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Sample records for active region corona

  1. The solar extreme ultra-violet corona: Resolved loops and the unresolved active region corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirtain, Jonathan Wesley

    In this work, physical characteristics of the solar corona as observed in the Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) regime are investigated. The focus will be the regions of intense EUV radiation generally found near the locations of sunspots. These regions are commonly called active regions. Multiple space- based observing platforms have been deployed in the last decade; it is possible to use several of these observatories in combination to develop a more complete picture of the solar corona. Joint Observing Program 146 was created to collect spectroscopic intensities using the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer on Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and EUV images using NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer. The emission line intensities are analyzed to develop an understanding of the temperature and density of the active region coronal plasma. However, the performance of the CDS instrument in the spatial and temporal domains is limited and to compensate for these limitations, data collected by the TRACE instrument provide a high spatial and temporal resolution set of observations. One of the most exciting unsolved problems in solar astrophysics is to understand why the corona maintains a temperature roughly two orders of magnitude higher than the underlying material. A detailed investigation of the coronal emission has provided constraints on models of the heating mechanism, since the temperature, density and evolution of emission rates for multiple ionic species are indicative of the mechanism(s) working to heat the corona. The corona appears to consist of multiple unresolved structures as well as resolved active region structures, called coronal loops. The purpose of the present work is to determine the characteristics of the unresolved background corona. Using the characterizations of the coronal unresolved background, results for loops after background subtraction are also presented. This work demonstrates the magnitude of the unresolved coronal emission with

  2. THE EXPANSION OF ACTIVE REGIONS INTO THE EXTENDED SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Huw; Jeska, Lauren; Leonard, Drew

    2013-06-01

    Advanced image processing of Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (LASCO) C2 observations reveals the expansion of the active region closed field into the extended corona. The nested closed-loop systems are large, with an apparent latitudinal extent of 50 Degree-Sign , and expanding to heights of at least 12 R{sub Sun }. The expansion speeds are {approx}10 km s{sup -1} in the AIA/SDO field of view, below {approx}20 km s{sup -1} at 2.3 R{sub Sun }, and accelerate linearly to {approx}60 km s{sup -1} at 5 R{sub Sun }. They appear with a frequency of one every {approx}3 hr over a time period of around three days. They are not coronal mass ejections (CMEs) since their gradual expansion is continuous and steady. They are also faint, with an upper limit of 3% of the brightness of background streamers. Extreme ultraviolet images reveal continuous birth and expansion of hot, bright loops from a new active region at the base of the system. The LASCO images show that the loops span a radial fan-like system of streamers, suggesting that they are not propagating within the main coronal streamer structure. The expanding loops brighten at low heights a few hours prior to a CME eruption, and the expansion process is temporarily halted as the closed field system is swept away. Closed magnetic structures from some active regions are not isolated from the extended corona and solar wind, but can expand to large heights in the form of quiescent expanding loops.

  3. Hi-C Observations of an Active Region Corona, and Investigation of the Underlying Magnetic Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. K.; Alexander, C. E.; Winebarger, A.; Moore, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    The solar corona is much hotter (>=10(exp 6) K) than its surface (approx 6000 K), puzzling astrophysicists for several decades. Active region (AR) corona is again hotter than the quiet Sun (QS) corona by a factor of 4-10. The most widely accepted mechanism that could heat the active region corona is the energy release by current dissipation via reconnection of braided magnetic field structure, first proposed by E. N. Parker three decades ago. The first observational evidence for this mechanism has only recently been presented by Cirtain et al. by using High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) observations of an AR corona at a spatial resolution of 0.2 arcsec, which is required to resolve the coronal loops, and was not available before the rocket flight of Hi-C in July 2012. The Hi-C project is led by NASA/MSFC. In the case of the QS, work done by convection/granulation on the inter-granular feet of the coronal field lines translates into the heat observed in the corona. In the case of the AR, as here, there could be flux emergence, cancellation/submergence, or shear flows generating large stress and tension in coronal field loops which is released as heat in the corona. We are currently investigating the changes taking place in photospheric feet of the magnetic field involved with brightenings in the Hi-C AR corona. For this purpose, we are also using SDO/AIA data of +/- 2 hours around the 5 minutes Hi-C flight. In the present talk, I will first summarize some of the results of the Hi-C observations and then present some results from our recent analysis on what photospheric processes feed the magnetic energy that dissipates into heat in coronal loops.

  4. Signatures of Slow Solar Wind Streams from Active Regions in the Inner Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemzin, V.; Harra, L.; Urnov, A.; Kuzin, S.; Goryaev, F.; Berghmans, D.

    2013-08-01

    The identification of solar-wind sources is an important question in solar physics. The existing solar-wind models ( e.g., the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model) provide the approximate locations of the solar wind sources based on magnetic field extrapolations. It has been suggested recently that plasma outflows observed at the edges of active regions may be a source of the slow solar wind. To explore this we analyze an isolated active region (AR) adjacent to small coronal hole (CH) in July/August 2009. On 1 August, Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer observations showed two compact outflow regions in the corona. Coronal rays were observed above the active-region coronal hole (ARCH) region on the eastern limb on 31 July by STEREO-A/EUVI and at the western limb on 7 August by CORONAS- Photon/TESIS telescopes. In both cases the coronal rays were co-aligned with open magnetic-field lines given by the potential field source surface model, which expanded into the streamer. The solar-wind parameters measured by STEREO-B, ACE, Wind, and STEREO-A confirmed the identification of the ARCH as a source region of the slow solar wind. The results of the study support the suggestion that coronal rays can represent signatures of outflows from ARs propagating in the inner corona along open field lines into the heliosphere.

  5. Observationally driven 3D magnetohydrodynamics model of the solar corona above an active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, Ph.-A.; Bingert, S.; Peter, H.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Aims: The goal is to employ a 3D magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) model including spectral synthesis to model the corona in an observed solar active region. This will allow us to judge the merits of the coronal heating mechanism built into the 3D model. Methods: Photospheric observations of the magnetic field and horizontal velocities in an active region are used to drive our coronal simulation from the bottom. The currents induced by this heat the corona through Ohmic dissipation. Heat conduction redistributes the energy that is lost in the end through optically thin radiation. Based on the MHD model, we synthesized profiles of coronal emission lines which can be directly compared to actual coronal observations of the very same active region. Results: In the synthesized model data we find hot coronal loops which host siphon flows or which expand and lose mass through draining. These synthesized loops are at the same location as and show similar dynamics in terms of Doppler shifts to the observed structures. This match is shown through a comparison with Hinode data as well as with 3D stereoscopic reconstructions of data from STEREO. Conclusions: The considerable match to the actual observations shows that the field-line braiding mechanism leading to the energy input in our corona provides the proper distribution of heat input in space and time. From this we conclude that in an active region the field-line braiding is the dominant heating process, at least at the spatial scales available to current observations. Parameters and simulation log-files are only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (ftp://130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/555/A123

  6. A model for the formation of the active region corona driven by magnetic flux emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F.; Peter, H.; Bingert, S.; Cheung, M. C. M.

    2014-04-01

    Aims: We present the first model that couples the formation of the corona of a solar active region to a model of the emergence of a sunspot pair. This allows us to study when, where, and why active region loops form, and how they evolve. Methods: We use a 3D radiation magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) simulation of the emergence of an active region through the upper convection zone and the photosphere as a lower boundary for a 3D MHD coronal model. The coronal model accounts for the braiding of the magnetic fieldlines, which induces currents in the corona to heat up the plasma. We synthesize the coronal emission for a direct comparison to observations. Starting with a basically field-free atmosphere we follow the filling of the corona with magnetic field and plasma. Results: Numerous individually identifiable hot coronal loops form, and reach temperatures well above 1 MK with densities comparable to observations. The footpoints of these loops are found where small patches of magnetic flux concentrations move into the sunspots. The loop formation is triggered by an increase in upward-directed Poynting flux at their footpoints in the photosphere. In the synthesized extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission these loops develop within a few minutes. The first EUV loop appears as a thin tube, then rises and expands significantly in the horizontal direction. Later, the spatially inhomogeneous heat input leads to a fragmented system of multiple loops or strands in a growing envelope. Animation associated with Fig. 2 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  7. UVCS Observations of Slow Plasma Flow in the Corona Above Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Woo, R.; Habbal, S. R.

    2005-05-01

    The elusive source of slow solar wind has been the subject of ongoing discussion and debate. Observations of solar wind speed near the Earth orbit, first with IPS (interplanetary scintillation) and later with Ulysses in situ measurements, have suggested that some slow solar wind may be associated with active regions (Kojima & Kakinuma 1987; Woo, Habbal & Feldman 2004). The ability of SOHO UVCS Doppler dimming measurements to provide estimates of solar wind speed in the corona (Kohl et al. 1995) has made it possible to investigate the distribution of flow near the Sun. In this paper, we will present results confirming that active regions are one of the sources of slow wind. Insight into the relationship between coronal streamers, active regions and plasma flow will also be discussed.

  8. A Space Weather mission concept: Observatories of the Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strugarek, Antoine; Janitzek, Nils; Lee, Arrow; Löschl, Philipp; Seifert, Bernhard; Hoilijoki, Sanni; Kraaikamp, Emil; Isha Mrigakshi, Alankrita; Philippe, Thomas; Spina, Sheila; Bröse, Malte; Massahi, Sonny; O'Halloran, Liam; Pereira Blanco, Victor; Stausland, Christoffer; Escoubet, Philippe; Kargl, Günter

    2015-02-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) and Corotating Interaction Regions (CIRs) are major sources of magnetic storms on Earth and are therefore considered to be the most dangerous space weather events. The Observatories of Solar Corona and Active Regions (OSCAR) mission is designed to identify the 3D structure of coronal loops and to study the trigger mechanisms of CMEs in solar Active Regions (ARs) as well as their evolution and propagation processes in the inner heliosphere. It also aims to provide monitoring and forecasting of geo-effective CMEs and CIRs. OSCAR would contribute to significant advancements in the field of solar physics, improvements of the current CME prediction models, and provide data for reliable space weather forecasting. These objectives are achieved by utilising two spacecraft with identical instrumentation, located at a heliocentric orbital distance of 1 AU from the Sun. The spacecraft will be separated by an angle of 68° to provide optimum stereoscopic view of the solar corona. We study the feasibility of such a mission and propose a preliminary design for OSCAR.

  9. MAGNETIC FIELD TOPOLOGY AND THE THERMAL STRUCTURE OF THE CORONA OVER SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; DeRosa, Marc L.; Title, Alan M.

    2010-08-20

    Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images of quiescent active-region coronae are characterized by ensembles of bright 1-2 MK loops that fan out from select locations. We investigate the conditions associated with the formation of these persistent, relatively cool, loop fans within and surrounding the otherwise 3-5 MK coronal environment by combining EUV observations of active regions made with TRACE with global source-surface potential-field models based on the full-sphere photospheric field from the assimilation of magnetograms that are obtained by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on SOHO. We find that in the selected active regions with largely potential-field configurations these fans are associated with (quasi-)separatrix layers (QSLs) within the strong-field regions of magnetic plage. Based on the empirical evidence, we argue that persistent active-region cool-loop fans are primarily related to the pronounced change in connectivity across a QSL to widely separated clusters of magnetic flux, and confirm earlier work that suggested that neither a change in loop length nor in base field strengths across such topological features are of prime importance to the formation of the cool-loop fans. We discuss the hypothesis that a change in the distribution of coronal heating with height may be involved in the phenomenon of relatively cool coronal loop fans in quiescent active regions.

  10. Hi-C Observations of an Active Region Corona, and Investigation of the Underlying Magnetic Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv K.; Alexander, Caroline E.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Moore, Ronald L.

    2014-01-01

    Hi-C: first observational evidence of field line braiding in the AR corona; NLFFF extrapolations support. Flux emergence and/or cancellation in the coronal braided region generate large stresses and tension in the coronal field loops which is released as heat in the corona. The field in these sub-regions are highly sheared and have apparent high speed plasma flows, therefore, the contribution from shearing flows to power the coronal and transition region heating can not be ruled out! The spatial resolution of Hi-­C is five times better than AIA. The cadence of Hi-C is 2.5 - 6 times better than AIA. The 193 Å was selected because of the strong emission line of Fe XII (peak formation temperature of 1.5 MK). Hi-­C collected data for 345 s @ 5.4 s cadence. The Hi-C target region was NOAA AR 11520; 11 July 2012, 18:51-18:57 UT. NLFFF extrapolation confirms the braided structure, and free magnetic energy estimates in the given volume.

  11. Tracing p-mode Waves from the Photosphere to the Corona in Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Junwei; Felipe, Tobías; Chen, Ruizhu; Khomenko, Elena

    2016-10-01

    Atmosphere above sunspots is abundant with different types of waves. Among these waves are running penumbral waves in the chromosphere, quasi-periodic oscillations in the lower coronal loops, and recently reported running waves in sunspots’ photosphere, all of which were interpreted as magnetoacoustic waves by some authors. Are these waves in different atmospheric layers related to each other, what is the nature of these waves, and where are the ultimate sources of these waves? Applying a time–distance helioseismic analysis over a suite of multi-wavelength observations above a sunspot, we demonstrate that the helioseismic p-mode waves are able to channel up from the photosphere through the chromosphere and transition region into the corona, and that the magnetoacoustic waves observed in different atmospheric layers are a same wave originating from the photosphere but exhibiting differently under different physical conditions. We also show waves of different frequencies travel along different paths, which can be used to derive the physical properties of the atmosphere above sunspots. Our numerical simulation of traveling of waves from a subphotospheric source qualitatively resembles the observed properties of the waves and offers an interpretation of the shapes of the wavefronts above the photosphere.

  12. Variability of a Stellar Corona on a Time Scale of Days: Evidence for Abundance Fractionation in an Emerging Coronal Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nordon, R.; Behar, E.; Drake, S. A.

    2013-01-01

    Elemental abundance effects in active coronae have eluded our understanding for almost three decades, since the discovery of the first ionization potential (FIP) effect on the sun. The goal of this paper is to monitor the same coronal structures over a time interval of six days and resolve active regions on a stellar corona through rotational modulation. We report on four iso-phase X-ray spectroscopic observations of the RS CVn binary EI Eri with XMM-Newton, carried out approximately every two days, to match the rotation period of EI Eri. We present an analysis of the thermal and chemical structure of the EI Eri corona as it evolves over the six days. Although the corona is rather steady in its temperature distribution, the emission measure and FIP bias both vary and seem to be correlated. An active region, predating the beginning of the campaign, repeatedly enters into our view at the same phase as it rotates from beyond the stellar limb. As a result, the abundances tend slightly, but consistently, to increase for high FIP elements (an inverse FIP effect) with phase. We estimate the abundance increase of high FIP elements in the active region to be of about 75% over the coronal mean. This observed fractionation of elements in an active region on time scales of days provides circumstantial clues regarding the element enrichment mechanism of non-flaring stellar coronae.

  13. NON-THERMAL RESPONSE OF THE CORONA TO THE MAGNETIC FLUX DISPERSAL IN THE PHOTOSPHERE OF A DECAYING ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Harra, L. K.; Abramenko, V. I.

    2012-11-10

    We analyzed Solar Dynamics Observatory line-of-sight magnetograms for a decaying NOAA active region (AR) 11451 along with co-temporal Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) data from the Hinode spacecraft. The photosphere was studied via time variations of the turbulent magnetic diffusivity coefficient, {eta}(t), and the magnetic power spectrum index, {alpha}, through analysis of magnetogram data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI). These measure the intensity of the random motions of magnetic elements and the state of turbulence of the magnetic field, respectively. The time changes of the non-thermal energy release in the corona was explored via histogram analysis of the non-thermal velocity, v {sub nt}, in order to highlight the largest values at each time, which may indicate an increase in energy release in the corona. We used the 10% upper range of the histogram of v {sub nt} (which we called V {sup upp} {sub nt}) of the coronal spectral line of Fe XII 195 A. A 2 day time interval was analyzed from HMI data, along with the EIS data for the same field of view. Our main findings are the following. (1) The magnetic turbulent diffusion coefficient, {eta}(t), precedes the upper range of the v {sub nt} with the time lag of approximately 2 hr and the cross-correlation coefficient of 0.76. (2) The power-law index, {alpha}, of the magnetic power spectrum precedes V {sup upp} {sub nt} with a time lag of approximately 3 hr and the cross-correlation coefficient of 0.5. The data show that the magnetic flux dispersal in the photosphere is relevant to non-thermal energy release dynamics in the above corona. The results are consistent with the nanoflare mechanism of the coronal heating, due to the time lags being consistent with the process of heating and cooling the loops heated by nanoflares.

  14. Force-free field modeling of twist and braiding-induced magnetic energy in an active-region corona

    SciTech Connect

    Thalmann, J. K.

    2014-01-01

    The theoretical concept that braided magnetic field lines in the solar corona may dissipate a sufficient amount of energy to account for the brightening observed in the active-region (AR) corona has only recently been substantiated by high-resolution observations. From the analysis of coronal images obtained with the High Resolution Coronal Imager, first observational evidence of the braiding of magnetic field lines was reported by Cirtain et al. (hereafter CG13). We present nonlinear force-free reconstructions of the associated coronal magnetic field based on Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager vector magnetograms. We deliver estimates of the free magnetic energy associated with a braided coronal structure. Our model results suggest (∼100 times) more free energy at the braiding site than analytically estimated by CG13, strengthening the possibility of the AR corona being heated by field line braiding. We were able to appropriately assess the coronal free energy by using vector field measurements and we attribute the lower energy estimate of CG13 to the underestimated (by a factor of 10) azimuthal field strength. We also quantify the increase in the overall twist of a flare-related flux rope that was noted by CG13. From our models we find that the overall twist of the flux rope increased by about half a turn within 12 minutes. Unlike another method to which we compare our results, we evaluate the winding of the flux rope's constituent field lines around each other purely based on their modeled coronal three-dimensional field line geometry. To our knowledge, this is done for the first time here.

  15. Chromospheres, transition regions, and coronas.

    PubMed

    Böhm-Vitense, E

    1984-02-24

    The increase in temperature outward from the surface of a stellar photosphere can be understood by looking at the local energy balance. The relatively high-density stellar photosphere is cooled effectively by radiative energy loss penetrating the optically thin corona. For the low-density chromosphere and corona, if the energy input cannot be balanced by radiative energy losses, the temperature will rise steeply, possibly up to 1 million degrees or more. Coronal heating and emission appear to be strongly influenced by magnetic fields, leading to large differences in x-ray emission for otherwise similar stars. Comparatively small variations are seen in the overall chromospheric emission of stars. Chromospheres are probably mainly heated by shock-wave energy dissipation, modified by magnetic fields. PMID:17737739

  16. The distant future of solar activity: A case study of Beta Hydri. III - Transition region, corona, and stellar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dravins, D.; Linde, P.; Ayres, T. R.; Linsky, J. L.; Monsignori-Fossi, B.; Simon, T.; Wallinder, F.

    1993-01-01

    The paper investigates the secular decay of solar-type activity through a detailed comparison of the present sun with the very old solar-type star, Beta Hyi, taken as a proxy of the future sun. Analyses of successive atmospheric layers are presented, with emphasis of the outermost parts. The FUV emission lines for the transition zone are among the faintest so far seen in any solar-type star. The coronal soft X-ray spectrum was measured through different filters on EXOSAT and compared to simulated X-ray observations of the sun seen as a star. The flux from Beta Hyi is weaker than that from the solar corona and has a different spectrum. It is inferred that a thermally driven stellar wind can no longer be supported, which removes the mechanism from further rotational braking of the star through a magnetic stellar wind.

  17. MASC: Magnetic Activity of the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchere, Frederic; Fineschi, Silvano; Gan, Weiqun; Peter, Hardi; Vial, Jean-Claude; Zhukov, Andrei; Parenti, Susanna; Li, Hui; Romoli, Marco

    We present MASC, an innovative payload designed to explore the magnetic activity of the solar corona. It is composed of three complementary instruments: a Hard-X-ray spectrometer, a UV / EUV imager, and a Visible Light / UV polarimetric coronagraph able to measure the coronal magnetic field. The solar corona is structured in magnetically closed and open structures from which slow and fast solar winds are respectively released. In spite of much progress brought by two decades of almost uninterrupted observations from several space missions, the sources and acceleration mechanisms of both types are still not understood. This continuous expansion of the solar atmosphere is disturbed by sporadic but frequent and violent events. Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are large-scale massive eruptions of magnetic structures out of the corona, while solar flares trace the sudden heating of coronal plasma and the acceleration of electrons and ions to high, sometimes relativistic, energies. Both phenomena are most probably driven by instabilities of the magnetic field in the corona. The relations between flares and CMEs are still not understood in terms of initiation and energy partition between large-scale motions, small-scale heating and particle acceleration. The initiation is probably related to magnetic reconnection which itself results magnetic topological changes due to e.g. flux emergence, footpoints motions, etc. Acceleration and heating are also strongly coupled since the atmospheric heating is thought to result from the impact of accelerated particles. The measurement of both physical processes and their outputs is consequently of major importance. However, despite its fundamental importance as a driver for the physics of the Sun and of the heliosphere, the magnetic field of our star’s outer atmosphere remains poorly understood. This is due in large part to the fact that the magnetic field is a very difficult quantity to measure. Our knowledge of its strength and

  18. Plasma Compression in Magnetic Reconnection Regions in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Provornikova, E.; Laming, J. M.; Lukin, V. S.

    2016-07-01

    It has been proposed that particles bouncing between magnetized flows converging in a reconnection region can be accelerated by the first-order Fermi mechanism. Analytical considerations of this mechanism have shown that the spectral index of accelerated particles is related to the total plasma compression within the reconnection region, similarly to the case of the diffusive shock acceleration mechanism. As a first step to investigate the efficiency of Fermi acceleration in reconnection regions in producing hard energy spectra of particles in the solar corona, we explore the degree of plasma compression that can be achieved at reconnection sites. In particular, we aim to determine the conditions for the strong compressions to form. Using a two-dimensional resistive MHD numerical model, we consider a set of magnetic field configurations where magnetic reconnection can occur, including a Harris current sheet, a force-free current sheet, and two merging flux ropes. Plasma parameters are taken to be characteristic of the solar corona. Numerical simulations show that strong plasma compressions (≥4) in the reconnection regions can form when the plasma heating due to reconnection is efficiently removed by fast thermal conduction or the radiative cooling process. The radiative cooling process that is negligible in the typical 1 MK corona can play an important role in the low corona/transition region. It is found that plasma compression is expected to be strongest in low-beta plasma β ˜ 0.01–0.07 at reconnection magnetic nulls.

  19. Solar wind Acceleration from the Upper Chromosphere to the Corona in Coronal Hole Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esser, Ruth

    1998-01-01

    The dynamic behavior of the plasma in the chromosphere/transition region /inner corona is vital for the acceleration of the solar wind. With new theoretical descriptions of the solar atmosphere and corona, and the increased observational possibilities provided by the SOHO spacecraft, it is possible to conduct an integrated study of the solar atmosphere and corona using observational and theoretical approaches. Over the past few years a series of observational techniques have been used to estimate the solar wind densities, temperatures and flow speed in the inner corona. These estimates suggest that the solar wind has higher outflow speeds in the inner corona and lower densities than previously assumed. A comparison with densities derived from atmospheric models support these lower densities.

  20. The structure and heating of the chromosphere-corona transition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, R. L.

    1972-01-01

    The structure and heating (or energy balance) of the transition region and the role of the transition region in the structure and heating of the solar atmosphere as a whole are investigated. The features of the structure of the atmosphere and radiative energy losses of the atmosphere are summarized. A static, planar model of the solar temperature which has a temperature profile representative of the actual solar atmosphere is considered. Then a static, planar model of the transition region which is heated by thermal conduction from the corona and cooled by radiative losses is developed. A general conclusion is that the temperature profile of the transition region and lower corona results primarily from the energy balance of the corona, while the number density is determined by the energy balance of the transition region.

  1. Solar Wind Acceleration from the Upper Chromosphere to the Corona in Coronal Hole Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esser, Ruth

    1999-01-01

    Flow speeds derived in recent years from chromospheric/transition region and coronal observations suggest that the solar wind acceleration process might start at heights in the solar atmosphere much lower than previously imagined. The goal of the proposed investigation was to study atmospheric outflows in coronal hole regions from the chromosphere into the corona using observational and theoretical approaches. In addition to outflows, other plasma properties such as electron densities, and electron and ion temperatures were also included in the study. To investigate these plasma properties in the inner corona is important as they play a crucial role in placing limits on possible coronal heating and solar wind acceleration mechanisms.

  2. Coronae of Mnemosyne Regio - Morphology and origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stofan, E. R.; Head, J. W.

    1990-01-01

    The Mnemosine Regio area of Venus contains seven of the circular-to-elliptical structures, characterized by an annulus of concentric ridges, that are known as 'coronae'. Several corona-origin models are presently considered, and it is found that the processes associated with diapirism or hot-spots, and the gravitational relaxation of high topography, are most consistent with the topography and morphology of these coronae. The sequence of the formation and evolution of the coronae proceeds from regional volcanic and tectonic activity, through localized uplift and volcanism, to annulus and trough formation related to gravitational relaxation, and finally local volcanic flooding of the corona, annulus, and trough.

  3. Predicting Cell Association of Surface-Modified Nanoparticles Using Protein Corona Structure - Activity Relationships (PCSAR).

    PubMed

    Kamath, Padmaja; Fernandez, Alberto; Giralt, Francesc; Rallo, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Nanoparticles are likely to interact in real-case application scenarios with mixtures of proteins and biomolecules that will absorb onto their surface forming the so-called protein corona. Information related to the composition of the protein corona and net cell association was collected from literature for a library of surface-modified gold and silver nanoparticles. For each protein in the corona, sequence information was extracted and used to calculate physicochemical properties and statistical descriptors. Data cleaning and preprocessing techniques including statistical analysis and feature selection methods were applied to remove highly correlated, redundant and non-significant features. A weighting technique was applied to construct specific signatures that represent the corona composition for each nanoparticle. Using this basic set of protein descriptors, a new Protein Corona Structure-Activity Relationship (PCSAR) that relates net cell association with the physicochemical descriptors of the proteins that form the corona was developed and validated. The features that resulted from the feature selection were in line with already published literature, and the computational model constructed on these features had a good accuracy (R(2)LOO=0.76 and R(2)LMO(25%)=0.72) and stability, with the advantage that the fingerprints based on physicochemical descriptors were independent of the specific proteins that form the corona.

  4. Magnetic helicity in emerging solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Bobra, M.; Hayashi, K.; Sun, X.; Schuck, P. W.

    2014-04-10

    Using vector magnetic field data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we study magnetic helicity injection into the corona in emerging active regions (ARs) and examine the hemispheric helicity rule. In every region studied, photospheric shearing motion contributes most of the helicity accumulated in the corona. In a sample of 28 emerging ARs, 17 follow the hemisphere rule (61% ± 18% at a 95% confidence interval). Magnetic helicity and twist in 25 ARs (89% ± 11%) have the same sign. The maximum magnetic twist, which depends on the size of an AR, is inferred in a sample of 23 emerging ARs with a bipolar magnetic field configuration.

  5. Combined Radio and X-ray Diagnostics of Electron Acceleration Region in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, H.; Vilmer, N.; Kontar, E. P.

    2010-12-01

    Solar flares are believed to accelerate both upward and downward propagating electron beams which can radiate emission at radio and X-ray wavelengths correspondingly. The correlation between X-ray and radio emissions in a well observed solar flare allowed us detailed study of the electron acceleration region properties. We used the Nancey Radioheliograph, Phoenix-2 and RHESSI to infer the type III position, type III starting frequency and spectral index of the HXR emission respectively. Using these datasets, we were able to infer not only the location (the height in the corona), but to estimate the spatial size of the electron acceleration site. Using numerical simulations of the electron transport of the electron beam in the corona plasma to relate X-ray and radio data, we find that the spatial size of 10 Mm at an altitude of 50 Mm above the photosphere are consistent with the observations.

  6. Outflowing X-ray corona in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junxian; Liu, Teng; Yang, Huan; Zhu, Feifan; Zhou, Youyuan

    2015-08-01

    Hard X-ray emission in radio-quiet AGNs is believed to be produced via inverse Compton scattering by hot and compact corona near the super massive black hole. However the origin and physical properties of the coronae, including geometry, kinematics and dynamics, yet remain poorly known. Taking [OIV] 25.89um emission line as an isotropic indicator of AGN's intrinsic luminosity, we compare the intrinsic corona X-ray emission between Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies, which are viewed at different inclinations according to the unification scheme. We find that Seyfert 1 galaxies are brighter in "absorption-corrected" 2-10 keV emission by a factor of ~2.8, comparing with Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies. The Seyfert 1 and Compton-thin Seyfert 2 galaxies follow a statistically identical correlation between the absorption-corrected 2-10 keV luminosity and the SWIFT BAT 14-195 keV luminosity, indicating that our absorption correction to the 2-10 keV flux is sufficient. The difference between the two populations thus can not be attributed to X-ray absorption, and instead implies an intrinsic anisotropy in the corona X-ray emission. This striking anisotropy of X-ray emission can be explained by a bipolar outflowing corona with a bulk velocity of ~0.3-0.5c. This would provide a natural link between the so-called coronae and weak jets in these systems. We also show that how this study would affect our understanding to the nature of mid-infrared emission in AGNs and the properties of dusty torus. Furthermore, such anisotropy implies that, contrary to previous understanding based on the assumption of isotropic corona emission, hard X-ray AGN surveys are biased against type 2 AGNs even after absorption-correction, and careful correction for this effect is required to measure the obscured fraction from X-ray surveys. Other interesting consequences of this discovery will also be discussed.

  7. An Unbiased Census of Weak Herbig-Haro Flows in the R Corona Australis Star Forming Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quick, Lynnae C.; Roberge, A.; Weinberger, A. J.

    2007-12-01

    Bipolar outflows are produced by protostars as they draw gas from surrounding accretion disks. As these outflows collide with the interstellar medium, bow shocks are produced, giving rise to Herbig-Haro knots. A Herbig-Haro flow is a sign that active accretion is occurring in a protostellar system. In an effort to constrain the time available for giant planet formation in gas- rich disks, we seek to find weak Herbig-Haro flows by sensitively mapping the entire R Corona Australis star forming region. Between ≤ 1 and 6 Myrs old (Neuhäuser et al. 2000), and located approximately 129±11pc away (Casey et al. 1998), the R Corona Australis region is home to approximately 50 young stars (Neuhäuser et al. 2000). We have imaged this region in the near-IR using a narrow band H2 S(1) filter that isolates emission from the ν=1, J=3 level of H2 at 2.12 μm. We will present preliminary results of this analysis.

  8. High Spatial Resolution Observations of Two Young Protostars in the R Corona Australis Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Groppi, Christopher E.; Hunter, Todd R.; Blundell, Raymond; Sandell, Göran

    2007-11-01

    We present multiwavelength, high spatial resolution imaging of the IRS 7 region in the R Corona Australis molecular cloud. Our observations include 1.1 mm continuum and HCO+ J=3-->2 images from the Submillimeter Array (SMA), 12CO J=3-->2 outflow maps from the DesertStar heterodyne array receiver on the Heinrich Hertz Telescope (HHT), 450 and 850 μm continuum images from SCUBA, and archival Spitzer IRAC and MIPS 24 μm images. The accurate astrometry of the IRAC images allow us to identify IRS 7 with the centimeter source VLA 10W (IRS 7A) and the X-ray source XW. The SMA 1.1 mm image reveals two compact continuum sources that are also distinguishable at 450 μm. SMA 1 coincides with X-ray source CXOU J190156.4-365728 and VLA centimeter source 10E (IRS 7B) and is seen in the IRAC and MIPS images. SMA 2 has no infrared counterpart but coincides with centimeter source VLA 9. Spectral energy distributions constructed from SMA, SCUBA, and Spitzer data yield bolometric temperatures of 83 K for SMA 1 and <=70 K for SMA 2. These temperatures along with the submillimeter to total luminosity ratios indicate that SMA 2 is a Class 0 protostar, while SMA 1 is a Class 0/Class I transitional object (L=17+/-6 Lsolar). The 12CO J=3-->2 outflow map shows one major and possibly several smaller outflows centered on the IRS 7 region, with masses and energetics consistent with previous work. We identify the Class 0 source SMA 2/VLA 9 as the main driver of this outflow. The complex and clumpy spatial and velocity distribution of the HCO+ J=3-->2 emission is not consistent with either bulk rotation, or any known molecular outflow activity.

  9. Fine thermal structure of a coronal active region.

    PubMed

    Reale, Fabio; Parenti, Susanna; Reeves, Kathy K; Weber, Mark; Bobra, Monica G; Barbera, Marco; Kano, Ryouhei; Narukage, Noriyuki; Shimojo, Masumi; Sakao, Taro; Peres, Giovanni; Golub, Leon

    2007-12-01

    The determination of the fine thermal structure of the solar corona is fundamental to constraining the coronal heating mechanisms. The Hinode X-ray Telescope collected images of the solar corona in different passbands, thus providing temperature diagnostics through energy ratios. By combining different filters to optimize the signal-to-noise ratio, we observed a coronal active region in five filters, revealing a highly thermally structured corona: very fine structures in the core of the region and on a larger scale further away. We observed continuous thermal distribution along the coronal loops, as well as entangled structures, and variations of thermal structuring along the line of sight.

  10. Active region flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foukal, Peter

    1987-01-01

    A wide range of observations has shown that active region phenomena in the photospheric, chromospheric and coronal temperature regimes are dynamical in nature. At the photosphere, recent observations of full line profiles place an upper limit of about + or - 20/msec on any downflows at supergranule cell edges. Observations of the full Stokes 5 profiles in the network show no evidence for downflows in magnetic flux tubes. In the area of chromospheric dynamics, several models were put forward recently to reproduce the observed behavior of spicules. However, it is pointed out that these adiabatic models do not include the powerful radiative dissipation which tend to damp out the large amplitude disturbances that produce the spicular acceleration in the models. In the corona, loop flows along field lines clearly transport mass and energy at rates important for the dynamics of these structures. However, advances in understanding the heating and mass balance of the loop structures seem to require new kinds of observations. Some results are presented using a remote sensing diagnostic of the intensity and orientation of macroscopic plasma electric fields predicted by models of reconnective heating and also wave heating.

  11. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  12. Joint observations of the chromosphere, transition region, and corona from SOHO and NSO/Kitt Peak

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Harrison P.; Harvey, John W.; Andretta, Vincenzo

    1994-01-01

    The ground-based observing facilities of the National Solar Observatory (NSO) are reviewed from the perspective of joint observations with SOHO. A specific proposal is presented for observations of the HE-I 1083.0 nm line with the NASA/NSO spectromagnetograph and He 10830 video filtergraph/magnetograph in coordination with ultraviolet sensitive instruments on SOHO. The first task will be to look for associations of low-temperature transition-region lines with He 1083 nm absorption to investigate Andretta's conjecture, i.e. that the He 1083 nm line is formed in two layers where extreme ultraviolet radiation produced both in the low-temperature transition region (the upper layer) and in the surrounding corona products - a lower layer of absorption in the upper chromosphere.

  13. MHD seismology as a tool to diagnose the coronae of X-ray active sun-like flaring stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Srivastava, A. K.; Lalitha, Sairam

    It is now well accepted that the detection of impulsively generated multiple MHD modes are potentially used in diagnosing the local plasma conditions of the solar corona. Analogously, such analyses can also be significantly used in diagnosing the coronae of X-ray active Sun-like stars. In the present paper, we briefly review the detection of MHD modes in coronae of some X-ray active Sun-like stars, e.g. Proxima Centauri, ξ-Boo etc using XMM-Newton observations, and discuss the implications in deriving physical information about their localized magnetic atmosphere. We conclude that the refinement in the MHD seismology of solar corona is also providing the best analogy to develop the stellar seismology of magnetically active and flaring Sun-like stars to deduce the local physical conditions of their coronae.

  14. Solar activity and its evolution across the corona: recent advances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuccarello, Francesca; Balmaceda, Laura; Cessateur, Gael; Cremades, Hebe; Guglielmino, Salvatore L.; Lilensten, Jean; Dudok de Wit, Thierry; Kretzschmar, Matthieu; Lopez, Fernando M.; Mierla, Marilena; Parenti, Susanna; Pomoell, Jens; Romano, Paolo; Rodriguez, Luciano; Srivastava, Nandita; Vainio, Rami; West, Matt; Zuccarello, Francesco P.

    2013-04-01

    Solar magnetism is responsible for the several active phenomena that occur in the solar atmosphere. The consequences of these phenomena on the solar-terrestrial environment and on Space Weather are nowadays clearly recognized, even if not yet fully understood. In order to shed light on the mechanisms that are at the basis of the Space Weather, it is necessary to investigate the sequence of phenomena starting in the solar atmosphere and developing across the outer layers of the Sun and along the path from the Sun to the Earth. This goal can be reached by a combined multi-disciplinary, multi-instrument, multi-wavelength study of these phenomena, starting with the very first manifestation of solar active region formation and evolution, followed by explosive phenomena (i.e., flares, erupting prominences, coronal mass ejections), and ending with the interaction of plasma magnetized clouds expelled from the Sun with the interplanetary magnetic field and medium. This wide field of research constitutes one of the main aims of COST Action ES0803: Developing Space Weather products and services in Europe. In particular, one of the tasks of this COST Action was to investigate the Progress in Scientific Understanding of Space Weather. In this paper we review the state of the art of our comprehension of some phenomena that, in the scenario outlined above, might have a role on Space Weather, focusing on the researches, thematic reviews, and main results obtained during the COST Action ES0803.

  15. Parga Chasma: Coronae and Rifting on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smrekar, S. E.; Stofan, E. R.; Buck, W. R.; Martin, P.

    2005-01-01

    The majority of coronae (quasicircular volcano-tectonic features) are found along rifts or fracture belts, and the majority of rifts have coronae [e.g. 1,2]. However, the relationship between coronae and rifts remains unclear [3-6]. There is evidence that coronae can form before, after, or synchronously with rifts [3,4]. The extensional fractures in the rift zones have been proposed to be a result of broad scale upwelling and traction on the lower lithosphere [7]. However, not all rift systems have a significant positive geoid anomaly, as would be expected for an upwelling site [8]. This could be explained if the rifts lacking anomalies are no longer active. Coronae are generally accepted to be sites of local upwelling [e.g. 1], but the observed rifting is frequently not radial to the coronae and extends well beyond the coronae into the surrounding plains. Thus the question remains as to whether the rifts represent regional extension, perhaps driven by mantle tractions, or if the coronae themselves create local thinning and extension of the lithosphere. In the first case, a regional extension model should be consistent with the observed characteristics of the rifts. In the latter case, a model of lithospheric loading and fracturing would be more appropriate. A good analogy may be the propagation of oceanic intraplate volcanoes [9].

  16. The Coronal Global Evolutionary Model (CGEM): Toward Routine, Time-Dependent, Data-Driven Modeling of the Active Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Welsch, Brian T.; Cheung, Mark CM; Fisher, George H.; Kazachenko, Maria D.; Sun, Xudong

    2015-04-01

    The Coronal Global Evolutionary Model (CGEM) is a model for the evolution of the magnetic field in the solar corona, driven using photospheric vector magnetic field and Doppler measurements by the HMI instrument on NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory. Over days-long time scales, the coronal magnetic field configuration is determined quasi-statically using magnetofrictional relaxation. For a configuration that becomes unstable and erupts or undergoes rapid evolution, we can use the magnetofrictional configuration as the initial state for MHD simulations. The model will be run in both global configurations, covering the entire Sun, and local configurations, designed to model the evolution of the corona above active regions. The model uses spherical coordinates to realistically treat the large-scale coronal geometry. The CGEM project also includes the dissemination of other information derivable from HMI magnetogram data, such as (i) vertical and horizontal Lorentz forces computed over active region domains, to facilitate easier comparisons of flare/CME behavior and observed changes of the photospheric magnetic field, and (ii) estimates of the photospheric electric field and Poynting flux. We describe progress that we have made in development of both the coronal model and its input data, and discuss magnetic evolution in (i) the well-studied NOAA AR 11158 around the time of the 2011 February 15 X2.2 flare, and (ii) AR 11944 around the time of the 2014 January 7 X1.2 flare.

  17. The temperature and density structure in the closed field regions of the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, J. F.; Sukhorukova, G. V.; Axford, W. I.

    1999-10-01

    In this paper we study the temperature and density structure in the closed field region of the solar corona using a dipole plus current sheet model to simulate the global solar magnetic field and a heating function of the same type used in models of the fast wind. The heat equation, describing the redistributing effects of heat conduction on the heat input in the presence of radiative losses, is solved simultaneously with hydrostatic pressure balance. At the base we prescribe the temperature and assume that the heat flux is zero there. We also insist that the heat flux is zero at the equator. This ensures that whatever heat has been added is radiated away. From the mathematical viewpoint this additional requirement sets up an eigenvalue problem which implies that the density at the base must be chosen in just the right way to fulfill the condition of zero heat flux at the equator. Thus our model not only provides the temperature and density structure in the closed regions of a global solar magnetic field appropriate to solar minimum but also predicts the latitudinal variation of the base density whose characteristic value is determined by the ratio of the amplitudes of the heating to the cooling. However it should be stressed that this last prediction represents, at best, an approximation to the real stale of affairs which is more complex and involves the connection of the coronal field lines to the magnetic funnels of the chromospheric network.

  18. Far-infrared observations of a star-forming region in the Corona Australis dark cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cruz-Gonzalez, I.; Mcbreen, B.; Fazio, G. G.

    1984-01-01

    A high-resolution far-IR (40-250-micron) survey of a 0.9-sq-deg section of the core region of the Corona Australis dark cloud (containing very young stellar objects such as T Tauri stars, Herbig Ae and Be stars, Herbig-Haro objects, and compact H II regions) is presented. Two extended far-IR sources were found, one associated with the Herbig emission-line star R CrA and the other with the irregular emission-line variable star TY CrA. The two sources have substantially more far-IR radiation than could be expected from a blackbody extrapolation of their near-IR fluxes. The total luminosities of these sources are 145 and 58 solar luminosity, respectively, implying that the embedded objects are of intermediate or low mass. The infrared observations of the sources associated with R CrA and TY CrA are consistent with models of the evolution of protostellar envelopes of intermediate mass. However, the TY CrA source appears to have passed the evolutionary stage of expelling most of the hot dust near the central source, yielding an age of about 1 Myr.

  19. Evolution of active region outflows throughout an active region lifetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zangrilli, L.; Poletto, G.

    2016-10-01

    Context. We have shown previously that SOHO/UVCS data allow us to detect active region (AR) outflows at coronal altitudes higher than those reached by other instrumentation. These outflows are thought to be a component of the slow solar wind. Aims: Our purpose is to study the evolution of the outflows in the intermediate corona from AR 8100, from the time the AR first forms until it dissolves, after several transits at the solar limb. Methods: Data acquired by SOHO/UVCS at the time of the AR limb transits, at medium latitudes and at altitudes ranging from 1.5 to 2.3 R⊙, were used to infer the physical properties of the outflows through the AR evolution. To this end, we applied the Doppler dimming technique to UVCS spectra. These spectra include the H i Lyα line and the O vi doublet lines at 1031.9 and 1037.6 Å. Results: Plasma speeds and electron densities of the outflows were inferred over several rotations of the Sun. AR outflows are present in the newly born AR and persist throughout the entire AR life. Moreover, we found two types of outflows at different latitudes, both possibly originating in the same negative polarity area of the AR. We also analyzed the behavior of the Si xii 520 Å line along the UVCS slit in an attempt to reveal changes in the Si abundance when different regions are traversed. Although we found some evidence for a Si enrichment in the AR outflows, alternative interpretations are also plausible. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that outflows from ARs are detectable in the intermediate corona throughout the whole AR lifetime. This confirms that outflows contribute to the slow wind.

  20. Systematic radial flows in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona of the quiet sun

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, Donald M.; Rottman, Gary J.; Orrall, Frank Q.

    1991-05-01

    An observational study of the systematic radial flows representative of the quiet sun's chromosphere, transition region, and corona is presented. A sounding rocket experiment (July 27, 1987) obtained high-resolution EUV spectra along a solar diameter with spatial resolution of 20 x 20 arcsec. The center-to-limb behavior of four representative lines (Si II 1533 A, Fe II 1563 A, C IV 1548 A, Ne VIII 770 A formed at different heights in the solar atmosphere is discussed. Assuming that horizontal motions cancel statistically so that the line-of-sight velocity approaches zero at the limb, the net radial downflow is approximately 7.5 + or - 1.0 km/s for C IV, 2.7 + or - 1.5 km/s for Fe II 1563 A, and upper limits of 0 + or - 1.2 km/s and 0 + or - 4 km/s for Si II and Ne VIII, respectively. The absolute wavelengths of each emission line were determined by direct comparison with wavelengths of known platinum lines generated by an inflight calibration lamp. The assumption of line-of-sight velocity approaching zero at the limb is then tested by comparing the wavelengths with recently published laboratory rest wavelengths of the solar emission lines.

  1. Imaging observation of quasi-periodic disturbances' amplitudes increasing with height in the polar region of the solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    Su, J. T.; Priya, T. G.; Liu, Y.; Shen, Y. D.

    2014-08-01

    At present, there have been few extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging observations of spatial variations of the density perturbations due to the slow magnetoacoustic waves (SMWs) propagating along the solar coronal magnetic fields. In this paper, we present such observations taken from the polar region of the corona with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and investigate the amplitude of quasi-periodic propagating disturbances that increase with height in the lower corona (0-9 Mm over the solar limb). We statistically determined the following parameters associated with the disturbances: pressure scale height, period, and wavelength in AIA 171 Å, 193 Å, and 211 Å channels. The scale height and wavelength are dependent of temperature, while the period is independent of temperature. The acoustic velocities inferred from the scale height highly correlate with the ratios of wavelength to period, i.e., phase speeds. They provide evidence that the propagating disturbances in the lower corona are likely SMWs and the spatial variations in EUV intensity in the polar region likely reflects the density compressional effect by the propagating SMWs.

  2. Detection of EUV emission from the low activity dwarf HD 4628: Evidence for a cool corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mathioudakis, M.; Drake, J. J.; Vedder, P. W.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Bowyer, S

    1994-01-01

    We present observations of low activity late-type stars obtained with the Extreme Ultraviolet Explorer (EUVE). These stars are the slowest rotators, and acoustic heating may dominate their outer atmospheric heating process. We report detection of EUV emission from the low acitivity K dwarf HD 4628 during the EUVE Deep Survey in the Lexan/boran band. This detection, in conjunction with the non-detection of this object in the ROSAT Position Sensitive Proportional Counter (PSPC) all-sky survey, suggests the existence of a cool corona with a characteristic temperature of less than 10(exp 6) K. The flux and spectral signature are consistent with current theories of acoustic heating.

  3. Bypassing Protein Corona Issue on Active Targeting: Zwitterionic Coatings Dictate Specific Interactions of Targeting Moieties and Cell Receptors.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Sohi, Reihaneh; Maghari, Shokoofeh; Raoufi, Mohammad; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Hajipour, Mohammad J; Ghassempour, Alireza; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-09-01

    Surface functionalization strategies for targeting nanoparticles (NP) to specific organs, cells, or organelles, is the foundation for new applications of nanomedicine to drug delivery and biomedical imaging. Interaction of NPs with biological media leads to the formation of a biomolecular layer at the surface of NPs so-called as "protein corona". This corona layer can shield active molecules at the surface of NPs and cause mistargeting or unintended scavenging by the liver, kidney, or spleen. To overcome this corona issue, we have designed biotin-cysteine conjugated silica NPs (biotin was employed as a targeting molecule and cysteine was used as a zwitterionic ligand) to inhibit corona-induced mistargeting and thus significantly enhance the active targeting capability of NPs in complex biological media. To probe the targeting yield of our engineered NPs, we employed both modified silicon wafer substrates with streptavidin (i.e., biotin receptor) to simulate a target and a cell-based model platform using tumor cell lines that overexpress biotin receptors. In both cases, after incubation with human plasma (thus forming a protein corona), cellular uptake/substrate attachment of the targeted NPs with zwitterionic coatings were significantly higher than the same NPs without zwitterionic coating. Our results demonstrated that NPs with a zwitterionic surface can considerably facilitate targeting yield of NPs and provide a promising new type of nanocarriers in biological applications.

  4. Bypassing Protein Corona Issue on Active Targeting: Zwitterionic Coatings Dictate Specific Interactions of Targeting Moieties and Cell Receptors.

    PubMed

    Safavi-Sohi, Reihaneh; Maghari, Shokoofeh; Raoufi, Mohammad; Jalali, Seyed Amir; Hajipour, Mohammad J; Ghassempour, Alireza; Mahmoudi, Morteza

    2016-09-01

    Surface functionalization strategies for targeting nanoparticles (NP) to specific organs, cells, or organelles, is the foundation for new applications of nanomedicine to drug delivery and biomedical imaging. Interaction of NPs with biological media leads to the formation of a biomolecular layer at the surface of NPs so-called as "protein corona". This corona layer can shield active molecules at the surface of NPs and cause mistargeting or unintended scavenging by the liver, kidney, or spleen. To overcome this corona issue, we have designed biotin-cysteine conjugated silica NPs (biotin was employed as a targeting molecule and cysteine was used as a zwitterionic ligand) to inhibit corona-induced mistargeting and thus significantly enhance the active targeting capability of NPs in complex biological media. To probe the targeting yield of our engineered NPs, we employed both modified silicon wafer substrates with streptavidin (i.e., biotin receptor) to simulate a target and a cell-based model platform using tumor cell lines that overexpress biotin receptors. In both cases, after incubation with human plasma (thus forming a protein corona), cellular uptake/substrate attachment of the targeted NPs with zwitterionic coatings were significantly higher than the same NPs without zwitterionic coating. Our results demonstrated that NPs with a zwitterionic surface can considerably facilitate targeting yield of NPs and provide a promising new type of nanocarriers in biological applications. PMID:27526263

  5. Mapping the Solar Wind from its Source Region into the Outer Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esser, Ruth; Wagner, William J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    The solar wind not only forms the space environment of Earth and other planets, but is also the cause of many phenomena observed in the Earth's atmosphere, such as aurorae. The expansion of the coronal plasma of the Sun is characteristic to many main sequence stars, and thus provides an example for understanding stellar winds as well. In spite of its importance for both space science and stellar physics, basic solar wind properties remain essentially unresolved. Since its discovery about 50 years ago, the complexity of the Sun corona - solar wind system has complicated the interpretation of observations. Recent progress in remote sensing observations as provided for example by YOHKOH, SOHO, SPARTAN and ULYSSES as well as some ground based techniques such as Interplanetary Scintillation observations, offer a compelling opportunity to unravel the 50 year old puzzle regarding the heat source or sources that cause the expansion of the solar corona. The new era of solar wind observations initiated by SOHO and ULYSSES, have also led to a wealth of new theoretical approaches. The goal of the proposed research was to carry out an integrated study of the coronal and solar wind plasma making use of the opportunities provided by the above spacecraft, as well as plasma emission calculations and new ideas on solar wind expansion theory.

  6. Interchange Reconnection and Slow Solar Wind Formation at the boundaries of open field regions in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M.

    2014-12-01

    Interchange reconnection, i.e., magnetic reconnection at the interface between open and closed corona, is thought to contribute to the formation of the slowsolar wind, since it can inject the hotter and denserplasma from closed regions into the heliosphere,and account for the different slow wind composition (thatis similar to the plasma of closed regions) respectto the fast wind. The interchange process has mostly been investigatedfor magnetic field lines with opposite polarity and null points, either for the case of counterdirected loops (e.g., Fisk et al. 1999, Fisk and Schwadron 2001), or in correspondence of null points at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers (e.g., Wang et al. 1998,Edmondson et al. 2010, Del Zanna et al. 2011).Magnetic reconnection can certainly occur in these configurations,but they occupy a very small volume of the corona. On the other hand component magnetic reconnection at the boundarybetween coronal holes and streamers or pseudo-streamers hasreceived less attention, even though it can occur aroundthe entire extension of such boundaries. Magnetic reconnection is at the basis of Parker'snanoflare scenario for the heating of coronal loops.Modeling such regions in cartesian geometry with a strongguide field, it has been shown numerically that photosphericmotions induce a magnetic fieldcomponent orthogonal to the strong axial field characterizedby the presence of many current sheets, where the field lines are locally oppositely directed, and can reconnect (Einaudi et al. 1996; Dmitruk and Gomez 1997).The reconnection of the orthogonal component of the magneticfield leads to a change of connectivity of the field linesof the total magnetic field that connect one photospheric boundaryto the other. We have shown that a similar interchange mechanismcan operate in and around the boundaries between open and closedregions inducing a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivityeverywhere along the open-closed boundary (Rappazzo et al. 2012

  7. IS ACTIVE REGION CORE VARIABILITY AGE DEPENDENT?

    SciTech Connect

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry P.

    2012-12-10

    The presence of both steady and transient loops in active region cores has been reported from soft X-ray and extreme-ultraviolet observations of the solar corona. The relationship between the different loop populations, however, remains an open question. We present an investigation of the short-term variability of loops in the core of two active regions in the context of their long-term evolution. We take advantage of the nearly full Sun observations of STEREO and Solar Dynamics Observatory spacecraft to track these active regions as they rotate around the Sun multiple times. We then diagnose the variability of the active region cores at several instances of their lifetime using EIS/Hinode spectral capabilities. We inspect a broad range of temperatures, including for the first time spatially and temporally resolved images of Ca XIV and Ca XV lines. We find that the active region cores become fainter and steadier with time. The significant emission measure at high temperatures that is not correlated with a comparable increase at low temperatures suggests that high-frequency heating is viable. The presence, however, during the early stages, of an enhanced emission measure in the ''hot'' (3.0-4.5 MK) and ''cool'' (0.6-0.9 MK) components suggests that low-frequency heating also plays a significant role. Our results explain why there have been recent studies supporting both heating scenarios.

  8. Semi-empirical Modeling of the Photosphere, Chromosphere, Transition Region, and Corona of the M-dwarf Host Star GJ 832

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fontenla, J. M.; Linsky, Jeffrey L.; Witbrod, Jesse; France, Kevin; Buccino, A.; Mauas, Pablo; Vieytes, Mariela; Walkowicz, Lucianne M.

    2016-10-01

    Stellar radiation from X-rays to the visible provides the energy that controls the photochemistry and mass loss from exoplanet atmospheres. The important extreme ultraviolet (EUV) region (10–91.2 nm) is inaccessible and should be computed from a reliable stellar model. It is essential to understand the formation regions and physical processes responsible for the various stellar emission features to predict how the spectral energy distribution varies with age and activity levels. We compute a state-of-the-art semi-empirical atmospheric model and the emergent high-resolution synthetic spectrum of the moderately active M2 V star GJ 832 as the first of a series of models for stars with different activity levels. We construct a one-dimensional simple model for the physical structure of the star’s chromosphere, chromosphere-corona transition region, and corona using non-LTE radiative transfer techniques and many molecular lines. The synthesized spectrum for this model fits the continuum and lines across the UV-to-optical spectrum. Particular emphasis is given to the emission lines at wavelengths that are shorter than 300 nm observed with the Hubble Space Telescope, which have important effects on the photochemistry of the exoplanet atmospheres. The FUV line ratios indicate that the transition region of GJ 832 is more biased to hotter material than that of the quiet Sun. The excellent agreement of our computed EUV luminosity with that obtained by two other techniques indicates that our model predicts reliable EUV emission from GJ 832. We find that the unobserved EUV flux of GJ 832, which heats the outer atmospheres of exoplanets and drives their mass loss, is comparable to the active Sun. Based on observations made with the NASA/ESA Hubble Space Telescope obtained from the Data Archive at the Space Telescope Science Institute, which is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc., under NASA contract NAS AR-09525.01A. These observations

  9. The energy input mechanism into the lower transition regions between stellar chromospheres and coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Boehm-Vitense, Erika

    1988-01-01

    The ratio of the emission line fluxes for the C II and C IV lines in the lower transition regions (T = 30,000 to 100,000 K) between stellar chromospheres and transition layers is shown to depend mainly on the temperature gradient in the line emitting regions which can therefore be determined from this line ratio. From the observed constant (within the limits of observational error) ratio of the emission line fluxes of the C II (1335 A) and C IV (1550 A) lines it is concluded that the temperature gradients in the lower transition layers are similar for the large majority of stars independently of T sub eff, L, and degree of activity. This means that the temperature dependence of the damping length for the mechanical flux must be the same for all these stars. Since for different kinds of mechanical fluxes the dependence of the damping length on gas pressure and temperature is quite different, it is concluded that the same heating mechanism must be responsible for the heating of all the lower transition layers of these stars, regardless of their chromospheric activity. Only the amount of mechanical flux changes. The T Tauri stars are exceptions: their emission lines are probably mainly due to circumstellar material.

  10. VVER Knowledge Preservation and Transfer within the Frame of CORONA Project Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitev, Mladen; Corniani, Enrico; Manolova, Maria; Pironkov, Lybomir; Tsvetkov, Iskren

    2016-02-01

    The CORONA project is funded by the European Commission under the FP7 programme with overall objective to establish a Regional Centre of Competence for VVER Technology and Nuclear Applications. The Centre will provide support and services for preservation and transfer of VVER-related nuclear knowledge as well as know-how and capacity building. Specific training schemes aimed at nuclear professionals and researchers, non-nuclear professionals and students are developed and implemented in cooperation with local, national and international training and educational institutions. Pilot trainings are executed for each specific target group to assess the applicability of the training materials. The training scheme implemented for nuclear professionals and researchers is focussed on the NPP Lifetime Management. The available knowledge on enhancing safety and performance of nuclear installations with VVER technology is used in the preparation of the training materials. The Online Multimedia Training Course on VVER Reactor Pressure Vessel Embrittlement and Integrity Assessment, developed by the joint effort of JRC-IET and IAEA is used in the training. The outcome collected from the trainees showed that the tool meets its primary goal of consolidating the existing knowledge on the VVER RPV Embrittlement and Integrity Assessment, provides adequate ground for transfer of this knowledge.

  11. THE STRUCTURE AND SPECTRAL FEATURES OF A THIN DISK AND EVAPORATION-FED CORONA IN HIGH-LUMINOSITY ACTIVE GALACTIC NUCLEI

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, J. Y.; Mineshige, S. E-mail: bfliu@nao.cas.cn

    2012-08-01

    We investigate the accretion process in high-luminosity active galactic nuclei (HLAGNs) in the scenario of the disk evaporation model. Based on this model, the thin disk can extend down to the innermost stable circular orbit (ISCO) at accretion rates higher than 0.02 M-dot{sub Edd} while the corona is weak since part of the coronal gas is cooled by strong inverse Compton scattering of the disk photons. This implies that the corona cannot produce as strong X-ray radiation as observed in HLAGNs with large Eddington ratio. In addition to the viscous heating, other heating to the corona is necessary to interpret HLAGN. In this paper, we assume that a part of accretion energy released in the disk is transported into the corona, heating up the electrons, and is thereby radiated away. For the first time, we compute the corona structure with additional heating, fully taking into account the mass supply to the corona, and find that the corona could indeed survive at higher accretion rates and that its radiation power increases. The spectra composed of bremsstrahlung and Compton radiation are also calculated. Our calculations show that the Compton-dominated spectrum becomes harder with the increase of energy fraction (f) liberating in the corona, and the photon index for hard X-ray (2-10 keV) is 2.2 < {Gamma} < 2.7. We discuss possible heating mechanisms for the corona. Combining the energy fraction transported to the corona with the accretion rate by magnetic heating, we find that the hard X-ray spectrum becomes steeper at a larger accretion rate and the bolometric correction factor (L{sub bol}/L{sub 2-10keV}) increases with increasing accretion rate for f < 8/35, which is roughly consistent with the observational results.

  12. Solar Eruptions Initiated in Sigmoidal Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savcheva, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    active regions that have been shown to possess high probability for eruption. They present a direct evidence of the existence of flux ropes in the corona prior to the impulsive phase of eruptions. In order to gain insight into their eruptive behavior and how they get destabilized we need to know their 3D magnetic field structure. First, we review some recent observations and modeling of sigmoidal active regions as the primary hosts of solar eruptions, which can also be used as useful laboratories for studying these phenomena. Then, we concentrate on the analysis of observations and highly data-constrained non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) models over the lifetime of several sigmoidal active regions, where we have captured their magnetic field structure around the times of major flares. We present the topology analysis of a couple of sigmoidal regions pointing us to the probable sites of reconnection. A scenario for eruption is put forward by this analysis. We demonstrate the use of this topology analysis to reconcile the observed eruption features with the standard flare model. Finally, we show a glimpse of how such a NLFFF model of an erupting region can be used to initiate a CME in a global MHD code in an unprecedented realistic manner. Such simulations can show the effects of solar transients on the near-Earth environment and solar system space weather.

  13. Stellar Coronae: The First Twenty - Five Years

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy

    2000-01-01

    Hot X-ray emitting coronae were detected on stars other than the Sun about twenty-five years ago. Within only a few years of the first detections, the Einstein Observatory had mapped out coronal activity across the HR diagram. These observations provided the foundations for a coarse theoretical understanding of the physical mechanisms responsible for hot coronae on stars that has changed relatively little in the intervening years: plasma trapped in magnetic structures generated by dynamo processes somewhere beneath the photosphere is heated by as yet unidentified mechanisms that appear to transfer kinetic energy from underlying convective regions of the stellar envelope into the outer atmosphere. This review will describe the observational advances that have lead to some further theoretical understanding of stellar coronae, including the first results from high resolution X-ray spectroscopy obtained by Chandra and XMM-Newton, and will highlight the observational directions needed to make further progress.

  14. Observation of enhanced ozone in an electrically active storm over Socorro, NM: Implications for ozone production from corona discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Minschwaner, K.; Kalnajs, L. E.; Dubey, M. K.; Avallone, L. M.; Sawaengphokai, P. C.; Edens, H. E.; Winn, W. P.

    2008-09-01

    Enhancements in ozone were observed between about 3 and 10 km altitude within an electrically active storm in central New Mexico. Measurements from satellite sensors and ground-based radar show cloud top pressures between 300 and 150 mb in the vicinity of an ozonesonde launched from Socorro, NM, and heavy precipitation with radar reflectivities exceeding 50 dBZ. Data from a lightning mapping array and a surface electric field mill show a large amount of electrical activity within this thunderstorm. The observed ozone enhancements are large (50% above the mean) and could have resulted from a number of possible processes, including the advection of polluted air from the urban environments of El Paso and Juarez, photochemical production by lightning-generated NOx from aged thunderstorm outflow, downward mixing of stratospheric air, or local production from within the thunderstorm. We find that a large fraction of the ozone enhancement is consistent with local production from corona discharges, either from cloud particles or by corona associated with lightning. The implied global source of ozone from thunderstorm corona discharge is estimated to be 110 Tg O3 a-1 with a range between 40 and 180 Tg O3 a-1. This value is about 21% as large as the estimated ozone production rate from lightning NOx, and about 3% as large as the total chemical production rate of tropospheric ozone. Thus while the estimated corona-induced production of ozone may be significant on local scales, it is unlikely to be as important to the global ozone budget as other sources.

  15. Lower solar chromosphere-corona transition region. I - Theoretical models with small temperature gradients

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, D. Tod; Holzer, Thomas E.; Macgregor, Keith B.

    1990-01-01

    A study of transition region models including the effects of classical thermal conduction, heating, and radiative cooling is carried out with attention directed toward the problem of understanding the observed emission in the lower transition region. It is found that the observationally inferred emission measure curve implies a near-balance between heating and radiative cooling in the lower transition region, and that the presence of strong hydrogen Ly-alpha cooling leads to the existence of singularities in the solutions of the force balance and energy balance equations when such a near-balance between heating and cooling is assumed. These singularities place strong constraints on the nature of viable models of the lower transition region and must be considered when Ly-alpha cooling is important. Previously suggested explanations of the observed emission from the lower transition region are considered in the context of the results of the present study, and conditions for the applicability of these suggested explanations are discussed.

  16. Active region seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, Tom; Braun, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    Active region seismology is concerned with the determination and interpretation of the interaction of the solar acoustic oscillations with near-surface target structures, such as magnetic flux concentration, sunspots, and plage. Recent observations made with a high spatial resolution and a long temporal duration enabled measurements of the scattering matrix for sunspots and solar active regions to be carried out as a function of the mode properties. Based on this information, the amount of p-mode absorption, partial-wave phase shift, and mode mixing introduced by the sunspot, could be determined. In addition, the possibility of detecting the presence of completely submerged magnetic fields was raised, and new procedures for performing acoustic holography of the solar interior are being developed. The accumulating evidence points to the mode conversion of p-modes to various magneto-atmospheric waves within the magnetic flux concentration as being the unifying physical mechanism responsible for these diverse phenomena.

  17. Observational analysis of active region on June, 2000

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rovira, M. G.; Luoni, M. L.

    In the recent inaugurated German-Argentinian Solar-Observatory at El Leoncito, a H-alpha Telescope (HASTA) and a mirror coronograph (MICA) are obtained daily images of the solar disk and the inner corona. Since its installation on August 1997, MICA has been imaging the inner corona with high temporal and spatial resolution. Its field-of-view ranges 1.05 to 2.0 solar radii above the sun center. HASTA started operations on May 1998. It has a tunable ( [+1,-1] Å) Lyot-filter with a bandwith of 0.3 Å. In high speed mode full frames can be taken every 2 sec. We study the evolution of an Active Region (AR 9026) and we compare different images as taken in defferent wavelengths. These studies tend to relate flares with coronal mass ejection (CME).

  18. CME Productivity of Active Regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Wang, Y.; Wang, J.; Shen, C.; Ye, P.; Zhang, Q.; Liu, R.; Wang, S.

    2015-12-01

    Solar active regions (ARs) are the major sources of two kinds of the most violent solar eruptions, namely flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs). Although they are believed to be two phenomena in the same eruptive process, the productivity of them could be quiet different for various ARs. Why is an AR productive? And why is a flare-rich AR CME-poor? To answer these questions, we compared the recent super flare-rich but CME-poor AR 12192, with other four ARs; two were productive in both flares and CMEs and the other two were inert to produce any M-class or intenser flares or CMEs. By investigating the photospheric parameters based on the SDO/HMI vector magnetogram, we find the three productive ARs have larger magnetic flux, current and free magnetic energy than the inert ARs. Furthermore, the two ARs productive in both flares and CMEs contain higher current helicity, concentrating along both sides of the flaring neutral lines, indicating the presence of a seed magnetic structure( that is highly sheared or twisted) of a CME; they also have higher decay index in the low corona, showing weak constraint. The results suggest that productive ARs are always large and have strong current system and sufficient free energy to power flares, and more importantly whether or not a flare is accompanied by a CME is seemingly related to (1) if there is significant sheared or twisted core field serving as the seed of the CME and (2) if the constraint of the overlying arcades is weak enough. Moreover, some productive ARs may frequently produce more than one CME. How does this happen? We do a statistical investigation of waiting times of quasi-homologous CMEs ( CME ssuccessive originating from the same ARs within short intervals) from super ARs in solar cycle 23 to answer this question. The waiting times of quasi-homologous CMEs have a two-component distribution with a separation at about 18 hours, the first component peaks at 7 hours. The correlation analysis among CME waiting times

  19. The Corona of HD 189733 and its X-Ray Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pillitteri, I.; Wolk, S. J.; Lopez-Santiago, J.; Günther, H. M.; Sciortino, S.; Cohen, O.; Kashyap, V.; Drake, J. J.

    2014-04-01

    Testing whether close-in massive exoplanets (hot Jupiters) can enhance the stellar activity in their host primary is crucial for the models of stellar and planetary evolution. Among systems with hot Jupiters, HD 189733 is one of the best studied because of its proximity, strong activity, and the presence of a transiting planet, which allows transmission spectroscopy and a measure of the planetary radius and its density. Here we report on the X-ray activity of the primary star, HD 189733 A, using a new XMM-Newton observation and a comparison with the previous X-ray observations. The spectrum in the quiescent intervals is described by two temperatures at 0.2 keV and 0.7 keV, while during the flares a third component at 0.9 keV is detected. With the analysis of the summed Reflection Grating Spectrometer spectra, we obtain estimates of the electron density in the range ne = (1.6-13) × 1010 cm-3, and thus the corona of HD 189733 A appears denser than the solar one. For the third time, we observe a large flare that occurred just after the eclipse of the planet. Together with the flares observed in 2009 and 2011, the events are restricted to a small planetary phase range of phi = 0.55-0.65. Although we do not find conclusive evidence of a significant excess of flares after the secondary transits, we suggest that the planet might trigger such flares when it passes close to the locally high magnetic field of the underlying star at particular combinations of stellar rotational phases and orbital planetary phases. For the most recent flares, a wavelet analysis of the light curve suggests a loop of length of four stellar radii at the location of the bright flare, and a local magnetic field of the order of 40-100 G, in agreement with the global field measured in other studies. The loop size suggests an interaction of magnetic nature between planet and star, separated by only ~8R *. The X-ray variability of HD 189733 A is larger than the variability of field stars and young

  20. Rocket studies of solar corona and transition region. [X-Ray spectrometer/spectrograph telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, L. W.; Bruner, E. C., Jr.; Brown, W. A.; Nobles, R. A.

    1979-01-01

    The XSST (X-Ray Spectrometer/Spectrograph Telescope) rocket payload launched by a Nike Boosted Black Brant was designed to provide high spectral resolution coronal soft X-ray line information on a spectrographic plate, as well as time resolved photo-electric records of pre-selected lines and spectral regions. This spectral data is obtained from a 1 x 10 arc second solar region defined by the paraboloidal telescope of the XSST. The transition region camera provided full disc images in selected spectral intervals originating in lower temperature zones than the emitting regions accessible to the XSST. A H-alpha camera system allowed referencing the measurements to the chromospheric temperatures and altitudes. Payload flight and recovery information is provided along with X-ray photoelectric and UV flight data, transition camera results and a summary of the anomalies encountered. Instrument mechanical stability and spectrometer pointing direction are also examined.

  1. Insights into Corona Formation Through Statistical Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, L. S.; Stofan, E. R.; Smrekar, S. E.; Baloga, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    Statistical analysis of an expanded database of coronae on Venus indicates that the populations of Type 1 (with fracture annuli) and 2 (without fracture annuli) corona diameters are statistically indistinguishable, and therefore we have no basis for assuming different formation mechanisms. Analysis of the topography and diameters of coronae shows that coronae that are depressions, rimmed depressions, and domes tend to be significantly smaller than those that are plateaus, rimmed plateaus, or domes with surrounding rims. This is consistent with the model of Smrekar and Stofan and inconsistent with predictions of the spreading drop model of Koch and Munga. The diameter range for domes, the initial stage of corona formation, provides a broad constraint on the buoyancy of corona-forming plumes. Coronae are only slightly more likely to be topographically raised than depressions, with Type 1 coronae most frequently occurring as rimmed depressions and Type 2 coronae most frequently occurring with flat interiors and raised rims. Most Type 1 coronae are located along chasmata systems or fracture belts, while Type 2 coronae are found predominantly as isolated features in the plains. Coronae at hot spot rises tend to be significantly lager than coronae in other settings, consistent with a hotter upper mantle at hot spot rises and their active state.

  2. Insights into Corona Formation through Statistical Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glaze, L. S.; Stofan, E. R.; Smrekar, S. E.; Baloga, S. M.

    2002-01-01

    Statistical analysis of an expanded database of coronae on Venus indicates that the populations of Type 1 (with fracture annuli) and 2 (without fracture annuli) corona diameters are statistically indistinguishable, and therefore we have no basis for assuming different formation mechanisms. Analysis of the topography and diameters of coronae shows that coronae that are depressions, rimmed depressions, and domes tend to be significantly smaller than those that are plateaus, rimmed plateaus, or domes with surrounding rims. This is consistent with the model of Smrekar and Stofan and inconsistent with predictions of the spreading drop model of Koch and Manga. The diameter range for domes, the initial stage of corona formation, provides a broad constraint on the buoyancy of corona-forming plumes. Coronae are only slightly more likely to be topographically raised than depressions, with Type 1 coronae most frequently occurring as rimmed depressions and Type 2 coronae most frequently occuring with flat interiors and raised rims. Most Type 1 coronae are located along chasmata systems or fracture belts, while Type 2 coronas are found predominantly as isolated features in the plains. Coronae at hotspot rises tend to be significantly larger than coronae in other settings, consistent with a hotter upper mantle at hotspot rises and their active state.

  3. Mapping the Solar Wind from its Source Region into the Outer Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Esser, Ruth

    1997-01-01

    Knowledge of the radial variation of the plasma conditions in the coronal source region of the solar wind is essential to exploring coronal heating and solar wind acceleration mechanisms. The goal of the proposal was to determine as many plasma parameters in the solar wind acceleration region and beyond as possible by coordinating different observational techniques, such as Interplanetary Scintillation Observations, spectral line intensity observations, polarization brightness measurements and X-ray observations. The inferred plasma parameters were then used to constrain solar wind models.

  4. Simultaneous Observation of High Temperature Plasma of Solar Corona By TESIS CORONAS-PHOTON and XRT Hinode.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reva, A.; Kuzin, S.; Bogachev, S.; Shestov, S.

    2012-05-01

    The Mg XII spectroheliograph is a part of instrumentation complex TESIS (satellite CORONAS-PHOTON). This instrument builds monochromatic images of hot plasma of the solar corona (λ = 8.42 Å, T>5 MK). The Mg XII spectroheliograph observed hot plasma in the non-flaring active-region NOAA 11019 during nine days. We reconstructed DEM of this active region with the help of genetic algorithm (we used data of the Mg XII spectroheliograph, XRT and EIT). Emission measure of the hot component amounts 1 % of the emission measure of the cool component.

  5. Pederson Current Dissipation In Emerging Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leake, James E.; Linton, M. G.

    2011-05-01

    Pederson current dissipation in emerging active regions. Certain regions of the solar atmosphere, such as the photosphere and chromosphere, as well as prominences, contain a significant amount of neutral atoms, and a complete description of the plasma requires including the effects of partial ionization. In the chromosphere the dissipation of Pederson currents is important for the evolution of emerging magnetic fields. Due to the relatively high number density in the chromosphere, the ion-neutral collision time-scale is much smaller than timescales associated with flux emergence. Hence we use a single-fluid approach to model the partially ionized plasma. Looking at both the emergence of large-scale sub-surface structures, and the emergence and reconnection of undulatory fields, we investigate the effect of Pederson current dissipation on the state of the emerging field, on magnetic reconnection and on dissipative heating of the atmosphere. Specifically we examine the effect of motions across fieldlines in the partially ionized regions, and how this can increase the free energy supplied to the corona by flux emergence. We also look at reconnection associated with flux emergence in the partially ionized atmosphere, and how this can account for observed small-scale brightenings (Ellerman Bombs).

  6. HEROES Observations of a Quiescent Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, A. Y.; Christe, S.; Gaskin, J.; Wilson-Hodge, C.

    2014-12-01

    Hard X-ray (HXR) observations of solar flares reveal the signatures of energetic electrons, and HXR images with high dynamic range and high sensitivity can distinguish between where electrons are accelerated and where they stop. Even in the non-flaring corona, high-sensitivity HXR measurements may be able to detect the presence of electron acceleration. The High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon mission added the capability of solar observations to an existing astrophysics balloon payload, HERO, which used grazing-incidence optics for direct HXR imaging. HEROES measures HXR emission from ~20 to ~75 keV with an angular resolution of 33" HPD. HEROES launched on 2013 September 21 from Fort Sumner, New Mexico, and had a successful one-day flight. We present the detailed analysis of the 7-hour observation of AR 11850, which sets new upper limits on the HXR emission from a quiescent active region, with corresponding constraints on the numbers of tens of keV energetic electrons present. Using the imaging capability of HEROES, HXR upper limits are also obtained for the quiet Sun surrounding the active region. We also discuss what can be achieved with new and improved HXR instrumentation on balloons.

  7. The corona of HD 189733 and its X-ray activity

    SciTech Connect

    Pillitteri, I.; Wolk, S. J.; Günther, H. M.; Cohen, O.; Kashyap, V.; Drake, J. J.; Lopez-Santiago, J.; Sciortino, S.

    2014-04-20

    Testing whether close-in massive exoplanets (hot Jupiters) can enhance the stellar activity in their host primary is crucial for the models of stellar and planetary evolution. Among systems with hot Jupiters, HD 189733 is one of the best studied because of its proximity, strong activity, and the presence of a transiting planet, which allows transmission spectroscopy and a measure of the planetary radius and its density. Here we report on the X-ray activity of the primary star, HD 189733 A, using a new XMM-Newton observation and a comparison with the previous X-ray observations. The spectrum in the quiescent intervals is described by two temperatures at 0.2 keV and 0.7 keV, while during the flares a third component at 0.9 keV is detected. With the analysis of the summed Reflection Grating Spectrometer spectra, we obtain estimates of the electron density in the range n{sub e} = (1.6-13) × 10{sup 10} cm{sup –3}, and thus the corona of HD 189733 A appears denser than the solar one. For the third time, we observe a large flare that occurred just after the eclipse of the planet. Together with the flares observed in 2009 and 2011, the events are restricted to a small planetary phase range of φ = 0.55-0.65. Although we do not find conclusive evidence of a significant excess of flares after the secondary transits, we suggest that the planet might trigger such flares when it passes close to the locally high magnetic field of the underlying star at particular combinations of stellar rotational phases and orbital planetary phases. For the most recent flares, a wavelet analysis of the light curve suggests a loop of length of four stellar radii at the location of the bright flare, and a local magnetic field of the order of 40-100 G, in agreement with the global field measured in other studies. The loop size suggests an interaction of magnetic nature between planet and star, separated by only ∼8R {sub *}. The X-ray variability of HD 189733 A is larger than the variability

  8. Corona Borealis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murdin, P.

    2000-11-01

    (the Northern Crown; abbrev. CrB, gen. Coronae Borealis; area 179 sq. deg.) A northern constellation which lies between Boötes and Hercules, and culminates at midnight in mid-May. It represents the crown that in Greek mythology was made by Hephaestus, god of fire, and worn by Princess Ariadne of Crete. Its brightest stars were cataloged by Ptolemy (c. AD 100-175) in the Almagest....

  9. Origin of biotite-hornblende-garnet coronas between oxides and plagioclase in olivine metagabbros, Adirondack region, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Whitney, P.R.; McLelland, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    Complex multivariant reactions involving Fe-Ti oxide minerals, plagioclase and olivine have produced coronas of biotite, hornblende and garnet between ilmenite and plagioclase in Adirondack olivine metagabbros. Both the biotite (6-10% TiO2) and the hornblende (3-6% TiO2) are exceptionally Titanium-rich. The garnet is nearly identical in composition to the garnet in coronas around olivine in the same rocks. The coronas form in two stages: (a) Plagioclase+Fe-Ti Oxides+Olivine+water =Hornblende+Spinel+Orthopyroxene??Biotite +more-sodic Plagioclase (b) Hornblende+Orthopyroxene??Spinel+Plagioclase =Garnet+Clinopyroxene+more-sodic Plagioclase The Orthopyroxene and part of the clinopyroxene form adjacent to olivine. Both reactions are linked by exchange of Mg2+ and Fe2+ with the reactions forming pyroxene and garnet coronas around olivine in the same rocks. The reactions occur under granulite fades metamorphic conditions, either during isobaric cooling or with increasing pressure at high temperature. ?? 1983 Springer-Verlag.

  10. Probing the solar corona with very long baseline interferometry

    PubMed Central

    Soja, B.; Heinkelmann, R.; Schuh, H.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding and monitoring the solar corona and solar wind is important for many applications like telecommunications or geomagnetic studies. Coronal electron density models have been derived by various techniques over the last 45 years, principally by analysing the effect of the corona on spacecraft tracking. Here we show that recent observational data from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), a radio technique crucial for astrophysics and geodesy, could be used to develop electron density models of the Sun’s corona. The VLBI results agree well with previous models from spacecraft measurements. They also show that the simple spherical electron density model is violated by regional density variations and that on average the electron density in active regions is about three times that of low-density regions. Unlike spacecraft tracking, a VLBI campaign would be possible on a regular basis and would provide highly resolved spatial–temporal samplings over a complete solar cycle. PMID:24946791

  11. Probing the solar corona with very long baseline interferometry.

    PubMed

    Soja, B; Heinkelmann, R; Schuh, H

    2014-06-20

    Understanding and monitoring the solar corona and solar wind is important for many applications like telecommunications or geomagnetic studies. Coronal electron density models have been derived by various techniques over the last 45 years, principally by analysing the effect of the corona on spacecraft tracking. Here we show that recent observational data from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), a radio technique crucial for astrophysics and geodesy, could be used to develop electron density models of the Sun's corona. The VLBI results agree well with previous models from spacecraft measurements. They also show that the simple spherical electron density model is violated by regional density variations and that on average the electron density in active regions is about three times that of low-density regions. Unlike spacecraft tracking, a VLBI campaign would be possible on a regular basis and would provide highly resolved spatial-temporal samplings over a complete solar cycle.

  12. Probing the solar corona with very long baseline interferometry.

    PubMed

    Soja, B; Heinkelmann, R; Schuh, H

    2014-01-01

    Understanding and monitoring the solar corona and solar wind is important for many applications like telecommunications or geomagnetic studies. Coronal electron density models have been derived by various techniques over the last 45 years, principally by analysing the effect of the corona on spacecraft tracking. Here we show that recent observational data from very long baseline interferometry (VLBI), a radio technique crucial for astrophysics and geodesy, could be used to develop electron density models of the Sun's corona. The VLBI results agree well with previous models from spacecraft measurements. They also show that the simple spherical electron density model is violated by regional density variations and that on average the electron density in active regions is about three times that of low-density regions. Unlike spacecraft tracking, a VLBI campaign would be possible on a regular basis and would provide highly resolved spatial-temporal samplings over a complete solar cycle. PMID:24946791

  13. Absolute velocity measurements in the solar transition region and corona from observations of ultraviolet emission line profiles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hassler, Donald M.

    An experimental technique to measure absolute velocities of minor ions formed in the solar transition region and corona is presented. A sounding rocket experiment July 27, 1987 obtained high resolution extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectra along a solar diameter with spatial resolution of 20 x 20 arcseconds. The center-to-limb behavior of four representative lines (Si II 1553, Fe II 1563, CIV 1548, Ne VIII 770) formed at different heights in the solar atmosphere is discussed. Assuming that horizontal motions cancel statistically so that the line-of-sight velocity approaches zero at the limb, we find a net radial downflow of approximately 7.5 +/- 1.0 km/s for C IV, 2.7 +/- 1.5 km/s for Fe II 1563, and upper limits of 0 +/- 1.2 km/s and 0 +/- 4 km/s for Si II and Ne VIII, respectively. The absolute wavelengths of each emission line were determined by direct comparison with wavelengths of known platinum lines generated by an inflight calibration lamp. We then test the assumption of line-of-sight velocity approaching zero at the limb by comparing our wavelengths with recently published laboratory rest wavelengths of the solar emission lines. We find agreement within the published uncertainties of the laboratory wavelengths. The result for Si II indicates that the next radial flow in the chromosphere is near zero, although small scale velocity structures may vary by as much as 4-6 km/sec. The center-to-limb behavior of Fe II 1563 suggests, contrary to previous thinking, that there might be a significant contribution of Fe II emission at higher temperatures characteristic of the lower transition region. Finally, the upper limit on the radial flow velocity for Ne VIII provides a constraint on the radial flow at coronal temperatures. Complicating the accurate measurement of Doppler velocities is the presence of small nonlinearities in the microchannel plates used in UV and EUV detectors which introduce small position offsets between the input and output of the detector. The

  14. Electro-hydrodynamics and kinetic modelling of polluted air flow activated by multi-tip-to-plane corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziane, M.; Eichwald, O.; Sarrette, J. P.; Ducasse, O.; Yousfi, M.; Marchal, F.

    2013-04-01

    The present paper is devoted to the 2D simulation of an Atmospheric Corona Discharge Reactor (ACDR) involving 10 pins powered by a DC high voltage and positioned 7 mm above a grounded metallic plane. The corona reactor is periodically crossed by thin mono filamentary streamers with a natural repetition frequency of some tens of kHz. The simulation involves the electro-dynamic, chemical kinetic, and neutral gas hydrodynamic phenomena that influence the kinetics of the chemical species transformation. Each discharge stage (including the primary and the secondary streamers development and the resulting thermal shock) lasts about one hundred nanoseconds while the post-discharge stages occurring between two successive discharge phases last one hundred microseconds. The ACDR is crossed by a lateral air flow including 400 ppm of NO. During the considered time scale of 10 ms, one hundred discharge/post-discharge cycles are simulated. The simulation involves the radical formation and thermal exchange between the discharges and the background gas. The results show how the successive discharges activate the flow gas and how the induced turbulence phenomena affect the redistribution of the thermal energy and the chemical kinetics inside the ACDR.

  15. Electro-hydrodynamics and kinetic modelling of polluted air flow activated by multi-tip-to-plane corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Meziane, M.; Eichwald, O.; Ducasse, O.; Marchal, F.; Sarrette, J. P.; Yousfi, M.

    2013-04-21

    The present paper is devoted to the 2D simulation of an Atmospheric Corona Discharge Reactor (ACDR) involving 10 pins powered by a DC high voltage and positioned 7 mm above a grounded metallic plane. The corona reactor is periodically crossed by thin mono filamentary streamers with a natural repetition frequency of some tens of kHz. The simulation involves the electro-dynamic, chemical kinetic, and neutral gas hydrodynamic phenomena that influence the kinetics of the chemical species transformation. Each discharge stage (including the primary and the secondary streamers development and the resulting thermal shock) lasts about one hundred nanoseconds while the post-discharge stages occurring between two successive discharge phases last one hundred microseconds. The ACDR is crossed by a lateral air flow including 400 ppm of NO. During the considered time scale of 10 ms, one hundred discharge/post-discharge cycles are simulated. The simulation involves the radical formation and thermal exchange between the discharges and the background gas. The results show how the successive discharges activate the flow gas and how the induced turbulence phenomena affect the redistribution of the thermal energy and the chemical kinetics inside the ACDR.

  16. Electro-Hydrodynamics and Kinetic Modeling of Dry and Humid Air Flows Activated by Corona Discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    P. Sarrette, J.; Eichwald, O.; Marchal, F.; Ducasse, O.; Yousfi, M.

    2016-05-01

    The present work is devoted to the 2D simulation of a point-to-plane Atmospheric Corona Discharge Reactor (ACDR) powered by a DC high voltage supply. The corona reactor is periodically crossed by thin mono filamentary streamers with a natural repetition frequency of some tens of kHz. The study compares the results obtained in dry air and in air mixed with a small amount of water vapour (humid air). The simulation involves the electro-dynamics, chemical kinetics and neutral gas hydrodynamics phenomena that influence the kinetics of the chemical species transformation. Each discharge lasts about one hundred of a nanosecond while the post-discharge occurring between two successive discharges lasts one hundred of a microsecond. The ACDR is crossed by a lateral dry or humid air flow initially polluted with 400 ppm of NO. After 5 ms, the time corresponding to the occurrence of 50 successive discharge/post-discharge phases, a higher NO removal rate and a lower ozone production rate are found in humid air. This change is due to the presence of the HO2 species formed from the H primary radical in the discharge zone.

  17. On the relationship between photospheric footpoint motions and coronal heating in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Asgari-Targhi, M.; Berger, M. A.

    2014-05-20

    Coronal heating theories can be classified as either direct current (DC) or alternating current (AC) mechanisms, depending on whether the coronal magnetic field responds quasi-statically or dynamically to the photospheric footpoint motions. In this paper we investigate whether photospheric footpoint motions with velocities of 1-2 km s{sup –1} can heat the corona in active regions, and whether the corona responds quasi-statically or dynamically to such motions (DC versus AC heating). We construct three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic models for the Alfvén waves and quasi-static perturbations generated within a coronal loop. We find that in models where the effects of the lower atmosphere are neglected, the corona responds quasi-statically to the footpoint motions (DC heating), but the energy flux into the corona is too low compared to observational requirements. In more realistic models that include the lower atmosphere, the corona responds more dynamically to the footpoint motions (AC heating) and the predicted heating rates due to Alfvén wave turbulence are sufficient to explain the observed hot loops. The higher heating rates are due to the amplification of Alfvén waves in the lower atmosphere. We conclude that magnetic braiding is a highly dynamic process.

  18. Highly active and durable core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Yu, Aiping; Higgins, Drew; Li, Hui; Wang, Haijiang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2012-04-11

    A new class of core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst (CCBC) consisting of lanthanum nickelate centers supporting nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) has been developed for rechargeable metal-air battery application. The nanostructured design of the catalyst allows the core and corona to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), respectively. These materials displayed exemplary OER and ORR activity through half-cell testing, comparable to state of the art commercial lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO(3)) and carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C), with added bifunctional capabilities allowing metal-air battery rechargeability. LaNiO(3) and Pt/C are currently the most accepted benchmark electrocatalyst materials for the OER and ORR, respectively; thus with comparable activity toward both of these reactions, CCBC are presented as a novel, inexpensive catalyst component for the cathode of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Moreover, after full-range degradation testing (FDT) CCBC retained excellent activity, retaining 3 and 13 times greater ORR and OER current upon comparison to state of the art Pt/C. Zinc-air battery performances of CCBC is in good agreement with the half-cell experiments with this bifunctional electrocatalyst displaying high activity and stability during battery discharge, charge, and cycling processes. Owing to its outstanding performance toward both the OER and ORR, comparable with the highest performing commercial catalysts to date for each of the respective reaction, coupled with high stability and rechargeability, CCBC is presented as a novel class of bifunctional catalyst material that is very applicable to future generation rechargeable metal-air batteries.

  19. Highly active and durable core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst for rechargeable metal-air battery application.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhu; Yu, Aiping; Higgins, Drew; Li, Hui; Wang, Haijiang; Chen, Zhongwei

    2012-04-11

    A new class of core-corona structured bifunctional catalyst (CCBC) consisting of lanthanum nickelate centers supporting nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (NCNT) has been developed for rechargeable metal-air battery application. The nanostructured design of the catalyst allows the core and corona to catalyze the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) and oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), respectively. These materials displayed exemplary OER and ORR activity through half-cell testing, comparable to state of the art commercial lanthanum nickelate (LaNiO(3)) and carbon-supported platinum (Pt/C), with added bifunctional capabilities allowing metal-air battery rechargeability. LaNiO(3) and Pt/C are currently the most accepted benchmark electrocatalyst materials for the OER and ORR, respectively; thus with comparable activity toward both of these reactions, CCBC are presented as a novel, inexpensive catalyst component for the cathode of rechargeable metal-air batteries. Moreover, after full-range degradation testing (FDT) CCBC retained excellent activity, retaining 3 and 13 times greater ORR and OER current upon comparison to state of the art Pt/C. Zinc-air battery performances of CCBC is in good agreement with the half-cell experiments with this bifunctional electrocatalyst displaying high activity and stability during battery discharge, charge, and cycling processes. Owing to its outstanding performance toward both the OER and ORR, comparable with the highest performing commercial catalysts to date for each of the respective reaction, coupled with high stability and rechargeability, CCBC is presented as a novel class of bifunctional catalyst material that is very applicable to future generation rechargeable metal-air batteries. PMID:22372510

  20. COUPLING THE SOLAR DYNAMO AND THE CORONA: WIND PROPERTIES, MASS, AND MOMENTUM LOSSES DURING AN ACTIVITY CYCLE

    SciTech Connect

    Pinto, Rui F.; Brun, Allan Sacha; Grappin, Roland

    2011-08-20

    We study the connections between the Sun's convection zone and the evolution of the solar wind and corona. We let the magnetic fields generated by a 2.5-dimensional (2.5D) axisymmetric kinematic dynamo code (STELEM) evolve in a 2.5D axisymmetric coronal isothermal magnetohydrodynamic code (DIP). The computations cover an 11 year activity cycle. The solar wind's asymptotic velocity varies in latitude and in time in good agreement with the available observations. The magnetic polarity reversal happens at different paces at different coronal heights. Overall the Sun's mass-loss rate, momentum flux, and magnetic braking torque vary considerably throughout the cycle. This cyclic modulation is determined by the latitudinal distribution of the sources of open flux and solar wind and the geometry of the Alfven surface. Wind sources and braking torque application zones also vary accordingly.

  1. Long-period intensity pulsations in the solar corona during activity cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auchère, F.; Bocchialini, K.; Solomon, J.; Tison, E.

    2014-03-01

    We report on the detection (10σ) of 917 events of long-period (3 to 16 h) intensity pulsations in the 19.5 nm passband of the SOHO Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope. The data set spans from January 1997 to July 2010, i.e. the entire solar cycle 23 and the beginning of cycle 24. The events can last for up to six days and have relative amplitudes up to 100%. About half of the events (54%) are found to happen in active regions, and 50% of these have been visually associated with coronal loops. The remaining 46% are localized in the quiet Sun. We performed a comprehensive analysis of the possible instrumental artefacts and we conclude that the observed signal is of solar origin. We discuss several scenarios that could explain the main characteristics of the active region events. The long periods and the amplitudes observed rule out any explanation in terms of magnetohydrodynamic waves. Thermal non-equilibrium could produce the right periods, but it fails to explain all the observed properties of coronal loops and the spatial coherence of the events. We propose that moderate temporal variations of the heating term in the energy equation, so as to avoid a thermal non-equilibrium state, could be sufficient to explain those long-period intensity pulsations. The large number of detections suggests that these pulsations are common in active regions. This would imply that the measurement of their properties could provide new constraints on the heating mechanisms of coronal loops. Movies are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  2. Magnetic field measurements in and above a limb active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Judge

    2013-07-01

    We analyze spectropolarimetric data of a limb active region (NOAA 11302) obtained on September 22nd 2011 using the Facility Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). Stokes profiles including lines of Si I 1028.7 nm and He I 1083 nm were obtained in three scans over a 45"x75" area. Simultaneous narrow band Ca II K and G-band intensity data were acquired with a cadence of 5s at the DST. The He I data show not only typical active region polarization signatures, but also signatures in plumes -- cool post flare loops -- which extend many Mm into the corona across the visible limb. The plumes have remarkably uniform brightness, and the plume plasma is significantly Doppler shifted as it drains from the corona. Using carefully constructed observing and calibration sequences and applying Principal Component Analysis to remove instrumental artifacts, we achieved a polarization sensitivity approaching 0.02%. With this sensitivity we attempt to diagnose the vector magnetic fields and plasma properties of chromospheric and cool coronal material in and above NOAA 11302. Inversions using various radiative transfer models in the HAZEL code are remarkably consistent with the idea that plume spectra are formed in a simple, slab-like geometry, but that the ``disk'' spectra are formed under more traditional models (Milne-Eddington). The inverted magnetic data of He I lines are compared with photospheric inversions of DST Si I and Fe I data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory.

  3. DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Török, T.; Titov, V. S.; Mikić, Z.; Leake, J. E.; Archontis, V.; Linton, M. G.; Dalmasse, K.; Aulanier, G.; Kliem, B.

    2014-02-10

    There has been a long-standing debate on the question of whether or not electric currents in solar active regions are neutralized. That is, whether or not the main (or direct) coronal currents connecting the active region polarities are surrounded by shielding (or return) currents of equal total value and opposite direction. Both theory and observations are not yet fully conclusive regarding this question, and numerical simulations have, surprisingly, barely been used to address it. Here we quantify the evolution of electric currents during the formation of a bipolar active region by considering a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the emergence of a sub-photospheric, current-neutralized magnetic flux rope into the solar atmosphere. We find that a strong deviation from current neutralization develops simultaneously with the onset of significant flux emergence into the corona, accompanied by the development of substantial magnetic shear along the active region's polarity inversion line. After the region has formed and flux emergence has ceased, the strong magnetic fields in the region's center are connected solely by direct currents, and the total direct current is several times larger than the total return current. These results suggest that active regions, the main sources of coronal mass ejections and flares, are born with substantial net currents, in agreement with recent observations. Furthermore, they support eruption models that employ pre-eruption magnetic fields containing such currents.

  4. STOCHASTIC COUPLING OF SOLAR PHOTOSPHERE AND CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Ofman, Leon; Davila, Joseph M.; Coyner, Aaron J.

    2013-05-20

    The observed solar activity is believed to be driven by the dissipation of nonpotential magnetic energy injected into the corona by dynamic processes in the photosphere. The enormous range of scales involved in the interaction makes it difficult to track down the photospheric origin of each coronal dissipation event, especially in the presence of complex magnetic topologies. In this paper, we propose an ensemble-based approach for testing the photosphere-corona coupling in a quiet solar region as represented by intermittent activity in Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager and Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory Extreme Ultraviolet Imager image sets. For properly adjusted detection thresholds corresponding to the same degree of intermittency in the photosphere and corona, the dynamics of the two solar regions is described by the same occurrence probability distributions of energy release events but significantly different geometric properties. We derive a set of scaling relations reconciling the two groups of results and enabling statistical description of coronal dynamics based on photospheric observations. Our analysis suggests that multiscale intermittent dissipation in the corona at spatial scales >3 Mm is controlled by turbulent photospheric convection. Complex topology of the photospheric network makes this coupling essentially nonlocal and non-deterministic. Our results are in an agreement with the Parker's coupling scenario in which random photospheric shuffling generates marginally stable magnetic discontinuities at the coronal level, but they are also consistent with an impulsive wave heating involving multiscale Alfvenic wave packets and/or magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade. A back-reaction on the photosphere due to coronal magnetic reconfiguration can be a contributing factor.

  5. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library network activities in Canada, the Third World, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, and Sweden which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Canada: A Voluntary and Flexible Network," a review by Guy Sylvestre of the political, social, and economic structures affecting…

  6. Electric currents and coronal heating in NOAA active region 6952

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, T. R.; Canfield, R. C.; Hudson, H. S.; Mickey, D. L.; Wulser, J. -P.; Martens, P. C. H.; Tsuneta, S.

    1994-01-01

    We examine the spatial and temporal relationship between coronal structures observed with the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on board the Yohkoh spacecraft and the vertical electric current density derived from photospheric vector magnetograms obtained using the Stokes Polarimeter at the Mees Solar Observatory. We focus on a single active region: AR 6952 which we observed on 7 days during 1991 December. For 11 independent maps of the vertical electric current density co-aligned with non-flaring X-ray images, we search for a morphological relationship between sites of high vertical current density in the photosphere and enhanced X-ray emission in the overlying corona. We find no compelling spatial or temporal correlation between the sites of vertical current and the bright X-ray structures in this active region.

  7. Turbulent photospheric drivers of multiscale solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Ofman, Leon; Davila, Joseph M.

    2015-04-01

    We investigate the collective dynamics of transient photospheric and coronal events detected using high-resolution solar magnetograms and coronal emission images. We focus on statistical, ensemble-averaged properties of the interacting solar regions [Uritsky et al., 2011, 2013, 2014; Uritsky and Davila, 2012], as opposed to case-oriented methodologies recruited in some previous studies. The behavior of solar events is studied in the three-dimensional space-time enabling accurate representation of the event evolution. By applying advanced data analysis methods including feature tracking algorithms, multiscale correlation analysis and scaling analysis techniques, we identify leading physical scenarios of the photosphere - corona coupling in quiet and active solar regions, and strive to identify new statistical precursors of coronal eruptions. We also discuss the possibility of modeling multiscale photosphere - corona interactions using idealized three-dimensional MHD models. The obtained results shed a new light on the origin of multiscale dissipation in the solar corona by enabling quantitative validation of several popular statistical physical scenarios, such as e.g. intermittent turbulence, self-organized criticality, and topological complexity.

  8. Magnetic Characteristics of Active Region Heating Observed with TRACE, SOHO/EIT, and Yohkoh/SXT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, J. G.; Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have reported results from studies that have compared the magnetic structure and heating of the transition region and corona (both in active regions and in the quiet Sun) by combining X-ray and EUV images from Yohkoh and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) with photospheric magnetograms from ground-based observatories. Our findings have led us to the hypothesis that most heating throughout the corona is driven from near and below the base of the corona by eruptive microflares occurring in compact low-lying "core magnetic fields (i.e., fields rooted along and closely enveloping polarity inversion lines in the photospheric magnetic flux). We now extend these studies, comparing sequences of UV images from Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) with longitudinal magnetograms from Kitt Peak and vector magnetograms from MUSIC. These comparisons confirm the previous results regarding the importance of core-field activity to active region heating. Activity in fields associated with satellite polarity inclusions and/or magnetically sheared configurations is especially prominent. This work is funded by NASA's Office of Space Science through the Sun-Earth Connection Guest Investigator Program and the Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program.

  9. Evidence for wind-like regions, acceleration of shocks in the deep corona, and relevance of 1/f dynamic spectra to coronal type II bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, Vasili; Cairns, Iver; Robinson, Peter

    Type II radio bursts are produced near the local plasma frequency fp and near 2fp by shocks moving through the corona and solar wind. In the present paper 8 well-defined coronal type II radio bursts (30-300 MHz) are analyzed. Three results are presented. First, it is found that the dependence of the central frequency on time can be fitted to a power-law model, f ∝ (t-t0 )-α , with 0.6 ≤ α ≤ 1.3. Assuming a constant shock velocity, these results provide evidence that the density profile ne (r) in the type II source regions closely resembles the solar wind, with ne (r) ∝ r-2 . One possible interpretation is that the solar wind starts within a few solar radii of the photosphere, most probably within 1 solar radius. Another relies on a gasdynamic Whitham analysis and demonstrates a possibility for blast shocks to accelerate, thereby reducing apparent power-law indices to solar-wind-like values. Second, for the events considered it is found that radio burst emission in the form of 1/f vs. t dynamic spectra closely follows straight lines. In future this will allow much more objective identification of type IIs in solar radio data and plausibly real-time correlation with coronagraph and other solar radar. Third, it is demonstrated that 1/f vs. t dynamic spectra can provide direct evidence for acceleration of the shock deep in the corona, thus complementing coronagraph studies.

  10. Evidence for Wind-like Regions, Acceleration of Shocks in the Deep Corona, and Relevance of 1/f Dynamic Spectra to Coronal Type II Bursts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lobzin, V. V.; Cairns, Iver H.; Robinson, P. A.

    2008-04-01

    Type II radio bursts are produced near the local plasma frequency fp and near 2fp by shocks moving through the corona and solar wind. In the present Letter eight well-defined coronal type II radio bursts (30-300 MHz) are analyzed. Three results are presented. First, it is found that the dependence of the central frequency on time can be fitted to a power-law model, f propto (t - t0)-α, with 0.6 <= α <= 1.3. Assuming a constant shock velocity, these results provide evidence that the density profile ne(r) in the type II source regions closely resembles the solar wind, with ne(r) propto r-2. One possible interpretation is that the solar wind starts within a few solar radii of the photosphere, most probably within 1 solar radius. Another relies on a gasdynamic Whitham analysis and demonstrates a possibility for blast shocks to accelerate, thereby reducing apparent power-law indices to solar wind-like values. Second, for the events considered it is found that radio burst emission in the form of 1/f versus t dynamic spectra closely follows straight lines. In future this will allow much more objective identification of type II bursts in solar radio data and plausibly real-time correlation with coronagraph and other solar radar. Third, it is demonstrated that 1/f versus t dynamic spectra can provide direct evidence for acceleration of the shock deep in the corona, thus complementing coronagraph studies.

  11. Magnetic Structure of Sites of Braiding in Hi-C Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, S. K.; Alexander, C. E.; Winebarger, A.; Moore, R. L.

    2014-01-01

    High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) observations of an active region (AR) corona, at a spatial resolution of 0.2 arcsec, have offered the first direct evidence of field lines braiding, which could deliver sufficient energy to heat the AR corona by current dissipation via magnetic reconnection, a proposal given by Parker three decades ago. The energy required to heat the corona must be transported from the photosphere along the field lines. The mechanism that drives the energy transport to the corona is not yet fully understood. To investigate simultaneous magnetic and intensity structure in and around the AR in detail, we use SDO/HMI+AIA data of + / - 2 hours around the 5 minute Hi-C flight. In the case of the QS, work done by convection/granulation on the inter-granular feet of the coronal field lines probably translates into the heat observed in the corona. In the case of the AR, as here, there could be flux emergence, cancellation/submergence, or shear flows generating large stress and tension in coronal field loops which is released as heat in the corona. However, to the best of our knowledge, there is no observational evidence available to these processes. We investigate the changes taking place in the photospheric feet of the magnetic field involved with brightenings in the Hi-C AR corona. Using HMI 45s magnetograms of four hours we find that, out of the two Hi-C sub-regions where the braiding of field lines were recently detected, flux emergence takes place in one region and flux cancellation in the other. The field in these sub-regions are highly sheared and have apparent high speed plasma flows at their feet. Therefore, shearing flows plausibly power much of the coronal and transition region heating in these areas of the AR. In addition, the presence of large flux emergence/cancellation strongly suggests that the work done by these processes on the pre-existing field also drives much of the observed heating.

  12. Coronal heating above active regions - 3D MHD model versus multi-spacecraft observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, Philippe-A.; Bingert, Sven; Peter, Hardi

    2014-05-01

    The plasma heating mechanism in the Solar corona is a puzzle since decades. Today high-performance computing together with multi-spacecraft observations offer new insights. We conducted a high-resolution simulation of the corona above an active region and compare synthetic emission deduced from the model with co-temporal observations. Photospheric observations act as a boundary condition for our model that drives magnetic-field braiding by advection and generates a net upwards Poynting flux. In particular, we do not only get a sufficient energy input to the base of the corona, but we also reproduce the observed coronal loops: the 3D structure of the hot AR loops system in the model compares well to joint STEREO-A/-B and Hinode observations. The plasma flows along these loops are similar to observed Doppler maps. Draining and siphon flows along magnetic structures at different temperatures offer a new alternative explanation for the average Doppler red-shifts in the transition region and coronal blue-shifts. This match between model and observations indicates a realistic distribution of the coronal heating in time and space and shows that our 3D MHD model of the corona captures the relevant processes involved.

  13. The coronal and transition region temperature structure of a solar active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levine, R. H.; Pye, J. P.

    1980-01-01

    Using measurements of EUV and X-ray spectral lines, the differential emission measure vs electron temperature from the transition region to the corona of an active region (electron temperature between 100,000 and 5,000,000 K) is derived. The total emission measure and radiative losses are of the order 3 x 10 to the 48th/cu cm and 4 x 10 to the 26th ergs/sec, respectively. The emission measure at electron temperatures greater than approximately 1,000,000 K (i.e. that mainly responsible for the X-ray emission) is about 75% of the total. The use of the Mg x line at 625 A as an indicator of coronal electron density is also examined. A set of theoretical energy balance models of coronal loops in which the loop divergence is a variable parameter is presented and compared with the observations.

  14. Active Region Release Two CMEs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Solar material can be seen blowing off the sun in this video captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) on the night of Feb. 5, 2013. This active region on the sun sent out two coronal ...

  15. The corona of HD 223460 (HR 9024)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondoin, P.

    2003-10-01

    HD 223460 (HR 9024), a chromospherically active late-type giant with a high X-ray luminosity, was observed by the XMM-Newton space observatory. Series of lines of highly ionized Fe and several Lyman lines of hydrogen-like ions and triplet lines of helium-like ions are visible in the reflection grating spectra, most notably from O and Ne. Analysis results suggest a scenario where the corona of HD 223460 is dominated by large magnetic structures similar in size to interconnecting loops between solar active regions but significantly hotter. The surface area coverage of these active regions may approach up to 30%. A hypothesis is that the interaction of these structures themselves induces a flaring activity on a small scale not visible in the EPIC light curves that is responsible for heating HD 223460 plasma to coronal temperatures of T >=107 K. The intense X-ray activity of HD 223460 is related to its evolutionary position at the bottom of the red giant branch. It is anticipated that its rotation will spin down in the future with the effect of decreasing its helicity-related, dynamo-driven activity and suppressing large-scale magnetic structures in its corona.

  16. The morphology of flare phenomena, magnetic fields, and electric currents in active regions. II - NOAA active region 5747 (1989 October)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leka, K. D.; Canfield, Richard C.; Mcclymont, A. N.; De La Beaujardiere, J.-F.; Fan, Yuhong; Tang, F.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes October 1989 observations in NOAA Active Region 5747 of the morphology of energetic electron precipitation and high-pressure coronal flare plasmas of three flares and their relation to the vector magnetic field and vertical electric currents. The H-alpha spectroheliograms were coaligned with the vector magnetograms using continuum images of sunspots, enabling positional accuracy of a few arcsec. It was found that, during the gradual phase, the regions of the H-alpha flare that show the effects of enhanced pressure in the overlying corona often encompass extrema of the vertical current density, consistent with earlier work showing a close relationship between H-alpha emission and line-of-sight currents. The data are also consistent with the overall morphology and evolution described by erupting-filament models such as those of Kopp and Pneuman (1976) and Sturrock (1989).

  17. Radio Coronal Magnetography of a Large Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, Timothy S.; Gary, Dale E.; White, Stephen; Fleishman, Gregory; Chen, Bin

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative knowledge of coronal magnetic fields is fundamental to understanding energetic phenomena such as solar flares. Flares occur in solar active regions where strong, non-potential magnetic fields provide free energy. While constraints on the coronal magnetic field topology are readily available through high resolution SXR and EUV imaging of solar active regions, useful quantitative measurements of coronal magnetic fields have thus far been elusive. Recent progress has been made at infrared (IR) wavelengths in exploiting both the Zeeman and Hanle effects to infer the line-of-sight magnetic field strength or the orientation of the magnetic field vector in the plane of the sky above the solar limb. However, no measurements of coronal magnetic fields against the solar disk are possible using IR observations. Radio observations of gyroresonance emission from active regions offer the means of measuring coronal magnetic fields above the limb and on the solar disk. In particular, for plasma plasma conditions in the solar corona, active regions typically become optically thick to emission over a range of radio frequencies through gyroresonance absorption at a low harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency. The specific range of resonant frequencies depends on the range of coronal magnetic field strengths present in the active region.The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array was used in November 2014 to image NOAA/USAF active region AR12209 over a continuous frequency range of 1-8 GHz, corresponding to a wavelength range of 3.75-30 cm. This frequency range is sensitive to coronal magnetic field strengths ranging from ~120-1400G. The active region was observed on four different dates - November 18, 20, 22, and 24 - during which the active region longitude ranged from -15 to +70 degrees, providing a wide range of aspect angles. In this paper we provide a preliminary description of the coronal magnetic field measurements derived from the radio observations.

  18. Magnetic Energy and Helicity in Two Emerging Active Regions in the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Y.; Schuck, P. W.

    2012-01-01

    The magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity in two emerging solar active regions, AR 11072 and AR 11158,are studied. They are computed by integrating over time the energy and relative helicity fluxes across the photosphere. The fluxes consist of two components: one from photospheric tangential flows that shear and braid field lines (shear term), the other from normal flows that advect magnetic flux into the corona (emergence term). For these active regions: (1) relative magnetic helicity in the active-region corona is mainly contributed by the shear term,(2) helicity fluxes from the emergence and the shear terms have the same sign, (3) magnetic energy in the corona (including both potential energy and free energy) is mainly contributed by the emergence term, and(4) energy fluxes from the emergence term and the shear term evolved consistently in phase during the entire flux emergence course.We also examine the apparent tangential velocity derived by tracking field-line footpoints using a simple tracking method. It is found that this velocity is more consistent with tangential plasma velocity than with the flux transport velocity, which agrees with the conclusion by Schuck.

  19. Ultrasonic corona sensor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrold, R. T.

    1976-01-01

    The overall objective of this program is to determine the feasibility of using ultrasonic (above 20 kHz) corona detection techniques to detect low order (non-arcing) coronas in varying degrees of vacuum within large high vacuum test chambers, and to design, fabricate, and deliver a prototype ultrasonic corona sensor.

  20. Coronae on stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, B. M.

    1986-01-01

    Three lines of evidence are noted to point to a flare heating source for stellar coronae: a strong correlation between time-averaged flare energy release and coronal X-ray luminosity, the high temperature flare-like component of the spectral signature of coronal X-ray emission, and the observed short time scale variability that indicates continuous flare activity. It is presently suggested that flares may represent only the extreme high energy tail of a continuous distribution of coronal energy release events.

  1. RECONNECTION-DRIVEN DOUBLE LAYERS IN THE STRATIFIED PLASMA OF THE SOLAR TRANSITION REGION: SUPPLY OF HOT PLASMA INTO THE CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Singh, Nagendra

    2015-09-01

    A novel mechanism for the supply of hot plasma into the corona from the chromosphere is suggested here; the mechanism involves collisionless magnetic reconnection (CMR) in the transition region (TR) followed by double layer (DL) formation in the enhanced expansion of the chromospheric cold plasma mixed with CMR-heated hot electrons. It is well known that (i) the CMR produces energetic electrons and (ii) DLs naturally form in expanding dense plasmas containing a minor population of hot electrons. We apply these plasma physics facts to the dynamics of stratified plasma in the TR. In the TR where densities fall below ∼10{sup 16} m{sup −3}, all collisional mean-free paths, electron–ion, ion–neutral, and electron–neutral, become long enough to render plasma collisionless at kinetic scale lengths, making CMR and DL formation possible. The DLs accelerate the chromospheric cold ions to energies comparable to the energy of the hot electrons. When the upflowing energized ions neutralized by the escaping hot electrons thermalize, the resulting hot tenuous plasma supplies an energy flux ∼3 × 10{sup 5} erg cm{sup −2} s{sup −1} = 3 × 10{sup 2} J m{sup −2} s{sup −1} into the corona. The CMR–DL mechanism introduces sudden transitions in the TR as microstructures in both density and energy. The global transition in the TR could be a fractal structure containing such microscopic features. If not impossible, it is difficult to measure such microstructures, but it seems that the coronal heating begins in the nearly collisionless TR by CMR and DL formation.

  2. Reconnection-driven Double Layers in the Stratified Plasma of the Solar Transition Region: Supply of Hot Plasma into the Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nagendra

    2015-09-01

    A novel mechanism for the supply of hot plasma into the corona from the chromosphere is suggested here; the mechanism involves collisionless magnetic reconnection (CMR) in the transition region (TR) followed by double layer (DL) formation in the enhanced expansion of the chromospheric cold plasma mixed with CMR-heated hot electrons. It is well known that (i) the CMR produces energetic electrons and (ii) DLs naturally form in expanding dense plasmas containing a minor population of hot electrons. We apply these plasma physics facts to the dynamics of stratified plasma in the TR. In the TR where densities fall below ˜1016 m-3, all collisional mean-free paths, electron-ion, ion-neutral, and electron-neutral, become long enough to render plasma collisionless at kinetic scale lengths, making CMR and DL formation possible. The DLs accelerate the chromospheric cold ions to energies comparable to the energy of the hot electrons. When the upflowing energized ions neutralized by the escaping hot electrons thermalize, the resulting hot tenuous plasma supplies an energy flux ˜3 × 105 erg cm-2 s-1 = 3 × 102 J m-2 s-1 into the corona. The CMR-DL mechanism introduces sudden transitions in the TR as microstructures in both density and energy. The global transition in the TR could be a fractal structure containing such microscopic features. If not impossible, it is difficult to measure such microstructures, but it seems that the coronal heating begins in the nearly collisionless TR by CMR and DL formation.

  3. Solar magnetic fields and the corona. [as seen from an out-of-the-ecliptic space mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newkirk, G., Jr.

    1976-01-01

    Results from a seminar on the role of solar magnetic fields in determining the structure of the corona and interplanetary medium are presented. Some topics considered are: (1) polar regions of the sun which have identical magnetic configurations but display a vastly different appearance in the corona, (2) the influence of latitude on coronal and interplanetary microstructure, and (3) the role of the corona in contributing to the solar wind. It is proposed that an out-of-the-ecliptic solar probe mission would provide needed information on the above topics, and the study of solar activity in general.

  4. Self-sustained criterion with photoionization for positive dc corona plasmas between coaxial cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yuesheng; Zhang, Bo He, Jinliang

    2015-06-15

    The positive dc corona plasmas between coaxial cylinders in air under the application of a self-sustained criterion with photoionization are investigated in this paper. A photon absorption function suitable for cylindrical electrode, which can characterize the total photons within the ionization region, is proposed on the basis of the classic corona onset criteria. Based on the general fluid model with the self-sustained criterion, the role of photoionization in the ionization region is clarified. It is found that the surface electric field keeps constant under a relatively low corona current, while it is slightly weakened with the increase of the corona current. Similar tendencies can be found under different conductor radii and relative air densities. The small change of the surface electric field will become more significant for the electron density distribution as well as the ionization activity under a high corona current, compared with the results under the assumption of a constant surface field. The assumption that the surface electric field remains constant should be corrected with the increase of the corona current when the energetic electrons with a distance from the conductor surface are concerned.

  5. A nanoflare model for active region radiance: application of artificial neural networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazarghan, M.; Safari, H.; Innes, D. E.; Karami, E.; Solanki, S. K.

    2008-12-01

    Context: Nanoflares are small impulsive bursts of energy that blend with and possibly make up much of the solar background emission. Determining their frequency and energy input is central to understanding the heating of the solar corona. One method is to extrapolate the energy frequency distribution of larger individually observed flares to lower energies. Only if the power law exponent is greater than 2 is it considered possible that nanoflares contribute significantly to the energy input. Aims: Time sequences of ultraviolet line radiances observed in the corona of an active region are modelled with the aim of determining the power law exponent of the nanoflare energy distribution. Methods: A simple nanoflare model based on three key parameters (the flare rate, the flare duration, and the power law exponent of the flare energy frequency distribution) is used to simulate emission line radiances from the ions Fe XIX, Ca XIII, and Si III, observed by SUMER in the corona of an active region as it rotates around the east limb of the Sun. Light curve pattern recognition by an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) scheme is used to determine the values. Results: The power law exponents, α≈2.8, 2.8, and 2.6 are obtained for Fe XIX, Ca XIII, and Si III respectively. Conclusions: The light curve simulations imply a power law exponent greater than the critical value of 2 for all ion species. This implies that if the energy of flare-like events is extrapolated to low energies, nanoflares could provide a significant contribution to the heating of active region coronae.

  6. Plasma Loops in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bray, R. J.; Cram, L. E.; Durrant, C.; Loughhead, R. E.

    1991-07-01

    A comprehensive account of the properties of plasma loops, the fundamental structural elements of the solar corona. Plasma loops cover a wide range of sizes and range in temperature from tens of thousands to millions of degrees. They not only define the structure of individual active regions but connect different active regions--even across the solar equator. Loops also play an integral and decisive role in the enormous solar explosions called flares. Over recent years a wealth of space and ground-based observations of loops has been obtained in various widely-spaced regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. In this book the authors have selected the best observational material from the literature on which to base a detailed account of the properties of flare and non-flare loops. The book also explores the larger implications of the loop structures for our understanding of solar and stellar coronae. The text is enhanced by a large number of illustrations and unique and beautiful photographs obtained from the ground and from space.

  7. SDO Sees Active Region Outbursts

    NASA Video Gallery

    This close up video by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory shows an active region near the right-hand edge of the sun’s disk, which erupted with at least a dozen minor events over a 30-hour period fr...

  8. Accretion disk coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, N. E.; Holt, S. S.

    1981-01-01

    Recent observations of partial X-ray eclipses from 4U1822-37 have shown that the central X-ray source in this system is diffused by a large Compton-thick accretion disk corona (ADC). Another binary, 4U2129-47, also displays a partial eclipse and contains an ADC. The possible origin of an ADC is discussed and a simple hydrostatic evaporated ADC model is developed which, when applied to 4U1822-37, 4U2129+47 and Cyg X-3, can explain their temporal and spectral properties. The quasi-sinusoidal modulation of all three sources can be reconciled with the partial occultation of the ADC by a bulge at the edge of the accretion disk which is caused by the inflowing material. The height of this bulge is an order of magnitude larger than the hydrostatic disk height and is the result of turbulence in the outer region of the disk. The spectral properties of all three sources can be understood in terms of Compton scattering of the original source spectrum by the ADC. Spectral variations with epoch in Cyg X-3 are probably caused by changes in the optical depth of the corona. A consequence of our model is that any accreting neutron star X-ray source in a semi-detached binary system which is close to its Eddington limit most likely contains an optically thick ADC.

  9. Model for the Coupled Evolution of Subsurface and Coronal Magnetic Fields in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Mackay, D. H.

    2007-04-01

    According to Babcock's theory of the solar dynamo, bipolar active regions are Ω-shaped loops emerging from a toroidal field located near the base of the convection zone. In this paper, a mean field model for the evolution of a twisted Ω-loop is developed. The model describes the coupled evolution of the magnetic field in the convection zone and the corona after the loop has fully emerged into the solar atmosphere. Such a coupled evolution is required to fully understand what happens to the coronal and subsurface fields as magnetic flux cancels at polarity inversion lines on the photosphere. The jump conditions for the magnetic field at the photosphere are derived from the magnetic stress balance between the convection zone and corona. The model reproduces the observed spreading of active region magnetic flux over the solar surface. At polarity inversion lines, magnetic flux submerges below the photosphere, but the component of magnetic field along the inversion line cannot submerge, because the field in the upper convection zone is nearly radial. Therefore, magnetic shear builds up in the corona above the inversion line, which eventually leads to a loss of equilibrium of the coronal fields and the ``lift-off'' of a coronal flux rope. Fields that submerge are transported back to the base of the convection zone, leading to the repair of the toroidal flux rope. Following Martens and Zwaan, interactions between bipoles are also considered.

  10. The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran

    1998-01-01

    Under this contract SAIC, the University of California, Irvine (UCI), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), have conducted research into theoretical modeling of active regions, the solar corona, and the inner heliosphere, using the MHD model. During the period covered by this report we have published 17 articles in the scientific literature. These publications are listed in Section 4 of this report. In the Appendix we have attached reprints of selected articles.

  11. Evolution and Activity in the Solar Corona: A Comparison of Coronal and Chromospheric Structures Seen in Soft X-Rays, White Light and H-Alpha Emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagenal, Fran

    2001-01-01

    The work completed under this project, 'Evolution and Activity in the Solar Corona: A Comparison of Coronal and Chromospheric Structures Seen in Soft X-Rays, White Light and H-Alpha Emission', includes the following presentations: (1) Analysis of H-alpha Observations of High-altitude Coronal Condensations; (2) Multi-spectral Imaging of Coronal Activity; (3) Measurement and Modeling of Soft X-ray Loop Arcades; (4) A Study of the Origin and Dynamics of CMEs; and various poster presentations and thesis dissertations.

  12. Simulation of Active-Region-Scale Flux Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, W.; van der Holst, B.

    2015-12-01

    Shear flows long observed in solar active regions are now understood to be a consequence of the Lorentz force that develops from a complex interaction between magnetic fields and the thermal pressure of the Sun's gravitationally stratified atmosphere. The shearing motions transport magnetic flux and energy from the submerged portion of the field to the corona providing the necessary energy for flares, filament eruptions and CMEs. To further examine this shearing process, we simulate flux emergence on the scale of active regions with a large-scale model of the near surface convection zone constructed on an adaptive spherical grid. This model is designed to simulate flux emerging on the scale of active regions from a depth of 30 Mm. Here, we show results of a twisted flux rope emerging through the hierarchy of granular convection, and examine the flow patterns that arise as the flux approaches the photosphere. We show how these organized flows driven by the Lorentz force cause the coronal field evolve to a highly non-potential configuration capable of driving solar eruptions such as CMEs and flares.

  13. Corona Associations and Their Implications for Venus

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Chapman, M.G.; Zimbelman, J.R.

    1998-01-01

    Geologic mapping principles were applied to determine genetic relations between coronae and surrounding geomorphologic features within two study areas in order to better understand venusian coronae. The study areas contain coronae in a cluster versus a contrasting chain and are (1) directly west of Phoebe Regio (quadrangle V-40; centered at latitude 15??S, longitude 250??) and (2) west of Asteria and Beta Regiones (between latitude 23??N, longitude 239?? and latitude 43??N, longitude 275??). Results of this research indicate two groups of coronae on Venus: (1) those that are older and nearly coeval with regional plains, and occur globally; and (2) those that are younger and occur between Beta, Atla, and Themis Regiones or along extensional rifts elsewhere, sometimes showing systematic age progressions. Mapping relations and Earth analogs suggest that older plains coronae may be related to a near-global resurfacing event perhaps initiated by a mantle superplume or plumes. Younger coronae of this study that show age progression may be related to (1) a tectonic junction of connecting rifts resulting from local mantle upwelling and spread of a quasi-stationary hotspot plume, and (2) localized spread of post-plains volcanism. We postulate that on Venus most of the young, post-resurfacing coronal plumes may be concentrated within an area defined by the bounds of Beta, Atla, and Themis Regiones. ?? 1998 Academic Press.

  14. Lower solar chromosphere-corona transition region. II - Wave pressure effects for a specific form of the heating function

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, D. Tod; Holzer, Thomas E.; Macgregor, Keith B.

    1990-01-01

    Lower transition region models with a balance between mechanical heating and radiative losses are expanded to include wave pressure effects. The models are used to study the simple damping length form of the heating function. The results are compared to the results obtained by Woods et al. (1990) for solutions in the lower transition region. The results suggest that a mixture of fast-mode and slow-mode waves may provide the appropriate heating mechanism in the lower transition region, with the decline in effective vertical wave speed caused by the refraction and eventual total reflection of the fast-mode wave resulting from the decreasing atmospheric density.

  15. Ab Initio Active Region Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, A.

    2013-01-01

    The tachocline is not necessary to produce active regions with their global properties. Dynamo action within the convection zone can produce large scale reversing polarity magnetic fields as shown by ASH code and Charboneau et al simulations. Magneto-convection acting on this large scale field produces Omega-loops which emerge through the surface to produce active regions. The field first emerges as small bipoles with horizontal field over granules anchored in vertical fields in the intergranular lanes. The fields are quickly swept into the intergranular lanes and produce a mixed polarity "pepper and salt" pattern. The opposite polarities then migrate toward separate unipolar regions due to the underlying large scale loop structure. When sufficient flux concentrates, pores and sunspots form. We will show movies of magneto-convection simulations of the emerging flux, its migration, and concentration to form pores and spots, as well as the underlying magnetic field evolution. In addition, the same atmospheric data has been used as input to the LILIA Stokes Inversion code to calculate Stokes spectra for the Fe I 630 nm lines and then invert them to determine the magnetic field. Comparisons of the inverted field with the simulation field shows that small-scale, weak fields, less than 100 G, can not be accurately determined because of vertical gradients that are difficult to match in fitting the line profiles. Horizontal smoothing by telescope diffraction further degrades the inversion accuracy.

  16. The quiescent and flaring EUV spectrum of Algol and its relationship to other active coronae. EUV spectroscopy of bright hyades coronae: 71 Tauri and Theta 1 Tauri

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stern, Robert A.

    1994-01-01

    This program involves analysis and interpretation of EUVE spectrometer observations of the active stars Algol (beta Per) and 71 Tauri. The EUVE satellite spectrometers observed the prototype eclipsing binary Algol over nearly 1.5 orbital periods. Effective exposure times were 100 ksec and 89 ksec in the short wave (70-180 A) and medium wave (140-370 A) channels. High temperature (up to 20 MK) Fe XVI-XXIV emission lines are clearly detected in the overall spectrum. In addition, a quiescent continuum is present which increases towards shorter wavelengths. Using synthesized spectra of optically thin line and continuum emission folded through the instrumental response, we have examined constraints on the (Fe/H) coronal abundance in Algol. We find that the coronal Fe is underabundant by factors that approximately equal 2-4 relative to solar photospheric values, unless an unreasonably large quantity of coronal plasma at T greater than 30 MK is present in the quiescent spectrum. The latter possibility is, however, inconsistent with available X-ray data. Lightcurves of the high temperature EUV lines compared to line emission at He II 304 A show considerable differences, with much deeper minima present in the He II line during both primary and secondary eclipses. Toward the end of the observation a moderate flare lasting approximately 6 hours was detected in the high temperature Fe emission lines. The 71 Tau observation, for about the same exposure time, revealed only a handful of weak emission lines; however, the strongest lines were also those of Fe XXIII/XX, suggesting a hot coronal plasma. No obvious flaring or other variation was present in the 71 Tau Deep Survey lightcurve.

  17. EFFECT OF ION-NEUTRAL COLLISIONS IN SIMULATIONS OF EMERGING ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Leake, James E.; Linton, Mark G.

    2013-02-10

    We present results of 2.5D numerical simulations of the emergence of sub-surface magnetic flux into the solar atmosphere, with emerging flux regions ranging from 10{sup 18} to 10{sup 21} Mx, representing both ephemeral and active regions. We include the presence of neutral hydrogen in the governing equations, improve upon previous models by including the ionization in the equation of state, and use a more realistic convection zone model. We find that ionization and recombination of plasma during the rise of a convection zone flux tube reduces the rise speed of the tube's axis. The presence of neutral hydrogen allows the effective flow of mass across field lines, by the addition of a Pedersen resistivity to the generalized Ohm's law, which dissipates current perpendicular to the magnetic field. This causes an increase of up to 10% in the amount of magnetic in-plane flux supplied to the corona and a reduction of up to 89% in the amount of sub-surface plasma brought up into the corona. However, it also reduces the amount of free magnetic energy supplied to the corona, and thus does not positively affect the likelihood of creating unstable coronal structures.

  18. Solar active region display system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golightly, M.; Raben, V.; Weyland, M.

    2003-04-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System (SARDS) is a client-server application that automatically collects a wide range of solar data and displays it in a format easy for users to assimilate and interpret. Users can rapidly identify active regions of interest or concern from color-coded indicators that visually summarize each region's size, magnetic configuration, recent growth history, and recent flare and CME production. The active region information can be overlaid onto solar maps, multiple solar images, and solar difference images in orthographic, Mercator or cylindrical equidistant projections. Near real-time graphs display the GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, flare events, and daily F10.7 value as a function of time; color-coded indicators show current trends in soft x-ray flux, flare temperature, daily F10.7 flux, and x-ray flare occurrence. Through a separate window up to 4 real-time or static graphs can simultaneously display values of KP, AP, daily F10.7 flux, GOES soft and hard x-ray flux, GOES >10 and >100 MeV proton flux, and Thule neutron monitor count rate. Climatologic displays use color-valued cells to show F10.7 and AP values as a function of Carrington/Bartel's rotation sequences - this format allows users to detect recurrent patterns in solar and geomagnetic activity as well as variations in activity levels over multiple solar cycles. Users can customize many of the display and graph features; all displays can be printed or copied to the system's clipboard for "pasting" into other applications. The system obtains and stores space weather data and images from sources such as the NOAA Space Environment Center, NOAA National Geophysical Data Center, the joint ESA/NASA SOHO spacecraft, and the Kitt Peak National Solar Observatory, and can be extended to include other data series and image sources. Data and images retrieved from the system's database are converted to XML and transported from a central server using HTTP and SOAP protocols, allowing

  19. 2D simulation of active species and ozone production in a multi-tip DC air corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meziane, M.; Eichwald, O.; Sarrette, J. P.; Ducasse, O.; Yousfi, M.

    2011-11-01

    The present paper shows for the first time in the literature a complete 2D simulation of the ozone production in a DC positive multi-tip to plane corona discharge reactor crossed by a dry air flow at atmospheric pressure. The simulation is undertaken until 1 ms and involves tens of successive discharge and post-discharge phases. The air flow is stressed by several monofilament corona discharges generated by a maximum of four anodic tips distributed along the reactor. The nonstationary hydrodynamics model for reactive gas mixture is solved using the commercial FLUENT software. During each discharge phase, thermal and vibrational energies as well as densities of radical and metastable excited species are locally injected as source terms in the gas medium surrounding each tip. The chosen chemical model involves 10 neutral species reacting following 24 reactions. The obtained results allow us to follow the cartography of the temperature and the ozone production inside the corona reactor as a function of the number of high voltage anodic tips.

  20. What makes active regions grow.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weart, S.

    1972-01-01

    A study of magnetic flux growth or growth failure in over 100 active regions is shown to indicate that most growth is connected with the emergence of a large batch of flux in the shape of a new arch filament system (AFS). During the recent sunspot maximum, new AFSs appeared at a rate of nearly one per day over the entire sun. Evidence is presented for two proposed hypotheses, namely: (1) a twist in the flux tubes of new AFSs is a key factor in determining which new AFSs will grow; and (2) this twist is related to the well-known asymmetry of sunspot groups.

  1. THE EVOLUTION OF DARK CANOPIES AROUND ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.-M.; Robbrecht, E.; Muglach, K. E-mail: eva.robbrecht@oma.be

    2011-05-20

    As observed in spectral lines originating from the chromosphere, transition region, and low corona, active regions are surrounded by an extensive 'circumfacular' area which is darker than the quiet Sun. We examine the properties of these dark moat- or canopy-like areas using Fe IX 17.1 nm images and line-of-sight magnetograms from the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The 17.1 nm canopies consist of fibrils (horizontal fields containing extreme-ultraviolet-absorbing chromospheric material) clumped into featherlike structures. The dark fibrils initially form a quasiradial or vortical pattern as the low-lying field lines fanning out from the emerging active region connect to surrounding network and intranetwork elements of opposite polarity. The area occupied by the 17.1 nm fibrils expands as supergranular convection causes the active-region flux to spread into the background medium; the outer boundary of the dark canopy stabilizes where the diffusing flux encounters a unipolar region of opposite sign. The dark fibrils tend to accumulate in regions of weak longitudinal field and to become rooted in mixed-polarity flux. To explain the latter observation, we note that the low-lying fibrils are more likely to interact with small loops associated with weak, opposite-polarity flux elements in close proximity, than with high loops anchored inside strong unipolar network flux. As a result, the 17.1 nm fibrils gradually become concentrated around the large-scale polarity inversion lines (PILs), where most of the mixed-polarity flux is located. Systematic flux cancellation, assisted by rotational shearing, removes the field component transverse to the PIL and causes the fibrils to coalesce into long PIL-aligned filaments.

  2. The protein corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes.

    PubMed

    Palchetti, Sara; Colapicchioni, Valentina; Digiacomo, Luca; Caracciolo, Giulio; Pozzi, Daniela; Capriotti, Anna Laura; La Barbera, Giorgia; Laganà, Aldo

    2016-02-01

    Following systemic administration, liposomes are covered by a 'corona' of proteins, and preserving the surface functionality is challenging. Coating the liposome surface with polyethylene glycol (PEG) is the most widely used anti-opsonization strategy, but it cannot fully preclude protein adsorption. To date, protein binding has been studied following in vitro incubation to predict the fate of liposomes in vivo, while dynamic incubation mimicking in vivo conditions remains largely unexplored. The main aim of this investigation was to determine whether shear stress, produced by physiologically relevant dynamic flow, could influence the liposome-protein corona. The corona of circulating PEGylated liposome was thoroughly compared with that formed by incubation in vitro. Systematic comparison in terms of size, surface charge and quantitative composition was made by dynamic light scattering, microelectrophoresis and nano-liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (nanoLC-MS/MS). Size of coronas formed under static vs. dynamic incubation did not appreciably differ from each other. On the other side, the corona of circulating liposomes was more negatively charged than its static counterpart. Of note, the variety of protein species in the corona formed in a dynamic flow was significantly wider. Collectively, these results demonstrated that the corona of circulating PEGylated liposomes can be considerably different from that formed in a static fluid. This seems to be a key factor to predict the biological activity of a liposomal formulation in a physiological environment.

  3. Cometary nucleus and active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, F. L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the icy conglomerate model of cometary nuclei, various observations demonstrate the spotted nature of many or most nuclei, i.e., regions of unusual activity, either high or low. Rotation periods, spin axes and even precession of the axes are determined. The observational evidence for variations in activity over the surfaces of cometary nuclei are listed and discussed. On June 11 the comet IRAS-ARAKI-ALCOCK approached the Earth to a distance of 0.031 AU, the nearest since C/Lexell, 1770 I, providing a unique opportunity for near-nucleus observations. Preliminary analysis of these images establishes the spin axis of the nucleus, with an oblioquity to the orbit plane of approximately 50 deg, and a lag angle of sublimation approximately 35 deg from the solar meridian on the nucleus. Asymmetries of the inner coma suggests a crazy-quilt distribution of ices with differing volatility over the surface of the nucleus. The observations of Comet P/Homes 1892 III, exhibiting two 8-10 magnitude bursts, are carefully analyzed. The grazing encounter produced, besides the first great burst, an active area on the nucleus, which was rotating retrograde with a period of 16.3hr and inclination nearly 180 deg. After the first burst the total magnitude fell less than two magnitudes from November 7 to November 30 (barely naked eye) while the nuclear region remained diffuse or complex, rarely if ever showing a stellar appearance. The fading was much more rapid after the second burst. The grazing encounter distributed a volume of large chunks in the neighborhood of the nucleus, maintaining activity for weeks.

  4. Simulating coronas in color.

    PubMed

    Gedzelman, Stanley D; Lock, James A

    2003-01-20

    Coronas are simulated in color by use of the Mie scattering theory of light by small droplets through clouds of finite optical thickness embedded in a Rayleigh scattering atmosphere. The primary factors that affect color, visibility, and number of rings of coronas are droplet size, width of the size distribution, and cloud optical thickness. The color sequence of coronas and iridescence varies when the droplet radius is smaller than approximately 6-microm. As radius increases to approximately 3.5 microm, new color bands appear at the center of the corona and fade as they move outward. As the radius continues to increase to approximately 6 microm, successively more inner rings become fixed in the manner described by classical diffraction theory, while outer rings continue their outward migration. Wave clouds or rippled cloud segments produce the brightest and most vivid multiple ringed coronas and iridescence because their integrated dropsize distributions along sunbeams are much narrower than in convective or stratiform clouds. The visibility of coronas and the appearance of the background sky vary with cloud optical depth tau. First the corona becomes visible as a white aureole in a blue sky when tau approximately 0.001. Color purity then rapidly increases to an almost flat maximum in the range 0.05 < or = tau < or = 0.5 and then decreases, so coronas are almost completely washed out by a bright gray background when tau > or = 4.

  5. Image modulation in corona discharge photography.

    PubMed

    Pehek, J O; Kyler, H J; Faust, D L

    1976-10-15

    Photographic images obtained by the Kirlian technique are principally a record of corona activity during an exposure interval. Most of the variations in the images of the corona of a living subject who is in contact with the photographic film can be accounted for by the presence of moisture on or within the subject's surface. During exposure, moisture is transferred from the subject to the emulsion surface of the photographic film and causes an alteration of the electric charge pattern on the film, hence the electric field at the surface of the subject. As a result, large variations in the density of corona images, corona streamer trajectories, and image coloration can be brought about. The radial extent of corona images--that is, the range of corona streamers--is an inverse function of the resistance in the circuit formed by the high-voltage supply, the subject, and the film-electrode configuration. This is because the voltage at which corona is initiated is dependent on the rate of rise of the voltage impressed between the subject and the electrode, and the rate of rise is governed by the applied voltage waveform and the voltage drop across the resistance. The range of streamers is proportional to the corona onset voltage. However, we have not seen any influence of large changes in skin resistance on streamer range. Presumably, this is due to the shunting effect of skin capacitance. In general, the photographic response to moisture suggests that corona discharge photography may be useful in the detection and quantification of moisture in animate and inanimate specimens through the orderly modulation of the image due to various levels of moisture. PMID:968480

  6. Characteristics of a corona discharge with a hot corona electrode

    SciTech Connect

    Kulumbaev, E. B.; Lelevkin, V. M.; Niyazaliev, I. A.; Tokarev, A. V.

    2011-08-15

    The effect of the temperature of the corona electrode on the electrical characteristics of a corona discharge was studied experimentally. A modified Townsend formula for the current-voltage characteristic of a one-dimensional corona is proposed. Gasdynamic and thermal characteristics of a positive corona discharge in a coaxial electrode system are calculated. The calculated results are compared with the experimental data.

  7. CALCULATING ENERGY STORAGE DUE TO TOPOLOGICAL CHANGES IN EMERGING ACTIVE REGION NOAA AR 11112

    SciTech Connect

    Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, Dana

    2012-04-10

    The minimum current corona model provides a way to estimate stored coronal energy using the number of field lines connecting regions of positive and negative photospheric flux. This information is quantified by the net flux connecting pairs of opposing regions in a connectivity matrix. Changes in the coronal magnetic field, due to processes such as magnetic reconnection, manifest themselves as changes in the connectivity matrix. However, the connectivity matrix will also change when flux sources emerge or submerge through the photosphere, as often happens in active regions. We have developed an algorithm to estimate the changes in flux due to emergence and submergence of magnetic flux sources. These estimated changes must be accounted for in order to quantify storage and release of magnetic energy in the corona. To perform this calculation over extended periods of time, we must additionally have a consistently labeled connectivity matrix over the entire observational time span. We have therefore developed an automated tracking algorithm to generate a consistent connectivity matrix as the photospheric source regions evolve over time. We have applied this method to NOAA Active Region 11112, which underwent a GOES M2.9 class flare around 19:00 on 2010 October 16th, and calculated a lower bound on the free magnetic energy buildup of {approx}8.25 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg over 3 days.

  8. Numerical Simulations of Helicity Condensation in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhao, L.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2015-01-01

    The helicity condensation model has been proposed by Antiochos (2013) to explain the observed smoothness of coronal loops and the observed buildup of magnetic shear at filament channels. The basic hypothesis of the model is that magnetic reconnection in the corona causes the magnetic stress injected by photospheric motions to collect only at those special locations where prominences form. In this work we present the first detailed quantitative MHD simulations of the reconnection evolution proposed by the helicity condensation model. We use the well-known ansatz of modeling the closed corona as an initially uniform field between two horizontal photospheric plates. The system is driven by applying photospheric rotational flows that inject magnetic helicity into the system. The flows are confined to a finite region on the photosphere so as to mimic the finite flux system of, for example, a bipolar active region. The calculations demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, coronal loops having opposite helicity do not reconnect, whereas loops having the same sense of helicity do reconnect. Furthermore, we find that for a given amount of helicity injected into the corona, the evolution of the magnetic shear is insensitive to whether the pattern of driving photospheric motions is fixed or quasi-random. In all cases, the shear propagates via reconnection to the boundary of the flow region while the total magnetic helicity is conserved, as predicted by the model. We discuss the implications of our results for solar observations and for future, more realistic simulations of the helicity condensation process.

  9. Solar C: Scatter-Free Observatory for Limb Active Regions and Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The SOLARC observatory is a 0.5m off-axis reflecting coronagraph. NASA SRT funding has allowed the completion of this telescope facility, which we believe is now the world's largest operational coronagraph. We have achieved our proposal goals both in the development of the new technology for this facility and in the demonstration of its scientific and educational potential: 1) The SOLARC engineering development was successful and has spawned other similar instruments. The off-axis design of ATST (a new 4m telescope) has benefited from the SOLARC development. The off-axis 1.6m NST facility at BBSO is also now under construction and will be the world's largest solar disk observing telescope until ATST is completed. Both of these telescope designs are derivatives of the SOLARC 0.5m off-axis. Some of this technical development is described in the publications. 2) The most important scientific goal of SOLARC has been to demonstrate that coronal magnetic fields can be measured using infrared spectropolarimetry techniques. With the completion of the optical fiber-bundle imaging spectropolarimeter we have measured the coronal field strength with a sensitivity to the line-of-sight field component of 2G at 150,OOOkm above the limb. We believe this capability opens new opportunities for space weather, and coronal physics research. In particular we have demonstrated a new tool for understanding the effect of the Sun on the terrestrial space environment. A paper reporting these results has recently been submitted to the Astrophysical Journal Letters.

  10. Active region upflows. II. Data driven magnetohydrodynamic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galsgaard, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Vanninathan, K.; Huang, Z.; Presmann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Observations of many active regions show a slow systematic outflow/upflow from their edges lasting from hours to days. At present no physical explanation has been proven, while several suggestions have been put forward. Aims: This paper investigates one possible method for maintaining these upflows assuming, that convective motions drive the magnetic field to initiate them through magnetic reconnection. Methods: We use Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) data to provide an initial potential 3D magnetic field of the active region NOAA 11123 on 2010 November 13 where the characteristic upflow velocities are observed. A simple 1D hydrostatic atmospheric model covering the region from the photosphere to the corona is derived. Local correlation tracking of the magnetic features in the HMI data is used to derive a proxy for the time dependent velocity field. The time dependent evolution of the system is solved using a resistive 3D magnetohydrodynamic code. Results: The magnetic field contains several null points located well above the photosphere, with their fan planes dividing the magnetic field into independent open and closed flux domains. The stressing of the interfaces between the different flux domains is expected to provide locations where magnetic reconnection can take place and drive systematic flows. In this case, the region between the closed and open flux is identified as the region where observations find the systematic upflows. Conclusions: In the present experiment, the driving only initiates magneto-acoustic waves without driving any systematic upflows at any of the flux interfaces. Movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  11. Disease specific protein corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahman, M.; Mahmoudi, M.

    2015-03-01

    It is now well accepted that upon their entrance into the biological environments, the surface of nanomaterials would be covered by various biomacromolecules (e.g., proteins and lipids). The absorption of these biomolecules, so called `protein corona', onto the surface of (nano)biomaterials confers them a new `biological identity'. Although the formation of protein coronas on the surface of nanoparticles has been widely investigated, there are few reports on the effect of various diseases on the biological identity of nanoparticles. As the type of diseases may tremendously changes the composition of the protein source (e.g., human plasma/serum), one can expect that amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona composition may be varied, in disease type manner. Here, we show that corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles (after interaction with in the plasma of the healthy individuals) could induce unfolding of fibrinogen, which promotes release of the inflammatory cytokines. However, no considerable releases of inflammatory cytokines were observed for corona coated graphene sheets. In contrast, the obtained corona coated silica and polystyrene nanoparticles from the hypofibrinogenemia patients could not induce inflammatory cytokine release where graphene sheets do. Therefore, one can expect that disease-specific protein coronas can provide a novel approach for applying nanomedicine to personalized medicine, improving diagnosis and treatment of different diseases tailored to the specific conditions and circumstances.

  12. The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran

    2000-01-01

    This report covers technical progress during the third year of the NASA Space Physics Theory contract "The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona," between NASA and Science Applications International Corporation, and covers the period June 16, 1998 to August 15, 1999. This is also the final report for this contract. Under this contract SAIC, the University of California, Irvine (UCI), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), have conducted research into theoretical modeling of active regions, the solar corona, and the inner heliosphere, using the MHD model. During the three-year duration of this contract we have published 49 articles in the scientific literature. These publications are listed in Section 3 of this report. In the Appendix we have attached reprints of selected articles. We summarize our progress during the third year of the contract. Full descriptions of our work can be found in the cited publications, a few of which are attached to this report.

  13. Global Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linker, Jon A.

    1998-01-01

    The coronal magnetic field defines the structure of the solar corona, the position of the heliospheric current sheet, the regions of fast and slow solar wind, and the most likely sites of coronal mass ejections. There are few measurements of the magnetic fields in the corona, but the line-of-sight component of the global magnetic fields in the photosphere have been routinely measured for many years (for example, at Stanford's Wilcox Solar Observatory, and at the National Solar Observatory at Kitt Peak). The SOI/MDI instrument is now providing high-resolution full-disk magnetograms several times a day. Understanding the large-scale structure of the solar corona and inner heliosphere requires accurately mapping the measured photospheric magnetic field into the corona and outward. Ideally, a model should not only extrapolate the magnetic field, but should self-consistently reconstruct both the plasma and magnetic fields in the corona and solar wind. Support from our NASA SR&T contract has allowed us to develop three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) computations of the solar corona that incorporate observed photospheric magnetic fields into the boundary conditions. These calculations not only describe the magnetic field in the corona and interplanetary spice, but also predict the plasma properties as well. Our computations thus far have been successful in reproducing many aspects of both coronal and interplanetary data, including the structure of the streamer belt, the location of coronal hole boundaries, and the position and shape of the heliospheric current sheet. The most widely used technique for extrapolating the photospheric magnetic field into the corona and heliosphere are potential field models, such as the potential field source-surface model (PFSS),and the potential field current-sheet (PFCS) model

  14. The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona and Inner Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran; Grebowsky, J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    This report covers technical progress during the fourth quarter of the second year of NASA Sun-Earth Connections Theory Program (SECTP) contract "The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona and Inner Heliosphere," NAS5-99188, between NASA and Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC), and covers the period May 16, 2001 to August 15, 2001. Under this contract SAIC and the University of California, Irvine (UCI) have conducted research into theoretical modeling of active regions, the solar corona, and the inner heliosphere, using the MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) model.

  15. Ground-based observations of the corona in the visible and NIR spectral ranges

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epple, Alexander; Schwenn, Rainer

    1995-01-01

    Since late 1993 we have been using a mirror coronagraph on Pic du Midi (PICO) to observe the solar emission corona in several spectral lines of (FE-X), (FE-XIII), and (FE-XIV). For good meteorological conditions the diffuse corona and coronal holes in between can be seen out to 1.2 solar mass for sun center. Active regions can be mapped to bond 1.5 solar mass in the green and infrared lines. Recent observations of PICO are presented.

  16. The Magnetic Helicity Budget of Solar Active Regions and Coronal Mass Ejections

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nindos, A.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, H.

    2003-01-01

    We compute the magnetic helicity injected by transient photospheric horizontal flows in six solar active regions associated with halo coronal mass ejections (CMEs) that produced major geomagnetic storms and magnetic clouds (MCs) at 1 AU. The velocities are computed using the local correlation tracking (LCT) method. Our computations cover time intervals of 1 10-150 hr, and in four active regions the accumulated helicities due to transient flows are factors of 8-12 larger than the accumulated helicities due to differential rotation. As was first pointed out by DCmoulin and Berger, we suggest that the helicity computed with the LCT method yields not only the helicity injected from shearing motions but also the helicity coming from flux emergence. We compare the computed helicities injected into the corona with the helicities carried away by the CMEs using the MC helicity computations as proxies to the CME helicities. If we assume that the length of the MC flux tubes is I = 2 AU, then the total helicities injected into the corona are a factor of 2.94 lower than the total CME helicities. If we use the values of 1 determined by the condition for the initiation of the kink instability in the coronal flux rope or I = 0.5 AU then the total CME helicities and the total helicities injected into the corona are broadly consistent. Our study, at least partially, clears up some of the discrepancies in the helicity budget of active regions because the discrepancies appearing in our paper are much smaller than the ones reported in previous studies. However, they point out the uncertainties in the MC/CME helicity calculations and also the limitations of the LCT method, which underestimates the computed helicities.

  17. Mass and Energy Transfer Between the Solar Photosphere and Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peter, H.

    2015-12-01

    The problem of chromospheric and coronal heating is also a problem of mass supply to the corona. On average we see redshifts at transition region temperatures of the order of 10 km/s. If interpreted as downflows, this would quickly empty the corona, and fresh material has to be transported into the corona. Several models have been proposed to understand this mass cycle between the different atmospheric layers. However, as of yet all these proposals have serious shortcomings. On the observational side open questions remain, too. With the new IRIS mission we can observe the transition region at unprecedented spatial and spectral resolution, but the observational results are still puzzling. In particular the finding that the spatial distribution of line widths and Doppler shifts do not change with increasing resolution is against physical intuition. This shows that even with IRIS we still have significant velocity gradients along the line-of-sight, indicating that shocks might play a significant role. Likewise the temporal evolution might be a key for our understanding of the mass cycle. It might well be that the filling and draining of hot plasma occurs on significantly different time scales, which might be part of the difficulty to arrive at a conclusive observational picture. Considering the progress made for the quiet Sun, it seems clear that the processes responsible for the mass exchange are not resolved (yet). Therefore one might wonder to what extent one could use larger and resolved individual events in more active parts of the Sun to understand the details of the mass transport. In particular a common understanding of reconnection events such as Ellerman bombs in the photosphere, explosive events in the transition region and the recently discovered IRIS bombs in-between might provide the key to better understand the mass cycle throughout the atmospheric layers from the photosphere to the corona.

  18. Numerical Simulations of Helicity Condensation in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, L.; DeVore, C. R.; Antiochos, S. K.; Zurbuchen, T. H.

    2015-05-01

    The helicity condensation model has been proposed by Antiochos to explain the observed smoothness of coronal loops and the observed buildup of magnetic shear at filament channels. The basic hypothesis of the model is that magnetic reconnection in the corona causes the magnetic stress injected by photospheric motions to collect only at those special locations where prominences are observed to form. In this work we present the first detailed quantitative MHD simulations of the reconnection evolution proposed by the helicity condensation model. We use the well-known ansatz of modeling the closed corona as an initially uniform field between two horizontal photospheric plates. The system is driven by applying photospheric rotational flows that inject magnetic helicity into the corona. The flows are confined to a finite region on the photosphere so as to mimic the finite flux system of a bipolar active region, for example. The calculations demonstrate that, contrary to common belief, opposite helicity twists do not lead to significant reconnection in such a coronal system, whereas twists with the same sense of helicity do produce substantial reconnection. Furthermore, we find that for a given amount of helicity injected into the corona, the evolution of the magnetic shear is insensitive to whether the pattern of driving photospheric motions is fixed or quasi-random. In all cases, the shear propagates via reconnection to the boundary of the flow region while the total magnetic helicity is conserved, as predicted by the model. We discuss the implications of our results for solar observations and for future, more realistic simulations of the helicity condensation process.

  19. Temperature structure of active regions deduced from helium-like sulphur lines

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watanabe, Tetsuya; Hara, Hirohisa; Shimizu, Toshifumi; Hiei, Eijiro; Bentley, Robert D.; Lang, James; Phillips, Kenneth J. H.; Pike, C. David; Fludra, Andrzej; Bromage, Barbara J. I.

    1995-01-01

    Solar active-region temperatures have been determined from the full-Sun spectra of helium-like sulfur (S XV) observed by the Bragg Crystal Spectrometer on Board the Yohkoh satellite. The average temperature deduced from S XV is demonstrated to vary with the solar activity level: A temperature of 2.5 x 10(exp 6) K is derived from the spectra taken during low solar activity, similar to the general corona, while 4 x 10(exp 6) K is obtained during a higher activity phase. For the latter, the high- temperature tail of the differential emission measure of active regions is found most likely due to the superposition of numerous flare-like events (micro/nano-flares).

  20. Stellar chromospheres, coronae, and winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cassinelli, J. P.; Macgregor, K. B.

    1986-01-01

    It has now been found that one or more of the phenomena of chromospheres, coronae, and winds are present in stars of every class. A review is provided of the observational and theoretical results pertaining to the thermal and dynamical structure of early- and late-type stellar atmospheres. Single stars either on the main sequence or in the postmain sequence stages of evolution are considered. In the context of a study of late-type stars, the specific case of the sun is also examined. The observational evidence for the presence of chromospheres in late-type stellar atmospheres is discussed, taking into account spectral diagnostics and line formation, an observational summary and aspects of location in the H-R diagram, and the Wilson-Bappu effect. Attention is also given to observational evidence for the presence of transition regions and coronae in late-type stellar atmospheres, chromospheric and coronal heating mechanisms, observational evidence for mass loss, and the winds and coronae of early-type stars.

  1. Stellar chromospheres, coronae, and winds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cassinelli, J. P.; MacGregor, K. B.

    It has now been found that one or more of the phenomena of chromospheres, coronae, and winds are present in stars of every class. A review is provided of the observational and theoretical results pertaining to the thermal and dynamical structure of early- and late-type stellar atmospheres. Single stars either on the main sequence or in the postmain sequence stages of evolution are considered. In the context of a study of late-type stars, the specific case of the sun is also examined. The observational evidence for the presence of chromospheres in late-type stellar atmospheres is discussed, taking into account spectral diagnostics and line formation, an observational summary and aspects of location in the H-R diagram, and the Wilson-Bappu effect. Attention is also given to observational evidence for the presence of transition regions and coronae in late-type stellar atmospheres, chromospheric and coronal heating mechanisms, observational evidence for mass loss, and the winds and coronae of early-type stars.

  2. High Spatial Resolution Fe XII Observations of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Paola; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo

    2016-08-01

    We use UV spectral observations of active regions with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to investigate the properties of the coronal Fe xii 1349.4 Å emission at unprecedented high spatial resolution (˜0.33″). We find that by using appropriate observational strategies (i.e., long exposures, lossless compression), Fe xii emission can be studied with IRIS at high spatial and spectral resolution, at least for high-density plasma (e.g., post-flare loops and active region moss). We find that upper transition region (TR; moss) Fe xii emission shows very small average Doppler redshifts ({v}{{D}} ˜ 3 km s‑1) as well as modest non-thermal velocities (with an average of ˜24 km s‑1 and the peak of the distribution at ˜15 km s‑1). The observed distribution of Doppler shifts appears to be compatible with advanced three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations in which impulsive heating is concentrated at the TR footpoints of a hot corona. While the non-thermal broadening of Fe xii 1349.4 Å peaks at similar values as lower resolution simultaneous Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) measurements of Fe xii 195 Å, IRIS observations show a previously undetected tail of increased non-thermal broadening that might be suggestive of the presence of subarcsecond heating events. We find that IRIS and EIS non-thermal line broadening measurements are affected by instrumental effects that can only be removed through careful analysis. Our results also reveal an unexplained discrepancy between observed 195.1/1349.4 Å Fe xii intensity ratios and those predicted by the CHIANTI atomic database.

  3. High Spatial Resolution Fe XII Observations of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Paola; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo

    2016-08-01

    We use UV spectral observations of active regions with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to investigate the properties of the coronal Fe xii 1349.4 Å emission at unprecedented high spatial resolution (˜0.33″). We find that by using appropriate observational strategies (i.e., long exposures, lossless compression), Fe xii emission can be studied with IRIS at high spatial and spectral resolution, at least for high-density plasma (e.g., post-flare loops and active region moss). We find that upper transition region (TR; moss) Fe xii emission shows very small average Doppler redshifts ({v}{{D}} ˜ 3 km s-1) as well as modest non-thermal velocities (with an average of ˜24 km s-1 and the peak of the distribution at ˜15 km s-1). The observed distribution of Doppler shifts appears to be compatible with advanced three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations in which impulsive heating is concentrated at the TR footpoints of a hot corona. While the non-thermal broadening of Fe xii 1349.4 Å peaks at similar values as lower resolution simultaneous Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) measurements of Fe xii 195 Å, IRIS observations show a previously undetected tail of increased non-thermal broadening that might be suggestive of the presence of subarcsecond heating events. We find that IRIS and EIS non-thermal line broadening measurements are affected by instrumental effects that can only be removed through careful analysis. Our results also reveal an unexplained discrepancy between observed 195.1/1349.4 Å Fe xii intensity ratios and those predicted by the CHIANTI atomic database.

  4. X-ray emitting hot plasma in solar active regions observed by the SphinX spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miceli, M.; Reale, F.; Gburek, S.; Terzo, S.; Barbera, M.; Collura, A.; Sylwester, J.; Kowalinski, M.; Podgorski, P.; Gryciuk, M.

    2012-08-01

    Aims: The detection of very hot plasma in the quiescent corona is important for diagnosing heating mechanisms. The presence and the amount of such hot plasma is currently debated. The SphinX instrument on-board the CORONAS-PHOTON mission is sensitive to X-ray emission of energies well above 1 keV and provides the opportunity to detect the hot plasma component. Methods: We analysed the X-ray spectra of the solar corona collected by the SphinX spectrometer in May 2009 (when two active regions were present). We modelled the spectrum extracted from the whole Sun over a time window of 17 days in the 1.34-7 keV energy band by adopting the latest release of the APED database. Results: The SphinX broadband spectrum cannot be modelled by a single isothermal component of optically thin plasma and two components are necessary. In particular, the high statistical significance of the count rates and the accurate calibration of the spectrometer allowed us to detect a very hot component at ~7 million K with an emission measure of ~2.7 × 1044 cm-3. The X-ray emission from the hot plasma dominates the solar X-ray spectrum above 4 keV. We checked that this hot component is invariably present in both the high and low emission regimes, i.e. even excluding resolvable microflares. We also present and discuss the possibility of a non-thermal origin (which would be compatible with a weak contribution from thick-target bremsstrahlung) for this hard emission component. Conclusions: Our results support the nanoflare scenario and might confirm that a minor flaring activity is ever-present in the quiescent corona, as also inferred for the coronae of other stars.

  5. Scintillation effects on radio wave propagation through solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ho, C. M.; Sue, M. K.; Bedrossian, A.; Sniffin, R. W.

    2002-01-01

    When RF waves pass through the solar corona and solar wind regions close to the Sun, strong scintillation effects appear at their amplitude, frequency and phase, especially in the regions very close to the Sun (less than 4 solar radius).

  6. The structure of the white-light corona and the large-scale solar magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sime, D. G.; Mccabe, M. K.

    1990-01-01

    The large-scale density structure of the white-light solar corona is compared to the organization of the solar magnetic field as identified by the appearance of neutral lines in the photosphere to examine whether any consistent relationship exists between the two. During the period covering Carrington rotations 1717 to 1736 brightness enhancements in the low corona tend to lie over the global neutral sheet identified in the photospheric magnetic field. The brightest of these enhancements are associated with neutral lines throguh active regions. These associations are not 1-1, but do hold both in stable and evolving conditions of the corona. A significant number of long-lived neutral lines is found, including filaments seen in H-alpha, for which there are not coronal enhancements.

  7. DC corona ozone generation enhanced by TiO2 photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekã¡Rek, S.

    2008-12-01

    Non-thermal electrical discharges, such as corona discharge are apart of the source of ozone, charged, and excited species and acoustic noise also the source of electromagnetic radiation of different wavelengths. The important component of this radiation from the standpoint of photocatalyst activation is the ultraviolet radiation. We studied the role of UV radiation on corona discharge ozone production by placing the titanium dioxide photocatalyst into the discharge region. We used hollow needle to mesh DC corona discharge at atmospheric pressure with TiO2 globules on the mesh. The discharge was enhanced by the flow of air through the needle. We found that for the needle biased negatively addition of TiO2 photocatalyst on the mesh electrode drastically increases discharge ozone production as well as the ozone production yield. These quantities are also influenced by the mass of the used photocatalyst and its distribution in the discharge chamber.

  8. Emission measure distribution for diffuse regions in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Srividya; Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2014-11-01

    Our knowledge of the diffuse emission that encompasses active regions is very limited. In this paper we investigate two off-limb active regions, namely, AR 10939 and AR 10961, to probe the underlying heating mechanisms. For this purpose, we have used spectral observations from Hinode/EIS and employed the emission measure (EM) technique to obtain the thermal structure of these diffuse regions. Our results show that the characteristic EM distributions of the diffuse emission regions peak at log T = 6.25 and the coolward slopes are in the range 1.4-3.3. This suggests that both low- as well as high-frequency nanoflare heating events are at work. Our results provide additional constraints on the properties of these diffuse emission regions and their contribution to the background/foreground when active region cores are observed on-disk.

  9. The temperature structure and pressure balance of magnetic loops in active regions. [in solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foukal, P.

    1975-01-01

    EUV observations show many active region loops in lines formed at temperatures between 10,000 and 2,000,000 K. The brightest loops are associated with flux tubes leading to the umbrae of sunspots. It is shown that the high visibility of certain loops in transition region lines is due principally to a sharp radial decrease of temperature to chromospheric values toward the loop axis. The plasma density of these cool loops is not significantly greater than in the hot gas immediately surrounding it. Consequently, the internal gas pressure of the cool material is clearly lower. The hot material immediately surrounding the cool loops is generally denser than the external corona by a factor 3-4. When the active region is examined in coronal lines, this hot high pressure plasma shows up as loops that are generally parallel to the cool loops but significantly displaced laterally.

  10. Large-scale volcanism associated with coronae on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, K. Magee; Head, James W.

    1993-01-01

    The formation and evolution of coronae on Venus are thought to be the result of mantle upwellings against the crust and lithosphere and subsequent gravitational relaxation. A variety of other features on Venus have been linked to processes associated with mantle upwelling, including shield volcanoes on large regional rises such as Beta, Atla and Western Eistla Regiones and extensive flow fields such as Mylitta and Kaiwan Fluctus near the Lada Terra/Lavinia Planitia boundary. Of these features, coronae appear to possess the smallest amounts of associated volcanism, although volcanism associated with coronae has only been qualitatively examined. An initial survey of coronae based on recent Magellan data indicated that only 9 percent of all coronae are associated with substantial amounts of volcanism, including interior calderas or edifices greater than 50 km in diameter and extensive, exterior radial flow fields. Sixty-eight percent of all coronae were found to have lesser amounts of volcanism, including interior flooding and associated volcanic domes and small shields; the remaining coronae were considered deficient in associated volcanism. It is possible that coronae are related to mantle plumes or diapirs that are lower in volume or in partial melt than those associated with the large shields or flow fields. Regional tectonics or variations in local crustal and thermal structure may also be significant in determining the amount of volcanism produced from an upwelling. It is also possible that flow fields associated with some coronae are sheet-like in nature and may not be readily identified. If coronae are associated with volcanic flow fields, then they may be a significant contributor to plains formation on Venus, as they number over 300 and are widely distributed across the planet. As a continuation of our analysis of large-scale volcanism on Venus, we have reexamined the known population of coronae and assessed quantitatively the scale of volcanism associated

  11. Energy release in the solar corona from spatially resolved magnetic braids.

    PubMed

    Cirtain, J W; Golub, L; Winebarger, A R; De Pontieu, B; Kobayashi, K; Moore, R L; Walsh, R W; Korreck, K E; Weber, M; McCauley, P; Title, A; Kuzin, S; DeForest, C E

    2013-01-24

    It is now apparent that there are at least two heating mechanisms in the Sun's outer atmosphere, or corona. Wave heating may be the prevalent mechanism in quiet solar periods and may contribute to heating the corona to 1,500,000 K (refs 1-3). The active corona needs additional heating to reach 2,000,000-4,000,000 K; this heat has been theoretically proposed to come from the reconnection and unravelling of magnetic 'braids'. Evidence favouring that process has been inferred, but has not been generally accepted because observations are sparse and, in general, the braided magnetic strands that are thought to have an angular width of about 0.2 arc seconds have not been resolved. Fine-scale braiding has been seen in the chromosphere but not, until now, in the corona. Here we report observations, at a resolution of 0.2 arc seconds, of magnetic braids in a coronal active region that are reconnecting, relaxing and dissipating sufficient energy to heat the structures to about 4,000,000 K. Although our 5-minute observations cannot unambiguously identify the field reconnection and subsequent relaxation as the dominant heating mechanism throughout active regions, the energy available from the observed field relaxation in our example is ample for the observed heating. PMID:23344359

  12. A Tale of Two Super-Active Active Regions: On the Magnetic Origin of Flares and CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Dhakal, Suman; Chintzoglou, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    From a comparative study of two super-active active regions, we find that the magnetic origin of CMEs is different from that of flares. NOAA AR 12192 is one of the largest active regions in the recorded history with a sunspot number of 66 and area of 2410 millonths. During its passage through the front disk from Oct. 14-30, 2014, the active region produced 93 C-class, 30 M-class and 6 X-class flares. However, all six X-class flares are confined; in other words, none of them are associated with CMEs; most other flares are also confined. This behavior of low-CME production rate for such as a super active region is rather peculiar, given the usual hand-on-hand occurrence of CMEs with flares. To further strengthen this point, we also investigated the super-active NOAA AR 11429, which had a sunspot number of 28 and area of 1270 millionths. During its passage from March 02-17, 2012, the active region produced 47 C-class, 15 M-class and 3 X-class flares. In this active region, all three X-class flares were accompanied by CMEs, and the same for most M-class flares. Given the relative sizes of the two active regions, the production rates of flares are comparable. But the CME production rates are not. Through a careful study of the magnetic configuration on the surface and the extrapolated magnetic field in the corona, we argue that the generation of flares largely depends on the amount of free energy in the active region. On the other hand, the generation of CMEs largely depends on the complexity, such as measured by magnetic helicity. In particular, we argue that the high CME generation rate in the smaller active region is caused by the emergence and continuous generation of magnetic flux ropes in the region.

  13. Forward Modeling of Synthetic EUV/SXR Emission from Solar Coronal Active Regions: Case of AR 11117

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, V. S.; Allred, J.

    2015-01-01

    Recent progress in obtaining high spatial resolution images of the solar corona in the extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) with Hinode, TRACE, SDO and recent Hi-C missions and soft X-ray (SXR) bands opened a new avenue in understanding the solar coronal heating, the major goal of solar physics. The data from EUV/SXR missions suggest that solar corona is a non-uniform environment structured into active regions (AR) represented by bundles magnetic loops heated to temperatures exceeding 5 MK. Any viable coronal heating model should be capable of reproducing EUV and SXR emission from coronal active regions well as dynamic activity. Measurements of emission measures (EM) for ARs provide clues to time dependence of the heating mechanism: static versus impulsive. While static equilibrium coronal loop models are successful in reproducing SXR emission within an AR, they cannot adequately predict the bright EUV loops. Meantime, impulsive heating is capable in reproducing both EUV and SXR loop emission. The major goal of this paper is to construct realistic synthetic EM images of specific solar corona active region, AR 11117 by using our 1D fully non-linear time-dependent single-fluid hydrodynamic code. We first construct a magnetic skeleton for the entire active region using the HMI/SDO magnetogram for AR 11117 and populate magnetic field lines with plasma. We then parametrically specify impulsive heating of individual strands (flux tubes) comprising coronal loops. Next, we simulated the response of the entire active region (with LOS projection effects) to the heating function (volumetric heating rate) scaled with magnetic field and spatial scale parameters and find the best match between synthetic and actual (reconstructed) DEMs obtained by SDO.

  14. Evolution of Magnetic Field Twist and Tilt in Active Region NOAA 10930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindra, B.; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar

    2011-07-01

    Magnetic twist of the active region has been measured over a decade using photospheric vector field data, chromospheric H_alpha data, and coronal loop data. The twist and tilt of the active regions have been measured at the photospheric level with the vector magnetic field measurements. The active region NOAA 10930 is a highly twisted emerging region. The same active region produced several flares and has been extensively observed by Hinode. In this paper, we will show the evolution of twist and tilt in this active region leading up to the two X-class flares. We find that the twist initially increases with time for a few days with a simultaneous decrease in the tilt until before the X3.4 class flare on December 13, 2006. The total twist acquired by the active region is larger than one complete winding before the X3.4 class flare and it decreases in later part of observations. The injected helicity into the corona is negative and it is in excess of 10^43 Mx^2 before the flares.

  15. Cooperative magnetographic and radioastronomical investigations of the active solar region AR 3804 in July 1982.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akhmedov, Sh. B.; Borovik, V. N.; Gel'Frejkh, G. B.; Bogod, V. M.; Korzhavin, A. N.; Petrov, Z. E.; Hofmann, A.; Bachmann, G.

    An analysis of the radiation peculiar source in the active solar region AR 3804 is presented using the magnetograms obtained at ZIAP AW DDR in Potsdam. The source is on the border line of polarities of the photospheric magnetic field above the filament and has the flux spectrum increasing with the wavelength, the brightness temperature at 4 cm being above 6×106K, and the logarithm spectrum slope in the shortwave region (λ = 2 cm) being about n = 10. The polarization degree within 2 - 4 cm is close to 30%. An analysis of magnetograms of the total field vector showed that in the source region there is observed a density increase of the longitudinal current in the photosphere, this increase having different signs on different sides from the zero magnetic line. Near the source there is observed a magnetic field hill of the reverse polarity relative to the background field. It is suggested to relate the source with the magnetic loop of the "twisted" field in the corona in which the local energy emission and corona heating due to dissipation of magnetic fields of complex configuration occur (apparently, with the current sheet formation).

  16. THE CONFINED X-CLASS FLARES OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGION 2192

    SciTech Connect

    Thalmann, J. K.; Su, Y.; Temmer, M.; Veronig, A. M.

    2015-03-10

    The unusually large active region (AR) NOAA 2192, observed in 2014 October, was outstanding in its productivity of major two-ribbon flares without coronal mass ejections. On a large scale, a predominantly north–south oriented magnetic system of arcade fields served as a strong top and lateral confinement for a series of large two-ribbon flares originating from the core of the AR. The large initial separation of the flare ribbons, together with an almost absent growth in ribbon separation, suggests a confined reconnection site high up in the corona. Based on a detailed analysis of the confined X1.6 flare on October 22, we show how exceptional the flaring of this AR was. We provide evidence for repeated energy release, indicating that the same magnetic field structures were repeatedly involved in magnetic reconnection. We find that a large number of electrons was accelerated to non-thermal energies, revealing a steep power-law spectrum, but that only a small fraction was accelerated to high energies. The total non-thermal energy in electrons derived (on the order of 10{sup 25} J) is considerably higher than that in eruptive flares of class X1, and corresponds to about 10% of the excess magnetic energy present in the active-region corona.

  17. Some initial applications of the new BEM extrapolation code for reconstructing the coronal magnetic field above solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Yan, Y.; Su, J.; Devel, M.; Song, G.

    Magnetic fields play an important role in many physical events occurring in the solar atmosphere However reliable magnetic field measurements in the corona are still facing technical difficulties unconquerable today For many years photospherical magnetograms have been combined with various field extrapolation methods to reconstruct the magnetic fields in the corona under the force-free field assumption In this paper we present some initial results obtained by our recently rebuilt BEM extrapolation code for reconstructing the coronal magnetic field above the solar active regions Equipped with 10 iterative solvers of linear systems found in the SPARSKIT package the new BEM extrapolation code has the merits of efficiency and easy usage Some 3D visualization codes are also developed with which the twists and sigmoidal shapes in the reconstructed 3D magnetic fields can be illustrated more properly

  18. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE ASYMMETRIC HELICITY INJECTION IN EMERGING ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Y.; Alexander, D.; Tian, L.

    2009-12-10

    To explore the possible causes of the observed asymmetric helicity flux in emerging active regions between the leading and following polarities reported in a recent study by Tian and Alexander, we examine the subsurface evolution of buoyantly rising OMEGA-shaped flux tubes using three-dimensional, spherical-shell anelastic MHD simulations. We find that due to the asymmetric stretching of the OMEGA-shaped tube by the Coriolis force, the leading side of the emerging tube has a greater field strength, is more buoyant, and remains more cohesive compared to the following side. As a result, the magnetic field lines in the leading leg show more coherent values of local twist alpha ident to (nabla x B) centre dot B/B {sup 2}, whereas the values in the following leg show large fluctuations and are of mixed sign. On average, however, the field lines in the leading leg do not show a systematically greater mean twist compared to the following leg. Due to the higher rise velocity of the leading leg, the upward helicity flux through a horizontal cross section at each depth in the upper half of the convection zone is significantly greater in the leading polarity region than that in the following leg. This may contribute to the observed asymmetric helicity flux in emerging active regions. Furthermore, based on a simplified model of active region flux emergence into the corona by Longcope and Welsch, we show that a stronger field strength in the leading tube can result in a faster rotation of the leading polarity sunspot driven by torsional Alfven waves during flux emergence into the corona, contributing to a greater helicity injection rate in the leading polarity of an emerging active region.

  19. Relating Alfvén Wave Heating Model to Observations of a Solar Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoritomo, J. Y.; Van Ballegooijen, A. A.

    2012-12-01

    We compared images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) with simulations of propagating and dissipating Alfvén waves from a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model (van Ballegooijen et. al 2011; Asgari-Targhi & van Ballegooijen 2012). The goal was to search for observational evidence of Alfvén waves in the solar corona and understand their role in coronal heating. We looked at one particular active region on the 5th of May 2012. Certain distinct loops in the SDO/AIA observations were selected and expanded. Movies were created from these selections in an attempt to discover transverse motions that may be Alfvén waves. Using a magnetogram of that day and the corresponding synoptic map, a potential field model was created for the active region. Three-dimensional MHD models for several loops in different locations in the active region were created. Each model specifies the temperature, pressure, magnetic field strength, average heating rate, and other parameters along the loop. We find that the heating is intermittent in the loops and reflection occurs at the transition region. For loops at larger and larger height, a point is reached where thermal non-equilibrium occurs. In the center this critical height is much higher than in the periphery of the active region. Lastly, we find that the average heating rate and coronal pressure decrease with increasing height in the corona. This research was supported by an NSF grant for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (SAO) Solar REU program and a SDO/AIA grant for the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory.

  20. The Main Sequence of Explosive Solar Active Regions: Comparison of Emerging and Mature Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David; Moore, Ron

    2011-01-01

    For mature active regions, an active region s magnetic flux content determines the maximum free energy the active region can have. Most Large flares and CMEs occur in active regions that are near their free-energy limit. Active-region flare power radiated in the GOES 1-8 band increases steeply as the free-energy limit is approached. We infer that the free-energy limit is set by the rate of release of an active region s free magnetic energy by flares, CMEs and coronal heating balancing the maximum rate the Sun can put free energy into the active region s magnetic field. This balance of maximum power results in explosive active regions residing in a "mainsequence" in active-region (flux content, free energy content) phase space, which sequence is analogous to the main sequence of hydrogen-burning stars in (mass, luminosity) phase space.

  1. NASA Sun-Earth Connections Theory Program: The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona and Inner Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran; Grebowsky, Joseph (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report covers technical progress during the first quarter of the second year of NASA Sun-Earth Connections Theory Program (SECTP). SAIC and the University of California, Irvine (UCI) have conducted research into theoretical modeling of active regions, the solar corona, and the inner heliosphere, using the MHD model.

  2. The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona and Inner Heliosphere-First Quarter First Year Progress Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran; Grebowsky, J. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    This report details progress during the first quarter of the first year of our Sun-Earth Connections Theory Program (SECTP) contract. Science Applications International Corporation (SAIC) and the University of California, Irvine (UCI) have conducted research into theoretical modeling of active regions, the solar corona, and the inner heliosphere, using the MHD model.

  3. The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran

    1998-01-01

    This report covers technical progress during the first year of the NASA Space Physics Theory contract between NASA and Science Applications International Corporation. Under this contract SAIC, the University of California, Irvine (UCI), and the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), have conducted research into theoretical modeling of active regions, the solar corona, and the inner heliosphere, using the MHD model. During the period covered by this report we have published 26 articles in the scientific literature. These publications are listed in Section 4 of this report. In the Appendix we have attached reprints of selected articles.

  4. Isothermal, Compton-heated coronae above accretion disks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ostriker, Eve C.; Mckee, Christopher F.; Klein, Richard I.

    1991-01-01

    The structure of Compton-heated coronae above accretion disks is studied here by using analytic and numerical approaches are used here to determine the direct and scattered radiation reaching the base of the corona for a range of central source luminosities. It is found that the outer region of the corona is unaffected by multiple scattering in the interior, provided that the luminosity of the central source is sufficient below the Eddington limit. How attenuation and scattering by the corona affects the strength of chromospheric emission lines is determined, as is the condition for which the irradiation due to the central source exceeds the locally generated flux from the disk. Finally, it is shown that the stability analysis for irradiated accretion disks of Tuchman et al. is not substantially altered by the corona.

  5. The TESIS experiment on the CORONAS-PHOTON spacecraft

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuzin, S. V.; Zhitnik, I. A.; Shestov, S. V.; Bogachev, S. A.; Bugaenko, O. I.; Ignat'ev, A. P.; Pertsov, A. A.; Ulyanov, A. S.; Reva, A. A.; Slemzin, V. A.; Sukhodrev, N. K.; Ivanov, Yu. S.; Goncharov, L. A.; Mitrofanov, A. V.; Popov, S. G.; Shergina, T. A.; Solov'ev, V. A.; Oparin, S. N.; Zykov, A. M.

    2011-04-01

    On February 26, 2009, the first data was obtained in the TESIS experiment on the research of the solar corona using imaging spectroscopy. The TESIS is a part of the scientific equipment of the CORONAS-PHO-TON spacecraft and is designed for imaging the solar corona in soft X-ray and extreme ultraviolet regions of the spectrum with high spatial, spectral, and temporal resolutions at altitudes from the transition region to three solar radii. The article describes the main characteristics of the instrumentation, management features, and operation modes.

  6. A Case of Filament - Active Region Interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dumitrache, C.; Dumitru, L.

    2010-09-01

    We analyze a huge filament observed between 5 and 19 September 2001. In its evolution it is linked to the active region 9612, observed between 7 and 16 September 2001. The filament has a strange morphology and dynamics: starting as two parallel components (A and B), it becomes a double sigmoid filament when a third component (C ) appears linking the other two. An unusual magnetic topology characterizes this evolution: the active region is located between the parallel components. When the third component becomes observable, it links these ones first below the active region. After a spectacular plasma movement registered in filament (A), this one becomes linked to (B) above the active region. In spite of these dramatically changes of the magnetic topology and filament -- active region switch, no CME is observed. Only a few flares occurring in AR9612 are registered and these ones can be seen in the dynamics of the filament as an expression of large scale magnetic reconnections.

  7. Study of the solar corona using radio and space observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dulk, G. A.

    1984-01-01

    The physics of coronal transients, the characteristics of radiation and accelerated particles at the time of flares, and the density/temperature structure of the transition region and corona and the coronal magnetic field are investigated.

  8. Interchange Reconnection in a Turbulent Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D. J.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M. M.

    2012-12-01

    Magnetic reconnection at the interface between coronal holes and loops, so-called interchange reconnection, can release the hotter, denser plasma from magnetically confined regions into the heliosphere, contributing to the formation of the highly variable slow solar wind. In the prevailing ``standard'' view the interchange process is thought to develop in null points (with B=0) preferably at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers, near Y and X-points, from where slow solar wind flows would originate. This standard model does not meet recent observations of slow wind streams from the edges of active regions, that suggest that slow streams are not limited to apex-regions near neutral points (B=0). Furthermore in order to account for the slow wind diffusion (~ 30 degrees) observed in situ around the Heliospheric Current Sheet, within the standard model framework one has to posit that the slow wind would originate from a small fraction, with a complex topology, of the whole coronal hole-loop boundary, namely narrow channels (supposedly at observationally sub-resolution scales) linking coronal holes. However, coronal heating models, with magnetic field lines shuffled by convective motions, show that reconnection can occur continuously in unipolar magnetic field regions with no neutral points. We propose that a similar alternate interchange mechanism operating near boundaries between open and closed regions induces a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivity everywhere along the open-closed boundary. We examine a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of a simplified unipolar interface region between open and closed corona. This boundary is not stationary, becomes fractal, and field lines change connectivity continuously, becoming alternatively open and closed. This model suggests that slow wind may originate everywhere along coronal loop-hole boundaries, a possibility that has major implications for coronal heating and models of the slow solar wind, and accounts

  9. Ultra-fine-scale filamentary structures in the Outer Corona and the Solar Magnetic Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woo, Richard

    2006-01-01

    Filamentary structures following magnetic field lines pervade the Sun's atmosphere and offer us insight into the solar magnetic field. Radio propagation measurements have shown that the smallest filamentary structures in the solar corona are more than 2 orders of magnitude finer than those seen in solar imaging. Here we use radio Doppler measurements to characterize their transverse density gradient and determine their finest scale in the outer corona at 20-30 R(circled dot operator), where open magnetic fields prevail. Filamentary structures overly active regions have the steepest gradient and finest scale, while those overlying coronal holes have the shallowest gradient and least finest scale. Their organization by the underlying corona implies that these subresolution structures extend radially from the entire Sun, confirming that they trace the coronal magnetic field responsible for the radial expansion of the solar wind. That they are rooted all over the Sun elucidates the association between the magnetic field of the photosphere and that of the corona, as revealed by the similarity between the power spectra of the photospheric field and the coronal density fluctuations. This association along with the persistence of filamentary structures far from the Sun demonstrate that subresolution magnetic fields must play an important role not only in magnetic coupling of the photosphere and corona, but also in coronal heating and solar wind acceleration through the process of small-scale magnetic reconnection. They also explain why current widely used theoretical models that extrapolate photospheric magnetic fields into the corona do not predict the correct source of the solar wind.

  10. FIP BIAS EVOLUTION IN A DECAYING ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.; Yardley, S. L.; Driel-Gesztelyi, L. van; Long, D. M.; Green, L. M.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.

    2015-04-01

    Solar coronal plasma composition is typically characterized by first ionization potential (FIP) bias. Using spectra obtained by Hinode’s EUV Imaging Spectrometer instrument, we present a series of large-scale, spatially resolved composition maps of active region (AR)11389. The composition maps show how FIP bias evolves within the decaying AR during the period 2012 January 4–6. Globally, FIP bias decreases throughout the AR. We analyzed areas of significant plasma composition changes within the decaying AR and found that small-scale evolution in the photospheric magnetic field is closely linked to the FIP bias evolution observed in the corona. During the AR’s decay phase, small bipoles emerging within supergranular cells reconnect with the pre-existing AR field, creating a pathway along which photospheric and coronal plasmas can mix. The mixing timescales are shorter than those of plasma enrichment processes. Eruptive activity also results in shifting the FIP bias closer to photospheric in the affected areas. Finally, the FIP bias still remains dominantly coronal only in a part of the AR’s high-flux density core. We conclude that in the decay phase of an AR’s lifetime, the FIP bias is becoming increasingly modulated by episodes of small-scale flux emergence, i.e., decreasing the AR’s overall FIP bias. Our results show that magnetic field evolution plays an important role in compositional changes during AR development, revealing a more complex relationship than expected from previous well-known Skylab results showing that FIP bias increases almost linearly with age in young ARs.

  11. NASA Sun-Earth Connections Theory Program: The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona and Inner Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran; Grebowsky, Joseph M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This report covers technical progress during the fourth quarter of the second year of NASA Sun-Earth Connections Theory Program (SECTP) contract 'The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona and Inner Heliosphere,' NAS5-99188, between NASA and Science Applications International Corporation, and covers the period May 16,2001 to August 15, 2001. Under this contract SAIC and the University of California, Irvine (UCI) have conducted research into theoretical modeling of active regions, the solar corona, and the inner heliosphere, using the MHD model.

  12. Silver nanoparticle protein corona and toxicity: a mini-review.

    PubMed

    Durán, Nelson; Silveira, Camila P; Durán, Marcela; Martinez, Diego Stéfani T

    2015-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are one of the most important materials in the nanotechnology industry. Additionally, the protein corona is emerging as a key entity at the nanobiointerface; thus, a comprehensive understanding of the interactions between proteins and silver nanoparticles is imperative. Therefore, literature reporting studies involving both single molecule protein coronas (i.e., bovine and human serum albumin, tubulin, ubiquitin and hyaluronic-binding protein) and complex protein coronas (i.e., fetal bovine serum and yeast extract proteins) were selected to demonstrate the effects of protein coronas on silver nanoparticle cytotoxicity and antimicrobial activity. There is evidence that distinct and differential protein components may yield a "protein corona signature" that is related to the size and/or surface curvature of the silver nanoparticles. Therefore, the formation of silver nanoparticle protein coronas together with the biological response to these coronas (i.e., oxidative stress, inflammation and cytotoxicity) as well as other cellular biophysicochemical mechanisms (i.e., endocytosis, biotransformation and biodistribution) will be important for nanomedicine and nanotoxicology. Researchers may benefit from the information contained herein to improve biotechnological applications of silver nanoparticles and to address related safety concerns. In summary, the main aim of this mini-review is to highlight the relationship between the formation of silver nanoparticle protein coronas and toxicity. PMID:26337542

  13. Chaotic characteristics of corona discharges in atmospheric air

    SciTech Connect

    Tan Xiangyu; Zhang Qiaogen; Wang Xiuhuan; Sun Fu; Zha Wei; Jia Zhijie

    2008-11-15

    A point-plane electrode system in atmospheric air is established to investigate the mechanism of the corona discharge. By using this system, the current pulses of the corona discharges under the 50 Hz ac voltage are measured using partial discharge (PD) measurement instrument and constitute the point-plane voltage-current (V-I) characteristic equation together with the voltage. Then, this paper constructs the nonlinear circuit model and differential equations of the system in an attempt to give the underlying dynamic mechanism based on the nonlinear V-I characteristics of the point-plane corona discharges. The results show that the chaotic phenomenon is found in the corona circuit by the experimental study and nonlinear dynamic analysis. The basic dynamic characteristics, including the Lyapunov exponent, the existence of the strange attractors, and the equilibrium points, are also found and analyzed in the development process of the corona circuit. Moreover, the time series of the corona current pulses obtained in the experiment is used to demonstrate the chaotic characteristics of the corona current based on the nonlinear dynamic circuit theory and the experimental basis. It is pointed out that the corona phenomenon is not a purely stochastic phenomenon but a short term deterministic chaotic activity.

  14. Scaling laws of coronal loops compared to a 3D MHD model of an active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, Ph.-A.; Bingert, S.; Peter, H.

    2016-05-01

    Context. The structure and heating of coronal loops have been investigated for decades. Established scaling laws relate fundamental quantities like the loop apex temperature, pressure, length, and coronal heating. Aims: We test these scaling laws against a large-scale 3D magneto-hydrodynamics (MHD) model of the solar corona, which became feasible with current high-performance computing. Methods: We drove an active region simulation with photospheric observations and find strong similarities to the observed coronal loops in X-rays and extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wavelength. A 3D reconstruction of stereoscopic observations shows that our model loops have a realistic spatial structure. We compared scaling laws to our model data extracted along an ensemble of field lines. Finally, we fit a new scaling law that represents hot loops and also cooler structures, which was not possible before based only on observations. Results: Our model data gives some support for scaling laws that were established for hot and EUV-emissive coronal loops. For the Rosner-Tucker-Vaiana (RTV) scaling law we find an offset to our model data, which can be explained by 1D considerations of a static loop with a constant heat input and conduction. With a fit to our model data we set up a new scaling law for the coronal heat input along magnetic field lines. Conclusions: RTV-like scaling laws were fitted to hot loops and therefore do not predict well the coronal heat input for cooler structures that are barely observable. The basic differences between 1D and self-consistent 3D modeling account for deviations between earlier scaling laws and ours. We also conclude that a heating mechanism by MHD-turbulent dissipation within a braided flux tube would heat the corona stronger than is consistent with our model corona.

  15. Suppression of Active-Region CME Production by the Presence of Other Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David; Moore, Ron; Barghouty, Abdulnasser; Khazanov, Igor

    2009-01-01

    From the SOHO mission s data base of MDI full-disk magnetograms spanning solar cycle 23, we have obtained a set of 40,000 magnetograms of 1,300 active regions, tracking each active region across the 30 degree central solar disk. Each active region magnetogram is cropped from the full-disk magnetogram by an automated code. The cadence is 96 minutes. From each active-region magnetogram, we have measured two whole-active-region magnetic quantities: (1) the magnetic size of the active region (the active region s total magnetic flux), and (2) a gauge of the active region s free magnetic energy (part of the free energy is released in the production of a flare and/or CME eruption). From NOAA Flare/CME catalogs, we have obtained the event (Flare/CME/SEP event) production history of each active region. Using all these data, we find that for each type of eruptive event, an active region s expected rate of event production increases as a power law of our gauge of active-region free magnetic energy. We have also found that, among active regions having nearly the same free energy, the rate of the CME production is less when there are many other active regions on the disk than when there are few or none, but there is no significant discernible suppression of the rate of flare production. This indicates that the presence of other active regions somehow tends to inhibit an active region s flare-producing magnetic explosions from becoming CMEs, contrary to the expectation from the breakout model for the production of CMEs.

  16. Active Region Emergence and Remote Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yixing; Welsch, Brian T.

    2016-02-01

    We study the effect of new emerging solar active regions on the large-scale magnetic environment of existing regions. We first present a theoretical approach to quantify the "interaction energy" between new and pre-existing regions as the difference between i) the summed magnetic energies of their individual potential fields and ii) the energy of their superposed potential fields. We expect that this interaction energy can, depending upon the relative arrangements of newly emerged and pre-existing magnetic flux, indicate the existence of "topological" free magnetic energy in the global coronal field that is independent of any "internal" free magnetic energy due to coronal electric currents flowing within the newly emerged and pre-existing flux systems. We then examine the interaction energy in two well-studied cases of flux emergence, but find that the predicted energetic perturbation is relatively small compared to energies released in large solar flares. Next, we present an observational study of the influence of the emergence of new active regions on flare statistics in pre-existing active regions, using NOAA's Solar Region Summary and GOES flare databases. As part of an effort to precisely determine the emergence time of active regions in a large event sample, we find that emergence in about half of these regions exhibits a two-stage behavior, with an initial gradual phase followed by a more rapid phase. Regarding flaring, we find that the emergence of new regions is associated with a significant increase in the occurrence rate of X- and M-class flares in pre-existing regions. This effect tends to be more significant when pre-existing and new emerging active regions are closer. Given the relative weakness of the interaction energy, this effect suggests that perturbations in the large-scale magnetic field, such as topology changes invoked in the "breakout" model of coronal mass ejections, might play a significant role in the occurrence of some flares.

  17. Hinode Captures Images of Solar Active Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    In these images, Hinode's Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) zoomed in on AR 11263 on August 4, 2011, five days before the active region produced the largest flare of this cycle, an X6.9. We show images...

  18. Pervasive faint Fe XIX emission from a solar active region observed with EUNIS-13: Evidence for nanoflare heating

    SciTech Connect

    Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Daw, Adrian N.; Rabin, D. M.

    2014-08-01

    We present spatially resolved EUV spectroscopic measurements of pervasive, faint Fe XIX 592.2 Å line emission in an active region observed during the 2013 April 23 flight of the Extreme Ultraviolet Normal Incidence Spectrograph (EUNIS-13) sounding rocket instrument. With cooled detectors, high sensitivity, and high spectral resolution, EUNIS-13 resolves the lines of Fe XIX at 592.2 Å (formed at temperature T ≈ 8.9 MK) and Fe XII at 592.6 Å (T ≈ 1.6 MK). The Fe XIX line emission, observed over an area in excess of 4920 arcsec{sup 2} (2.58 × 10{sup 9} km{sup 2}, more than 60% of the active region), provides strong evidence for the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. No GOES events occurred in the region less than 2 hr before the rocket flight, but a microflare was observed north and east of the region with RHESSI and EUNIS during the flight. The absence of significant upward velocities anywhere in the region, particularly the microflare, indicates that the pervasive Fe XIX emission is not propelled outward from the microflare site, but is most likely attributed to localized heating (not necessarily due to reconnection) consistent with the nanoflare heating model of the solar corona. Assuming ionization equilibrium we estimate Fe XIX/Fe XII emission measure ratios of ∼0.076 just outside the AR core and ∼0.59 in the core.

  19. FLARE ENERGY BUILD-UP IN A DECAYING ACTIVE REGION NEAR A CORONAL HOLE

    SciTech Connect

    Su Yingna; Van Ballegooijen, Adriaan; Golub, Leon; Schmieder, Brigitte; Berlicki, Arkadiusz; Guo, Yang; Huang Guangli

    2009-10-10

    A B1.7 two-ribbon flare occurred in a highly non-potential decaying active region near a coronal hole at 10:00 UT on 2008 May 17. This flare is 'large' in the sense that it involves the entire region, and it is associated with both a filament eruption and a coronal mass ejection. We present multi-wavelength observations from EUV (TRACE, STEREO/EUVI), X-rays (Hinode/XRT), and Halpha (THEMIS, BBSO) prior to, during and after the flare. Prior to the flare, the region contained two filaments. The long J-shaped sheared loops corresponding to the southern filament were evolved from two short loop systems, which happened around 22:00 UT after a filament eruption on May 16. Formation of highly sheared loops in the southeastern part of the region was observed by STEREO 8 hr before the flare. We also perform nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) modeling for the region at two times prior to the flare, using the flux rope insertion method. The models include the non-force-free effect of magnetic buoyancy in the photosphere. The best-fit NLFFF models show good fit to observations both in the corona (X-ray and EUV loops) and chromosphere (Halpha filament). We find that the horizontal fields in the photosphere are relatively insensitive to the present of flux ropes in the corona. The axial flux of the flux rope in the NLFFF model on May 17 is twice that on May 16, and the model on May 17 is only marginally stable. We also find that the quasi-circular flare ribbons are associated with the separatrix between open and closed fields. This observation and NLFFF modeling suggest that this flare may be triggered by the reconnection at the null point on the separatrix surface.

  20. The corona of V390 Aurigae (HD 33798)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gondoin, P.

    2003-06-01

    V390 Aurigae (HD 33798) is a rapidly rotating, lithium rich, late-type giant whose distinctive characteristics include a high X-ray luminosity observed by the XMM-Newton space observatory. Series of lines of highly ionized Fe and several Lyman lines of hydrogen-like ions and triplet lines of helium-like ions are visible in the reflection grating spectra, most notably from O and Ne. X-ray emission from plasma at high temperature (T> 107 K) indicates intense flaring activity on this star. Analysis results suggest a scenario where the corona of V390 Aurigae is dominated by large magnetic structures similar in size to interconnecting loops between solar active regions but significantly hotter. The interaction of these structures could explain the permanent flaring activity on large scales that is responsible for heating plasma to high temperatures. The intense activity on V390 Aurigae is related to its evolutionary position at the bottom of the red giant branch. It is anticipated that the rotation of the star will spin-down in the future, thus decreasing the efficiency of its alpha -Omega dynamo with the suppressing of large scale magnetic structures in its corona.

  1. Observations of selected coronae from Venusian quadrangles V31 and V19

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Copp, Duncan L.; Guest, John E.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1997-03-01

    Observations from FMAP images and topographic data reveal coronae within V31 and V19 to have a more complex, protracted history than previously recorded. Five coronae are studied here in detail: the Idem-Kuva and Nissaba coronae situated on the Western Eistla Rise and the Heng-o, Beten, and Silvia coronae contained with the Guinevere Lineated and Mottled Plains and Guinevere Regional Plains units. It is inferred that the amount of relief at any individual corona is more strongly controlled by the amount of uplift and/or volcanic construction which has taken place, and that not all coronae may go through a dome or plateau-shaped phase. It is also shown that coronae both pre- and post-date formation of the adjacent plains and can have a long, complex geologic history.

  2. Corona and solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Withbroe, G. L.

    1986-04-01

    The Pinhole/Occulter Facility is a powerful tool for studying the physics of the extended corona and origins of the solar wind. Spectroscopic data acquired by the P/OF coronal instruments can greatly expand empirical information about temperatures, densities, flow velocities, magnetic fields, and chemical abundances in the corona out to r or approx. 10 solar radii. Such information is needed to provide tight empirical constraints on critical physical processes involved in the transport and dissipation of energy and momentum, the heating and acceleration of plasma, and the acceleration of energetic particles. Because of its high sensitivity, high spatial and temporal resolutions, and powerful capabilities for plasma diagnostics, P/OF can significantly increase our empirical knowledge about coronal streamers and transients and thereby advance the understanding of the physics of these phenomena. P/OF observations can be used to establish the role in solar wind generation, if any, of small-scale dynamical phenomena, such as spicules, macrospicules and coronal bullets, and the role of the fine-scale structures, such as polar plumes. Finally, simultaneous measurements by the P/OF coronal and hard X-ray instruments can provide critical empirical information concerning nonthermal energy releases and acceleration of energetic particles in the corona.

  3. Corona and solar wind

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Withbroe, G. L.

    1986-01-01

    The Pinhole/Occulter Facility is a powerful tool for studying the physics of the extended corona and origins of the solar wind. Spectroscopic data acquired by the P/OF coronal instruments can greatly expand empirical information about temperatures, densities, flow velocities, magnetic fields, and chemical abundances in the corona out to r or approx. 10 solar radii. Such information is needed to provide tight empirical constraints on critical physical processes involved in the transport and dissipation of energy and momentum, the heating and acceleration of plasma, and the acceleration of energetic particles. Because of its high sensitivity, high spatial and temporal resolutions, and powerful capabilities for plasma diagnostics, P/OF can significantly increase our empirical knowledge about coronal streamers and transients and thereby advance the understanding of the physics of these phenomena. P/OF observations can be used to establish the role in solar wind generation, if any, of small-scale dynamical phenomena, such as spicules, macrospicules and coronal bullets, and the role of the fine-scale structures, such as polar plumes. Finally, simultaneous measurements by the P/OF coronal and hard X-ray instruments can provide critical empirical information concerning nonthermal energy releases and acceleration of energetic particles in the corona.

  4. STEREO OBSERVATIONS OF FAST MAGNETOSONIC WAVES IN THE EXTENDED SOLAR CORONA ASSOCIATED WITH EIT/EUV WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Kwon, Ryun-Young; Ofman, Leon; Kramar, Maxim; Olmedo, Oscar; Davila, Joseph M.; Thompson, Barbara J.; Cho, Kyung-Suk

    2013-03-20

    We report white-light observations of a fast magnetosonic wave associated with a coronal mass ejection observed by STEREO/SECCHI/COR1 inner coronagraphs on 2011 August 4. The wave front is observed in the form of density compression passing through various coronal regions such as quiet/active corona, coronal holes, and streamers. Together with measured electron densities determined with STEREO COR1 and Extreme UltraViolet Imager (EUVI) data, we use our kinematic measurements of the wave front to calculate coronal magnetic fields and find that the measured speeds are consistent with characteristic fast magnetosonic speeds in the corona. In addition, the wave front turns out to be the upper coronal counterpart of the EIT wave observed by STEREO EUVI traveling against the solar coronal disk; moreover, stationary fronts of the EIT wave are found to be located at the footpoints of deflected streamers and boundaries of coronal holes, after the wave front in the upper solar corona passes through open magnetic field lines in the streamers. Our findings suggest that the observed EIT wave should be in fact a fast magnetosonic shock/wave traveling in the inhomogeneous solar corona, as part of the fast magnetosonic wave propagating in the extended solar corona.

  5. Forward modeling transient brightenings and microflares around an active region observed with Hi-C

    SciTech Connect

    Kobelski, Adam R.; McKenzie, David E.

    2014-10-20

    Small-scale flare-like brightenings around active regions are among the smallest and most fundamental of energetic transient events in the corona, providing a testbed for models of heating and active region dynamics. In a previous study, we modeled a large collection of these microflares observed with Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT) using EBTEL and found that they required multiple heating events, but could not distinguish between multiple heating events on a single strand, or multiple strands each experiencing a single heating event. We present here a similar study, but with extreme-ultraviolet data of Active Region 11520 from the High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket. Hi-C provides an order of magnitude improvement to the spatial resolution of XRT, and a cooler temperature sensitivity, which combine to provide significant improvements to our ability to detect and model microflare activity around active regions. We have found that at the spatial resolution of Hi-C (≈0.''3), the events occur much more frequently than expected (57 events detected, only 1 or 2 expected), and are most likely made from strands of the order of 100 km wide, each of which is impulsively heated with multiple heating events. These findings tend to support bursty reconnection as the cause of the energy release responsible for the brightenings.

  6. MODELING THE LINE-OF-SIGHT INTEGRATED EMISSION IN THE CORONA: IMPLICATIONS FOR CORONAL HEATING

    SciTech Connect

    Viall, Nicholeen M.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2013-07-10

    One of the outstanding problems in all of space science is uncovering how the solar corona is heated to temperatures greater than 1 MK. Though studied for decades, one of the major difficulties in solving this problem has been unraveling the line-of-sight (LOS) effects in the observations. The corona is optically thin, so a single pixel measures counts from an indeterminate number (perhaps tens of thousands) of independently heated flux tubes, all along that pixel's LOS. In this paper we model the emission in individual pixels imaging the active region corona in the extreme ultraviolet. If LOS effects are not properly taken into account, erroneous conclusions regarding both coronal heating and coronal dynamics may be reached. We model the corona as an LOS integration of many thousands of completely independently heated flux tubes. We demonstrate that despite the superposition of randomly heated flux tubes, nanoflares leave distinct signatures in light curves observed with multi-wavelength and high time cadence data, such as those data taken with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. These signatures are readily detected with the time-lag analysis technique of Viall and Klimchuk in 2012. Steady coronal heating leaves a different and equally distinct signature that is also revealed by the technique.

  7. Polar Field Reversals and Active Region Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon; Ettinger, Sophie

    2015-07-01

    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. We summarize the published evidence from observation and modeling of the influence of meridional flow variations and decaying active region flux's spatial distribution, such as the Joy's law tilt angle. Using NSO Kitt Peak synoptic magnetograms covering cycles 21-24, we investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of the synoptic magnetograms, the dispersal of flux from low to high latitudes is tracked, and the timing of this dispersal is compared to the polar field changes. In the most abrupt cases of polar field reversal, a few activity complexes (systems of active regions) are identified as the main cause. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed trailing-polarity flux from these complexes is found to correlate well in time with the abrupt polar field changes. In each case, significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with trailing-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. The activity complexes of the cycle 21 and 22 maxima were larger and longer-lived than those of the cycle 23 and 24 maxima, and the poleward surges were stronger and more unipolar and the polar field changes larger and faster. The cycle 21 and 22 polar reversals were dominated by only a few long-lived complexes whereas the cycle 23 and 24 reversals were the cumulative effects of more numerous, shorter-lived regions. We conclude that sizes and lifetimes of activity complexes are key to

  8. The 17 GHz active region number

    SciTech Connect

    Selhorst, C. L.; Pacini, A. A.; Costa, J. E. R.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A.; Shibasaki, K.

    2014-08-01

    We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.

  9. Black hole accretion disks with coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Svensson, Roland; Zdziarski, Andrzej A.

    1994-01-01

    Observations suggest the existence of both hot and cold dark matter in the centers of active galactic nuclei. Recent spectral models require a major fraction of power to be dissipated in the hot matter. We study the case when the hot matter forms a corona around a standard cold alpha-disk. In particular, we investigate the case when a major fraction, f, of the power released when the cold matter accretes is transported to and dissipated in the corona. This has major effects on the cold disk, making it colder, more geometrically thin, denser, and having larger optical depths. One important consequence is the disappearance of the effectively optically thin zone as well as of the radiation pressure dominated zone for values of f sufficiently closed to unity. The disappearance of the radiation pressure dominated zone will result in a cold disk with only a gas pressure dominated zone that is stable against thermal and viscous instabilities. We also show that the pressure ( and the radiation) from the corona will only affect the surface layers of the cold disk. Our results disagree with those of other recent work on accretion disks with coronae. We find those works to be based on unphysical assumptions.

  10. On the Origin of Magnetic Helicity in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lirong; Alexander, David

    2008-01-01

    Twenty-three active regions associated with pronounced sigmoidal structure in Yohkoh soft X-ray observations are selected to investigate the origin of magnetic helicity in the solar corona. We calculate the radial magnetic flux of each polarity, the rate of magnetic helicity injection, and total flux of the helicity injection (Δ HLCT) over 4-5 days using MDI 96 minute line-of-sight magnetograms and a local correlation tracking technique. We also estimate the contribution from differential rotation to the overall helicity budget (Δ Hrot). It is found that of the seven active regions for which the flux emergence exceeds 1.0 × 1022 Mx, six exhibited a helicity flux injection exceeding 1.0 × 1043 Mx2 (i.e., Δ H = Δ HLCT - Δ Hrot). Moreover, the rate of helicity injection and the total helicity flux are larger (smaller) during periods of more (less) increase of magnetic flux. Of the remaining 16 active regions, with flux emergence less than 1022 Mx, only 4 had significant injection of helicity, exceeding 1043 Mx2. Typical contributions from differential rotation over the same period were 2-3 times smaller than that of the strong magnetic field emergence. These statistical results signify that the strong emergence of magnetic field is the most important origin of the coronal helicity, while horizontal motions and differential rotation are insufficient to explain the measured helicity injection flux. Furthermore, the study of the helicity injection in nineteen newly emerging active regions confirms the result on the important role played by strong magnetic flux emergence in controlling the injection of magnetic helicity into the solar corona.

  11. Organized Subsurface Flows near Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haber, D. A.; Hindman, B. W.; Toomre, J.; Thompson, M. J.

    2004-04-01

    Local helioseismic techniques, such as ring analysis and time-distance helioseismology, have already shown that large-scale flows near the surface converge towards major active regions. Ring analysis has further demonstrated that at greater depths some active regions exhibit strong outflows. A critique leveled at the ring-analysis results is that the Regularized Least Squares (RLS) inversion kernels on which they are based have negative sidelobes near the surface. Such sidelobes could result in a surface inflow being misidentified as a diverging outflow at depth. In this paper we show that the Optimally Located Averages (OLA) inversion technique, which produces kernels without significant sidelobes, generates flows markedly similar to the RLS results. Active regions are universally zones of convergence near the surface, while large complexes evince strong outflows deeper down.

  12. ON THE FORMATION OF ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, Ake E-mail: aake@nbi.dk

    2012-07-01

    Magnetoconvection can produce an active region without an initial coherent flux tube. A simulation was performed where a uniform, untwisted, horizontal magnetic field of 1 kG strength was advected into the bottom of a computational domain 48 Mm wide by 20 Mm deep. The up and down convective motions produce a hierarchy of magnetic loops with a wide range of scales, with smaller loops riding 'piggy-back' in a serpentine fashion on larger loops. When a large loop approaches the surface, it produces a small active region with a compact leading spot and more diffuse following spots.

  13. Polar Field Reversals and Active Region Decay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrie, Gordon; Ettinger, Sophie

    2015-04-01

    We study the relationship between polar field reversals and decayed active region magnetic flux. Photospheric active region flux is dispersed by differential rotation and turbulent diffusion, and is transported poleward by meridional flows and diffusion. Using NSO Kitt Peak synoptic magnetograms, we investigate in detail the relationship between the transport of decayed active region flux to high latitudes and changes in the polar field strength, including reversals in the magnetic polarity at the poles. By means of stack plots of low- and high-latitude slices of the synoptic magnetograms, the dispersal of flux from low to high latitudes is tracked, and the timing of this dispersal is compared to the polar field changes. In the most abrupt cases of polar field reversal, a few activity complexes (systems of active regions) are identified as the main cause. The poleward transport of large quantities of decayed lagging-polarity flux from these complexes is found to correlate well in time with the abrupt polar field changes. In each case, significant latitudinal displacements were found between the positive and negative flux centroids of the complexes, consistent with Joy's law bipole tilt with lagging-polarity flux located poleward of leading-polarity flux. This work is carried out through the National Solar Observatory Summer Research Assistantship (SRA) Program. The National Solar Observatory is operated by the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy, Inc. (AURA) under cooperative agreement with the National Science Foundation.

  14. Statistical mechanics of velocity and magnetic fields in solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krishan, V.

    1985-02-01

    A statistical mechanics of the velocity and magnetic fields is formulated for an active region plasma. The plasma subjected to the conservation laws emerges in a most probable state which is described by an equilibrium distribution function containing a Lagrange multiplier for every invariant of the system. The Lagrange multipliers are determined by demanding that the measured expectation values of the invariants be reproduced. For a numerical exercise, some probable values are assumed for these invariants. The total energy of a coronal loop is estimated from energy balance considerations. Doppler widths of the UV and EUV lines excited in the coronal loop plasma give a measure of the root-mean-square velocities. Measurements of magnetic helicity are not available for the solar corona.

  15. Statistical study of free magnetic energy and flare productivity of solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Su, J. T.; Jing, J.; Wang, S.; Wang, H. M.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2014-06-20

    Photospheric vector magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamic Observatory are utilized as the boundary conditions to extrapolate both nonlinear force-free and potential magnetic fields in solar corona. Based on the extrapolations, we are able to determine the free magnetic energy (FME) stored in active regions (ARs). Over 3000 vector magnetograms in 61 ARs were analyzed. We compare FME with the ARs' flare index (FI) and find that there is a weak correlation (<60%) between FME and FI. FME shows slightly improved flare predictability relative to the total unsigned magnetic flux of ARs in the following two aspects: (1) the flare productivity predicted by FME is higher than that predicted by magnetic flux and (2) the correlation between FI and FME is higher than that between FI and magnetic flux. However, this improvement is not significant enough to make a substantial difference in time-accumulated FI, rather than individual flare, predictions.

  16. Dynamics of the transition corona

    SciTech Connect

    Masson, Sophie; McCauley, Patrick; Golub, Leon; Reeves, Katharine K.; DeLuca, Edward E.

    2014-06-01

    Magnetic reconnection between the open and closed magnetic fields in the corona is believed to play a crucial role in the corona/heliosphere coupling. At large scale, the exchange of open/closed connectivity is expected to occur in pseudo-streamer (PS) structures. However, there is neither clear observational evidence of how such coupling occurs in PSs, nor evidence for how the magnetic reconnection evolves. Using a newly developed technique, we enhance the off-limb magnetic fine structures observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and identify a PS-like feature located close to the northern coronal hole. We first identify that the magnetic topology associated with the observation is a PS, null-point (NP) related topology bounded by the open field. By comparing the magnetic field configuration with the EUV emission regions, we determined that most of the magnetic flux associated with plasma emission are small loops below the PS basic NP and open field bounding the PS topology. In order to interpret the evolution of the PS, we referred to a three-dimensional MHD interchange reconnection modeling the exchange of connectivity between small closed loops and the open field. The observed PS fine structures follow the dynamics of the magnetic field before and after reconnecting at the NP obtained by the interchange model. Moreover, the pattern of the EUV plasma emission is the same as the shape of the expected plasma emission location derived from the simulation. These morphological and dynamical similarities between the PS observations and the results from the simulation strongly suggest that the evolution of the PS, and in particular the opening/closing of the field, occurs via interchange/slipping reconnection at the basic NP of the PS. Besides identifying the mechanism at work in the large-scale coupling between the open and closed fields, our results highlight that interchange reconnection in PSs is a gradual physical process that differs from the impulsive

  17. Asia Section. Regional Activities Division. Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Two papers on library and information activities in developing nations, particularly in India and other Asian countries, were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In "IFLA in Asia: A Review of the Work of the Regional Section for Asia," Edward Lim Huck Tee (Malaysia) describes the low level of…

  18. On the coronae of rapidly rotating stars. I - The relation between rotation and coronal activity in RS CVn systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walter, F. M.; Bowyer, S.

    1981-01-01

    Soft X-ray observations are presented of a nearly complete sample of RS Canum Venaticorum systems taken with the Einstein X-ray Observatory. It is shown that the quiescent coronal activity, as measured by the ratio of the X-ray to bolometric flux, is directly proportional to the angular velocity of the star with the active chromosphere in these systems. This relation is found to hold over two decades in angular velocity. It is also found that the stellar surface gravity has no obvious influence on the ratio of the X-ray luminosity to the bolometric luminosity over two decades in surface gravity. It is pointed out that the linear relation between the ratio of the X-ray luminosity to the bolometric luminosity on the one hand, and the angular velocity, on the other, holds important implications for dynamo theories of the generation of stellar magnetic fields.

  19. Evidence of Energy Supply by Active-Region Spicules to the Solar Atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeighami, S.; Ahangarzadeh Maralani, A. R.; Tavabi, E.; Ajabshirizadeh, A.

    2016-03-01

    We investigate the role of active-region spicules in the mass balance of the solar wind and energy supply in heating the solar atmosphere. We use high-cadence observations from the Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) onboard the Hinode satellite in the Ca ii H-line filter obtained on 26 January 2007. The observational technique provides the high spatio-temporal resolution required to detect fine structures such as spicules. We apply a Fourier power spectrum and wavelet analysis to Hinode/SOT time series of an active-region data set to explore the existence of coherent intensity oscillations. Coherent waves could be evidence of energy transport that serves to heat the solar atmosphere. Using time series, we measure the phase difference between two intensity profiles obtained at two different heights, which gives information about the phase difference between oscillations at those heights as a function of frequency. The results of a fast Fourier transform (FFT) show peaks in the power spectrum at frequencies in the range from 2 to 8 mHz at four different heights (above the limb), while the wavelet analysis indicates dominant frequencies similar to those of the Fourier power spectrum results. A coherency study indicates coherent oscillations at about 5.5 mHz (3 min). We measure mean phase speeds in the range 250-425 km s^{-1} increasing with height. The energy flux of these waves is estimated to be F = 1.8 × 106-11.2 × 106 erg cm^{-2} s^{-1} or 1.8-11.2 kW m^{-2}, which indicates that they are sufficiently energetic to accelerate the solar wind and heat the corona to temperatures of several million degrees. We compute the the mass flux carried by spicules of 3 × 10^{-10}-2 × 10^{-9} g cm^{-2} s^{-1}, which is 10-60 times higher than the mass that is carried away from the corona because of the solar wind (about 3 × 10^{-11} g cm^{-2} s^{-1}). Therefore, our results indicate that about 0.02-0.1 of the spicule mass is ejected from the corona, while the remainder reverts

  20. A comparison of photospheric electric current and ultraviolet and X-ray emission in a solar active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haisch, B. M.; Bruner, M. E.; Hagyard, M. J.; Bonnet, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper presents an extensive set of coordinated observations of a solar active region, taking into account spectroheliograms obtained with the aid of the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Ultraviolet Spectrometer Polarimeter (UVSP) instrument, SMM soft X-ray polychromator (XRP) raster maps, and high spatial resolution ultraviolet images of the sun in Lyman-alpha and in the 1600 A continuum. These data span together the upper solar atmosphere from the temperature minimum to the corona. The data are compared to maps of the inferred photospheric electric current derived from the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) vector magnetograph observations. Some empirical correlation is found between regions of inferred electric current density and the brightest features in the ultraviolet continuum and to a lesser extent those seen in Lyman-alpha within an active region.

  1. A polymer surfactant corona dynamically replaces water in solvent-free protein liquids and ensures macromolecular flexibility and activity.

    PubMed

    Gallat, François-Xavier; Brogan, Alex P S; Fichou, Yann; McGrath, Nina; Moulin, Martine; Härtlein, Michael; Combet, Jérôme; Wuttke, Joachim; Mann, Stephen; Zaccai, Giuseppe; Jackson, Colin J; Perriman, Adam W; Weik, Martin

    2012-08-15

    The observation of biological activity in solvent-free protein-polymer surfactant hybrids challenges the view of aqueous and nonaqueous solvents being unique promoters of protein dynamics linked to function. Here, we combine elastic incoherent neutron scattering and specific deuterium labeling to separately study protein and polymer motions in solvent-free hybrids. Myoglobin motions within the hybrid are found to closely resemble those of a hydrated protein, and motions of the polymer surfactant coating are similar to those of the hydration water, leading to the conclusion that the polymer surfactant coating plasticizes protein structures in a way similar to hydration water.

  2. TRACE Observations of Active Region Births

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolfson, C. J.; Shine, R. A.

    2000-05-01

    TRACE has recorded the births of a few bona-fide active regions, as well as many ephemeral regions and so-called X-ray bright points. The observations have usually been made serendipitously while studying a nearby, well formed active region. However, a couple of events have been recorded when deliberately looking for emerging flux in quiet portions of an active region belt. This poster will discuss some of the best observations to date, where the quality ranking of the observation is closely coupled to the observing mode TRACE was in and the availability of high resolution (temporal and/or spatial) MDI magnetograms. Included will be the birth of NOAA AR#8699 on 11 September 1999 at about 14 UT (N22E34), AR#8637 on 17 July 1999 at about 4 UT (N11W1), and AR#8885 on 21 February 2000 at about 6 UT (N11W7); these specifics being provided to encourage coordination with other observations. The temporal relationships between the first appearances of magnetic bipoles, EUV loops, chromospheric plage, pores, and sunspots will be discussed as will the growth rate and spatial relationships of these different features and any associated photospheric flows.

  3. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1998-06-02

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  4. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1996-01-30

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  5. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  6. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1996-01-01

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  7. Supergranule Diffusion and Active Region Decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Choudhary, Debi Prasad

    2004-01-01

    Models of the Sun's magnetic dynamo include turbulent diffusion to parameterize the effects of convective motions on the evolution of the Sun's magnetic field. Supergranules are known to dominate the evolution of the surface magnetic field structure as evidenced by the structure of both the active and quiet magnetic network. However, estimates for the dif hivity attributed to su perymules differ by an order of magnitude from about 100 km sup2/s to more than 1000 km sup2/s. We examine this question of the e i v i t y using three merent approaches. 1) We study the decay of more than 30,000 active regions by determining the rate of change in the sunspot area of each active region from day-to-day. 2) We study the decay of a single isolated active region near the time of solar minimum by examining the magnetic field evolution over five solar rotations fiom SOHOMDI magnetograms obtained at 96-minute intervals. 3) We study the characteristics of supergranules that influence the estimates of their diffusive properties - flow speeds and lifetimes as functions of size - fiom SOHO/MDI Dopplergrams.

  8. Observations of mode coupling in the solar corona and bipolar noise storms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    White, S. M.; Thejappa, G.; Kundu, M. R.

    1992-01-01

    High-spatial-resolution observations of the sun which reflect on the role of mode coupling in the solar corona, and a number of new observations are presented. It is shown that typically, polarization inversion is seen at 5 GHz in active region sources near the solar limb, but not at 1.5 GHz. Although this is apparently in contradiction to the simplest form of mode coupling theory, it remains consistent with current models for the active region emission. Microwave bursts show no strong evidence for polarization inversion. Bipolar noise storm continuum emission is discussed in some detail, utilizing recent VLA observations at 327 MHz. It is shown that bipolar sources are common at 327 MHz. Further, the trailing component of the bipole is frequently stronger than the leading component, in apparent conflict with the 'leading-spot' hypothesis. The observations indicate that, at 327 MHz, mode coupling is apparently strong at all mode-coupling layers in the solar corona. The 327 MHz observations require a much weaker magnetic field strength in the solar corona to explain this result than did earlier lower-frequency observations: maximum fields are 0.2 G. This is a much weaker field than is consistent with current coronal models.

  9. Active region evolution in the chromosphere and transtition region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shine, R. A.; Schrijver, C. J.

    1988-01-01

    Images in the C IV 1548 A and the Si II 1526 S lines taken with the ultraviolet spectrometer polarimeter (UVSP) instrument on board the Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) satellite were combined into movies showing the evolution of active regions and the neighboring supergranulation over several days. The data sets generally consist of 240 by 240 arc second rasters with 3 arc second pixels taken one per orbit (about every 90 minutes). The images are projected on a latitude/longitude grid to remove the forshortening as the region rotates across the solar disk and further processed to remove jitter and gain variations. Movies were made with and without differential rotation. Although there are occasional missing orbits, these series do not suffer from the long nighttime gaps that occur in observations taken at a single groundbased observatory and are excellent for studying changes on time scales of several hours. The longest sequence processed to date runs from 20 Oct. 1980 to 25 Oct. 1980. This was taken during an SMM flare buildup study on AR 2744. Several shorter sequences taken in 1980 and 1984 will also be shown. The results will be presented on a video disk which can be interactively controlled to view the movies.

  10. High-resolution observations of active region moss and its dynamics

    SciTech Connect

    Morton, R. J.; McLaughlin, J. A.

    2014-07-10

    The High Resolution Coronal Imager has provided the sharpest view of the EUV corona to date. In this paper, we exploit its impressive resolving power to provide the first analysis of the fine-scale structure of moss in an active region. The data reveal that the moss is made up of a collection of fine threads that have widths with a mean and standard deviation of 440 ± 190 km (FWHM). The brightest moss emission is located at the visible head of the fine-scale structure and the fine structure appears to extend into the lower solar atmosphere. The emission decreases along the features, implying that the lower sections are most likely dominated by cooler transition region plasma. These threads appear to be the cool, lower legs of the hot loops. In addition, the increased resolution allows for the first direct observation of physical displacements of the moss fine structure in a direction transverse to its central axis. Some of these transverse displacements demonstrate periodic behavior, which we interpret as a signature of kink (Alfvénic) waves. Measurements of the properties of the transverse motions are made and the wave motions have means and standard deviations of 55 ± 37 km for the transverse displacement amplitude, 77 ± 33 s for the period, and 4.7 ± 2.5 km s{sup –1} for the velocity amplitude. The presence of waves in the transition region of hot loops could have important implications for the heating of active regions.

  11. WIDESPREAD NANOFLARE VARIABILITY DETECTED WITH HINODE/X-RAY TELESCOPE IN A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Terzo, Sergio; Reale, Fabio; Miceli, Marco; Klimchuk, James A.; Kano, Ryouhei; Tsuneta, Saku

    2011-08-01

    It is generally agreed that small impulsive energy bursts called nanoflares are responsible for at least some of the Sun's hot corona, but whether they are the explanation for most of the multimillion-degree plasma has been a matter of ongoing debate. We present here evidence that nanoflares are widespread in an active region observed by the X-Ray Telescope on board the Hinode mission. The distributions of intensity fluctuations have small but important asymmetries, whether taken from individual pixels, multipixel subregions, or the entire active region. Negative fluctuations (corresponding to reduced intensity) are greater in number but weaker in amplitude, so that the median fluctuation is negative compared to a mean of zero. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that only part of this asymmetry can be explained by Poisson photon statistics. The remainder is explainable through a tendency for exponentially decreasing intensity, such as would be expected from a cooling plasma produced from a nanoflare. We suggest that nanoflares are a universal heating process within active regions.

  12. The exceptional aspects of the confined X-Flares of Solar Active Region 2192

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalmann, Julia K.; Su, Yang; Temmer, Manuela; Veronig, Astrid

    2015-08-01

    Active region NOAA 2192 showed an outstanding productivity of major (GOES class M5 and larger) two-ribbon flares lacking eruptive events. None of the X-flares was associated to a coronal mass ejection. The major confined flares on 2014 October 22 and 24 originated from the active-region core and were prohibited to develop an associated mass ejection due to the confinement of the overlying strong magnetic field. In contrast, the single eruptive M-flare on October 24 originated from the outer parts of the active region, in the neighborhood of open large-scale fields, which allowed for the observed mass ejection. Analysis of the spacial and temporal characteristics of the major confined flares revealed exceptional aspects, including a large initial separation of the confined flares' ribbons and an almost absent growth in ribbon separation, suggesting a reconnection site high up in the corona. Furthermore, detailed analysis of a confined X-flare on October 22 provides evidence that magnetic field structures were repeatedly involved in magnetic reconnection, that a large number of electrons was accelerated to non-thermal energies but that only a small fraction out of these accelerated electrons was accelerated to high energies. We conclude the latter due to the unusual steepness of the associated power law spectrum. Finally, we demonstrate that a considerable portion of the magnetic energy released during the X-flare was consumed by the non-thermal flare energy.

  13. Measurements of Non-thermal Line Widths in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brooks, David H.; Warren, Harry P.

    2016-03-01

    Spectral line widths are often observed to be larger than can be accounted for by thermal and instrumental broadening alone. This excess broadening is a key observational constraint for both nanoflare and wave dissipation models of coronal heating. Here we present a survey of non-thermal velocities measured in the high temperature loops (1-4 MK) often found in the cores of solar active regions. This survey of Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) observations covers 15 non-flaring active regions that span a wide range of solar conditions. We find relatively small non-thermal velocities, with a mean value of 17.6 ± 5.3 km s-1, and no significant trend with temperature or active region magnetic flux. These measurements appear to be inconsistent with those expected from reconnection jets in the corona, chromospheric evaporation induced by coronal nanoflares, and Alfvén wave turbulence models. Furthermore, because the observed non-thermal widths are generally small, such measurements are difficult and susceptible to systematic effects.

  14. Widespread Nanoflare Variability Detected with Hinode/XRT in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reale, Fabio; Terzo, Sergio; Miceli, Marco; Klimchuk, James A.; Kano, Ryouhei; Tsuneta, Saku

    2011-01-01

    It is generally agreed that small impulsive energy bursts called nanoflares are responsible for at least some of the Sun s hot corona, but whether they are the explanation for most of the multi-million degree plasma has been a matter of ongoing debate. We here present evidence that nanoflares are widespread in an active region observed by the X-Ray Telescope on-board the Hinode mission. The distributions of intensity fluctuations have small but important asymmetries, whether taken from individual pixels, multi-pixel subregions, or the entire active region. Negative fluctuations (corresponding to reduced intensity) are greater in number but weaker in amplitude, so that the median fluctuation is negative compared to a mean of zero. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that only part of this asymmetry can be explained by Poisson photon statistics. The remainder is explainable with a tendency for exponentially decreasing intensity, such as would be expected from a cooling plasma produced, e.g., from a nanoflare. We suggest that nanoflares are a universal heating process within active regions.

  15. On the area expansion of magnetic flux tubes in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Dudík, Jaroslav; Dzifčáková, Elena; Cirtain, Jonathan W. E-mail: elena@asu.cas.cz

    2014-11-20

    We calculated the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the area expansion factors in a potential magnetic field, extrapolated from the high-resolution Hinode/SOT magnetogram of the quiescent active region NOAA 11482. Retaining only closed loops within the computational box, we show that the distribution of area expansion factors show significant structure. Loop-like structures characterized by locally lower values of the expansion factor are embedded in a smooth background. These loop-like flux tubes have squashed cross-sections and expand with height. The distribution of the expansion factors show an overall increase with height, allowing an active region core characterized by low values of the expansion factor to be distinguished. The area expansion factors obtained from extrapolation of the Solar Optical Telescope magnetogram are compared to those obtained from an approximation of the observed magnetogram by a series of 134 submerged charges. This approximation retains the general flux distribution in the observed magnetogram, but removes the small-scale structure in both the approximated magnetogram and the 3D distribution of the area expansion factors. We argue that the structuring of the expansion factor can be a significant ingredient in producing the observed structuring of the solar corona. However, due to the potential approximation used, these results may not be applicable to loops exhibiting twist or to active regions producing significant flares.

  16. Solar luminosity fluctuations and active region photometry

    SciTech Connect

    Chapman, G.A.; Herzog, A.D.; Lawrence, J.K.; Shelton, J.C.

    1984-07-15

    We present monochromatic observations, obtained with a 512 element diode array, of the irradiance fluctuations of the sunspots and faculae of an active region during its disk transit in 1982 August. Bolometric and stray light corrections are approximately equal in magnitude but opposite in sign, so they have not been applied. The maximum sunspot fluctuation, as a fraction of the quiet-Sun irradiance, is -800 parts per million (ppm). Faculae have a maximum irradiance fluctuation of about +200 ppm near the limbs. We find that the facular energy excess is more than 50% of the sunspot energy deficit, which is -5.8 x 10/sup 35/ ergs. These observations show that faculae are an important element in active region energy balance.

  17. Differential rotation, flares and coronae in A to M stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balona, L. A.; Švanda, M.; Karlický, M.

    2016-08-01

    Kepler data are used to investigate flares in stars of all spectral types. There is a strong tendency across all spectral types for the most energetic flares to occur among the most rapidly rotating stars. Differential rotation could conceivably play an important role in enhancing flare energies. This idea was investigated, but no correlation could be found between rotational shear and the incidence of flares. Inspection of Kepler light curves shows that rotational modulation is very common over the whole spectral type range. Using the rotational light amplitude, the size distribution of starspots was investigated. Our analysis suggests that stars with detectable flares have spots significantly larger than non-flare stars, indicating that flare energies are correlated with the size of the active region. Further evidence of the existence of spots on A stars is shown by the correlation between the photometric period and the projected rotational velocity. The existence of spots indicates the presence of magnetic fields, but the fact that A stars lack coronae implies that surface convection is a necessary condition for the formation of the corona.

  18. The Foggy EUV Corona and Coronal Heating by MHD Waves from Explosive Reconnection Events

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron L.; Cirtain, Jonathan W.; Falconer, David A.

    2008-01-01

    In 0.5 arcsec/pixel TRACE coronal EUV images, the corona rooted in active regions that are at the limb and are not flaring is seen to consist of (1) a complex array of discrete loops and plumes embedded in (2) a diffuse ambient component that shows no fine structure and gradually fades with height. For each of two not-flaring active regions, found that the diffuse component is (1) approximately isothermal and hydrostatic and (2) emits well over half of the total EUV luminosity of the active-region corona. Here, from a TRACE Fe XII coronal image of another not-flaring active region, the large sunspot active region AR 10652 when it was at the west limb on 30 July 2004, we separate the diffuse component from the discrete loop component by spatial filtering, and find that the diffuse component has about 60% of the total luminosity. If under much higher spatial resolution than that of TRACE (e. g., the 0.1 arcsec/pixel resolution of the Hi-C sounding-rocket experiment proposed by J. W. Cirtain et al), most of the diffuse component remains diffuse rather being resolved into very narrow loops and plumes, this will raise the possibility that the EUV corona in active regions consists of two basically different but comparably luminous components: one being the set of discrete bright loops and plumes and the other being a truly diffuse component filling the space between the discrete loops and plumes. This dichotomy would imply that there are two different but comparably powerful coronal heating mechanisms operating in active regions, one for the distinct loops and plumes and another for the diffuse component. We present a scenario in which (1) each discrete bright loop or plume is a flux tube that was recently reconnected in a burst of reconnection, and (2) the diffuse component is heated by MHD waves that are generated by these reconnection events and by other fine-scale explosive reconnection events, most of which occur in and below the base of the corona where they are

  19. Elastic Thickness Estimates for Coronae Associated with Chasmata on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoogenboom, T.; Martin, P.; Housean, G. A.

    2005-01-01

    Coronae are large-scale circular tectonic features surrounded by annular ridges. They are generally considered unique to Venus and may offer insights into the differences in lithospheric structure or mantle convective pattern between Venus and Earth. 68% of all coronae are associated with chasmata or fracture belts. The remaining 32% are located at volcanic rises or in the plains. Chasmata are linear to arcuate troughs, with trough parallel fractures and faults which extend for 1000 s of kilometers. Estimates of the elastic thickness of the lithosphere (T(sub e)) have been calculated in a number of gravity/topography studies of Venus and for coronae specifically. None of these studies, however, have explored the dependence of T(sub e) on the tectonic history of the region, as implied from the interpretation of relative timing relationships between coronae and surrounding features. We examine the relationship between the local T(sub e) and the relative ages of coronae and chasmata with the aim of further constraining the origin and evolution of coronae and chasmata systems.

  20. The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona and Inner Heliosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mikic, Zoran

    2002-01-01

    This report covers technical progress during the second quarter of the first year of NASA Sun-Earth Connections Theory Program (SECTP) contract 'The Structure and Dynamics of the Solar Corona and Inner Heliosphere,' NAS5-99188, between NASA and Science Applications International Corporation. and covers the period November 16, 1999 to February 15, 2000. Under this contract SAIC and the University of California, Irvine (UCI) have conducted research into theoretical modeling of active regions, the solar corona, and the inner heliosphere, using the MHD (magnetohydrodynamic) model. The topics studied include: the effect of emerging flux on the stability of helmet streamers, coronal loops and streamers, the solar magnetic field, the solar wind, and open magnetic field lines.

  1. The Development of Chromospheres & Coronae in the T Tauri Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imhoff, Catherine L.

    The T Tauri stars represent a normal stage in the pre-main sequence evolution of solar-mass stars. Ultraviolet observations have revealed the presence of strong Mg II h and k lines, ultraviolet excesses, and far-ultraviolet emission lines indicative of dense, active chromospheres (Appenzeller and Wolf 1979, Appenzeller et al. 1980, Brown et al. 1981, Gahm et al. 1979, Giampapa et al. 1981, Gondhalekar et al. 1979, Imhoff and Giampapa 1980, 1981). The surface fluxes of the transition region lines equal and exceed those of any other late-type star (Imhoff and Giampapa 1980, 1981). However only about one third of the T Tauri stars have been detected by Einstein (Feigelson and DeCampli 1981, Gahm 1980, Walter and Kuhi 1981). The low X-ray flux, relative to the far-ultraviolet lines, in some of the stars may be due to absorption of the X-rays in dense gas shells (Gahm 1980, Walter and Kuhi 1981). On the other hand, a relative weakening of the higher temperature far-ultraviolet emission lines may signal that the T Tauri atmosphere does not reach coronal temperatures in those stars, perhaps due to higher chromospheric densities or to the effects of mass loss (Imhoff and Giampapa 1981, 1982). If there are indeed T Tauri stars with and without coronae, then we may be witnessing the birth of the corona sometime during the T Tauri stage. It would be of great interest to study the development of the chromosphere and corona during the evolution of a protostar and to detail the processes that affect its evolution. We propose to study this evolution through the T Tauri stage with IUE. We would like to observe a selection of X-ray bright and faint T Tauri stars. Concurrently we will perform ground-based scanner observations to obtain Ca II fluxes for these variable stars. We have chosen the targetted stars carefully on the basis of known surface temperatures, luminosities, extinction, distance, X-ray results, and vsini's. we wish to derive information on the density and

  2. Current-voltage characteristics of dc corona discharges in air between coaxial cylinders

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Yuesheng; Zhang, Bo He, Jinliang

    2015-02-15

    This paper presents the experimental measurement and numerical analysis of the current-voltage characteristics of dc corona discharges in air between coaxial cylinders. The current-voltage characteristics for both positive and negative corona discharges were measured within a specially designed corona cage. Then the measured results were fitted by different empirical formulae and analyzed by the fluid model. The current-voltage characteristics between coaxial cylinders can be expressed as I = C(U − U{sub 0}){sup m}, where m is within the range 1.5–2.0, which is similar to the point-plane electrode system. The ionization region has no significant effect on the current-voltage characteristic under a low corona current, while it will affect the distribution for the negative corona under a high corona current. The surface onset fields and ion mobilities were emphatically discussed.

  3. Ultraviolet corona detection sensor study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmitt, R. J.; MATHERN

    1976-01-01

    The feasibility of detecting electrical corona discharge phenomena in a space simulation chamber via emission of ultraviolet light was evaluated. A corona simulator, with a hemispherically capped point to plane electrode geometry, was used to generate corona glows over a wide range of pressure, voltage, current, electrode gap length and electrode point radius. Several ultraviolet detectors, including a copper cathode gas discharge tube and a UV enhanced silicon photodiode detector, were evaluated in the course of the spectral intensity measurements. The performance of both silicon target vidicons and silicon intensified target vidicons was evaluated analytically using the data generated by the spectroradiometer scans and the performance data supplied by the manufacturers.

  4. Axial Tilt Angles of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howard, Robert F.

    1996-12-01

    Separate Mount Wilson plage and sunspot group data sets are analyzed in this review to illustrate several interesting aspects of active region axial tilt angles. (1) The distribution of tilt angles differs between plages and sunspot groups in the sense that plages have slightly higher tilt angles, on average, than do spot groups. (2) The distributions of average plage total magnetic flux, or sunspot group area, with tilt angle show a consistent effect: those groups with tilt angles nearest the average values are larger (or have a greater total flux) on average than those farther from the average values. Moreover, the average tilt angles on which these size or flux distributions are centered differ for the two types of objects, and represent closely the actual different average tilt angles for these two features. (3) The polarity separation distances of plages and sunspot groups show a clear relationship to average tilt angles. In the case of each feature, smaller polarity separations are correlated with smaller tilt angles. (4) The dynamics of regions also show a clear relationship with region tilt angles. The spot groups with tilt angles nearest the average value (or perhaps 0-deg tilt angle) have on average a faster rotation rate than those groups with extreme tilt angles. All of these tilt-angle characteristics may be assumed to be related to the physical forces that affect the magnetic flux loop that forms the region. These aspects are discussed in this brief review within the context of our current view of the formation of active region magnetic flux at the solar surface.

  5. Solar Activity and Motions in the Solar Chromosphere and Corona at the 2012 and 2013 Total and Annular Eclipses in the U.S., Australia, and Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, Jay M.; Babcock, B. A.; Davis, A. B.; Demianski, M.; Lucas, R.; Lu, M.; Dantowitz, R.; Rusin, V.; Saniga, M.; Seaton, D. B.; Gaintatzis, P.; Voulgaris, A.; Seiradakis, J. H.; Gary, D. E.; Shaik, S. B.

    2014-01-01

    Our studies of the solar chromosphere and corona at the 2012 and 2013 eclipses shortly after cycle maximum 24 (2011/2012) of solar activity (see: http://www.swpc.noaa.gov/SolarCycle/) involved radio observations of the 2012 annular eclipse with the Jansky Very Large Array, optical observations of the 2012 total eclipse from Australia, optical observations of the 2013 annular eclipse from Tennant Creek, Australia, and the 3 November 2013 total solar eclipse from Gabon. Our observations are coordinated with those from solar spacecraft: Solar Dynamics Observatory AIA and HMI, Hinode XRT and SOT, SOHO LASCO and EIT, PROBA2 SWAP, and STEREO SECCHI. Our 2012 totality observations include a CME whose motion was observed with a 37-minute interval. We include first results from the expedition to Gabon for the 3 November 2013 eclipse, a summary of eclipse results from along the path of totality across Africa, and a summary of the concomitant spacecraft observations. The Williams College 2012 expeditions were supported in part by NSF grant AGS-1047726 from Solar Terrestrial Research/NSF AGS, and by the Rob Spring Fund and Science Center funds at Williams. The JVLA is supported by the NSF. The Williams College 2013 total-eclipse expedition was supported in part by grant 9327-13 from the Committee for Research and Exploration of the National Geographic Society. ML was also supported in part by a Grant-In-Aid of Research from the National Academy of Sciences, administered by Sigma Xi, The Scientific Research Society (Grant ID: G20120315159311). VR and MS acknowledge support for 2012 from projects VEGA 2/0003/13 and NGS-3139-12 of the National Geographic Society. We are grateful to K. Shiota (Japan) for kindly providing us with some of his 2012 eclipse coronal images. We thank Alec Engell (Montana State U) for assistance on site, and Terry Cuttle (Queensland Amateur Astronomers) for help with site arrangements. We thank Aram Friedman (Ansible Technologies), Michael Kentrianakis

  6. Spatiotemporal Organization of Energy Release Events in the Quiet Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.

    2014-01-01

    Using data from the STEREO and SOHO spacecraft, we show that temporal organization of energy release events in the quiet solar corona is close to random, in contrast to the clustered behavior of flaring times in solar active regions. The locations of the quiet-Sun events follow the meso- and supergranulation pattern of the underling photosphere. Together with earlier reports of the scale-free event size statistics, our findings suggest that quiet solar regions responsible for bulk coronal heating operate in a driven self-organized critical state, possibly involving long-range Alfvenic interactions.

  7. Spatiotemporal organization of energy release events in the quiet solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    Uritsky, Vadim M.; Davila, Joseph M.

    2014-11-01

    Using data from the STEREO and SOHO spacecraft, we show that temporal organization of energy release events in the quiet solar corona is close to random, in contrast to the clustered behavior of flaring times in solar active regions. The locations of the quiet-Sun events follow the meso- and supergranulation pattern of the underling photosphere. Together with earlier reports of the scale-free event size statistics, our findings suggest that quiet solar regions responsible for bulk coronal heating operate in a driven self-organized critical state, possibly involving long-range Alfvénic interactions.

  8. Solar irradiance variations due to active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, L.; Schatten, K.H.; Sofia, S.

    1982-05-15

    We have been able to reproduce the variations of the solar irradiance observed by ACRIM to an accuracy of better than +- 0.4 W m/sup -2/, assuming that during the 6 month observation period in 1980 the solar luminosity was constant. The improvement over previous attempts is primarily due to the inclusion of faculae. The reproduction scheme uses simple geometrical data on spot and facula areas, and conventional parameters for the respective fluxes and angular dependencies. The quality of reproduction is not very sensitive to most of the details of these parameters; nevertheless, there conventional parameters cannot be very different from their actual values in the solar atmosphere. It is interesting that the time average of the integrated excess emission (over directions) of the faculae cancels out the integrated deficit produced by the spots, within an accuracy of about 10%. If this behavior were maintained over longer periods of time, say, on the order of an activity cycle, active regions could be viewed as a kind of lighthouse where the energy deficit near the normal direction, associated with the spots, is primarily reemitted close to the tangential directions by the faculae. The currently available data suggest that energy ''storage'' associated with the redirection of flux near active regions on the Sun is comparable to the lifetime of the faculae.

  9. A theory of heating of quiet solar corona

    SciTech Connect

    Wu, C. S.; Yoon, P. H.; Wang, C. B.

    2015-03-15

    A theory is proposed to discuss the creation of hot solar corona. We pay special attention to the transition region and the low corona, and consider that the sun is quiet. The proposed scenario suggests that the protons are heated by intrinsic Alfvénic turbulence, while the ambient electrons are heated by the hot protons via collisions. The theory contains two prime components: the generation of the Alfvénic fluctuations by the heavy minor ions in the transition region and second, the explanation of the temperature profile in the low solar atmosphere. The proposed heating process operates continuously in time and globally in space.

  10. Observations of an active region filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, W. G.; Tang, Y. H.; Fang, C.; Xu, A. A.

    An active region filament was well observed on September 4, 2002 with THEMIS at the Teide observatory and SOHO/MDI. The full Stokes parameters of the filament were obtained in Hα and FeI 6302 Å lines. Using the data, we have studied the fine structure of the filament and obtained the parameters at the barb endpoints, including intensity, velocity and longitudinal magnetic field. Our results indicate: (a) the Doppler velocities are quiet different at barb endpoints; (b) the longitudinal magnetic fields at the barb endpoints are very weak; (c) there is a strong magnetic field structure under the filament spine.

  11. Dynamics of the Transition Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Masson, Sophie; McCauley, Patrick; Golub, Leon; Reeves, Katharine K.; DeLuca, Edward E.

    2014-01-01

    Magnetic reconnection between the open and closed magnetic fields in the corona is believed to play a crucial role in the corona/heliosphere coupling. At large scale, the exchange of open/closed connectivity is expected to occur in pseudo-streamer (PS) structures. However, there is neither clear observational evidence of how such coupling occurs in PSs, nor evidence for how the magnetic reconnection evolves. Using a newly developed technique, we enhance the off-limb magnetic fine structures observed with the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and identify a PS-like feature located close to the northern coronal hole. We first identify that the magnetic topology associated with the observation is a PS, null-point (NP) related topology bounded by the open field. By comparing the magnetic field configuration with the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) emission regions, we determined that most of the magnetic flux associated with plasma emission are small loops below the PS basic NP and open field bounding the PS topology. In order to interpret the evolution of the PS, we referred to a three-dimensional MHD interchange reconnection modeling the exchange of connectivity between small closed loops and the open field. The observed PS fine structures follow the dynamics of the magnetic field before and after reconnecting at the NP obtained by the interchange model. Moreover, the pattern of the EUV plasma emission is the same as the shape of the expected plasma emission location derived from the simulation. These morphological and dynamical similarities between the PS observations and the results from the simulation strongly suggest that the evolution of the PS, and in particular the opening/closing of the field, occurs via interchange/slipping reconnection at the basic NP of the PS. Besides identifying the mechanism at work in the large-scale coupling between the open and closed fields, our results highlight that interchange reconnection in PSs is a gradual physical process that differs

  12. Basic results of the CORONAS-F solar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, V. D.

    2006-08-01

    142190 Troitsk, Moscow Region, Russia V.D. Kuznetsov N.V.Pushkov Institute of Terrestrial Magnetism, Ionosphere and Radio Wave Propagation, Troitsk, Russia The report contains a review of the basic results of the CORONAS-F solar observations during the period of orbital operation of the satellite (from July 31, 2001 to December 6, 2005). Basic results are related with helioseismic observations of the Sun, with localization and study of the morphology of numerous active phenomena in the Sun, including the outstanding events in the declining phase of the solar cycle; with spectroscopic diagnostics of the coronal and flare-generated plasma; with the study of the atomic and nuclear processes in solar flares; with detection of the fluxes of solar cosmic rays, gamma-rays, and neutrons from the major flares reaching the Earth's orbit.

  13. Radiative transfer of X-rays in the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acton, L. W.

    1978-01-01

    The problem of resonance scattering of X-ray emission lines in the solar corona is investigated. For the resonance lines of some helium-like ions, significant optical depths are reached over distances small compared with the size of typical coronal features. A general integral equation for the transfer of resonance-line radiation under solar coronal conditions is derived. This expression is in a form useful for modeling the complex three-dimensional temperature and density structure of coronal active regions. The transfer equation is then cast in a form illustrating the terms which give rise to the attenuation or enhancement of the resonance-line intensity. The source function for helium-like oxygen (O VII) under coronal conditions is computed and discussed in terms of the relative importance of scattering.

  14. Time Evolution of Coronal Magnetic Helicity in the Flaring Active Region NOAA 10930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Hong; Jing, J.; Wang, H.

    2010-05-01

    To study the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field topology and its long-term (a few days) evolution associated with the X3.4 flare of 2006 December 13, we investigate the temporal evolution of the relative coronal magnetic helicity in NOAA active region (AR) 10930 during the time period of December 8, 21:20 UT through December 14, 5:00 UT. The coronal helicity is calculated based on the 3D nonlinear force-free (NLFF) magnetic fields reconstructed by the optimization method (Wheatland et al. 2000) as implemented by Wiegelmann (2004). As the boundary conditions for the force-free reconstruction, we use the preprocessed Hinode Spectropolarimeter (SP) vector magnetograms in which the net Lorentz force and the torque in the photosphere are minimized (see Wiegelmann et al. 2006 for the details). The major findings of this study are: (1) a negative (left-handed) helicity of -5×1043 Mx2 in the AR corona is estimated right before the X3.4 flare; (2) the major flare is preceded by a significantly and consistently large amount of negative helicity injection (-2×1043 Mx2) into the corona over 2 days; (3) the temporal variation of helicity is comparable to that of the rotational speed in the southern sunspot with positive polarity; (4) in general, the time profile of the coronal helicity is well-matched with that of the helicity accumulation by the time integration of the simplified helicity injection rate (Chae 2001) determined by using SOHO MDI magnetograms; (5) at the time period of the channel structure development (December 11, 4:00-8:00 UT) with newly emerging flux and just right before the C5.7 class flare, the time variation of the coronal helicity shows a rapid and huge increase of negative helicity, but that of the helicity accumulation by MDI magnetograms indicates a monotonous increase of negative helicity.

  15. Stellar coronae from Einstein - Observations and theory

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosner, R.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1980-01-01

    Einstein Observatory observations of stellar X-ray emission are presented and their implications for the formation of stellar coronae and the problem of stellar angular momentum loss are discussed. Solar coronal X-ray observations and observations of stellar coronae made prior to Einstein are reviewed, and it is noted that they already suggest that the standard theory of acoustic coronal heating is inadequate. The principal results of the Einstein/CfA stellar survey are summarized, with attention given to variations of the level of X-ray flux detected along the main sequence, the decline of X-ray flux with increasing age of giants and supergiants, and indications of a large range of X-ray emission levels within a given type, which are clearly incompatible with models for acoustic flux generation. A new theory to explain stellar coronae and hence X-ray emission from them is then proposed in which stellar magnetic fields play the key role in determining the level of coronal emission, and the modulation of the surface magnetic flux level and the level of stressing of surface magnetic fields essentially determine the variation of mean coronal activity in the H-R diagram.

  16. Nanoparticle corona for proteins: mechanisms of interaction between dendrimers and proteins.

    PubMed

    Shcharbin, Dzmitry; Ionov, Maksim; Abashkin, Viktar; Loznikova, Svetlana; Dzmitruk, Volha; Shcharbina, Natallia; Matusevich, Ludmila; Milowska, Katarzyna; Gałęcki, Krystian; Wysocki, Stanisław; Bryszewska, Maria

    2015-10-01

    Protein absorption at the surface of big nanoparticles and formation of 'protein corona' can completely change their biological properties. In contrast, we have studied the binding of small nanoparticles - dendrimers - to proteins and the formation of their 'nanoparticle corona'. Three different types of interactions were observed. (1) If proteins have rigid structure and active site buried deeply inside, the 'nanoparticle corona' is unaffected. (2) If proteins have a flexible structure and their active site is also buried deeply inside, the 'nanoparticle corona' affects protein structure, but not enzymatic activity. (3) The 'nanoparticle corona' changes both the structure and enzymatic activity of flexible proteins that have surface-based active centers. These differences are important in understanding interactions taking place at a bio-nanointerface.

  17. Electrical and spectroscopic analysis of mono- and multi-tip pulsed corona discharges in air at atmospheric pressure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mraihi, A.; Merbahi, N.; Yousfi, M.; Abahazem, A.; Eichwald, O.

    2011-12-01

    This work is devoted to the analysis of experimental results obtained in dry air at atmospheric pressure in a positive point-to-plane corona discharge under a pulsed applied voltage in the cases of anodic mono- and multi-tips. In the mono-tip case, the peak corona current is analysed as a function of several experimental parameters such as magnitude, frequency and duration of pulsed voltage and gap distance. The variation of the corona discharge current is correlated with the ozone production. Then in the multi-tip case, the electrical behaviour is analysed as a function of the distance between two contiguous tips and the tip number in order to highlight the region of creation active species for the lowest dissipated power. Intensified charge-coupled device pictures and electric field calculations as a function of inter-tip distance are performed to analyse the mutual effect between two contiguous tips. The optical emission spectra are measured in the UV-visible-NIR wavelength range between 200 nm and 800 nm, in order to identify the main excited species formed in an air corona discharge such as the usual first and second positive systems with first negative systems of molecular nitrogen. The identification of atomic species (O triplet and N) and the quenching of NOγ emission bands are also emphasized.

  18. Monitoring Holes in the Sun's Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-09-01

    Coronal holes are where the fast solar wind streams out of the Suns atmosphere, sending charged particles on rapid trajectories out into the solar system. A new study examines how the distribution of coronal holes has changed over the last 40 years.Coronal holes form where magnetic field lines open into space (B) instead of looping back to the solar surface (A). [Sebman81]Source of the Fast Solar WindAs a part of the Suns natural activity cycle, extremely low-density regions sometimes form in the solar corona. These coronal holes manifest themselves as dark patches in X-ray and extreme ultraviolet imaging, since the corona is much hotter than the solar surface that peeks through from underneath it.Coronal holes form when magnetic field lines open into space instead of looping back to the solar surface. In these regions, the solar atmosphere escapes via these field lines, rapidly streaming away from the Suns surface in whats known as the fast solar wind.Coronal Holes Over Space and TimeAutomated detection of coronal holes from image-based analysis is notoriously difficult. Recently, a team of scientists led by Kenichi Fujiki (ISEE, Nagoya University, Japan) has developed an automated prediction technique for coronal holes that relies instead on magnetic-field data for the Sun, obtained at the National Solar Observatorys Kitt Peak between 1975 and 2014. The team used these data to produce a database of 3335 coronal hole predictions over nearly 40 years.Latitude distribution of 2870 coronal holes (each marked by an x; color indicates polarity), overlaid on the magnetic butterfly map of the Sun. The low-latitude coronal holes display a similar butterfly pattern, in which they move closer to the equator over the course of the solar cycle. Polar coronal holes are more frequent during solar minima. [Fujiki et al. 2016]Examining trends in the coronal holes distribution in latitude and time, Fujiki and collaborators find a strong correlation between the total area covered

  19. Rainbows, Coronas and Glories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laven, Philip

    Rainbows, coronas and glories are examples of atmospheric optical phenomena caused by the scattering of sunlight from spherical drops of water. It is surprising that the apparently simple process of scattering of light by spherical drops of water can result in this wide range of colourful effects. However, the scattering mechanisms are very complicated. Eminent scientists (such as Descartes, Newton, Young, Airy and many others) offered various explanations for the formation of rainbows—thus making major contributions to our understanding of the nature of light. The basic features of rainbows can be explained by geometrical optics but, in the early 1800s, supernumerary arcs on rainbows provided crucial supporting evidence for the wave theory of light. In 1908, Mie provided a rigorous (but very complicated) solution to the problem of scattering of light by spherical particles. More than 100 years later, Mie's solution can now be used to produce excellent full-colour simulations. Examples of such simulations show how the appearance of these phenomena vary with the size of the water drops, as well as describing the scattering mechanisms that are responsible for their formation.

  20. Spatial and temporal relations between coronae and extensional belts, northern Lada Terra, Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baer, Gidon; Schubert, Gerald; Bindschadler, Duane L.; Stofan, Ellen R.

    1994-01-01

    Preliminary studies of the distribution of coronae and volcanic rises on Venus show that many of these features tend to cluster along zones of rifting and extension. The plains north of Lada Terra are crossed by two such extensional belts. Each belt is composed of grabens, ridges, faults, volcanic flows, coronae and coronalike features. The longer and more prominent belt is the NW trending Alpha-Lada extensional belt, which is over 6000 km long and 50-200 km wide, and includes the coronae Eve, Tamfana, Carpo, Selu, Derceto, Otygen, and an unnamed corona south of Otygen. The second belt is the NNE trending Derceto-Quetzalpetlatl extensional belt, which is about 2000 km long and in places over 300 km wide, and includes the coronae Sarpanitum, Eithinoha, and Quetzalpetlatl. The two belts intersect at the 1600 x 600 km wide Derceto volcanic plateau. It is apparent that deformation along the two belts overlapped in time, though deformation along the Alpha-Lada extensional belt probably continued after the deformation along the Derceto-Quetzalpetlatl extensional belt terminated. In certain areas, volcanism originated in grabens within the extensional belts, whereas in other areas, such as in Eve, Selu, Derceto, and Quetzalpetlatl, volcanism originated in the coronae and flowed into the lower parts of the extensional belts. Regional extension has affected the evolution of all the coronae at some stage of their development. Regional deformation occurred before the initiation of Derceto and Eithinoha of their development. Regional deformation occurred before the initiation of Derceto and Eithinoha and after the initiation of Carpo, Tamfana, Otygen, and Sarpanitum. It is thus unlikely that coronae formation along the belts is solely a consequence of the regional extension, and it is also unlikely that regional extension has been caused solely by the coronae. No corona along the belts was formed subsequent to the cessation of the regional extension. We therefore suggest that

  1. Spatial and temporal relations between coronae and extensional belts, northern Lada Terra, Venus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baer, G.; Schubert, G.; Bindschadler, D. L.; Stofan, E. R.

    1994-04-01

    Preliminary studies of the distribution of coronae and volcanic rises on Venus show that many of these features tend to cluster along zones of rifting and extension. The plains north of Lada Terra are crossed by two such extensional belts. Each belt is composed of grabens, ridges, faults, volcanic flows, coronae and coronalike features. The longer and more prominent belt is the NW trending Alpha-Lada extensional belt, which is over 6000 km long and 50-200 km wide, and includes the coronae Eve, Tamfana, Carpo, Selu, Derceto, Otygen, and an unnamed corona south of Otygen. The second belt is the NNE trending Derceto-Quetzalpetlatl extensional belt, which is about 2000 km long and in places over 300 km wide, and includes the coronae Sarpanitum, Eithinoha, and Quetzalpetlatl. The two belts intersect at the 1600 x 600 km wide Derceto volcanic plateau. It is apparent that deformation along the two belts overlapped in time, though deformation along the Alpha-Lada extensional belt probably continued after the deformation along the Derceto-Quetzalpetlatl extensional belt terminated. In certain areas, volcanism originated in grabens within the extensional belts, whereas in other areas, such as in Eve, Selu, Derceto, and Quetzalpetlatl, volcanism originated in the coronae and flowed into the lower parts of the extensional belts. Regional extension has affected the evolution of all the coronae at some stage of their development. Regional deformation occurred before the initiation of Derceto and Eithinoha of their development. Regional deformation occurred before the initiation of Derceto and Eithinoha and after the initiation of Carpo, Tamfana, Otygen, and Sarpanitum. It is thus unlikely that coronae formation along the belts is solely a consequence of the regional extension, and it is also unlikely that regional extension has been caused solely by the coronae. No corona along the belts was formed subsequent to the cessation of the regional extension. We therefore suggest that

  2. DIFFRACTION, REFRACTION, AND REFLECTION OF AN EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET WAVE OBSERVED DURING ITS INTERACTIONS WITH REMOTE ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Shen Yuandeng; Liu Yu; Zhao Ruijuan; Tian Zhanjun; Su Jiangtao; Li Hui; Ichimoto, Kiyoshi; Shibata, Kazunari

    2013-08-20

    We present observations of the diffraction, refraction, and reflection of a global extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) wave propagating in the solar corona. These intriguing phenomena are observed when the wave interacts with two remote active regions, and together they exhibit properties of an EUV wave. When the wave approached AR11465, it became weaker and finally disappeared in the active region, but a few minutes later a new wavefront appeared behind the active region, and it was not concentric with the incoming wave. In addition, a reflected wave was also simultaneously observed on the wave incoming side. When the wave approached AR11459, it transmitted through the active region directly and without reflection. The formation of the new wavefront and the transmission could be explained with diffraction and refraction effects, respectively. We propose that the different behaviors observed during the interactions may be caused by different speed gradients at the boundaries of the two active regions. We find that the EUV wave formed ahead of a group of expanding loops a few minutes after the start of the loops' expansion, which represents the initiation of the associated coronal mass ejection (CME). Based on these results, we conclude that the EUV wave should be a nonlinear magnetosonic wave or shock driven by the associated CME, which propagated faster than the ambient fast mode speed and gradually slowed down to an ordinary linear wave. Our observations support the hybrid model that includes both fast wave and slow non-wave components.

  3. Identification and analysis of structures in the corona from X-ray photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaiana, G. S.; Krieger, A. S.; Timothy, A. F.

    1973-01-01

    This paper summarizes the results of a program of rocket observations of the solar corona with grazing incidence X-ray telescopes. A series of five flights of a Kanigen-surfaced telescope with a few arc seconds resolution, together with the first flight of a newer telescope have resulted in the identification of six classes of coronal structures observable in the X-ray photographs. These are: active regions, active region interconnections, large loop structures associated with unipolar magnetic regions, coronal holes, coronal bright points, and the structures surrounding filament cavities. Two solar flares have been observed. The methods involved in deriving coronal temperature and density information from X-ray photographs are described and the analysis of a bright active region (McMath plage 11035) observed at the west limb on November 24, 1970 is presented as an example of these techniques.

  4. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and Very Large Array (VLA) observations of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Willson, Robert F.

    1991-01-01

    Very Large Array observations at 20 cm wavelength can detect the hot coronal plasma previously observed at soft x ray wavelengths. Thermal cyclotron line emission was detected at the apex of coronal loops where the magnetic field strength is relatively constant. Detailed comparison of simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) Satellite and VLA data indicate that physical parameters such as electron temperature, electron density, and magnetic field strength can be obtained, but that some coronal loops remain invisible in either spectral domain. The unprecedent spatial resolution of the VLA at 20 cm wavelength showed that the precursor, impulsive, and post-flare components of solar bursts originate in nearby, but separate loops or systems of loops.. In some cases preburst heating and magnetic changes are observed from loops tens of minutes prior to the impulsive phase. Comparisons with soft x ray images and spectra and with hard x ray data specify the magnetic field strength and emission mechanism of flaring coronal loops. At the longer 91 cm wavelength, the VLA detected extensive emission interpreted as a hot 10(exp 5) K interface between cool, dense H alpha filaments and the surrounding hotter, rarefield corona. Observations at 91 cm also provide evidence for time-correlated bursts in active regions on opposite sides of the solar equator; they are attributed to flare triggering by relativistic particles that move along large-scale, otherwise-invisible, magnetic conduits that link active regions in opposite hemispheres of the Sun.

  5. CAN A LONG NANOFLARE STORM EXPLAIN THE OBSERVED EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTIONS IN ACTIVE REGION CORES?

    SciTech Connect

    Mulu-Moore, Fana M.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Warren, Harry P.

    2011-11-20

    All theories that attempt to explain the heating of the high-temperature plasma observed in the solar corona are based on short bursts of energy. The intensities and velocities measured in the cores of quiescent active regions, however, can be steady over many hours of observation. One heating scenario that has been proposed to reconcile such observations with impulsive heating models is the 'long nanoflare storm', where short-duration heating events occur infrequently on many sub-resolution strands; the emission of the strands is then averaged together to explain the observed steady structures. In this Letter, we examine the emission measure distribution predicted for such a long nanoflare storm by modeling an arcade of strands in an active region core. Comparisons of the computed emission measure distributions with recent observations indicate that the long nanoflare storm scenario implies greater than five times more 1 MK emission than is actually observed for all plausible combinations of loop lengths, heating rates, and abundances. We conjecture that if the plasma had 'super coronal' abundances, the model may be able to match the observations at low temperatures.

  6. FIP bias in a sigmoidal active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Green, L. M.; Steed, K.; Carlyle, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in an anemone active region (AR) - coronal hole (CH) complex using an abundance map derived from Hinode/EIS spectra. The detailed, spatially resolved abundance map has a large field of view covering 359'' × 485''. Plasma with high FIP bias, or coronal abundances, is concentrated at the footpoints of the AR loops whereas the surrounding CH has a low FIP bias, ~1, i.e. photospheric abundances. A channel of low FIP bias is located along the AR's main polarity inversion line containing a filament where ongoing flux cancellation is observed, indicating a bald patch magnetic topology characteristic of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  7. Three dimensional structures of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.

    1986-01-01

    Three dimensional structure of an active region is determined from observations with the Very Large Array (VLA) at 2, 6, and 20 cm. This region exhibits a single magnetic loop of length approx. 10 to the 10th power cm. The 2 cm radiation is mostly thermal bremsstrahlung and originates from the footpoints of the loop. The 6 and 20 cm radiation is dominated by the low harmonic gyroresonance radiation and originates from the upper portion of the legs or the top of the loop. The loop broadens toward the apex. The top of the loop is not found to be the hottest point, but two temperature maxima on either side of the loop apex are observed, which is consistent with the model proposed for long loops. From 2 and 6 cm observations it can be concluded that the electron density and temperature cannot be uniform in a plane perpendicular to the axis of the loop; the density should decrease away from the axis of the loop.

  8. Multiple Wavelength Observations of Flaring Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lang, Kenneth R.

    The radio emission of quiescent active regions at 6 cm wavelength marks the legs of magnetic dipoles, and the emission at 20 cm wavelength delineates the radio wavelength counterpart of the coronal loops previously detected at X-ray wavelengths. At both wavelengths the temperatures have coronal values of a few million degrees. The polarization of the radio emission specifies the structure and strength of the coronal magnetic field (H ≈ 600 Gauss at heights h ≈ 4 x 109 cm above sunspot umbrae). At 6 cm and 20 cm wavelength the solar bursts have angular sizes between 5" and 30", brightness temperatures between 2 x 107 K and 2 x 108 K, and degrees of circular polarization between 10% and 90%. The location of the burst energy release is specified with second-of-arc accuracy. At radio wavelengths the bursts occur within the central regions of magnetic loops, while the flaring Ha kernels are located at the loop footpoints. Coronal loops exhibit enhanced radio emission (preburst heating) a few minutes before the release of burst energy. The radio polarization data indicate magnetic changes before and during solar bursts.

  9. Development of Efficient Models of Corona Discharges Around Tall Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tucker, J.; Pasko, V. P.

    2012-12-01

    This work concerns with numerical modeling of glow corona and sreamer corona discharges that occur near tall ground structures under thunderstorm conditions. Glow corona can occur when ambient electric field reaches modest values on the order of 0.2 kV/cm and when the electric field near sharp points of ground structure rises above a geometry dependent critical field required for ionization of air. Air is continuously ionized in a small region close to the surface of the structure and ions diffuse out into the surrounding air forming a corona. A downward leader approaching from a thundercloud causes a further increase in the electric field at the ground level. If the electric field rises to the point where it can support formation of streamers in air surrounding the tall structure, a streamer corona flash, or series of streamer corona flashes can be formed significantly affecting the space charge configuration formed by the preceding glow corona. The streamer corona can heat the surrounding air enough to form a self-propagating thermalized leader that is launched upward from the tall structure. This leader travels upward towards the thundercloud and connects with the downward approaching leader thus causing a lightning flash. Accurate time-dependent modeling of charge configuration created by the glow and streamer corona discharges around tall structure is an important component for understanding of the sequence of events leading to lightning attachment to the tall structure. The present work builds on principal modeling ideas developed previously in [Aleksandrov et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 38, 1225, 2005; Bazelyan et al., Plasma Sources Sci. Technol., 17, 024015, 2008; Kowalski, E. J., Honors Thesis, Penn State Univ., University Park, PA, May 2008; Tucker and Pasko, NSF EE REU Penn State Annual Res. J., 10, 13, 2012]. The non-stationary glow and streamer coronas are modeled in spherical geometry up to the point of initiation of the upward leader. The model

  10. Fast Magnetosonic Waves and Global Coronal Seismology in the Extended Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Ryun Young; Zhang, J.; Kramar, M.; Wang, T.; Ofman, L.; Davila, J. M.

    2013-07-01

    We present global coronal seismology, for the first time, that allows us to determine inhomogeneous magnetic field strengths in a wide range of the extended solar corona. We use observations of propagating disturbance associated with a coronal mass ejection observed on 2011 August 4 by the COR1 inner coronagraphs on board the STEREO spacecraft. We establish that the disturbance is in fact a fast magnetosonic wave as the upper coronal counterpart of the EIT wave observed by STEREO EUVI and travels across magnetic field lines with inhomogeneous speeds, passing through various coronal regions such as quiet/active corona, coronal holes, and streamers. We derive magnetic field strengths along the azimuthal trajectories of the fronts at heliocentric distances 2.0, 2.5, and 3.0 Rs, using the varying speeds and electron densities. The derived magnetic field strengths are consistent with values determined with a potential field source surface model and reported in previous works. The ranges of the magnetic field strengths at these heliocentric distances are 0.44 ± 0.29, 0.23 ± 0.15, and 0.26 ± 0.14 G, respectively. The uncertainty in determining magnetic field strengths is about 40 %. This work demonstrates that observations of fast magnetosonic waves by white-light coronagraphs can provide us with a unique way to diagnose magnetic field strength of an inhomogeneous medium in a wide spatial range of the extended solar corona.

  11. The influence of electrohydrodynamic flow on the distribution of chemical species in positive corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontiga, Francisco; Yanallah, Khelifa; Bouazza, R.; Chen, Junhong

    2015-09-01

    A numerical simulation of positive corona discharge in air, including the effect of electrohydrodynamic (EHD) motion of the gas, has been carried out. Air flow is assumed to be confined between two parallel plates, and corona discharge is produced around a thin wire, midway between the plates. Therefore, fluid dynamics equations, including electrical forces, have been solved together with the continuity equation of each neutral species. The plasma chemical model included 24 chemical reactions and ten neutral species, in addition to electrons and positive ions. The results of the simulation have shown that the influence of EHD flow on the spatial distributions of the species is quite different depending on the species. Hence, reactive species like atomic oxygen and atomic nitrogen are confined to the vicinity of the wire, and they are weakly affected by the EHD gas motion. In contrast, nitrogen oxides and ozone are efficiently dragged outside the active region of the corona discharge by the EHD flow. This work was supported by the Spanish Government Agency ``Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación'' under Contract No. FIS2011-25161.

  12. The photosphere-corona Interface: enrichement of the corona in low FIP elements and helium shells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bazin, C.; Koutchmy, S.; Lamy, P.; Veselovski, I.

    2014-12-01

    Slitless consecutive spectra were obtained during the contacts of the last total solar eclipses (2008, 2009, 2010, 2012, et 2013). They allowed to show that the overabundance of low First Ionisation Potential (FIP) elements (Fe II, Ti II, Ba II) in the corona comes from the low layers of the solar atmosphere, just near and above the temperature minimum region of the high photosphere. All spectra are recorded with a fast CCD/CMOS camera, with an equivalent radial resolution of 60 milliarcseconds, or 45 km in the solar atmosphere, above a solar edge not affected by the parasitic light like it is outside of total eclipse conditions. Many emission lines of low FIP elements appear in regions situated between 200 to 600 km above the solar limb defined by the true continuum measured between the lines. This continuum appears at these altitudes where the beta of the plasma is near 1. The He I 4713 Å and He II 4686 Å (Paschen alpha line) shells appear at the height of 800 km above the solar edge and higher. The light curve I = f(h) of each ion is located at a particuliar altitude in the solar atmosphere. The scale height corresponds to a density variation, which allows to evaluate the temperature thanks to the hydrostatic equilibrium assumption. Moreover, with ionised Titanium lines taken as markers, we show a similarity between the photosphere-corona interface and the prominence-corona interface. We discuss the role of the magnetic field and the ambipolar diffusion for supplying the corona in mass, without taking into account the role of spicules. The photo-ionisation of the helium lines by the EUV coronal lines is illustrated thanks to an extract of SDO/AIA coronal stacked image simultaneously obtained.

  13. Lower solar chromosphere-corona transition region. III - Implications of the observed quiet-sun emission measure including wave pressure effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woods, D. Tod; Holzer, Thomas E.; Macgregor, Keith B.

    1990-01-01

    The observed form of the emission measure (EM) is used as a function of temperature to infer the wave energy flux density and pressure throughout the lower transition region (TR). This procedure eliminates the need for specifying how the wave energy flux density is damped and addresses the question of whether there is any form of the mechanical heating associated with the degradation of an upward traveling wave energy flux density which is consistent with the observed EM and other observational constraints for the quiet sun. It is found that the observed form of the EM curve is incompatible with waves traveling vertically at the sound speed, regardless of any filling factor arguments. The same conclusion also applies to waves traveling at the Alfven speed, unless it is assumed that the emission in lower TR lines originates solely from small, spatially unresolved regions of large magnetic field strength (100 G), which cover a small fraction (filling factors of 1 percent) of the solar surface.

  14. Forecasting the Solar Drivers of Severe Space Weather from Active-Region Magnetograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Large flares and fast CMEs are the drivers of the most severe space weather including Solar Energetic Particle Events (SEP Events). Large flares and their co-produced CMEs are powered by the explosive release of free magnetic energy stored in non-potential magnetic fields of sunspot active regions. The free energy is stored in and released from the low-beta regime of the active region s magnetic field above the photosphere, in the chromosphere and low corona. From our work over the past decade and from similar work of several other groups, it is now well established that (1) a proxy of the free magnetic energy stored above the photosphere can be measured from photospheric magnetograms, and (2) an active region s rate of production of major CME/flare eruptions in the coming day or so is strongly correlated with its present measured value of the free-energy proxy. These results have led us to use the large database of SOHO/MDI full-disk magnetograms spanning Solar Cycle 23 to obtain empirical forecasting curves that from an active region s present measured value of the free-energy proxy give the active region s expected rates of production of major flares, CMEs, fast CMEs, and SEP Events in the coming day or so (Falconer et al 2011, Space Weather, 9, S04003). We will present these forecasting curves and demonstrate the accuracy of their forecasts. In addition, we will show that the forecasts for major flares and fast CMEs can be made significantly more accurate by taking into account not only the value of the free energy proxy but also the active region s recent productivity of major flares; specifically, whether the active region has produced a major flare (GOES class M or X) during the past 24 hours before the time of the measured magnetogram. By empirically determining the conversion of the value of free-energy proxy measured from a GONG or HMI magnetogram to that which would be measured from an MDI magnetogram, we have made GONG and HMI magnetograms useable with

  15. Alfvenically driven slow shocks in the solar chromosphere and corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hollweg, Joseph V.

    1992-01-01

    The nonlinear evolution of an Alfvenic impulse launched from the photosphere and its dynamical effects on the chromosphere, transition region (TR), and corona are investigated using a simple 1D model. It is found that the leading edge of the torsional pulse can steepen into a fast shock in the chromosphere if the pulse is of sufficiently large amplitude and short duration. A slow shock which develops behind the Alfvenic pulse can reflect downgoing Alfven waves back up to the corona. The upgoing reflected wave can induce a significant upward ejection of the TR. Nonlinear dynamics are found to lead to very impulsive behavior at later times. It is suggested that impulsive events occurring in the TR or corona need not be interpreted in terms of reconnection-driven microflares. It is also found that B(0) in the chromosphere can be amplified when the TR and chromosphere fall.

  16. The airflow effect on a negative corona discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amirov, R. Kh.; Barengol'ts, S. A.; Korostelev, E. V.; Pestovskii, N. V.; Petrov, A. A.; Savinov, S. Yu.; Samoilov, I. S.

    2016-09-01

    The effect of the airflow on the negative corona discharge is studied. It is shown by use of telemicroscopy that the localization of the discharge torch on the cathode surface can be significantly affected by the aerodynamic action on the discharge gap region.

  17. The H Corona of Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaffin, Michael Scott

    The atmosphere of every planet is surrounded by a tenuous cloud of hydrogen gas, referred to as a hydrogen corona. At Mars, a substantial fraction of the H present in the corona is moving fast enough to escape the planet's gravity, permanently removing H from the Martian atmosphere. Because this H is ultimately derived from lower atmospheric water, loss of H from Mars is capable of drying and oxidizing the planet over geologic time. Understanding the processes that supply the H corona and control its escape is therefore essential for a complete understanding of the climate history of Mars and for assessing its habitability. In this thesis, I present the most complete analysis of the H corona ever attempted, surveying eight years of data gathered by the ultraviolet spectrograph SPICAM on Mars Express. Using a coupled radiative transfer and physical density model, I interpret brightness measurements of the corona in terms of escape rates of H from the planet, uncovering an order-of-magnitude variability in the H escape rate never before detected. These variations are interpreted using a completely new photochemical model of the atmosphere, demonstrating that newly discovered high altitude water vapor layers are sufficient to produce the observed variation. Finally, I present first results of the SPICAM successor instrument IUVS, an imaging ultraviolet spectrograph carried by NASA's MAVEN spacecraft. IUVS measurements are producing the most complete dataset ever gathered for the Martian H corona, enabling supply and loss processes to be assessed in more complete detail than ever before. This dataset will allow present-day loss rates to be extrapolated into the past, determining the absolute amount of water Mars has lost to space over the course of its history. Planets the size of Mars may be common throughout the universe; the work of this thesis is one step toward assessing the habitability of such planets in general.

  18. Hot oxygen corona of Mars

    SciTech Connect

    Ip, W.H.

    1988-10-01

    Electron dissociative recombination of O2(+) ions in the Venus ionosphere, which may be an important source of suprathermal atomic oxygen, is presently considered as a factor in the Mars exosphere; due to the weaker surface gravitational attraction of Mars, a hot oxygen corona thus formed would be denser than that of Venus at altitudes greater than 2000 km despite Mars' lower ionospheric content. If such an extended oxygen corona does exist on Mars, its collisional interaction with Phobos would lead to the formation of an oxygen gas torus whose average number density is of the order of only 1-2/cu cm along the Phobos orbit. 51 references.

  19. Spectropolarimetry of a Limb Active Region and its Cool Coronal Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, Philip G.; Kleint, L.; Casini, R.; Schad, T.

    2012-05-01

    During the SDO mission we have regularly used the IBIS and FIRS spectropolarimeters at the Dunn Solar Telescope to measure magnetic fields and plasma parameters from photosphere up to the coronal base. Here we analyze data of a region at and above the east limb (later named NOAA 11302) obtained on September 22nd 2011. The measurements show an erupting prominence, remarkably uniform cool plumes and some material seemingly draining into the active region along post-flare loops. The imaging Fabry-Perot instrument IBIS obtained 30 scans of intensity spectra (30s cadence) and 40 scans of Stokes parameters (90s cadence) in lines of Fe I 630 nm, Na I 596 nm, Ca II 852 nm and H-alpha 656 nm, with an angular resolution near 0.2", over a 40"x80" field of view. The FIRS slit was scanned across the solar image to obtain Stokes profiles including lines of Si I 1028.7 nm and He I 1083 nm. We obtained 3 FIRS scans covering a 90"x75" area with cadences of between half an hour and an hour simultaneously with IBIS, at a lower angular resolution. Simultaneous broad band Ca II K and G-band data were obtained with a cadence of 5s. We discuss the vector magnetic fields and plasma properties of NOAA 11302, with emphasis on cool plasma structures extending many Mm into the corona.

  20. Ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy of the solar corona at the Naval Research Laboratory.

    PubMed

    Moses, J D; Ko, Y-K; Laming, J M; Provornikova, E A; Strachan, L; Beltran, S Tun

    2015-11-01

    We review the history of ultraviolet and extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy with a specific focus on such activities at the Naval Research Laboratory and on studies of the extended solar corona and solar-wind source regions. We describe the problem of forecasting solar energetic particle events and discuss an observational technique designed to solve this problem by detecting supra-thermal seed particles as extended wings on spectral lines. Such seed particles are believed to be a necessary prerequisite for particle acceleration by heliospheric shock waves driven by a coronal mass ejection. PMID:26560611

  1. The Life Cycle of Active Region Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Thompson, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present a contemporary view of how solar active region magnetic fields are understood to be generated, transported and dispersed. Empirical trends of active region properties that guide model development are discussed. Physical principles considered important for active region evolution are introduced and advances in modeling are reviewed.

  2. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-09-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, {alpha}, of the energy spectrum, E(k) {approx} k{sup -}{alpha}, and the total spectral energy, W = {integral}E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of {alpha} and W as A = 10{sup b}({alpha}W){sup c}, with b = -7.92 {+-} 0.58 and c = 1.85 {+-} 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  3. Oxidative coupling of methane with ac and dc corona discharges

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Marafee, A.; Hill, B.; Xu, G.; Mallinson, R.; Lobban, L.

    1996-10-01

    The oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) is being actively studied for the production of higher hydrocarbons from natural gas. The present study concentrated on the oxidative conversion of methane in an atmospheric pressure, nonthermal plasma formed by ac or dc corona discharges. Methyl radicals are formed by reaction with negatively-charged oxygen species created in the corona discharge. The selectivity to products ethane and ethylene is affected by electrode polarity, frequency, and oxygen partial pressure in the feed. Higher C{sub 2} yields were obtained with the ac corona. All the ac corona discharges are initiated at room temperature (i.e., no oven or other heat source is used), and the temperature increases to 300--500 C due to the exothermic reactions and the discharge itself. The largest C{sub 2} yield is 21% with 43.3% methane conversion and 48.3% C{sub 2} selectivity at a flowrate of 100 cm{sup 3}/min when the ac corona is at 30 Hz, 5 kV (rms) input power was used. The methane conversion may be improved to more than 50% by increasing the residence time, but the C{sub 2} selectivity decreases. A reaction mechanism including the oxidative dehydrogenation (OXD) of ethane to ethylene is presented to explain the observed phenomena. The results suggest that ac and/or dc gas discharge techniques have significant promise for improving the economics of OCM processes.

  4. A Global View of Velocity Fluctuations in the Corona below 1.3 R ⊙ with CoMP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morton, R. J.; Tomczyk, S.; Pinto, R. F.

    2016-09-01

    The Coronal Multi-channel Polarimeter (CoMP) has previously demonstrated the presence of Doppler velocity fluctuations in the solar corona. The observed fluctuations are thought to be transverse waves, i.e., highly incompressible motions whose restoring force is dominated by the magnetic tension, some of which demonstrate clear periodicity. We aim to exploit CoMP’s ability to provide high cadence observations of the off-limb corona to investigate the properties of velocity fluctuations in a range of coronal features, providing insight into how (whether) the properties of the waves are influenced by the varying magnetic topology in active regions, quiet Sun and open field regions. An analysis of Doppler velocity time-series of the solar corona from the 10747 Å Iron xiii line is performed, determining the velocity power spectrum and using it as a tool to probe wave behavior. Further, the average phase speed and density for each region are estimated and used to compute the spectra for energy density and energy flux. In addition, we assess the noise levels associated with the CoMP data, deriving analytic formulae for the uncertainty on Doppler velocity measurements and providing a comparison by estimating the noise from the data. It is found that the entire corona is replete with transverse wave behavior. The corresponding power spectra indicate that the observed velocity fluctuations are predominately generated by stochastic processes, with the spectral slope of the power varying between the different magnetic regions. Most strikingly, all power spectra reveal the presence of enhanced power occurring at ∼3 mHz, potentially implying that the excitation of coronal transverse waves by p-modes is a global phenomenon.

  5. INVESTIGATION OF HELICITY AND ENERGY FLUX TRANSPORT IN THREE EMERGING SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Vemareddy, P.

    2015-06-20

    We report the results of an investigation of helicity and energy flux transport from three emerging solar active regions (ARs). Using time sequence vector magnetic field observations obtained from the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager, the velocity field of plasma flows is derived by the differential affine velocity estimator for vector magnetograms. In three cases, the magnetic fluxes evolve to pump net positive, negative, and mixed-sign helicity flux into the corona. The coronal helicity flux is dominantly coming from the shear term that is related to horizontal flux motions, whereas energy flux is dominantly contributed by the emergence term. The shear helicity flux has a phase delay of 5–14 hr with respect to absolute magnetic flux. The nonlinear curve of coronal energy versus relative helicity identifies the configuration of coronal magnetic fields, which is approximated by a fit of linear force-free fields. The nature of coronal helicity related to the particular pattern of evolving magnetic fluxes at the photosphere has implications for the generation mechanism of two kinds of observed activity in the ARs.

  6. Interferometry of the e corona.

    PubMed

    Henderson, G

    1970-12-01

    Descriptions are given of Fabry-Perot spectrometer systems used in the total eclipses of 1965, 1966, and 1970 to observe the emission lines 5303 A, Fe XIV and 6374 A, Fe x at different points in the solar corona. Some results of coronal temperature measurements for the 12 November 1966 eclipse are presented. PMID:20094331

  7. RADIO OBSERVATIONS OF WEAK ENERGY RELEASES IN THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Ramesh, R.; Kathiravan, C.; Barve, Indrajit V.; Beeharry, G. K.; Rajasekara, G. N.

    2010-08-10

    We report observations of weak, circularly polarized, structureless type III bursts from the solar corona in the absence of H{alpha}/X-ray flares and other related activity, during the minimum between the sunspot cycles 23 and 24. The spectral information about the event obtained with the CALLISTO spectrograph at Mauritius revealed that the drift rate of the burst is {approx}-30 MHz s{sup -1} is in the range 50-120 MHz. Two-dimensional imaging observations of the burst at 77 MHz obtained with the Gauribidanur radioheliograph indicate that the emission region was located at a radial distance of {approx}1.5 R{sub sun} in the solar atmosphere. The estimated peak brightness temperature of the burst at 77 MHz is {approx}10{sup 8} K. We derived the average magnetic field at the aforementioned location of the burst using the one-dimensional (east-west) Gauribidanur radio polarimeter at 77 MHz, and the value is {approx}2.5 {+-} 0.2 G. We also estimated the total energy of the non-thermal electrons responsible for the observed burst as {approx}1.1 x 10{sup 24} erg. This is low compared to the energy of the weakest hard X-ray microflares reported in the literature, which is about {approx}10{sup 26} erg. The present result shows that non-thermal energy releases that correspond to the nanoflare category (energy {approx}10{sup 24} erg) are taking place in the solar corona, and the nature of such small-scale energy releases has not yet been explored.

  8. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  9. Properties of acceleration sites in active regions as derived from heavy ion charge states

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartavykh, Y.; Dröge, W.; Klecker, B.; Möbius, E.; Popecki, M.; Mason, G.; Krucker, S.

    Charge states of heavy ions in solar energetic particle SEP events are determined by both the plasma conditions in the acceleration region and propagation effects The steep increase of the ionic charge of heavy ions as observed in all 3He- and Fe-rich SEP events suggests that stripping in a dense environment in the low corona is important in all these events The observed charge states and energy spectra of iron ions are used to infer the plasma conditions in the acceleration region by modelling the observations with a combined acceleration and propagation model that includes charge stripping acceleration coulomb losses and recombination in the corona and interplanetary propagation The interplanetary propagation includes anisotropic pitch-angle scattering on magnetic irregularities as well as magnetic focusing convection and adiabatic deceleration in the expanding solar wind To accurately derive the value of the scattering mean free path of particles the intensity profiles and anisotropy data from ACE and Wind spacecraft were used The comparison of the deduced parameters of the acceleration region with coronal density profiles shows that the acceleration of these ions takes place in closed magnetic structures in the low corona

  10. High Resolution Simulations of Tearing and Flux-Rope Formation in Active Region Jets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wyper, P. F.; DeVore, C. R.; Karpen, J. T.

    2015-12-01

    Observations of coronal jets increasingly suggest that local fragmentation and the generation of small-scale structure plays an important role in the dynamics of these events. In the magnetically closed corona, jets most often occur near active regions and are associated with an embedded-bipole topology consisting of a 3D magnetic null point atop a domed fan separatrix surface at the base of a coronal loop. Impulsive reconnection in the vicinity of the null point between the magnetic fluxes inside and outside the dome launches the jet along the loop. Wyper & Pontin 2014 showed that the 3D current layers that facilitate such reconnection are explosively unstable to tearing, generating complex flux-rope structures. Utilizing the adaptive mesh capabilities of the Adaptively Refined Magnetohydrodynamics Solver, we investigate the generation of such fine-scale structure in high-resolution simulations of active-region jets. We observe the formation of multiple flux-rope structures forming across the fan separatrix surface and discuss the photospheric signatures of these flux ropes and the associated local topology change. We also introduce a new way of identifying such flux ropes in the magnetic field, based on structures observed in the magnetic squashing factor calculated on the photosphere. By tracking the position and number of new null points produced by the fragmentation, we also show that the formation of flux ropes can occur away from the main null region on the flanks of the separatrix dome and that the jet curtain has a highly complex magnetic structure. This work was funded through an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program and by NASA's Living With a Star TR&T program.

  11. Eruption of the magnetic flux rope in a fast decayed active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shangbin

    2012-07-01

    An isolated and fast decayed active region was observed when passing through solar disk. There is only one CME related with it that give us a good opportunity to investigate the whole process of the CME. Filament in this active region rises up rapidly and then hesitates and disintegrates into flare loops. The rising filament from EIT images separates into two parts just before eruption. It is interesting that this filament rises up with positive kink which is opposite to the negative helicity according to the inverse S-shaped X-ray sigmoid and accumulated magnetic helicity. A new filament reforms several hours later after CME and the axis of this new one rotates clockwise about 22° comparing with that of the former one. We also observed a bright transient J-shaped X-ray sigmoid immediately appears after filament eruption. It quickly develops into a soft X-ray cusp and rises up firstly then drops down. We propose that field lines underneath bald-patch sparatrix surface (BPSS) where for the formation of a magnetic tangential discontinuity are locally rooted to the photosphere near the bald-patch (BP) inversion line. Field lines above the surface are detached from the photosphere to form this CME and partially open the field which make the filament loses equilibrium to rise quickly and then be drawn back by the tension force of magnetic field after eruption to form a new filament. Two magnetic cancelation regions have been observed clearly just before filament eruption that reflect the existence of BPs. On the other hand, the values of total magnetic helicity to the corona taken by emergence and differential rotation normalized by the square total magnetic flux implies the possibility of upper bound on the total magnetic helicity that a force-free field can contain.

  12. CALCULATING SEPARATE MAGNETIC FREE ENERGY ESTIMATES FOR ACTIVE REGIONS PRODUCING MULTIPLE FLARES: NOAA AR11158

    SciTech Connect

    Tarr, Lucas; Longcope, Dana; Millhouse, Margaret

    2013-06-10

    It is well known that photospheric flux emergence is an important process for stressing coronal fields and storing magnetic free energy, which may then be released during a flare. The Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) captured the entire emergence of NOAA AR 11158. This region emerged as two distinct bipoles, possibly connected underneath the photosphere, yet characterized by different photospheric field evolutions and fluxes. The combined active region complex produced 15 GOES C-class, two M-class, and the X2.2 Valentine's Day Flare during the four days after initial emergence on 2011 February 12. The M and X class flares are of particular interest because they are nonhomologous, involving different subregions of the active region. We use a Magnetic Charge Topology together with the Minimum Current Corona model of the coronal field to model field evolution of the complex. Combining this with observations of flare ribbons in the 1600 A channel of the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly on board SDO, we propose a minimization algorithm for estimating the amount of reconnected flux and resulting drop in magnetic free energy during a flare. For the M6.6, M2.2, and X2.2 flares, we find a flux exchange of 4.2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, 2.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, and 21.0 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 20} Mx, respectively, resulting in free energy drops of 3.89 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg, 2.62 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 30} erg, and 1.68 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 32} erg.

  13. Synthetic 3D modeling of active regions and simulation of their multi-wavelength emission

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nita, Gelu M.; Fleishman, Gregory; Kuznetsov, Alexey A.; Loukitcheva, Maria A.; Viall, Nicholeen M.; Klimchuk, James A.; Gary, Dale E.

    2015-04-01

    To facilitate the study of solar active regions, we have created a synthetic modeling framework that combines 3D magnetic structures obtained from magnetic extrapolations with simplified 1D thermal models of the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. To handle, visualize, and use such synthetic data cubes to compute multi-wavelength emission maps and compare them with observations, we have undertaken a major enhancement of our simulation tools, GX_Simulator (ftp://sohoftp.nascom.nasa.gov/solarsoft/packages/gx_simulator/), developed earlier for modeling emission from flaring loops. The greatly enhanced, object-based architecture, which now runs on Windows, Mac, and UNIX platform, offers important new capabilities that include the ability to either import 3D density and temperature distribution models, or to assign to each individual voxel numerically defined coronal or chromospheric temperature and densities, or coronal Differential Emission Measure distributions. Due to these new capabilities, the GX_Simulator can now apply parametric heating models involving average properties of the magnetic field lines crossing a given voxel volume, as well as compute and investigate the spatial and spectral properties of radio (to be compared with VLA or EOVSA data), (sub-)millimeter (ALMA), EUV (AIA/SDO), and X-ray (RHESSI) emission calculated from the model. The application integrates shared-object libraries containing fast free-free, gyrosynchrotron, and gyroresonance emission codes developed in FORTRAN and C++, and soft and hard X-ray and EUV codes developed in IDL. We use this tool to model and analyze an active region and compare the synthetic emission maps obtained in different wavelengths with observations.This work was partially supported by NSF grants AGS-1250374, AGS-1262772, NASA grant NNX14AC87G, the Marie Curie International Research Staff Exchange Scheme "Radiosun" (PEOPLE-2011-IRSES-295272), RFBR grants 14-02-91157, 15-02-01089, 15-02-03717, 15

  14. RADIATIVE HEATING OF THE SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Moran, Thomas G.

    2011-10-20

    We investigate the effect of solar visible and infrared radiation on electrons in the Sun's atmosphere using a Monte Carlo simulation of the wave-particle interaction and conclude that sunlight provides at least 40% and possibly all of the power required to heat the corona, with the exception of dense magnetic flux loops. The simulation uses a radiation waveform comprising 100 frequency components spanning the solar blackbody spectrum. Coronal electrons are heated in a stochastic manner by low coherence solar electromagnetic radiation. The wave 'coherence time' and 'coherence volume' for each component is determined from optical theory. The low coherence of solar radiation allows moving electrons to gain energy from the chaotic wave field which imparts multiple random velocity 'kicks' to these particles causing their velocity distribution to broaden or heat. Monte Carlo simulations of broadband solar radiative heating on ensembles of 1000 electrons show heating at per particle levels of 4.0 x 10{sup -21} to 4.0 x 10{sup -20} W, as compared with non-loop radiative loss rates of {approx}1 x 10{sup -20} W per electron. Since radiative losses comprise nearly all of the power losses in the corona, sunlight alone can explain the elevated temperatures in this region. The volume electron heating rate is proportional to density, and protons are assumed to be heated either by plasma waves or through collisions with electrons.

  15. Statistical Analysis of Acoustic Wave Parameters Near Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Bogart, Richard S.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    2016-08-01

    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyze the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call “nearby regions”), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disk locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring-diagram analysis of all active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhacement (the “acoustic halo effect”) is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes from a deficit to an excess at around 4.2 mHz, but averages to zero over all modes. The frequency difference in nearby regions increases with increasing frequency until a point at which the frequency shifts turn over sharply, as in active regions. However, this turnover occurs around 4.9 mHz, which is significantly below the acoustic cutoff frequency. Inverting the horizontal flow parameters in the direction of the neigboring active regions, we find flows that are consistent with a model of the thermal energy flow being blocked directly below the active region.

  16. Polymer micelles with hydrophobic core and ionic amphiphilic corona. 1. Statistical distribution of charged and nonpolar units in corona.

    PubMed

    Lysenko, Evgeny A; Kulebyakina, Alevtina I; Chelushkin, Pavel S; Rumyantsev, Artem M; Kramarenko, Elena Yu; Zezin, Alexander B

    2012-12-11

    Polymer micelles with hydrophobic polystyrene (PS) core and ionic amphiphilic corona from charged N-ethyl-4-vinylpyridinium bromide (EVP) and uncharged 4-vinylpyridine (4VP) units spontaneously self-assembled from PS-block-poly(4VP-stat-EVP) macromolecules in mixed dimethylformamide/methanol/water solvent. The fraction of statistically distributed EVP units in corona-forming block is β = [EVP]/([EVP]+[4VP]) = 0.3-1. Micelles were transferred into water via dialysis technique, and pH was adjusted to 9, where 4VP is insoluble. Structural characteristics of micelles were investigated both experimentally and theoretically as a function of corona composition β. Methods of dynamic and static light scattering, electrophoretic mobility measurements, sedimentation velocity, transmission electron microscopy, and UV spectrophotometry were applied. All micelles possessed spherical morphology. The aggregation number, structure, and electrophoretic mobility of micelles changed in a jumplike manner near β ~ 0.6-0.75. Below and above this region, micelle characteristics were constant or insignificantly changed upon β. Theoretical dependencies for micelle aggregation number, corona dimensions, and fraction of small counterions outside corona versus β were derived via minimization the micelle free energy, taking into account surface, volume, electrostatic, and elastic contributions of chain units and translational entropy of mobile counterions. Theoretical estimations also point onto a sharp structural transition at a certain corona composition. The abrupt reorganization of micelle structure at β ~ 0.6-0.75 entails dramatic changes in micelle dispersion stability in the presence of NaCl or in the presence of oppositely charged polymeric (sodium polymethacrylate) or amphiphilic (sodium dodecyl sulfate) complexing agents.

  17. Study of the Photospheric Magnetic Field and Coronal Emission from Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aguilera, Jordan Armando Guerra

    2016-01-01

    Solar explosive phenomena (flares and Coronal Mass Ejections, CMEs) are examples of how the most dynamical processes within the heliosphere are interconnected and powered by the Sun. Solar flares originate in active regions (AR) -- areas of strong magnetic field on the solar surface. The electromagnetic (EM) energy released during flares, along with the often-seen CMEs, propagate through the heliosphere. In the Earth's vicinity, EM radiation and charged particles have the potential to produce unfavorable conditions for humans and technology in space. From many points of view (scientific, operational, economical) it is thus important to understand and try to predict when solar flares and associated eruptive phenomena will occur. This dissertation explores how to best leverage the available observational data to provide predictive information about the future flaring activity. This dissertation consists of two main components: 1) investigation of the photosphere-corona coupling by analyzing photospheric magnetic field and coronal data in search for signals or behaviors that precede eruptions; and 2) the combination of existing flare prediction methods in order to develop a novel ensemble prediction. For the first part, the data employed correspond to line-of-sight (LOS) magnetograms from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and EUV intensity maps from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), both instruments onboard NASA's Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) satellite. Photospheric magnetic field and coronal EUV emissions were characterized by measuring the power-law decay of their spatio-temporal spectra and the data statistical associations (auto- and cross-correlations). These measures, calculated with high spatio-temporal resolution, appeared to characterize the AR evolution, provide information about the state of the photospheric plasma, reveal insights into the photospheric conditions for flares, and expose the potential of combining coronal and photospheric

  18. Trend of photospheric helicity flux in active regions generating halo CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smyrli, Aimilia; Zuccarello, Francesco; Zuccarello, Francesca; Romano, Paolo; Guglielmino, Salvatore Luigi; Spadaro, Daniele; Hood, Alan; Mackay, Duncan

    Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are very energetic events initiated in the solar atmosphere, re-sulting in the expulsion of magnetized plasma clouds that propagate into interplanetary space. It has been proposed that CMEs can play an important role in shedding magnetic helicity, avoiding its endless accumulation in the corona. We therefore investigated the behavior of magnetic helicity accumulation in sites where the initiation of CMEs occurred, in order to de-termine whether and how changes in magnetic helicity accumulation are temporally correlated with CME occurrence. After identifying the active regions (AR) where the CMEs were ini-tiated by means of a double cross-check based on the flaring-eruptive activity and the use of SOHO/EIT difference images, we used MDI magnetograms to calculate magnetic flux evolu-tion, magnetic helicity injection rate and magnetic helicity injection in 10 active regions that gave rise to 12 halo CMEs observed during the period February 2000 -June 2003. No unique behavior in magnetic helicity injection accompanying halo CME occurrence is found. In fact, in some cases there is an abrupt change in helicity injection timely correlated with the CME event, while in some others no significant variation is recorded. However, our analysis show that the most significant changes in magnetic flux and magnetic helicity injection are associated with impulsive CMEs rather than gradual CMEs. Moreover, the most significant changes in mag-netic helicity are observed when X-class flares or eruptive filaments occur, while the occurrence of flares of class C or M seems not to affect significantly the magnetic helicity accumulation.

  19. Geology of coronae and domal structures on Venus and models of their origin

    SciTech Connect

    Stofan, E.R.

    1989-01-01

    Coronae (160 to 670 km across) and domal structures (greater than 1000 km across) are complex topographic highs on Venus that were affected by volcanic and topographic processes. The geology of coronae and a major domal structure, Beta Regio, are documented using Pioneer Venus, Arecibo, and Venera 15/16 data. The evolution and possible models of origin of these features are also investigated. Beta Regio is a 2000 x 2300 km topographic high located in the equatorial region of Venus that rises over 5 km above the surrounding region. Within Beta Regio lie two large volcanic shields, Theia and Rhea Mons. Coronae are circular to elongate structures on Venus, characterized by an annulus of concentric compressional ridges and relatively raised topography surrounded by a peripheral trough. Volcanic domes, flows and edifices, as well as tectonic lineaments characterize the interiors of coronae. Thirty one coronae were detected on Venus. Two analytical models were developed that are consistent with the general characteristics and evolution of coronae: hotspot or rising mantle diapir model and sinking mantle diapir model. Coronae appear to be part of a continuum of thermally produced features on Venus, along with volcanic complexes and domal structures such as Beta Regio.

  20. Speed of CMEs and the Magnetic Non-Potentiality of their Source Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Falconer, David Allen; Moore, Ronald L.; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Khazanov, Igor G.

    2014-01-01

    Most fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) originate from solar active regions (ARs). Non-potentiality of ARs plausibly determines the speed of CMEs in the outer corona. Several other unexplored parameters might be important as well. To find out the relation between the intial speed of CMEs and the non-potentiality of source ARs, we identified over a hundred of CMEs with source ARs via their co-produced flares. The speed of the CMEs are collected from the SOHO LASCO CME catalog. We have used vector magnetograms obtained with HMI/SDO, to evaluate various magnetic non-potentiality parameters, e.g. magnetic free-energy proxies, twist, shear angle, signed shear angle, net current etc. We have also included several other parameters e.g. total unsigned flux, magnetic area of ARs, area of sunspots, to investigate their correlation, if any, with the initial speeds of CMEs. Our preliminary results show that the ARs with larger non-potentiality and area produce faster CMEs but they can also produce slow ones. The ARs with lesser non-potentiality and area generally produce only slower CMEs.

  1. NUMERICAL MODELING OF THE INITIATION OF CORONAL MASS EJECTIONS IN ACTIVE REGION NOAA 9415

    SciTech Connect

    Zuccarello, F. P.; Poedts, S.; Meliani, Z. E-mail: Stefaan.Poedts@wis.kuleuven.be

    2012-10-20

    Coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and solar flares are the main drivers of weather in space. Understanding how these events occur and what conditions might lead to eruptive events is of crucial importance for up to date and reliable space weather forecasting. The aim of this paper is to present a numerical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) data-inspired model suitable for the simulation of the CME initiation and their early evolution. Starting from a potential magnetic field extrapolation of the active region (AR) NOAA 9415, we solve the full set of ideal MHD equations in a non-zero plasma-{beta} environment. As a consequence of the applied twisting motions, a force-free-magnetic field configuration is obtained, which has the same chirality as the investigated AR. We investigate the response of the solar corona when photospheric motions resembling the ones observed for AR 9415 are applied at the inner boundary. As a response to the converging shearing motions, a flux rope is formed that quickly propagates outward, carrying away the plasma confined inside the flux rope against the gravitational attraction by the Sun. Moreover, a compressed leading edge propagating at a speed of about 550 km s{sup -1} and preceding the CME is formed. The presented simulation shows that both the initial magnetic field configuration and the plasma-magnetic-field interaction are relevant for a more comprehensive understanding of the CME initiation and early evolution phenomenon.

  2. δ-SUNSPOT FORMATION IN SIMULATION OF ACTIVE-REGION-SCALE FLUX EMERGENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Fang, Fang; Fan, Yuhong

    2015-06-10

    δ-sunspots, with highly complex magnetic structures, are very productive in energetic eruptive events, such as X-class flares and homologous eruptions. We here study the formation of such complex magnetic structures by numerical simulations of magnetic flux emergence from the convection zone into the corona in an active-region-scale domain. In our simulation, two pairs of bipolar sunspots form on the surface, originating from two buoyant segments of a single subsurface twisted flux rope, following the approach of Toriumi et al. Expansion and rotation of the emerging fields in the two bipoles drive the two opposite polarities into each other with apparent rotating motion, producing a compact δ-sunspot with a sharp polarity inversion line. The formation of the δ-sunspot in such a realistic-scale domain produces emerging patterns similar to those formed in observations, e.g., the inverted polarity against Hale's law, the curvilinear motion of the spot, and strong transverse field with highly sheared magnetic and velocity fields at the polarity inversion line (PIL). Strong current builds up at the PIL, giving rise to reconnection, which produces a complex coronal magnetic connectivity with non-potential fields in the δ-spot overlaid by more relaxed fields connecting the two polarities at the two ends.

  3. Chromospheric and photospheric evolution of an extremely active solar region in solar cycle 19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenna-Lawlor, S. M. P.

    1981-01-01

    a comprehensive investigation was made of phenomena attending the disk passage, July 7 to 21, 1959, of active solar center HAO-59Q. At the photospheric level that comprised an aggregate of groups of sunspots of which one group, Mt. Wilson 14284, showed all the attributes deemed typical of solar regions associated with the production of major flares. A special characteristic of 59Q was its capability to eject dark material. Part of this material remained trapped in the strong magnetic fields above group 14284 where it formed a system of interrelated arches, the legs of which passed through components of the bright chromospheric network of the plage and were rooted in various underlying umbrae. Two apparently diffeent kinds of flare were identified in 59Q; namely, prominence flares (which comprised brightenings within part of the suspended dark prominence) and plage flares (which comprised brightenings within part of the chromospheric network). Prominence flares were of three varieties described as 'impact', 'stationary' and 'moving' prominence flares. Plage flares were accompanied in 3 percent of cases by Type III bursts. These latter radio events indicate the associated passage through the corona of energetic electrons in the approximate energy range 10 to 100 keV. At least 87.5 percent, and probably all, impulsive brightenings in 59Q began directly above minor spots, many of which satellites to major umbrae. Stationary and moving prominence flares were individually triggered at sites beneath which magnetic changes occurred within intervals which included each flare's flash phase.

  4. Evolution of Currents of Opposite Signs in the Flare-productive Solar Active Region NOAA 10930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravindra, B.; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Bhattacharyya, R.

    2011-10-01

    Analysis of a time series of high spatial resolution vector magnetograms of the active region NOAA 10930 available from the Solar Optical Telescope SpectroPolarimeter on board Hinode revealed that there is a mixture of upward and downward currents in the two footpoints of an emerging flux rope. The flux emergence rate is almost the same in both the polarities. We observe that along with an increase in magnetic flux, the net current in each polarity increases initially for about three days after which it decreases. This net current is characterized by having exactly opposite signs in each polarity while its magnitude remains almost the same most of the time. The decrease of the net current in both the polarities is due to the increase of current having a sign opposite to that of the net current. The dominant current, with the same sign as the net current, is seen to increase first and then decreases during the major X-class flares. Evolution of non-dominant current appears to be a necessary condition for flare initiation. The above observations can be plausibly explained in terms of the superposition of two different force-free states resulting in a non-zero Lorentz force in the corona. This Lorentz force then pushes the coronal plasma and might facilitate the magnetic reconnection required for flares. Also, the evolution of the net current is found to follow the evolution of magnetic shear at the polarity inversion line.

  5. EVOLUTION OF CURRENTS OF OPPOSITE SIGNS IN THE FLARE-PRODUCTIVE SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra, B.; Venkatakrishnan, P.; Tiwari, Sanjiv Kumar; Bhattacharyya, R. E-mail: pvk@prl.res.in E-mail: ramit@prl.res.in

    2011-10-10

    Analysis of a time series of high spatial resolution vector magnetograms of the active region NOAA 10930 available from the Solar Optical Telescope SpectroPolarimeter on board Hinode revealed that there is a mixture of upward and downward currents in the two footpoints of an emerging flux rope. The flux emergence rate is almost the same in both the polarities. We observe that along with an increase in magnetic flux, the net current in each polarity increases initially for about three days after which it decreases. This net current is characterized by having exactly opposite signs in each polarity while its magnitude remains almost the same most of the time. The decrease of the net current in both the polarities is due to the increase of current having a sign opposite to that of the net current. The dominant current, with the same sign as the net current, is seen to increase first and then decreases during the major X-class flares. Evolution of non-dominant current appears to be a necessary condition for flare initiation. The above observations can be plausibly explained in terms of the superposition of two different force-free states resulting in a non-zero Lorentz force in the corona. This Lorentz force then pushes the coronal plasma and might facilitate the magnetic reconnection required for flares. Also, the evolution of the net current is found to follow the evolution of magnetic shear at the polarity inversion line.

  6. THE CYCLING OF MATERIAL BETWEEN THE SOLAR CORONA AND CHROMOSPHERE

    SciTech Connect

    Guerreiro, N.; Hansteen, Viggo; De Pontieu, B.

    2013-05-20

    Observations of transition region emission lines reveal the presence of redshifts in lines formed from the top of the chromosphere up to temperatures of about 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K and blueshifts for temperatures above that. However, it is doubtful that the apparent large downward flows in the lower transition region represents an emptying of the corona, so some mechanism must be responsible for maintaining the mass balance between the corona and the lower atmospheric layers. We use a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamics code to study the cycling of mass between the corona, transition region, and chromosphere by adding a tracer fluid to the simulation in various temperature intervals in the transition region. We find that most of the material seen in transition region emission lines formed at temperatures below 3 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 5} K is material that has been rapidly heated from chromospheric temperatures and thereafter is pushed down as it cools. This implies that the bulk of transition region material resides in small loops. In these loops, the density is high and radiative cooling is efficient.

  7. RXTE Observation of Cygnus X-1: III. Implications for Compton Corona and ADAF Models. Report 3; Implications for Compton Corona and ADAF Models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nowak, Michael A.; Wilms, Joern; Vaughan, Brian A.; Dove, James B.; Begelman, Mitchell C.

    1999-01-01

    We have recently shown that a 'sphere + disk' geometry Compton corona model provides a good description of Rossi X-ray Timing Explorer (RXTE) observations of the hard/low state of Cygnus X-1. Separately, we have analyzed the temporal data provided by RXTE. In this paper we consider the implications of this timing analysis for our best-fit 'sphere + disk' Comptonization models. We focus our attention on the observed Fourier frequency-dependent time delays between hard and soft photons. We consider whether the observed time delays are: created in the disk but are merely reprocessed by the corona; created by differences between the hard and soft photon diffusion times in coronae with extremely large radii; or are due to 'propagation' of disturbances through the corona. We find that the time delays are most likely created directly within the corona; however, it is currently uncertain which specific model is the most likely explanation. Models that posit a large coronal radius [or equivalently, a large Advection Dominated Accretion Flow (ADAF) region] do not fully address all the details of the observed spectrum. The Compton corona models that do address the full spectrum do not contain dynamical information. We show, however, that simple phenomenological propagation models for the observed time delays for these latter models imply extremely slow characteristic propagation speeds within the coronal region.

  8. R Coronae Australis: A Cosmic Watercolour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2010-06-01

    This magnificent view of the region around the star R Coronae Australis was created from images taken with the Wide Field Imager (WFI) at ESO's La Silla Observatory in Chile. R Coronae Australis lies at the heart of a nearby star-forming region and is surrounded by a delicate bluish reflection nebula embedded in a huge dust cloud. The image reveals surprising new details in this dramatic area of sky. The star R Coronae Australis lies in one of the nearest and most spectacular star-forming regions. This portrait was taken by the Wide Field Imager (WFI) on the MPG/ESO 2.2-metre telescope at the La Silla Observatory in Chile. The image is a combination of twelve separate pictures taken through red, green and blue filters. This image shows a section of sky that spans roughly the width of the full Moon. This is equivalent to about four light-years at the distance of the nebula, which is located some 420 light-years away in the small constellation of Corona Australis (the Southern Crown). The complex is named after the star R Coronae Australis, which lies at the centre of the image. It is one of several stars in this region that belong to the class of very young stars that vary in brightness and are still surrounded by the clouds of gas and dust from which they formed. The intense radiation given off by these hot young stars interacts with the gas surrounding them and is either reflected or re-emitted at a different wavelength. These complex processes, determined by the physics of the interstellar medium and the properties of the stars, are responsible for the magnificent colours of nebulae. The light blue nebulosity seen in this picture is mostly due to the reflection of starlight off small dust particles. The young stars in the R Coronae Australis complex are similar in mass to the Sun and do not emit enough ultraviolet light to ionise a substantial fraction of the surrounding hydrogen. This means that the cloud does not glow with the characteristic red colour seen in

  9. Comparison of Topographic Profiles Across Venus' Coronae and Craters: Implications for Corona Origin Hypothesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stoddard, P. R.; Jurdy, D. M.

    2006-12-01

    Venus' surface hosts nearly 1000 unambiguous impact craters, ranging in diameter from 1.5 to 280 km. Although the majority of these are pristine, slightly less than 200 have been modified by either volcanic or tectonic activity or both. In addition, numerous researchers have identified hundreds of ring-like features of varying morphology, termed "coronae." These have typically been thought of as having a diapiric or volcanic origin. Recently, however, based on the circular to quasi-circular nature of coronae, an alternative origin - impact - has been proposed. We compare the profiles across agreed-upon craters to several coronae that have been suggested as impact sites. For each feature, 36 profiles (taken every ten degrees) are aligned and then averaged together. For Mead, Cleopatra, Meitner, and Isabella craters, the profiles display the typical rim and basin structure expected for craters, but for Klenova crater the average is more domal, with only a few of the individual profiles looking crater-like. Among the "contested" coronae, the average profiles for Eurynome, Maya, and C21 appear crater-like, albeit with more variation among the individual profiles than seen in the agreed-upon craters. Anquet has a rim-and-basin structure, but unlike typical craters, the basin is elevated above the surrounding plains. Acrea appears to be a small hill in a large depression, again with a high degree of variability among the profiles. Ninhursag is clearly domal, and cannot be taken as a crater. A summary of the variability of the profiles - where 100% correlation would indicate perfect circular symmetry - indicates that, with the exception of Klenova, those features universally agreed-upon as craters have the highest correlation percentages - all at or above 80%. The disputed features are not as circular, although C21 is close. Based on this analysis, we conclude that Klenova has been mischaracterized as an impact crater, and that C21 and some other features previously

  10. Constraining hot plasma in a non-flaring solar active region with FOXSI hard X-ray observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishikawa, Shin-nosuke; Glesener, Lindsay; Christe, Steven; Ishibashi, Kazunori; Brooks, David H.; Williams, David R.; Shimojo, Masumi; Sako, Nobuharu; Krucker, Säm

    2014-12-01

    We present new constraints on the high-temperature emission measure of a non-flaring solar active region using observations from the recently flown Focusing Optics X-ray Solar Imager (FOXSI) sounding rocket payload. FOXSI has performed the first focused hard X-ray (HXR) observation of the Sun in its first successful flight on 2012 November 2. Focusing optics, combined with small strip detectors, enable high-sensitivity observations with respect to previous indirect imagers. This capability, along with the sensitivity of the HXR regime to high-temperature emission, offers the potential to better characterize high-temperature plasma in the corona as predicted by nanoflare heating models. We present a joint analysis of the differential emission measure (DEM) of active region 11602 using coordinated observations by FOXSI, Hinode/XRT, and Hinode/EIS. The Hinode-derived DEM predicts significant emission measure between 1 MK and 3 MK, with a peak in the DEM predicted at 2.0-2.5 MK. The combined XRT and EIS DEM also shows emission from a smaller population of plasma above 8 MK. This is contradicted by FOXSI observations that significantly constrain emission above 8 MK. This suggests that the Hinode DEM analysis has larger uncertainties at higher temperatures and that > 8 MK plasma above an emission measure of 3 × 1044 cm-3 is excluded in this active region.

  11. Evidence of mass outflow in the low corona over a large sunspot

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neupert, W. M.; Brosius, J. W.; Thomas, R. J.; Thompson, W. T.

    1994-04-01

    An extreme ultraviolet (EUV) imaging spectrograph designed for sounding rocket flight has been used to search for velocity fields in the low solar corona. During a flight in May, 1989, we obtained emission line profile measurements along a chord through an active region on the Sun. Relative Doppler velocities were measured in emission lines of Mg IX, Fe XV, and Fe XVI with a sensitivity of 2-3 km/s at 350 A. The only Doppler shift appreciably greater than this level was observed in the line of Mg IX at 368.1 A over the umbra of the large sunspot. The maximum shift measured at that location corresponded to a velocity toward the observer of 14 plus or minus 3 km/s relative to the mean of measurements in that emission line made elsewhere over the active region. The magnetic field in the low corona was aligned to within 10 deg of the line of sight at the location of maximum Doppler shift. Depending on the magnetic field geometry, this mass outflow could either re-appear as a downflow of material in distant footprints of closed coronal loops or, if along open field lines, could contribute to the solar wind. The site of the sunspot was near a major photospheric magnetic field boundary. Such boundaries have been associated with low-speed solar winds as observed in interplanetary plasmas.

  12. Tracked Active Region Patches for MDI and HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turmon, Michael; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Bobra, Monica

    2014-06-01

    We describe tracked active-region patch data products that have been developed for HMI (HMI Active Region Patches, or HARPs) and for MDI (MDI Tracked Active Region Patches, or MDI TARPs). Both data products consist of tracked magnetic features on the scale of solar active regions. The now-released HARP data product covers 2010-present (>2000 regions to date). Like the HARPs, the MDI TARP data set is a catalog of active regions (ARs), indexed by a region ID number, analogous to a NOAA AR number, and time. The TARPs contain 6170 regions spanning 72000 images taken over 1996-2010, and will be availablein the MDI resident archive (RA).MDI TARPs are computed based on the 96-minute synoptic magnetograms and intensitygrams. As with the related HARP data product, the approximate threshold for significance is 100G. Use of both image types together allows faculae and sunspots to be separated out as sub-classes of activity, in addition to identifying the overall active region that they are in. After being identified in single images, the magnetically-active patches are grouped and tracked from image to image. Merges among growing active regions, as well as faint active regions hovering at the threshold of detection, are handled automatically. Regions are tracked from their inception until they decay within view, or transit off the visible disk. For each active region and for each time, a bitmap image is stored containing the precise outline of the active region. Also, metadata such as areas and integrated fluxes are stored for each AR and for each time. Because there is a cross-calibration between the HMI and MDI magnetograms (Liu et al. 2012), it is straightforward to use the same classification and tracking rules for the HMI HARPs and the MDI TARPs. We show results demonstrating region correspondence, region boundary agreement, and agreement of flux metadata using the approximately 140 regions in the May 2010-October 2010 time period. We envision several uses for these data

  13. Flux rope proxies and fan-spine structures in active region NOAA 11897

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Y. J.; Li, T.; Zhang, J.

    2016-08-01

    Context. Flux ropes are composed of twisted magnetic fields and are closely connected with coronal mass ejections. The fan-spine magnetic topology is another type of complex magnetic fields. It has been reported by several authors, and is believed to be associated with null-point-type magnetic reconnection. Aims: We try to determine the number of flux rope proxies and reveal fan-spine structures in the complex active region (AR) NOAA 11897. Methods: Employing the high-resolution observations from the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS), we statistically investigated flux rope proxies in NOAA AR 11897 from 14 November 2013 to 19 November 2013 and display two fan-spine structures in this AR. Results: For the first time, we detect flux rope proxies of NOAA 11897 for a total of 30 times in four different locations during this AR's transference from solar east to west on the disk. Moreover, we notice that these flux rope proxies were tracked by active or eruptive material of filaments 12 times, while for the remaining 18 times they appeared as brightenings in the corona. These flux rope proxies were either tracked in both lower and higher temperature wavelengths or only detected in hot channels. None of these flux rope proxies was observed to erupt; they faded away gradually. In addition to these flux rope proxies, we detect for the first time a secondary fan-spine structure. It was covered by dome-shaped magnetic fields that belong to a larger fan-spine topology. Conclusions: These new observations imply that many flux ropes can exist in an AR and that the complexity of AR magnetic configurations is far beyond our imagination. Movies 1-8 are available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  14. Semi-analytical modelling of positive corona discharge in air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pontiga, Francisco; Yanallah, Khelifa; Chen, Junhong

    2013-09-01

    Semianalytical approximate solutions of the spatial distribution of electric field and electron and ion densities have been obtained by solving Poisson's equations and the continuity equations for the charged species along the Laplacian field lines. The need to iterate for the correct value of space charge on the corona electrode has been eliminated by using the corona current distribution over the grounded plane derived by Deutsch, which predicts a cos m θ law similar to Warburg's law. Based on the results of the approximated model, a parametric study of the influence of gas pressure, the corona wire radius, and the inter-electrode wire-plate separation has been carried out. Also, the approximate solutions of the electron number density has been combined with a simplified plasma chemistry model in order to compute the ozone density generated by the corona discharge in the presence of a gas flow. This work was supported by the Consejeria de Innovacion, Ciencia y Empresa (Junta de Andalucia) and by the Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovacion, Spain, within the European Regional Development Fund contracts FQM-4983 and FIS2011-25161.

  15. Observational Signatures of Magnetic Reconnection in the Extended Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, Sabrina; West, Matthew J.; Seaton, Daniel B.; Kobelski, Adam

    2016-01-01

    Observational signatures of reconnection have been studied extensively in the lower corona for decades, successfully providing insight into energy release mechanisms in the region above post-flare arcade loops and below 1.5 solar radii. During large eruptive events, however, energy release continues to occur well beyond the presence of reconnection signatures at these low heights. Supra-Arcade Downflows (SADs) and Supra-Arcade Downflowing Loops (SADLs) are particularly useful measures of continual reconnection in the corona as they may indicate the presence and path of retracting post-reconnection loops. SADs and SADLs have been faintly observed up to 18 hours beyond the passage of coronas mass ejections through the SOHO/LASCO field of view, but a recent event from 2014 October 14 associated with giant arches provides very clear observations of these downflows for days after the initial eruption. We report on this unique event and compare these findings with observational signatures of magnetic reconnection in the extended corona for more typical eruptions.

  16. Observational Signatures of Magnetic Reconnection in the Extended Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savage, Sabrina; West, Matthew; Seaton, Daniel B.; Kobelski, Adam

    2016-05-01

    Observational signatures of reconnection have been studied extensively in the lower corona for decades, successfully providing insight into energy release mechanisms in the region above post-flare arcade loops and below 1.5 solar radii. During large eruptive events, however, energy release continues to occur well beyond the presence of reconnection signatures at these low heights. Supra-arcade downflows (SADs) and downflowing loops (SADLs) are particularly useful measures of continual reconnection in the corona as they may indicate the presence and path of retracting post-reconnection loops. SADs and SADLs have been faintly observed up to 18 hours beyond the passage of corona mass ejections through the SOHO/LASCO field of view, but a recent event from 2014 October 14 associated with giant arches provides very clear observations of these downflows for days after the initial eruption. We report on this unique event and compare these findings with observational signatures of magnetic reconnection in the extended corona for more typical eruptions.

  17. GLOBAL DYNAMICS OF SUBSURFACE SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jouve, L.; Brun, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of a magnetic loop evolving in either a convectively stable or unstable rotating shell. The magnetic loop is introduced into the shell in such a way that it is buoyant only in a certain portion in longitude, thus creating an {Omega}-loop. Due to the action of magnetic buoyancy, the loop rises and develops asymmetries between its leading and following legs, creating emerging bipolar regions whose characteristics are similar to those of observed spots at the solar surface. In particular, we self-consistently reproduce the creation of tongues around the spot polarities, which can be strongly affected by convection. We further emphasize the presence of ring-shaped magnetic structures around our simulated emerging regions, which we call 'magnetic necklace' and which were seen in a number of observations without being reported as of today. We show that those necklaces are markers of vorticity generation at the periphery and below the rising magnetic loop. We also find that the asymmetry between the two legs of the loop is crucially dependent on the initial magnetic field strength. The tilt angle of the emerging regions is also studied in the stable and unstable cases and seems to be affected both by the convective motions and the presence of a differential rotation in the convective cases.

  18. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, Paola; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark; De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Title, Alan; Hansteen, Viggo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig

    2013-06-10

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial ({approx}0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to {approx}15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 A channel, and by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 10{sup 23} erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).

  19. Subsurface helicity of active regions 12192 and 10486

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komm, Rudolf; Tripathy, Sushant; Howe, Rachel; Hill, Frank

    2015-04-01

    The active region 10486 that produced the Halloween flares in 2003 initiated our interest in the kinetic helicity of subsurface flows associated with active regions. This lead to the realization that the helicity of subsurface flows is related to the flare activity of active regions. Eleven years later, a similarly enormous active region (12192) appeared on the solar surface. We plan to study the kinetic helicity of the subsurface flows associated with region 12192 and compare it to that of region 10486. For 10486, we have analyzed Dopplergrams obtained with the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) with a dense-pack ring-diagram analysis. For 12192, we have analyzed Dopplergrams from GONG and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO). We will present the latest results.

  20. A Fractal Dimension Survey of Active Region Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAteer, R. T. James; Gallagher, Peter; Ireland, Jack

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to quantifying the magnetic complexity of active regions using a fractal dimension measure is presented. This fully-automated approach uses full disc MDI magnetograms of active regions from a large data set (2742 days of the SoHO mission; 9342 active regions) to compare the calculated fractal dimension to both Mount Wilson classification and flare rate. The main Mount Wilson classes exhibit no distinct fractal dimension distribution, suggesting a self-similar nature of all active regions. Solar flare productivity exhibits an increase in both the frequency and GOES X-ray magnitude of flares from regions with higher fractal dimensions. Specifically a lower threshold fractal dimension of 1.2 and 1.25 exists as a necessary, but not sufficient, requirement for an active region to produce M- and X-class flares respectively .

  1. The CME Flare Arcade and the Width of the CME in the Outer Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2008-01-01

    Moore, Sterling, & Suess (2007, ApJ, 668, 1221) present evidence that (1) a CME is typically a magnetic bubble, a low-beta gplasmoid with legs h having roughly the 3D shape of a light bulb, and (2) in the outer corona the CME plasmoid is in lateral pressure equilibrium with the ambient magnetic field. They present three CMEs observed by SOHO/LASCO, each from a very different source located near the limb. One of these CMEs came from a compact ejective eruption from a small part of a sunspot active region, another came from a large quiet-region filament eruption, and the third CME, an extremely large and fast one, was produced in tandem with an X20 flare arcade that was centered on a huge delta sunspot. Each of these CMEs had more or less the classic lightbulb silhouette and attained a constant heliocentric angular width in the outer corona. This indicates that the CME plasmoid attained lateral magnetic pressure balance with the ambient radial magnetic field in the outer corona. This lateral pressure balance, together with the standard scenario for CME production by the eruption of a sheared-core magnetic arcade, yields the following simple estimate of the strength B(sub Flare) of the magnetic field in the flare arcade produced together with the CME: B(sub Flare) 1.4(theta CME/theta Flare)sup 2 G, where theta (sub CME) is the heliocentric angular width of the CME plasmoid in the outer corona and theta (sub Flare) is the heliocentric angular width of the full-grown flare arcade. Conversely, theta (sub CME) approximately equal to (R(sub Sun)sup -1(phi(sub Flare)/1.4)sup 1/2 radians, where Flare is the magnetic flux covered by the full-grown flare arcade. In addition to presenting the three CMEs of Moore, Sterling, & Suess (2007) and their agreement with this relation between CME and Flare, we present a further empirical test of this relation. For CMEs that erupt from active regions, the co-produced flare arcade seldom if ever covers the entire active region: if AR is

  2. Corona-vacuum failure mechanism test facilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lalli, V. R.; Mueller, L. A.; Koutnik, E. A.

    1975-01-01

    A nondestructive corona-vacuum test facility for testing high-voltage power system components has been developed using commercially available hardware. The facility simulates operating temperature and vacuum while monitoring coronal discharges with residual gases. Corona threshold voltages obtained from statorette tests with various gas-solid dielectric systems and comparison with calculated data support the following conclusions: (1) air gives the highest corona threshold voltage and helium the lowest, with argon and helium-xenon mixtures intermediate; (2) corona threshold voltage increases with gas pressure; (3) corona threshold voltage for an armature winding can be accurately calculated by using Paschen curves for a uniform field; and (4) Paschen curves for argon can be used to calculate the corona threshold voltage in He-Xe mixtures, for which Paschen curves are unavailable.-

  3. Corona Discharge Influences Ozone Concentrations Near Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Gaither, Kari A.; Anantatmula, Shantha M.; Mong, Gary M.; Sasser, Lyle B.; Lessor, Delbert L.

    2004-02-26

    Ozone is produced by corona discharge in air. Its production is enhanced near grounded water. Whether grounded animals behave like grounded water, producing more ozone was investigated. Rats were exposed to corona discharge in a plastic cage. The concentration of ozone in the gas phase was monitored. The ozone concentration exceeded ambient levels only in the presence of corona discharge and either rats or water. When water or rats were exposed to corona discharge, ozone levels were more than 10 times higher than controls. Ozone levels increased rapidly with applied voltage. There was also a correlation between the distance of the corona needle to the rats and the amount of ozone produced. As the distance increased, ozone production decreased. These results are discussed in relation to the potential exposure of mammals to ozone in the vicinity of corona discharge and electric fields.

  4. IUE and the search for a lukewarm corona. [of cooler stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Linsky, J. L.; Haisch, B. M.; Boggess, A.

    1979-01-01

    The use of the International Ultraviolet Explorer (IUE) to search for stars having neither a hot corona nor a cool outer atmosphere, but a lukewarm corona is outlined. An interactive computer system permits extensive analysis of the data immediately after transmission to earth, allowing the results of one exposure to influence the taking of subsequent exposures. The observation program is illustrated for the star HR 1099, noting that observations were taken while previous spectra were being analyzed. Observations of many stars of spectral types G and K lead to the construction of a border region on the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram between stars with hot coronas and those with cool outer atmospheres. Stars lying near this border region were then observed, however none with lukewarm coronas were found. The interactive control facility in the satellite control room is considered an important factor in the efficient implementation of the search procedure.

  5. Heating of the quiet solar corona from measurements of the FET/TESIS instrument on-board the KORONAS-FOTON satellite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rybák, J.; Gömöry, P.; Benz, A.; Bogachev, P.; Brajša, R.

    2010-12-01

    The paper presents the first results of the observations of time evolution of the quiet solar corona brightenings obtained due to very rapid photography of the corona with full-disk EUV telescopes of the FET/TESIS instrument onboard the KORONA FOTON satellite. The measurements were performed simultaneously in the emission of the Fe IX / X 17.1 and Fe VIII 13.1 spectral lines with 10 second temporal cadence and spatial scale of 1.7 arc seconds within one hour. This test observation, carried out on 15 July 2009, was analyzed in order to determine whether this type of observation can be used to identify individual microevents in the solar corona heating that are above the tresholds of spatial and temporal resolutions of the observations of non-active regions in the solar atmosphere. For this purpose, a simple method was used involving cross-correlation of the plasma emission time evolution at different temperatures, each time from observations of identical elements. The results obtained are confronted with the expected observable manifestations of the corona heating via nanoflares. TESIS is a set of instruments for the Sun photography developed in the Lebedev Physics Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences that was launched into orbit in January 2009.

  6. Gravity over coronae and chasmata on Venus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Gerald; Moore, William B.; Sandwell, David T.

    1994-01-01

    The global spherical harmonic model of Venus' gravity field MGNP60FSAAP, with horizontal resolution of about 600 km, shows that most coronae have little or no signature in the gravity field. Nevertheless, some coronae and some segments of chasmata are associated with distinct positive gravity anomalies. No corona has been found to have a negative gravity anomaly. The spatial coincidence of the gravity highs over four closely spaced 300- to 400-km-diameter coronae in Eastern Eistla Regio with the structures themselves is remarkable and argues for a near-surface or lithospheric origin of the gravity signals over such relatively small features. Apparent depths of compensation (ADCs) of the prominent gravity anomalies at Artemis, Latona, and Heng-o Coronae are about 150 to 200 km. The geoid/topography ratios (GTRs) at Artemis, Latona, and Heng-o Coronae lie in the range 32 to 35 m/km. The large ADCs and GTRs of Artemis, Latona, and Heng-o Coronae are consistent with topographically related gravity and a thick Venus lithosphere or shallowly compensated topography and deep positive mass anomalies due to subduction of underthrusting at these coronae. At arcuate segments of Hecate and Parga Chasmata ADCs are about 125 to 150 km, while those at Fauta Corona, four coronae in Eastern Eistla Regio, and an arcuate segment of Wester Parga Chasmata are about 75 km. The GTRs at Fauta Corona, the four coronae in eastern Eistla Regio, and the accurate segments of Hecate, Parga, and Western Parga Chasmata are about 12 to 21 m/km. By analogy with gravity anomalies of similar horizontal scale (600 km-several thousand kilometers) on the concave sides of terrestrial subduction zone arcs, which are due in large part to subducted lithosphere, it is inferred that the gravity anomalies on Venus are consistent with retrograde subduction at Artemis Chasma, along the northern and southern margins of Latona Coronam, and elsewhere along Parga and Hecate Chasmata.

  7. EVOLUTION OF SPINNING AND BRAIDING HELICITY FLUXES IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    SciTech Connect

    Ravindra, B.; Yoshimura, Keiji; Dasso, Sergio E-mail: yosimura@solar.physics.montana.edu

    2011-12-10

    The line-of-sight magnetograms from Solar Optical Telescope Narrowband Filter Imager observations of NOAA Active Region 10930 have been used to study the evolution of spinning and braiding helicities over a period of five days starting from 2006 December 9. The north (N) polarity sunspot was the follower and the south (S) polarity sunspot was the leader. The N-polarity sunspot in the active region was rotating in the counterclockwise direction. The rate of rotation was small during the first two days of observations and it increased up to 8 Degree-Sign hr{sup -1} on the third day of the observations. On the fourth and fifth days it remained at 4 Degree-Sign hr{sup -1} with small undulations in its magnitude. The sunspot rotated about 260 Degree-Sign in the last three days. The S-polarity sunspot did not complete more than 20 Degree-Sign in five days. However, it changed its direction of rotation five times over a period of five days and injected both the positive and negative type of spin helicity fluxes into the corona. Through the five days, both the positive and negative sunspot regions injected equal amounts of spin helicity. The total injected helicity is predominantly negative in sign. However, the sign of the spin and braiding helicity fluxes computed over all the regions were reversed from negative to positive five times during the five-day period of observations. The reversal in spinning helicity flux was found before the onset of the X3.4-class flare, too. Though, the rotating sunspot has been observed in this active region, the braiding helicity has contributed more to the total accumulated helicity than the spinning helicity. The accumulated helicity is in excess of -7 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 43} Mx{sup 2} over a period of five days. Before the X3.4-class flare that occurred on 2006 December 13, the rotation speed and spin helicity flux increased in the S-polarity sunspot. Before the flare, the total injected helicity was larger than -6

  8. Exploring the prominence-corona connection and its expansion into the outer corona using total solar eclipse observations

    SciTech Connect

    Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Morgan, Huw; Druckmüller, Miloslav

    2014-10-01

    Prominences constitute the most complex magnetic structures in the solar corona. The ubiquitous presence of their seemingly confined dense and cool plasma in an otherwise million-degree environment remains a puzzle. Using a decade of white light total solar eclipse observations, we show how these images reveal an intricate relationship between prominences and coronal structures both in their immediate vicinity, known as coronal cavities, and in the extended corona out to several solar radii. Observations of suspended prominences and twisted helical structures spanning several solar radii are central to these findings. The different manifestations of the prominence-corona interface that emerge from this study underscore the fundamental role played by prominences in defining and controlling the complex expansion and dynamic behavior of the solar magnetic field in the neighborhood of magnetic polarity reversal regions. This study suggests that the unraveling of prominences and the outward expansion of the helical twisted field lines linked to them could be the solar origin of twisted magnetic flux ropes detected in interplanetary space, and of the mechanism by which the Sun sheds its magnetic helicity. This work also underscores the likely role of the prominence-corona interface as a source of the slow solar wind.

  9. Fine-Scale Fluctuations in the Corona Observed with Hi-C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, Amy; Schuler, Timothy

    2013-01-01

    The High Resolution Coronal Imager(HiC) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket on 2012 July11 and captured roughly 345 s of high spatial and temporal resolution images of the solar corona in a narrowband 193 Angstrom channel. We have analyzed the fluctuations in intensity of Active Region11520.We selected events based on a lifetime greater than 11s (twoHiC frames)and intensities greater than a threshold determined from the average background intensity in a pixel and the photon and electronic noise. We find fluctuations occurring down to the smallest timescale(11s).Typical intensity fluctuations are 20% background intensity, while some events peaka t100%the background intensity.Generally the fluctuations are clustered in solar structures, particularly the moss.We interpret the fluctuations in the moss as indicative of heating events. We use the observed events to model the active region core.

  10. The Fundamental Physical Processes Producing and Controlling Stellar Coronal/ Transition-Region/Chromospheric Activity and Structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ayres, Thomas R.; Brown, Alexander

    1998-01-01

    Our LTSA grant supports a long-term collaborative investigation of stellar activity. The project involves current NASA spacecraft and supporting ground-based telescopes, will make use of future missions, and utilizes the extensive archives of IUE, ROSAT, HST, and EUVE. Our interests include observational work (with a nonnegligible groundbased component); specialized processing techniques for imaging and spectral data; and semiempirical modeling, ranging from optically-thin emission measure studies to simulations of optically-thick resonance lines. Collaborations with our cool-star colleagues here in Boulder (at JILA and the High Altitude Observatory) provide access to even broader expertise, particularly on the solar corona, convection, and magnetohydrodynamic phenomena (including "dynamo" theories). The broad-brush of our investigation include the following: (1) where do coronae occur in the Hertzsprung-Russell diagram? (2) the winds of coronal stars: hot, cool, or both? (3) age, activity, rotation relations; (4) atmospheric inhomogeneities; and (5) heating mechanisms, subcoronal flows and flares. Our observation task has been to map the global properties of chromospheres and coronae in the H-R diagram and conduct detailed studies of key objects.

  11. The birth and evolution of solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaizauskas, V.

    1993-09-01

    The growth of solar active regions is a well-observed surface phenomenon with its origins concealed in the solar interior. We review the salient facts about the emergence of active regions and the consequences of their growth on the solar atmosphere. The most powerful flares, the ones which display a range of phenomena that still pose serious challenges for high-energy astrophysics, are associated with regions of high magnetic complexity. How does that degree of complexity arise when the vast majority of active regions are simple bipolar entities? In order to gain some insight into that problem, we compare the emergence of magnetic flux in ordinary regions with an instance when magnetic complexity is apparent from the very first appearance of a new region - clearly a subsurface prefabrication of complexity - and with others wherein a new region interacts with a pre-existing one to create the complexity in plain view.

  12. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Regional Activities. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on regional library activities which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Importance of Information Resources in National Development with Particular Reference to the Asian Scene" (Yogendra P. Dubey, India); (2) "Report of the Activities of the Regional Section for Asia…

  13. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOEpatents

    Rohwein, Gerald J.

    1998-01-01

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil.

  14. Software Displays Data on Active Regions of the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golightly, Mike; Weyland, Mark; Raben, Vern

    2011-01-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System is a computer program that generates, in near real time, a graphical display of parameters indicative of the spatial and temporal variations of activity on the Sun. These parameters include histories and distributions of solar flares, active region growth, coronal mass ejections, size, and magnetic configuration. By presenting solar-activity data in graphical form, this program accelerates, facilitates, and partly automates what had previously been a time-consuming mental process of interpretation of solar-activity data presented in tabular and textual formats. Intended for original use in predicting space weather in order to minimize the exposure of astronauts to ionizing radiation, the program might also be useful on Earth for predicting solar-wind-induced ionospheric effects, electric currents, and potentials that could affect radio-communication systems, navigation systems, pipelines, and long electric-power lines. Raw data for the display are obtained automatically from the Space Environment Center (SEC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Other data must be obtained from the NOAA SEC by verbal communication and entered manually. The Solar Active Region Display System automatically accounts for the latitude dependence of the rate of rotation of the Sun, by use of a mathematical model that is corrected with NOAA SEC active-region position data once every 24 hours. The display includes the date, time, and an image of the Sun in H light overlaid with latitude and longitude coordinate lines, dots that mark locations of active regions identified by NOAA, identifying numbers assigned by NOAA to such regions, and solar-region visual summary (SRVS) indicators associated with some of the active regions. Each SRVS indicator is a small pie chart containing five equal sectors, each of which is color-coded to provide a semiquantitative indication of the degree of hazard posed by one aspect of the activity at

  15. Alfvén Wave Heating Model of an Active Region and Comparisons with the EIS Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lawless, A. P.; Asgari-Targhi, M.

    2013-12-01

    We study the generation and dissipation of Alfvén waves in open and closed field lines using the images from the Solar Dynamics Observatory's (SDO) Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) (van Ballegouijen et al. 2011; Asgari-Targhi & van Ballegouijen 2012; Asgari et al. 2013). The goal is to search for observational evidence of Alfvén waves in the solar corona and to understand their role in coronal heating. We focus on one particular active region on the 10th of December 2007. Using the MDI magnetogram and the potential field modeling of this region, we create three-dimensional MHD models for several open and closed field lines in different locations in the active region. For each model, we compute the temperature, pressure, magnetic field strength, average heating rate, and other parameters along the loop. We then compare these results with the EIS observations. This research is supported by the NSF grant for the Solar physics REU Program at the Smithsonian Astrophysical Observatory (AGS-1263241) and contract SP02H1701R from Lockheed-Martin to SAO.

  16. THE CONNECTION OF TYPE II SPICULES TO THE CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Judge, Philip G.; McIntosh, Scott W.; De Pontieu, Bart; Olluri, Kosovare

    2012-02-20

    We examine the hypothesis that plasma associated with 'Type II' spicules is heated to coronal temperatures, and that the upward moving hot plasma constitutes a significant mass supply to the solar corona. One-dimensional hydrodynamical models including time-dependent ionization are brought to bear on the problem. These calculations indicate that heating of field-aligned spicule flows should produce significant differential Doppler shifts between emission lines formed in the chromosphere, transition region, and corona. At present, observational evidence for the computed 60-90 km s{sup -1} differential shifts is weak, but the data are limited by difficulties in comparing the proper motion of Type II spicules with spectral and kinematic properties of an associated transition region and coronal emission lines. Future observations with the upcoming infrared interferometer spectrometer instrument should clarify if Doppler shifts are consistent with the dynamics modeled here.

  17. Impact crater densities on volcanoes and coronae on venus: implications for volcanic resurfacing.

    PubMed

    Namiki, N; Solomon, S C

    1994-08-12

    The density of impact craters on large volcanoes on Venus is half the average crater density for the planet. The crater density on some classes of coronae is not significantly different from the global average density, but coronae with extensive associated volcanic deposits have lower crater densities. These results are inconsistent with both single-age and steady-state models for global resurfacing and suggest that volcanoes and coronae with associated volcanism have been active on Venus over the last 500 million years.

  18. Experimental Study of Magnetic Field Effect on dc Corona Discharge in Low Vacuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elabbas, K.

    2014-09-01

    In the present paper, an attempt was made to investigate the effect of applying a transverse magnetic field on the dc corona discharge behavior in low vacuum. In general, two experiments were carried out in this work: the first is the ionization-region magnetic field experiment, and the second was the drift region magnetic field experiment. In these experiments, permanent magnets were used to produce magnetic field. The degree of vacuum used in this test was 0.4×105 Pa. It is found that the effect of the magnetic field increases as the degree of vacuum increases. It is also seen from this study that the corona current values are higher with magnetic fields than without magnetic fields. The experimental results indicate that the enhancement of the magnetic field near the wire discharge electrode has a significant influence on the increment of the discharge current. The effect of the magnetic field on the discharge current is the most significant with the negative corona discharges rather than with positive corona discharge. In contrast to, the curves were demonstrated that the application of magnetic fields in drift region magnetic field does not significantly change the corona discharge current. Discharge characteristics of magnetically enhanced corona discharges, extracted from this study, can be applied to various industrial applications, such as, in an electrostatic enhancement filter for the purpose of capturing fine particles, and as effective method for production of high ozone concentrations in a generator as compared to the ultraviolet (UV) radiation method.

  19. Diagnosing the Prominence-Cavity Connection in the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmit, D. J.

    The energetic equilibrium of the corona is described by a balance of heating, thermal conduction, and radiative cooling. Prominences can be described by the thermal instability of coronal energy balance which leads to the formation of cool condensations. Observationally, the prominence is surrounded by a density depleted elliptical structure known as a cavity. In this dissertation, we use extreme ultraviolet remote sensing observations of the prominence-cavity system to diagnose the static and dynamic properties of these structures. The observations are compared with numerical models for the time-dependent coronal condensation process and the time-independent corona-prominence magnetic field. To diagnose the density of the cavity, we construct a three-dimensional structural model of the corona. This structural model allows us to synthesize extreme ultraviolet emission in the corona in a way that incorporates the projection effects which arise from the optically thin plasma. This forward model technique is used to constrain a radial density profile simultaneously in the cavity and the streamer. We use a χ2 minimization to find the density model which best matches a density sensitive line ratio (observed with Hinode/Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer) and the white light scattered intensity (observed with Mauna Loa Solar Observatory MK4 coronagraph). We use extreme ultraviolet spectra and spectral images to diagnose the dynamics of the prominence and the surrounding corona. Based on the doppler shift of extreme ultraviolet coronal emission lines, we find that there are large regions of flowing plasma which appear to occur within cavities. These line of sight flows have speeds of 10 km/s-1 and projected spatial scales of 100 Mm. Using the Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (SDO/AIA) dataset, we observe dynamic emission from the prominence-cavity system. The SDO/AIA dataset observes multiple spectral bandpasses with different temperature

  20. Coronal Mass Ejections from the Same Active Region Cluster: Two Different Perspectives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremades, H.; Mandrini, C. H.; Schmieder, B.; Crescitelli, A. M.

    2015-06-01

    The cluster formed by active regions (ARs) NOAA 11121 and 11123, approximately located on the solar central meridian on 11 November 2010, is of great scientific interest. This complex was the site of violent flux emergence and the source of a series of Earth-directed events on the same day. The onset of the events was nearly simultaneously observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) telescope onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) and the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imagers (EUVI) on the Sun-Earth Connection Coronal and Heliospheric Investigation (SECCHI) suite of telescopes onboard the Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) twin spacecraft. The progression of these events in the low corona was tracked by the Large Angle Spectroscopic Coronagraphs (LASCO) onboard the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) and the SECCHI/COR coronagraphs on STEREO. SDO and SOHO imagers provided data from the Earth's perspective, whilst the STEREO twin instruments procured images from the orthogonal directions. This spatial configuration of spacecraft allowed optimum simultaneous observations of the AR cluster and the coronal mass ejections that originated in it. Quadrature coronal observations provided by STEREO revealed many more ejective events than were detected from Earth. Furthermore, joint observations by SDO/AIA and STEREO/SECCHI EUVI of the source region indicate that all events classified by GOES as X-ray flares had an ejective coronal counterpart in quadrature observations. These results directly affect current space weather forecasting because alarms might be missed when there is a lack of solar observations in a view direction perpendicular to the Sun-Earth line.

  1. A Detection of the Same Hot Plasma in the Corona: During a CME and Later at Ulysses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suess, S. T.; Poletto, G.

    2004-01-01

    We show direct evidence for the same very hot plasma being detected remotely from SOHO in the corona and subsequently, at Ulysses in the solar wind. This is, to our knowledge, the first time that such an unambiguous identification has been made in the case of hot plasma. This detection complements studies correlating other plasma and field properties observed to the properties measured at the source in the corona. This observation takes advantage of a SOHO-Sun-Ulysses quadrature, during which the Sun-Ulysses included angle is $90^\\circ$ and it is possible to observe with Ulysses instruments the same plasma that has previously been remotely observed with SOHO instruments in the corona on the limb of the Sun. The identification builds on an existing base of separate SOHO and interplanetary detections of hot plasma. SOHO/UVCS has found evidence for very hot coronal plasma in current sheets in the aftermath of CMEs in the [Fe XVIII] $\\lambda$ \\AA\\ line, implying a temperature on the order of $6\\times 10(exp 6)$ K. This temperature is unusually high even for active regions, but is compatible with the high temperature predicted in current sheets. In the solar wind, ACE data from early 1998 to middle 2000 revealed high frozen-in Fe charge state in many cases to be present in interplanetary plasma.

  2. HEATING OF THE SOLAR CHROMOSPHERE AND CORONA BY ALFVEN WAVE TURBULENCE

    SciTech Connect

    Van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Cranmer, S. R.; DeLuca, E. E.; Asgari-Targhi, M.

    2011-07-20

    A three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) model for the propagation and dissipation of Alfven waves in a coronal loop is developed. The model includes the lower atmospheres at the two ends of the loop. The waves originate on small spatial scales (less than 100 km) inside the kilogauss flux elements in the photosphere. The model describes the nonlinear interactions between Alfven waves using the reduced MHD approximation. The increase of Alfven speed with height in the chromosphere and transition region (TR) causes strong wave reflection, which leads to counter-propagating waves and turbulence in the photospheric and chromospheric parts of the flux tube. Part of the wave energy is transmitted through the TR and produces turbulence in the corona. We find that the hot coronal loops typically found in active regions can be explained in terms of Alfven wave turbulence, provided that the small-scale footpoint motions have velocities of 1-2 km s{sup -1} and timescales of 60-200 s. The heating rate per unit volume in the chromosphere is two to three orders of magnitude larger than that in the corona. We construct a series of models with different values of the model parameters, and find that the coronal heating rate increases with coronal field strength and decreases with loop length. We conclude that coronal loops and the underlying chromosphere may both be heated by Alfvenic turbulence.

  3. Flare-induced MHD disturbances in the corona - Moreton waves and type 2 shocks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uchida, Y.

    1973-01-01

    The propagation in the corona of the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) disturbance possibly emitted at the explosive stage in the initial phase of a flare is considered. The behavior of the MHD fast-mode wavefront, whose source is located at the flare, is calculated by using eiconal-characteristic method in the High Altitude Observatory (HAO) realistic models of coronal magnetic field and density for the days of some particular flare events. It is shown as the result that the peculiar behavior of Moreton's surface wave and the peculiar appearance in the shape and position of the type 2 burst sources can be consistently understood by considering the refraction, focussing, and formation of shocks of MHD fast-mode disturbance in the actual distribution of Alfven velocity in the corona. Moreton waves seem to appear only when the flare explosion happens to occur at the edge of an active region and faces a low-Alfven-velocity region lying on the surface. The wave, which is initially emitted isotropically is refracted into a direction in which the condition for down-refraction holds to allow chromospheric reentrance of disturbance.

  4. 3D MHD Models of Active Region Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, Leon

    2004-01-01

    Present imaging and spectroscopic observations of active region loops allow to determine many physical parameters of the coronal loops, such as the density, temperature, velocity of flows in loops, and the magnetic field. However, due to projection effects many of these parameters remain ambiguous. Three dimensional imaging in EUV by the STEREO spacecraft will help to resolve the projection ambiguities, and the observations could be used to setup 3D MHD models of active region loops to study the dynamics and stability of active regions. Here the results of 3D MHD models of active region loops are presented, and the progress towards more realistic 3D MHD models of active regions. In particular the effects of impulsive events on the excitation of active region loop oscillations, and the generation, propagations and reflection of EIT waves are shown. It is shown how 3D MHD models together with 3D EUV observations can be used as a diagnostic tool for active region loop physical parameters, and to advance the science of the sources of solar coronal activity.

  5. Recent Studies of the Behavior of the Sun's White-Light Corona Over Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SaintCyr, O. C.; Young, D. E.; Pesnell, W. D.; Lecinski, A.; Eddy, J.

    2008-01-01

    Predictions of upcoming solar cycles are often related to the nature and dynamics of the Sun's polar magnetic field and its influence on the corona. For the past 30 years we have a more-or-less continuous record of the Sun's white-light corona from groundbased and spacebased coronagraphs. Over that interval, the large scale features of the corona have varied in what we now consider a 'predictable' fashion--complex, showing multiple streamers at all latitudes during solar activity maximum; and a simple dipolar shape aligned with the rotational pole during solar minimum. Over the past three decades the white-light corona appears to be a better indicator of 'true' solar minimum than sunspot number since sunspots disappear for months (even years) at solar minimum. Since almost all predictions of the timing of the next solar maximum depend on the timing of solar minimum, the white-light corona is a potentially important observational discriminator for future predictors. In this contribution we describe recent work quantifying the large-scale appearance of the Sun's corona to correlate it with the sunspot record, especially around solar minimum. These three decades can be expanded with the HAO archive of eclipse photographs which, although sparse compared to the coronagraphic coverage, extends back to 1869. A more extensive understanding of this proxy would give researchers confidence in using the white-light corona as an indicator of solar minimum conditions.

  6. Chemical Compositions and Anomalies in Stellar Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy; Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor)

    2005-01-01

    In summary, as the papers cited here and in earlier reports demonstrate, this award has enabled us to obtain a fairly good picture of the abundance anomalies in stellar coronae. The "inverse FIP" effect in very active stars has now been fleshed out as a more complex anomaly depending on FIP, whereas before it appeared only in terms of a general metal paucity, the recent solar abundance assessment of Asplund et a1 will, if correct, challenge some of the older interpretations of coronal abundance anomalies since they imply quite different relative abundances of CNO compared with Fe, Mg and Si. Further investigations have been in into the possibility of modeling some of the recent coronal abundance anomaly results in terms of Alfven wave-driven separation of neutrals and ions in the upper chromosphere. This work still remains in the seed stage, and future funding from a different program will be requested to pursue it further.

  7. Guided corona generates wettability patterns that selectively direct cell attachment inside closed microchannels.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Angela; Takayama, Shuichi

    2010-10-01

    We present a method to create plasma mediated linear protein patterns along the lengths of simple one-inlet-one-outlet straight polydimethylsiloxane microchannels by biasing the delivery of corona discharge at the capillary openings. Pattern widths ranging from 500-1,000 microm were generated in 2 mm wide microchannels with lengths of 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 cm. Corona-treated surfaces enabled the spatial alignment of C2C12 myoblasts to the adhesive protein-coated regions, facilitating myoblast differentiation into myotubes. Although limited in precision, this protein patterning technique offers the advantages of simplicity and low cost, making it attractive for educational and research environments that lack access to extensive microfabrication facilities. The results also provide a cautionary note to those using corona discharge to increase wettability of microchannels; the surface modification may not be uniform, even within single microchannels being treated depending on settings and positioning of the corona device tips.

  8. Regional Observation of Seismic Activity in Baekdu Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Geunyoung; Che, Il-Young; Shin, Jin-Soo; Chi, Heon-Cheol

    2015-04-01

    Seismic unrest in Baekdu Mountain area between North Korea and Northeast China region has called attention to geological research community in Northeast Asia due to her historical and cultural importance. Seismic bulletin shows level of seismic activity in the area is higher than that of Jilin Province of Northeast China. Local volcanic observation shows a symptom of magmatic unrest in period between 2002 and 2006. Regional seismic data have been used to analyze seismic activity of the area. The seismic activity could be differentiated from other seismic phenomena in the region by the analysis.

  9. Active-region designs in quantum cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Zasavitskii, I I

    2012-10-31

    This paper analyses the development of active-region designs in quantum cascade lasers. Active-region designs have been demonstrated to date that employ various radiative transitions (vertical, diagonal, interminiband and interband). The lower laser level is depopulated through nonradiative transitions, such as one- or two-phonon (and even three-phonon) relaxation or bound state {yields} continuum transitions. Advances in active-region designs and energy diagram optimisation in the past few years have led to significant improvements in important characteristics of quantum cascade lasers, such as their output power, emission bandwidth, characteristic temperature and efficiency. (invited paper)

  10. The Corona of the Young Solar Analog EK Draconis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gudel, M.; Schmitt, J. H. M. M.; Benz, A. O.; Elias, N. M., II

    1995-01-01

    First coronal microwave and new soft X-ray observations of the very active, near-Zero-Age Main-Sequence (ZAMS) dGOe star EK Dra = HD 129333 show that this analog of the young Sun is more luminous in both emissions than most single M-dwarf flare stars. Variations in the 8.4 GHz flux include modulation with the optically determined rotation period of 2.7 days. This result points to a non-uniform filling of the corona with energetic electrons due to an incomplete coverage of the surface with active regions and a source volume that is not concentric with the star. The radio luminosity varying between log L(sub R) = 13.6 and 14.6 (L(sub R) in erg/s/Hz) shows evidence for unpolarized gyrosynchrotron flares, while strongly polarized flares were absent during the observations. This star is the first young, truly solar-like main sequence G star discovered in microwaves. Having just arrived on the main sequence, it conclusively proves that young, solar-like G stars can maintain very high levels of radio emission after their T Tau phase. The X-ray observations were obtained from the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS). The average X-ray luminosity amounts to log L(sub x) = 29.9 (L(sub x) in erg/s). A Raymond-Smith type plasma model fit yields two plasma components at temperatures of 1.9 and 10 MK, with volume emission measures of 1.2 and 2.5 x 10 (exp 52)/cu cm, respectively. The X-ray light curve is significantly variable, with the photon count rate from the cooler plasma being strongly modulated by the rotation period; the emission from the hotter plasma is only weakly variable. Modeling of the source distribution in the stellar corona yields electron densities of the order of 4 x 10(exp 10)/cu cm or higher for the cool plasma component. It indicates that a considerable portion of EK Dra's high X-ray luminosity is due to high-density plasma rather than large emission volume. Parameters for an X-ray flare indicate an electron density of 1.75 x 10(exp 11)/cu cm and a source height of

  11. Global Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linker, Jon A.; Wagner, William (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    The solar corona, the hot, tenuous outer atmosphere of the Sun, exhibits many fascinating phenomena on a wide range of scales. One of the ways that the Sun can affect us here at Earth is through the large-scale structure of the corona and the dynamical phenomena associated with it, as it is the corona that extends outward as the solar wind and encounters the Earth's magnetosphere. The goal of our research sponsored by NASA's Supporting Research and Technology Program in Solar Physics is to develop increasingly realistic models of the large-scale solar corona, so that we can understand the underlying properties of the coronal magnetic field that lead to the observed structure and evolution of the corona. We describe the work performed under this contract.

  12. Solar-Terrestrial Simulations of CMEs with a Realistic Initiation Mechanism: Case Study for Active Region 10069

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lugaz, N.; Roussev, I. I.; Sokolov, I. V.; Jacobs, C.

    2010-03-01

    Most simulations of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) to date either focus on the interplanetary propagation of a giant plasma ``blob'' without paying too much attention to its origin and to the formation process or they focus on the complex evolution of the coronal magnetic field due to (sub-)photospheric motions which result in an eruption. Here, we present global simulations of CMEs where coronal motions are used to produce a realistic evolution of the coronal magnetic field and cause an eruption. We focus on active region 10069, which produced a number of eruptions in late August 2002, including the August 24, 2002 CME-a fast (~2000 km s-1) eruption originating from W81-, as well as a slower eruption on August 22, 2002 (originating from W62). Using a three-dimensional magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) simulation of these ejections with the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF), we show how a realistic initiation mechanism enables us to study the deflection of the CME in the corona and in the heliosphere. Reconnection of the erupting magnetic field with that of neighboring streamers and active regions modify the solar connectivity of the field lines connecting to Earth and change the expected solar energetic particle fluxes. Comparing the results at 1 AU of our simulations with in situ observations by the ACE spacecraft, we propose an alternate solar origin for the shock wave observed at L1 on August 26.

  13. Prediction of Active-Region CME Productivity from Magnetograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.

    2004-01-01

    We report results of an expanded evaluation of whole-active-region magnetic measures as predictors of active-region coronal mass ejection (CME) productivity. Previously, in a sample of 17 vector magnetograms of 12 bipolar active regions observed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) vector magnetograph, from each magnetogram we extracted a measure of the size of the active region (the active region s total magnetic flux a) and four measures of the nonpotentiality of the active region: the strong-shear length L(sub SS), the strong-gradient length L(sub SG), the net vertical electric current I(sub N), and the net-current magnetic twist parameter alpha (sub IN). This sample size allowed us to show that each of the four nonpotentiality measures was statistically significantly correlated with active-region CME productivity in time windows of a few days centered on the day of the magnetogram. We have now added a fifth measure of active-region nonpotentiality (the best-constant-alpha magnetic twist parameter (alpha sub BC)), and have expanded the sample to 36 MSFC vector magnetograms of 31 bipolar active regions. This larger sample allows us to demonstrate statistically significant correlations of each of the five nonpotentiality measures with future CME productivity, in time windows of a few days starting from the day of the magnetogram. The two magnetic twist parameters (alpha (sub 1N) and alpha (sub BC)) are normalized measures of an active region s nonpotentially in that they do not depend directly on the size of the active region, while the other three nonpotentiality measures (L(sub SS), L(sub SG), and I(sub N)) are non-normalized measures in that they do depend directly on active-region size. We find (1) Each of the five nonpotentiality measures is statistically significantly correlated (correlation confidence level greater than 95%) with future CME productivity and has a CME prediction success rate of approximately 80%. (2) None of the nonpotentiality

  14. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  15. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand.

    PubMed

    Haque, Md Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand.

  16. Solar Irradiance Variations on Active Region Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labonte, B. J. (Editor); Chapman, G. A. (Editor); Hudson, H. S. (Editor); Willson, R. C. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The variations of the total solar irradiance is an important tool for studying the Sun, thanks to the development of very precise sensors such as the ACRIM instrument on board the Solar Maximum Mission. The largest variations of the total irradiance occur on time scales of a few days are caused by solar active regions, especially sunspots. Efforts were made to describe the active region effects on total and spectral irradiance.

  17. Photospheric Magnetic Diffusion by Measuring Moments of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engell, Alexander; Longcope, D.

    2013-07-01

    Photospheric magnetic surface diffusion is an important constraint for the solar dynamo. The HMI Active Region Patches (HARPs) program automatically identify all magnetic regions above a certain flux. In our study we measure the moments of ARs that are no longer actively emerging and can thereby give us good statistical constraints on photospheric diffusion. We also present the diffusion properties as a function of latitude, flux density, and single polarity (leading or following) within each HARP.

  18. Correlation of Coronal Plasma Properties and Solar Magnetic Field in a Decaying Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Young, Peter R.; Muglach, Karin; Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio

    2016-08-01

    We present the analysis of a decaying active region observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode during 2009 December 7–11. We investigated the temporal evolution of its structure exhibited by plasma at temperatures from 300,000 to 2.8 million degrees, and derived the electron density, differential emission measure, effective electron temperature, and elemental abundance ratios of Si/S and Fe/S (as a measure of the First Ionization Potential (FIP) Effect). We compared these coronal properties to the temporal evolution of the photospheric magnetic field strength obtained from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. We find that, while these coronal properties all decreased with time during this decay phase, the largest change was at plasma above 1.5 million degrees. The photospheric magnetic field strength also decreased with time but mainly for field strengths lower than about 70 Gauss. The effective electron temperature and the FIP bias seem to reach a “basal” state (at 1.5 × 106 K and 1.5, respectively) into the quiet Sun when the mean photospheric magnetic field (excluding all areas <10 G) weakened to below 35 G, while the electron density continued to decrease with the weakening field. These physical properties are all positively correlated with each other and the correlation is the strongest in the high-temperature plasma. Such correlation properties should be considered in the quest for our understanding of how the corona is heated. The variations in the elemental abundance should especially be considered together with the electron temperature and density.

  19. How Can Active Region Plasma Escape into the Solar Wind from Below a Closed Helmet Streamer?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrini, C. H.; Nuevo, F. A.; Vásquez, A. M.; Démoulin, P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Baker, D.; Culhane, J. L.; Cristiani, G. D.; Pick, M.

    2014-11-01

    Recent studies show that active-region (AR) upflowing plasma, observed by the EUV-Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard Hinode, can gain access to open-field lines and be released into the solar wind (SW) via magnetic-interchange reconnection at magnetic null-points in pseudo-streamer configurations. When only one bipolar AR is present on the Sun and is fully covered by the separatrix of a streamer, such as AR 10978 in December 2007, it seems unlikely that the upflowing AR plasma can find its way into the slow SW. However, signatures of plasma with AR composition have been found at 1 AU by Culhane et al. ( Solar Phys. 289, 3799, 2014) that apparently originated west of AR 10978. We present a detailed topology analysis of AR 10978 and the surrounding large-scale corona based on a potential-field source-surface (PFSS) model. Our study shows that it is possible for the AR plasma to move around the streamer separatrix and be released into the SW via magnetic reconnection, which occurs in at least two main steps. We analyse data from the Nançay Radioheliograph (NRH) in a search for evidence of the chain of magnetic reconnections that we propose. We find a noise storm above the AR and several varying sources at 150.9 MHz. Their locations suggest that they might be associated with particles accelerated during the first-step reconnection process at a null point well outside of the AR. We find no evidence of the second reconnection step in the radio data, however. Our results demonstrate that even when it appears highly improbable for the AR plasma to reach the SW, indirect channels involving a sequence of reconnections can make it possible.

  20. Temporal evolution of the magnetic topology of the NOAA active region 11158

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Jie; Li, Hui; Pariat, Etienne; Schmieder, Brigitte; Guo, Yang; Wiegelmann, Thomas

    2014-05-20

    We studied the temporal evolution of the magnetic topology of the active region (AR) 11158 based on the reconstructed three-dimensional magnetic fields in the corona. The non-linear force-free field extrapolation method was applied to the 12 minute cadence data obtained with the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory during 5 days. By calculating the squashing degree factor Q in the volume, the derived quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs) show that this AR has an overall topology, resulting from a magnetic quadrupole, including a hyperbolic flux tube (HFT) configuration that is relatively stable at the timescale of the flare (∼1-2 hr). A strong QSL, which corresponds to some highly sheared arcades that might be related to the formation of a flux rope, is prominent just before the M6.6 and X2.2 flares, respectively. These facts indicate the close relationship between the strong QSL and the high flare productivity of AR 11158. In addition, with a close inspection of the topology, we found a small-scale HFT that has an inverse tear-drop structure above the aforementioned QSL before the X2.2 flare. It indicates the existence of magnetic flux rope at this place. Even though a global configuration (HFT) is recognized in this AR, it turns out that the large-scale HFT only plays a secondary role during the eruption. In conclusion, we dismiss a trigger based on the breakout model and highlight the central role of the flux rope in the related eruption.

  1. Time Evolution of Coronal Magnetic Helicity in the Flaring Active Region NOAA 10930

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Sung-Hong; Chae, Jongchul; Jing, Ju; Tan, Changyi; Wang, Haimin

    2010-09-01

    To study the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field topology and its long-term evolution associated with the X3.4 flare of 2006 December 13, we investigate the coronal relative magnetic helicity in the flaring active region (AR) NOAA 10930 during the time period of December 8-14. The coronal helicity is calculated based on the 3D nonlinear force-free magnetic fields reconstructed by the weighted optimization method of Wiegelmann, and is compared with the amount of helicity injected through the photospheric surface of the AR. The helicity injection is determined from the magnetic helicity flux density proposed by Pariat et al. using Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. The major findings of this study are the following. (1) The time profile of the coronal helicity shows a good correlation with that of the helicity accumulation by injection through the surface. (2) The coronal helicity of the AR is estimated to be -4.3 × 1043 Mx2 just before the X3.4 flare. (3) This flare is preceded not only by a large increase of negative helicity, -3.2 × 1043 Mx2, in the corona over ~1.5 days but also by noticeable injections of positive helicity through the photospheric surface around the flaring magnetic polarity inversion line during the time period of the channel structure development. We conjecture that the occurrence of the X3.4 flare is involved with the positive helicity injection into an existing system of negative helicity.

  2. EMERGENCE OF HELICAL FLUX AND THE FORMATION OF AN ACTIVE REGION FILAMENT CHANNEL

    SciTech Connect

    Lites, B. W.; Kubo, M.; Berger, T.; Frank, Z.; Shine, R.; Tarbell, T.; Title, A.; Okamoto, T. J.; Otsuji, K.

    2010-07-20

    We present comprehensive observations of the formation and evolution of a filament channel within NOAA Active Region (AR) 10978 from Hinode/Solar Optical Telescope and TRACE. We employ sequences of Hinode spectro-polarimeter maps of the AR, accompanying Hinode Narrowband Filter Instrument magnetograms in the Na I D1 line, Hinode Broadband Filter Instrument filtergrams in the Ca II H line and G-band, Hinode X-ray telescope X-ray images, and TRACE Fe IX 171 A image sequences. The development of the channel resembles qualitatively that presented by Okamoto et al. in that many indicators point to the emergence of a pre-existing sub-surface magnetic flux rope. The consolidation of the filament channel into a coherent structure takes place rapidly during the course of a few hours, and the filament form then gradually shrinks in width over the following two days. Particular to this filament channel is the observation of a segment along its length of horizontal, weak (500 G) flux that, unlike the rest of the filament channel, is not immediately flanked by strong vertical plage fields of opposite polarity on each side of the filament. Because this isolated horizontal field is observed in photospheric lines, we infer that it is unlikely that the channel formed as a result of reconnection in the corona, but the low values of inferred magnetic fill fraction along the entire length of the filament channel suggest that the bulk of the field resides somewhat above the low photosphere. Correlation tracking of granulation in the G band presents no evidence for either systematic flows toward the channel or systematic shear flows along it. The absence of these flows, along with other indications of these data from multiple sources, reinforces (but does not conclusively demonstrate) the picture of an emerging flux rope as the origin of this AR filament channel.

  3. THE SPECTROSCOPIC SIGNATURE OF QUASI-PERIODIC UPFLOWS IN ACTIVE REGION TIMESERIES

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Hui; McIntosh, Scott W.; De Pontieu, Bart E-mail: mscott@ucar.edu

    2011-02-01

    Quasi-periodic propagating disturbances are frequently observed in coronal intensity image sequences. These disturbances have historically been interpreted as being the signature of slow-mode magnetoacoustic waves propagating into the corona. The detailed analysis of Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) timeseries observations of an active region (known to contain propagating disturbances) shows strongly correlated, quasi-periodic, oscillations in intensity, Doppler shift, and line width. No frequency doubling is visible in the latter. The enhancements in the moments of the line profile are generally accompanied by a faint, quasi-periodically occurring, excess emission at {approx}100 km s{sup -1} in the blue wing of coronal emission lines. The correspondence of quasi-periodic excess wing emission and the moments of the line profile indicates that repetitive high-velocity upflows are responsible for the oscillatory behavior observed. Furthermore, we show that the same quasi-periodic upflows can be directly identified in a simultaneous image sequence obtained by the Hinode X-Ray Telescope. These results are consistent with the recent assertion of De Pontieu and McIntosh that the wave interpretation of the data is not unique. Indeed, given that several instances are seen to propagate along the direction of the EIS slit that clearly shows in-phase, quasi-periodic variations of intensity, velocity, width (without frequency doubling), and blue wing enhanced emission, this data set would appear to provide a compelling example that upflows are more likely to be the main cause of the quasi-periodicities observed here, as such correspondences are hard to reconcile in the wave paradigm.

  4. TIME EVOLUTION OF CORONAL MAGNETIC HELICITY IN THE FLARING ACTIVE REGION NOAA 10930

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Sung-Hong; Jing, Ju; Wang Haimin; Chae, Jongchul; Tan, Changyi

    2010-09-10

    To study the three-dimensional (3D) magnetic field topology and its long-term evolution associated with the X3.4 flare of 2006 December 13, we investigate the coronal relative magnetic helicity in the flaring active region (AR) NOAA 10930 during the time period of December 8-14. The coronal helicity is calculated based on the 3D nonlinear force-free magnetic fields reconstructed by the weighted optimization method of Wiegelmann, and is compared with the amount of helicity injected through the photospheric surface of the AR. The helicity injection is determined from the magnetic helicity flux density proposed by Pariat et al. using Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. The major findings of this study are the following. (1) The time profile of the coronal helicity shows a good correlation with that of the helicity accumulation by injection through the surface. (2) The coronal helicity of the AR is estimated to be -4.3 x 10{sup 43} Mx{sup 2} just before the X3.4 flare. (3) This flare is preceded not only by a large increase of negative helicity, -3.2 x 10{sup 43} Mx{sup 2}, in the corona over {approx}1.5 days but also by noticeable injections of positive helicity through the photospheric surface around the flaring magnetic polarity inversion line during the time period of the channel structure development. We conjecture that the occurrence of the X3.4 flare is involved with the positive helicity injection into an existing system of negative helicity.

  5. Correlation of Coronal Plasma Properties and Solar Magnetic Field in a Decaying Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ko, Yuan-Kuen; Young, Peter R.; Muglach, Karin; Warren, Harry P.; Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio

    2016-08-01

    We present the analysis of a decaying active region observed by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode during 2009 December 7-11. We investigated the temporal evolution of its structure exhibited by plasma at temperatures from 300,000 to 2.8 million degrees, and derived the electron density, differential emission measure, effective electron temperature, and elemental abundance ratios of Si/S and Fe/S (as a measure of the First Ionization Potential (FIP) Effect). We compared these coronal properties to the temporal evolution of the photospheric magnetic field strength obtained from the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory Michelson Doppler Imager magnetograms. We find that, while these coronal properties all decreased with time during this decay phase, the largest change was at plasma above 1.5 million degrees. The photospheric magnetic field strength also decreased with time but mainly for field strengths lower than about 70 Gauss. The effective electron temperature and the FIP bias seem to reach a “basal” state (at 1.5 × 106 K and 1.5, respectively) into the quiet Sun when the mean photospheric magnetic field (excluding all areas <10 G) weakened to below 35 G, while the electron density continued to decrease with the weakening field. These physical properties are all positively correlated with each other and the correlation is the strongest in the high-temperature plasma. Such correlation properties should be considered in the quest for our understanding of how the corona is heated. The variations in the elemental abundance should especially be considered together with the electron temperature and density.

  6. Speed of CMEs and the magnetic non-potentiality of their source active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tiwari, S. K.; Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Venkatakrishnan, P.

    2014-12-01

    Most fast coronal mass ejections (CMEs) originate from solar active regions (ARs). Non-potentiality of ARs is expected to determine the speed and size of CMEs in the outer corona. Several other unexplored parameters might be important as well. To find out the correlation between the initial speed of CMEs and the non-potentiality of source ARs, we associated over a hundred of CMEs with source ARs via their co-produced flares. The speed of the CMEs are collected from the SOHO LASCO CME catalog. We have used vector magnetograms obtained mainly with HMI/SDO, also with Hinode (SOT/SP) when available within an hour of a CME occurence, to evaluate various magnetic non-potentiality parameters, e.g. magnetic free-energy proxies, computed magnetic free energy, twist, shear angle, signed shear angle etc. We have also included several other parameters e.g. total unsigned flux, net current, magnetic area of ARs, area of sunspots, to investigate their correlation, if any, with the initial speeds of CMEs. Our preliminary results show that the ARs with larger non-potentiality and area mostly produce fast CMEs but they can also produce slower ones. The ARs with lesser non-potentiality and area generally produce only slower CMEs, however, there are a few exceptions. The total unsigned flux correlate with the non-potentiality parameters and area of ARs but some ARs with large unsigned flux are also found to be least non-potential. A more detailed analysis is underway. SKT is supported by an appointment to the NASA Postdoctoral Program at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, administered by Oak Ridge Associated Universities through a contract with NASA. RLM is supported by funding from the Living With a Star Targeted Research and Technology Program of the Heliophysics Division of NASA's Science Mission Directorate. Support for MAG4 development comes from NASA's Game Changing Development Program, and Johnson Space Center's Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG).

  7. INTERCHANGE RECONNECTION IN A TURBULENT CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M.

    2012-10-10

    Magnetic reconnection at the interface between coronal holes and loops, the so-called interchange reconnection, can release the hotter, denser plasma from magnetically confined regions into the heliosphere, contributing to the formation of the highly variable slow solar wind. The interchange process is often thought to develop at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers, near Y- and X-type neutral points, but slow streams with loop composition have been recently observed along fanlike open field lines adjacent to closed regions, far from the apex. However, coronal heating models, with magnetic field lines shuffled by convective motions, show that reconnection can occur continuously in unipolar magnetic field regions with no neutral points: photospheric motions induce a magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade in the coronal field that creates the necessary small scales, where a sheared magnetic field component orthogonal to the strong axial field is created locally and can reconnect. We propose that a similar mechanism operates near and around boundaries between open and closed regions inducing a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivity. We examine a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of a simplified interface region between open and closed corona threaded by a strong unipolar magnetic field. This boundary is not stationary, becomes fractal, and field lines change connectivity continuously, becoming alternatively open and closed. This model suggests that slow wind may originate everywhere along loop-coronal-hole boundary regions and can account naturally and simply for outflows at and adjacent to such boundaries and for the observed diffusion of slow wind around the heliospheric current sheet.

  8. Interchange Reconnection in a Turbulent Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rappazzo, A. F.; Matthaeus, W. H.; Ruffolo, D.; Servidio, S.; Velli, M.

    2012-10-01

    Magnetic reconnection at the interface between coronal holes and loops, the so-called interchange reconnection, can release the hotter, denser plasma from magnetically confined regions into the heliosphere, contributing to the formation of the highly variable slow solar wind. The interchange process is often thought to develop at the apex of streamers or pseudo-streamers, near Y- and X-type neutral points, but slow streams with loop composition have been recently observed along fanlike open field lines adjacent to closed regions, far from the apex. However, coronal heating models, with magnetic field lines shuffled by convective motions, show that reconnection can occur continuously in unipolar magnetic field regions with no neutral points: photospheric motions induce a magnetohydrodynamic turbulent cascade in the coronal field that creates the necessary small scales, where a sheared magnetic field component orthogonal to the strong axial field is created locally and can reconnect. We propose that a similar mechanism operates near and around boundaries between open and closed regions inducing a continual stochastic rearrangement of connectivity. We examine a reduced magnetohydrodynamic model of a simplified interface region between open and closed corona threaded by a strong unipolar magnetic field. This boundary is not stationary, becomes fractal, and field lines change connectivity continuously, becoming alternatively open and closed. This model suggests that slow wind may originate everywhere along loop-coronal-hole boundary regions and can account naturally and simply for outflows at and adjacent to such boundaries and for the observed diffusion of slow wind around the heliospheric current sheet.

  9. Earth resources-regional transfer activity contracts review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensko, J., Jr.; Daniels, J. L.; Downs, S. W., Jr.; Jones, N. L.; Morton, R. R.; Paludan, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    A regional transfer activity contracts review held by the Earth Resources Office was summarized. Contracts in the earth resources field primarily directed toward applications of satellite data and technology in solution of state and regional problems were reviewed. A summary of the progress of each contract was given in order to share experiences of researchers across a seven state region. The region included Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and North Carolina. Research in several earth science disciplines included forestry, limnology, water resources, land use, geology, and mathematical modeling. The use of computers for establishment of information retrieval systems was also emphasized.

  10. Jets, Coronal “Puffs,” and a Slow Coronal Mass Ejection Caused by an Opposite-polarity Region within an Active Region Footpoint

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alzate, N.; Morgan, H.

    2016-06-01

    During a period of three days beginning 2013 January 17, twelve recurrent reconnection events occur within a small region of opposing flux embedded within one footpoint of an active region, accompanied by flares and jets observed in EUV and fast and faint structureless “puffs” observed by coronagraphs. During the same period a slow structured CME gradually erupts, with one end anchored close to, or within, the jetting region. Four of the jet events occur in pairs—a narrow, primary jet followed within a few tens of minutes by a wider, more massive, jet. All the jets are slow, with an apparent speed of ˜100 km s-1. The speed of the wide puffs in the coronagraph data is ˜300 km s-1, and the timing of their appearance rules out a direct association with the EUV jetting material. The jet material propagates along large-scale closed-field loops and does not escape to the extended corona. The rapid reconfiguration of the closed loops following reconnection causes an outwardly propagating disturbance, or wave front, which manifests as puffs in coronagraph data. Furthermore, the newly expanded closed flux tube forms a pressure imbalance, which can result in a secondary jet. The reconnection events, through recurrent field reconfiguration, also leads to the gradual eruption of the structured flux tube appearing as the slow CME. Faint propagating coronal disturbances resulting from flares/jets may be common, but are usually obscured by associated ejections. Occasionally, the associated material ejections are absent, and coronal puffs may be clearly observed.

  11. Tracking Active Region NOAA 12192 in Multiple Carrington Rotations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Kiran; Tripathy, Sushant C.; Hill, Frank

    2015-04-01

    Active region NOAA 12192 appeared on the visible solar disk on October 18, 2014 and grew rapidly into the largest such region since 1990. During its entire transit across the Earth facing side of the Sun, it produced a significant number of X- and M-class flares. The combination of front-side and helioseismic far-side images clearly indicated that it lived through several Carrington rotations. In this paper, using Dopplergrams from GONG and HMI, we present a study on mode parameters, viz. oscillation frequencies, amplitude, and sub-surface flows and investigate how these vary with the evolution of active region in multiple rotations. We also present a detailed comparison between NOAA 10486 (the biggest active region in cycle 23) and NOAA 12192, and discuss the similarities/differences between them.

  12. Active Tectonics And Modern Geodynamics Of Sub-Yerevan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanesyan, M.

    2004-05-01

    The given work is dedicated to active tectonics and modern geodynamics of Sub-Yerevan region. This region is interesting as a one of regions with maximal seismic activity in Armenia. The high level of seismic risk of this region is conditioned by high level of seismic hazard, high density of the population, as well as presence of objects of special importance and industrial capacities. The modern structure of Sub-Yerevan region and the adjacent area, as well as the Caucasus entirely, has mosaic-block appearance, typical for collision zone of Arabian and Eurasian plates. Distinctively oriented active faults of various ranges and morphological types are distinguished. These faults, in their turn, form various-scale active blocks of the Earth's crust and their movement defines seismic activity of the region. The researches show, that all strong earthquakes in the region were caused by movements by newest and activated ancient faults. In order to reveal the character of Earth's crust active blocks movement, separation of high gradients of horizontal and vertical movements and definition of stress fields highest concentration regions by GPS observations, high-accuracy leveling and study of earthquake focal mechanisms a new seismotectonic model is developed, which represents a combination of tectonic structure, seismic data, newest and modern movements. On the basis of comparison and analysis of these data zones with potential maximal seismic hazard are separated. The zone of joint of Azat-Sevan active and Yerevan abysmal faults is the most active on the territory of Sub-Yerevan region. The directions relatively the Earth's crust movement in the zones of horizontal and vertical movement gradients lead to conclusion, that Aragats-Tsakhkunian and Gegam active blocks undergo clockwise rotation. This means, that additional concentration of stress must be observed in block corners, that is confirmed by location of strong earthquakes sources. Thus, on the North 1988 Spitak (M

  13. Driving extreme variability: the evolving corona and evidence for jet launching in Markarian 335

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, D. R.; Gallo, L. C.

    2015-05-01

    Variations in the X-ray emission from the narrow-line Seyfert 1 galaxy, Markarian 335, are studied on both long and short time-scales through observations made between 2006 and 2013 with XMM-Newton, Suzaku and NuSTAR. Changes in the geometry and energetics of the corona that give rise to this variability are inferred through measurements of the relativistically blurred reflection seen from the accretion disc. On long time-scales, we find that during the high-flux epochs the corona has expanded, covering the inner regions of the accretion disc out to a radius of 26_{-7}^{+10} rg. The corona contracts to within 12rg and 5rg in the intermediate- and low-flux epochs, respectively. While the earlier high-flux observation made in 2006 is consistent with a corona extending over the inner part of the accretion disc, a later high-flux observation that year revealed that the X-ray source had become collimated into a vertically extended jet-like corona and suggested relativistic motion of material upwards. On short time-scales, we find that an X-ray flare during a low-flux epoch in 2013 corresponded to a reconfiguration from a slightly extended corona to one much more compact, within just 2 ˜ 3rg of the black hole. There is evidence that during the flare itself, the spectrum softened and the corona became collimated and slightly extended vertically as if a jet-launching event was aborted. Understanding the evolution of the X-ray emitting corona may reveal the underlying mechanism by which the luminous X-ray sources in AGN are powered.

  14. Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

  15. Topography of Small Coronae on Venus: Preliminary Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kreslavsky, M.; Vdovichenko, R.

    1996-03-01

    We surveyed topography of small coronae on Venus and created a data set of quantitative description of coronae topographic patterns. We failed to arrange all coronae profiles into an evolutionary sequences. We have not found prominent dependences between parameters of corona topography except an obvious trend the smaller corona, the simplier its topographic pattern. There is weak correlation of widths of all ring-like topographic features against corona diameter. The facts evidence that wide diversity of topographic patterns are due to individual peculiarities of corona-forming sources rather than variations of geological settings and ages.

  16. Corona discharge influences ozone concentrations near rats.

    PubMed

    Goheen, Steven C; Gaither, Kari; Anantatmula, Shantha M; Mong, Gary M; Sasser, Lyle B; Lessor, Delbert

    2004-02-01

    Ozone can be produced by corona discharge either in dry air or when one electrode is submerged in water. Since ozone is toxic, we examined whether ozone production by corona near laboratory animals could reach levels of concern. Male rats were exposed to a corona discharge and the concentration of ozone produced was measured. The resulting concentration of ozone ranged from ambient levels to 250 ppb when animals were located 1 cm from a 10 kV source. Similar ozone concentrations were observed when a grounded water source was present. Possible explanations for, as well as concerns regarding, ozone production under these conditions are discussed. PMID:14735560

  17. Coronal Heating By the Interaction between Emerging Active Regions and the Quiet Sun Observed By the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Li, Ting; Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Yuzong; Li, Leping; Chen, Feng; Peter, Hardi

    2015-02-01

    The question of what heats the solar corona remains one of the most important puzzles in solar physics and astrophysics. Here we report Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of coronal heating by the interaction between emerging active regions (EARs) and the surrounding quiet Sun (QS). The EARs continuously interact with the surrounding QS, resulting in dark ribbons which appear at the boundary of the EARs and the QS. The dark ribbons visible in extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths propagate away from the EARs with speeds of a few km s-1. The regions swept by the dark ribbons are brightening afterward, with the mean temperature increasing by one quarter. The observational findings demonstrate that uninterrupted magnetic reconnection between EARs and the QS occurs. When the EARs develop, the reconnection continues. The dark ribbons may be the track of the interface between the reconnected magnetic fields and the undisturbed QS’s fields. The propagating speed of the dark ribbons reflects the reconnection rate and is consistent with our numerical simulation. A long-term coronal heating which occurs in turn from nearby the EARs to far away from the EARs is proposed.

  18. Coronal Heating by the Interaction Between Emerging Active Regions and the Quiet Sun Observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jun

    2015-08-01

    The question of what heats the solar corona remains one of the most important puzzles in solar physics andastrophysics. Here we report Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of coronal heating by the interaction between emerging active regions (EARs) and the surrounding quiet Sun (QS). The EARs continuously interact with the surrounding QS, resulting in dark ribbons which appear at the boundary of the EARs and the QS. The dark ribbons visible in extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths propagate away from the EARs with speeds of a few km/s. The regions swept by the dark ribbons are brightening afterward, with the mean temperature increasing by one quarter. The observational findings demonstrate that uninterrupted magnetic reconnection between EARs and the QS occurs. When the EARs develop, the reconnection continues. The dark ribbons may be the track of the interface between the reconnected magnetic fields and the undisturbed QS’s fields. The propagating speed of the dark ribbons reflects the reconnection rate and is consistent with our numerical simulation. A long-term coronal heating which occurs in turn from nearby the EARs to far away from the EARs is proposed.

  19. CORONAL HEATING BY THE INTERACTION BETWEEN EMERGING ACTIVE REGIONS AND THE QUIET SUN OBSERVED BY THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jun; Zhang, Bin; Li, Ting; Yang, Shuhong; Zhang, Yuzong; Li, Leping; Chen, Feng; Peter, Hardi E-mail: liting@nao.cas.cn E-mail: yuzong@nao.cas.cn E-mail: chen@mps.mpg.de

    2015-02-01

    The question of what heats the solar corona remains one of the most important puzzles in solar physics and astrophysics. Here we report Solar Dynamics Observatory Atmospheric Imaging Assembly observations of coronal heating by the interaction between emerging active regions (EARs) and the surrounding quiet Sun (QS). The EARs continuously interact with the surrounding QS, resulting in dark ribbons which appear at the boundary of the EARs and the QS. The dark ribbons visible in extreme-ultraviolet wavelengths propagate away from the EARs with speeds of a few km s{sup −1}. The regions swept by the dark ribbons are brightening afterward, with the mean temperature increasing by one quarter. The observational findings demonstrate that uninterrupted magnetic reconnection between EARs and the QS occurs. When the EARs develop, the reconnection continues. The dark ribbons may be the track of the interface between the reconnected magnetic fields and the undisturbed QS’s fields. The propagating speed of the dark ribbons reflects the reconnection rate and is consistent with our numerical simulation. A long-term coronal heating which occurs in turn from nearby the EARs to far away from the EARs is proposed.

  20. Eruptions that Drive Coronal Jets in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Akiyama, Sachiko; Yashiro, Seiji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2016-01-01

    Solar coronal jets are common in both coronal holes and in active regions (e.g., Shibata et al. 1992, Shimojo et al. 1996, Cirtain et al. 2007. Savcheva et al. 2007). Recently, Sterling et al. (2015), using data from Hinode/XRT and SDO/AIA, found that coronal jets originating in polar coronal holes result from the eruption of small-scale filaments (minifilaments). The jet bright point (JBP) seen in X-rays and hotter EUV channels off to one side of the base of the jet's spire develops at the location where the minifilament erupts, consistent with the JBPs being miniature versions of typical solar flares that occur in the wake of large-scale filament eruptions. Here we consider whether active region coronal jets also result from the same minifilament-eruption mechanism, or whether they instead result from a different mechanism (e.g. Yokoyama & Shibata 1995). We present observations of an on-disk active region (NOAA AR 11513) that produced numerous jets on 2012 June 30, using data from SDO/AIA and HMI, and from GOES/SXI. We find that several of these active region jets also originate with eruptions of miniature filaments (size scale 20'') emanating from small-scale magnetic neutral lines of the region. This demonstrates that active region coronal jets are indeed frequently driven by minifilament eruptions. Other jets from the active region were also consistent with their drivers being minifilament eruptions, but we could not confirm this because the onsets of those jets were hidden from our view. This work was supported by funding from NASA/LWS, NASA/HGI, and Hinode. A full report of this study appears in Sterling et al. (2016).

  1. Manifestations of electric currents observed in the K-corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, I. S.; Popov, V. V.

    2015-12-01

    The 2D distribution of tangential velocities of the coronal plasma electron component (K-corona) was obtained and interpreted. Coronal continuum linear polarization films in the green spectral range obtained during the total solar eclipse of March 29, 2006, are used. The developed method of high-precision linear polarimetry made it possible to obtain the first 2D distribution in the K-corona linear polarimetry history for the polarization angle sign at distances smaller than 1.5 Rsun. For clarity, we accepted that clockwise deviations of the polarization direction from tangential to the solar limb have positive polarity, whereas counterclockwise deviations have negative polarity. The distribution differs from the anticipated pattern for scattering by resting electrons and reveals a correlation with the coronal structure and the presence of diffuse and structural components and largeand small-scale regions of opposite polarities. The interpretation in the scope of scattering by moving electrons indicates that free electron tangential velocities (tangential electric currents) are strongly fragmented in the inner corona.

  2. A GENERAL RELATIVISTIC MODEL OF ACCRETION DISKS WITH CORONAE SURROUNDING KERR BLACK HOLES

    SciTech Connect

    You Bei; Cao Xinwu; Yuan Yefei E-mail: cxw@shao.ac.cn

    2012-12-20

    We calculate the structure of a standard accretion disk with a corona surrounding a massive Kerr black hole in the general relativistic frame, in which the corona is assumed to be heated by the reconnection of the strongly buoyant magnetic fields generated in the cold accretion disk. The emergent spectra of accretion disk-corona systems are calculated by using the relativistic ray-tracing method. We propose a new method to calculate the emergent Comptonized spectra from the coronae. The spectra of disk-corona systems with a modified {alpha}-magnetic stress show that both the hard X-ray spectral index and the hard X-ray bolometric correction factor L{sub bol}/L{sub X,2-10keV} increase with the dimensionless mass accretion rate, which is qualitatively consistent with the observations of active galactic nuclei. The fraction of the power dissipated in the corona decreases with increasing black hole spin parameter a, which leads to lower electron temperatures of the coronae for rapidly spinning black holes. The X-ray emission from the coronae surrounding rapidly spinning black holes becomes weak and soft. The ratio of the X-ray luminosity to the optical/UV luminosity increases with the viewing angle, while the spectral shape in the X-ray band is insensitive to the viewing angle. We find that the spectral index in the infrared waveband depends on the mass accretion rate and the black hole spin a, which deviates from the f{sub {nu}}{proportional_to}{nu}{sup 1/3} relation expected by the standard thin disk model.

  3. Solar Corona on 10.21.2010

    NASA Video Gallery

    The solar corona on 2010/10/21, observed by SDO’s AIA. The false colors represent images taken with different filters that are sensitive to distinct coronal temperatures: blue for one million de...

  4. Olivines and olivine coronas in mesosiderites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nehru, C. E.; Zucker, S. M.; Harlow, G. E.; Prinz, M.

    1980-01-01

    The paper presents a study of olivines and their surrounding coronas in mesosiderites texturally and compositionally using optical and microprobe methods. Olivine composition ranges from Fo(58-92) and shows no consistent pattern of distribution within and between mesosiderites; olivine occurs as large single crystals or as partially recrystallized mineral clasts, except for two lithic clasts. These are Emery and Vaca Muerta, and both are shock-modified olivine orthopyroxenites. Fine-grained coronas surround olivine, except for those in impact-melt group mesosiderites and those without tridymite in their matrices. Coronas consist largely of orthopyroxene, plagioclase, clinopyroxene, chromite, merillite, and ilmenite, and are similar to the matrix, but lack metal and tridymite. Texturally the innermost parts of the corona can be divided into three stages of development: (1) radiating acicular, (2) intermediate, and (3) granular.

  5. Solar Corona on 08.01.2010

    NASA Video Gallery

    The solar corona on 2010/08/01, observed by SDO’s AIA. The false colors represent images taken with different filters that are sensitive to distinct coronal temperatures: blue- 1 million degrees...

  6. The effect of protein corona composition on the interaction of carbon nanotubes with human blood platelets.

    PubMed

    De Paoli, Silvia H; Diduch, Lukas L; Tegegn, Tseday Z; Orecna, Martina; Strader, Michael B; Karnaukhova, Elena; Bonevich, John E; Holada, Karel; Simak, Jan

    2014-08-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNT) are one of the most promising nanomaterials for use in medicine. The blood biocompatibility of CNT is a critical safety issue. In the bloodstream, proteins bind to CNT through non-covalent interactions to form a protein corona, thereby largely defining the biological properties of the CNT. Here, we characterize the interactions of carboxylated-multiwalled carbon nanotubes (CNTCOOH) with common human proteins and investigate the effect of the different protein coronas on the interaction of CNTCOOH with human blood platelets (PLT). Molecular modeling and different photophysical techniques were employed to characterize the binding of albumin (HSA), fibrinogen (FBG), γ-globulins (IgG) and histone H1 (H1) on CNTCOOH. We found that the identity of protein forming the corona greatly affects the outcome of CNTCOOH's interaction with blood PLT. Bare CNTCOOH-induced PLT aggregation and the release of platelet membrane microparticles (PMP). HSA corona attenuated the PLT aggregating activity of CNTCOOH, while FBG caused the agglomeration of CNTCOOH nanomaterial, thereby diminishing the effect of CNTCOOH on PLT. In contrast, the IgG corona caused PLT fragmentation, and the H1 corona induced a strong PLT aggregation, thus potentiating the release of PMP.

  7. TARPs: Tracked Active Region Patches from SoHO/MDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turmon, M.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Bobra, M.

    2013-12-01

    We describe progress toward creating a retrospective MDI data product consisting of tracked magnetic features on the scale of solar active regions, abbreviated TARPs (Tracked Active Region Patches). The TARPs are being developed as a backward-looking extension (covering approximately 3500 regions spanning 1996-2010) to the HARP (HMI Active Region Patch) data product that has already been released for HMI (2010-present). Like the HARPs, the MDI TARP data set is designed to be a catalog of active regions (ARs), indexed by a region ID number, analogous to a NOAA AR number, and time. TARPs from MDI are computed based on the 96-minute synoptic magnetograms and pseudo-continuum intensitygrams. As with the related HARP data product, the approximate threshold for significance is 100G. Use of both image types together allows faculae and sunspots to be separated out as sub-classes of activity, in addition to identifying the overall active region that the faculae/sunspots are part of. After being identified in single images, the magnetically-active patches are grouped and tracked from image to image. Merges among growing active regions, as well as faint active regions hovering at the threshold of detection, are handled automatically. Regions are tracked from their inception until they decay within view, or transit off the visible disk. The final data product is indexed by a nominal AR number and time. For each active region and for each time, a bitmap image is stored containing the precise outline of the active region. Additionaly, metadata such as areas and integrated fluxes are stored for each AR and for each time. Because there is a calibration between the HMI and MDI magnetograms (Liu, Hoeksema et al. 2012), it is straightforward to use the same classification and tracking rules for the HARPs (from HMI) and the MDI TARPs. We anticipate that this will allow a consistent catalog spanning both instruments. We envision several uses for the TARP data product, which will be

  8. Protein corona changes mediated by surface modification of amorphous silica nanoparticles suppress acute toxicity and activation of intrinsic coagulation cascade in mice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoshida, Tokuyuki; Yoshioka, Yasuo; Morishita, Yuki; Aoyama, Michihiko; Tochigi, Saeko; Hirai, Toshiro; Tanaka, Kota; Nagano, Kazuya; Kamada, Haruhiko; Tsunoda, Shin-ichi; Nabeshi, Hiromi; Yoshikawa, Tomoaki; Higashisaka, Kazuma; Tsutsumi, Yasuo

    2015-06-01

    Recently, nanomaterial-mediated biological effects have been shown to be governed by the interaction of nanomaterials with some kinds of proteins in biological fluids, and the physical characteristics of the nanomaterials determine the extent and type of their interactions with proteins. Here, we examined the relationships between the surface properties of amorphous silica nanoparticles with diameters of 70 nm (nSP70), their interactions with some proteins in biological fluids, and their toxicity in mice after intravenous administration. The surface modification of nSP70 with amino groups (nSP70-N) prevented acute lethality and abnormal activation of the coagulation cascade found in the nSP70-treated group of mice. Since our previous study showed that coagulation factor XII played a role in the nSP70-mediated abnormal activation of the coagulation cascade, we examined the interaction of nSP70 and nSP70-N with coagulation factor XII. Coagulation factor XII bonded to the surface of nSP70 to a greater extent than that observed for nSP70-N, and consequently more activation of coagulation factor XII was observed for nSP70 than for nSP70-N. Collectively, our results suggest that controlling the interaction of nSP70 with blood coagulation factor XII by modifying the surface properties would help to inhibit the nSP70-mediated abnormal activation of the blood coagulation cascade.

  9. Footpoint Separation and Evershed Flow of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norton, Aimee Ann; Jones, E. H.

    2012-05-01

    The bipolar nature of active regions and sunspot groups within the Sun’s photosphere is generally attributed to the emergence of magnetic flux tubes that originate from shear and turbulent pumping at the base of the Sun’s convection zone. There is debate, however, as to exactly how well-connected active regions are to solar interior. A connection to the solar interior during the ascent of a flux tube through the convection zone is a requirement within numerical models designed to describe the observed characteristics of active regions, e.g. Joy’s law tilt and latitude emergence, however, these models also predict post-emergence behavior of sunspots that is not supported observationally (Schussler and Rempel, 1995; Fan, 2009; Toth and Gerlei, 2003). It has been suggested (Rubio et al., 2008; Schussler and Rempel, 1995) that a bipolar magnetic region might lose its connection quickly upon emergence. Using data from SDO/HMI, we examine the footpoint separation and the Evershed flow of a number of active regions over time to detect the disconnection process of a sunspot from its magnetic roots.

  10. Link between the chromospheric network and magnetic structures of the corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jendersie, S.; Peter, H.

    2006-12-01

    Context: . Recent work suggested that the traditional picture of the corona above the quiet Sun being rooted in the magnetic concentrations of the chromospheric network alone is strongly questionable. Aims: . Building on that previous study we explore the impact of magnetic configurations in the photosphere and the low corona on the magnetic connectivity from the network to the corona. Observational studies of this connectivity are often utilizing magnetic field extrapolations. However, it is open to which extent such extrapolations really represent the connectivity found on the Sun, as observations are not able to resolve all fine scale magnetic structures. The present numerical experiments aim at contributing to this question. Methods: . We investigated random salt-and-pepper-type distributions of kilo-Gauss internetwork flux elements carrying some 1015 to 1017 Mx, which are hardly distinguishable by current observational techniques. These photospheric distributions are then extrapolated into the corona using different sets of boundary conditions at the bottom and the top. This allows us to investigate the fraction of network flux which is connected to the corona, as well as the locations of those coronal regions which are connected to the network patches. Results: . We find that with current instrumentation one cannot really determine from observations, which regions on the quiet Sun surface, i.e. in the network and internetwork, are connected to which parts of the corona through extrapolation techniques. Future spectro-polarimetric instruments, such as with Solar B or Gregor, will provide a higher sensitivity, and studies like the present one could help to estimate to which extent one can then pinpoint the connection from the chromosphere to the corona. Conclusions: .

  11. THz quantum cascade lasers with wafer bonded active regions.

    PubMed

    Brandstetter, M; Deutsch, C; Benz, A; Cole, G D; Detz, H; Andrews, A M; Schrenk, W; Strasser, G; Unterrainer, K

    2012-10-01

    We demonstrate terahertz quantum-cascade lasers with a 30 μm thick double-metal waveguide, which are fabricated by stacking two 15 μm thick active regions using a wafer bonding process. By increasing the active region thickness more optical power is generated inside the cavity, the waveguide losses are decreased and the far-field is improved due to a larger facet aperture. In this way the output power is increased by significantly more than a factor of 2 without reducing the maximum operating temperature and without increasing the threshold current.

  12. Kink Waves in an Active Region Dynamic Fibril

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pietarila, A.; Aznar Cuadrado, R.; Hirzberger, J.; Solanki, S. K.

    2011-10-01

    We present high spatial and temporal resolution Ca II 8542 Å observations of a kink wave in an on-disk chromospheric active region fibril. The properties of the wave are similar to those observed in off-limb spicules. From the observed phase and period of the wave we determine a lower limit for the field strength in the chromospheric active region fibril located at the edge of a sunspot to be a few hundred gauss. We find indications that the event was triggered by a small-scale reconnection event higher up in the atmosphere.

  13. The Soft X-Ray/Microwave Ratio of Solar and Stellar Flares and Coronae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benz, A. O.; Guedel, M.

    1994-01-01

    We have carried out plasma diagnostics of solar flares using soft X-ray (SXR) and simultaneous microwave observations and have compared the ratio of X-ray to microwave luminosities of solar flares with various active late-type stars available in the published literature. Both the SXR low-level ('quiescent') emission from stellar coronae and the flaring emission from the Sun and stars are generally interpreted as thermal radiations of coronal plasmas. On the other hand, the microwave emission of stars and solar flares is generally attributed to an extremely hot or nonthermal population of electrons. Solar flare SXR are conventionally measured in a narrower and harder passband than the stellar sources. Observations of the GOES-2 satellite in two energy channels have been used to estimate the luminosity of solar flares as it would appear in the ROSAT satellite passband. The solar and stellar flare luminosities fit well at the lower end of the active stellar coronae. The flare SXR/microwave ratio is similar to the ratio for stellar coronae. The average ratio follows a power-law relation L(sub X) varies as L(sub R)(sup 0.73 +/- 0.03) over 10 orders of magnitude from solar microflares to RS CVn and FK Com-type coronae. Dwarf Me and Ke stars, and RS CVn stars are also compatible with a linear SXR/microwave relation, but the ratio is slightly different for each type of star. Considering the differences between solar flares, stellar flares and the various active stellar coronae, the similarity of the SXR/microwave ratios is surprising. It suggests that the energetic electrons in low-level stellar coronae observed in microwaves are related in a similar way to the coronal thermal plasma as flare electrons to the flare thermal plasma, and, consequently, that the heating mechanism of active stellar coronae is a flare-like process.

  14. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making PMID:27355465

  15. Coronas-F Orbit Monitoring and Re-Entry Prediction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ivanov, N. M.; Kolyuka, Yu. F.; Afanasieva, T. I.; Gridchina, T. A.

    2007-01-01

    Russian scientific satellite CORONAS-F was launched on July, 31, 2001. The object was inserted in near-circular orbit with the inclination 82.5deg and a mean altitude approx. 520 km. Due to the upper atmosphere drag CORONAS-F was permanently descended and as a result on December, 6, 2005 it has finished the earth-orbital flight, having lifetime in space approx. 4.5 years. The satellite structural features and its flight attitude control led to the significant variations of its ballistic coefficient during the flight. It was a cause of some specific difficulties in the fulfillment of the ballistic and navigation support of this space vehicle flight. Besides the main mission objective CORONAS-F also has been selected by the Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC) as a target object for the next regular international re-entry test campaign on a program of surveillance and re-entry prediction for the hazard space objects within their de-orbiting phases. Spacecraft (S/C) CORONAS-F kept its working state right up to the end of the flight - down to the atmosphere entry. This fact enabled to realization of the additional research experiments, concerning with an estimation of the atmospheric density within the low earth orbits (LEO) of the artificial satellites, and made possible to continue track the S/C during final phase of its flight by means of Russian regular command & tracking system, used for it control. Thus there appeared a unique possibility of using for tracking S/C at its de-orbiting phase not only passive radar facilities, belonging to the space surveillance systems and traditionally used for support of the IADC re-entry test campaigns, but also more precise active trajectory radio-tracking facilities from the ground control complex (GCC) applied for this object. Under the corresponding decision of the Russian side such capability of additional high-precise tracking control of the CORONAS-F flight in this period of time has been implemented

  16. Twisting solar coronal jet launched at the boundary of an active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, B.; Guo, Y.; Moreno-Insertis, F.; Aulanier, G.; Yelles Chaouche, L.; Nishizuka, N.; Harra, L. K.; Thalmann, J. K.; Vargas Dominguez, S.; Liu, Y.

    2013-11-01

    Aims: A broad jet was observed in a weak magnetic field area at the edge of active region NOAA 11106 that also produced other nearby recurring and narrow jets. The peculiar shape and magnetic environment of the broad jet raised the question of whether it was created by the same physical processes of previously studied jets with reconnection occurring high in the corona. Methods: We carried out a multi-wavelength analysis using the EUV images from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) and magnetic fields from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) both on-board the Solar Dynamics Observatory, which we coupled to a high-resolution, nonlinear force-free field extrapolation. Local correlation tracking was used to identify the photospheric motions that triggered the jet, and time-slices were extracted along and across the jet to unveil its complex nature. A topological analysis of the extrapolated field was performed and was related to the observed features. Results: The jet consisted of many different threads that expanded in around 10 minutes to about 100 Mm in length, with the bright features in later threads moving faster than in the early ones, reaching a maximum speed of about 200 km s-1. Time-slice analysis revealed a striped pattern of dark and bright strands propagating along the jet, along with apparent damped oscillations across the jet. This is suggestive of a (un)twisting motion in the jet, possibly an Alfvén wave. Bald patches in field lines, low-altitude flux ropes, diverging flow patterns, and a null point were identified at the basis of the jet. Conclusions: Unlike classical λ or Eiffel-tower-shaped jets that appear to be caused by reconnection in current sheets containing null points, reconnection in regions containing bald patches seems to be crucial in triggering the present jet. There is no observational evidence that the flux ropes detected in the topological analysis were actually being ejected themselves, as occurs in the violent phase of

  17. IFLA General Conference, 1989. Division of Regional Activities. Section on Regional Activities--Africa; Section on Regional Activities--Asia and Oceania; Section on Regional Activities--Latin America and the Caribbean. Booklet 80.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    There are five papers in this collection from the Division of Regional Activities: (1) "Communication and Information in Contemporary African Society" (Bimpe Aboyade), which discusses how libraries can make themselves relevant to other institutions concerned with information transfer; (2) "Libraries and Rural Development: Village Reading Rooms in…

  18. Inferred flows of electric currents in solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Y. J.; Hong, Q. F.; Hagyard, M. J.; Deloach, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques to identify sources of major current systems in active regions and their channels of flow are explored. Measured photospheric vector magnetic fields together with high resolution white light and H-alpha photographs provide the data base to derive the current systems in the photosphere and chromosphere of a solar active region. Simple mathematical constructions of active region fields and currents are used to interpret these data under the assumptions that the fields in the lower atmosphere (below 200 km) may not be force free but those in the chromosphere and higher are. The results obtained for the complex active region AR 2372 are: (1) Spots exhibiting significant spiral structure in the penumbral filaments were the source of vertical currents at the photospheric surface; (2) Magnetic neutral lines where the transverse magnetic field was strongly sheared were channels along which a strong current system flowed; (3) The inferred current systems produced a neutral sheet and oppositely-flowing currents in the area of the magnetic delta configuration that was the site of flaring.

  19. IFLA General Conference, 1987. Division of Regional Activities. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Six of the seven papers in this collection focus on regional library activities in Africa, Asia and Oceania, and Latin America and the Caribbean: (1) "Libraries and Information Services in a Changing World: The Challenges African Information Services Face at the End of the 1980s" (Dejen Abate, Ethiopia); (2) "The Computer and Knowledge Information…

  20. Urban, Rural, and Regional Variations in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sarah Levin; Kirkner, Gregory J.; Mayo, Kelly; Matthews, Charles E.; Durstine, J. Larry; Hebert, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: There is some speculation about geographic differences in physical activity (PA) levels. We examined the prevalence of physical inactivity (PIA) and whether US citizens met the recommended levels of PA across the United States. In addition, the association between PIA/PA and degree of urbanization in the 4 main US regions (Northeast,…

  1. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression.

    PubMed

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-05-03

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients.

  2. A solar cycle timing predictor - The latitude of active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A 'Spoerer butterfly' method is used to examine solar cycle 22. It is shown from the latitude of active regions that the cycle can now be expected to peak near November 1989 + or - 8 months, basically near the latter half of 1989.

  3. Unwinding motion of a twisted active region filament

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Kong, D. F.; Liu, J. H.; Xu, C. L.

    2014-12-10

    To better understand the structures of active region filaments and the eruption process, we study an active region filament eruption in active region NOAA 11082 in detail on 2010 June 22. Before the filament eruption, the opposite unidirectional material flows appeared in succession along the spine of the filament. The rising of the filament triggered two B-class flares at the upper part of the filament. As the bright material was injected into the filament from the sites of the flares, the filament exhibited a rapid uplift accompanying the counterclockwise rotation of the filament body. From the expansion of the filament, we can see that the filament consisted of twisted magnetic field lines. The total twist of the filament is at least 5π obtained by using a time slice method. According to the morphology change during the filament eruption, it is found that the active region filament was a twisted flux rope and its unwinding motion was like a solar tornado. We also find that there was a continuous magnetic helicity injection before and during the filament eruption. It is confirmed that magnetic helicity can be transferred from the photosphere to the filament. Using the extrapolated potential fields, the average decay index of the background magnetic fields over the filament is 0.91. Consequently, these findings imply that the mechanism of solar filament eruption could be due to the kink instability and magnetic helicity accumulation.

  4. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  5. 3D ELECTRON DENSITY DISTRIBUTIONS IN THE SOLAR CORONA DURING SOLAR MINIMA: ASSESSMENT FOR MORE REALISTIC SOLAR WIND MODELING

    SciTech Connect

    Patoul, Judith de; Foullon, Claire; Riley, Pete E-mail: c.foullon@exeter.ac.uk

    2015-11-20

    Knowledge of the electron density distribution in the solar corona put constraints on the magnetic field configurations for coronal modeling and on initial conditions for solar wind modeling. We work with polarized SOHO/LASCO-C2 images from the last two recent minima of solar activity (1996–1997 and 2008–2010), devoid of coronal mass ejections. The goals are to derive the 4D electron density distributions in the corona by applying a newly developed time-dependent tomographic reconstruction method and to compare the results between the two solar minima and with two magnetohydrodynamic models. First, we confirm that the values of the density distribution in thermodynamic models are more realistic than in polytropic ones. The tomography provides more accurate distributions in the polar regions, and we find that the density in tomographic and thermodynamic solutions varies with the solar cycle in both polar and equatorial regions. Second, we find that the highest-density structures do not always correspond to the predicted large-scale heliospheric current sheet or its helmet streamer but can follow the locations of pseudo-streamers. We deduce that tomography offers reliable density distributions in the corona, reproducing the slow time evolution of coronal structures, without prior knowledge of the coronal magnetic field over a full rotation. Finally, we suggest that the highest-density structures show a differential rotation well above the surface depending on how they are magnetically connected to the surface. Such valuable information on the rotation of large-scale structures could help to connect the sources of the solar wind to their in situ counterparts in future missions such as Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus.

  6. 3D electron density distributions in the solar corona during solar minima: assessment for more realistic solar wind modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Patoul, J.; Foullon, C.; Riley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Knowledge of the electron density distribution in the solar corona put constraints on the magnetic field configurations for coronal modeling, and on initial conditions for solar wind modeling. We work with polarized SOHO/LASCO-C2 images from the last two recent minima of solar activity (1996-1997 and 2008-2010), devoid of coronal mass ejections. We derive the 4D electron density distributions in the corona by applying a newly developed time-dependent tomographic reconstruction method. First we compare the density distributions obtained from tomography with magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) solutions. The tomography provides more accurate distributions of electron densities in the polar regions, and we find that the observed density varies with the solar cycle in both polar and equatorial regions. Second, we find that the highest-density structures do not always correspond to the predicted large-scale heliospheric current sheet or its helmet streamer but can follow the locations of pseudo-streamers. We conclude that tomography offers reliable density distribution in the corona, reproducing the slow time evolution of coronal structures, without prior knowledge of the coronal magnetic field over a full rotation. Finally, we suggest that the highest-density structures show a differential rotation well above the surface depending on how it is magnetically connected to the surface. Such valuable information on the rotation of large-scale structures could help to connect the sources of the solar wind to their in-situ counterparts in future missions such as Solar Orbiter and Solar Probe Plus. This research combined with the MHD coronal modeling efforts has the potential to increase the reliability for future space weather forecasting.

  7. Evolution of two Flaring Active Regions With CME Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalmann, J. K.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2008-12-01

    We study the coronal magnetic field structure of two active regions, one during solar activity minimum (June 2007) and another one during a more active time (January 2004). The temporal evolution was explored with the help of nonlinear force-free coronal magnetic field extrapolations of SOLIS/VSM and NAOJ/SFT photospheric vector magnetograms. We study the active region NOAA 10960 observed on 2007 June 7 with three SOLIS/VSM snapshots taken during a small C1.0 flare of time cadence 10 minutes and six snapshots during a quiet period. The total magnetic energy in the active region was approximately 3 × 1025 J. Before the flare the free magnetic energy was about 5~% of the potential field energy. A part of this excess energy was released during the flare, producing almost a potential configuration at the beginning of the quiet period. The return to an almost potential structure can be assigned to a CME as recorded by the SoHO/LASCO instrument on 2007 June 07 around 10 minutes after the flare peaked, so that whatever magnetic helicity was bodily removed from the structure. This was compared with active region 10540 observed on 2004 January 18 -- 21, which was analyzed with the help of vector magnetograph data from the Solar Flare Telescope in Japan of time cadence of about 1 day. The free energy was Efree≈ 66~% of the total energy which was sufficiently high to power a M6.1 flare on January 20, which was associated with a CME 20 minutes later. The activity of AR 10540 was significantly higher than for AR 10960, as was the total magnetic energy. Furthermore, we found the common feature that magnetic energy accumulates before the flare/CME and a significant part of the excess energy is released during the eruption.

  8. Evidence of flux rope and sigmoid in Active Regions prior eruptions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmieder, Brigitte; Aulanier, Guillaume; Janvier, Miho; Bommier, Veronique; Dudik, Jaroslav; Gilchrist, Stuart; Zhao, Jie

    2016-07-01

    In the solar corona, the magnetic field is dominant, and the current density vector is nearly aligned with the magnetic field lines for strong and stressed field regions. Stressed and highly twisted flux ropes are at the origin of eruptive events such as flares and coronal mass ejections, which inject material into the interplanetary medium. The standard three dimensional (3D) flare model predicts the complex evolution of flare loops and the flux rope before the eruption. Flux ropes are not directly observed in the corona, however it has started to be possible to detect their footprints in the photosphere. Recent high spatial and temporal resolution spectro-polarimeters have allowed us to compute the photospheric electric currents and follow their evolution. Characteristics pattern like J-shaped ribbons indicate the presence of a flux rope before the flare. The results confirm the predictions of the 3D MHD standard model of eruptive flares. It is interesting to compare the magnetic helicity of the ejected flux rope with the in situ measurements of the corresponding ICME at L1. We will show some examples (February 15 2011, July 12 2012, Sept 10 2014).

  9. Driving disk winds and heating hot coronae by MRI turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Io, Yuki; Suzuki, Takeru K.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate the formation of hot coronae and vertical outflows in accretion disks by magnetorotational turbulence. We perform local three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations with the vertical stratification by explicitly solving an energy equation with various effective ratios of specific heats, γ. Initially imposed weak vertical magnetic fields are effectively amplified by magnetorotational instability and winding caused by the differential rotation. In the isothermal case (γ = 1), the disk winds are driven mainly by the Poynting flux associated with the MHD turbulence and show quasi-periodic intermittency. In contrast, in the non-isothermal cases with γ ≥ 1.1, the regions above 1-2 scale heights from the midplane are effectively heated to form coronae with temperature ∼50 times the initial value, which are connected to the cooler midplane region through the pressure-balanced transition regions. As a result, the disk winds are driven mainly by the gas pressure, exhibiting more time-steady nature, although the nondimensional time-averaged mass loss rates are similar to that of the isothermal case. Sound-like waves are confined in the cool midplane region in these cases, and the amplitude of the density fluctuations is larger than that of the isothermal case.

  10. Multiscale simulation of DC corona discharge and ozone generation from nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pengxiang

    Atmospheric direct current (dc) corona discharge from micro-sized objects has been widely used as an ion source in many devices, such as photocopiers, laser printers, and electronic air cleaners. Shrinking the size of the discharge electrode to the nanometer range (e.g., through the use of carbon nanotubes or CNTs) is expected to lead to a significant reduction in power consumption and detrimental ozone production in these devices. The objectives of this study are to unveil the fundamental physics of the nanoscale corona discharge and to evaluate its performance and ozone production through numerical models. The extremely small size of CNTs presents considerable complexity and challenges in modeling CNT corona discharges. A hybrid multiscale model, which combines a kinetic particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo collision (PIC-MCC) model and a continuum model, is developed to simulate the corona discharge from nanostructures. The multiscale model is developed in several steps. First, a pure PIC-MCC model is developed and PIC-MCC simulations of corona plasma from micro-sized electrode with same boundary conditions as prior model are performed to validate the PIC-MCC scheme. The agreement between the PIC-MCC model and the prior continuum model indicates the validity of the PIC-MCC scheme. The validated PIC-MCC scheme is then coupled with a continuum model to simulate the corona discharge from a micro-sized electrode. Unlike the prior continuum model which only predicts the corona plasma region, the hybrid model successfully predicts the self-consistent discharge process in the entire corona discharge gap that includes both corona plasma region and unipolar ion region. The voltage-current density curves obtained by the hybrid model agree well with analytical prediction and experimental results. The hybrid modeling approach, which combines the accuracy of a kinetic model and the efficiency of a continuum model, is thus validated for modeling dc corona discharges. For

  11. The corona of the daffodil Narcissus bulbocodium shares stamen-like identity and is distinct from the orthodox floral whorls.

    PubMed

    Waters, Mark T; Tiley, Anna M M; Kramer, Elena M; Meerow, Alan W; Langdale, Jane A; Scotland, Robert W

    2013-05-01

    The structural homology of the daffodil corona has remained a source of debate throughout the history of botany. Over the years it has been separately referred to as a modified petal stipule, stamen and tepal. Here we provide insights from anatomy and molecular studies to clarify the early developmental stages and position of corona initiation in Narcissus bulbocodium. We demonstrate that the corona initiates as six separate anlagen from hypanthial tissue between the stamens and perianth. Scanning electron microscope images and serial sections demonstrate that corona initiation occurs late in development, after the other floral whorls are fully developed. To define more precisely the identity of the floral structures, daffodil orthologues of the ABC floral organ identity genes were isolated and expression patterns were examined in perianth, stamens, carpel, hypanthial tube and corona tissue. Coupled with in situ hybridisation experiments, these analyses showed that the expression pattern of the C-class gene NbAGAMOUS in the corona is more similar to that of the stamens than that of the tepals. In combination, our results demonstrate that the corona of the daffodil N. bulbocodium exhibits stamen-like identity, develops independently from the orthodox floral whorls and is best interpreted as a late elaboration of the region between the petals and stamens associated with epigyny and the hypanthium.

  12. The corona of the daffodil Narcissus bulbocodium shares stamen-like identity and is distinct from the orthodox floral whorls.

    PubMed

    Waters, Mark T; Tiley, Anna M M; Kramer, Elena M; Meerow, Alan W; Langdale, Jane A; Scotland, Robert W

    2013-05-01

    The structural homology of the daffodil corona has remained a source of debate throughout the history of botany. Over the years it has been separately referred to as a modified petal stipule, stamen and tepal. Here we provide insights from anatomy and molecular studies to clarify the early developmental stages and position of corona initiation in Narcissus bulbocodium. We demonstrate that the corona initiates as six separate anlagen from hypanthial tissue between the stamens and perianth. Scanning electron microscope images and serial sections demonstrate that corona initiation occurs late in development, after the other floral whorls are fully developed. To define more precisely the identity of the floral structures, daffodil orthologues of the ABC floral organ identity genes were isolated and expression patterns were examined in perianth, stamens, carpel, hypanthial tube and corona tissue. Coupled with in situ hybridisation experiments, these analyses showed that the expression pattern of the C-class gene NbAGAMOUS in the corona is more similar to that of the stamens than that of the tepals. In combination, our results demonstrate that the corona of the daffodil N. bulbocodium exhibits stamen-like identity, develops independently from the orthodox floral whorls and is best interpreted as a late elaboration of the region between the petals and stamens associated with epigyny and the hypanthium. PMID:23406544

  13. Regional differences in rat conjunctival ion transport activities

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dongfang; Thelin, William R.; Rogers, Troy D.; Stutts, M. Jackson; Randell, Scott H.; Grubb, Barbara R.

    2012-01-01

    Active ion transport and coupled osmotic water flow are essential to maintain ocular surface health. We investigated regional differences in the ion transport activities of the rat conjunctivas and compared these activities with those of cornea and lacrimal gland. The epithelial sodium channel (ENaC), sodium/glucose cotransporter 1 (Slc5a1), transmembrane protein 16 (Tmem16a, b, f, and g), cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (Cftr), and mucin (Muc4, 5ac, and 5b) mRNA expression was characterized by RT-PCR. ENaC proteins were measured by Western blot. Prespecified regions (palpebral, fornical, and bulbar) of freshly isolated conjunctival tissues and cell cultures were studied electrophysiologically with Ussing chambers. The transepithelial electrical potential difference (PD) of the ocular surface was also measured in vivo. The effect of amiloride and UTP on the tear volume was evaluated in lacrimal gland excised rats. All selected genes were detected but with different expression patterns. We detected αENaC protein in all tissues, βENaC in palpebral and fornical conjunctiva, and γENaC in all tissues except lacrimal glands. Electrophysiological studies of conjunctival tissues and cell cultures identified functional ENaC, SLC5A1, CFTR, and TMEM16. Fornical conjunctiva exhibited the most active ion transport under basal conditions amongst conjunctival regions. PD measurements confirmed functional ENaC-mediated Na+ transport on the ocular surface. Amiloride and UTP increased tear volume in lacrimal gland excised rats. This study demonstrated that the different regions of the conjunctiva exhibited a spectrum of ion transport activities. Understanding the specific functions of distinct regions of the conjunctiva may foster a better understanding of the physiology maintaining hydration of the ocular surface. PMID:22814399

  14. The prominence-corona interface and its relationship to the chromosphere-corona transition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Douglas

    1986-01-01

    The classical model of the chromosphere-corona transition does not account for the observed behavior of the differential emission measure for T approx. less than 100,000 K. Several models have been proposed to resolve this discrepancy in physically different ways. Because the observed differential emission measure at the prominence-corona interface is on average nearly the same as in the chromosphere-corona transition, prominences offer a fresh testing ground for models tailored to the chromosphere-corona transition. The researcher considered three such models and concluded that none extends in a natural way to the environment of prominences. The researcher advanced a simple idea involving thermal conduction both along and across the magnetic field from the corona into cool threads.

  15. Complementary analysis of the hard and soft protein corona: sample preparation critically effects corona composition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winzen, S.; Schoettler, S.; Baier, G.; Rosenauer, C.; Mailaender, V.; Landfester, K.; Mohr, K.

    2015-02-01

    Here we demonstrate how a complementary analysis of nanocapsule-protein interactions with and without application media allows gaining insights into the so called hard and soft protein corona. We have investigated how both human plasma and individual proteins (human serum albumin (HSA), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I)) adsorb and interact with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) nanocapsules possessing different functionalities. To analyse the hard protein corona we used sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and a protein quantitation assay. No significant differences were observed with regards to the hard protein corona. For analysis of the soft protein corona we characterized the nanocapsule-protein interaction with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). DLS and ITC measurements revealed that a high amount of plasma proteins were adsorbed onto the capsules' surface. Although HSA was not detected in the hard protein corona, ITC measurements indicated the adsorption of an HSA amount similar to plasma with a low binding affinity and reaction heat. In contrast, only small amounts of ApoA-I protein adsorb to the capsules with high binding affinities. Through a comparison of these methods we have identified ApoA-I to be a component of the hard protein corona and HSA as a component of the soft corona. We demonstrate a pronounced difference in the protein corona observed depending on the type of characterization technique applied. As the biological identity of a particle is given by the protein corona it is crucial to use complementary characterization techniques to analyse different aspects of the protein corona.Here we demonstrate how a complementary analysis of nanocapsule-protein interactions with and without application media allows gaining insights into the so called hard and soft protein corona. We have investigated how both human plasma and individual proteins (human serum albumin (HSA), apolipoprotein A

  16. A Statistical Analysis of Corona Topography: New Insights into Corona Formation and Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stofan, E. R.; Glaze, L. S.; Smrekar, S. E.; Baloga, S. M.

    2003-01-01

    Extensive mapping of the surface of Venus and continued analysis of Magellan data have allowed a more comprehensive survey of coronae to be conducted. Our updated corona database contains 514 features, an increase from the 326 coronae of the previous survey. We include a new set of 106 Type 2 or stealth coronae, which have a topographic rather than a fracture annulus. The large increase in the number of coronae over the 1992 survey results from several factors, including the use of the full Magellan data set and the addition of features identified as part of the systematic geologic mapping of Venus. Parameters of the population that we have analyzed to date include size and topography.

  17. The Funnel Geometry of Open Flux Tubes in the Low Solar Corona Constrained by O VI and Ne VIII Outflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Byhring, Hanne S.; Esser, Ruth; Lie-Svendsen, Oystein

    2008-01-01

    Model calculations show that observed outflow velocities of order 7-10 km/s of C IV and O VI ions, and 15-20 km/s of Ne VIII ions, are not only consistent with models of the solar wind from coronas holes, but also place unique constraints on the degree of flow tube expansion as well as the location of the expansion in the transition region/lower corona.

  18. Active sonar, beaked whales and European regional policy.

    PubMed

    Dolman, Sarah J; Evans, Peter G H; Notarbartolo-di-Sciara, Giuseppe; Frisch, Heidrun

    2011-01-01

    Various reviews, resolutions and guidance from international and regional fora have been produced in recent years that acknowledge the significance of marine noise and its potential impacts on cetaceans. Within Europe, ACCOBAMS and ASCOBANS have shown increasing attention to the issue. The literature highlights concerns surrounding the negative impacts of active sonar on beaked whales in particular, where concerns primarily relate to the use of mid-frequency active sonar (1-10kHz), as used particularly in military exercises. The authors review the efforts that European regional policies have undertaken to acknowledge and manage possible negative impacts of active sonar and how these might assist the transition from scientific research to policy implementation, including effective management and mitigation measures at a national level.

  19. Patterns of Activity Revealed by a Time Lag Analysis of a Model Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Stephen; Viall, Nicholeen

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of average frequencies. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine an extrapolated magnetic skeleton with hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes to create a model active region, and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is to recover some typical properties and patterns of activity observed in active regions. Our key findings are: 1. Cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. 2. Shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. 3. All channel pairs show zero time lag when the line-of-sight passes through coronal loop foot-points. 4. There is strong evidence that plasma must be re-energized on a time scale comparable to the cooling timescale to reproduce the observed coronal activity, but it is likely that a relatively broad spectrum of heating frequencies operates across active regions. 5. Due to their highly dynamic nature, we find nanoflare trains produce zero time lags along entire flux tubes in our model active region that are seen between the same channel pairs in observed active regions.

  20. DYNAMIC EVOLUTION OF AN X-SHAPED STRUCTURE ABOVE A TRANS-EQUATORIAL QUADRUPOLE SOLAR ACTIVE REGION GROUP

    SciTech Connect

    Sun, J. Q.; Cheng, X.; Guo, Y.; Ding, M. D.; Li, Y. E-mail: xincheng@nju.edu.cn

    2014-06-01

    In the solar corona, magnetic reconnection usually takes place at the singular configuration of the magnetic field, in particular near a magnetic null, owing to its high susceptibility to perturbations. In this Letter, we report a rare X-shaped structure, encompassing a magnetic null, above a trans-equatorial quadrupole active region group that is well observed by the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA). The observations show that this X-shaped structure is visible in all AIA EUV passbands and stably exists for days. However, possibly induced by flare activities at the northern part of the quadrupole active region group, the X-shaped structure starts to destabilize while a jet erupts near its center at ∼15:05 UT on 2013 October 7. Through nonlinear force-free field modeling, we identify a magnetic null that is above the quadrupole polarities and well corresponds to the X-shaped structure. After the jet eruption, the temperature and emission measure of the plasma near the X-shaped structure rise from ∼2.3 MK and ∼1.2 × 10{sup 27} cm{sup –5} at 15:01 UT to ∼5.4 MK and ∼3.7 × 10{sup 27} cm{sup –5} at 15:36 UT, respectively, revealed by the differential emission measure analysis, indicating that magnetic reconnection most likely takes place there to heat the plasma. Moreover, the height of the null increases ∼10 Mm, which is most likely due to the partial opening of the field lines near the fan surface that makes the null underneath rise to seek a new equilibrium.

  1. Complementary analysis of the hard and soft protein corona: sample preparation critically effects corona composition.

    PubMed

    Winzen, S; Schoettler, S; Baier, G; Rosenauer, C; Mailaender, V; Landfester, K; Mohr, K

    2015-02-21

    Here we demonstrate how a complementary analysis of nanocapsule-protein interactions with and without application media allows gaining insights into the so called hard and soft protein corona. We have investigated how both human plasma and individual proteins (human serum albumin (HSA), apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I)) adsorb and interact with hydroxyethyl starch (HES) nanocapsules possessing different functionalities. To analyse the hard protein corona we used sodium dodecyl sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) and a protein quantitation assay. No significant differences were observed with regards to the hard protein corona. For analysis of the soft protein corona we characterized the nanocapsule-protein interaction with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and dynamic light scattering (DLS). DLS and ITC measurements revealed that a high amount of plasma proteins were adsorbed onto the capsules' surface. Although HSA was not detected in the hard protein corona, ITC measurements indicated the adsorption of an HSA amount similar to plasma with a low binding affinity and reaction heat. In contrast, only small amounts of ApoA-I protein adsorb to the capsules with high binding affinities. Through a comparison of these methods we have identified ApoA-I to be a component of the hard protein corona and HSA as a component of the soft corona. We demonstrate a pronounced difference in the protein corona observed depending on the type of characterization technique applied. As the biological identity of a particle is given by the protein corona it is crucial to use complementary characterization techniques to analyse different aspects of the protein corona.

  2. Remote Sensing Measurements of the Corona with the Solar Probe

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Habbal, Shadia Rifai; Woo, Richard

    1996-01-01

    Remote sensing measurements of the solar corona are indespensible for the exploration of the source and acceleration regions of the solar wind which are inaccessible to in situ plasma, paritcles and field experiments.Furthermore, imaging the solar disk and coronal from the unique vantage point of the trajectory and the proximity of the Solar Probe spacecraft, will provide the first ever opportunity to explore the small scale structures within coronal holes and streamers from viewing angles and with spatial resolutions never attained before.

  3. DIVERGENT HORIZONTAL SUB-SURFACE FLOWS WITHIN ACTIVE REGION 11158

    SciTech Connect

    Jain, Kiran; Tripathy, S. C.; Hill, F. E-mail: stripathy@nso.edu

    2015-07-20

    We measure the horizontal subsurface flow in a fast emerging active region (AR; NOAA 11158) using the ring-diagram technique and the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager high spatial resolution Dopplergrams. This AR had a complex magnetic structure and displayed significant changes in morphology during its disk passage. Over a period of six days from 2011 February 11 to 16, the temporal variation in the magnitude of the total velocity is found to follow the trend of magnetic field strength. We further analyze regions of individual magnetic polarity within AR 11158 and find that the horizontal velocity components in these sub-regions have significant variation with time and depth. The leading and trailing polarity regions move faster than the mixed-polarity region. Furthermore, both zonal and meridional components have opposite signs for trailing and leading polarity regions at all depths showing divergent flows within the AR. We also find a sharp decrease in the magnitude of total horizontal velocity in deeper layers around major flares. It is suggested that the re-organization of magnetic fields during flares, combined with the sunspot rotation, decreases the magnitude of horizontal flows or that the flow kinetic energy has been converted into the energy released by flares. After the decline in flare activity and sunspot rotation, the flows tend to follow the pattern of magnetic activity. We also observe less variation in the velocity components near the surface but these tend to increase with depth, further demonstrating that the deeper layers are more affected by the topology of ARs.

  4. Armenia as a Regional Centre for Astronomy for Development activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO, Armenia, http://www.bao.am) are among the candidate IAU Regional Nodes for Astronomy for Development activities. It is one of the main astronomical centers of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East region. At present there are 48 qualified researchers at BAO, including six Doctors of Science and 30 PhDs. Five important observational instruments are installed at BAO, the larger ones being 2.6m Cassegrain (ZTA-2.6) and 1m Schmidt (the one that provided the famous Markarian survey). BAO is regarded as a national scientific-educational center, where a number of activities are being organized, such as: international conferences (4 IAU symposia and 1 IAU colloquium, JENAM-2007, etc.), small workshops and discussions, international summer schools (1987, 2006, 2008 and 2010), and Olympiads. BAO collaborates with scientists from many countries. The Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS, http://www.aras.am/) is an NGO founded in 2001; it has 93 members and it is rather active in the organization of educational, amateur, popular, promotional and other matters. The Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, http://www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) is one of the 17 national VO projects forming the International Virtual Observatories Alliance (IVOA) and is the only VO project in the region serving also for educational purposes. A number of activities are planned, such as management, coordination and evaluation of the IAU programs in the area of development and education, establishment of the new IAU endowed lectureship program and organization of seminars and public lectures, coordination and initiation of fundraising activities for astronomy development, organization of regional scientific symposia, conferences and workshops, support to Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP), production/publication of educational and promotional materials, etc.

  5. SOLAR MICRO-TYPE III BURST STORMS AND LONG DIPOLAR MAGNETIC FIELD IN THE OUTER CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Morioka, A.; Misawa, H.; Obara, T.; Miyoshi, Y.; Masuda, S.; Iwai, K.; Kasaba, Y.

    2015-08-01

    Solar micro-type III radio bursts are elements of the so-called type III storms and are characterized by short-lived, continuous, and weak emissions. Their frequency of occurrence with respect to radiation power is quite different from that of ordinary type III bursts, suggesting that the generation process is not flare-related, but due to some recurrent acceleration processes around the active region. We examine the relationship of micro-type III radio bursts with coronal streamers. We also explore the propagation channel of bursts in the outer corona, the acceleration process, and the escape route of electron beams. It is observationally confirmed that micro-type III bursts occur near the edge of coronal streamers. The magnetic field line of the escaping electron beams is tracked on the basis of the frequency drift rate of micro-type III bursts and the electron density distribution model. The results demonstrate that electron beams are trapped along closed dipolar field lines in the outer coronal region, which arise from the interface region between the active region and the coronal hole. A 22 year statistical study reveals that the apex altitude of the magnetic loop ranges from 15 to 50 R{sub S}. The distribution of the apex altitude has a sharp upper limit around 50 R{sub S} suggesting that an unknown but universal condition regulates the upper boundary of the streamer dipolar field.

  6. Solar Micro-Type III Burst Storms and Long Dipolar Magnetic Field in the Outer Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morioka, A.; Miyoshi, Y.; Iwai, K.; Kasaba, Y.; Masuda, S.; Misawa, H.; Obara, T.

    2015-08-01

    Solar micro-type III radio bursts are elements of the so-called type III storms and are characterized by short-lived, continuous, and weak emissions. Their frequency of occurrence with respect to radiation power is quite different from that of ordinary type III bursts, suggesting that the generation process is not flare-related, but due to some recurrent acceleration processes around the active region. We examine the relationship of micro-type III radio bursts with coronal streamers. We also explore the propagation channel of bursts in the outer corona, the acceleration process, and the escape route of electron beams. It is observationally confirmed that micro-type III bursts occur near the edge of coronal streamers. The magnetic field line of the escaping electron beams is tracked on the basis of the frequency drift rate of micro-type III bursts and the electron density distribution model. The results demonstrate that electron beams are trapped along closed dipolar field lines in the outer coronal region, which arise from the interface region between the active region and the coronal hole. A 22 year statistical study reveals that the apex altitude of the magnetic loop ranges from 15 to 50 RS. The distribution of the apex altitude has a sharp upper limit around 50 RS suggesting that an unknown but universal condition regulates the upper boundary of the streamer dipolar field.

  7. Coronas and iridescence in mountain wave clouds.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Joseph A; Neiman, Paul J

    2003-01-20

    We use Fraunhofer diffraction theory and meterological data to determine the nature of cloud-particle distributions and the mean particle sizes required for interpreting photographs of coronas and iridescence in mountain wave clouds. Traditional descriptions of coronas and iridescence usually explain these optical phenomena as diffraction by droplets of liquid water. Our analysis shows that the photographed displays have mean particle sizes from 7.6 to 24.3 microm, with over half the cases requiring diffraction by small (approximatley 20 microm) quasispherical ice particles rather than liquid water droplets. Previous documentation of coronas produced by ice particles are limited to observations in cirrus clouds that appear to be composed of small ice crystals, whereas our observations suggest that coronas and iridescence quite often can be created by tiny quasispherical ice particles that might be unique to mountain wave clouds. Furthermore, we see that the dominant colors in mountain wave-cloud coronas are red and blue, rather than the traditionally described red and green.

  8. On the Deflection of CMEs in the Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pomoell, J.; Vainio, R. O.; Kilpua, E.

    2009-12-01

    SOHO observations have revealed unambiguously that coronal mass ejections (CMEs) often do not propagate radially outwards with respect to the position of their source regions. It is commonly believed that coronal holes (CHs) play a significant role in the deflection of CMEs. For instance, it has been shown that the presence of CHs near the eruption region of a CME can explain why some interplanetary shocks arrive at Earth without a discernible ejecta behind them. Further, it has recently been proposed that the relative contribution of deflecting CMEs to the near-ecliptic ICME rate could be significant at solar minimum conditions. Despite these important implications, the deflection of CMEs itself has not received much attention. In this work, we study the deflection of CMEs in the low corona by simulations and observations. We focus especially on what role the magnetic environment of the source region as well as the size of the erupting structure has on deciding wether the CME experiences a deflection or not. Finally, we compare our simulation results to high-cadence quadrature STEREO observations of CME deflection in the low corona.

  9. Vortex focusing of ions produced in corona discharge.

    PubMed

    Kolomiets, Yuri N; Pervukhin, Viktor V

    2013-06-15

    Completeness of the ion transportation into an analytical path defines the efficiency of ionization analysis techniques. This is of particular importance for atmospheric pressure ionization sources like corona discharge, electrospray, ionization with radioactive ((3)H, (63)Ni) isotopes that produce nonuniform spatial distribution of sample ions. The available methods of sample ion focusing are either efficient at reduced pressure (~1Torr) or feature high sample losses. This paper deals with experimental research into atmospheric pressure focusing of unipolar (positive) ions using a highly swirled air stream with a well-defined vortex core. Effects of electrical fields from corona needle and inlet capillary of mass spectrometer on collection efficiency is considered. We used a corona discharge to produce an ionized unipolar sample. It is shown experimentally that with an electrical field barrier efficient transportation and focusing of an ionized sample are possible only when a metal plate restricting the stream and provided with an opening covered with a grid is used. This gives a five-fold increase of the transportation efficiency. It is shown that the electric field barrier in the vortex sampling region reduces the efficiency of remote ionized sample transportation two times. The difference in the efficiency of light ion focusing observed may be explained by a high mobility and a significant effect of the electric field barrier upon them. It is possible to conclude based on the experimental data that the presence of the field barrier narrows considerably (more than by one and half) the region of the vortex sample ion focusing. PMID:23618173

  10. Solar activity during the deep minimum of 2009

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sylwester, Janusz; Siarkowski, Marek; Gburek, Szymon; Gryciuk, Magdalena; Kepa, Anna; Kowaliński, Mirosław; Mrozek, Tomek; Phillips, Kenneth J. H.; Podgórski, Piotr; Sylwester, Barbara

    2014-12-01

    We discuss the character of the unusually deep solar activity minimum of 2009 between Solar Cycles 23 and 24. Levels of solar activity in various parts of the solar atmosphere -- photosphere, chromosphere, transition region, and corona -- were observed to be at their lowest for a century. The soft X-ray emission from the corona (hot outer part of the Sun's atmosphere) was measured throughout most of 2009 with the Polish-built SphinX spectrophotometer. Unlike other X-ray monitoring spacecraft, this sensitive spacecraft-borne instrument was able to continue measurements throughout this extended period of low activity.

  11. Structure and polarization of active region microwave emission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; Alissandrakis, C. E.

    1984-01-01

    Active region radio emission observations made at 6.16 cm wavelength during May 20-27, 1980, are the bases of maps of total intensity and circular polarization presented for the three regions whose Hale numbers are 16850, 16863, and 16864. A detailed comparison is made between these maps and on- and off-band H-alpha pictures and magnetograms. The neutral lines with which the strongest sources were associated have their two opposite polarities close to each other, implying a high magnetic field gradient, and are also associated with arch filament systems. A detailed analysis is undertaken of observations of the circular polarization sense inversion in region 16863. The large scale structure of the magnetic field can be approximated by a dipole with its axis inclined by 11 deg with respect to the photosphere, and with a dipole moment of about 2 x 10 to the 31 power cgs units.

  12. IPS observations of heliospheric density structures associated with active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hick, P.; Jackson, B. V.; Altrock, R.; Woan, G.; Slater, G.

    1996-01-01

    Interplanetary scintillation (IPS) measurements of the 'disturbance factor' g, obtained with the Cambridge (UK) array can be used to explore the heliospheric density structure. We have used these data to construct synoptic (Carrington) maps, representing the large-scale enhancements of the g-factor in the inner heliosphere. These maps emphasize the stable corotating, rather than the transient heliospheric density enhancements. We have compared these maps with Carrington maps of Fe XIV observations National Solar Observatory ((NSO), Sacramento Peak) and maps based on Yohkoh Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) X-ray observations. Our results indicate that the regions of enhanced g tend to map to active regions rather than the current sheet. The implication is that act ve regions are the dominant source of the small-scale (approximately equal 200 km) density variations present in the quiet solar wind.

  13. TIME-DEPENDENT TURBULENT HEATING OF OPEN FLUX TUBES IN THE CHROMOSPHERE, CORONA, AND SOLAR WIND

    SciTech Connect

    Woolsey, L. N.; Cranmer, S. R.

    2015-10-01

    We investigate several key questions of plasma heating in open-field regions of the corona that connect to the solar wind. We present results for a model of Alfvén-wave-driven turbulence for three typical open magnetic field structures: a polar coronal hole, an open flux tube neighboring an equatorial streamer, and an open flux tube near a strong-field active region. We compare time-steady, one-dimensional turbulent heating models against fully time-dependent three-dimensional reduced-magnetohydrodynamic modeling of BRAID. We find that the time-steady results agree well with time-averaged results from BRAID. The time dependence allows us to investigate the variability of the magnetic fluctuations and of the heating in the corona. The high-frequency tail of the power spectrum of fluctuations forms a power law whose exponent varies with height, and we discuss the possible physical explanation for this behavior. The variability in the heating rate is bursty and nanoflare-like in nature, and we analyze the amount of energy lost via dissipative heating in transient events throughout the simulation. The average energy in these events is 10{sup 21.91} erg, within the “picoflare” range, and many events reach classical “nanoflare” energies. We also estimated the multithermal distribution of temperatures that would result from the heating-rate variability, and found good agreement with observed widths of coronal differential emission measure distributions. The results of the modeling presented in this paper provide compelling evidence that turbulent heating in the solar atmosphere by Alfvén waves accelerates the solar wind in open flux tubes.

  14. Active region upflows. I. Multi-instrument observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanninathan, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Galsgaard, K.; Huang, Z.; Doyle, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Context. We study upflows at the edges of active regions, called AR outflows, using multi-instrument observations. Aims: This study intends to provide the first direct observational evidence of whether chromospheric jets play an important role in furnishing mass that could sustain coronal upflows. The evolution of the photospheric magnetic field, associated with the footpoints of the upflow region and the plasma properties of active region upflows is investigated with the aim of providing information for benchmarking data-driven modelling of this solar feature. Methods: We spatially and temporally combine multi-instrument observations obtained with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board the Hinode, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Interferometric BI-dimensional Spectro-polarimeter installed at the National Solar Observatory, Sac Peak, to study the plasma parameters of the upflows and the impact of the chromosphere on active region upflows. Results: Our analysis shows that the studied active region upflow presents similarly to those studied previously, i.e. it displays blueshifted emission of 5-20 kms-1 in Fe xii and Fe xiii and its average electron density is 1.8 × 109 cm-3 at 1 MK. The time variation of the density is obtained showing no significant change (in a 3σ error). The plasma density along a single loop is calculated revealing a drop of 50% over a distance of ~20 000 km along the loop. We find a second velocity component in the blue wing of the Fe xii and Fe xiii lines at 105 kms-1 reported only once before. For the first time we study the time evolution of this component at high cadence and find that it is persistent during the whole observing period of 3.5 h with variations of only ±15 kms-1. We also, for the first time, study the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field at high cadence and find that magnetic flux diffusion is

  15. Quasi-static three-dimensional magnetic field evolution in solar active region NOAA 11166 associated with an X1.5 flare

    SciTech Connect

    Vemareddy, P.; Wiegelmann, T. E-mail: wiegelmann@mps.mpg.de

    2014-09-01

    We study the quasi-static evolution of coronal magnetic fields constructed from the non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) approximation aiming to understand the relation between the magnetic field topology and ribbon emission during an X1.5 flare in active region (AR) NOAA 11166. The flare with a quasi-elliptical and two remote ribbons occurred on 2011 March 9 at 23:13 UT over a positive flux region surrounded by negative flux at the center of the bipolar AR. Our analysis of the coronal magnetic structure with potential and NLFFF solutions unveiled the existence of a single magnetic null point associated with a fan-spine topology and is co-spatial with the hard X-ray source. The footpoints of the fan separatrix surface agree with the inner edge of the quasi-elliptical ribbon and the outer spine is linked to one of the remote ribbons. During the evolution, the slow footpoint motions stressed the field lines along the polarity inversion line and caused electric current layers in the corona around the fan separatrix surface. These current layers trigger magnetic reconnection as a consequence of dissipating currents, which are visible as cusp-shaped structures at lower heights. The reconnection process reorganized the magnetic field topology whose signatures are observed at the separatrices/quasi-separatrix layer structure in both the photosphere and the corona during the pre-to-post flare evolution. In agreement with previous numerical studies, our results suggest that the line-tied footpoint motions perturb the fan-spine system and cause null point reconnection, which eventually causes the flare emission at the footpoints of the field lines.

  16. HINODE/EIS SPECTROSCOPIC VALIDATION OF VERY HOT PLASMA IMAGED WITH THE SOLAR DYNAMICS OBSERVATORY IN NON-FLARING ACTIVE REGION CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, Paola; Reale, Fabio

    2012-05-01

    We use coronal imaging observations with the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA), and Hinode/Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) spectral data to explore the potential of narrowband EUV imaging data for diagnosing the presence of hot (T {approx}> 5 MK) coronal plasma in active regions. We analyze observations of two active regions (AR 11281, AR 11289) with simultaneous AIA imaging and EIS spectral data, including the Ca XVII line (at 192.8 A), which is one of the few lines in the EIS spectral bands sensitive to hot coronal plasma even outside flares. After careful co-alignment of the imaging and spectral data, we compare the morphology in a three-color image combining the 171, 335, and 94 A AIA spectral bands, with the image obtained for Ca XVII emission from the analysis of EIS spectra. We find that in the selected active regions the Ca XVII emission is strong only in very limited areas, showing striking similarities with the features bright in the 94 A (and 335 A) AIA channels and weak in the 171 A band. We conclude that AIA imaging observations of the solar corona can be used to track hot plasma (6-8 MK), and so to study its spatial variability and temporal evolution at high spatial and temporal resolution.

  17. Diagnostics of Coronal Heating in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fludra, Andrzej; Hornsey, Christopher; Nakariakov, Valery

    2015-04-01

    We aim to develop a diagnostic method for the coronal heating mechanism in active region loops. Observational constraints on coronal heating models have been sought using measurements in the X-ray and EUV wavelengths. Statistical analysis, using EUV emission from many active regions, was done by Fludra and Ireland (2008) who studied power-law relationships between active region integrated magnetic flux and emission line intensities. A subsequent study by Fludra and Warren (2010) for the first time compared fully resolved images in an EUV spectral line of OV 63.0 nm with the photospheric magnetic field, leading to the identification of a dominant, ubiquitous variable component of the transition region EUV emission and a discovery of a steady basal heating, and deriving the dependence of the basal heating rate on the photospheric magnetic flux density. In this study, we compare models of single coronal loops with EUV observations. We assess to what degree observations of individual coronal loops made in the EUV range are capable of providing constraints on the heating mechanism. We model the coronal magnetic field in an active region using an NLFF extrapolation code applied to a photospheric vector magnetogram from SDO/HMI and select several loops that match an SDO/AIA 171 image of the same active region. We then model the plasma in these loops using a 1D hydrostatic code capable of applying an arbitrary heating rate as a function of magnetic field strength along the loop. From the plasma parameters derived from this model, we calculate the EUV emission along the loop in AIA 171 and 335 bands, and in pure spectral lines of Fe IX 17.1 nm and Fe XVI 33.5 nm. We use different spatial distributions of the heating function: concentrated near the loop top, uniform and concentrated near the footpoints, and investigate their effect on the modelled EUV intensities. We find a diagnostics based on the dependence of the total loop intensity on the shape of the heating function

  18. Electron acceleration and radiation in evolving complex active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastasiadis, A.; Gontikakis, C.; Vilmer, N.; Vlahos, L.

    2004-07-01

    We present a model for the acceleration and radiation of solar energetic particles (electrons) in evolving complex active regions. The spatio - temporal evolution of active regions is calculated using a cellular automaton model, based on self-organized criticality. The acceleration of electrons is due to the presence of randomly placed, localized electric fields produced by the energy release process, simulated by the cellular automaton model. We calculate the resulting kinetic energy distributions of the particles and their emitted X-ray radiation spectra using the thick target approximation, and we perform a parametric study with respect to number of electric fields present and thermal temperature of the injected distribution. Finally, comparing our results with the existing observations, we find that they are in a good agreement with the observed X-ray spectra in the energy range 100-1000 keV.

  19. Evidence of active region imprints on the solar wind structure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hick, P.; Jackson, B. V.

    1995-01-01

    A common descriptive framework for discussing the solar wind structure in the inner heliosphere uses the global magnetic field as a reference: low density, high velocity solar wind emanates from open magnetic fields, with high density, low speed solar wind flowing outward near the current sheet. In this picture, active regions, underlying closed magnetic field structures in the streamer belt, leave little or no imprint on the solar wind. We present evidence from interplanetary scintillation measurements of the 'disturbance factor' g that active regions play a role in modulating the solar wind and possibly contribute to the solar wind mass output. Hence we find that the traditional view of the solar wind, though useful in understanding many features of solar wind structure, is oversimplified and possibly neglects important aspects of solar wind dynamics

  20. Liposome-protein corona in a physiological environment: challenges and opportunities for targeted delivery of nanomedicines.

    PubMed

    Caracciolo, Giulio

    2015-04-01

    Active targeting that exploits the (over)expression of surface receptors in target cells by ligand incorporation is a central concept in nanomedicine research. Despite unprecedented efforts, no targeted liposome-based therapeutics is commercially available for clinical practice. What is inhibiting the efficient translation of targeted liposome technology from bench to bedside? After introduction in the bloodstream, the lipid surface is immediately modified by the adsorption of a "protein corona" and preserving the surface functionality appears to be challenging. On the other hand, a long-standing corona with receptor-binding sites could associate with the target cell long enough to activate the cell's uptake machinery, triggering liposome endocytosis and intracellular cargo delivery. This opens the intriguing possibility to manipulate the corona composition by liposome design. This review will focus on the emerging field of liposome-protein corona research from basic, descriptive research to readily applicable knowledge and technologies for implementation in drug improvement and development. From the clinical editor: This review is addressing the liposome protein corona research concerning the potential gains in drug improvement and for drug development.

  1. Evolution of electron beam pulses of short duration in the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Casillas-Pérez, G. A.; Jeyakumar, S.; Pérez-Enríquez, H. R.; Trinidad, M. A.

    2016-11-01

    Narrowband radio bursts with durations of the order of milliseconds, called spikes, are known to be associated with solar flares. In order to understand the particle beams responsible for the radio spike phenomena, evolution of electron beam pulses injected from a solar flare region into the corona is studied. Numerical integration of the Fokker-Planck (FP) equation is used to follow the evolution of the electron beam pulse. The simulations show that the short duration pulses lose most of their energy within a second of propagation into the corona. Electron beam with a small low energy cut off is thermalized faster than that with a high low energy cut off.

  2. TRIANGLE-SHAPED DC CORONA DISCHARGE DEVICE FOR MOLECULAR DECOMPOSITION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The paper discusses the evaluation of electrostatic DC corona discharge devices for the application of molecular decomposition. A point-to-plane geometry corona device with a rectangular cross section demonstrated low decomposition efficiencies in earlier experimental work. The n...

  3. Evidence for coronal turbulence in a quiescent active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saba, Julia L. R.; Strong, Keith T.

    1986-01-01

    The first evidence for nonthermal broadening of X-ray lines in a quiescent active region was based on a single observation of a limb active region by the Flat Crystal Spectrometer (FCS) on the SMM satellite, reported by Acton et al. (1981). With the renewal of SMM operations, the FCS has been used to further investigate this phenomenon. On April 28, 1984 a map of Mg XI resonance line profiles was made for a bright area in NOAA Active Region 4474 during a nonflaring period. The narrowest line profiles are consistent with the nominal instrumental width plus a thermal width equivalent to about 3 million K, the temperature derived from line ratios of O VIII, Ne IX, and Mg XI. The broadest line profiles are consistent with the instrumental width plus a thermal width equivalent to about 7 million K, but a substantial amount of plasma at this temperature would result in much greater flux in the FCS higher-temperature channels than was seen. If the excess width is attributed solely to plasma turbulence, the corresponding velocity would be about 40 + or - 10 km/s.

  4. A theoretical approach to spot active regions in antimicrobial proteins

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Much effort goes into identifying new antimicrobial compounds able to evade the increasing resistance of microorganisms to antibiotics. One strategy relies on antimicrobial peptides, either derived from fragments released by proteolytic cleavage of proteins or designed from known antimicrobial protein regions. Results To identify these antimicrobial determinants, we developed a theoretical approach that predicts antimicrobial proteins from their amino acid sequence in addition to determining their antimicrobial regions. A bactericidal propensity index has been calculated for each amino acid, using the experimental data reported from a high-throughput screening assay as reference. Scanning profiles were performed for protein sequences and potentially active stretches were identified by the best selected threshold parameters. The method was corroborated against positive and negative datasets. This successful approach means that we can spot active sequences previously reported in the literature from experimental data for most of the antimicrobial proteins examined. Conclusion The method presented can correctly identify antimicrobial proteins with an accuracy of 85% and a sensitivity of 90%. The method can also predict their key active regions, making this a tool for the design of new antimicrobial drugs. PMID:19906288

  5. The Intermediate-line Region in Active Galactic Nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhikari, T. P.; Różańska, A.; Czerny, B.; Hryniewicz, K.; Ferland, G. J.

    2016-11-01

    We show that the recently observed suppression of the gap between the broad-line region (BLR) and the narrow-line region (NLR) in some active galactic nuclei (AGNs) can be fully explained by an increase of the gas density in the emitting region. Our model predicts the formation of the intermediate-line region (ILR) that is observed in some Seyfert galaxies by the detection of emission lines with intermediate-velocity FWHM ∼ 700–1200 km s‑1. These lines are believed to be originating from an ILR located somewhere between the BLR and NLR. As was previously proved, the apparent gap is assumed to be caused by the presence of dust beyond the sublimation radius. Our computations with the use of the cloudy photoionization code show that the differences in the shape of the spectral energy distribution from the central region of AGNs do not diminish the apparent gap in the line emission in those objects. A strong discontinuity in the line emission versus radius exists for all lines at the dust sublimation radius. However, increasing the gas density to ∼{10}11.5 cm‑3 at the sublimation radius provides the continuous line emission versus radius and fully explains the recently observed lack of apparent gap in some AGNs. We show that such a high density is consistent with the density of upper layers of an accretion disk atmosphere. Therefore, the upper layers of the disk atmosphere can give rise to the formation of observed emission-line clouds.

  6. Direct observation of laser guided corona discharges.

    PubMed

    Wang, Tie-Jun; Wei, Yingxia; Liu, Yaoxiang; Chen, Na; Liu, Yonghong; Ju, Jingjing; Sun, Haiyi; Wang, Cheng; Lu, Haihe; Liu, Jiansheng; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-01-01

    Laser based lightning control holds a promising way to solve the problem of the long standing disaster of lightning strikes. But it is a challenging project due to insufficient understanding of the interaction between laser plasma channel and high voltage electric filed. In this work, a direct observation of laser guided corona discharge is reported. Laser filament guided streamer and leader types of corona discharges were observed. An enhanced ionization took place in the leader (filament) through the interaction with the high voltage discharging field. The fluorescence lifetime of laser filament guided corona discharge was measured to be several microseconds, which is 3 orders of magnitude longer than the fluorescence lifetime of laser filaments. This work could be advantageous towards a better understanding of laser assisted leader development in the atmosphere. PMID:26679271

  7. Direct observation of laser guided corona discharges

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Tie-Jun; Wei, Yingxia; Liu, Yaoxiang; Chen, Na; Liu, Yonghong; Ju, Jingjing; Sun, Haiyi; Wang, Cheng; Lu, Haihe; Liu, Jiansheng; Chin, See Leang; Li, Ruxin; Xu, Zhizhan

    2015-01-01

    Laser based lightning control holds a promising way to solve the problem of the long standing disaster of lightning strikes. But it is a challenging project due to insufficient understanding of the interaction between laser plasma channel and high voltage electric filed. In this work, a direct observation of laser guided corona discharge is reported. Laser filament guided streamer and leader types of corona discharges were observed. An enhanced ionization took place in the leader (filament) through the interaction with the high voltage discharging field. The fluorescence lifetime of laser filament guided corona discharge was measured to be several microseconds, which is 3 orders of magnitude longer than the fluorescence lifetime of laser filaments. This work could be advantageous towards a better understanding of laser assisted leader development in the atmosphere. PMID:26679271

  8. Influence of projection effects on the observed differential rotation rate in the UV corona

    PubMed Central

    Mancuso, Salvatore; Giordano, Silvio

    2012-01-01

    Following previous investigations by Giordano and Mancuso [1] and Mancuso and Giordano [2,3] on the differential rotation of the solar corona as obtained through the analysis of the intensity time series of the O VI 1032 Å spectral line observed by the UVCS/SOHO telescope during solar cycle 23, we analysed the possible influence of projection effects of extended coronal structures on the observed differential rotation rate in the ultraviolet corona. Through a simple geometrical model, we found that, especially at higher latitudes, the differential rotation may be less rigid than observed, since features at higher latitudes could be actually linked to much lower coronal structures due to projection effects. At solar maximum, the latitudinal rigidity of the UV corona, with respect to the differential rotating photosphere, has thus to be considered as an upper limit of the possible rigidity. At solar minimum and near the equatorial region throughout the solar cycle, projection effects are negligible. PMID:25685430

  9. Energy-Dependent Ionization States of Shock-Accelerated Particles in the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reames, Donald V.; Ng, C. K.; Tylka, A. J.

    2000-01-01

    We examine the range of possible energy dependence of the ionization states of ions that are shock-accelerated from the ambient plasma of the solar corona. If acceleration begins in a region of moderate density, sufficiently low in the corona, ions above about 0.1 MeV/amu approach an equilibrium charge state that depends primarily upon their speed and only weakly on the plasma temperature. We suggest that the large variations of the charge states with energy for ions such as Si and Fe observed in the 1997 November 6 event are consistent with stripping in moderately dense coronal. plasma during shock acceleration. In the large solar-particle events studied previously, acceleration occurs sufficiently high in the corona that even Fe ions up to 600 MeV/amu are not stripped of electrons.

  10. PROPAGATING COUPLED ALFVEN AND KINK OSCILLATIONS IN AN ARBITRARY INHOMOGENEOUS CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Pascoe, D. J.; Wright, A. N.; De Moortel, I.

    2011-04-10

    Observations have revealed ubiquitous transverse velocity perturbation waves propagating in the solar corona. We perform three-dimensional numerical simulations of footpoint-driven transverse waves propagating in a low {beta} plasma. We consider the cases of distorted cylindrical flux tubes and a randomly generated inhomogeneous medium. When density structuring is present, mode coupling in inhomogeneous regions leads to the coupling of the kink mode to the Alfven mode. The decay of the propagating kink wave is observed as energy is transferred to the local Alfven mode. In all cases considered, modest changes in density were capable of efficiently converting energy from the driving footpoint motion to localized Alfven modes. We have demonstrated that mode coupling efficiently couples propagating kink perturbations to Alfven modes in an arbitrary inhomogeneous medium. This has the consequence that transverse footpoint motions at the base of the corona will deposit energy to Alfven modes in the corona.

  11. Transient corona effects on a wire over the ground

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chen, K. C.

    1980-01-01

    The nuclear EMP effect on VLF/trailing wire antennas is investigated in relation to new features of corona effects. Previous experimental results on transmission lines with corona under E 80 kV/cm recorded in the nanosecond time frame are analyzed. A nonlinear macroscopic model which describes a transmission line with corona is discussed. The model not only accounts for overall waveform, but also describes the sharp changes in the waveform associated with the corona onset.

  12. Double streamer phenomena in atmospheric pressure low frequency corona plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Dan Bee; Jung, H.; Gweon, B.; Choe, Wonho

    2010-07-15

    Time-resolved images of an atmospheric pressure corona discharge, generated at 50 kHz in a single pin electrode source, show unique positive and negative corona discharge features: a streamer for the positive period and a glow for the negative period. However, unlike in previous reports of dc pulse and low frequency corona discharges, multistreamers were observed at the initial time stage of the positive corona. A possible physical mechanism for the multistreamers is suggested.

  13. Spectral observations of active region sources with RATAN-600 and WSRT. [Westerbork Synthesis Radio Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alissandrakis, C. E.; Gel'frejkh, G. B.; Borovik, V. N.; Korzhavin, A. N.; Bogod, V. M.; Nindos, A.; Kundu, M. R.

    1993-01-01

    We present spectral observations of neutral line and sunspot associated sources obtained with the RATAN-600 radio telescope and the WSRT in the wavelength range of 2 to 6 cm. Sources associated with large sunspots have flat spectra, while neutral line sources have very steep spectra. In the case of a large spot we estimated the magnetic field to be at least 2700 G at the base of the transition region and 1800 G in the low corona. We consider possible interpretations of the radio emission above the neutral lines. Gyroresonance emission at the fourth harmonic is inadequate, whereas emission from a small population of nonthermal electrons (total number 10 exp 30 to 10 exp 31) with a delta = 3 power law distribution seems to be sufficient.

  14. Simultaneous Solar Maximum Mission (SMM) and very large array observations of solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lang, K. R.

    1986-01-01

    The research deals mainly with Very Large Array and Solar Maximum Mission observations of the ubiquitous coronal loops that dominate the structure of the low corona. As illustrated, the observations of thermal cyclotron lines at microwave wavelengths provide a powerful new method of accurately specifying the coronal magnetic field strength. Processes are delineated that trigger solar eruptions from coronal loops, including preburst heating and the magnetic interaction of coronal loops. Evidence for coherent burst mechanisms is provided for both the Sun and nearby stars, while other observations suggest the presence of currents that may amplify the coronal magnetic field to unexpectedly high levels. The existence is reported of a new class of compact, variable moving sources in regions of apparently weak photospheric field.

  15. Regional differences in muscle activation during hamstrings exercise.

    PubMed

    Schoenfeld, Brad J; Contreras, Bret; Tiryaki-Sonmez, Gul; Wilson, Jacob M; Kolber, Morey J; Peterson, Mark D

    2015-01-01

    It is believed that regional activation within a muscle may lead to greater site-specific muscular adaptations in the activated portion of the muscle. Because the hamstrings are a biarticular muscle, it can be theorized that single-joint exercises where movement originates at the hip vs. the knee will result in differential activation of the muscle complex. The purpose of the present study was to assess electromyographic activity in the proximal and distal aspects of the medial and lateral hamstrings during performance of the stiff-legged deadlift (SLDL), a hip-dominant exercise, and the lying leg curl (LLC), a knee-dominant exercise. Ten young, resistance-trained men were recruited from a university population to participate in the study. Employing a within-subject design, participants performed the SLDL and LLC to muscular failure using a load equating to their 8 repetition maximum for each exercise. The order of performance of exercises was counterbalanced between participants so that approximately half of the subjects performed SLDL first and the other half performed LLC first. Surface electromyography was used to record mean normalized muscle activity of the upper lateral hamstrings, lower lateral hamstrings, upper medial hamstrings, and lower medial hamstrings. Results showed that the LLC elicited significantly greater normalized mean activation of the lower lateral and lower medial hamstrings compared with the SLDL (p ≤ 0.05). These findings support the notion that the hamstrings can be regionally targeted through exercise selection. Further investigations are required to determine whether differences in activation lead to greater muscular adaptations in the muscle complex. PMID:24978835

  16. Device for generation of pulsed corona discharge

    DOEpatents

    Gutsol, Alexander F.; Fridman, Alexander; Blank, Kenneth; Korobtsev, Sergey; Shiryaevsky, Valery; Medvedev, Dmitry

    2012-05-08

    The invention is a method and system for the generation of high voltage, pulsed, periodic corona discharges capable of being used in the presence of conductive liquid droplets. The method and system can be used, for example, in different devices for cleaning of gaseous or liquid media using pulsed corona discharge. Specially designed electrodes and an inductor increase the efficiency of the system, permit the plasma chemical oxidation of detrimental impurities, and increase the range of stable discharge operations in the presence of droplets of water or other conductive liquids in the discharge chamber.

  17. System for increasing corona inception voltage of insulating oils

    DOEpatents

    Rohwein, G.J.

    1998-05-19

    The Corona Inception Voltage of insulating oils is increased by repetitive cycles of prestressing the oil with a voltage greater than the corona inception voltage, and either simultaneously or serially removing byproducts of corona by evacuation and heating the oil. 5 figs.

  18. On the Periodicity of Energy Release in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldvarg, T. B.; Nagovitsyn, Yu. A.; Solov'Ev, A. A.

    2005-06-01

    We investigate the periodic regimes of energy release on the Sun, namely, the recurrence of solar flares in active regions using the Solar Geophysical Data Journal on Hα flares from 1979 until 1981, which corresponds to the maximum of solar cycle 21. We obtained the following series of periods in the manifestation of flare activity bymeans of a correlation periodogram analysis, a self-similarity function, and a wavelet analysis: ˜1, 2, 3 h as well as ˜0.4, 1, 2, 5 days. We suggest a diffusive model for the quasi-periodic transfer of toroidal magnetic fields from under the photosphere to interpret the retrieved sequence of periods in the enhancement of flare activity. We estimated the typical spatial scales of the magnetic field variations in the solar convection zone: ˜17 000 km.

  19. Spicules, mass transfer, oscillations, and the heating of the corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasachoff, J. M.; Kozarev, K. A.; Butts, D. L.; Gangestad, J. W.; Seaton, D. B.; de Pontieu, B.; Golub, L.; Deluca, E.; Wilhelm, K.; Dammasch, I.

    2005-05-01

    The mass moving in chromospheric spicules is enough to replace the corona in a brief time, so understanding the dynamics of spicules is important for understanding the support and heating of the solar corona. We have undertaken a program involving simultaneous high-resolution observations in various chromospheric visible lines (H-alpha, Ca II H, and G-band, as well as Dopplergrams) using the Swedish Solar Telescope on La Palma, ultraviolet chromospheric, transition-region, and coronal lines (Fe IX/X 171 A, Lyman-alpha 1216 A, and continuum/C I/C IV 1600 A) using NASA's TRACE, and ultraviolet chromospheric and transition-region lines (Si II 1533, C IV 1548, and Ne VIII 770) using SUMER on SOHO. Our first coordinated observing run, in May 2004, yielded a variety of images that are under study, especially for the morphological statistics and dynamics of spicules. The energy transfer through the chromosphere is relevant to the overlapping investigation of coronal heating through rapid (1Hz range) oscillations of coronal loops as observed at total eclipses by Williams College expeditions. This research is supported by NASA grant number NNG04GK44G to Williams College. TRACE analysis at SAO is supported by a contract from Lockheed Martin. SOHO is a project of international cooperation between ESA and NASA.

  20. Evidence for hot gaseous coronae around the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Boer, K. S.; Savage, B. D.

    1980-01-01

    High-dispersion IUE far-UV spectra were obtained for five stars in the LMC and two stars in the SMC. At Magellanic Cloud velocities, all the spectra exhibit very strong interstellar lines of Al III, Si IV, and C IV, in addition to the usual lower ionization stage lines associated with H I region absorption. In two stars interstellar N V is also detected at the 50 mA level. From a consideration of the strength, width, and radial velocity of these high ionization stage lines, it is argued that regions of hot halo gas have probably been detected in front of the Magellanic Clouds. The regions detected exhibit absorption characteristics very similar to that of the Milky Way corona described previously by Savage and de Boer (1979). A cloud detected in the line of sight to HD 5980 in the SMC at a radial velocity of 300 km/s is of unknown origin.

  1. Monitoring rice farming activities in the Mekong Delta region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, S. T.; Chen, C. F.; Chen, C. R.; Chiang, S. H.; Chang, L. Y.; Khin, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    Half of the world's population depends on rice for survival. Rice agriculture thus plays an important role in the developing world's economy. Vietnam is one of the largest rice producers and suppliers on earth and more than 80% of the exported rice was produced from the Mekong Delta region, which is situated in the southwestern Vietnam and encompasses approximately 40,000 km2. Changes in climate conditions could likely trigger the increase of insect populations and rice diseases, causing the potential loss of rice yields. Monitoring rice-farming activities through crop phenology detection can provide policymakers with timely strategies to mitigate possible impacts on the potential yield as well as rice grain exports to ensure food security for the region. The main objective of this study is to develop a logistic-based algorithm to investigate rice sowing and harvesting activities from the multi-temporal Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Landsat fusion data. We processed the data for two main cropping seasons (i.e., winter-spring and summer-autumn seasons) through a three-step procedure: (1) MODIS-Landsat data fusion, (2) construction of the time-series enhanced vegetation index 2 (EVI2) data, (3) rice crop phenology detection. The EVI2 data derived from the fusion results between MODIS and Landsat data were compared with that of Landsat data indicated close correlation between the two datasets (R2 = 0.93). The time-series EVI2 data were processed using the double logistic method to detect the progress of sowing and harvesting activities in the region. The comparisons between the estimated sowing and harvesting dates and the field survey data revealed the root mean squared error (RMSE) values of 8.4 and 5.5 days for the winter-spring crop and 9.4 and 12.8 days for the summer-autumn crop, respectively. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the double logistic-based algorithm for rice crop monitoring from temporal MODIS-Landsat fusion data

  2. FORMATION OF CORONAL HOLES ON THE ASHES OF ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Karachik, Nina V.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Abramenko, Valentyna I. E-mail: apevtsov@nso.ed

    2010-05-10

    We investigate the formation of isolated non-polar coronal holes (CHs) on the remnants of decaying active regions (ARs) at the minimum/early ascending phase of sunspot activity. We follow the evolution of four bipolar ARs and measure several parameters of their magnetic fields including total flux, imbalance, and compactness. As regions decay, their leading and following polarities exhibit different dissipation rates: loose polarity tends to dissipate faster than compact polarity. As a consequence, we see a gradual increase in flux imbalance inside a dissipating bipolar region, and later a formation of a CH in place of more compact magnetic flux. Out of four cases studied in detail, two CHs had formed at the following polarity of the decaying bipolar AR, and two CHs had developed in place of the leading polarity field. All four CHs contain a significant fraction of magnetic field of their corresponding AR. Using potential field extrapolation, we show that the magnetic field lines of these CHs were closed on the polar CH at the North, which at the time of the events was in imbalance with the polar CH at the South. This topology suggests that the observed phenomenon may play an important role in transformation of toroidal magnetic field to poloidal field, which is a key step in transitioning from an old solar cycle to a new one. The timing of this observed transition may indicate the end of solar cycle 23 and the beginning of cycle 24.

  3. Variation of protein corona composition of gold nanoparticles following plasmonic heating.

    PubMed

    Mahmoudi, Morteza; Lohse, Samuel E; Murphy, Catherine J; Fathizadeh, Arman; Montazeri, Abbas; Suslick, Kenneth S

    2014-01-01

    It is well recognized that the primary interaction of most biological environments with nanoparticles (NPs) is strongly influenced by a long-lived ("hard") protein corona that surrounds the NP and remains strongly adsorbed to its surface. The amount and composition of associated proteins in the corona adsorbed onto the NPs is related to several important factors, including the physicochemical properties of the NPs and the composition of the protein solution. Here, for the first time, it is shown that plasmonic heat induction (by laser activation) leads to significant changes in the composition of the hard protein corona adsorbed on low aspect ratio gold nanorods. Using mass spectrometry, several proteins in the corona were identified whose concentrations change most substantially as a result of photoinduced (plasmonic) heating versus simple thermal heating. Molecular modeling suggests that the origin of these changes in protein adsorption may be the result of protein conformational changes in response to much higher local temperatures that occur near the gold nanorods during photoinduced, plasmonic heating. These results may define new applications in vivo for NPs with hyperthermia capability and better define the likely interactions of cells with NPs after plasmonic heating. Potential changes in the protein corona following hyperthermia treatment may influence the final biological fate of plasmonic NPs in clinical applications and help elucidate safety considerations for hyperthermia applications.

  4. Helioseismology of pre-emerging active regions. III. Statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, G.; Leka, K. D.; Braun, D. C.; Birch, A. C.

    2014-05-01

    The subsurface properties of active regions (ARs) prior to their appearance at the solar surface may shed light on the process of AR formation. Helioseismic holography has been applied to samples taken from two populations of regions on the Sun (pre-emergence and without emergence), each sample having over 100 members, that were selected to minimize systematic bias, as described in Paper I. Paper II showed that there are statistically significant signatures in the average helioseismic properties that precede the formation of an AR. This paper describes a more detailed analysis of the samples of pre-emergence regions and regions without emergence based on discriminant analysis. The property that is best able to distinguish the populations is found to be the surface magnetic field, even a day before the emergence time. However, after accounting for the correlations between the surface field and the quantities derived from helioseismology, there is still evidence of a helioseismic precursor to AR emergence that is present for at least a day prior to emergence, although the analysis presented cannot definitively determine the subsurface properties prior to emergence due to the small sample sizes.

  5. Evidence for mass outflow in the low solar corona over a large sunspot

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neupert, Werner M.; Brosius, Jeffrey W.; Thomas, Roger J.; Thompson, William T.

    1992-01-01

    Spatially resolved EUV coronal emission-line profiles have been obtained in a solar active region, including a large sunspot, using an EUV imaging spectrograph. Relative Doppler velocities were measured in the lines of Mg IX, Fe XV, and Fe XVI with a sensitivity of 2-3 km/s at 350 A. The only significant Doppler shift occurred over the umbra of the large sunspot, in the emission line of Mg IX (at Te of about 1.1 x 10 exp 6 K). The maximum shift corresponded to a peak velocity toward the observer of 14 +/- 3 km/s relative to the mean of measurements in this emission line made elsewhere over the active region. The magnetic field in the low corona was aligned to within 10 deg of the line of sight at the location of maximum Doppler shift. Depending on the closure of the field, such a mass flow could either contribute to the solar wind or reappear as a downflow of material in distant regions on the solar surface. The site of the source, near a major photospheric field boundary, was consistent with origins of low-speed solar wind typically inferred from interplanetary plasma observations.

  6. Discovery of Finely Structured Dynamic Solar Corona Observed in the Hi-C Telescope

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Winebarger, A.; Cirtain, J.; Golub, L.; DeLuca, E.; Savage, S.; Alexander, C.; Schuler, T.

    2014-01-01

    In the summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew aboard a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e. have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70 percent of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  7. DISCOVERY OF FINELY STRUCTURED DYNAMIC SOLAR CORONA OBSERVED IN THE Hi-C TELESCOPE

    SciTech Connect

    Winebarger, Amy R.; Cirtain, Jonathan; Savage, Sabrina; Alexander, Caroline; Golub, Leon; DeLuca, Edward; Schuler, Timothy

    2014-05-20

    In the Summer of 2012, the High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) flew on board a NASA sounding rocket and collected the highest spatial resolution images ever obtained of the solar corona. One of the goals of the Hi-C flight was to characterize the substructure of the solar corona. We therefore examine how the intensity scales from AIA resolution to Hi-C resolution. For each low-resolution pixel, we calculate the standard deviation in the contributing high-resolution pixel intensities and compare that to the expected standard deviation calculated from the noise. If these numbers are approximately equal, the corona can be assumed to be smoothly varying, i.e., have no evidence of substructure in the Hi-C image to within Hi-C's ability to measure it given its throughput and readout noise. A standard deviation much larger than the noise value indicates the presence of substructure. We calculate these values for each low-resolution pixel for each frame of the Hi-C data. On average, 70% of the pixels in each Hi-C image show no evidence of substructure. The locations where substructure is prevalent is in the moss regions and in regions of sheared magnetic field. We also find that the level of substructure varies significantly over the roughly 160 s of the Hi-C data analyzed here. This result indicates that the finely structured corona is concentrated in regions of heating and is highly time dependent.

  8. Active tectonics and earthquake potential of the Myanmar region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yu; Sieh, Kerry; Tun, Soe Thura; Lai, Kuang-Yin; Myint, Than

    2014-04-01

    This paper describes geomorphologic evidence for the principal neotectonic features of Myanmar and its immediate surroundings. We combine this evidence with published structural, geodetic, and seismic data to present an overview of the active tectonic architecture of the region and its seismic potential. Three tectonic systems accommodate oblique collision of the Indian plate with Southeast Asia and extrusion of Asian territory around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalayan mountain range. Subduction and collision associated with the Sunda megathrust beneath and within the Indoburman range and Naga Hills accommodate most of the shortening across the transpressional plate boundary. The Sagaing fault system is the predominant locus of dextral motion associated with the northward translation of India. Left-lateral faults of the northern Shan Plateau, northern Laos, Thailand, and southern China facilitate extrusion of rocks around the eastern syntaxis of the Himalaya. All of these systems have produced major earthquakes within recorded history and continue to present major seismic hazards in the region.

  9. Time Dependence of Joy's Law for Emerging Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chintzoglou, Georgios; Zhang, J.; Liu, Y.

    2013-07-01

    Joy's law governs the tilt of Active Regions (ARs) with respect to their absolute heliographic latitude. Together with Hale's law of hemispheric polarity, it is essential in constraining solar dynamo models. However, previous studies on Joy's law show only a weak positive trend between AR tilt angles and latitudes. In this study, we are focusing on the time dependence of Joy's law, for the cases of emerging ARs of Solar Cycle 24. We selected 40 ARs that emerge on the East hemisphere, effectively maximizing the observing time for each AR. Then, by converting the helioprojective maps into heliographic, we determine the geometrical as well as the magnetic-flux-weighted centroids for each emergence case. That way we are able to track the temporal evolution of their physical properties, including locations, fluxes of positive and negative polarities, as well as the tilt angles of these regions in a continuous manner until emergence stops and the ARs assume their final state.

  10. Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Active Region NOAA 7154

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, M. E.; Nitta, N. V.; Frank. Z. A.; Dame, L.; Suematsu, Y.

    2000-01-01

    We report on observations of a solar active region in May 1992 by the Solar Plasma Diagnostic Experiment (SPDE) in coordination with the Yohkoh satellite (producing soft X-ray images) and ground-based observatories (producing photospheric magnetograms and various filtergrams including those at the CN 3883 A line). The main focus is a study of the physical conditions of hot (T is approximately greater than 3 MK) coronal loops at their foot-points. The coronal part of the loops is fuzzy but what appear to be their footpoints in the transition region down to the photosphere are compact. Despite the morphological similarities, the footpoint emission at 10(exp 5) K is not quantitatively correlated with that at approximately 300 km above the tau (sub 5000) = 1 level, suggesting that the heat transport and therefore magnetic field topology in the intermediate layer is complicated. High resolution imaging observations with continuous temperature coverage are crucially needed.

  11. Influence of the Cardiac Myosin Hinge Region on Contractile Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margossian, Sarkis S.; Krueger, John W.; Sellers, James R.; Cuda, Giovanni; Caulfield, James B.; Norton, Paul; Slayter, Henry S.

    1991-06-01

    The participation of cardiac myosin hinge in contractility was investigated by in vitro motility and ATPase assays and by measurements of sarcomere shortening. The effect on contractile activity was analyzed using an antibody directed against a 20-amino acid peptide within the hinge region of myosin. This antibody bound specifically at the hinge at a distance of 55 nm from the S1/S2 junction, was specific to human, dog, and rat cardiac myosins, did not crossreact with gizzard or skeletal myosin, and had no effect on ATPase activity of purified S1 and myofibrils. However, it completely suppressed the movement of actin filaments in in vitro motility assays and reduced active shortening of sarcomeres of skinned cardiac myocytes by half. Suppression of motion by the antihinge antibody may reflect a mechanical constraint imposed by the antibody upon the mobility of the S2 region of myosin. The results suggest that the steps in the mechanochemical energy transduction can be separately influenced through S2.

  12. Influence of the cardiac myosin hinge region on contractile activity.

    PubMed

    Margossian, S S; Krueger, J W; Sellers, J R; Cuda, G; Caulfield, J B; Norton, P; Slayter, H S

    1991-06-01

    The participation of cardiac myosin hinge in contractility was investigated by in vitro motility and ATPase assays and by measurements of sarcomere shortening. The effect on contractile activity was analyzed using an antibody directed against a 20-amino acid peptide within the hinge region of myosin. This antibody bound specifically at the hinge at a distance of 55 nm from the S1/S2 junction, was specific to human, dog, and rat cardiac myosins, did not crossreact with gizzard or skeletal myosin, and had no effect on ATPase activity of purified S1 and myofibrils. However, it completely suppressed the movement of actin filaments in in vitro motility assays and reduced active shortening of sarcomeres of skinned cardiac myocytes by half. Suppression of motion by the anti-hinge antibody may reflect a mechanical constraint imposed by the antibody upon the mobility of the S2 region of myosin. The results suggest that the steps in the mechanochemical energy transduction can be separately influenced through S2.

  13. Ancient Tectonic and Volcanic Activity in the Tharsis Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, S. C.; Kronberg, P.; Hauber, E.; Grott, M.; Steinberger, B.; Torsvik, T. H.; Neukum, G.

    The two topographically dominating volcanic provinces on Mars are the Tharsis and the Elysium regions, situated close to the equator on the dichotomy boundary between the heavily cratered (older) highlands and the northern lowlands (about 100 degrees apart). The regions are characterized by volcanoes whose morphologies are analogous to volcanic landforms on Earth, and the huge volcanoes in the Tharsis region (Olympus Mons and Tharsis Montes) are prime examples resembling many characteristics of Hawaiian shield volcanoes. The main difference between the Martian and terrestrial volcanoes are their size and the length of the flows, possibly due to higher eruption rates, the "stationary" character of the source (no plate tectonics) and the lower gravity. The Tharsis plateau is the topographically most prominent region on Mars, and associated with an areoid high. On Earth, large geoid highs are related to longlived heterogeneities near the core-mantle boundary that are sources for large igneous provinces. The Tharsis' volcanic vent structures were active at least episodically over the past 4 billion years (based on crater count statistics), which indicates long-lived volcanic and magmatic activity. Two major groups of tectonic features are related to the Tharsis bulge: a concentric set of wrinkle ridges indicating compression radial to Tharsis,and several sets of extensional structures that radiate outward from different centers within Tharsis, indicating tension circumferential to Tharsis. No landforms imply ancient plate tectonics. Here, we present surface ages associated with volcanic and tectonic landforms with a special focus on the ancient magma-tectonic environment (see Grott et al. 2006, this volume). We will examine the long-lived volcanism and tectonic surface expressions and discuss whether Mars volcanism could represent deep mantle plumes.

  14. From snakes to region-based active contours defined by region-dependent parameters.

    PubMed

    Jehan-Besson, Stéphanie; Gastaud, Muriel; Precioso, Frédéric; Barlaud, Michel; Aubert, Gilles; Debreuve, Eric

    2004-01-10

    Image and sequence segmentation of a the segmentation task are discussed from the point of view of optimizing the segmentation criterion. Such a segmentation criterion involves so-called (boundary and region) descriptors, which, in general, may depend on their respective boundaries or regions. This dependency must be taken into account when one is computing the criterion derivative with respect to the unknown object domain (defined by its boundary). If this dependency not considered, some correctional terms may be omitted. Computing the derivative of the segmentation criterion with a dynamic scheme is described. The scheme is general enough to provide a framework for a wide variety of applications in segmentation. It also provides a theoretical meaning to the philosophy of active contours.

  15. Implications of Special Regions to Conducting Human Activities on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J. D.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D. W.; Jones, M. A.; Hipkin, V.

    2014-12-01

    A MEPAG Science Analysis Group (SAG) has undertaken an analysis of Special Regions (SR) on Mars—regions where indigenous martian life could exist or where Earth microbes, if introduced, could survive and reproduce. The SR-SAG has considered the impact of SR on future human activities on the martian surface. Human exploration requires access to in-situ resources, some of which may be found in SR. Water and oxygen for ISRU are found in the atmosphere, surface/near-surface ice, hydrated minerals, and perchlorates. Water ice is most abundant at latitudes poleward of ~60 degrees, but polar darkness, cold temperatures, and CO2 degassing present hazards to human operations in these regions. Accessible water is more limited toward the equator, though temperature and solar energy conditions become more favorable. The possible presence of liquid water in Recurring Slope Lineae and active gullies leads to their treatment as SR. Fuel for surface operations and propellants for crew ascent could be manufactured from the martian atmosphere and surface materials, but dust in the atmosphere may clog ISRU equipment and perchlorate is toxic to humans. Power may be produced from solar or nuclear energy. Reliance on solar energy limits operations to the equatorial zone where easily accessible ice resources are limited. Nuclear power allows surface operations at a range of latitudes, but waste heat could convert some non-SR into SR. Radiation shielding is necessary for long-term human operations on Mars and could be obtained by deposition of regolith or by water storage in tanks or as ice around habitats, or the use of underground habitats. SR-SAG recognizes that it will be impossible for all human-associated processes and operations to be conducted within entirely closed systems. Protocols need to be established so (1) human missions to Mars will not contaminate SR nor be contaminated by materials from them, and (2) human activities on Mars will avoid converting areas into SR.

  16. Temporal evolution of continental lithospheric strength in actively deforming regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, W.; Pollitz, F.F.

    2008-01-01

    It has been agreed for nearly a century that a strong, load-bearing outer layer of earth is required to support mountain ranges, transmit stresses to deform active regions and store elastic strain to generate earthquakes. However the dept and extent of this strong layer remain controversial. Here we use a variety of observations to infer the distribution of lithospheric strength in the active western United States from seismic to steady-state time scales. We use evidence from post-seismic transient and earthquake cycle deformation reservoir loading glacio-isostatic adjustment, and lithosphere isostatic adjustment to large surface and subsurface loads. The nearly perfectly elastic behavior of Earth's crust and mantle at the time scale of seismic wave propagation evolves to that of a strong, elastic crust and weak, ductile upper mantle lithosphere at both earthquake cycle (EC, ???10?? to 103 yr) and glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA, ???103 to 104 yr) time scales. Topography and gravity field correlations indicate that lithosphere isostatic adjustment (LIA) on ???106-107 yr time scales occurs with most lithospheric stress supported by an upper crust overlying a much weaker ductile subtrate. These comparisons suggest that the upper mantle lithosphere is weaker than the crust at all time scales longer than seismic. In contrast, the lower crust has a chameleon-like behavior, strong at EC and GIA time scales and weak for LIA and steady-state deformation processes. The lower crust might even take on a third identity in regions of rapid crustal extension or continental collision, where anomalously high temperatures may lead to large-scale ductile flow in a lower crustal layer that is locally weaker than the upper mantle. Modeling of lithospheric processes in active regions thus cannot use a one-size-fits-all prescription of rheological layering (relation between applied stress and deformation as a function of depth) but must be tailored to the time scale and tectonic

  17. An experimental study on the oxidative coupling of methane in a direct current corona discharge reactor over Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Marafee, A.; Liu, C.; Xu, G.; Mallinson, R.; Lobban, L.

    1997-03-01

    The homogeneous and catalytic oxidative coupling of methane (OCM) for converting methane directly into higher hydrocarbons has been the subject of a large body of research. The present study on conversion of methane in dc corona discharge packed bed reactors may significantly improve the process economics. Experimental investigations have been conducted in which all the reactive gases pass through a catalyst bed which is situated within the corona-induced plasma zone. In this study, a typical OCM catalyst, Sr/La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, was used to investigate experimentally the corona discharge OCM reactions. Experiments were conducted over a wide range of temperatures (823--1,023 K) and input powers (0--6 W) with both positive and negative corona processes. Compared to the catalytic process in the absence of corona discharge, the corona discharge results in higher methane conversion and larger yield of C{sub 2} products even at temperatures at which there is no C{sub 2} activity for the catalyst alone. The methane conversion and C{sub 2} yield increase with O{sub 2} partial pressure during the corona-enhanced catalytic reactions, while the selectivity decreases slightly with increasing O{sub 2} partial pressure. Compared to results obtained in the absence of corona discharges, methane conversion in the presence of the dc corona was nearly five times larger and the selectivity for C{sub 2} over eight times higher at 853 K. A great enhancement in catalytic activity has also been achieved at a temperature at which the catalyst alone shows no C{sub 2} activity. The conversion at higher temperature (more than 953 K) is limited by the poor corona performance and the availability of active oxygen species.

  18. Determining the Energy Transport Through the Photosphere into Corona with HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schuck, P. W.; Antiochos, S. K.

    2015-12-01

    The underlying source of all solar activity, from the largest explosive solar eruptive event to the quasi-steady radiation from quiet regions is the transport of free magnetic energy into the chromosphere and corona through the photosphere. There are two mechanisms for this transport, the emergence of magnetic field and accompanying electric currents, and the stressing of pre-emerged chromosphere and coronal field by photospheric flows. Consequently, if we are ever to understand solar activity it is essential that the flow of energy be measured accurately. In principle, this can be estimated from the high spatial and temporal resolution vector magnetograms obtained by HMI on SDO. However, due to the artifacts introduced by the orbital motions of SDO convolved with the finite-sampling of the relevant polarizations, the data cannot be used for measuring the energy flux or helicity flux accurately. We present recent work on the first successful attempt to remove the orbital artifacts. We describe the procedure, which consists of correcting each pixel separately for its bias and gain. We show results for before and after our artifact removal procedures. The method is being prepared for community use through the SDO pipeline. We discuss the application of our methods to analyzing active regions both with and without major eruptions. This work was supported by the NASA LWS and R&A Programs.

  19. Chemical Compositions and Abundance Anomalies in Stellar Coronae ADP 99

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliversen, Ronald J. (Technical Monitor); Drake, Jeremy

    2004-01-01

    New atomic data for tackling some of our spectra have been investigated by co-I Laming (NRL), including the effects of recombination on spectral line fluxes that are not included in, for example, the CHIANTI database models. Promising new progress has been made with modelling some of the recent abundance anomaly results in terms of Alven wave-driven separation of neutrals and ions in the upper chromosphere. The problems that existing models have is that they cannot simultaneously explain the low-FIP enhanced solar-like coronae and the high-FIP rich active coronae of RS CVn-like stars. The Alven wave model shows promise with both of these scenarios, with the fractionation or suppression of low-FIP ions depending on the characteristics of the chromosphere. This work is currently in the writing up stage. In summary, the work to-date is making good progress in mapping abundance anomalies as a function of spectral type and activity level. We are also making good progress with modelling that we will be able to test with our observational results. With one more year of effort, we'anticipate that the bulk of the work described above can be published, together with outstanding key studies on anomalies among the different active binaries.

  20. The minimum flux corona; theory or concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Underwood, J. H.; Antiochos, S. K.

    1980-01-01

    The reply to the criticisms of the minimum flux theory is discussed. These criticisms are correct in substance, as well as in detail. Counter arguments that the minimum flux corona theory is untenable, because of errors in its formulation, are presented.

  1. Global Magnetohydrodynamic Modeling of the Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linker, Jon A.

    2001-01-01

    This report describes the progress made in the investigation of the solar corona using magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) simulations. Coronal mass ejections (CME) are believed to be the primary cause of nonrecurrent geomagnetic storms and these have been investigated through the use of three-dimensional computer simulation.

  2. Chromospheric Evolution and the Flare Activity of Super-Active Region NOAA 6555

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    PrasadC, Debi; Ambastha, Ashok; Srivastava, Nandita; Tripathy, Sushanta C.; Hagyard, Mona J.

    1997-01-01

    Super-active region NOAA 6555 was highly flare productive during the period March 21st - 27th, 1991 of its disk passage. We have studied its chromospheric activity using high spatial resolution H alpha filtergrams taken at Udaipur along with MSFC vector magnetograms. A possible relationship of flare productivity and the variation in shear has been explored. Flares were generally seen in those subareas of the active region which possessed closed magnetic field configuration, whereas only minor flares and/or surges occurred in subareas showing open magnetic field configuration. Physical mechanisms responsible for the observed surges are also discussed.

  3. Hinode Observations of an Eruption from a Sigmoidal Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, L. M.; Wallace, A. J.; Kliem, B.

    2012-08-01

    We analyse the evolution of a bipolar active region which produces an eruption during its decay phase. The soft X-ray arcade develops high shear over a time span of two days and transitions to sigmoidal shortly before the eruption. We propose that the continuous sigmoidal soft X-ray threads indicate that a flux rope has formed which is lying low in the solar atmosphere with a bald patch separatrix surface topology. The formation of the flux rope is driven by the photospheric evolution which is dominated by fragmentation of the main polarities, motion due to supergranular flows and cancellation at the polarity inversion line.

  4. SOI/MDI studies of active region seismology and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, Ted D.; Title, Alan; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Scherrer, Phil; Zweibel, Ellen

    1995-01-01

    The solar oscillations investigation (SOI) will study solar active regions using both helioseismic and conventional observation techniques. The Michelson Doppler imager (MDI) can perform Doppler continuum and line depth imagery and can produce longitudinal magnetograms, showing either the full disk or a high resolution field of view. A dynamics program of continuous full disk Doppler observations for two months per year, campaign programs of eight hours of continuous observation per day, and a synoptic magnetic program of about 15 full disk magnetograms per day, are planned. The scientific plans, measurements and observation programs, are described.

  5. The distribution of maximum temperatures of coronal active region loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Teske, R. G.; Mayfield, E. B.

    1981-01-01

    Starting with the integrated emission measure distributions of solar active regions, the distribution of the maximum temperature parameter which characterizes individual plasma loops is determined. The observed emission measure distributions were determined by combining EUV and X-ray data from two separate experiments on ATM/Skylab. The present work sets some limits on such an approach. It is found that the distribution of maximum temperature has approximately the same shape as the integrated emission measure distributions, a result which is expected since most of the loop emission measure is near their maximum temperatures.

  6. Substrate-emitting semiconductor laser with a trapezoidal active region

    SciTech Connect

    Dikareva, N V; Nekorkin, S M; Karzanova, M V; Zvonkov, B N; Aleshkin, V Ya; Dubinov, A A; Afonenko, A A

    2014-04-28

    Semiconductor lasers with a narrow (∼2°) directional pattern in the planes both parallel and perpendicular to the p–n junction are fabricated. To achieve a low radiation divergence in the p–n junction plane, the active region in this plane was designed in the form of a trapezium. The narrow directional pattern in the plane perpendicular to the p–n junction was ensured by the use of a leaky mode, through which more than 90% of laser power was coupled out. (lasers)

  7. Emission Measure Distribution and Heating of Two Active Region Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode, we have studied the coronal plasma in the core of two active regions. Concentrating on the area between opposite polarity moss, we found emission measure distributions having an approximate power-law form EM/T(exp 2.4) from log T = 5.55 up to a peak at log T = 6.57. The observations are explained extremely well by a simple nanoflare model. However, in the absence of additional constraints, the observations could possibly also be explained by steady heating.

  8. Solar Corona Explorer: A mission for the physical diagnosis of the solar corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Mission objectives and spacecraft requirements for the Solar Corona Explorer (SCE), a proposed free flying, unmanned solar research craft to be tenatively launched in 1987, were defined. The SCE's purpose is to investigate structure, dynamics and evolution of the corona, globally and in the required physical detail, to study the close coupling between the inner corona and the heliosphere. Investigative objectives are: (1) to understand the corona as the source of varying interplanetary plasma and of varying solar X-ray and extreme ultraviolet fluxes; (2) to develop the capabilities to model the corona with sufficient precision to forecast the Earth's variable environment in space, on the scales from weeks to years; (3) to develop an understanding of the physical processes that determine the dynamics and physical state of the coronal plasma, particularly acceleration processes; and (4) to develop insight and test theory on the Sun applicable to stellar coronae and winds, and in particular, to understand why cool stars put such a large fraction of their energy into X-rays. Considered related factors are: (1) duration of the mission; (2) onboard measuring instrumentation; (3) ground support equipment and procedures; and (4) programs of interpretation and modeling.

  9. X-ray observations of characteristic structures and time variations from the solar corona - Preliminary results from Skylab.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vaiana, G. S.; Davis, J. M.; Giacconi, R.; Krieger, A. S.; Silk, J. K.; Timothy, A. F.; Zombeck, M.

    1973-01-01

    Examples taken from the S-054 X-ray telescope observations made during the first Skylab mission show the hot coronal plasma tracing the configuration of the magnetic fields. The high spectral resolution and sensitivity of the instrument has enabled the following two facts to be more firmly established: (1) that the 'quiet homogeneous corona' is in fact highly structured and that the structures observed appear to be the results of dispersed active region magnetic fields; and (2) that numerous bright points are distributed randomly on the disk. Their presence at high latitudes may play a role in solar cycle models. In addition, the capability of Skylab for studying time evolution has enabled the restructuring of coronal features to be seen at times of high activity, indicating a restructuring of the coronal magnetic fields.

  10. Peptides of the Constant Region of Antibodies Display Fungicidal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Polonelli, Luciano; Ciociola, Tecla; Magliani, Walter; Zanello, Pier Paolo; D'Adda, Tiziana; Galati, Serena; De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Gabrielli, Elena; Pericolini, Eva; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Arruda, Denise C.; Pinto, Marcia R.; Travassos, Luiz R.; Pertinhez, Thelma A.; Spisni, Alberto; Conti, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic peptides with sequences identical to fragments of the constant region of different classes (IgG, IgM, IgA) of antibodies (Fc-peptides) exerted a fungicidal activity in vitro against pathogenic yeasts, such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Malassezia furfur, including caspofungin and triazole resistant strains. Alanine-substituted derivatives of fungicidal Fc-peptides, tested to evaluate the critical role of each residue, displayed unaltered, increased or decreased candidacidal activity in vitro. An Fc-peptide, included in all human IgGs, displayed a therapeutic effect against experimental mucosal and systemic candidiasis in mouse models. It is intriguing to hypothesize that some Fc-peptides may influence the antifungal immune response and constitute the basis for devising new antifungal agents. PMID:22470523

  11. Definition and empirical structure of the range of stellar chromospheres-coronae across the H-R diagram: Cool stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Linsky, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    Major advances in our understanding of non-radiative heating and other activity in stars cooler than T sub eff = 10,000K has occured in the last few years. This observational evidence is reviewed and the trends that are now becoming apparent are discussed. The evidence for non-radiatively heated outer atmospheric layers (chromospheres, transition regions, and coronae) in dwarf stars cooler than spectral type A7, in F and G giants, pre-main sequence stars, and close bindary systems is unambiguous, as is the evidence for chromospheres in the K and M giants and supergiants. The existence of non-radiative heating in the outer layers of the A stars remains undetermined despite repeated searches at all wavelengths. Two important trends in the data are the decrease in plasma emission measure with age on the main sequence and decreasing rotational velocity. Variability and atmospheric inhomogeneity are commonly seen, and there is considerable evidence that magnetic fields define the geometry and control the energy balance in the outer atmospheric layers. In addition, the microwave observations imply that non-thermal electrons are confined in coronal magnetic flux tubes in at least the cool dwarfs and RS CVn systems. The chromospheres in the K and M giants and supergiants are geometrically extended, as are the coronae in the RS CVn systems and probably also in other stars.

  12. The EUV-observatory TESIS on board Coronas-Photon: scientific goals and initial plan of observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogachev, Sergey

    The TESIS a EUV-observatory for solar research from space will be launched in 2008 September on board the satellite Coronas-Photon from cosmodrome Plesetsk. TESIS is a project of Lebedev Physical Institute of Russian Academy of Science with contribution from Space Research Center of Polish Academy of Science (the spectrometer SphinX). The experiment will focus on quasi-monochromatic imaging of the Sun and XUV spectroscopy of solar plasma. The scientific payload of TESIS contains five instruments: (1) Bragg crystal spectroheliometer for Sun monochromatic imaging in the line MgXII 8.42 A, (2) the normal-incidence Herschelian EUV telescopes with a resolution of 1.7 arc sec operated in lines FeXXII 133 A, FeIX 171 A and HeII 304 A, (3) the EUV imaging spectrometer, (4) the wide-field Ritchey-Chretien coronograph and (5) the X-ray spectrometer SphinX. The TESIS will focus on coordinated study of solar activity from the transition region to the outer corona up to 4 solar radii in wide temperature range from 5*104 to 2*107 K. We describe the scientific goals of the TESIS and its initial plan of observations.

  13. Patchy reconnection in the solar corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guidoni, Silvina Esther

    2011-05-01

    Magnetic reconnection in plasmas, a process characterized by a change in connectivity of field lines that are broken and connected to other ones with different topology, owes its usefulness to its ability to unify a wide range of phenomena within a single universal principle. There are newly observed phenomena in the solar corona that cannot be reconciled with two-dimensional or steady-state standard models of magnetic reconnection. Supra-arcade downflows (SADs) and supra-arcade downflowing loops (SADLs) descending from reconnection regions toward solar post-flare arcades seem to be two different observational signatures of retracting, isolated reconnected flux tubes with irreducible three-dimensional geometries. This dissertation describes work in refining and improving a novel model of patchy reconnection, where only a small bundle of field lines is reconnected across a current sheet (magnetic discontinuity) and forms a reconnected thin flux tube. Traditional models have not been able to explain why some of the observed SADs appear to be hot and relatively devoid of plasma. The present work shows that plasma depletion naturally occurs in flux tubes that are reconnected across nonuniform current sheets and slide trough regions of decreasing magnetic field magnitude. Moreover, through a detailed theoretical analysis of generalized thin flux tube equations, we show that the addition to the model of pressure-driven parallel dynamics, as well as temperature-dependent, anisotropic viscosity and thermal conductivity is essential for self-consistently producing gas-dynamic shocks inside reconnected tubes that heat and compress plasma to observed temperatures and densities. The shock thickness can be as long as the entire tube and heat can be conducted along tube's legs, possibly driving chromospheric evaporation. We developed a computer program that solves numerically the thin flux tube equations that govern the retraction of reconnected tubes. Simulations carried out

  14. Intermittency in the photosphere and corona as derived from the Hinode data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abramenko, V.; Yurchyshyn, V.; Wang, H.

    2008-05-01

    Recent studies undoubtedly demonstrate that the magnetic fields in the photosphere and corona are strongly non-Gaussian and can be represented as intermittent structures, which offers new views on the underlying physics. In particular, such problems as the existence in the corona of localized areas with extremely strong resistivity (required to explain magnetic reconnection of all scales) and the interchange between small and large scales (required in study of the photosphere/corona coupling), to name a few, can be easily captured by the concept of intermittency. This study is focused on simultaneous time variations of intermittency properties derived in the photosphere, chromosphere and corona. We analyzed data for NOAA AR 10930 acquired between Dec 08, 2006 12:00 UT and Dec 13, 2006 18:45 UT. Photospheric intermittency was inferred from Hinode magnetic field measurements, while intermittency in the transition region and corona was derived from Nobeyama 9 GHz radio polarization measurements, high cadence Hinode/XRT/Be-thin data as well as GOES 1-8Å~ flux. Photospheric dynamics and its possible relationship with the intermittency variations were also analyzed by calculating the kinetic vorticity. For this case study we found the following chain of events. Intermittency of the photospheric magnetic field peaked after the specific kinetic vorticity of plasma flows in the AR reached its maximum level (4 hour time delay). In turn, gradual increase of coronal intermittency occurred after the peak of the photospheric intermittency. The time delay between the peak of photospheric intermittency and the occurrence of the first strong (X3.4) flare was approximately 1.3 days. Our analysis seems to suggest that the enhancement of intermittency/complexity first occurs in the photosphere and is later transported toward the corona.

  15. Surfactant titration of nanoparticle-protein corona.

    PubMed

    Maiolo, Daniele; Bergese, Paolo; Mahon, Eugene; Dawson, Kenneth A; Monopoli, Marco P

    2014-12-16

    Nanoparticles (NP), when exposed to biological fluids, are coated by specific proteins that form the so-called protein corona. While some adsorbing proteins exchange with the surroundings on a short time scale, described as a "dynamic" corona, others with higher affinity and long-lived interaction with the NP surface form a "hard" corona (HC), which is believed to mediate NP interaction with cellular machineries. In-depth NP protein corona characterization is therefore a necessary step in understanding the relationship between surface layer structure and biological outcomes. In the present work, we evaluate the protein composition and stability over time and we systematically challenge the formed complexes with surfactants. Each challenge is characterized through different physicochemical measurements (dynamic light scattering, ζ-potential, and differential centrifugal sedimentation) alongside proteomic evaluation in titration type experiments (surfactant titration). 100 nm silicon oxide (Si) and 100 nm carboxylated polystyrene (PS-COOH) NPs cloaked by human plasma HC were titrated with 3-[(3-Cholamidopropyl) dimethylammonio]-1-propanesulfonate (CHAPS, zwitterionic), Triton X-100 (nonionic), sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS, anionic), and dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB, cationic) surfactants. Composition and density of HC together with size and ζ-potential of NP-HC complexes were tracked at each step after surfactant titration. Results on Si NP-HC complexes showed that SDS removes most of the HC, while DTAB induces NP agglomeration. Analogous results were obtained for PS NP-HC complexes. Interestingly, CHAPS and Triton X-100, thanks to similar surface binding preferences, enable selective extraction of apolipoprotein AI (ApoAI) from Si NP hard coronas, leaving unaltered the dispersion physicochemical properties. These findings indicate that surfactant titration can enable the study of NP-HC stability through surfactant variation and also selective separation

  16. Alfvénic waves with sufficient energy to power the quiet solar corona and fast solar wind.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott W; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats; Hansteen, Viggo; Boerner, Paul; Goossens, Marcel

    2011-07-28

    Energy is required to heat the outer solar atmosphere to millions of degrees (refs 1, 2) and to accelerate the solar wind to hundreds of kilometres per second (refs 2-6). Alfvén waves (travelling oscillations of ions and magnetic field) have been invoked as a possible mechanism to transport magneto-convective energy upwards along the Sun's magnetic field lines into the corona. Previous observations of Alfvénic waves in the corona revealed amplitudes far too small (0.5 km s(-1)) to supply the energy flux (100-200 W m(-2)) required to drive the fast solar wind or balance the radiative losses of the quiet corona. Here we report observations of the transition region (between the chromosphere and the corona) and of the corona that reveal how Alfvénic motions permeate the dynamic and finely structured outer solar atmosphere. The ubiquitous outward-propagating Alfvénic motions observed have amplitudes of the order of 20 km s(-1) and periods of the order of 100-500 s throughout the quiescent atmosphere (compatible with recent investigations), and are energetic enough to accelerate the fast solar wind and heat the quiet corona. PMID:21796206

  17. Alfvénic waves with sufficient energy to power the quiet solar corona and fast solar wind.

    PubMed

    McIntosh, Scott W; De Pontieu, Bart; Carlsson, Mats; Hansteen, Viggo; Boerner, Paul; Goossens, Marcel

    2011-07-27

    Energy is required to heat the outer solar atmosphere to millions of degrees (refs 1, 2) and to accelerate the solar wind to hundreds of kilometres per second (refs 2-6). Alfvén waves (travelling oscillations of ions and magnetic field) have been invoked as a possible mechanism to transport magneto-convective energy upwards along the Sun's magnetic field lines into the corona. Previous observations of Alfvénic waves in the corona revealed amplitudes far too small (0.5 km s(-1)) to supply the energy flux (100-200 W m(-2)) required to drive the fast solar wind or balance the radiative losses of the quiet corona. Here we report observations of the transition region (between the chromosphere and the corona) and of the corona that reveal how Alfvénic motions permeate the dynamic and finely structured outer solar atmosphere. The ubiquitous outward-propagating Alfvénic motions observed have amplitudes of the order of 20 km s(-1) and periods of the order of 100-500 s throughout the quiescent atmosphere (compatible with recent investigations), and are energetic enough to accelerate the fast solar wind and heat the quiet corona.

  18. Active Region Magnetic Structure Observed in the Photosphere and Chromosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leka, K. D.; Metcalf, Thomas R.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic flux above sunspots and plage in NOAA (National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration) Active Region 8299 has been measured in the photosphere and the chromosphere. We investigate the vertical magnetic structure above the umbrae, penumbrae and plage regions using quantitative statistical comparisons of the photospheric and chromospheric vector magnetic flux data. The results include: (1) a decrease in flux with height, (2) the direct detection of the superpenumbral canopy in the chromosphere, (3) values for dB/dz which are consistent with earlier investigations when derived from a straight difference between the two datasets but quite low when derived from the delta x B = 0 condition, (4) a monolithic structure in the umbra which extends well into the upper chromosphere with a very complex and varied structure in the penumbra and plage, as evidenced by (5) a uniform magnetic scale height in the umbrae with an abrupt jump to widely varying scale heights in the penumbral and plage regions. Further, we find (6) evidence for a very large (delta z approximately equals 3Mm) height difference between the atmospheric layers sampled in the two magnetograms, almost a factor of three larger than that implied by atmospheric models. We additionally test the apropriateness of using photospheric magnetic flux as a boundary for field-line extrapolations, and find a better agreement with observed coronal structure when the chromospheric flux is used as a boundary.

  19. Plasma Beta Above a Solar Active Region: Rethinking the Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model of the plasma beta above an active region and discuss its consequences in terms of coronal magnetic field modeling. The beta-plasma model is representative and derived from a collection of sources. The resulting beta variation with height is used to emphasize the assumption that the magnetic pressure dominates over the plasma pressure must be carefully considered depending on what part of the solar atmosphere is being considered. This paper points out (1) that the paradigm that the coronal magnetic field can be constructed from a force-free magnetic field must be used in the correct context, since the forcefree region is sandwiched between two regions which have beta greater than 1, (2) that the chromospheric MgIICIV magnetic measurements occur near the beta-minimum, and (3) that, moving from the photosphere upwards, beta can return to 1 at relatively low coronal heights, e.g. R approximately 1.2R(sub)s.

  20. Observational capabilities of solar satellite "Coronas-Photon"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotov, Yu.

    Coronas-Photon mission is the third satellite of the Russian Coronas program on solar activity observation The main goal of the Coronas-Photon is the study of solar hard electromagnetic radiation in the wide energy range from UV up to high energy gamma-radiation sim 2000MeV Scientific payload for solar radiation observation consists of three type of instruments 1 monitors Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 Penguin-M BRM Phoka Sphin-X Sokol for spectral and timing measurements of full solar disk radiation with timing in flare burst mode up to one msec Instruments Natalya-2M Konus-RF RT-2 will cover the wide energy range of hard X-rays and soft Gamma rays 15keV to 2000MeV and will together constitute the largest area detectors ever used for solar observations Detectors of gamma-ray monitors are based on structured inorganic scintillators with energy resolution sim 5 for nuclear gamma-line band to 35 for GeV-band PSD analysis is used for gamma neutron separation for solar neutron registration T 30MeV Penguin-M has capability to measure linear polarization of hard X-rays using azimuth are measured by Compton scattering asymmetry in case of polarization of an incident flux For X-ray and EUV monitors the scintillation phoswich detectors gas proportional counter CZT assembly and Filter-covered Si-diodes are used 2 Telescope-spectrometer TESIS for imaging solar spectroscopy in X-rays with angular resolution up to 1 in three spectral lines and RT-2 CZT assembly of CZT

  1. STELLAR CORONAE, SOLAR FLARES: A DETAILED COMPARISON OF {sigma} GEM, HR 1099, AND THE SUN IN HIGH-RESOLUTION X-RAYS

    SciTech Connect

    Huenemoerder, David P.; Phillips, Kenneth J. H.; Sylwester, Janusz; Sylwester, Barbara E-mail: kennethjhphillips@yahoo.com E-mail: bs@cbk.pan.wroc.pl

    2013-05-10

    The Chandra High Energy Transmission Grating Spectrometer (HETG) spectra of the coronally active binary stars {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 are among the highest fluence observations for such systems taken at high spectral resolution in X-rays with this instrument. This allows us to compare their properties in detail to solar flare spectra obtained with the Russian CORONAS-F spacecraft's RESIK instrument at similar resolution in an overlapping bandpass. Here we emphasize the detailed comparisons of the 3.3-6.1 A region (including emission from highly ionized S, Si, Ar, and K) from solar flare spectra to the corresponding {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 spectra. We also model the larger wavelength range of the HETG, from 1.7 to 25 A - having emission lines from Fe, Ca, Ar, Si, Al, Mg, Ne, O, and N-to determine coronal temperatures and abundances. {sigma} Gem is a single-lined coronally active long-period binary which has a very hot corona. HR 1099 is a similar, but shorter period, double-lined system. With very deep HETG exposures we can even study emission from some of the weaker species, such as K, Na, and Al, which are important since they have the lowest first ionization potentials, a parameter well known to be correlated with elemental fractionation in the solar corona. The solar flare temperatures reach Almost-Equal-To 20 MK, comparable to the {sigma} Gem and HR 1099 coronae. During the Chandra exposures, {sigma} Gem was slowly decaying from a flare and its spectrum is well characterized by a collisional ionization equilibrium plasma with a broad temperature distribution ranging from 2 to 60 MK, peaking near 25 MK, but with substantial emission from 50 MK plasma. We have detected K XVIII and Na XI emission which allow us to set limits on their abundances. HR 1099 was also quite variable in X-rays, also in a flare state, but had no detectable K XVIII. These measurements provide new comparisons of solar and stellar coronal abundances, especially at the lowest first ionization

  2. Magnetic helicity and free energy in solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moraitis, K.; Georgoulis, M.; Tziotziou, K.; Archontis, V.

    2013-09-01

    We study the evolution of the non-potential free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in solar active regions (ARs). For this we use a time-series of a three-dimensional, synthetic AR produced by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) simulations. As a first step, we calculate the potential magnetic field that has the same normal components with the MHD field along all boundaries of the AR, by solving Laplace's equation. The free magnetic energy of the AR is then easily derived. From the two fields, MHD and potential one, we calculate the corresponding vector potentials with a recently proposed integration method. The knowledge of both fields and their respective vector potentials throughout the AR, allows us to estimate the relative magnetic helicity budget of the AR. Following this procedure for each snapshot of the AR, we reconstruct the evolution of free energy and helicity in the AR. Our method reproduces, for a synthetic AR, the energy/helicity relations known to hold in real active regions.

  3. Multi-Wavelength Study of Active Region Loop Dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banerjee, D.

    2006-11-01

    Observations have revealed the existence of weak transient disturbances in extended coronal loop systems. These propagating disturbances (PDs) originate from small scale brightenings at the footpoints of the loops and propagate upward along the loops. In all cases observed, the projected propagation speed is close to, but below the expected sound speed in the loops. This suggests that the PDs could be interpreted as slow mode MHD waves. Interpreting the oscillation in terms of different wave modes and/or plasma motions always depend on the line of sight as we observe in the limb or on the center of the disk. The JOP 165 campaign will address some of these questions. MDI and TRACE photospheric and UV imaging of TRACE and SPIRIT have been acquired simultaneously with high temporal and spatial coverage along with the spectroscopic data from CDS. EIT was operated in the shutter-less mode to achieve high Cadence. Some of the off- limb active region dynamics and oscillations observed during this JOP campaign will be focused in this presentation. Plasma condensations and temporal variations in active region loops will be also addressed.

  4. Active Region Filaments Might Harbor Weak Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Baso, C. J.; Martínez González, M. J.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2016-05-01

    Recent spectropolarimetric observations of active region filaments have revealed polarization profiles with signatures typical of the strong field Zeeman regime. The conspicuous absence in those observations of scattering polarization and Hanle effect signatures was then pointed out by some authors. This was interpreted as either a signature of mixed “turbulent” field components or as a result of optical thickness. In this article, we present a natural scenario to explain these Zeeman-only spectropolarimetric observations of active region (AR) filaments. We propose a two-component model, one on top of the other. Both components have horizontal fields, with the azimuth difference between them being close to 90°. The component that lies lower in the atmosphere is permeated by a strong field of the order of 600 G, while the upper component has much weaker fields, of the order of 10 G. The ensuing scattering polarization signatures of the individual components have opposite signs, so its combination along the line of sight reduces—and even can cancel out—the Hanle signatures, giving rise to an apparent Zeeman-only profile. This model is also applicable to other chromospheric structures seen in absorption above ARs.

  5. Photospheric electric current and transition region brightness within an active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, A. C.; Hagyard, M. J.; Rabin, D.; Moore, R. L.; Smith, B. J., Jr.; West, E. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1984-01-01

    Distributions of vertical electrical current density J(z) calculated from vector measurements of the photospheric magnetic field are compared with ultraviolet spectroheliograms to investigate whether resistive heating is an important source of enhanced emission in the transition region. The photospheric magnetic fields in Active Region 2372 were measured on April 6 and 7, 1980 with the Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograph; ultraviolet wavelength spectroheliograms (L-alpha and N V 1239 A) were obtained with the UV Spectrometer and Polarimeter experiment aboard the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. Spatial registration of the J(z) (5 arcsec resolution) and UV (3 arcsec resolution) maps indicates that the maximum current density is cospatial with a minor but persistent UV enhancement, but there is little detected current associated with other nearby bright areas. It is concluded that, although resistive heating may be important in the transition region, the currents responsible for the heating are largely unresolved in the present measurements and have no simple correlation with the residual current measured on 5-arcsec scales.

  6. CHP REGIONAL APPLICATION CENTERS: ACTIVITIES AND SELECTED RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created a set of eight Regional Application Centers (RACs) to facilitate the development and deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies. By utilizing the thermal energy that is normally wasted when electricity is produced at central generating stations, Combined Heat and Power installations can save substantial amounts of energy compared to more traditional technologies. In addition, the location of CHP facilities at or near the point of consumption greatly reduces or eliminates electric transmission and distribution losses. The regional nature of the RACs allows each one to design and provide services that are most relevant to the specific economic and market conditions in its particular geographic area. Between them, the eight RACs provide services to all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Through the end of the federal 2009 fiscal year (FY 2009), the primary focus of the RACs was on providing CHP-related information to targeted markets, encouraging the creation and adoption of public policies and incentives favorable to CHP, and providing CHP users and prospective users with technical assistance and support on specific projects. Beginning with the 2010 fiscal year, the focus of the regional centers broadened to include district energy and waste heat recovery and these entities became formally known as Clean Energy Application Centers, as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. In 2007, ORNL led a cooperative effort to establish metrics to quantify the RACs accomplishments. That effort began with the development of a detailed logic model describing RAC operations and outcomes, which provided a basis for identifying important activities and accomplishments to track. A data collection spreadsheet soliciting information on those activities for FY 2008 and all previous years of RAC operations was developed and sent to the RACs in the summer of 2008. This

  7. Magnetic tornadoes as energy channels into the solar corona.

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer-Böhm, Sven; Scullion, Eamon; Steiner, Oskar; van der Voort, Luc Rouppe; de la Cruz Rodriguez, Jaime; Fedun, Viktor; Erdélyi, Robert

    2012-06-28

    Heating the outer layers of the magnetically quiet solar atmosphere to more than one million kelvin and accelerating the solar wind requires an energy flux of approximately 100 to 300 watts per square metre, but how this energy is transferred and dissipated there is a puzzle and several alternative solutions have been proposed. Braiding and twisting of magnetic field structures, which is caused by the convective flows at the solar surface, was suggested as an efficient mechanism for atmospheric heating. Convectively driven vortex flows that harbour magnetic fields are observed to be abundant in the photosphere (the visible surface of the Sun). Recently, corresponding swirling motions have been discovered in the chromosphere, the atmospheric layer sandwiched between the photosphere and the corona. Here we report the imprints of these chromospheric swirls in the transition region and low corona, and identify them as observational signatures of rapidly rotating magnetic structures. These ubiquitous structures, which resemble super-tornadoes under solar conditions, reach from the convection zone into the upper solar atmosphere and provide an alternative mechanism for channelling energy from the lower into the upper solar atmosphere. PMID:22739314

  8. Milli-Arcsecond (MAS) Imaging of the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila, Joseph M.; Oktem, Figen S.; Kamalabadi, Farzad; O'Neill, John; Novo-Gradac, Anne-Marie; Daw, Adrian N.; Rabin, Douglas M.

    2016-05-01

    Dissipation in the solar corona is believed to occur in extremely thin current sheets of order 1-100 km. Emission from these hot but thin current sheets should be visible in coronal EUV emission lines. However, this spatial scale is far below the resolution of existing imaging instruments, so these dissipation sites have never been observed individually. Conventional optics cannot be manufactured with sufficient surface figure accuracy to obtain the required spatial resolution in the extreme-ultraviolet where these hot plasmas radiate. A photon sieve, a diffractive imaging element similar to a Fresnel zone plate, can be manufactured to provide a few milli-arcsec (MAS) resolution, with much more readily achievable tolerances than with conventional imaging technology. Prototype photon sieve elements have been fabricated and tested in the laboratory. A full-scale ultra-high resolution instrument will require formation flying and computational image deconvolution. Significant progress has been made in overcoming these challenges, and some recent results in these areas are discussed. A simple design for a sounding rocket concept demonstration payload is presented that obtains 80 MAS (0.080 arcsec) imaging with a 100 mm diameter photon sieve to image Fe XIV 334 and Fe XVI 335. These images will show the structure of the corona at a resolution never before obtained, and they will also allow a study of the temperature structure in the dissipation region.

  9. Milli-Arcsecond Imaging of the Solar Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila, Joseph; Kamalabadi, Farzad; Oktem, Figen S.

    2016-07-01

    Dissipation in the solar corona is believed to occur in extremely thin current sheets of order 1-100 km. Emission from these hot but thin current sheets is visible in coronal EUV emission lines, however, this spatial scale is unresolved in existing imaging instruments. Conventional optics cannot be easily manufactured with sufficient surface figure accuracy to obtain the required resolution. A photon sieve, a diffractive imaging element similar to a Fresnel zone plate, can be manufactured to provide a few milli-arcsec (mas) resolution, with much more relaxed tolerances than conventional imaging technology. Images from photon sieves will not only show the structure of the corona at a resolution never before obtained, they will also allow a study of the temperature structure in the dissipation region. Several photon sieves have been designed, fabricated, and tested by us at Goddard Space Flight Center. To fully exploit the potential of these devices two new technologies, (1) formation flying and (2) computational image deconvolution must be used. Recent progress on photon sieve development as well as these issues will be discussed. A simple design for a sounding rocket payload is presented that obtains 80 mas (0.080 arcsec) imaging with a 100 mm diameter photon sieve to image Fe XIV 334 and Fe XVI 335 which would provide a demonstration of this technology.

  10. Magnetic tornadoes as energy channels into the solar corona.

    PubMed

    Wedemeyer-Böhm, Sven; Scullion, Eamon; Steiner, Oskar; van der Voort, Luc Rouppe; de la Cruz Rodriguez, Jaime; Fedun, Viktor; Erdélyi, Robert

    2012-06-27

    Heating the outer layers of the magnetically quiet solar atmosphere to more than one million kelvin and accelerating the solar wind requires an energy flux of approximately 100 to 300 watts per square metre, but how this energy is transferred and dissipated there is a puzzle and several alternative solutions have been proposed. Braiding and twisting of magnetic field structures, which is caused by the convective flows at the solar surface, was suggested as an efficient mechanism for atmospheric heating. Convectively driven vortex flows that harbour magnetic fields are observed to be abundant in the photosphere (the visible surface of the Sun). Recently, corresponding swirling motions have been discovered in the chromosphere, the atmospheric layer sandwiched between the photosphere and the corona. Here we report the imprints of these chromospheric swirls in the transition region and low corona, and identify them as observational signatures of rapidly rotating magnetic structures. These ubiquitous structures, which resemble super-tornadoes under solar conditions, reach from the convection zone into the upper solar atmosphere and provide an alternative mechanism for channelling energy from the lower into the upper solar atmosphere.

  11. PLASMA DYNAMICS AT THE PROMINENCE-CORONA INTERFACE

    SciTech Connect

    Miloch, W. J.; Esser, R.; Habbal, S. R.

    2012-06-20

    The interface between the cool and dense plasma typical of a prominence and its tenuous and hot surrounding coronal plasma is poorly understood. We study the plasma dynamics at this interface using a three-dimensional particle-in-cell code, which enables us to carry out simulations on spatial and temporal scales of the order of the Debye length and plasma period, respectively. The results show that anomalous Bohm diffusion across magnetic field lines occurs at the interface, leading to mixing of the two plasmas. It is also shown that collisions with neutral hydrogen within the prominence plasma are of little importance for the plasma dynamics in the prominence-corona transition region. In particular, the temperature of the prominence plasma crossing the interface into the corona can become anisotropic due to preferential heating by instabilities originating from unstable velocity distributions. Our results pertain to spatial scales significantly smaller than scales commonly used in magnetohydrodynamic simulations, and they shed light on processes that are very likely to be present at the interface.

  12. RGB color photometry of the solar corona from total solar eclipses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shopov, Y. Y.; Varonov, A.; Stoykova, D. A.

    2016-02-01

    In the following article we present some of our results from observations of two total solar eclipses (TSE). By combining appropriate photographic equipment and post-processing techniques we show that numerous solar phenomena can be captured in details during TSE. We use color slide RGB photometry technique to visualize invisible regions of the solar corona and to highlight some of the solar phenomena that are very difficult for observation by Earth-based observatories. In fact it reveals more details of the far solar corona than any original image taken from ground-based observations. RGB photometry visualizes different components of the solar corona in one image, which is impossible using conventional observations. This makes it valuable tool for studies of the solar corona. Here we first observe peculiar near infrared emission regions around the upper part of the solar limb during the 1999 TSE. So far its origin is unknown and they need further studies including observations during other solar eclipses. Our observational experiment was designed for other purposes and their registration was completely unexpected.

  13. A Corona Discharge Initiated Electrochemical Electrospray Ionization Technique

    PubMed Central

    Lloyd, John R.; Hess, Sonja

    2009-01-01

    We report here the development of a corona discharge (CD) initiated electrochemical (EC) electrospray ionization (ESI) technique using a standard electrospray ion source. This is a new ionization technique distinct from ESI, electrochemistry inherent to ESI, APCI, and techniques using hydroxyl radicals produced under atmospheric pressure conditions. By maximizing the observable CD at the tip of a stainless steel ESI capillary, efficient electrochemical oxidation of electrochemically active compounds is observed. For electrochemical oxidation to be observed, the ionization potential of the analyte must be lower than Fe. Ferrocene labeled compounds were chosen as the electrochemically active moiety. The electrochemical cell in the ESI source was robust and generated ions with selectivity according to the ionization potential of the analytes and up to zeptomolar sensitivity. Our results indicate that CD initiated electrochemical ionization has the potential to become a powerful technique to increase the dynamic range, sensitivity and selectivity of ESI experiments. Synopsis Using a standard ESI source a corona discharge initiated electrochemical ionization technique was established resulting from the electrochemistry occurring at the CD electrode surface. PMID:19747843

  14. Corongraphic Observations and Analyses of The Ultraviolet Solar Corona

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kohl, John L.

    2000-01-01

    The activities supported under NASA Grant NAG5-613 included the following: 1) reduction and scientific analysis of data from three sounding rocket flights of the Rocket Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer, 2) development of ultraviolet spectroscopic diagnostic techniques to provide a detailed empirical description of the extended solar corona, 3) extensive upgrade of the rocket instrument to become the Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer (UVCS) for Spartan 201,4) instrument scientific calibration and characterization, 5) observation planning and mission support for a series of five Spartan 201 missions (fully successful except for STS 87 where the Spartan spacecraft was not successfully deployed and the instruments were not activated), and 6) reduction and scientific analysis of the UVCS/Spartan 201 observational data. The Ultraviolet Coronal Spectrometer for Spartan 201 was one unit of a joint payload and the other unit was a White Light Coronagraph (WLC) provided by the High Altitude Observatory and the Goddard Space Flight Center. The two instruments were used in concert to determine plasma parameters describing structures in the extended solar corona. They provided data that could be used individually or jointly in scientific analyses. The WLC provided electron column densities in high spatial resolution and high time resolution. UVCS/Spartan provided hydrogen velocity distributions, and line of sight hydrogen velocities. The hydrogen intensities from UVCS together with the electron densities from WLC were used to determine hydrogen outflow velocities. The UVCS also provided O VI intensities which were used to develop diagnostics for velocity distributions and outflow velocities of minor ions.

  15. Active Geodesics: Region-based Active Contour Segmentation with a Global Edge-based Constraint.

    PubMed

    Appia, Vikram; Yezzi, Anthony

    2011-11-01

    We present an active geodesic contour model in which we constrain the evolving active contour to be a geodesic with respect to a weighted edge-based energy through its entire evolution rather than just at its final state (as in the traditional geodesic active contour models). Since the contour is always a geodesic throughout the evolution, we automatically get local optimality with respect to an edge fitting criterion. This enables us to construct a purely region-based energy minimization model without having to devise arbitrary weights in the combination of our energy function to balance edge-based terms with the region-based terms. We show that this novel approach of combining edge information as the geodesic constraint in optimizing a purely region-based energy yields a new class of active contours which exhibit both local and global behaviors that are naturally responsive to intuitive types of user interaction. We also show the relationship of this new class of globally constrained active contours with traditional minimal path methods, which seek global minimizers of purely edge-based energies without incorporating region-based criteria. Finally, we present some numerical examples to illustrate the benefits of this approach over traditional active contour models.

  16. Polyester composites reinforced with corona-treated fibers from pine, eucalyptus and sugarcane bagasse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study aims to evaluate plant fibers that were surface activated with NaOH and corona discharge before incorporating in ortho unsaturated polyester-based fiber composites. It demonstrates the potential use of lignocellulosic particles, especially eucalyptus that presented the higher values for a...

  17. CORONA-INDUCED OZONATION COUPLED WITH PHOTOOXIDATION: AN ENVIRONMENTALLY FRIENDLY AND COST-EFFECTIVE METHOD

    EPA Science Inventory

    We have developed a process that uses surface corona for the production of ozone by passing air or oxygen through a high voltage electrical discharge and the emitted ultraviolet light is being used to activate a photocatalyst. A thin film of nanostructured TiO2 with primary part...

  18. Characteristics, location and origin of flare activity in a complex active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Machado, M. E.; Gary, G. A.; Hagyard, M. J.; Hernandez, A. M.; Rovira, M. G.

    1986-01-01

    The observational characteristics of series of multiple-loop flares from a complex active region are summarized. The location of the highest observed photospheric magnetic shear is found to be the commonly observed site of flare onset, but not, in many cases, the magnetic region where the largest time-integrated energy release is observed. The observations thus reveal a consistent pattern of energy-release processes related to the magnetic-field topology.

  19. Dynamic development of the protein corona on silica nanoparticles: composition and role in toxicity