasonic waves (referred to as stimulated Raman photoacoustic waves) which are detected using a traditional ultrasonic transducer to form an image following the design of the established photoacoustic microscopy. PMID:21059930

  4. Lattice parameters and Raman-active phonon modes of β-(Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1−x}){sub 2}O{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Kranert, Christian Jenderka, Marcus; Lenzner, Jörg; Lorenz, Michael; Wenckstern, Holger von; Schmidt-Grund, Rüdiger; Grundmann, Marius

    2015-03-28

    We present X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy investigations of a (100)-oriented (Al{sub x}Ga{sub 1–x}){sub 2}O{sub 3} thin film on MgO (100) and bulk-like ceramics in dependence on their composition. The thin film grown by pulsed laser deposition has a continuous lateral composition spread allowing to determine precisely the dependence of the phonon mode properties and lattice parameters on the chemical composition. For x < 0.4, we observe the single-phase β-modification. Its lattice parameters and phonon energies depend linearly on the composition. We determined the slopes of these dependencies for the individual lattice parameters and for nine Raman lines, respectively. While the lattice parameters of the ceramics follow Vegard's rule, deviations are observed for the thin film. This deviation has only a small effect on the phonon energies, which show a reasonably good agreement between thin film and ceramics.

  5. FT-IR, FT-Raman and DFT study of 3,3'-bis (trifluoromethyl) benzophenone and its biological activity with other halogen (Cl, Br) atoms.

    PubMed

    Mahalakshmi, G; Balachandran, V

    2014-04-24

    The FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 3,3'-bis (trifluoromethyl) benzophenone (TFMBP) were recorded and analyzed. Natural bond orbital analysis on TFMBP, 3,3'-bis (trichloromethyl) benzophenone (TCMBP) and 3,3'-bis (tribromomethyl) benzophenone (TBMBP) has been carried out for various intramolecular interactions that are responsible for the stabilization of the molecule. HOMO-LUMO energy gap of the halogen substitution (Cl, Br) has been computed with the help of density functional theory. The statistical thermodynamic functions (heat capacity, entropy, vibrational partition function and Gibbs energy) were obtained for the range of temperature 100-1000 K. The polarizability, first hyperpolarizability, anisotropy polarizability invariant has been computed using quantum chemical calculations. The infrared and Raman spectra were also predicted from the calculated intensities. Comparison of the experimental and theoretical spectra values provides important information about the ability of the computational method to describe the vibrational modes. UV-VIS spectral analyses of TFMBP have been researched by theoretical calculations. In order to understand electronic transitions of the compound, TD-DFT calculations on electronic absorption spectra in gas phase and solvent (DMSO and Chloroform) were performed. The calculated frontier orbital energies, absorption wavelengths (λ), oscillator strengths (ƒ) and excitation energies (E) for gas phase and solvent (water and methanol) are also illustrated. PMID:24503154

  6. Highly active surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates based on gold nanoparticles infiltrated into SiO2 inverse opals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ankudze, Bright; Philip, Anish; Pakkanen, Tuula T.; Matikainen, Antti; Vahimaa, Pasi

    2016-11-01

    SiO2 inverse opal (IO) films with embedded gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) for surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) application are reported. SiO2 IO films were loaded with AuNPs by a simple infiltration in a single cycle to form Au-SiO2 IOs. The optical property and the morphology of the Au-SiO2 IO substrates were characterized; it was observed that they retained the Bragg diffraction of SiO2 IO and the localized surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) of AuNPs. The SERS property of the Au-SiO2 IO substrates were studied with methylene blue (MB) and 4-aminothiophenol (4-ATP). The SERS enhancement factors were 107 and 106 for 4-ATP and MB, respectively. A low detection limit of 10-10 M for 4-ATP was also obtained with the Au-SiO2 IO substrate. A relative standard deviation of 18.5% for the Raman signals intensity at 1077 cm-1 for 4-ATP shows that the Au-SiO2 IO substrates have good signal reproducibility. The results of this study indicate that the Au-SiO2 IO substrates can be used in sensing and SERS applications.

  7. Smoking Cessation and Weight Gain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, Sharon M.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Investigated determinants of weight gain after quitting smoking in two smoking treatment outcome studies. Results indicated abstinence resulted in weight gain, and postquitting weight gain was predicted by pretreatment tobacco use, a history of weight problems, and eating patterns. Relapse to smoking did not follow weight gain. (Author/BL)

  8. C. V. Raman and the Discovery of the Raman Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Rajinder

    In 1928 the Indian physicist C. V. Raman (1888-1970) discovered the effect named after him virtually simultaneously with the Russian physicists G. S. Landsberg (1890-1957) and L. I. Mandelstam (1879-1944). I first provide a biographical sketch of Raman through his years in Calcutta (1907-1932) and Bangalore (after 1932). I then discuss his scientific work in acoustics, astronomy, and optics up to 1928, including his views on Albert Einstein's light-quantum hypothesis and on Arthur Holly Compton's discovery of the Compton effect, with particular reference to Compton's debate on it with William Duane in Toronto in 1924, which Raman witnessed. I then examine Raman's discovery of the Raman effect and its reception among physicists. Finally, I suggest reasons why Landsberg and Mandelstam did not share the Nobel Prize in Physics for 1930 with Raman.

  9. Activation of Plant Immune Responses by a Gain-of-Function Mutation in an Atypical Receptor-Like Kinase1[C][W][OA

    PubMed Central

    Bi, Dongling; Cheng, Yu Ti; Li, Xin; Zhang, Yuelin

    2010-01-01

    Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive1 (snc1) contains a gain-of-function mutation in a Toll/interleukin receptor-nucleotide binding site-leucine-rich repeat Resistance (R) protein and it has been a useful tool for dissecting R-protein-mediated immunity. Here we report the identification and characterization of snc4-1D, a semidominant mutant with snc1-like phenotypes. snc4-1D constitutively expresses defense marker genes PR1, PR2, and PDF1.2, and displays enhanced pathogen resistance. Map-based cloning of SNC4 revealed that it encodes an atypical receptor-like kinase with two predicted extracellular glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase domains. The snc4-1D mutation changes an alanine to threonine in the predicted cytoplasmic kinase domain. Wild-type plants transformed with the mutant snc4-1D gene displayed similar phenotypes as snc4-1D, suggesting that the mutation is a gain-of-function mutation. Epistasis analysis showed that NON-RACE-SPECIFIC DISEASE RESISTANCE1 is required for the snc4-1D mutant phenotypes. In addition, the snc4-1D mutant phenotypes are partially suppressed by knocking out MAP KINASE SUBSTRATE1, a positive defense regulator associated with MAP KINASE4. Furthermore, both the morphology and constitutive pathogen resistance of snc4-1D are partially suppressed by blocking jasmonic acid synthesis, suggesting that jasmonic acid plays an important role in snc4-1D-mediated resistance. Identification of snc4-1D provides us a unique genetic system for analyzing the signal transduction pathways downstream of receptor-like kinases. PMID:20508139

  10. Vibrational spectroscopy [FTIR and FTRaman] investigation, computed vibrational frequency analysis and IR intensity and Raman activity peak resemblance analysis on 4-chloro 2-methylaniline using HF and DFT [LSDA, B3LYP and B3PW91] calculations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramalingam, S.; Periandy, S.

    2011-03-01

    In the present study, the FT-IR and FT-Raman spectra of 4-chloro-2-methylaniline (4CH2MA) have been recorded in the range of 4000-100 cm -1. The fundamental modes of vibrational frequencies of 4CH2MA are assigned. All the geometrical parameters have been calculated by HF and DFT (LSDA, B3LYP and B3PW91) methods with 6-31G (d, p) and 6-311G (d, p) basis sets. Optimized geometries of the molecule have been interpreted and compared with the reported experimental values for aniline and some substituted aniline. The harmonic and anharmonic vibrational wavenumbers, IR intensities and Raman activities are calculated at the same theory levels used in geometry optimization. The calculated frequencies are scaled and compared with experimental values. The scaled vibrational frequencies at LSDA/B3LYP/6-311G (d, p) seem to coincide with the experimentally observed values with acceptable deviations. The impact of substitutions on the benzene structure is investigated. The molecular interactions between the substitutions (Cl, CH 3 and NH 2) are also analyzed.

  11. Optimization of a Raman/EDFA hybrid amplifier based on dual-order stimulated Raman scattering using a single-pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhaohui; Zhao, Chun-Liu; Wen, Yang Jing; Lu, Chao; Wang, Yixin; Chen, Jian

    2006-09-01

    Based on dual-order stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) of a single 1395 nm Raman fiber laser in 75 km single mode fiber and its corresponding dispersion compensation module, a hybrid Raman/Erbium doped fiber amplifier (EDFA) for long wavelength band (L-band) amplification is realized by inserting a segment of EDF within the span. By comparing the performance of gain and noise in four hybrid amplifiers with different span configurations, we find that the distribution of the secondary L-band amplification obtained from the EDF along the link has a great influence on the performance of the hybrid amplifier. Both gain and noise performance of hybrid amplifier can be improved significantly by optimizing the location of the EDF. Moreover, we can extend the flat gain bandwidth from L-band to central wavelength band (C-band) plus L-band by recycling the residual first-order SRS to pump a segment of EDF with proper length.

  12. Periodontitis diagnostics using resonance Raman spectroscopy on saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gonchukov, S.; Sukhinina, A.; Bakhmutov, D.; Biryukova, T.; Tsvetkov, M.; Bagratashvily, V.

    2013-07-01

    In view of its wealth of molecular information, Raman spectroscopy has been the subject of active biomedical research. The aim of this work is Raman spectroscopy (RS) application for the determination of molecular biomarkers in saliva with the objective of early periodontitis detection. As was shown in our previous study, carotenoids contained in saliva can be molecular fingerprint information for the periodontitis level. It is shown here that the carotenoid RS lines at wavenumbers of 1156 and 1524 cm-1 can be easily detected and serve as reliable biomarkers of periodontitis using resonance Raman spectroscopy of dry saliva.

  13. Signal contrast in coherent Raman scattering: Optical phonons versus biomolecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Voronin, A. A.; Zheltikov, A. M.

    2012-09-01

    We show that the limiting contrast of the coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering (CARS) signal with respect to the coherent background due to nonresonant four-wave mixing is controlled by the Q factor of the Raman mode and is independent of the parameters of laser pulses. High-Q phonon modes of semiconductor nanoparticles, such as diamond nanoprobes, can therefore substantially enhance the contrast of CARS images, as well as the sensitivity of CARS spectroscopy and microscopy compared to typical Raman-active vibrations of organic molecules in biotissues.

  14. Prismatic louver active façades for natural illumination and thermal energy gain in high-rise and commercial buildings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlachokostas, A.; Volkmann, C.; Madamopoulos, N.

    2013-06-01

    High-rise and commercial buildings in urban centers present a great challenge in terms of their energy consumption. Due to maximization of rentable square footage, the preferred urban façade system over the past 50 years has been the "curtain wall", only a few inches thick and comprised of modular steel or aluminum framing and predominant glass infills. The perceived Achilles heel of these modern glass façade systems is their thermal inefficiency: They are inadequate thermal barriers and exhibit excessive solar gain. The excessive solar gain has a negative impact on lighting and cooling loads of the entire building. This negative impact will be further exacerbated with rising energy costs. However, rather than view the glass façade's uncontrolled solar gain merely as a weakness contributing to higher energy consumption, the condition could indeed be considered as related to an energy solution. These glass façades can be retrofitted to operate as a provider of daylight and energy for the rest of the building, taking advantage of the overexposure to the sun. With today's technology, the sun's abundant renewable energy can be the driving force for the energy transition of these building envelopes. Illumination, thermal energy, and electricity production can be directly supplied from the sun, and when correctly and efficiently managed, they can lead to a significantly less energy-intensive building stock. We propose a multi-purpose, prismatic, louver-based façade to perform both daylight and thermal energy harvesting with a goal of offering a better daylight environment for the occupants, and reduce the energy consumption and carbon footprint of the building. While decentralized air-conditioning units are commonly accepted as façade "plug-ins", such decentralization could be utilized with more benefits by passively managing the interior space conditions, without using any extra power. Just as living organisms respond and adapt to the environmental changes in

  15. Raman Spectroscopy Cell-based Biosensors

    PubMed Central

    Notingher, Ioan

    2007-01-01

    One of the main challenges faced by biodetection systems is the ability to detect and identify a large range of toxins at low concentrations and in short times. Cell-based biosensors rely on detecting changes in cell behaviour, metabolism, or induction of cell death following exposure of live cells to toxic agents. Raman spectroscopy is a powerful technique for studying cellular biochemistry. Different toxic chemicals have different effects on living cells and induce different time-dependent biochemical changes related to cell death mechanisms. Cellular changes start with membrane receptor signalling leading to cytoplasmic shrinkage and nuclear fragmentation. The potential advantage of Raman spectroscopy cell-based systems is that they are not engineered to respond specifically to a single toxic agent but are free to react to many biologically active compounds. Raman spectroscopy biosensors can also provide additional information from the time-dependent changes of cellular biochemistry. Since no cell labelling or staining is required, the specific time dependent biochemical changes in the living cells can be used for the identification and quantification of the toxic agents. Thus, detection of biochemical changes of cells by Raman spectroscopy could overcome the limitations of other biosensor techniques, with respect to detection and discrimination of a large range of toxic agents. Further developments of this technique may also include integration of cellular microarrays for high throughput in vitro toxicological testing of pharmaceuticals and in situ monitoring of the growth of engineered tissues.

  16. Single nanoparticle detection using split-mode microcavity Raman lasers.

    PubMed

    Li, Bei-Bei; Clements, William R; Yu, Xiao-Chong; Shi, Kebin; Gong, Qihuang; Xiao, Yun-Feng

    2014-10-14

    Ultrasensitive nanoparticle detection holds great potential for early-stage diagnosis of human diseases and for environmental monitoring. In this work, we report for the first time, to our knowledge, single nanoparticle detection by monitoring the beat frequency of split-mode Raman lasers in high-Q optical microcavities. We first demonstrate this method by controllably transferring single 50-nm-radius nanoparticles to and from the cavity surface using a fiber taper. We then realize real-time detection of single nanoparticles in an aqueous environment, with a record low detection limit of 20 nm in radius, without using additional techniques for laser noise suppression. Because Raman scattering occurs in most materials under practically any pump wavelength, this Raman laser-based sensing method not only removes the need for doping the microcavity with a gain medium but also loosens the requirement of specific wavelength bands for the pump lasers, thus representing a significant step toward practical microlaser sensors. PMID:25267618

  17. Raman Amplification and Tunable Pulse Delays in Silicon Waveguides

    SciTech Connect

    Rukhlenko, Ivan D.; Premaratne, Malin; Garanovich, Ivan L.; Sukhorukov, Andrey A.; Agrawal, Govind P.

    2010-10-07

    The nonlinear process of stimulated Raman scattering is important for silicon photonics as it enables optical amplification and lasing. However, generally employed numerical approaches provide very little insight into the contribution of different silicon Raman amplifier (SRA) parameters. In this paper, we solve the coupled pump-signal equations analytically and derive an exact formula for the envelope of a signal pulse when picosecond optical pulses are amplified inside a SRA pumped by a continuous-wave laser beam. Our solution is valid for an arbitrary pulse shape and fully accounts for the Raman gain-dispersion effects, including temporal broadening and group-velocity reduction. Our results are useful for optimizing the performance of SRAs and for engineering controllable signal delays.

  18. Specific Anti-Leukemic Activity of the Peptide Warnericin RK and Analogues and Visualization of Their Effect on Cancer Cells by Chemical Raman Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Loiseau, Clémence; Augenstreich, Jacques; Marchand, Adrienne; Harté, Etienne; Garcia, Martine; Verdon, Julien; Mesnil, Marc; Lecomte, Sophie; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides can be used as therapeutic agents against cancer cells. Warnericin RK and derivatives (WarnG20D and WarnF14V) were tested on various, solid tumor or leukemia, cancer cells. These peptides appeared to be cytotoxic on all the cell types tested, cancerous as well healthy, but very interestingly displayed no deleterious effect on healthy mononuclear cells. The mode of action of the peptide was proposed to be membranolytic, using chemical Raman imaging. Addition of peptide induced a large disorganization of the membrane leading to the loss of the content of inner compartments of Jurkat cell, whereas no effect was observed on the healthy mononuclear cells. The less hemolytic peptides WarnG20D and WarnF14V could be good candidates for the leukemia treatment. PMID:27598770

  19. Specific Anti-Leukemic Activity of the Peptide Warnericin RK and Analogues and Visualization of Their Effect on Cancer Cells by Chemical Raman Imaging.

    PubMed

    Loiseau, Clémence; Augenstreich, Jacques; Marchand, Adrienne; Harté, Etienne; Garcia, Martine; Verdon, Julien; Mesnil, Marc; Lecomte, Sophie; Berjeaud, Jean-Marc

    2016-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides can be used as therapeutic agents against cancer cells. Warnericin RK and derivatives (WarnG20D and WarnF14V) were tested on various, solid tumor or leukemia, cancer cells. These peptides appeared to be cytotoxic on all the cell types tested, cancerous as well healthy, but very interestingly displayed no deleterious effect on healthy mononuclear cells. The mode of action of the peptide was proposed to be membranolytic, using chemical Raman imaging. Addition of peptide induced a large disorganization of the membrane leading to the loss of the content of inner compartments of Jurkat cell, whereas no effect was observed on the healthy mononuclear cells. The less hemolytic peptides WarnG20D and WarnF14V could be good candidates for the leukemia treatment. PMID:27598770

  20. Central Gain Control in Tinnitus and Hyperacusis

    PubMed Central

    Auerbach, Benjamin D.; Rodrigues, Paulo V.; Salvi, Richard J.

    2014-01-01

    Sensorineural hearing loss induced by noise or ototoxic drug exposure reduces the neural activity transmitted from the cochlea to the central auditory system. Despite a reduced cochlear output, neural activity from more central auditory structures is paradoxically enhanced at suprathreshold intensities. This compensatory increase in the central auditory activity in response to the loss of sensory input is referred to as central gain enhancement. Enhanced central gain is hypothesized to be a potential mechanism that gives rise to hyperacusis and tinnitus, two debilitating auditory perceptual disorders that afflict millions of individuals. This review will examine the evidence for gain enhancement in the central auditory system in response to cochlear damage. Further, it will address the potential cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this enhancement and discuss the contribution of central gain enhancement to tinnitus and hyperacusis. Current evidence suggests that multiple mechanisms with distinct temporal and spectral profiles are likely to contribute to central gain enhancement. Dissecting the contributions of these different mechanisms at different levels of the central auditory system is essential for elucidating the role of central gain enhancement in tinnitus and hyperacusis and, most importantly, the development of novel treatments for these disorders. PMID:25386157

  1. The STAT3 HIES mutation is a gain-of-function mutation that activates genes via AGG-element carrying promoters

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Li; Ji, Jin-Jun; Le, Wangping; Xu, Yan S.; Dou, Dandan; Pan, Jieli; Jiao, Yifeng; Zhong, Tianfei; Wu, Dehong; Wang, Yumei; Wen, Chengping; Xie, Guan-Qun; Yao, Feng; Zhao, Heng; Fan, Yong-Sheng; Chin, Y. Eugene

    2015-01-01

    Cytokine or growth factor activated STAT3 undergoes multiple post-translational modifications, dimerization and translocation into nuclei, where it binds to serum-inducible element (SIE, ‘TTC(N3)GAA’)-bearing promoters to activate transcription. The STAT3 DNA binding domain (DBD, 320–494) mutation in hyper immunoglobulin E syndrome (HIES), called the HIES mutation (R382Q, R382W or V463Δ), which elevates IgE synthesis, inhibits SIE binding activity and sensitizes genes such as TNF-α for expression. However, the mechanism by which the HIES mutation sensitizes STAT3 in gene induction remains elusive. Here, we report that STAT3 binds directly to the AGG-element with the consensus sequence ‘AGG(N3)AGG’. Surprisingly, the helical N-terminal region (1–355), rather than the canonical STAT3 DBD, is responsible for AGG-element binding. The HIES mutation markedly enhances STAT3 AGG-element binding and AGG-promoter activation activity. Thus, STAT3 is a dual specificity transcription factor that promotes gene expression not only via SIE- but also AGG-promoter activity. PMID:26384563

  2. Raman accumulator as a fusion laser driver

    DOEpatents

    George, E.V.; Swingle, J.C.

    1982-03-31

    Apparatus for simultaneous laser pulse amplification and compression, using multiple pass Raman scattering in one Raman cell and pulse switchout from the optical cavity through use of a dichroic device associated with the Raman cell.

  3. Raman accumulator as a fusion laser driver

    DOEpatents

    George, E. Victor; Swingle, James C.

    1985-01-01

    Apparatus for simultaneous laser pulse amplification and compression, using multiple pass Raman scattering in one Raman cell and pulse switchout from the optical cavity through use of a dichroic device associated with the Raman cell.

  4. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dosimeter and probe

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan

    1995-01-01

    A dosimeter and probe for measuring exposure to chemical and biological compounds is disclosed. The dosimeter or probe includes a collector which may be analyzed by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The collector comprises a surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active material having a coating applied thereto to improve the adsorption properties of the collector. The collector may also be used in automated sequential devises, in probe array devices.

  5. Chemical monitors based on Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS)

    SciTech Connect

    Vo-Dinh, T.; Alarie, J.P.; Sutherland, W.S.; Stokes, D.L.; Miller, G.H.

    1992-12-31

    This paper presents an overview of the development of chemical monitors using the Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) technique. The SERS effect is based on recent experimental observations, which have indicated enhancement of the Raman scattering efficiency by factors up to 10{sup 8} when a compound is adsorbed on rough metallic surfaces having submicron protrusions. The focus of our research efforts is on the development of SERS-active sensors and instrumentation capable of field analysis and remote sensing.

  6. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) dosimeter and probe

    DOEpatents

    Vo-Dinh, T.

    1995-03-21

    A dosimeter and probe for measuring exposure to chemical and biological compounds is disclosed. The dosimeter or probe includes a collector which may be analyzed by surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy. The collector comprises a surface-enhanced Raman scattering-active material having a coating applied thereto to improve the adsorption properties of the collector. The collector may also be used in automated sequential devices, in probe array devices. 10 figures.

  7. Raman spectroscopy for diagnosis of glioblastoma multiforme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clary, Candace Elise

    Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), the most common and most fatal malignant brain tumor, is highly infiltrative and incurable. Although improved prognosis has been demonstrated by surgically resecting the bulk tumor, a lack of clear borders at the tumor margins complicates the selection decision during surgery. This dissertation investigates the potential of Raman spectroscopy for distinguishing between normal and malignant brain tissue and sets the groundwork for a surgical diagnostic guide for resection of gross malignant gliomas. These studies revealed that Raman spectroscopy was capable of discriminating between normal scid mouse brain tissue and human xenograft tumors induced in those mice. The spectra of normal and malignant tissue were normalized by dividing by the respective magnitudes of the peaks near 1440 cm -1. Spectral differences include the shape of the broad peaks near 1440 cm-1 and 1660 cm-1 and the relative magnitudes of the peaks at 1264 cm-1, 1287 cm-1, 1297 cm-1, 1556 cm -1, 1586 cm-1, 1614 cm-1, and 1683 cm-1. From these studies emerged questions regarding how to objectively normalize and compare spectra for future automation. Some differences in the Raman spectra were shown to be inherent in the disease states of the cells themselves via differences in the Raman spectra of normal human astrocytes in culture and cultured cells derived from GBM tumors. The spectra of astrocytes and glioma cells were normalized by dividing by the respective magnitudes of the peaks near 1450 cm-1. The differences between the Raman spectra of normal and transformed cells include the ratio of the 1450 cm-1/1650 cm-1 peaks and the relative magnitudes of the peaks at 1181 cm-1, 1191 cm-1, 1225 cm-1, 1263 cm -1, 1300 cm-1, 1336 cm-1, 1477 cm-1, 1494 cm-1, and 1695 cm -1. Previous Raman spectroscopic studies of biological cells have shown that the magnitude of the Raman signal decreases over time, indicating sample damage. Cells exposed to laser excitation at similar power

  8. Spontaneous and stimulated Raman scattering in silica-cladded silicon photonic crystal waveguides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiao, Yi-Hua; Iwamoto, Satoshi; Arakawa, Yasuhiko

    2015-04-01

    We report the observation of spontaneous and stimulated Raman scattering in a silica-cladded silicon photonic crystal (PhC) waveguide (WG) with modified holes. Spontaneous Raman scattering in the WG was enhanced when the Stokes wavelength was approached to the bandedge of a WG mode. A maximum enhancement up to ˜5 times was obtained in the present work. At a Stokes wavelength in the lower group velocity region, nonlinear increase of the Stokes power as the pump power, a clear indication of the onset of stimulated Raman scattering, was observed. Moreover, Raman amplification with an external signal beam was also demonstrated. On-off gain becomes small as the Stokes wavelength gets away from the bandedge of the WG mode. These are the first observations of Raman scattering effects in silica-cladded silicon PhC structures.

  9. Raman effects in the infrared supercontinuum generation in soft-glass PCFs

    PubMed Central

    Kalashnikov, V.L.; Sorokin, E.; Sorokina, I.T.

    2010-01-01

    Measurements of the Raman gain spectra in the SF6 and SF57 highly-nonlinear-glasses demonstrated twice as high Raman shift in comparison with the fused silica. Numerical simulation predicted that a large Raman shift in combination with high nonlinearity can significantly reduce the required input pulse intensity for supercontinuum in these glasses, retaining the necessary degree of coherence. We found, that the degradation of the SC coherence due to Raman soliton jitter can be effectively controlled by a correct choice of input intensity and fiber length. Also it was found, that high degree of coherence correlates with the spectrum shape in the vicinity of the Raman threshold, providing an convenient experimental observable. PMID:20975981

  10. Managing price, gaining profit.

    PubMed

    Marn, M V; Rosiello, R L

    1992-01-01

    The fastest and most effective way for a company to realize maximum profit is to get its pricing right. The right price can boost profit faster than increasing volume will; the wrong price can shrink it just as quickly. Yet many otherwise tough-minded managers miss out on significant profits because they shy away from pricing decisions for fear that they will alienate their customers. Worse, if management isn't controlling its pricing policies, there's a good chance that the company's clients are manipulating them to their own advantage. McKinsey & Company's Michael Marn and Robert Rosiello show managers how to gain control of the pricing puzzle and capture untapped profit potential by using two basic concepts: the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band. The pocket price waterfall reveals how price erodes between a company's invoice figure and the actual amount paid by the customer--the transaction price. It tracks the volume purchase discounts, early payment bonuses, and frequent customer incentives that squeeze a company's profits. The pocket price band plots the range of pocket prices over which any given unit volume of a single product sells. Wide price bands are commonplace: some manufacturers' transaction prices for a given product range 60%; one fastener supplier's price band ranged up to 500%. Managers who study their pocket price waterfalls and bands can identify unnecessary discounting at the transaction level, low-performance accounts, and misplaced marketing efforts. The problems, once identified, are typically easy and inexpensive to remedy. PMID:10121318

  11. Managing price, gaining profit.

    PubMed

    Marn, M V; Rosiello, R L

    1992-01-01

    The fastest and most effective way for a company to realize maximum profit is to get its pricing right. The right price can boost profit faster than increasing volume will; the wrong price can shrink it just as quickly. Yet many otherwise tough-minded managers miss out on significant profits because they shy away from pricing decisions for fear that they will alienate their customers. Worse, if management isn't controlling its pricing policies, there's a good chance that the company's clients are manipulating them to their own advantage. McKinsey & Company's Michael Marn and Robert Rosiello show managers how to gain control of the pricing puzzle and capture untapped profit potential by using two basic concepts: the pocket price waterfall and the pocket price band. The pocket price waterfall reveals how price erodes between a company's invoice figure and the actual amount paid by the customer--the transaction price. It tracks the volume purchase discounts, early payment bonuses, and frequent customer incentives that squeeze a company's profits. The pocket price band plots the range of pocket prices over which any given unit volume of a single product sells. Wide price bands are commonplace: some manufacturers' transaction prices for a given product range 60%; one fastener supplier's price band ranged up to 500%. Managers who study their pocket price waterfalls and bands can identify unnecessary discounting at the transaction level, low-performance accounts, and misplaced marketing efforts. The problems, once identified, are typically easy and inexpensive to remedy.

  12. Investigation of germanium Raman lasers for the mid-infrared.

    PubMed

    De Leonardis, Francesco; Troia, Benedetto; Soref, Richard A; Passaro, Vittorio M N

    2015-06-29

    In this paper we present a detailed theoretical investigation of integrated racetrack Raman lasers based on the germanium material system operating in the mid-infrared beyond the germanium two-photon absorption cut-off wavelength of 3.17 μm. The effective Raman gain has been estimated in waveguides based on germanium-on-silicon, germanium-on-SOI and germanium-on-Si3N4 technology platforms as a function of their crystallographic orientations. Furthermore, general design guidelines have been determined by means of a comparative analysis of Raman laser performance, i.e. the threshold power, polarization and directionality of the excited Stokes signals as a function of racetrack cavity length and directional-coupler dimensions. Finally, the emitted Raman laser power has been evaluated as a function of overall propagation losses and operative wavelengths up to 3.8 μm, while the time dynamics of Raman lasers has been simulated assuming continuous and pulse waves as input pump signals.

  13. High power, high efficiency diode pumped Raman fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glick, Yaakov; Fromzel, Viktor; Zhang, Jun; Dahan, Asaf; Ter-Gabrielyan, Nikolay; Pattnaik, Radha K.; Dubinskii, Mark

    2016-06-01

    We demonstrate a high power high efficiency Raman fiber laser pumped directly by a laser diode module at 976 nm. 80 Watts of CW power were obtained at a wavelength of 1020 nm with an optical-to-optical efficiency of 53%. When working quasi-CW, at a duty cycle of 30%, 85 W of peak power was produced with an efficiency of 60%. A commercial graded-index (GRIN) core fiber acts as the Raman fiber in a power oscillator configuration, which includes spectral selection to prevent generation of the 2nd Stokes. In addition, significant brightness enhancement of the pump beam is attained due to the Raman gain distribution profile in the GRIN fiber. To the best of our knowledge, this is the highest power Raman fiber laser directly pumped by laser diodes, which also exhibits a record efficiency for such a laser. In addition, it is the highest power Raman fiber laser (regardless of pumping source) demonstrated based on a GRIN fiber.

  14. Making colourful sense of Raman images of single cells.

    PubMed

    Ashton, Lorna; Hollywood, Katherine A; Goodacre, Royston

    2015-03-21

    In order to understand biological systems it is important to gain pertinent information on the spatial localisation of chemicals within cells. With the relatively recent advent of high-resolution chemical imaging this is being realised and one rapidly developing area of research is the Raman mapping of single cells, an approach whose success has vast potential for numerous areas of biomedical research. However, there is a danger of undermining the potential routine use of Raman mapping due to a lack of consistency and transparency in the way false-shaded Raman images are constructed. In this study we demonstrate, through the use of simulated data and real Raman maps of single human keratinocyte (HaCaT) cells, how changes in the application of colour shading can dramatically alter the final Raman images. In order to avoid ambiguity and potential subjectivity in image interpretation we suggest that data distribution plots are used to aid shading approaches and that extreme care is taken to use the most appropriate false-shading for the biomedical question under investigation.

  15. Understanding the effects of dopant impurities on quaternary chalcogenide system properties by investigating and modeling local vibrational modes and Raman lineshapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarswat, Prashant; Free, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Cu2ZnSnSxgained attention as a p-type absorber layer due to its attractive properties such as optimum band gap, high absorption coefficient, and use of low cost elements. However, impurities in CZTSSe produce detrimental effects, which limit the device performance. Phonon dispersion in most of the semiconductors is found to be susceptible to the pairing between atoms within the lattice. Hence, a change in phonon dispersion can be used to investigate the effects of foreign impurities on such pairing. Thus a series of experiments were conducted to investigate the effect of free holes on the optical phonons of doped CZTSSe system as well as to evaluate asymmetry in the Raman lineshape. When irradiated with photons, doped CZTS possibly produces a continuum of inter-valence band electronic excitations, which can envelop the Raman-active phonon energy. Such overlap between the electronic continuum and discrete state can cause interference effects in CZTSSe. It was observed that Raman lineshape becomes more asymmetric, wider, and shifts towards lower frequency when laser power density increased. All these observations were found for Raman A mode as well as E (TO, LO) mode for doped CZTSSe samples.

  16. Highly narrow nanogap-containing Au@Au core-shell SERS nanoparticles: size-dependent Raman enhancement and applications in cancer cell imaging.

    PubMed

    Hu, Chongya; Shen, Jianlei; Yan, Juan; Zhong, Jian; Qin, Weiwei; Liu, Rui; Aldalbahi, Ali; Zuo, Xiaolei; Song, Shiping; Fan, Chunhai; He, Dannong

    2016-01-28

    Cellular imaging technologies employing metallic surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) tags have gained much interest toward clinical diagnostics, but they are still suffering from poor controlled distribution of hot spots and reproducibility of SERS signals. Here, we report the fabrication and characterization of high narrow nanogap-containing Au@Au core-shell SERS nanoparticles (GCNPs) for the identification and imaging of proteins overexpressed on the surface of cancer cells. First, plasmonic nanostructures are made of gold nanoparticles (∼15 nm) coated with gold shells, between which a highly narrow and uniform nanogap (∼1.1 nm) is formed owing to polyA anchored on the Au cores. The well controlled distribution of Raman reporter molecules, such as 4,4'-dipyridyl (44DP) and 5,5'-dithiobis(2-nitrobenzoic acid) (DTNB), are readily encoded in the nanogap and can generate strong, reproducible SERS signals. In addition, we have investigated the size-dependent SERS activity of GCNPs and found that with the same laser wavelength, the Raman enhancement discriminated between particle sizes. The maximum Raman enhancement was achieved at a certain threshold of particle size (∼76 nm). High narrow nanogap-containing Au@Au core-shell SERS tags (GCTs) were prepared via the functionalization of hyaluronic acid (HA) on GCNPs, which recognized the CD44 receptor, a tumor-associated surface biomarker. And it was shown that GCTs have a good targeting ability to tumour cells and promising prospects for multiplex biomarker detection. PMID:26701141

  17. Teacher-and Child-Managed Academic Activities in Preschool and Kindergarten and Their Influence on Children's Gains in Emergent Academic Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Haan, Annika K. E.; Elbers, Ed; Leseman, Paul P. M.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess whether children's development benefited from teacher-and child-managed academic activities in the preschool and kindergarten classroom. Extensive systematic observations during four half-days in preschool ("n"?=?8) and kindergarten ("n"?=?8) classrooms revealed that classrooms differed…

  18. On Comparing Transition Rate Gains.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reuterberg, Sven-Eric

    This report is about the problem of making transition or enrollment rate gains comparable. It is shown that measures based on the proportions themselves, i.e. the difference between proportions, the proportion ratio and the residual gain ratio do not make the gains comparable. Instead a non-linear transformation has to be done. Two such…

  19. Should I Gain Weight?

    MedlinePlus

    ... of moderate to vigorous physical activity every day. Strength training , when done safely, is a healthy way to ... you've hit puberty, the right amount of strength training will help your muscles become stronger and have ...

  20. Unidirectional high gain brake stop

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, David J. (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    This invention relates to a unidirectional high gain brake arrangement that includes in combination a shaft mounted for rotation within a housing. The shaft is rotatable in either direction. A brake is selectively releasably coupled to the housing and to the shaft. The brake has a first member. An intermittent motion device is respectively coupled through the first member to the housing and through a one-way clutch to the shaft. The brake also has a second member that is mechanically coupled to the first brake member and to the housing. The intermittent motion device causes the brake to be activated by movement imparted to the first brake member after a preset number of revolutions of the shaft in one direction. The brake is released by rotation of the shaft in an opposite direction whereby torque transmitted through the one-way clutch to the first brake member is removed.

  1. Adolescent drug addiction treatment and weight gain.

    PubMed

    Hodgkins, Candace C; Cahill, Kevin S; Seraphine, Anne E; Frost-Pineda, Kimberly; Gold, Mark S

    2004-01-01

    Neurotransmitter release in the nucleus accumbens use has been linked to self-administration and learning following drug use. This endogenous reward system is also activated following food intake or sex. Therefore, rebound hyperphagia following abstinence may be a mechanism to replenish the release of neurotransmitters in this reward system, leading to increased weight gain and a rise in body mass index during recovery from substance abuse. In this report, we examined the relationship between supervised drug abstinence and increased weight gain among adolescents at a residential substance abuse treatment center. Mean weight change over time was followed by repeated analysis of weight and body mass index. Significant weight gain and body mass index increase was observed during supervised and confirmed abstinence from drug use. Furthermore, significant interactions between tobacco use and primary substance use disorder with weight gain was demonstrated by multivariate analysis of variance.

  2. Airflow models gaining clout

    SciTech Connect

    Post, N.M.

    1994-10-10

    Move over, mock-ups. So long, smoke bombs. Take a walk, wind tunnels. Computational fluid dynamics, a spaceage simulation technique, is gaining velocity in the building community. And the design of inner spaces may never be the same. CFD is an equation-intensive computer modeling method that can simulate transient and steady-state airflow patterns and temperature gradients, indoors or out. CFD is used to downsize heating, ventilating and air conditioning systems, locate air outlets, and in general, create spaces that offer creature comfort, provide quality air and use less energy. The method is good for new construction, retrofits and forensic work, for example to investigate a building fire or a contaminant. In a room, CFD helps engineers consider, over a period of time, the combined impacts of ventilation, size, shape, contents, weather, even fenestration. For its first decade or two, CFD stayed the near-exclusive domain of aerospace, defense and electronics. With few exceptions, the building community could not afford the supercomputers that were needed to run the tens of thousands of equations involved. However, in the past few years, thanks to the increasing power and decreasing cost of computers, CFD simulation became practical. Curtain wall designers are even using it, though not without some controversy. Indoor air quality specialists, smoke and fire-spread researchers, laboratory designers, energy engineers, code writers, architects, and plant and building engineers are uncharacteristically upbeat about the tool. {open_quotes}CFD modeling is so many light years ahead of design tools that exist,{close_quotes} says Mariano Rodriguez, director of research and development for architect The Hillier Group, Princeton, N.J. {open_quotes}It`s the next step up from a wind tunnel test, and you don`t need a $300,000 wind tunnel.{close_quotes}

  3. Hadamard transform visible Raman spectrometry

    SciTech Connect

    Tilotta, D.C.; Freeman, R.D.; Fateley, W.G.

    1987-11-01

    The successful application of LC-SLM Hadamard transform spectrometry as a simultaneous multiwavelength detection system to Raman spectroscopy is presented. Multiplexed Raman data are obtained with the use of an Ar/sup +/ laser lasing at 514.5 nm and a room-temperature silicon photodiode. A conventional 90/sup 0/ scattering geometry is employed for measurements. It is demonstrated that the LC-SLM Hadamard transform Raman spectrometer possesses the capability of performing spectral subtraction and the ability to obtain depolarization ratios of Raman bands, and can function as a selectively tunable optical filter for both Rayleigh line rejection and optical band notching. It is also demonstrated that, for the Hadamard transform Raman experiment, the silicon photodiode used as the detector produces spectra with slightly better signal-to-noise ratios than those obtained with the photomultiplier tube (PMT) used as the detector, although the PMT shows an increase in sensitivity.

  4. Blood analysis by Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Enejder, Annika M K; Koo, Tae-Woong; Oh, Jeankun; Hunter, Martin; Sasic, Slobodan; Feld, Michael S; Horowitz, Gary L

    2002-11-15

    Concentrations of multiple analytes were simultaneously measured in whole blood with clinical accuracy, without sample processing, using near-infrared Raman spectroscopy. Spectra were acquired with an instrument employing nonimaging optics, designed using Monte Carlo simulations of the influence of light-scattering-absorbing blood cells on the excitation and emission of Raman light in turbid medium. Raman spectra were collected from whole blood drawn from 31 individuals. Quantitative predictions of glucose, urea, total protein, albumin, triglycerides, hematocrit, and hemoglobin were made by means of partial least-squares (PLS) analysis with clinically relevant precision (r(2) values >0.93). The similarity of the features of the PLS calibration spectra to those of the respective analyte spectra illustrates that the predictions are based on molecular information carried by the Raman light. This demonstrates the feasibility of using Raman spectroscopy for quantitative measurements of biomolecular contents in highly light-scattering and absorbing media. PMID:18033426

  5. Optical rogue-wave-like extreme value fluctuations in fiber Raman amplifiers.

    PubMed

    Hammani, Kamal; Finot, Christophe; Dudley, John M; Millot, Guy

    2008-10-13

    We report experimental observation and characterization of rogue wave-like extreme value statistics arising from pump-signal noise transfer in a fiber Raman amplifier. Specifically, by exploiting Raman amplification with an incoherent pump, the amplified signal is shown to develop a series of temporal intensity spikes whose peak power follows a power-law probability distribution. The results are interpreted using a numerical model of the Raman gain process using coupled nonlinear Schrödinger equations, and the numerical model predicts results in good agreement with experiment.

  6. Spontaneous and stimulated Raman scattering in ZnWO{sub 4} crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Basiev, Tasoltan T; Karasik, Aleksandr Ya; Sobol, A A; Chunaev, D S; Shukshin, V E

    2011-04-30

    Spontaneous and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) are studied in ZnWO{sub 4} crystals with a wolframite structure. The polarised Raman scattering spectra corresponding to all the six independent Raman tensor components are measured. The frequencies of the complete set of vibrational modes are identified. The threshold pump energies for SRS in ZnWO{sub 4} and KGd(WO{sub 4}){sub 2} crystals are measured upon excitation by picosecond 1047-nm pulses of a Nd:YLF laser. The SRS gains for ZnWO{sub 4} crystals are determined based on the measured thresholds and spectroscopic parameters of the crystals. (nonlinear optics phenomena)

  7. Effects of active region design on gain and carrier injection and transport of CW (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}) semipolar InGaN laser diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becerra, Daniel L.; Cohen, Daniel A.; Farrell, Robert M.; DenBaars, Steven P.; Nakamura, Shuji

    2016-09-01

    High-power CW semipolar (20\\bar{2}\\bar{1}) laser diodes (LDs) were studied. Improved efficiencies (threshold, differential, and wall plug) were observed when the number of quantum wells (QWs) in the active region was reduced from 4 to 2. Threshold current densities as low as 2.6 kA/cm2 were obtained. The differential efficiency of a 5 µm wide by 1200 µm long LD with a 2-QW active region was 54% and the wall plug efficiency was 11%. Experimental and analytical analyses of the devices suggested carrier leakage from an ineffective electron-blocking layer, providing an explanation for the high voltage observed in all the devices.

  8. Cutaneous activation of the inhibitory L30 interneurons provides a mechanism for regulating adaptive gain control in the siphon withdrawal reflex of Aplysia.

    PubMed

    Fischer, T M; Carew, T J

    1995-01-01

    The functional role of inhibition in the neural network underlying the siphon withdrawal response (SWR) of Aplysia was assessed by examining a recurrent circuit comprised of identified inhibitory interneurons (L30s), and excitatory interneurons (L29s). We previously showed that activity-dependent potentiation of the L30 inhibitory synapse onto L29 can regulate the net excitatory input elicited by tactile siphon stimulation onto siphon motor neurons (LFS cells) (Fischer and Carew, 1993a). To explore the functional significance of L30 potentiated inhibition, we have examined how a behaviorally relevant stimulus that activates the L30 interneurons modulates the SWR circuit. Utilizing a reduced preparation, we show that weak tactile stimulation of the tail strongly activates the L30s, and leads to significant potentiation of the L30 synapse. Next, we demonstrate that similar weak tail stimulation produces significant inhibition of siphon tap-evoked responses in both L29 interneurons and LFS motor neurons. We further show that this form of inhibition is transient, having a time course of approximately 60 sec. Finally, we directly tested the role of the L30s in mediating this form of inhibition by hyperpolarizing two (of three) L30 interneurons during tail stimulation. L30 inactivation significantly attenuated tail stimulation-induced inhibition of siphon-evoked input to both L29 interneurons and LFS motor neurons. Based on these results, we suggest that L30-potentiated inhibition may have an important adaptive role in optimizing the signal-to-noise ratio for activation of the SWR circuit by providing stabilization of SWR responsiveness under a wide range of environmental conditions.

  9. Towards ten-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fiber.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gongwen; Geng, Lixiang; Zhu, Xiushan; Li, Li; Chen, Qian; Norwood, R A; Manzur, T; Peyghambarian, N

    2015-03-23

    Raman lasers based on mid-infrared fibers operating at 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window are attractive sources for several applications. Compared to fluoride and chalcogenide fibers, tellurite fibers are more advantageous for high power Raman fiber laser sources at 3-5 µm because of their broader Raman gain bandwidth, much larger Raman shift and better physical and chemical properties. Here we report on our simulations for the development of 10-watt-level 3-5 µm Raman lasers using tellurite fibers as the nonlinear gain medium and readily available continuous-wave (cw) and Q-switched erbium-doped fluoride fiber lasers at 2.8 µm as the pump sources. Our results show that a watt-level or even ten-watt-level fiber laser source in the 3-5 µm atmospheric transparency window can be achieved by utilizing the 1st- and 2nd-order Raman scattering in the tellurite fiber. The presented numerical study provides valuable guidance for future 3-5 um Raman fiber laser development. PMID:25837094

  10. Solid-state Raman image amplification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calmes, Lonnie Kirkland

    Amplification of low-light-level optical images is important for extending the range of lidar systems that image and detect objects in the atmosphere and underwater. The use of range-gating to produce images of particular range bins is also important in minimizing the image degradation due to light that is scattered backward from aerosols, smoke, or water along the imaging path. For practical lidar systems that must be operated within sight of unprotected observers, eye safety is of the utmost importance. This dissertation describes a new type of eye-safe, range-gated lidar sensing element based on Solid-state Raman Image Amplification (SSRIA) in a solid- state optical crystal. SSRIA can amplify low-level images in the eye-safe infrared at 1.556 μm with gains up to 106 with the addition of only quantum- limited noise. The high gains from SSRIA can compensate for low quantum efficiency detectors and can reduce the need for detector cooling. The range-gate of SSRIA is controlled by the pulsewidth of the pump laser and can be as short as 30-100 cm, using pump pulses of 2-6.7 nsec FWHM. A rate equation theoretical model is derived to help in the design of short pulsed Raman lasers. A theoretical model for the quantum noise properties of SSRIA is presented. SSRIA results in higher SNR images throughout a broad range of incident light levels, in contrast to the increasing noise factor with reduced gain in image intensified CCD's. A theoretical framework for the optical resolution of SSRIA is presented and it is shown that SSRIA can produce higher resolution than ICCD's. SSRIA is also superior in rejecting unwanted sunlight background, further increasing image SNR. Lastly, SSRIA can be combined with optical pre-filtering to perform optical image processing functions such as high-pass filtering and automatic target detection/recognition. The application of this technology to underwater imaging, called Marine Raman Image Amplification (MARIA) is also discussed. MARIA

  11. Decay dynamics of α,β-carboxylic methyl esters (CH3OCOCH:CHR) in the lower-lying excited states--resonance Raman and complete active space self-consistent field calculation study.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Bing; Xue, Jia-Dan; Zheng, Xuming; Xie, Bin-Bin; Fang, Wei-Hai

    2014-10-01

    The photophysics of two α,β-carboxylic methyl esters after excitation to the light absorbing S2(ππ(*)) state were studied by using the resonance Raman spectroscopy and complete active space self-consistent field (CASSCF) method calculations. The vibrational spectra were assigned on the basis of the experimental measurements and the B3LYP/6-31G(d) computations, as well as the normal mode analysis. The A-band resonance Raman spectra of methyl 2,4-pentadienoate (M24PDA) and methyl trans cronoate (MTCA) were measured to probe the structural dynamics in Franck-Condon region. CASSCF calculations were done to obtain the minimal excitation energies and geometric structures of the lower-lying singlet and triplet excited states, and the curve-crossing points. It was revealed that the short-time structural dynamics of M24PDA was dominated by the Cα=Cβ-C4=C5 stretch coordinate, while that of MTCA was mostly along the Cα=Cβ and the C=O stretch motion. Comparison of the structural dynamics of M24PDA and MTCA with that of 3-methyl-3-pentene-2-one (3M3P2O) indicated that the structural dynamics of MTCA is similar to that of 3M3P2O but different than that of M24PDA in that the variation of the Raman intensity ratios for ν7/ν8, (ν7+ν8)/2ν8, (ν7+2ν8)/3ν8, (ν7+3ν8)/4ν8 of MTCA is similar to that of 3M3P2O but different from that of M24PDA. It is found that the substitution of methyl group in the α(')-position of α,β-enones by methoxyl group does not substantially affect the short-time structural dynamics, while the substitution of vinyl group in the β-position changes significantly the short-time structural dynamics and the subsequent decay processes. A detailed decay mechanism is proposed. Two sub-processes which consider the reconjugation and the subsequent charge-transfer reaction of O=C-Cα=Cβ chromophore were postulated to describe the variation of short-time structural dynamics with the different substitution.

  12. Direct Raman measurement of an elevated base pKa in the active site of a small ribozyme in a precatalytic conformation.

    PubMed

    Guo, Man; Spitale, Robert C; Volpini, Rosaria; Krucinska, Jolanta; Cristalli, Gloria; Carey, Paul R; Wedekind, Joseph E

    2009-09-16

    Catalytic RNA molecules can achieve rate acceleration by shifting base pK(a) values toward neutrality. Prior evidence has suggested that base A38 of the hairpin ribozyme plays an important role in phosphoryl transfer, possibly functioning as a general acid, or by orienting a specific water molecule for proton transfer. To address the role of A38, we used Raman spectroscopy to measure directly the pK(a) of the N1-imino moiety in the context of hairpin ribozyme crystals representative of a "precatalytic" conformation. The results revealed that the pK(a) of A38 is shifted to 5.46 +/- 0.05 relative to 3.68 +/- 0.06 derived from a reference solution of the nucleotide AMP. The elevated pK(a) correlates well with the first titration point of the macroscopic pH-rate profile of the hairpin ribozyme in solution and strongly supports A38 as a general acid catalyst in bond scission. The results confirm that A38 is protonated before the transition state, which would promote phosphorane development. Overall, the results establish a cogent structure-function paradigm that expands our understanding of how RNA structure can enhance nucleobase reactivity to catalyze biological reactions.

  13. Light-detection electronics for a Raman lidar

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leser, R. J.; Salzman, J. A.

    1972-01-01

    A light-detection system for an optical radar, or lidar, unit to be used for remote temperature and composition measurements was designed, built, and bench tested. This detection system processes three return signal wavelengths: two Raman wavelengths, and the Rayleigh-Mie wavelength at 694.3 nanometers. Means of coping with photomultiplier tube instabilities and limitations are discussed. Circuits for gain control, ranging, and digitizing are included. The phototube gains can be switched fully on in 80 meters (450 nsec) or off in 30 meters (200 nsec) of range. The range circuit processes signals from 0.1 to 2 kilometers, with an estimated range resolution of less than 5 meters.

  14. Single-walled carbon nanotube passively mode-locked O-band Raman fiber laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Steinberg, D.; Saito, L. A. M.; Rosa, H. G.; Thoroh de Souza, E. A.

    2016-05-01

    We present a detailed analysis of a nanosecond-pulse single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) passively mode-locked O-band Raman fiber lasers. As gain medium, single mode fiber (SMF) and highly nonlinear Raman gain were used at three different experimental setups. By incorporating 1.0 nm mean diameter SWCNT as saturable absorbers (SA) at 2.3 km SMF long-length gain medium setup, soliton-like spectrum followed by nanosecond high chirped pulse was observed at cavity fundamental repetition rate. In order to shorter the chirped pulse, intracavity anomalous dispersion was introduced with normal dispersion shift fiber (DSF) lengths and pulse duration decreased from 4.20 to 2.30 ns. By using highly nonlinear Raman gain medium in the O-band Raman laser configuration, the laser generated clean and well-defined nanosecond high chirped pulses, achieving pulse duration as short as 2.30 ns with 230 m gain medium length. Also, we could estimate the picosecond pulse duration region as a function of gain medium length of this laser and compared with SMF pulse shortening curve. As results, the lasers presented similar tendencies, indicating a strong influence of nonlinearities and dispersion in the pulse duration shortening.

  15. Synergistic Activation of Dopamine D1 and TrkB Receptors Mediate Gain Control of Synaptic Plasticity in the Basolateral Amygdala

    PubMed Central

    Li, Chenchen; Dabrowska, Joanna; Hazra, Rimi; Rainnie, Donald G.

    2011-01-01

    Fear memory formation is thought to require dopamine, brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and zinc release in the basolateral amygdala (BLA), as well as the induction of long term potentiation (LTP) in BLA principal neurons. However, no study to date has shown any relationship between these processes in the BLA. Here, we have used in vitro whole-cell patch clamp recording from BLA principal neurons to investigate how dopamine, BDNF, and zinc release may interact to modulate the LTP induction in the BLA. LTP was induced by either theta burst stimulation (TBS) protocol or spaced 5 times high frequency stimulation (5xHFS). Significantly, both TBS and 5xHFS induced LTP was fully blocked by the dopamine D1 receptor antagonist, SCH23390. LTP induction was also blocked by the BDNF scavenger, TrkB-FC, the zinc chelator, DETC, as well as by an inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), gallardin. Conversely, prior application of the dopamine reuptake inhibitor, GBR12783, or the D1 receptor agonist, SKF39393, induced robust and stable LTP in response to a sub-threshold HFS protocol (2xHFS), which does not normally induce LTP. Similarly, prior activation of TrkB receptors with either a TrkB receptor agonist, or BDNF, also reduced the threshold for LTP-induction, an effect that was blocked by the MEK inhibitor, but not by zinc chelation. Intriguingly, the TrkB receptor agonist-induced reduction of LTP threshold was fully blocked by prior application of SCH23390, and the reduction of LTP threshold induced by GBR12783 was blocked by prior application of TrkB-FC. Together, our results suggest a cellular mechanism whereby the threshold for LTP induction in BLA principal neurons is critically dependent on the level of dopamine in the extracellular milieu and the synergistic activation of postsynaptic D1 and TrkB receptors. Moreover, activation of TrkB receptors appears to be dependent on concurrent release of zinc and activation of MMPs. PMID:22022509

  16. Reducing gain shifts in photomultiplier tubes

    DOEpatents

    Cohn, Charles E.

    1976-01-01

    A means is provided for reducing gain shifts in multiplier tubes due to varying event count rates. It includes means for limiting the number of cascaded, active dynodes of the multiplier tube to a predetermined number with the last of predetermined number of dynodes being the output terminal of the tube. This output is applied to an amplifier to make up for the gain sacrificed by not totally utilizing all available active stages of the tube. Further reduction is obtained by illuminating the predetermined number of dynodes with a light source of such intensity that noise appearing at the output dynode associated with the illumination is negligible.

  17. Private Gain, Public Loss.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, David, Ed.; Ruben, Barbara, Ed.

    1994-01-01

    Corporations contribute curricular materials to schools. Argues that the goal of these materials is to initiate the school-age population to their products, enhance their public image, and increase visibility of their products. Cites examples of corporate activity with these goals. (MDH)

  18. Vibrational properties of epitaxial Bi4Te3 films as studied by Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Hao; Song, Yuxin; Pan, Wenwu; Chen, Qimiao; Wu, Xiaoyan; Lu, Pengfei; Gong, Qian; Wang, Shumin

    2015-08-01

    Bi4Te3, as one of the phases of the binary Bi-Te system, shares many similarities with Bi2Te3, which is known as a topological insulator and thermoelectric material. We report the micro-Raman spectroscopy study of 50 nm Bi4Te3 films on Si substrates prepared by molecular beam epitaxy. Raman spectra of Bi4Te3 films completely resolve the six predicted Raman-active phonon modes for the first time. Structural features and Raman tensors of Bi4Te3 films are introduced. According to the wavenumbers and assignments of the six eigenpeaks in the Raman spectra of Bi4Te3 films, it is found that the Raman-active phonon oscillations in Bi4Te3 films exhibit the vibrational properties of those in both Bi and Bi2Te3 films.

  19. Fourier transform Raman spectroscopy of synthetic and biological calcium phosphates.

    PubMed

    Sauer, G R; Zunic, W B; Durig, J R; Wuthier, R E

    1994-05-01

    Fourier-transform (FT) Raman spectroscopy was used to characterize the organic and mineral components of biological and synthetic calcium phosphate minerals. Raman spectroscopy provides information on biological minerals that is complimentary to more widely used infrared methodologies as some infrared-inactive vibrational modes are Raman-active. The application of FT-Raman technology has, for the first time, enabled the problems of high sample fluorescence and low signal-to-noise that are inherent in calcified tissues to be overcome. Raman spectra of calcium phosphates are dominated by a very strong band near 960 cm-1 that arises from the symmetric stretching mode (v1) of the phosphate group. Other Raman-active phosphate vibrational bands are seen at approximately 1075 (v3), 590 (v4), and 435 cm-1 (v2). Minerals containing acidic phosphate groups show additional vibrational modes. The different calcium phosphate mineral phases can be distinguished from one another by the relative positions and shapes of these bands in the Raman spectra. FT-Raman spectra of nascent, nonmineralized matrix vesicles (MV) show a distinct absence of the phosphate v1 band even though these structures are rich in calcium and phosphate. Similar results were seen with milk casein and synthetic Ca-phosphatidyl-serine-PO4 complexes. Hence, the phosphate and/or acidic phosphate ions in these noncrystalline biological calcium phosphates is in a molecular environment that differs from that in synthetic amorphous calcium phosphate. In MV, the first distinct mineral phase to form contained acidic phosphate bands similar to those seen in octacalcium phosphate. The mineral phase present in fully mineralized MV was much more apatitic, resembling that found in bones and teeth.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  20. Cobalt Nanopartciles for Enhanced Raman Scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunmire, David; Romero, Danilo; Hight Walker, Angela

    2003-03-01

    Low-frequency Raman spectra of cobalt nanoparticles ( 10 nm) have been obtained. This optical characterization is supported by other methods such as TEM, AFM and SQUID magnetometry. A cryo-magnet coupled to a triple grating spectrometer enables the scattering measurements at a range of sample temperatures (4K to 300K) and magnetic field strengths (0T to 8T). Cobalt nanoparticles have a complicated phase diagram which reveals three unique crystal structures resulting in distinctive and tunable magnetic properties and a self-assembly capability well suited for building SERS-active substrates. Coating of the cobalt particles with a monolayer of gold is also being pursued to further enhance the Raman scattering signal while maintaining the unique magnetic properties of the particles.

  1. Highly efficient Raman distributed feedback fibre lasers.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jindan; Alam, Shaif-ul; Ibsen, Morten

    2012-02-27

    We demonstrate highly efficient Raman distributed feedback (DFB) fibre lasers for the first time with up to 1.6 W of continuous wave (CW) output power. The DFB Bragg gratings are written directly into two types of commercially available passive germano-silica fibres. Two lasers of 30 cm length are pumped with up to 15 W of CW power at 1068 nm. The threshold power is ~2 W for a Raman-DFB (R-DFB) laser written in standard low-NA fibre, and only ~1 W for a laser written in a high-NA fibre, both of which oscillate in a narrow linewidth of <0.01 nm at ~1117 nm and ~1109 nm, respectively. The slope efficiencies are ~74% and ~93% with respect to absorbed pump power in the low-NA fibre and high-NA fibre respectively. Such high conversion efficiency suggests that very little energy is lost in the form of heat through inefficient energy transfer. Our results are supported by numerical simulations, and furthermore open up for the possibility of having narrow linewidth all-fibre laser sources in wavelength bands not traditionally covered by rare-earth doped silica fibres. Simulations also imply that this technology has the potential to produce even shorter R-DFB laser devices at the centimetre-level and with mW-level thresholds, if Bragg gratings formed in fibre materials with higher intrinsic Raman gain coefficient than silica are used. These materials include for example tellurite or chalcogenide glasses. Using glasses like these would also open up the possibility of having narrow linewidth fibre sources with DFB laser oscillating much further into the IR than what currently is possible with rare-earth doped silica glasses. PMID:22418313

  2. Highly efficient Raman distributed feedback fibre lasers.

    PubMed

    Shi, Jindan; Alam, Shaif-ul; Ibsen, Morten

    2012-02-27

    We demonstrate highly efficient Raman distributed feedback (DFB) fibre lasers for the first time with up to 1.6 W of continuous wave (CW) output power. The DFB Bragg gratings are written directly into two types of commercially available passive germano-silica fibres. Two lasers of 30 cm length are pumped with up to 15 W of CW power at 1068 nm. The threshold power is ~2 W for a Raman-DFB (R-DFB) laser written in standard low-NA fibre, and only ~1 W for a laser written in a high-NA fibre, both of which oscillate in a narrow linewidth of <0.01 nm at ~1117 nm and ~1109 nm, respectively. The slope efficiencies are ~74% and ~93% with respect to absorbed pump power in the low-NA fibre and high-NA fibre respectively. Such high conversion efficiency suggests that very little energy is lost in the form of heat through inefficient energy transfer. Our results are supported by numerical simulations, and furthermore open up for the possibility of having narrow linewidth all-fibre laser sources in wavelength bands not traditionally covered by rare-earth doped silica fibres. Simulations also imply that this technology has the potential to produce even shorter R-DFB laser devices at the centimetre-level and with mW-level thresholds, if Bragg gratings formed in fibre materials with higher intrinsic Raman gain coefficient than silica are used. These materials include for example tellurite or chalcogenide glasses. Using glasses like these would also open up the possibility of having narrow linewidth fibre sources with DFB laser oscillating much further into the IR than what currently is possible with rare-earth doped silica glasses.

  3. Temperature responses of the Rubisco maximum carboxylase activity across domains of life: phylogenetic signals, trade-offs, and importance for carbon gain.

    PubMed

    Galmés, J; Kapralov, M V; Copolovici, L O; Hermida-Carrera, C; Niinemets, Ü

    2015-02-01

    Temperature response of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (Rubisco) catalytic properties directly determines the CO2 assimilation capacity of photosynthetic organisms as well as their survival in environments with different thermal conditions. Despite unquestionable importance of Rubisco, the comprehensive analysis summarizing temperature responses of Rubisco traits across lineages of carbon-fixing organisms is lacking. Here, we present a review of the temperature responses of Rubisco carboxylase specific activity (c(cat)(c)) within and across domains of life. In particular, we consider the variability of temperature responses, and their ecological, physiological, and evolutionary controls. We observed over two-fold differences in the energy of activation (ΔH(a)) among different groups of photosynthetic organisms, and found significant differences between C3 plants from cool habitats, C3 plants from warm habitats and C4 plants. According to phylogenetically independent contrast analysis, ΔH(a) was not related to the species optimum growth temperature (T growth), but was positively correlated with Rubisco specificity factor (S(c/o)) across all organisms. However, when only land plants were analyzed, ΔH(a) was positively correlated with both T(growth) and S(c/o), indicating different trends for these traits in plants versus unicellular aquatic organisms, such as algae and bacteria. The optimum temperature (T(opt)) for k(cat)(c) correlated with S(c/o) for land plants and for all organisms pooled, but the effect of T growth on T(opt) was driven by species phylogeny. The overall phylogenetic signal was significant for all analyzed parameters, stressing the importance of considering the evolutionary framework and accounting for shared ancestry when deciphering relationships between Rubisco kinetic parameters. We argue that these findings have important implications for improving global photosynthesis models.

  4. Spectroscopic characterization of biological agents using FTIR, normal Raman and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luna-Pineda, Tatiana; Soto-Feliciano, Kristina; De La Cruz-Montoya, Edwin; Pacheco Londoño, Leonardo C.; Ríos-Velázquez, Carlos; Hernández-Rivera, Samuel P.

    2007-04-01

    FTIR, Raman spectroscopy and Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) requires a minimum of sample allows fast identification of microorganisms. The use of this technique for characterizing the spectroscopic signatures of these agents and their stimulants has recently gained considerable attention due to the fact that these techniques can be easily adapted for standoff detection from considerable distances. The techniques also show high sensitivity and selectivity and offer near real time detection duty cycles. This research focuses in laying the grounds for the spectroscopic differentiation of Staphylococcus spp., Pseudomonas spp., Bacillus spp., Salmonella spp., Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and E. coli, together with identification of their subspecies. In order to achieve the proponed objective, protocols to handle, cultivate and analyze the strains have been developed. Spectroscopic similarities and marked differences have been found for Spontaneous or Normal Raman spectra and for SERS using silver nanoparticles have been found. The use of principal component analysis (PCA), discriminate factor analysis (DFA) and a cluster analysis were used to evaluate the efficacy of identifying potential threat bacterial from their spectra collected on single bacteria. The DFA from the bacteria Raman spectra show a little discrimination between the diverse bacterial species however the results obtained from the SERS demonstrate to be high discrimination technique. The spectroscopic study will be extended to examine the spores produced by selected strains since these are more prone to be used as Biological Warfare Agents due to their increased mobility and possibility of airborne transport. Micro infrared spectroscopy as well as fiber coupled FTIR will also be used as possible sensors of target compounds.

  5. A versatile femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy setup with tunable pulses in the visible to near infrared

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Liangdong; Liu, Weimin; Fang, Chong

    2014-07-28

    We demonstrate a versatile and efficient setup to perform femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS). Technical innovations are implemented to achieve the wavelength tunability for both the picosecond narrowband Raman pump pulse and femtosecond broadband Raman probe pulse. Using a simplified one-grating scheme in a home-built second harmonic bandwidth compressor followed by a two-stage noncollinear optical parametric amplifier, we tune the Raman pump pulse from ca. 480 to 750 nm. To generate the suitable Raman probe pulse in tandem, we rely on our recently demonstrated broadband up-converted multicolor array technique that readily provides tunable broadband laser sidebands across the visible to near-infrared range. This unique setup has unparalleled flexibility for conducting FSRS. We measure the ground-state Raman spectra of a cyclohexane standard using tunable pump-probe pairs at various wavelengths across the visible region. The best spectral resolution is ∼12 cm{sup −1}. By tuning the pump wavelength closer to the electronic absorption band of a photoacid pyranine in water, we observe the pre-resonantly enhanced Raman signal. The stimulated Raman gain of the 1627 cm{sup −1} mode is increased by over 15 times.

  6. Stimulated rotational Raman scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parazzoli, C. G.; Rafanelli, G. L.; Capps, D. M.; Drutman, C.

    1989-03-01

    The effect of Stimulated Rotational Raman Scattering (SRRS) processes on high energy laser directed energy weapon systems was studied. The program had 3 main objectives; achieving an accurate description of the physical processes involved in SRRS; developing a numerical algorithm to confidently evaluate SRRS-induced losses in the propagation of high energy laser beams in the uplink and downlink segments of the optical trains of various strategic defense system scenarios; and discovering possible methods to eliminate, or at least reduce, the deleterious effects of SRRS on the energy deposition on target. The following topics are discussed: the motivation for the accomplishments of the DOE program; the Semiclassical Theory of Non-Resonant SRRS for Diatomic Homonuclear Molecules; and then the following appendices; Calculation of the Dipole Transition Reduced Matrix Element, Guided Tour of Hughes SRRS Code, Running the Hughes SRRS Code, and Hughes SRRS Code Listing.

  7. Raman imaging of extraterrestrial materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Alian; Korotev, Randy L.; Jolliff, Bradley L.; Ling, Zongcheng

    2015-07-01

    Laser Raman Spectroscopy has been proposed and is under extensive development for surface exploration missions to planetary bodies of our Solar System. It reveals information on molecular structure and chemistry. The spatial distribution of molecular species in natural geological samples and planetary materials has significance for the geological processes by which they formed. Raman imaging is the best way to combine the molecular identification and characterization of geologic materials with their spatial distribution. This paper reports Raman imaging studies of five types of extraterrestrial materials and three terrestrial samples using a state-of-the-art Raman imaging system. The Raman spectral features of major, minor, and trace species in these samples, together with their spatial correlations revealed by these Raman imaging studies indicate the genetic relationships and the geological processes that these materials have been experienced. For robotic planetary surface exploration mission, a simple yet very useful molecular map of a sample can be generated by using line-scan or grid-scan of an in situ Raman system with tightly focused laser beam.

  8. Resonance Raman spectroscopy reveals pH-dependent active site structural changes of lactoperoxidase compound 0 and its ferryl heme O-O bond cleavage products.

    PubMed

    Mak, Piotr J; Thammawichai, Warut; Wiedenhoeft, Dennis; Kincaid, James R

    2015-01-14

    The first step in the enzymatic cycle of mammalian peroxidases, including lactoperoxidase (LPO), is binding of hydrogen peroxide to the ferric resting state to form a ferric-hydroperoxo intermediate designated as Compound 0, the residual proton temporarily associating with the distal pocket His109 residue. Upon delivery of this "stored" proton to the hydroperoxo fragment, it rapidly undergoes O-O bond cleavage, thereby thwarting efforts to trap it using rapid mixing methods. Fortunately, as shown herein, both the peroxo and the hydroperoxo (Compound 0) forms of LPO can be trapped by cryoradiolysis, with acquisition of their resonance Raman (rR) spectra now permitting structural characterization of their key Fe-O-O fragments. Studies were conducted under both acidic and alkaline conditions, revealing pH-dependent differences in relative populations of these intermediates. Furthermore, upon annealing, the low pH samples convert to two forms of a ferryl heme O-O bond-cleavage product, whose ν(Fe═O) frequencies reflect substantially different Fe═O bond strengths. In the process of conducting these studies, rR structural characterization of the dioxygen adduct of LPO, commonly called Compound III, has also been completed, demonstrating a substantial difference in the strengths of the Fe-O linkage of the Fe-O-O fragment under acidic and alkaline conditions, an effect most reasonably attributed to a corresponding weakening of the trans-axial histidyl imidazole linkage at lower pH. Collectively, these new results provide important insight into the impact of pH on the disposition of the key Fe-O-O and Fe═O fragments of intermediates that arise in the enzymatic cycles of LPO, other mammalian peroxidases, and related proteins.

  9. Scanning angle Raman spectroscopy: Investigation of Raman scatter enhancement techniques for chemical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Meyer, Matthew W.

    2013-01-01

    This thesis outlines advancements in Raman scatter enhancement techniques by applying evanescent fields, standing-waves (waveguides) and surface enhancements to increase the generated mean square electric field, which is directly related to the intensity of Raman scattering. These techniques are accomplished by employing scanning angle Raman spectroscopy and surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy. A 1064 nm multichannel Raman spectrometer is discussed for chemical analysis of lignin. Extending dispersive multichannel Raman spectroscopy to 1064 nm reduces the fluorescence interference that can mask the weaker Raman scattering. Overall, these techniques help address the major obstacles in Raman spectroscopy for chemical analysis, which include the inherently weak Raman cross section and susceptibility to fluorescence interference.

  10. Detection of latent prints by Raman imaging

    DOEpatents

    Lewis, Linda Anne; Connatser, Raynella Magdalene; Lewis, Sr., Samuel Arthur

    2011-01-11

    The present invention relates to a method for detecting a print on a surface, the method comprising: (a) contacting the print with a Raman surface-enhancing agent to produce a Raman-enhanced print; and (b) detecting the Raman-enhanced print using a Raman spectroscopic method. The invention is particularly directed to the imaging of latent fingerprints.

  11. Raman spectroscopy of shocked water

    SciTech Connect

    Holmes, N.C.; Mitchell, A.C.; Nellis, W.J.; Graham, W.B.; Walrafen, G.E.

    1983-07-01

    Raman scattering has been used extensively to study the vibrational and rotational properties of molecules under a variety of conditions. Here, interest is in the behavior of water molecules shocked to high pressures and temperatures. Behind the shock front the water molecules undergo changes in bonding and the molecules may become ionized. Raman spectroscopy can be used to determine the molecular species behind the shock front. In addition, changes in Raman spectra can yield information regarding inter- and intramolecular potentials and the temperature behind the shock front.

  12. Metallomics for drug development: a further insight into intracellular activation chemistry of a ruthenium(III)-based anticancer drug gained using a multidimensional analytical approach.

    PubMed

    Matczuk, Magdalena; Prządka, Monika; Aleksenko, Svetlana S; Czarnocki, Zbigniew; Pawlak, Katarzyna; Timerbaev, Andrei R; Jarosz, Maciej

    2014-01-01

    The mechanism by which the most relevant ruthenium anticancer drugs are activated in tumors to commence their tumor-inhibiting action remains one of the challenging research tasks of present-day metallomics. This contribution aims to capture and identify eventually more reactive species of one of two bis-indazole tetrachloridoruthenate(III) compounds that are progressing in clinical trials. In view of the fact that the transport of ruthenium into cancer cells is governed by transferrin receptors, the susceptibility of the Ru drug adduct with holo-transferrin to exposure by glutathione and ascorbic acid (at their cancer cytosol concentrations) was studied by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), following isolation of the reaction products by ultrafiltration. Next, capillary electrophoresis coupled to ICP-MS was applied to monitor changes in the Ru speciation both under simulated cancer cytosol conditions and in real cytosol and to assign the charge state of novel metal species. The latter were identified by using tandem electrospray ionization MS in the respective ion mode. The formation of ruthenium(II) species was for the first time revealed, in which the central metal is coordinated by the reduced (GSH) or the oxidized (GSSG) form of glutathione, i.e. [Ru(II)HindCl4(GSH)](2-) and [Ru(II)HindCl4(GSSG)](2-), respectively (Hind = indazole). Ascorbic acid released the ruthenium functionality from the protein-bound form in a different way, the products of adduct cleavage containing aqua ligands. Distribution of low-molecular mass species of Ru in human cytosol was found to have very much in common with the ruthenium speciation assayed under simulated cytosol conditions.

  13. Sputtered silver oxide layers for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Büchel, D.; Mihalcea, C.; Fukaya, T.; Atoda, N.; Tominaga, J.; Kikukawa, T.; Fuji, H.

    2001-07-01

    We present results of reactively sputtered silver oxide thin films as a substrate material for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS). Herein, we show that deposited layers develop an increasingly strong SERS activity upon photoactivation at 488 nm. A benzoic acid/2-propanol solution was used to demonstrate that the bonding of molecules to SERS active sites at the surface can be followed by investigating temporal changes of the corresponding Raman intensities. Furthermore, the laser-induced structural changes in the silver oxide layers lead to a fluctuating SERS activity at high laser intensities which also affects the spectral features of amorphous carbon impurities.

  14. Raman microspectroscopy based sensor of algal lipid unsaturation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samek, Ota; Pilát, Zdeněk; Jonáš, Alexandr; Zemánek, Pavel; Šerý, Mojmír; Ježek, Jan; Bernatová, Silvie; Nedbal, Ladislav; Trtílek, Martin

    2011-05-01

    Raman spectroscopy is a powerful tool for chemical analysis. This technique can elucidate fundamental questions about the metabolic processes and intercellular variability on a single cell level. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy can significantly contribute to the study and use of microalgae in systems biology and biofuel technology. Raman spectroscopy can be combined with optical tweezers. We have employed microfluidic system to deliver the sampled microalgae to the Raman-tweezers. This instrument is able to measure chemical composition of cells and to track metabolic processes in vivo, in real-time and label-free making it possible to detect population variability in a wide array of traits. Moreover, employing an active sorting switch, cells can be separated depending on input parameters obtained from Raman spectra. We focus on algal lipids which are promising potential products for biofuel as well as for nutrition. Important parameter characterizing the algal lipids is the degree of unsaturation of the constituent fatty acids. We demonstrate the capacity of our Raman tweezers based sensor to sort cells according to the degree of unsaturation in lipid storage bodies of individual living algal cells.

  15. Detection of explosive vapour using surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, X.; Ahmad, S. R.

    2009-11-01

    A commercially available nano-structured gold substrate was used for activating surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS). Raman spectra of the vapour of explosive material, triacetonetriperoxide (TATP), at trace concentrations produced from adsorbed molecules on such surfaces have been studied. Prominent Raman lines of the explosive molecular species were recorded at a sample temperature of ˜35°C, which is near to human body temperature. For this study, the concentration of the adsorbed TATP molecules on the nano-structured surface was varied by heating the sample to different temperatures and exposing the substrate to the sample vapour for different lengths of time. The intensities of the Raman lines have been found to increase with the increase in temperature and also with the increase in the duration of exposure for a fixed temperature. However, as expected, the Raman intensities have been found to saturate at higher temperatures and longer exposures. These saturation effects of the strengths of the Raman lines in the SERS of TATP vapour have been investigated in this paper. The results indicate that the optimisation for vapour deposition on the surface could be a crucial factor for any quantitative estimate of the concentration of the molecular species adsorbed on the nano-structured substrates.

  16. Raman Studies of Carbon Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorio, Ado; Souza Filho, Antonio G.

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews recent advances on the use of Raman spectroscopy to study and characterize carbon nanostructures. It starts with a brief survey of Raman spectroscopy of graphene and carbon nanotubes, followed by recent developments in the field. Various novel topics, including Stokes–anti-Stokes correlation, tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in two dimensions, phonon coherence, and high-pressure and shielding effects, are presented. Some consequences for other fields—quantum optics, near-field electromagnetism, archeology, materials and soil sciences—are discussed. The review ends with a discussion of new perspectives on Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanostructures, including how this technique can contribute to the development of biotechnological applications and nanotoxicology.

  17. Raman spectroscopy of white wines.

    PubMed

    Martin, Coralie; Bruneel, Jean-Luc; Guyon, François; Médina, Bernard; Jourdes, Michael; Teissedre, Pierre-Louis; Guillaume, François

    2015-08-15

    The feasibility of exploiting Raman scattering to analyze white wines has been investigated using 3 different wavelengths of the incoming laser radiation in the near-UV (325 nm), visible (532 nm) and near infrared (785 nm). To help in the interpretation of the Raman spectra, the absorption properties in the UV-visible range of two wine samples as well as their laser induced fluorescence have also been investigated. Thanks to the strong intensity enhancement of the Raman scattered light due to electronic resonance with 325 nm laser excitation, hydroxycinnamic acids may be detected and analyzed selectively. Fructose and glucose may also be easily detected below ca. 1000 cm(-1). This feasibility study demonstrates the potential of the Raman spectroscopic technique for the analysis of white wines.

  18. Raman spectroscopy in halophile research.

    PubMed

    Jehlička, Jan; Oren, Aharon

    2013-12-10

    Raman spectroscopy plays a major role in robust detection of biomolecules and mineral signatures in halophile research. An overview of Raman spectroscopic investigations in halophile research of the last decade is given here to show advantages of the approach, progress made as well as limits of the technique. Raman spectroscopy is an excellent tool to monitor and identify microbial pigments and other biomolecules in extant and extinct halophile biomass. Studies of bottom gypsum crusts from salterns, native evaporitic sediments, halite inclusions, and endoliths as well as cultures of halophilic microorganisms permitted to understand the content, distribution, and behavior of important molecular species. The first papers describing Raman spectroscopic detection of microbiological and geochemical key markers using portable instruments are highlighted as well.

  19. Raman spectroscopy in halophile research

    PubMed Central

    Jehlička, Jan; Oren, Aharon

    2013-01-01

    Raman spectroscopy plays a major role in robust detection of biomolecules and mineral signatures in halophile research. An overview of Raman spectroscopic investigations in halophile research of the last decade is given here to show advantages of the approach, progress made as well as limits of the technique. Raman spectroscopy is an excellent tool to monitor and identify microbial pigments and other biomolecules in extant and extinct halophile biomass. Studies of bottom gypsum crusts from salterns, native evaporitic sediments, halite inclusions, and endoliths as well as cultures of halophilic microorganisms permitted to understand the content, distribution, and behavior of important molecular species. The first papers describing Raman spectroscopic detection of microbiological and geochemical key markers using portable instruments are highlighted as well. PMID:24339823

  20. Raman Studies of Carbon Nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jorio, Ado; Souza Filho, Antonio G.

    2016-07-01

    This article reviews recent advances on the use of Raman spectroscopy to study and characterize carbon nanostructures. It starts with a brief survey of Raman spectroscopy of graphene and carbon nanotubes, followed by recent developments in the field. Various novel topics, including Stokes-anti-Stokes correlation, tip-enhanced Raman spectroscopy in two dimensions, phonon coherence, and high-pressure and shielding effects, are presented. Some consequences for other fields—quantum optics, near-field electromagnetism, archeology, materials and soil sciences—are discussed. The review ends with a discussion of new perspectives on Raman spectroscopy of carbon nanostructures, including how this technique can contribute to the development of biotechnological applications and nanotoxicology.

  1. A micrometre-scale Raman silicon laser with a microwatt threshold.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Yasushi; Inui, Yoshitaka; Chihara, Masahiro; Asano, Takashi; Terawaki, Ryo; Noda, Susumu

    2013-06-27

    The application of novel technologies to silicon electronics has been intensively studied with a view to overcoming the physical limitations of Moore's law, that is, the observation that the number of components on integrated chips tends to double every two years. For example, silicon devices have enormous potential for photonic integrated circuits on chips compatible with complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor devices, with various key elements having been demonstrated in the past decade. In particular, a focus on the exploitation of the Raman effect has added active optical functionality to pure silicon, culminating in the realization of a continuous-wave all-silicon laser. This achievement is an important step towards silicon photonics, but the desired miniaturization to micrometre dimensions and the reduction of the threshold for laser action to microwatt powers have yet to be achieved: such lasers remain limited to centimetre-sized cavities with thresholds higher than 20 milliwatts, even with the assistance of reverse-biased p-i-n diodes. Here we demonstrate a continuous-wave Raman silicon laser using a photonic-crystal, high-quality-factor nanocavity without any p-i-n diodes, yielding a device with a cavity size of less than 10 micrometres and an unprecedentedly low lasing threshold of 1 microwatt. Our nanocavity design exploits the principle that the strength of light-matter interactions is proportional to the ratio of quality factor to the cavity volume and allows drastic enhancement of the Raman gain beyond that predicted theoretically. Such a device may make it possible to construct practical silicon lasers and amplifiers for large-scale integration in photonic circuits.

  2. Raman studies of Halon fire retardants

    SciTech Connect

    May, J.H.; Allen, F.S.; Ondrias, M.R.; Tapscott, R.E.; Beeson, H.D.; Zallen, D.M.

    1986-04-01

    Raman spectroscopy can be used as a passive probe for the study of active systems. Various types of analytical determinations can be made without perturbing the system under study. Of interest is the elucidation of the extinction processes employed by Halon type extinguishing agents. Raman has in the past been used to study molecules such as H/sub 2/O, N/sub 2/, and CO/sub 2/ in flames. Halons and pyrolyzed products having vibrations that are more polarization sensitive than the above molecules, should then be readily analyzed in flames. As an initial approach to this problem, the authors are studying the pyrolysis of Halon 2402 (1,2 dibromotetrafluoroethane). The pyrolysis products are isolated using vacuum line techniques, and identified using GC/MS and Raman. A library of the Raman spectra from each component is being formed for subsequent use in flame analysis. Experimentally, they use a tube furnace with a specially designed tube, having detachable nitrogen traps on each end, and also capable of holding a vacuum. To simulate the combustion process, Halon 2402 is frozen in one of the nitrogen traps, and the whole system is brought to high vacuum. The Halon is then allowed to vacuum transfer through the pyrolysis tube, which is at approximately 790/sup 0/C, to the other nitrogen trap. This process is repeated several times. The products are then vacuum distilled, capturing fractions as they come over, in different, sealable cuvettes. Presently all fractions are studied in the gas phase at room temperature.

  3. Raman investigation of diamond films

    SciTech Connect

    Feng, Li-Ming

    1993-12-31

    Extensive Raman investigations were conducted on a wide range of diamond films whose structures were dilineated by optical and confocal microscopy. The Raman Spectra from one extreme of this range indicates a very intense 1331 cm{sup {minus}1} line diagnostic of bulk crystalline diamond. Microscopy of the corresponding film shows the presence of many large true diamond crystallite. The 1331 cm{sup {minus}1} Raman line at the other extreme of the range, however, is virtually absent. It is replaced, at this extreme, by a very broad Raman contour whose maxima occur near 1355 cm{sup {minus}1} and 1575 cm{sup {minus}1}. Optical microscopy now reveals a complete lack of diamond crystallites. The ratio of the integrated Raman intensity of the 1331 cm{sup {minus}1} diamond line to the integral of the entire broad contour extending from {approx}1200 cm{sup {minus}1} to 1800 cm{sup {minus}1}, with maxima near 1355 cm{sup {minus}1} and 1575 cm{sup {minus}1}, was determined. This ratio rises with increasing diamond crystallite size, and it decreases as true diamond crystallites are replaced by diamond-like, but amorphous, hard carbon, which produces the broad Raman contour. The measured intensity ratio was analyzed in terms of a differential equation related to phonon coupling. The increase of the intensity ratio of the 1331 cm{sup {minus}1} diagnostic diamond peak is due to phono-phonon coupling between the diamond crystallites, as the concentration of the amorphous diamond-like carbon decreases. Confocal microscopy indicates many amorphous-like regions interspersed between diamond crystallites which account for the intensity loss, and agree with the Raman intensity measurements. These Raman measurements crystallinity versus amorphous hard-carbon character of thin diamond film.

  4. Optimum Reliability of Gain Scores.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharma, K. K.; Gupta, J. K.

    1986-01-01

    This paper gives a mathematical treatment to findings of Zimmerman and Williams and establishes a minimum reliability for gain scores when the pretest and posttest have equal reliabilities and equal standard deviations. It discusses the behavior of the reliability of gain scores in terms of variations in other test parameters. (Author/LMO)

  5. Computer algorithm for coding gain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dodd, E. E.

    1974-01-01

    Development of a computer algorithm for coding gain for use in an automated communications link design system. Using an empirical formula which defines coding gain as used in space communications engineering, an algorithm is constructed on the basis of available performance data for nonsystematic convolutional encoding with soft-decision (eight-level) Viterbi decoding.

  6. Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering studies of L-amino acids adsorbed on silver nanoclusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botta, Raju; Rajanikanth, A.; Bansal, C.

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanocluster films were prepared using plasma inert gas phase condensation technique. These were used as Raman active substrates for Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) studies of 19 standard L-amino acids adsorbed on the surface of Ag nanoclusters via Agsbnd N bonds. A detailed study of two essential aromatic amino acids viz. L-Phenylalanine and L-Tryptophan showed a correlation between the Raman intensity of the characteristic lines of phenol and indole side chains and their molar concentrations in the range 1 μM-1 mM. This indicates that Raman studies can be used for quantitative determination of the amino acids in proteins.

  7. Laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy of single cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, De

    Raman scattering is an inelastic collision between the vibrating molecules inside the sample and the incident photons. During this process, energy exchange takes place between the photon and the scattering molecule. By measuring the energy change of the photon, the molecular vibration mode can be probed. The vibrational spectrum contains valuable information about the disposition of atomic nuclei and chemical bonds within a molecule, the chemical compositions and the interactions between the molecule and its surroundings. In this dissertation, laser tweezers Raman spectroscopy (LTRS) technique is applied for the analysis of biological cells and human cells at single cell level. In LTRS, an individual cell is trapped in aqueous medium with laser tweezers, and Raman scattering spectra from the trapped cell are recorded in real-time. The Raman spectra of these cells can be used to reveal the dynamical processes of cell growth, cell response to environment changes, and can be used as the finger print for the identification of a bacterial cell species. Several biophysical experiments were carried out using LTRS: (1) the dynamic germination process of individual spores of Bacillus thuringiensis was detected via Ca-DPA, a spore-specific biomarker molecule; (2) inactivation and killing of Bacillus subtilis spores by microwave irradiation and wet heat were studied at single cell level; (3) the heat shock activation process of single B. subtilis spores were analyzed, in which the reversible transition from glass-like state at low temperature to liquid-like state at high temperature in spore was revealed at the molecular level; (4) the kinetic processes of bacterial cell lysis of E. coli by lysozyme and by temperature induction of lambda phage were detected real-time; (5) the fixation and rehydration of human platelets were quantitatively evaluated and characterized with Raman spectroscopy method, which provided a rapid way to quantify the quality of freeze-dried therapeutic

  8. Cascade amps for increased subsystem gain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galla, Timothy J.

    1990-05-01

    Selecting cascadable TO-8 amplifiers integrated onto microstrip circuit boards is considered from the point of view of cascaded circuit design techniques and performance characteristics. Cascaded assemblies and circuit boards used in cascaded-amplifier applications are presented. It is noted that TO-8 package constrains allow as many as three transistor stages per housing, utilizing either passive or active biasing with choke decoupling; these configurations can achieve broadband performance with small-signal gain of 15 to 20 dB. Where higher gain levels are required, TO-8 amplifiers can be cascaded as gain blocks and assembled into aluminum housing with connectors. Increased reflection losses resulting in a higher voltage standing wave ratio are analyzed, along with noise minimization techniques. A model showing how to find a TO-8 amplifier's noise figure, input power, and third-order intercept point is described.

  9. Enhanced Raman Monitor Project

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Westenskow, Dwayne

    1996-01-01

    Monitoring of gaseous contaminants stems from the need to ensure a healthy and safe environment. NASA/Ames needs sensors that are able to monitor common atmospheric gas concentrations as well as trace amounts of contaminant gases. To provide an accurate assessment of air quality, a monitoring system would need to be continuous and on-line with full spectrum capabilities, allowing simultaneous detection of all gas components in a sample, including both combustible and non-combustible gases. The system demands a high degree of sensitivity to detect low gas concentrations in the low-ppm and sub-ppm regions. For clean and healthy air ('good' category), criteria established by the EPA requires that contaminant concentrations not exceed 4 ppm of carbon monoxide (CO) in an 8 hour period, 60 ppb of ozone(O3) in a one hour period and 30 ppb of sulfur dioxide (SO2) in a 24 hour period. One step below this is the National Ambient Air Quality Standard ('moderate' category) which requires that contaminant concentrations not exceed 9 ppm of carbon monoxide (CO), 120 ppb of ozone (O3) and 140 ppb of sulfur dioxide (SO2) for their respective time periods. Ideally a monitor should be able to detect the concentrations specified in the 'good' category. To benchmark current abilities of Raman technology in gas phase analysis, laboratory experiments were performed to evaluate the RASCAL II anesthetic gas monitor.

  10. Resonance Raman spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Li, Jiang; Kitagawa, Teizo

    2014-01-01

    Flavin is a general name given to molecules having the heteroaromatic ring system of 7,8-dimethylisoalloxazine but practically means riboflavin (Rfl), flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD), and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) in biological systems, whose structures are illustrated in Fig. 1, together with the atomic numbering scheme and ring numbering of the isoalloxazine moiety. As the isoalloxazine skeleton cannot be synthesized in human cells, it is obtained from diet as Rfl (vitamin B2). FAD and FMN can act as cofactors in flavoenzymes but Rfl does not. Most flavoenzymes catalyze redox reactions of substrates (Miura, Chem Rec 1:183-194, 2001). When O2 serves as the oxidant in the oxidation half cycle of an enzymic reaction, the enzyme is called "flavo-oxidase" but when others do, the enzyme is called "flavo-dehydrogenase." The difference between the two types of oxidative catalysis arises from delicate differences in the π-electron distributions in the isoalloxazine ring, which can be revealed by Raman spectroscopy (Miura, Chem Rec 1:183-194, 2001). Since a flavin is an extremely versatile molecule, the scientific field including chemistry, biochemistry, and enzymology is collectively called "flavonology." It was found recently, however, that the flavin also acts as a chromophore to initiate light-induced DNA repair and signal transductions (Sancar, Chem Rev 103:2203-2237, 2003).

  11. Raman spectroscopic study of zeolite ZSM-5 synthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baraǹska, H.; Czerwiǹska, B.; Łabudziǹska, A.

    1986-03-01

    Raman spectroscopy of TPA was used to follow the technological synthesis of a very active form of ZSM-5 catalyst. A crucial feature of the synthetic procedure was the pH of the reagent mixture, which must be > 9 during the induction period, and < 6 during initiation of crystal growth. Creation of the active surface of the catalyst during crystal growth is accompanied by an increase in intensity of Raman bands of TPA in the 900-1500 and 2800-3000 cm -1 regions.

  12. Intravital confocal Raman microscopy with multiplexed SERS contrast agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McVeigh, Patrick Z.; Wilson, Brian C.

    2012-03-01

    Intravital microscopy has been demonstrated to be a powerful technique for studying the delivery of contrast or therapeutic agents to tumours growing in a realistic 3D environment at high resolution. Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS)-active nanoparticle contrast agents provide the ability to improve in-vivo detection of tumour tissue through multiplex detection of their uniquely bright spectral lines. However, most work to date has been carried out in-vitro or in ex-vivo tissues. Here we present the results from confocal Raman microscopy in a dorsal skinfold window chamber in mice using SERS-active gold nanoparticle contrast agents directed towards an overexpressed tumour receptor tyrosine kinase.

  13. In situ solution-phase Raman spectroscopy under forced convection.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Huanfeng; Wu, Jun; Shi, Qingfang; Wang, Zhenghao; Scherson, Daniel A

    2007-11-01

    In situ Raman spectra of solution-phase electrogenerated species have been recorded in a channel-type electrochemical cell incorporating a flat optically transparent window placed parallel to the channel plane that contains the embedded working electrode. A microscope objective with its main axis (Z) aligned normal to the direction of flow was used to focus the excitation laser beam (lambda exc = 532 nm) in the solution and also to collect the Raman scattered light from species present therein. Judicious adjustment of the cell position along Z allowed the depth of focus to overlap the diffusion boundary layer to achieve maximum detection sensitivity. Measurements were performed using a Au working electrode in iron hexacyanoferrate(II), [Fe(CN)6]4-, and nitrite, NO2-, containing aqueous solutions as a function of the applied potential, E. Linear correlations were found between both the gain and the loss of the integrated Raman intensity, IR, of bands, attributed to [Fe(CN)6]3- and [Fe(CN)6]4-, respectively, recorded downstream from the edge of the working electrode, and the current measured at the Au electrode as a function of E. The same overall trend was found for the gain in the IR of the NO3- band in the nitrite solution. Also included in this work is a ray trace analysis of the optical system.

  14. Study on Raman spectra of synthetic celluloses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tong, Na; Zhu, Changjun; Zhang, Yixin

    2015-02-01

    Raman spectrometry was employed to study the characteristics of Raman spectra of aliphatic polyamide fiber and polyethylene terephthalate (PET), which were treated with sodium hydroxide, sulfuric acid and copper sulfate, respectively. Raman spectra under different conditions were obtained and the characteristics of the Raman spectra were analyzed. The results show that Raman peaks beyond 1200 cm-1 appear for aliphatic polyamide fiber processed by sodium hydroxide, while the Raman peaks beyond 1000 cm-1 disappear for aliphatic polyamide fiber processed by sulfuric acid. Raman peaks beyond 1750 cm-1 decrease for polyethylene terephthalate processed by sodium hydroxide, while Raman peaks beyond 1000 cm-1 disappear, except weak peaks around 3000 cm-1 , for polyethylene terephthalate processed by sulfuric acid. The variations of the Raman spectra are primarily related to the changes of chemical bonds and molecular structures.

  15. Raman spectroscopy for in-situ monitoring of electrode processes

    SciTech Connect

    Varma, R; Cook, G M; Yao, N P

    1982-04-01

    The theoretical and experimental applications of Raman spectroscopic techniques to the study of battery electrode processes are described. In particular, the potential of Raman spectroscopy as an in-situ analytical tool for the characterization of the structure and composition of electrode surface layers at electrode-electrolyte interfaces during electrolysis is examined. It is anticipated that this understanding of the battery electrode processes will be helpful in designing battery active material with improved performance. The applications of Raman spectroscopy to the in-situ study of electrode processes has been demonstrated in a few selected areas, including: (1) the anodic corrosion of lead in sulfuric acid and (2) the anodization and sulfation of tetrabasicleadsulfate in sulfuric acid. Preliminary results on the anodization of iron and on the electrochemical behavior of nickel positive-electrode active material in potassium hydroxide electrolytes are presented in the Appendix.

  16. FT-IR, Raman, RRS measurements and DFT calculation for doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Das, Gobind; Nicastri, Annalisa; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Gentile, Francesco; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cojoc, Gheorghe; Liberale, Carlo; De Angelis, Francesco; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2010-10-01

    Doxorubicin (DOXO) is a powerful anthracycline antibiotic used to treat many human neoplasms, including acute leukemias, lymphomas, stomach, breast and ovarian cancer, and bone tumors, yet causing cardiotoxicity at the same time. For this reason, there is a great interest in medical field to gain deep insight and knowledge of this molecule. Raman, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy, and Resonance Raman scattering were performed for the vibrational characterization of DOXO molecule. Density function theorem (DFT) modeling of Raman and FT-IR spectra were used for the assignment of the vibrational frequencies. The optimized molecular structured was obtained, first, on the basis of potential energy distribution. The simulation for vibrational bands is based on the calculations for internal force constants and potential energy distribution matrices. The calculated DOXO vibrational bands show qualitative agreement with the experimental observations (FT-IR absorption and Raman scattering). PMID:20232462

  17. FT-IR, Raman, RRS measurements and DFT calculation for doxorubicin.

    PubMed

    Das, Gobind; Nicastri, Annalisa; Coluccio, Maria Laura; Gentile, Francesco; Candeloro, Patrizio; Cojoc, Gheorghe; Liberale, Carlo; De Angelis, Francesco; Di Fabrizio, Enzo

    2010-10-01

    Doxorubicin (DOXO) is a powerful anthracycline antibiotic used to treat many human neoplasms, including acute leukemias, lymphomas, stomach, breast and ovarian cancer, and bone tumors, yet causing cardiotoxicity at the same time. For this reason, there is a great interest in medical field to gain deep insight and knowledge of this molecule. Raman, Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) absorption spectroscopy, and Resonance Raman scattering were performed for the vibrational characterization of DOXO molecule. Density function theorem (DFT) modeling of Raman and FT-IR spectra were used for the assignment of the vibrational frequencies. The optimized molecular structured was obtained, first, on the basis of potential energy distribution. The simulation for vibrational bands is based on the calculations for internal force constants and potential energy distribution matrices. The calculated DOXO vibrational bands show qualitative agreement with the experimental observations (FT-IR absorption and Raman scattering).

  18. Chemical analysis in vivo and in vitro by Raman spectroscopy – from single cells to humans

    PubMed Central

    Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian; Weeks, Tyler

    2009-01-01

    Summary The gold standard for clinical diagnostics of tissues is immunofluorescence staining. Toxicity of many fluorescent dyes precludes their application in vivo. Raman spectroscopy, a chemically specific, label-free diagnostic technique, is rapidly gaining in acceptance as a powerful alternative. It has the ability to probe the chemical composition of biological materials in a nondestructive and mostly non-perturbing manner. We review the most recent developments in Raman spectroscopy in the life sciences, detailing advances in technology that have improved the ability to screen for diseases. Its role in the monitoring of biological function and mapping the intracellular chemical microenvironment will be discussed. Applications including endoscopy, surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS), and coherent Raman scattering (CRS) will be reviewed. PMID:19268566

  19. Ultra-wide wavelength tuning of a cascaded Raman random fiber laser.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Jiang, Huawei; Yang, Xuezong; Pan, Weiwei; Feng, Yan

    2016-01-15

    An ultra-broadband tunable cascaded Raman random fiber laser pumped by a tunable (1020-1080 nm) ytterbium-doped fiber laser is investigated. By continuously adjusting the pump laser wavelength, the Raman random laser tunes accordingly due to the Raman gain competition. By increasing the pump power, up to the 5th order Raman random laser is achieved. As a result, 300 nm of continuous wavelength tuning from 1070 to 1370 nm is achieved by adjusting the pump wavelength and power altogether. The highest output power is 1.8 W at 1360 nm with an optical efficiency of 15% from 1080 nm. To the best of our knowledge, this is the widest wavelength tuning range reported for a random fiber laser so far. PMID:26766677

  20. Enhanced Raman scattering of biological molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montoya, Joseph R.

    The results presented in this thesis, originate from the aspiration to develop an identification algorithm for Salmonella enterica Serovar Enteritidis (S. enterica), Escherichia coli (E. coli), Bacillus globigii ( B. globigii), and Bacillus megaterium ( B. megaterium) using "enhanced" Raman scattering. We realized our goal, with a method utilizing an immunoassay process in a spectroscopic technique, and the direct use of the enhanced spectral response due to bacterial surface elements. The enhanced Raman signal originates from Surface Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) and/or Morphological Dependent Resonances (MDR's). We utilized a modified Lee-Meisel colloidal production method to produce a SERS active substrate, which was applied to a SERS application for the amino acid Glycine. The comparison indicates that the SERS/FRACTAL/MDR process can produce an increase of 107 times more signal than the bulk Raman signal from Glycine. In the extension of the Glycine results, we studied the use of SERS related to S. enterica, where we have shown that the aromatic amino acid contribution from Phenylalanine, Tyrosine, and Tryptophan produces a SERS response that can be used to identify the associated SERS vibrational modes of a S. enterica one or two antibody complexes. The "fingerprint" associated with the spectral signature in conjunction with an enhanced Raman signal allows conclusions to be made: (1) about the orientation of the secondary structure on the metal; (2) whether bound/unbound antibody can be neglected; (3) whether we can lower the detection limit. We have lowered the detection limit of S. enterica to 106 bacteria/ml. We also show a profound difference between S. enterica and E. coli SERS spectra even when there exists non-specific binding on E. coli indicating a protein conformation change induced by the addition of the antigen S. enterica. We confirm TEM imagery data, indicating that the source of the aromatic amino acid SERS response is originating from