Science.gov

Sample records for active region fs

  1. E-VLBI-activities at the FS Wettzell

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Dassing, Reiner

    The FS-Wettzell carries out the daily-INTENSIVE observations which were required for the rapid determination of DUT1. The data volume is roughly 40 GB. So fare the data were shipped via currier services to the correlator which requires 2-3 days transportation time. The INTENSIVE time series is a real candidate for E-VLBI. It will reduce the delay due to data transport strongly. Considering the remote location of Wettzell - apart from the fast INTERNET links, considering the current high cost for a fast connection, in the next future the installation of a 34 Gbps-internet connection will be realistic. It will strongly support the data transmission on start the delay time to only a few hours. This report give an overview about the activities on the realisation of such a fast link. First attempts are reported made from the next nodal point at the University Regensburg, making use of a 155Mbps connection.

  2. Regional to Global Assessments of Phytoplankton Dynamics From The SeaWiFS Mission

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siegel, David; Behrenfeld, Michael; Maritorena, Stephanie; McClain, Charles R.; Antoine, David; Bailey, Sean W.; Bontempi, Paula S.; Boss, Emmanuel S.; Dierssen, Heidi M.; Doney, Scott C.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Evans, Robert H.; Feldman, Gene C.; Fields, Erik; Franz, Bryan A.; Kuring, Norman A.; Mengelt, Claudia; Nelson, Norman B.; Patt, Fred S.; Robinson, Wayne D.; Sarmiento, J. L.; Swan, C. M.; Werdell, Paul J.; Westberry, T. K.; Wilding, John G.; Yoder, J. A.

    2013-01-01

    Photosynthetic production of organic matter by microscopic oceanic phytoplankton fuels ocean ecosystems and contributes roughly half of the Earth's net primary production. For 13 years, the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission provided the first consistent, synoptic observations of global ocean ecosystems. Changes in the surface chlorophyll concentration, the primary biological property retrieved from SeaWiFS, have traditionally been used as a metric for phytoplankton abundance and its distribution largely reflects patterns in vertical nutrient transport. On regional to global scales, chlorophyll concentrations covary with sea surface temperature (SST) because SST changes reflect light and nutrient conditions. However, the oceanmay be too complex to be well characterized using a single index such as the chlorophyll concentration. A semi-analytical bio-optical algorithm is used to help interpret regional to global SeaWiFS chlorophyll observations from using three independent, well-validated ocean color data products; the chlorophyll a concentration, absorption by CDM and particulate backscattering. First, we show that observed long-term, global-scale trends in standard chlorophyll retrievals are likely compromised by coincident changes in CDM. Second, we partition the chlorophyll signal into a component due to phytoplankton biomass changes and a component caused by physiological adjustments in intracellular chlorophyll concentrations to changes in mixed layer light levels. We show that biomass changes dominate chlorophyll signals for the high latitude seas and where persistent vertical upwelling is known to occur, while physiological processes dominate chlorophyll variability over much of the tropical and subtropical oceans. The SeaWiFS data set demonstrates complexity in the interpretation of changes in regional to global phytoplankton distributions and illustrates limitations for the assessment of phytoplankton dynamics using chlorophyll

  3. Cellular Transformation of Mouse Embryo Fibroblasts in the Absence of Activator E2Fs

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Tushar; Sáenz Robles, Maria Teresa

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The E2F family of transcription factors, broadly divided into activator and repressor E2Fs, regulates cell cycle genes. Current models indicate that activator E2Fs are necessary for cell cycle progression and tumorigenesis and are also required to mediate transformation induced by DNA tumor viruses. E2Fs are negatively regulated by the retinoblastoma (RB) family of tumor suppressor proteins, and virus-encoded oncogenes disrupt the RB-E2F repressor complexes. This results in the release of activator E2Fs and induction of E2F-dependent genes. In agreement, expression of large tumor T antigens (TAg) encoded by polyomaviruses in mammalian cells results in increased transcriptional levels of E2F target genes. In addition, tumorigenesis induced by transgenic expression of simian virus 40 (SV40) TAg in choroid plexus or intestinal villi requires at least one activator E2F. In contrast, we show that SV40 TAg-induced transformation in mouse embryonic fibroblasts is independent of activator E2Fs. This work, coupled with recent studies showing that proliferation in stem and progenitor cells is independent of activator E2Fs, suggests the presence of parallel pathways governing cell proliferation and tumorigenesis. IMPORTANCE The RB-E2F pathway is altered in many cancers and is also targeted by DNA tumor viruses. Viral oncoprotein action on RBs results in the release of activator E2Fs and upregulation of E2F target genes; thus, activator E2Fs are considered essential for normal and tumorigenic cell proliferation. However, we have observed that SV40 large T antigen can induce cell proliferation and transformation in the absence of activator E2Fs. Our results also suggest that TAg action on pRBs regulates both E2F-dependent and -independent pathways that govern proliferation. Thus, specific cell proliferation pathways affected by RB alterations in cancer may be a factor in tumor behavior and response to therapy. PMID:25717106

  4. Adsorption and destruction of PCDD/Fs using surface-functionalized activated carbons.

    PubMed

    Atkinson, J D; Hung, P C; Zhang, Z; Chang, M B; Yan, Z; Rood, M J

    2015-01-01

    Activated carbon adsorbs polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -furans (PCDD/Fs) from gas streams but can simultaneously generate PCDD/Fs via de novo synthesis, increasing an already serious disposal problem for the spent sorbent. To increase activated carbon's PCDD/F sorption capacity and lifetime while reducing the impact of hazardous waste, it is beneficial to develop carbon-based sorbents that simultaneously destroy PCDD/Fs while adsorbing the toxic chemicals from gas streams. In this work, hydrogen-treated and surface-functionalized (i.e., oxygen, bromine, nitrogen, and sulfur) activated carbons are tested in a bench-scale reactor as adsorbents for PCDD/Fs. All tested carbons adsorb PCDD/F efficiently, with international toxic equivalent removal efficiencies exceeding 99% and mass removal efficiencies exceeding 98% for all but one tested material. Hydrogen-treated materials caused negligible destruction and possible generation of PCDD/Fs, with total mass balances between 100% and 107%. All tested surface-functionalized carbons, regardless of functionality, destroyed PCDD/Fs, with total mass balances between 73% and 96%. Free radicals on the carbon surface provided by different functional groups may contribute to PCDD/F destruction, as has been hypothesized in the literature. Surface-functionalized materials preferentially destroyed higher-order (more chlorine) congeners, supporting a dechlorination mechanism as opposed to oxidation. Carbons impregnated with sulfur are particularly effective at destroying PCDD/Fs, with destruction efficiency improving with increasing sulfur content to as high as 27%. This is relevant because sulfur-treated carbons are used for mercury adsorption, increasing the possibility of multi-pollutant control. PMID:25150825

  5. Development of regional wheat VI-LAI models using Resourcesat-1 AWiFS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaurasia, Sasmita; Nigam, R.; Bhattacharya, B. K.; Sridhar, V. N.; Mallick, K.; Vyas, S. P.; Patel, N. K.; Mukherjee, J.; Shekhar, Chander; Kumar, Dhiraj; Singh, K. R. P.; Bairagi, G. D.; Purohit, N. L.; Parihar, J. S.

    2011-12-01

    The time of forcing of spatial LAI to crop models at single or multiple stages is important to simulate crop biomass and yield in varying agro-climatic conditions and scales. The high temporal resolution (5-day) by Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) on-board Resourcesat-1 Satellite IRS-P6 with 56 m spatial resolution and large swath (740 km) has substantially increased the availability of regional clear sky optical remote sensing data. The present study aimed at developing empirical vegetation index VI-LAI models for wheat using AWiFS optical data in four bands and in-situ measurements sampled over five different agro-climatic regions (ACRs) during 2005-2006 followed by validation during 2006-2007. While nonlinear relations exist for all the three normalized indices such as normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), normalized difference water index (NDWI) and Green NDVI, linear relation was the best fit for ratio vegetation index (RVI). Both NDVI and RVI models generally showed better correlation ranges (0.65-0.84 for NDVI and 0.37-0.76 for RVI) than other indices. The common NDVI-LAI model was found to produce lower root mean square errors (RMSE) between 0.5 and 1.1 from pooled model than those between 0.5 and 1.32 from regional models. The rate of substantial increase in errors from NDVI-LAI model (RMSE of modeled LAI: 0.85 to 1.28) as compared to RVI-LAI model (RMSE of modeled LAI: 1.12 to 1.17) at LAI greater than 3, than below 3 revealed the early saturation of NDVI than RVI. It is therefore recommended that LAI estimates can be used to force crop simulation model upto early vegetative stage based on NDVI and maximum vegetative to reproductive stages based on RVI.

  6. Trichoderma reesei FS10-C enhances phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil by Sedum plumbizincicola and associated soil microbial activities

    PubMed Central

    Teng, Ying; Luo, Yang; Ma, Wenting; Zhu, Lingjia; Ren, Wenjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of Trichoderma reesei FS10-C on the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil by the hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola and on soil fertility. The Cd tolerance of T. reesei FS10-C was characterized and then a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the growth and Cd uptake of S. plumbizincicola with the addition of inoculation agents in the presence and absence of T. reesei FS10-C. The results indicated that FS10-C possessed high Cd resistance (up to 300 mg L-1). All inoculation agents investigated enhanced plant shoot biomass by 6–53% of fresh weight and 16–61% of dry weight and Cd uptake by the shoots by 10–53% compared with the control. All inoculation agents also played critical roles in increasing soil microbial biomass and microbial activities (such as biomass C, dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis activity). Two inoculation agents accompanied by FS10-C were also superior to the inoculation agents, indicating that T. reesei FS10-C was effective in enhancing both Cd phytoremediation by S. plumbizincicola and soil fertility. Furthermore, solid fermentation powder of FS10-C showed the greatest capacity to enhance plant growth, Cd uptake, nutrient release, microbial biomass and activities, as indicated by its superior ability to promote colonization by Trichoderma. The solid fermentation powder of FS10-C might serve as a suitable inoculation agent for T. reesei FS10-C to enhance both the phytoremediation efficiency of Cd-contaminated soil and soil fertility. PMID:26113858

  7. Trichoderma reesei FS10-C enhances phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil by Sedum plumbizincicola and associated soil microbial activities.

    PubMed

    Teng, Ying; Luo, Yang; Ma, Wenting; Zhu, Lingjia; Ren, Wenjie; Luo, Yongming; Christie, Peter; Li, Zhengao

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the effects of Trichoderma reesei FS10-C on the phytoremediation of Cd-contaminated soil by the hyperaccumulator Sedum plumbizincicola and on soil fertility. The Cd tolerance of T. reesei FS10-C was characterized and then a pot experiment was conducted to investigate the growth and Cd uptake of S. plumbizincicola with the addition of inoculation agents in the presence and absence of T. reesei FS10-C. The results indicated that FS10-C possessed high Cd resistance (up to 300 mg L(-1)). All inoculation agents investigated enhanced plant shoot biomass by 6-53% of fresh weight and 16-61% of dry weight and Cd uptake by the shoots by 10-53% compared with the control. All inoculation agents also played critical roles in increasing soil microbial biomass and microbial activities (such as biomass C, dehydrogenase activity and fluorescein diacetate hydrolysis activity). Two inoculation agents accompanied by FS10-C were also superior to the inoculation agents, indicating that T. reesei FS10-C was effective in enhancing both Cd phytoremediation by S. plumbizincicola and soil fertility. Furthermore, solid fermentation powder of FS10-C showed the greatest capacity to enhance plant growth, Cd uptake, nutrient release, microbial biomass and activities, as indicated by its superior ability to promote colonization by Trichoderma. The solid fermentation powder of FS10-C might serve as a suitable inoculation agent for T. reesei FS10-C to enhance both the phytoremediation efficiency of Cd-contaminated soil and soil fertility. PMID:26113858

  8. Global and Regional Evaluation of Over-Land Spectral Aerosol Optical Depth Retrievals from SeaWiFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sayer, A. M.; Hsu, N. C.; Bettenhausen, C.; Jeong, M. J.; Holben, B. N.; Zhang, J.

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates a new spectral aerosol optical depth (AOD) dataset derived from Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (Sea WiFS) measurements over land. First, the data are validated against Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) direct-sun AOD measurements, and found to compare well on a global basis. If only data with the highest quality flag are used, the correlation is 0.86 and 72% of matchups fall within an expected absolute uncertainty of 0.05 + 20% (for the wavelength of 550 nm). The quality is similar at other wavelengths and stable over the 13-year (1997-2010) mission length. Performance tends to be better over vegetated, low-lying terrain with typical AOD of 0.3 or less, such as found over much of North America and Eurasia. Performance tends to be poorer for low-AOD conditions near backscattering geometries, where Sea WiFS overestimates AOD, or optically-thick cases of absorbing aerosol, where SeaWiFS tends to underestimate AOD. Second, the SeaWiFS data are compared with midvisible AOD derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) and Multiangle Imaging Spectroradiometer (MISR). All instruments show similar spatial and seasonal distributions of AOD, although there are regional and seasonal offsets between them. At locations where AERONET data are available, these offsets are largely consistent with the known validation characteristics of each dataset. With the results of this study in mind, the SeaWiFS over-land AOD record should be suitable for quantitative scientific use.

  9. Low temperature destruction of PCDD/Fs by catalysis coupled with activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming-Feng; Li, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Tong; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Yan, Jian-Hua

    2016-03-01

    In order to enhance the oxidation and adsorption capacity of catalyst, two kinds of activated carbon (AC) are mechanically mixed with V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst respectively. In this study, the mixtures (M-1: catalyst mixing with AC based on lignite; M-2: the one on coconut shell) are investigated to destroy high concentration (9.8 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3)) PCDD/Fs at low temperature (160 °C). Adding AC into the catalyst obviously increases removal efficiency (RE) and destruction efficiency (DE). However, M-2 presents higher RE value and lower DE value compared with M-1 at the same conditions as the stronger adsorption capacity of AC based on coconut shell. For the M-2 mixture, RE values are decreasing while DE values show an opposite trend with the ratios of catalyst to AC increasing. Oxygen plays a positive role on the destruction of PCDD/Fs by accelerating the conversion of V(4+)Ox and V(5+)Ox. Adjusting oxygen content from 0 to 20 % could increase the DE value from 27.4 to 82.2 % for the M-1 and from 15.8 to 68.9 % for the M-2. In the presence of ozone, a dark brown flock will be generated when the ratio of AC and catalyst is 4:1 due to the reaction between AC and ozone, which results in the lower RE and DE values. The RE and DE values reach the maximum of 96.3 %, 90.6 % in this paper, respectively, when the ratio of AC and catalyst is 1:1 with ozone. Finally, the regenerating of mixture is investigated. Most of dioxin residues in the mixture are desorbed and oxidized by catalysis at 200 °C in the presence of oxygen. PMID:26566615

  10. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  11. Global Retrieval of Aerosol Properties over Desert and Semi-Desert Regions from SeaWiFS and MODIS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, Nai-Yung; Tsay, Si-Chee; King, M. D.; Herman, J. R.

    2005-01-01

    Mineral aerosols (dust) play an important role in both climate forcing and oceanic productivity throughout the entire year. Due to the relatively short lifetime (a few hours to about a week), the distributions of these airborne dust particles vary extensively in both space and time. Consequently, satellite observations are needed over both source and sink regions for continuous temporal and spatial sampling of dust properties. However, despite their importance, the high spatial resolution satellite measurements of dust near its source have been lacking. In this paper, we will demonstrate the capability of a new satellite algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo over bright-reflecting surfaces such as urban areas and deserts. Such retrievals have been difficult to perform using previously available algorithms that use wavelengths from the mid-visible to the near IR because they have trouble separating the aerosol signal from the contribution due to the bright surface reflectance. The new algorithm, called Deep Blue, utilizes blue-wavelength measurements from instruments such as SeaWiFS and MODIS to infer the properties of aerosols, sinre the stirfare reflectance nver land in the blue part of the spectrum is much lower than for longer wavelength channels. We have validated the satellite retrieved aerosol optical thickness with data from AERONET sunphotometers over desert and semi-desert regions. The comparisons show reasonable agreements between these two. These new satellite products will allow scientists to determine quantitatively the aerosol properties near sources using high spatial resolution measurements from SeaWiFS and MODIS-like instruments.

  12. Time-Series Analysis of Remotely-Sensed SeaWiFS Chlorophyll in River-Influenced Coastal Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; McMahon, Erin; Shen, Suhung; Hearty, Thomas; Casey, Nancy

    2009-01-01

    The availability of a nearly-continuous record of remotely-sensed chlorophyll a data (chl a) from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission, now longer than ten years, enables examination of time-series trends for multiple global locations. Innovative data analysis technology available on the World Wide Web facilitates such analyses. In coastal regions influenced by river outflows, chl a is not always indicative of actual trends in phytoplankton chlorophyll due to the interference of colored dissolved organic matter and suspended sediments; significant chl a timeseries trends for coastal regions influenced by river outflows may nonetheless be indicative of important alterations of the hydrologic and coastal environment. Chl a time-series analysis of nine marine regions influenced by river outflows demonstrates the simplicity and usefulness of this technique. The analyses indicate that coastal time-series are significantly influenced by unusual flood events. Major river systems in regions with relatively low human impact did not exhibit significant trends. Most river systems with demonstrated human impact exhibited significant negative trends, with the noteworthy exception of the Pearl River in China, which has a positive trend.

  13. THE CHROMOSPHERIC ACTIVITY OF [HH97] FS Aur-79: A CLOSE BINARY WITH LATE-TYPE ACTIVE (dK7e+dM3e) COMPONENTS

    SciTech Connect

    Austin, S. J.; Robertson, J. W.; De Souza, T. R.; Tycner, C.; Honeycutt, R. K. E-mail: jrobertson@atu.edu E-mail: c.tycner@cmich.edu

    2011-04-15

    Using Doppler tomography we show that FS Aur-79, a near-contact close binary system with late-type active dK7e+dM3e components, has chromospheric prominences in two distinct emission regions associated with the primary star and a larger amount of chromospheric activity associated with the cooler secondary star. The line profiles, equivalent widths, and equivalent width ratios of the H{alpha} and H{beta} emission lines as a function of orbital phase further support that the majority of the chromospheric emission originates above the secondary star and near the neck region. Analysis of high-resolution spectra using the technique of broadening functions has enabled us to determine the radial velocity of the secondary star near quadratures to be approximately 224 km s{sup -1}. A Wilson-Devinney model of the system fitting the UBV light curves and radial velocities shows that there are star spots near the chromospherically active regions. Finally, the absence of Li I {lambda}6708 in the spectra lets us put a lower limit on the age of this system to at least 500 Myr.

  14. Active region seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, Tom; Braun, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    Active region seismology is concerned with the determination and interpretation of the interaction of the solar acoustic oscillations with near-surface target structures, such as magnetic flux concentration, sunspots, and plage. Recent observations made with a high spatial resolution and a long temporal duration enabled measurements of the scattering matrix for sunspots and solar active regions to be carried out as a function of the mode properties. Based on this information, the amount of p-mode absorption, partial-wave phase shift, and mode mixing introduced by the sunspot, could be determined. In addition, the possibility of detecting the presence of completely submerged magnetic fields was raised, and new procedures for performing acoustic holography of the solar interior are being developed. The accumulating evidence points to the mode conversion of p-modes to various magneto-atmospheric waves within the magnetic flux concentration as being the unifying physical mechanism responsible for these diverse phenomena.

  15. Active region coronal evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.; Noci, G.; Poletto, G.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    Scaling relations between coronal base pressure and longitudinal photospheric magnetic field strength are tested for the case of a single active region observed for five solar rotations from Skylab. The evolution of measureable quantities, such as coronal thermal energy content, total longitudinal photospheric magnetic flux, region scale size, and peak energy density, is traced throughout the five rotations observed. The theoretically derived scaling law of Golub et al. (1980) is found to provide an acceptable fit to the data throughout the entire evolutionary history of the region from an age of about 3 days to the fully evolved state in which the mature active region merges into the general large-scale structure of the quiet corona. An alternative scaling law obtained by including the results of Galeev et al. (1981), however, is found to provide a somewhat better fit to the data. The study is seen as providing additional justification for the belief that magnetic field-related heating is the operative mechanism in the solar corona.

  16. Evolution of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Green, Lucie May

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of active regions (AR) from their emergence through their long decay process is of fundamental importance in solar physics. Since large-scale flux is generated by the deep-seated dynamo, the observed characteristics of flux emergence and that of the subsequent decay provide vital clues as well as boundary conditions for dynamo models. Throughout their evolution, ARs are centres of magnetic activity, with the level and type of activity phenomena being dependent on the evolutionary stage of the AR. As new flux emerges into a pre-existing magnetic environment, its evolution leads to re-configuration of small-and large-scale magnetic connectivities. The decay process of ARs spreads the once-concentrated magnetic flux over an ever-increasing area. Though most of the flux disappears through small-scale cancellation processes, it is the remnant of large-scale AR fields that is able to reverse the polarity of the poles and build up new polar fields. In this Living Review the emphasis is put on what we have learned from observations, which is put in the context of modelling and simulation efforts when interpreting them. For another, modelling-focused Living Review on the sub-surface evolution and emergence of magnetic flux see Fan (2009). In this first version we focus on the evolution of dominantly bipolar ARs.

  17. Maldives: an archipelago that burns. A first survey of PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs from human activities.

    PubMed

    Colombo, Andrea; Bettinetti, Roberta; Strona, Giovanni; Cambria, Felice; Fanelli, Roberto; Zubair, Zameer; Galli, Paolo

    2014-11-01

    Due to its geographical peculiarities, the Republic of Maldives represents a case study of great interest for the investigation of persistent organic pollutants, from both a socio-economic and an ecological perspective. Thus, we conducted a first survey to assess the current status of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (PCDD), polychlorinated dibenzofuran (PCDF) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyl (DL-PCB) concentrations in Maldivian soils. The range for PCDD/F and DL-PCB soil concentrations was 0.01-49.3 pg WHO2005-TEQ g(-1) and 0.01-3.69 pg WHO2005-TEQ g(-1) dw respectively. PCDD/F concentrations exceeding several international soil guidelines were found in samples from locations in the proximity of local waste combustion sources. DL-PCB concentrations were lower than PCDD/Fs and comparable to those in previous reports from background areas and in areas with developing industrial and agricultural activities. PCDD/F and DL-PCB levels (expressed as WHO2005-TEQ) in soils were strongly correlated (r=0.89), which suggests that, in most of the sites, they are originated from the same emission sources. Results indicate that PCDD/F soil concentrations (expressed as WHO2005-TEQ) tend to decrease with the distance from the local pollution sources. Principal component analysis (PCA) showed that PCDD/Fs in the most polluted locations are mainly generated by waste combustion. These findings highlight the need for immediate changes in waste management policies in the Archipelago, in order to reduce the release of Persistent Organic Pollutants (POPs) in the fragile local environment. PMID:25151268

  18. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library network activities in Canada, the Third World, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, and Sweden which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Canada: A Voluntary and Flexible Network," a review by Guy Sylvestre of the political, social, and economic structures affecting…

  19. The Living Ocean. SeaWiFS: Studying Ocean Color from Space. Teacher's Guide with Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1994-01-01

    This educational document, designed for grades 9 to 10, discusses the observation of oceans from space. Topics covered include ocean color, the role of phytoplankton, the carbon cycle, and the greenhouse effect. Activities and discussion questions are presented.

  20. The calibration and validation of SeaWiFS data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hooker, S. B.; McClain, C. R.

    2000-04-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the successor ocean color imaging system to the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS). The SeaWiFS calibration and validation effort includes spacecraft, atmospheric, sea surface, subsurface (or in situ), plus laboratory and data analysis components which require pre- and postlaunch activities. The most important goals of this effort are to produce water-leaving radiances with an uncertainty of 5% in clear-water regions and chlorophyll a concentrations within ±35% over the range of 0.05-50 mg m -3. The first objective requires field instruments with a calibration and measurement capability on the order of 1%; because these challenging in situ measurements will be acquired from a variety of field instruments over the five-year mission interval, a measurement assurance program is required. This program consists of several activities: an accurate prelaunch characterization and calibration of the SeaWiFS instrument; a Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) rotation in clear water to provide a water-leaving radiance time series for postlaunch vicarious calibration; the SeaWiFS Bio-Optical Archive and Storage System (SeaBASS) to hold the relevant data; clearly defined SeaWiFS Ocean Optics Protocols (SOOP) for established data collection methodologies; annual SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiments (SIRREXs) for intercomparing field and calibration equipment, and training scientific personnel; direct comparison to a national standard laboratory using the SeaWiFS Transfer Radiometer (SXR); a portable field source, called the SeaWiFS Quality Monitor (SQM), for monitoring the temporal stability of the calibration of field instruments; a highly accurate atmospheric correction algorithm designed for the SeaWiFS instrument response functions; bio-optical algorithms that encompass a broad range of bio-optical provinces; and satellite data processing, quality control, and analysis procedures for monitoring the postlaunch

  1. Ocean circulation and terrestrial runoff dynamics in the Mesoamerican region from spectral optimization of SeaWiFS data and a high resolution simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chérubin, L. M.; Kuchinke, C. P.; Paris, C. B.

    2008-09-01

    The evolution in time and space of terrestrial runoff in waters of the Mesoamerican region was examined using remote sensing techniques combined with river discharge and numerical ocean circulation models. Ocean color SeaWiFS images were processed using a new Spectral Optimization Algorithm for atmospheric correction and ocean property retrieval in Case-2 waters. A total of 157 SeaWiFS images were collected between 1997 and 2006 and processed to produce Colored Detrital Material images of the Mesoamerican waters. Monthly terrestrial runoff load and river discharge computed with a land-elevation model were used as input to a numerical model, which simulated the transport of buoyant matter from terrestrial runoff. Based on land cover for years 2003-2004, modeling results showed that the river discharge seasonality was correlated with the image averaged CDM, and the simulated plume reproduces the spatial patterns and temporal evolution of the observed CDM plume. River discharge peaked in August and CDM peaked from September to January. The buoyant matter concentration was high from October to January, and was at its lowest from March to April. Between October and December the plume was transported out of the Mesoamerican waters by a cyclonic gyre located north of Honduras. Part of the runoff from Honduras was transported towards Chinchorro Banks and the Yucatan Channel, part re-circulated into the Gulf of Honduras, and part taken toward the outside of the Mesoamerican Barrier Reef System. This study shows that all the reefs of the MBRS, including the most offshore atolls of the region, are under the influence of terrestrial runoff on a seasonal basis, with maximum effect during October to January, and minimum from March to April. Furthermore, what is seen as a giant plume in satellite images is in fact composed of runoffs of different ages.

  2. Active Region Release Two CMEs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Solar material can be seen blowing off the sun in this video captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) on the night of Feb. 5, 2013. This active region on the sun sent out two coronal ...

  3. Multithermal emission in active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zanna, Giulio

    High-resolution EUV observations from SDO/AIA, Hi-C and Hinode/EIS are used, together with updated new atomic data, to study the multi-thermal emission in active region structures. Previous observations are largely confirmed, with most structures being not co-spatial and having nearly isothermal cross-sections. Those at temperatures below 1 MK appear as nearly resolved but those at 1-3 MK are still largely unresolved even at the Hi-C resolution. Very little emission above 3 MK is present in quiescent active regions. Elemental abundances vary in different structures. The active region cores show FIP enhancements of about a factor of three. X-ray spectroscopy confirms the results of the EUV observations for the hot cores.

  4. [Degradation of PCDD/Fs by the Mixture of V2O5-WO3/TiO2 Catalyst and Activated Carbon].

    PubMed

    Ren, Yong; Ji, Sha-sha; Yu, Ming-feng; Li, Xiao-dong; Yan, Jian-hua

    2015-09-01

    The mixture of V2O5-WO3/TiO2 catalyst and two kinds of Activated Carbons (AC) (AC-1: based on lignite; AC-2: based on coconut shell) was used to destroy gas phase PCDD/Fs with high concentration (9. 80 ng.m-3, evaluated by international toxic equivalence quantity (I-TEQ) under low thermal temperature (160°C) based on a dioxin generating system. After mixing with AC, removal efficiency (RE) and destruction efficiency (DE) of PCDD/Fs increased by 20% compared with only catalyst condition. In comparison with mixture of AC based on coconut shell, mixture of AC based on lignite had lower RE-values and higher DE-values. The adjustments of the ratio of catalyst and AC could cause the different degradation effects, and RE-values increased and DE-values decreased with increasing proportions of catalyst. When the volume fraction of oxygen was 0% in experimental atmosphere, catalyst could lose its activity and most PCDD/Fs were not oxidized but adsorbed by the mixture. RE and DE-values increased with increasing content of oxygen. The addition of ozone (concentration of 200 mg.m-3) could improve catalytic oxidation effects to a certain degree. However, ozone might react with AC, which could influence the lifetime of the mixture. Under 200°C, the mixture with proportion of AC: catalyst = 1:1 and in the present of 200 mg.m-3 ozone conditions, the highest RE and DE-value were obtained with 98. 0% and 94. 8% respectively, and the concentration of PCDD/Fs residual in off-gas was only 0. 51 ng.m-3 evaluated by I-TEQ. PMID:26717717

  5. Global and Regional Trends of Aerosol Optical Depth over Land and Ocean Using SeaWiFS Measurements from 1997 to 2010

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, N. C.; Gautam, R.; Sayer, A. M.; Bettenhausen, C.; Li, C.; Jeong, M. J.; Tsay, S. C.; Holben, B. N.

    2012-01-01

    Both sensor calibration and satellite retrieval algorithm play an important role in the ability to determine accurately long-term trends from satellite data. Owing to the unprecedented accuracy and long-term stability of its radiometric calibration, the SeaWiFS measurements exhibit minimal uncertainty with respect to sensor calibration. In this study, we take advantage of this well-calibrated set of measurements by applying a newly-developed aerosol optical depth (AOD) retrieval algorithm over land and ocean to investigate the distribution of AOD, and to identify emerging patterns and trends in global and regional aerosol loading during its 13-year mission. Our results indicate that the averaged AOD trend over global ocean is weakly positive from 1998 to 2010 and comparable to that observed by MODIS but opposite in sign to that observed by AVHRR during overlapping years. On a smaller scale, different trends are found for different regions. For example, large upward trends are found over the Arabian Peninsula that indicate a strengthening of the seasonal cycle of dust emission and transport processes over the whole region as well as over downwind oceanic regions. In contrast, a negative-neutral tendency is observed over the desert/arid Saharan region as well as in the associated dust outflow over the north Atlantic. Additionally, we found decreasing trends over the eastern US and Europe, and increasing trends over countries such as China and India that are experiencing rapid economic development. In general, these results are consistent with those derived from ground-based AERONET measurements.

  6. SDO Sees Active Region Outbursts

    NASA Video Gallery

    This close up video by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory shows an active region near the right-hand edge of the sun’s disk, which erupted with at least a dozen minor events over a 30-hour period fr...

  7. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2013-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active ]region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main ]sequence path bordering the free ]energy ]limit line in (flux content, free ]energy proxy) phase space. Here we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic ]shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of order 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core ]field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  8. Global oscillations and active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrant, C. J.

    The author presents further estimates of the amplitude of the modulation of the solar global velocity signal caused by the passage of active regions across the solar disc. Using measurements of the profile of the K I λ769.9 nm line in the quiet sun and in plages he finds a global velocity variation of ≡2 m s-1 during the transit of a typical active region of area 3300 millionths of the hemisphere. However, during the period in which a velocity amplitude of 6 m s-1 was reported by Claverie et al. (1982), the sunspot areas were exceptionally large and the author confirms Schröter's (1984) result that the combination of spot and plage contributions is sufficient to account for the observed signal. The velocity modulation is thus attributable to surface inhomogeneities, not to the structure of the solar core.

  9. Cometary nucleus and active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, F. L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the icy conglomerate model of cometary nuclei, various observations demonstrate the spotted nature of many or most nuclei, i.e., regions of unusual activity, either high or low. Rotation periods, spin axes and even precession of the axes are determined. The observational evidence for variations in activity over the surfaces of cometary nuclei are listed and discussed. On June 11 the comet IRAS-ARAKI-ALCOCK approached the Earth to a distance of 0.031 AU, the nearest since C/Lexell, 1770 I, providing a unique opportunity for near-nucleus observations. Preliminary analysis of these images establishes the spin axis of the nucleus, with an oblioquity to the orbit plane of approximately 50 deg, and a lag angle of sublimation approximately 35 deg from the solar meridian on the nucleus. Asymmetries of the inner coma suggests a crazy-quilt distribution of ices with differing volatility over the surface of the nucleus. The observations of Comet P/Homes 1892 III, exhibiting two 8-10 magnitude bursts, are carefully analyzed. The grazing encounter produced, besides the first great burst, an active area on the nucleus, which was rotating retrograde with a period of 16.3hr and inclination nearly 180 deg. After the first burst the total magnitude fell less than two magnitudes from November 7 to November 30 (barely naked eye) while the nuclear region remained diffuse or complex, rarely if ever showing a stellar appearance. The fading was much more rapid after the second burst. The grazing encounter distributed a volume of large chunks in the neighborhood of the nucleus, maintaining activity for weeks.

  10. Volcanically Active Regions on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Shown here is a portion of one of the highest-resolution images of Io (Latitude: +10 to +60 degrees, Longitude: 180 to 225 degrees) acquired by the Galileo spacecraft, revealing immense lava flows and other volcanic landforms. Several high-temperature volcanic hot spots have been detected in this region by both the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer and the imaging system of Galileo. The temperatures are consistent with active silicate volcanism in lava flows or lava lakes (which reside inside irregular depressions called calderas). The large dark lava flow in the upper left region of the image is more than 400 km long, similar to ancient flood basalts on Earth and mare lavas on the Moon.

    North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the left. The image covers an area 1230 kilometers wide and the smallest features that can be discerned are 2.5 kilometers in size. This image was taken on November 6th, 1996, at a range of 245,719 kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system on the Galileo Spacecraft.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  11. Emerging flux in active regions. [of sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liggett, M.; Zirin, H.

    1985-01-01

    The rates at which flux emerges in active and quiet solar regions within the sunspot belts are compared. The emerging flux regions (EFRs) were identified by the appearance of arch filament structures in H-alpha. All EFRs in high resolution films of active regions made at Big Bear in 1978 were counted. The comparable rate of flux emergence in quiet regions was obtained from SGD data and independently from EFRs detected outside the active region perimeter on the same films. The rate of flux emergence is 10 times higher in active regions than in quiet regions. A sample of all active regions in 31 days of 1983 gave a ratio of 7.5. Possible mechanisms which might funnel new magnetic flux to regions of strong magnetic field are discussed.

  12. Emission measure distribution for diffuse regions in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Srividya; Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2014-11-01

    Our knowledge of the diffuse emission that encompasses active regions is very limited. In this paper we investigate two off-limb active regions, namely, AR 10939 and AR 10961, to probe the underlying heating mechanisms. For this purpose, we have used spectral observations from Hinode/EIS and employed the emission measure (EM) technique to obtain the thermal structure of these diffuse regions. Our results show that the characteristic EM distributions of the diffuse emission regions peak at log T = 6.25 and the coolward slopes are in the range 1.4-3.3. This suggests that both low- as well as high-frequency nanoflare heating events are at work. Our results provide additional constraints on the properties of these diffuse emission regions and their contribution to the background/foreground when active region cores are observed on-disk.

  13. Comparison of adsorption behavior of PCDD/Fs on carbon nanotubes and activated carbons in a bench-scale dioxin generating system.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Xujian; Li, Xiaodong; Xu, Shuaixi; Zhao, Xiyuan; Ni, Mingjiang; Cen, Kefa

    2015-07-01

    Porous carbon-based materials are commonly used to remove various organic and inorganic pollutants from gaseous and liquid effluents and products. In this study, the adsorption of dioxins on both activated carbons and multi-walled carbon nanotube was internally compared, via series of bench scale experiments. A laboratory-scale dioxin generator was applied to generate PCDD/Fs with constant concentration (8.3 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3)). The results confirm that high-chlorinated congeners are more easily adsorbed on both activated carbons and carbon nanotubes than low-chlorinated congeners. Carbon nanotubes also achieved higher adsorption efficiency than activated carbons even though they have smaller BET-surface. Carbon nanotubes reached the total removal efficiency over 86.8 % to be compared with removal efficiencies of only 70.0 and 54.2 % for the two other activated carbons tested. In addition, because of different adsorption mechanisms, the removal efficiencies of carbon nanotubes dropped more slowly with time than was the case for activated carbons. It could be attributed to the abundant mesopores distributed in the surface of carbon nanotubes. They enhanced the pore filled process of dioxin molecules during adsorption. In addition, strong interactions between the two benzene rings of dioxin molecules and the hexagonal arrays of carbon atoms in the surface make carbon nanotubes have bigger adsorption capacity. PMID:25728198

  14. FS65 Disposition Option Report

    SciTech Connect

    Wenz, Tracy R.

    2015-09-25

    This report outlines the options for dispositioning the MOX fuel stored in FS65 containers at LANL. Additional discussion regarding the support equipment for loading and unloading the FS65 transport containers is included at the end of the report.

  15. The Main Sequence of Explosive Solar Active Regions: Comparison of Emerging and Mature Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David; Moore, Ron

    2011-01-01

    For mature active regions, an active region s magnetic flux content determines the maximum free energy the active region can have. Most Large flares and CMEs occur in active regions that are near their free-energy limit. Active-region flare power radiated in the GOES 1-8 band increases steeply as the free-energy limit is approached. We infer that the free-energy limit is set by the rate of release of an active region s free magnetic energy by flares, CMEs and coronal heating balancing the maximum rate the Sun can put free energy into the active region s magnetic field. This balance of maximum power results in explosive active regions residing in a "mainsequence" in active-region (flux content, free energy content) phase space, which sequence is analogous to the main sequence of hydrogen-burning stars in (mass, luminosity) phase space.

  16. The Twist Limit for Bipolar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Gary, Allen

    2008-01-01

    We present new evidence that further supports the standard idea that active regions are emerged magnetic-flux-rope omega loops. When the axial magnetic twist of a cylindrical flux rope exceeds a critical amount, the flux rope becomes unstable to kinking, and the excess axial twist is converted into writhe twist by the kinking. This suggests that, if active regions are emerged omega loops, then (1) no active region should have magnetic twist much above the limit set by kinking, (2) active regions having twist near the limit should often arise from kinked omega loops, and (3) since active regions having large delta sunspots are outstandingly twisted, these arise from kinked omega loops and should have twist near the limit for kinking. From each of 36 vector magnetograms of bipolar active regions, we have measured (1) the total flux of the vertical field above 100 G, (2) the area covered by this flux, and (3) the net electric current that arches over the polarity inversion line. These three quantities yield an estimate of the axial magnetic twist in a simple model cylindrical flux rope that corresponds to the top of the active region s hypothetical omega loop prior to emergence. In all 36 cases, the estimated twist is below the critical limit for kinking. The 11 most twisted active regions (1) have estimated twist within a factor of approx.3 of the limit, and (2) include all of our 6 active regions having large delta sunspots. Thus, our observed twist limit for bipolar active regions is in good accord with active regions being emerged omega loops.

  17. VERIFICATION SURVEY ACTIVITIES IN FS SURVEY UNITS 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 & 14 AT THE SEPARATIONS PROCESS RESEARCH UNIT

    SciTech Connect

    M.G. JADICK

    2010-05-26

    FINAL INTERIM REPORT VERIFICATION SURVEY ACTIVITIES IN FINAL STATUS SURVEY UNITS 7, 8, 9, 10, 11, 13 AND 14 AT THE SEPARATIONS PROCESS RESEARCH UNIT, Niskayuna, New York 0496-SR-03-0. The Separations Process Research Unit (SPRU) facilities were constructed in the late 1940s to research the chemical separation of plutonium and uranium. SPRU operated between February 1950 and October 1953. The research activities ceased following the successful development of the reduction/oxidation and plutonium/uranium extraction processes that were subsequently used by the Hanford and the Savannah River sites.

  18. Active Region Emergence and Remote Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yixing; Welsch, Brian T.

    2016-02-01

    We study the effect of new emerging solar active regions on the large-scale magnetic environment of existing regions. We first present a theoretical approach to quantify the "interaction energy" between new and pre-existing regions as the difference between i) the summed magnetic energies of their individual potential fields and ii) the energy of their superposed potential fields. We expect that this interaction energy can, depending upon the relative arrangements of newly emerged and pre-existing magnetic flux, indicate the existence of "topological" free magnetic energy in the global coronal field that is independent of any "internal" free magnetic energy due to coronal electric currents flowing within the newly emerged and pre-existing flux systems. We then examine the interaction energy in two well-studied cases of flux emergence, but find that the predicted energetic perturbation is relatively small compared to energies released in large solar flares. Next, we present an observational study of the influence of the emergence of new active regions on flare statistics in pre-existing active regions, using NOAA's Solar Region Summary and GOES flare databases. As part of an effort to precisely determine the emergence time of active regions in a large event sample, we find that emergence in about half of these regions exhibits a two-stage behavior, with an initial gradual phase followed by a more rapid phase. Regarding flaring, we find that the emergence of new regions is associated with a significant increase in the occurrence rate of X- and M-class flares in pre-existing regions. This effect tends to be more significant when pre-existing and new emerging active regions are closer. Given the relative weakness of the interaction energy, this effect suggests that perturbations in the large-scale magnetic field, such as topology changes invoked in the "breakout" model of coronal mass ejections, might play a significant role in the occurrence of some flares.

  19. Hinode Captures Images of Solar Active Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    In these images, Hinode's Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) zoomed in on AR 11263 on August 4, 2011, five days before the active region produced the largest flare of this cycle, an X6.9. We show images...

  20. The flare productivity of active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, N.; Christe, S.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that the flare frequency distribution is consistent with a power-law. Furthermore, studies have shown that regions of higher magnetic complexity produce more large flares. This may imply that the flare frequency distribution is harder for magnetically complex active regions. However, the relationship between source active regions' magnetic complexity and the flare size distribution has not been extensively studied. We present a new study of 25,000 microflares detected by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) from March 2002 to February 2007. For each flare, we have obtained the two classifications of magnetic complexity, the Mount Wilson Magnetic Classification and the Zurich/McIntosh Sunspot Classification, from the Solar Region Summary prepared by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/ Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), and compared them with the RHESSI flare size distribution as observed in the 12 to 25 keV energy range. We investigate the relationship between the slope of the microflare size distribution and the magnetic properties of source active regions. For each flare we obtain the relevant MDI magnetogram to determine properties such as the area of the source active region and total unsigned magnetic flux. These properties are then compared to properties of the associated microflares such as peak flux and microflare size distribution. We find that, for both the Mount Wilson Magnetic Classification and the Zurich/McIntosh Sunspot Classification, the slopes of the microflare size distribution tend to get harder as a function of magnetic complexity. For example, in Mount Wilson Magnetic Classification the slope for α regions was 1.66 and the slope for βγδ region was 1.51.This suggests that βγδ regions are 50 % more likely to produce X class flares than α regions.

  1. Chromospheric Acoustic Oscillations in Active Flaring Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsue, T.; Hill, F.; Stassun, K.

    2014-12-01

    Chromospheric p-mode oscillations are studied in Hα to obtain helioseismic information regarding the local structural conditions around highly magnetic regions such as sunspots. Solar flares commonly occur in active regions where these sunspots exist therefore boosting the p-mode power. In our current study of analyzing p-modes in the chromosphere we study the time evolution of acoustic p-mode oscillation data taken from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Hα, and investigate the p-modes across the frequency band (1 < ν < 8.33 mHz). This study entails three active regions directly over sunspots, with accompanying flaring activity from two solar flares, occurring on June 13th and July 12th, 2012. Our analysis utilizes time series data to create Fourier power spectra of individual pixels spatially resolved around the flare region, to study the frequency bands. We then study how the frequency distribution evolves temporally by constructing a Power Map Movie (PMM) of the regions. From these PMMs we can take a survey of the chromospheric oscillations for each frequency band. We found that the intensity of the flare has an effect on the behavior of the p-modes within different frequency bands. The suppression of power was observed in dark anomalous structures within the PMMs and in other regions there was an observed boost in power due to flaring activity.

  2. Growth and Decay of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobias, J. J.; Chapman, G. A.; Cookson, A. M.; Preminger, D. G.; Walton, S. R.

    2002-05-01

    We report here on a study of growth and decay rates of sunspot and facular areas of solar active regions. The data used in this project come from an ongoing program of daily photometric observations of the sun with the Cartesian Full Disk Telescope No. 1 (CFDT1) at the San Fernando Observatory (SFO). Sunspot regions are determined from images taken with a red filter centered at 672.3 nm with a bandpass of 9.7 nm, while images taken with a Ca II K line filter, centered at 393.4 nm and with a bandpass of only 1nm, are used to find facular areas. Before any areas can be found on any observed images, they have to be calibrated then flattened by removing limb darkening thus producing contrast images. Sunspot areas are then determined from any pixel with contrast of -8.5% or less, while any pixel on a K line contrast image with a contrast of +4.8%/μ or higher, where μ is the cosine of the heliocentric angle, is considered to be a facular pixel. To identify the areas as clearly as possible, studied active regions were usually observed on the sun with relatively low activity; that means that each region is either alone on the sun's disk or with only very few other active regions present. Furthermore, to obtain growth and decay patterns of the areas as reliably as possible, only such active regions must be chosen for which there is as complete observational coverage as possible. At the present time studies have been finished for only a few active regions, but analysis of several others is on going. Obtained results will be presented at the meeting. This work is supported by NSF grant ATM-9912132 and NASA grants NAG5-7191 and NAG5-7778.

  3. The 17 GHz active region number

    SciTech Connect

    Selhorst, C. L.; Pacini, A. A.; Costa, J. E. R.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A.; Shibasaki, K.

    2014-08-01

    We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.

  4. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  5. Fluxon Modeling of Active Region Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deforest, C. E.; Kankelborg, C. C.; Davey, A. R.; Rachmeler, L.

    2006-12-01

    We present current results and status on fluxon modeling of free energy buildup and release in active regions. Our publicly available code, FLUX, has the unique ability to track magnetic energy buildup with a truly constrained topology in evolving, nonlinear force-free conditions. Recent work includes validation of the model against Low &Lou force-free field solutions, initial evolution studies of idealized active regions, and inclusion of locally parameterized reconnection into the model. FLUX is uniquely able to simulate complete active regions in 3-D on a single workstation; we estimate that a parallelized fluxon model, together with computer vision code to ingest solar data, could run faster than real time on a cluster of \\textasciitilde 30 CPUs and hence provide a true predictive space weather model in the style of predictive simulations of terrestrial weather.

  6. Quantifying the Complexity of Flaring Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, B.; Hagyard, M. J.

    1997-05-01

    While solar physicists have a better understanding of the importance magnetic fields play in the solar heating mechanism, it is still not possible to predict whether or when an active region will flare. In recent decades, qualitative studies of the changes in active region morphology have shown that there is generally an increase in the complexity of the spatial configuration of a solar active region leading up to a flare event. In this study, we quantify the spatial structure of the region using the Differential Box-Counting Method (DBC)of fractal analysis. We analyze data from NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center's vector magnetograph from two flaring active regions: AR 6089 from June 10, 1990, which produced one M1.7 flare, and AR 6659 from June 8, 9 and 10, 1991, this data set including one C5.7 and two M(6.4 and 3.2) flares. (AR 6659 produced several other flares). Several magnetic parameters are studied, including the transverse and longitudinal magnetic field components (Bt and Bl), the total field (Bmag), and the magnetic shear, which describes the non-potentiality of the field. Results are presented for the time series of magnetograms in relation to the timing of flare events.

  7. Quantifying the Complexity of Flaring Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, B.; Hagyard, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    While solar physicists have a better understanding of the importance magnetic fields play in the solar heating mechanism, it is still not possible to predict whether or when an active region will flare. In recent decades, qualitative studies of the changes in active region morphology have shown that there is generally an increase in the complexity of the spatial configuration of a solar active region leading up to a flare event. In this study, we quantify the spatial structure of the region using the differential Box-Counting Method (DBC) of fractal analysis. We analyze data from NASA/Marshall Space Flight Centr's vector magnetograph from two flaring active regions: AR 6089 from June 10, 1990, which produced one M1.7 flare, and AR 6659 from June 8, 9 and 10, 1991, this data set including one C5.7 and two M(6.4 and 3.2) flare. (AR 6659 produced several other flares). Several magnetic parameters are studied, including the transverse and longitudinal magnetic field components (Bt and B1), the total field (Bmag), and the magnetic shear, which describes the non-potentiality of the field. Results are presented for the time series of magnetograms in relation to the timing of flare events.

  8. New aerosol models for the retrieval of aerosol optical thickness and normalized water-leaving radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors over coastal regions and open oceans.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Ziauddin; Franz, Bryan A; McClain, Charles R; Kwiatkowska, Ewa J; Werdell, Jeremy; Shettle, Eric P; Holben, Brent N

    2010-10-10

    We describe the development of a new suite of aerosol models for the retrieval of atmospheric and oceanic optical properties from the SeaWiFS and MODIS sensors, including aerosol optical thickness (τ), angstrom coefficient (α), and water-leaving radiance (L(w)). The new aerosol models are derived from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations and have bimodal lognormal distributions that are narrower than previous models used by the Ocean Biology Processing Group. We analyzed AERONET data over open ocean and coastal regions and found that the seasonal variability in the modal radii, particularly in the coastal region, was related to the relative humidity. These findings were incorporated into the models by making the modal radii, as well as the refractive indices, explicitly dependent on relative humidity. From these findings, we constructed a new suite of aerosol models. We considered eight relative humidity values (30%, 50%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%, and 95%) and, for each relative humidity value, we constructed ten distributions by varying the fine-mode fraction from zero to 1. In all, 80 distributions (8 Rh×10 fine-mode fractions) were created to process the satellite data. We also assumed that the coarse-mode particles were nonabsorbing (sea salt) and that all observed absorptions were entirely due to fine-mode particles. The composition of the fine mode was varied to ensure that the new models exhibited the same spectral dependence of single scattering albedo as observed in the AERONET data. The reprocessing of the SeaWiFS data show that, over deep ocean, the average τ(865) values retrieved from the new aerosol models was 0.100±0.004, which was closer to the average AERONET value of 0.086±0.066 for τ(870) for the eight open-ocean sites used in this study. The average τ(865) value from the old models was 0.131±0.005. The comparison of monthly mean aerosol optical thickness retrieved from the SeaWiFS sensor with AERONET data over Bermuda and

  9. ON THE FORMATION OF ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, Ake E-mail: aake@nbi.dk

    2012-07-01

    Magnetoconvection can produce an active region without an initial coherent flux tube. A simulation was performed where a uniform, untwisted, horizontal magnetic field of 1 kG strength was advected into the bottom of a computational domain 48 Mm wide by 20 Mm deep. The up and down convective motions produce a hierarchy of magnetic loops with a wide range of scales, with smaller loops riding 'piggy-back' in a serpentine fashion on larger loops. When a large loop approaches the surface, it produces a small active region with a compact leading spot and more diffuse following spots.

  10. On the Formation of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, Åke

    2012-07-01

    Magnetoconvection can produce an active region without an initial coherent flux tube. A simulation was performed where a uniform, untwisted, horizontal magnetic field of 1 kG strength was advected into the bottom of a computational domain 48 Mm wide by 20 Mm deep. The up and down convective motions produce a hierarchy of magnetic loops with a wide range of scales, with smaller loops riding "piggy-back" in a serpentine fashion on larger loops. When a large loop approaches the surface, it produces a small active region with a compact leading spot and more diffuse following spots.

  11. SeaWiFS Images Fires on Yucatan Peninsula

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) shows dense smoke from fires in the Yucatan peninsula on April 24, 2000. In the El Nino year of 1998 fires in the region emitted enough smoke to cause authorities in Texas to issue air quality warnings. For more information, see: SeaWiFS Project Home Page Global Fire Monitoring 4km2 TRMM Fire Data Image provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  12. Solar Eruptions Initiated in Sigmoidal Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savcheva, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    active regions that have been shown to possess high probability for eruption. They present a direct evidence of the existence of flux ropes in the corona prior to the impulsive phase of eruptions. In order to gain insight into their eruptive behavior and how they get destabilized we need to know their 3D magnetic field structure. First, we review some recent observations and modeling of sigmoidal active regions as the primary hosts of solar eruptions, which can also be used as useful laboratories for studying these phenomena. Then, we concentrate on the analysis of observations and highly data-constrained non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) models over the lifetime of several sigmoidal active regions, where we have captured their magnetic field structure around the times of major flares. We present the topology analysis of a couple of sigmoidal regions pointing us to the probable sites of reconnection. A scenario for eruption is put forward by this analysis. We demonstrate the use of this topology analysis to reconcile the observed eruption features with the standard flare model. Finally, we show a glimpse of how such a NLFFF model of an erupting region can be used to initiate a CME in a global MHD code in an unprecedented realistic manner. Such simulations can show the effects of solar transients on the near-Earth environment and solar system space weather.

  13. Asia Section. Regional Activities Division. Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Two papers on library and information activities in developing nations, particularly in India and other Asian countries, were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In "IFLA in Asia: A Review of the Work of the Regional Section for Asia," Edward Lim Huck Tee (Malaysia) describes the low level of…

  14. Magnetic helicity in emerging solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Bobra, M.; Hayashi, K.; Sun, X.; Schuck, P. W.

    2014-04-10

    Using vector magnetic field data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we study magnetic helicity injection into the corona in emerging active regions (ARs) and examine the hemispheric helicity rule. In every region studied, photospheric shearing motion contributes most of the helicity accumulated in the corona. In a sample of 28 emerging ARs, 17 follow the hemisphere rule (61% ± 18% at a 95% confidence interval). Magnetic helicity and twist in 25 ARs (89% ± 11%) have the same sign. The maximum magnetic twist, which depends on the size of an AR, is inferred in a sample of 23 emerging ARs with a bipolar magnetic field configuration.

  15. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1998-06-02

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  16. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1996-01-01

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  17. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  18. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1996-01-30

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  19. Supergranule Diffusion and Active Region Decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Choudhary, Debi Prasad

    2004-01-01

    Models of the Sun's magnetic dynamo include turbulent diffusion to parameterize the effects of convective motions on the evolution of the Sun's magnetic field. Supergranules are known to dominate the evolution of the surface magnetic field structure as evidenced by the structure of both the active and quiet magnetic network. However, estimates for the dif hivity attributed to su perymules differ by an order of magnitude from about 100 km sup2/s to more than 1000 km sup2/s. We examine this question of the e i v i t y using three merent approaches. 1) We study the decay of more than 30,000 active regions by determining the rate of change in the sunspot area of each active region from day-to-day. 2) We study the decay of a single isolated active region near the time of solar minimum by examining the magnetic field evolution over five solar rotations fiom SOHOMDI magnetograms obtained at 96-minute intervals. 3) We study the characteristics of supergranules that influence the estimates of their diffusive properties - flow speeds and lifetimes as functions of size - fiom SOHO/MDI Dopplergrams.

  20. New Aerosol Models for the Retrieval of Aerosol Optical Thickness and Normalized Water-Leaving Radiances from the SeaWiFS and MODIS Sensors Over Coastal Regions and Open Oceans

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmad, Ziauddin; Franz, Bryan A.; McClain, Charles R.; Kwiatkowska, Ewa J.; Werdell, Jeremy; Shettle, Eric P.; Holben, Brent N.

    2010-01-01

    We describe the development of a new suite of aerosol models for the retrieval of atmospheric and oceanic optical properties from the SeaWiFs and MODIS sensors, including aerosol optical thickness (tau), angstrom coefficient (alpha), and water-leaving radiance (L(sub w)). The new aerosol models are derived from Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) observations and have bimodal lognormal distributions that are narrower than previous models used by the Ocean Biology Processing Group. We analyzed AERONET data over open ocean and coastal regions and found that the seasonal variability in the modal radii, particularly in the coastal region, was related to the relative humidity, These findings were incorporated into the models by making the modal radii, as well as the refractive indices, explicitly dependent on relative humidity, From those findings, we constructed a new suite of aerosol models. We considered eight relative humidity values (30%, 50%, 70%, 75%, 80%, 85%, 90%. and 95%) and, for each relative humidity value, we constructed ten distributions by varying the fine-mode fraction from zero to 1. In all. 80 distributions (8Rh x 10 fine-mode fractions) were created to process the satellite data. We. also assumed that the coarse-mode particles were nonabsorbing (sea salt) and that all observed absorptions were entirely due to fine-mode particles. The composition of fine mode was varied to ensure that the new models exhibited the same spectral dependence of single scattering albedo as observed in the AERONET data,

  1. Fs Laser Fabrication of Photonic Structures in Glass: the Role of Glass Composition

    SciTech Connect

    Krol, D M; Chan, J W; Huser, T R; Risbud, S H; Hayden, J S

    2004-06-16

    The use of fs lasers to directly write photonic structures inside a glass has great potential as a fabrication method for three-dimensional all-optical integrated components. The ability to use this technique with different glass compositions--specifically tailored for a specific photonics application--is critical to its successful exploitation. Consequently, it is important to understand how glass composition effects waveguide fabrication with fs laser pulses and how different glasses are structurally modified after exposure to fs laser pulses. We have used confocal laser spectroscopy to monitor the changes in glass structure that are associated with waveguide fabrication. Using a low power continuous wave (cw) Ar laser as excitation source we have measured both Raman and fluorescence spectra of the modified regions. Raman spectroscopy provides us with information on the network structure, whereas fluorescence measurements reveal the presence of optically active point defects in the glass. In this paper we review our work on fs-laser fabrication and characterization of photonic structures in glass and discuss the effect of glass composition on processing parameters and structural modification.

  2. Proper Motion Of Emerging Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lirong

    2009-05-01

    Observational and modeling results indicate that typically the leading magnetic field of bipolar active regions is often spatially more compact, while more dispersed and fragmented in following polarity. Tian & Alexander (2009, ApJ, 695) studied 15 emerging active regions and find that magnetic helicity flux injected into the corona by the leading polarity is generally several times larger than that injected by the following polarity. They argue that the asymmetry of the magnetic helicity should be responsible for the asymmetry of the magnetic morphology. This argument is supported by two resent model results that magnetic flux tubes with higher degree of twist (and therefor greater magnetic tension) have higher rates of emergence (Murray & Hood 2008, A&A, 479; Cheung et al. 2008, ApJ, 687). These results are consistent because the proper motion (related to the emergence) of the leading polarity was found to be faster than that of the following polarity (van Driel-Gesztelyi & Petrovay 1990, Solar Phys., 126). In this paper, we will reinvestigate the proper motion of leading and following polarities of the emerging active regions, and study possible relationship between the proper motion and magnetic helicity.

  3. Models of Impulsively Heated Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, Vladimir; Klimchuk, J.

    2009-05-01

    A number of attempts to model solar active regions with steady coronal heating have been modestly successful at reproducing the observed soft X-ray emission, but they fail dramatically at explaining EUV observations. Since impulsive heating (nanoflare) models can reproduce individual EUV loops, it seems reasonable to consider that entire active regions are impulsively heated. However, nanoflares are characterized by many parameters, such as magnitude, duration, and time delay between successive events, and these parameters may depend on the strength of the magnetic field or the length of field lines, for example, so a wide range of active region models must be examined. We have recently begun such a study. Each model begins with a magnetic "skeleton” obtained by extrapolating an observed photospheric magnetogram into the corona. Field lines are populated with plasma using our highly efficient hydro code called Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops (EBTEL). We then produce synthetic images corresponding to emission line or broad-band observations. By determining which set of nanoflare parameters best reproduces actual observations, we hope to constrain the properties of the heating and ultimately to reveal the physical mechanism. We here report on the initial progress of our study.

  4. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 8: Proceedings of the First SeaWiFS Science Team Meeting

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Esaias, Wayne E.; Rexrode, Lisa A.; Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    The first meeting of the SeaWiFS Science Team was held in preparation for a launch of the SeaStar satellite carrying the SeaWiFS ocean color scanner in the October 1993 time frame. The primary goals of the meeting were: (1) to brief Science Team members, agency representatives, and international collaborators on the status of the mission by representatives from the SeaWiFS Project, the prime contractor Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC), and the Goddard Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC); (2) to provide for briefings on the science investigations undertaken by Science Team members and to solicit comments and recommendations from meeting attendees for improvements; and (3) to improve coordination of research and validation activities both inter- and intra-nationally with respect to collection, validation, and application of ocean color data from the SeaWiFS mission. Presentations and recommendations are summarized.

  5. Solar irradiance variations due to active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, L.; Schatten, K.H.; Sofia, S.

    1982-05-15

    We have been able to reproduce the variations of the solar irradiance observed by ACRIM to an accuracy of better than +- 0.4 W m/sup -2/, assuming that during the 6 month observation period in 1980 the solar luminosity was constant. The improvement over previous attempts is primarily due to the inclusion of faculae. The reproduction scheme uses simple geometrical data on spot and facula areas, and conventional parameters for the respective fluxes and angular dependencies. The quality of reproduction is not very sensitive to most of the details of these parameters; nevertheless, there conventional parameters cannot be very different from their actual values in the solar atmosphere. It is interesting that the time average of the integrated excess emission (over directions) of the faculae cancels out the integrated deficit produced by the spots, within an accuracy of about 10%. If this behavior were maintained over longer periods of time, say, on the order of an activity cycle, active regions could be viewed as a kind of lighthouse where the energy deficit near the normal direction, associated with the spots, is primarily reemitted close to the tangential directions by the faculae. The currently available data suggest that energy ''storage'' associated with the redirection of flux near active regions on the Sun is comparable to the lifetime of the faculae.

  6. Steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs) as a tool to monitor plant heat and drought stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cendrero Mateo, M.; Carmo-Silva, A.; Salvucci, M.; Moran, S. M.; Hernandez, M.

    2012-12-01

    Crop yield decreases when photosynthesis is limited by heat or drought conditions. Yet farmers do not monitor crop photosynthesis because it is difficult to measure at the field scale in real time. Steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs) can be used at the field level as an indirect measure of photosynthetic activity in both healthy and physiologically-perturbed vegetation. In addition, Fs can be measured by satellite-based sensors on a regular basis over large agricultural regions. In this study, plants of Camelina sativa grown under controlled conditions were subjected to heat and drought stress. Gas exchange and Fs were measured simultaneously with a portable photosynthesis system under light limiting and saturating conditions. Results showed that Fs was directly correlated with net CO2 assimilation (A) and inversely correlated with non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Analysis of the relationship between Fs and Photosynthetically Active Radiation (PAR) revealed significant differences between control and stressed plants that could be used to track the status, resilience, and recovery of photochemical processes. In summary, the results provide evidence that Fs measurements, even without normalization, are an easy means to monitor changes in plant photosynthesis, and therefore, provide a rapid assessment of plant stress to guide farmers in resource applications. Figure1. Net CO2 assimilation rate (A) of Camelina sativa plants under control conditions and after heat stress exposure for 1 or 3 days (1d-HS and 3d-HS, respectively) (right) and control, drought and re-watering conditions (left). Conditions for infra-red gas analysis were: reference CO2 = 380 μmol mol-1, PPFD = 500 μmol m-2 s-1 and Tleaf set to 25°C (control, drought and re-water) or 35°C (HS). Different letters denote significant differences at the α=0.05 level. Values are means±SEM (n=10). Figure 2. Stable chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs) of Camelina sativa plants under control conditions and

  7. Observations of an active region filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, W. G.; Tang, Y. H.; Fang, C.; Xu, A. A.

    An active region filament was well observed on September 4, 2002 with THEMIS at the Teide observatory and SOHO/MDI. The full Stokes parameters of the filament were obtained in Hα and FeI 6302 Å lines. Using the data, we have studied the fine structure of the filament and obtained the parameters at the barb endpoints, including intensity, velocity and longitudinal magnetic field. Our results indicate: (a) the Doppler velocities are quiet different at barb endpoints; (b) the longitudinal magnetic fields at the barb endpoints are very weak; (c) there is a strong magnetic field structure under the filament spine.

  8. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 9: The simulated SeaWiFS data set, version 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Chen, Frank C.; Mezaache, Ahmed L.; Chen, Judy D.; Whiting, Jeffrey A.; Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Indest, A. W. (Editor)

    1993-01-01

    Data system development activities for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) must begin well before the scheduled 1994 launch. To assist in these activities, it is essential to develop a simulated SeaWiFS data set as soon as possible. Realism is of paramount importance in this data set, including SeaWiFS spectral bands, orbital and scanning characteristics, and known data structures. Development of the simulated data set can assist in identification of problem areas that can be addressed and solved before the actual data are received. This paper describes the creation of the first version of the simulated SeaWiFS data set. The data set includes the spectral band, orbital, and scanning characteristics of the SeaWiFS sensor and SeaStar spacecraft. The information is output in the data structure as it is stored onboard. Thus, it is a level-0 data set which can be taken from start to finish through a prototype data system. The data set is complete and correct at the time of printing, although the values in the telemetry fields are left blank. The structure of the telemetry fields, however, is incorporated. Also, no account for clouds has been included. However, this version facilitates early prototyping activities by the SeaWiFS data system, providing a realistic data set to assess performance.

  9. Pederson Current Dissipation In Emerging Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leake, James E.; Linton, M. G.

    2011-05-01

    Pederson current dissipation in emerging active regions. Certain regions of the solar atmosphere, such as the photosphere and chromosphere, as well as prominences, contain a significant amount of neutral atoms, and a complete description of the plasma requires including the effects of partial ionization. In the chromosphere the dissipation of Pederson currents is important for the evolution of emerging magnetic fields. Due to the relatively high number density in the chromosphere, the ion-neutral collision time-scale is much smaller than timescales associated with flux emergence. Hence we use a single-fluid approach to model the partially ionized plasma. Looking at both the emergence of large-scale sub-surface structures, and the emergence and reconnection of undulatory fields, we investigate the effect of Pederson current dissipation on the state of the emerging field, on magnetic reconnection and on dissipative heating of the atmosphere. Specifically we examine the effect of motions across fieldlines in the partially ionized regions, and how this can increase the free energy supplied to the corona by flux emergence. We also look at reconnection associated with flux emergence in the partially ionized atmosphere, and how this can account for observed small-scale brightenings (Ellerman Bombs).

  10. Localizing Region-Based Active Contours

    PubMed Central

    Lankton, Shawn; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a natural framework that allows any region-based segmentation energy to be re-formulated in a local way. We consider local rather than global image statistics and evolve a contour based on local information. Localized contours are capable of segmenting objects with heterogeneous feature profiles that would be difficult to capture correctly using a standard global method. The presented technique is versatile enough to be used with any global region-based active contour energy and instill in it the benefits of localization. We describe this framework and demonstrate the localization of three well-known energies in order to illustrate how our framework can be applied to any energy. We then compare each localized energy to its global counterpart to show the improvements that can be achieved. Next, an in-depth study of the behaviors of these energies in response to the degree of localization is given. Finally, we show results on challenging images to illustrate the robust and accurate segmentations that are possible with this new class of active contour models. PMID:18854247

  11. HEROES Observations of a Quiescent Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, A. Y.; Christe, S.; Gaskin, J.; Wilson-Hodge, C.

    2014-12-01

    Hard X-ray (HXR) observations of solar flares reveal the signatures of energetic electrons, and HXR images with high dynamic range and high sensitivity can distinguish between where electrons are accelerated and where they stop. Even in the non-flaring corona, high-sensitivity HXR measurements may be able to detect the presence of electron acceleration. The High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon mission added the capability of solar observations to an existing astrophysics balloon payload, HERO, which used grazing-incidence optics for direct HXR imaging. HEROES measures HXR emission from ~20 to ~75 keV with an angular resolution of 33" HPD. HEROES launched on 2013 September 21 from Fort Sumner, New Mexico, and had a successful one-day flight. We present the detailed analysis of the 7-hour observation of AR 11850, which sets new upper limits on the HXR emission from a quiescent active region, with corresponding constraints on the numbers of tens of keV energetic electrons present. Using the imaging capability of HEROES, HXR upper limits are also obtained for the quiet Sun surrounding the active region. We also discuss what can be achieved with new and improved HXR instrumentation on balloons.

  12. Radio magnetography of the solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfreikh, G. B.; Shibasaki, K.

    The observations of the solar magnetic fields is one of the most important basics for study of all important processes in structuring the solar atmosphere and most kinds of the release of the energy. The radio methods are of the special interest here because they gain the information on the magnetic field strength in the solar corona and upper chromosphere where traditional optical methods do not work. The construction of the Nobeyama radio heliograph opens a new era in usage radio methods for solar radio magnetography due to some unique property of the instrument: - The 2D mapping of the whole disk of the sun both in I and V Stokes parameters with resolution of 10 arcsec. - Regular observations (without breaks due to weather conditions), eight hours a day, already for seven years. The most effective and representative radio method of measuring the solar magnetic fields is to use polarization measurements of the thermal bremsstrahlung (free-free emission). It is applicable both to analysis of chromospheric and coronal magnetic fields and presents information on longitude component of the magnetic field strength in solar active regions. Three problems are met, however: (i) One needs to measure very low degree of polarization (small fraction of a percent); (ii) To get the real value of the field the spectral data are necessary. (iii) While observing an active region on the disk we have got the overlapping effects on polarized signal of the chromospheric and coronal magnetic fields. To get higher sensitivity the averaging of the radio maps over periods of about ten minutes were used with the results of sensitivity on V-maps of the order 0.1%. Observations for a number of dates have been analysed (August 22, 1992, October 31, 1992; June 30, 1993, July 22,1994, June 15, 1995 and some more). In all cases a very good similarity was found of the polarized regions (V-maps) with the Ca^ + plages in form and total coincidence with the direction of the magnetic fields on the

  13. FIP bias in a sigmoidal active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Green, L. M.; Steed, K.; Carlyle, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in an anemone active region (AR) - coronal hole (CH) complex using an abundance map derived from Hinode/EIS spectra. The detailed, spatially resolved abundance map has a large field of view covering 359'' × 485''. Plasma with high FIP bias, or coronal abundances, is concentrated at the footpoints of the AR loops whereas the surrounding CH has a low FIP bias, ~1, i.e. photospheric abundances. A channel of low FIP bias is located along the AR's main polarity inversion line containing a filament where ongoing flux cancellation is observed, indicating a bald patch magnetic topology characteristic of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  14. The composition of a coronal active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waljeski, K.; Moses, D.; Dere, K. P.; Saba, J. L. R.; Strong, K. T.; Webb, D. F.; Zarro, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    The relative abundances of iron, oxygen, magnesium, and neon in a coronal active region are determined from measurements of soft X-ray line and broadband intensities. The emission measure, temperature, and column density are derived from these measured intensities and are used to place a constraint on the abundances of the heavier elements relative to hydrogen in the corona. The intensity measurements were made on 1987 December 11, when an active region was observed jointly by the American Science and Engineering (AS&E) High Resolution Soft X-Ray Imaging Sounding-Rocket Payload and the X-Ray Polychromator Flat Crystal Spectrometer (FCS) onboard the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft. The coordinated observations include images through two broadband filters (8 to 29 A and 8 to 39, 44 to 60 A) and profiles of six emission lines: Fe XVII (15.01 A), FE VIII (15.26 A), O VIII (18.97 A), Mg XI (9.17 A), Ne IX (13.44 A), and Fe XVIII (14.21 A). The effects of resonance scattering are considered in the interpretation of the FCS line intensities. We calculated the expected intensity ratio of the two Fe XVII lines as a function of optical depth and compared this ratio with the observed intensity ratio to obtain the optical depths of each of the lines and the column density. The line intensities and the broadband filtered images are consistent with the emission from a thermal plasma where Fe, O, Mg, and Ne have the 'adopted coronal' abundances of Meyer (1985b) relative to one another, but are not consistent with the emission from a plasma having photospheric abundances: The ratios of the abundances of the low first ionization potential (FIP) elements (Fe and Mg) to the abundances of the high-FIP elements (Ne and O) are higher than the ratios seen in the photosphere by a factor of about 3.5. This conclusion is independent of the assumption of either an isothermal or a multithermal plasma. The column densities derived from the Fe XVII line ratio and the geometry of the active

  15. Anger Style, Psychopathology, and Regional Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer L.; Levin, Rebecca L.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain asymmetry. The present study explored these issues by comparing resting regional electroencephalographic activity in participants high in trait anger who differed in anger expression style (high anger-in, high anger-out, both) and participants low in trait anger, with depression and anxiety systematically assessed. Trait anger, not anger-in or anger-out, predicted left-biased asymmetry at medial frontal EEG sites. The anger-in group reported higher levels of anxious apprehension than did the anger-out group. Furthermore, anxious apprehension moderated the relationship between trait anger, anger-in, and asymmetry in favor of the left hemisphere. Results suggest that motivational direction is not always the driving force behind the relationship of anger and left frontal asymmetry. Findings also support a distinction between anxious apprehension and anxious arousal. PMID:18837620

  16. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 23: SeaWiFS prelaunch radiometric calibration and spectral characterization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Robert A.; Holmes, Alan W.; Barnes, William L.; Esaias, Wayne E.; Mcclain, Charles R.; Svitek, Tomas; Hooker, Stanford B.; Firestone, Elaine R.; Acker, James G.

    1994-01-01

    Based on the operating characteristics of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), calibration equations have been developed that allow conversion of the counts from the radiometer into Earth-existing radiances. These radiances are the geophysical properties the instrument has been designed to measure. SeaWiFS uses bilinear gains to allow high sensitivity measurements of ocean-leaving radiances and low sensitivity measurements of radiances from clouds, which are much brighter than the ocean. The calculation of these bilinear gains is central to the calibration equations. Several other factors within these equations are also included. Among these are the spectral responses of the eight SeaWiFS bands. A band's spectral response includes the ability of the band to isolate a portion of the electromagnetic spectrum and the amount of light that lies outside of that region. The latter is termed out-of-band response. In the calibration procedure, some of the counts from the instrument are produced by radiance in the out-of-band region. The number of those counts for each band is a function of the spectral shape of the source. For the SeaWiFS calibration equations, the out-of-band responses are converted from those for the laboratory source into those for a source with the spectral shape of solar flux. The solar flux, unlike the laboratory calibration, approximates the spectral shape of the Earth-existing radiance from the oceans. This conversion modifies the results from the laboratory radiometric calibration by 1-4 percent, depending on the band. These and other factors in the SeaWiFS calibration equations are presented here, both for users of the SeaWiFS data set and for researchers making ground-based radiance measurements in support of Sea WiFS.

  17. The Life Cycle of Active Region Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Thompson, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present a contemporary view of how solar active region magnetic fields are understood to be generated, transported and dispersed. Empirical trends of active region properties that guide model development are discussed. Physical principles considered important for active region evolution are introduced and advances in modeling are reviewed.

  18. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-09-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, {alpha}, of the energy spectrum, E(k) {approx} k{sup -}{alpha}, and the total spectral energy, W = {integral}E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of {alpha} and W as A = 10{sup b}({alpha}W){sup c}, with b = -7.92 {+-} 0.58 and c = 1.85 {+-} 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  19. 40-fs hydrogen Raman laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Didenko, N. V.; Konyashchenko, A. V.; Kostryukov, P. V.; Losev, L. L.; Pazyuk, V. S.; Tenyakov, S. Yu; Molchanov, V. Ya; Chizhikov, S. I.; Yushkov, K. B.

    2015-12-01

    40-fs first Stokes pulses at a wavelength of 1.2 μm were generated in a hydrogen SRS-converter pumped by orthogonally polarised double chirped pulses of a Ti : sapphire laser. To obtain a Stokes pulse close to a transform-limited one, a programmed acousto-optic dispersive delay line was placed between the master oscillator and regenerative amplifier. The energy efficiency of Stokes radiation conversion reached 22%.

  20. Recurrent flares in active region NOAA 11283

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F.; Guglielmino, S. L.; Berrilli, F.; Bruno, R.; Carbone, V.; Consolini, G.; de Lauretis, M.; Del Moro, D.; Elmhamdi, A.; Ermolli, I.; Fineschi, S.; Francia, P.; Kordi, A. S.; Landi Degl'Innocenti, E.; Laurenza, M.; Lepreti, F.; Marcucci, M. F.; Pallocchia, G.; Pietropaolo, E.; Romoli, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vellante, M.; Villante, U.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are solar phenomena that are not yet fully understood. Several investigations have been performed to single out their related physical parameters that can be used as indices of the magnetic complexity leading to their occurrence. Aims: In order to shed light on the occurrence of recurrent flares and subsequent associated CMEs, we studied the active region NOAA 11283 where recurrent M and X GOES-class flares and CMEs occurred. Methods: We use vector magnetograms taken by HMI/SDO to calculate the horizontal velocity fields of the photospheric magnetic structures, the shear and the dip angles of the magnetic field, the magnetic helicity flux distribution, and the Poynting fluxes across the photosphere due to the emergence and the shearing of the magnetic field. Results: Although we do not observe consistent emerging magnetic flux through the photosphere during the observation time interval, we detected a monotonic increase of the magnetic helicity accumulated in the corona. We found that both the shear and the dip angles have high values along the main polarity inversion line (PIL) before and after all the events. We also note that before the main flare of X2.1 GOES class, the shearing motions seem to inject a more significant energy than the energy injected by the emergence of the magnetic field. Conclusions: We conclude that the very long duration (about 4 days) of the horizontal displacement of the main photospheric magnetic structures along the PIL has a primary role in the energy release during the recurrent flares. This peculiar horizontal velocity field also contributes to the monotonic injection of magnetic helicity into the corona. This process, coupled with the high shear and dip angles along the main PIL, appears to be responsible for the consecutive events of loss of equilibrium leading to the recurrent flares and CMEs. A movie associated to Fig. 4 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  1. Monitoring the state of global terrestrial surfaces using FAPAR derived from SeaWiFS, MERIS and MODIS TIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gobron, Nadine; Robustelli, Monica

    Monitoring the state of global terrestrial surfaces using FAPAR derived from SeaWiFS, MERIS and MODIS TIP. This paper presents the analysis of a 15-year record of global FAPAR observation showing that significant spatio-temporal variations in vegetation dynamics occurred on regional and continental scales. The state of vegetation is examined using estimates of the Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) from 1998 to 2013 using SeaWiFS, MERIS and JRC MODIS-TIP products. We propose a procedure taking advantage of the JRC MODIS TIP products, after the loss of ENVISAT for monitoring the state of terrestrial surfaces at global scale: This methodology helps to bridge the gap between MERIS and OLCI land products. Then the global anomalies derived from the analysis of this time series highlight geographical regions subject to changes in 2013 with respect to previous years.

  2. Statistical Analysis of Acoustic Wave Parameters Near Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Bogart, Richard S.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    2016-08-01

    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyze the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call “nearby regions”), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disk locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring-diagram analysis of all active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhacement (the “acoustic halo effect”) is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes from a deficit to an excess at around 4.2 mHz, but averages to zero over all modes. The frequency difference in nearby regions increases with increasing frequency until a point at which the frequency shifts turn over sharply, as in active regions. However, this turnover occurs around 4.9 mHz, which is significantly below the acoustic cutoff frequency. Inverting the horizontal flow parameters in the direction of the neigboring active regions, we find flows that are consistent with a model of the thermal energy flow being blocked directly below the active region.

  3. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 1: An overview of SeaWiFS and ocean color

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Esaias, Wayne E.; Feldman, Gene C.; Gregg, Watson W.; Mcclain, Charles R.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this series of technical reports is to provide current documentation of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project activities, instrument performance, algorithms, and operations. This documentation is necessary to ensure that critical information related to the quality and calibration of the satellite data is available to the scientific community. SeaWiFS will bring to the ocean community a welcomed and improved renewal of the ocean color remote sensing capability lost when the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) ceased operating in 1986. The goal of SeaWiFS, scheduled to be launched in August 1993, is to examine oceanic factors that affect global change. Because of the role of phytoplankton in the global carbon cycle, data obtained from SeaWiFS will be used to assess the ocean's role in this cycle, as well as other biogeochemical cycles. SeaWiFS data will be used to help elucidate the magnitude and variability of the annual cycle of primary production by marine phytoplankton and to determine the distribution and timing of spring blooms. The observations will help to visualize the dynamics of ocean and costal currents, the physics of mixing, and the relationships between ocean physics and large-scale patterns of productivity. The data will help fill the gap in ocean biological observations between those of the CZCS and the upcoming Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) on the Earth Observing System-A (EOS-A) satellite.

  4. Tracked Active Region Patches for MDI and HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turmon, Michael; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Bobra, Monica

    2014-06-01

    We describe tracked active-region patch data products that have been developed for HMI (HMI Active Region Patches, or HARPs) and for MDI (MDI Tracked Active Region Patches, or MDI TARPs). Both data products consist of tracked magnetic features on the scale of solar active regions. The now-released HARP data product covers 2010-present (>2000 regions to date). Like the HARPs, the MDI TARP data set is a catalog of active regions (ARs), indexed by a region ID number, analogous to a NOAA AR number, and time. The TARPs contain 6170 regions spanning 72000 images taken over 1996-2010, and will be availablein the MDI resident archive (RA).MDI TARPs are computed based on the 96-minute synoptic magnetograms and intensitygrams. As with the related HARP data product, the approximate threshold for significance is 100G. Use of both image types together allows faculae and sunspots to be separated out as sub-classes of activity, in addition to identifying the overall active region that they are in. After being identified in single images, the magnetically-active patches are grouped and tracked from image to image. Merges among growing active regions, as well as faint active regions hovering at the threshold of detection, are handled automatically. Regions are tracked from their inception until they decay within view, or transit off the visible disk. For each active region and for each time, a bitmap image is stored containing the precise outline of the active region. Also, metadata such as areas and integrated fluxes are stored for each AR and for each time. Because there is a cross-calibration between the HMI and MDI magnetograms (Liu et al. 2012), it is straightforward to use the same classification and tracking rules for the HMI HARPs and the MDI TARPs. We show results demonstrating region correspondence, region boundary agreement, and agreement of flux metadata using the approximately 140 regions in the May 2010-October 2010 time period. We envision several uses for these data

  5. A Fractal Dimension Survey of Active Region Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAteer, R. T. James; Gallagher, Peter; Ireland, Jack

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to quantifying the magnetic complexity of active regions using a fractal dimension measure is presented. This fully-automated approach uses full disc MDI magnetograms of active regions from a large data set (2742 days of the SoHO mission; 9342 active regions) to compare the calculated fractal dimension to both Mount Wilson classification and flare rate. The main Mount Wilson classes exhibit no distinct fractal dimension distribution, suggesting a self-similar nature of all active regions. Solar flare productivity exhibits an increase in both the frequency and GOES X-ray magnitude of flares from regions with higher fractal dimensions. Specifically a lower threshold fractal dimension of 1.2 and 1.25 exists as a necessary, but not sufficient, requirement for an active region to produce M- and X-class flares respectively .

  6. Homologous flares and the evolution of NOAA Active Region 2372

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, K. T.; Smith, J. B., Jr.; Mccabe, M. K.; Machado, M. E.; Saba, J. L. R.; Simnett, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed record of the evolution of NOAA Active Region 2372 has been compiled by the FBS Homology Study Group. It was one of the most prolific flare-producing regions observed by SMM. The flares occurred in distinct stages which corresponded to particular evolutionary phases in the development of the active region magnetic field. By comparison with a similar but less productive active region, it is found that the activity seems to be related to the magnetic complexity of the region and the amount of shear in the field. Further, the soft X-ray emission in the quiescent active region is related to its flare rate. Within the broader definition of homology adopted, there was a degree of homology between the events within each stage of evolution of AR2372.

  7. GLOBAL DYNAMICS OF SUBSURFACE SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jouve, L.; Brun, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of a magnetic loop evolving in either a convectively stable or unstable rotating shell. The magnetic loop is introduced into the shell in such a way that it is buoyant only in a certain portion in longitude, thus creating an {Omega}-loop. Due to the action of magnetic buoyancy, the loop rises and develops asymmetries between its leading and following legs, creating emerging bipolar regions whose characteristics are similar to those of observed spots at the solar surface. In particular, we self-consistently reproduce the creation of tongues around the spot polarities, which can be strongly affected by convection. We further emphasize the presence of ring-shaped magnetic structures around our simulated emerging regions, which we call 'magnetic necklace' and which were seen in a number of observations without being reported as of today. We show that those necklaces are markers of vorticity generation at the periphery and below the rising magnetic loop. We also find that the asymmetry between the two legs of the loop is crucially dependent on the initial magnetic field strength. The tilt angle of the emerging regions is also studied in the stable and unstable cases and seems to be affected both by the convective motions and the presence of a differential rotation in the convective cases.

  8. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, Paola; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark; De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Title, Alan; Hansteen, Viggo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig

    2013-06-10

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial ({approx}0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to {approx}15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 A channel, and by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 10{sup 23} erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).

  9. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Regional Activities. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on regional library activities which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Importance of Information Resources in National Development with Particular Reference to the Asian Scene" (Yogendra P. Dubey, India); (2) "Report of the Activities of the Regional Section for Asia…

  10. Software Displays Data on Active Regions of the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golightly, Mike; Weyland, Mark; Raben, Vern

    2011-01-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System is a computer program that generates, in near real time, a graphical display of parameters indicative of the spatial and temporal variations of activity on the Sun. These parameters include histories and distributions of solar flares, active region growth, coronal mass ejections, size, and magnetic configuration. By presenting solar-activity data in graphical form, this program accelerates, facilitates, and partly automates what had previously been a time-consuming mental process of interpretation of solar-activity data presented in tabular and textual formats. Intended for original use in predicting space weather in order to minimize the exposure of astronauts to ionizing radiation, the program might also be useful on Earth for predicting solar-wind-induced ionospheric effects, electric currents, and potentials that could affect radio-communication systems, navigation systems, pipelines, and long electric-power lines. Raw data for the display are obtained automatically from the Space Environment Center (SEC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Other data must be obtained from the NOAA SEC by verbal communication and entered manually. The Solar Active Region Display System automatically accounts for the latitude dependence of the rate of rotation of the Sun, by use of a mathematical model that is corrected with NOAA SEC active-region position data once every 24 hours. The display includes the date, time, and an image of the Sun in H light overlaid with latitude and longitude coordinate lines, dots that mark locations of active regions identified by NOAA, identifying numbers assigned by NOAA to such regions, and solar-region visual summary (SRVS) indicators associated with some of the active regions. Each SRVS indicator is a small pie chart containing five equal sectors, each of which is color-coded to provide a semiquantitative indication of the degree of hazard posed by one aspect of the activity at

  11. Comparison of corneal flaps created by Wavelight FS200 and Intralase FS60 femtosecond lasers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Qian; Zhou, Yue-Hua; Zhang, Jing; Zheng, Yan; Zhai, Chang-Bin; Liu, Jing

    2016-01-01

    AIM To assess and compare the morphology of corneal flaps created by the Wavelight FS200 and Intralase FS60 femtosecond lasers in laser in situ keratomileusis (LASIK). METHODS Four hundred eyes of 200 patients were enrolled in this study and divided into Wavelight FS200 groups (200 eyes) and Intralase FS60 groups (200 eyes). Fourier-domain optical coherence tomography (RTVue OCT) was used to measure the corneal flap thickness of 36 specified measurements on each flap one week after surgery. Results were used to analyze the regularity, uniformity and accuracy of the two types of LASIK flaps. RESULTS The mean thickness of corneal flap and central flap was 105.71±4.72 µm and 105.39±4.50 µm in Wavelight FS200 group and 109.78±11.42 µm and 109.15 ±11.59 µm in Intralase FS60 group, respectively. The flaps made with the Wavelight FS200 femtosecond laser were thinner than those created by the Intralase FS60 femtosecond laser (P=0.000). Corneal flaps in the 2 groups were uniform and regular, showing an almost planar configuration. But the Wavelight FS200 group has more predictability and uniformity of flap creation. The mean deviation between achieved and attempted flap thickness was smaller in the Wavelight FS200 group than that in the Intralase FS60 group, which were 5.18±3.71 µm and 8.68±7.42 µm respectively. The deviation of more than 20 µm was 0.2% measurements in Wavelight FS200 group and 8.29% measurements in Intralase FS60 group. CONCLUSION The morphologies of flaps created by Wavelight FS200 are more uniform and thinner than those created by Intralase FS60. PMID:27500109

  12. SeaWiFS: North Pacific Storm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    An extratropical storm can be seen swirling over the North Pacific just south of Alaska. This SeaWiFS image was collected yesterday at 23:20 GMT. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  13. SeaWiFS: Pakistan Dust

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    This SeaWiFS image collected on November 3, 2001 depicts a dust storm blowing southward over the northern end of the Arabian Sea from Pakistan and Iran. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  14. 3D MHD Models of Active Region Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, Leon

    2004-01-01

    Present imaging and spectroscopic observations of active region loops allow to determine many physical parameters of the coronal loops, such as the density, temperature, velocity of flows in loops, and the magnetic field. However, due to projection effects many of these parameters remain ambiguous. Three dimensional imaging in EUV by the STEREO spacecraft will help to resolve the projection ambiguities, and the observations could be used to setup 3D MHD models of active region loops to study the dynamics and stability of active regions. Here the results of 3D MHD models of active region loops are presented, and the progress towards more realistic 3D MHD models of active regions. In particular the effects of impulsive events on the excitation of active region loop oscillations, and the generation, propagations and reflection of EIT waves are shown. It is shown how 3D MHD models together with 3D EUV observations can be used as a diagnostic tool for active region loop physical parameters, and to advance the science of the sources of solar coronal activity.

  15. THE MAGNETIC ENERGY-HELICITY DIAGRAM OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Tziotziou, Kostas; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Raouafi, Nour-Eddine

    2012-11-01

    Using a recently proposed nonlinear force-free method designed for single-vector magnetograms of solar active regions, we calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in 162 vector magnetograms corresponding to 42 different active regions. We find a statistically robust, monotonic correlation between the free magnetic energy and the relative magnetic helicity in the studied regions. This correlation implies that magnetic helicity, in addition to free magnetic energy, may be an essential ingredient for major solar eruptions. Eruptive active regions appear well segregated from non-eruptive ones in both free energy and relative helicity with major (at least M-class) flares occurring in active regions with free energy and relative helicity exceeding 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 31} erg and 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2}, respectively. The helicity threshold agrees well with estimates of the helicity contents of typical coronal mass ejections.

  16. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 28: SeaWiFS algorithms, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Acker, James G. (Editor); Mcclain, Charles R.; Arrigo, Kevin; Esaias, Wayne E.; Darzi, Michael; Patt, Frederick S.; Evans, Robert H.; Brown, James W.

    1995-01-01

    This document provides five brief reports that address several algorithm investigations sponsored by the Calibration and Validation Team (CVT) within the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project. This volume, therefore, has been designated as the first in a series of algorithm volumes. Chapter 1 describes the initial suite of masks, used to prevent further processing of contaminated radiometric data, and flags, which are employed to mark data whose quality (due to a variety of factors) may be suspect. In addition to providing the mask and flag algorithms, this chapter also describes the initial strategy for their implementation. Chapter 2 evaluates various strategies for the detection of clouds and ice in high latitude (polar and sub-polar regions) using Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data. Chapter 3 presents an algorithm designed for detecting and masking coccolithosphore blooms in the open ocean. Chapter 4 outlines a proposed scheme for correcting the out-of-band response when SeaWiFS is in orbit. Chapter 5 gives a detailed description of the algorithm designed to apply sensor calibration data during the processing of level-1b data.

  17. Nonlinear side effects of fs pulses inside corneal tissue during photodisruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heisterkamp, A.; Ripken, T.; Mamom, T.; Drommer, W.; Welling, H.; Ertmer, W.; Lubatschowski, H.

    In order to evaluate the potential for refractive surgery, fs laser pulses of 150-fs pulse duration were used to process corneal tissue of dead and living animal eyes. By focusing the laser radiation down to spot sizes of several microns, very precise cuts could be achieved inside the treated cornea, accompanied with minimum collateral damage to the tissue by thermal or mechanical effects. During histo-pathological analysis by light and transmission electron microscopy considerable side effects of fs photodisruption were found. Due to the high intensities at the focal region several nonlinear effects occurred. Self-focusing, photodissociation, UV-light production were observed, leading to streak formation inside the cornea.

  18. Regional Observation of Seismic Activity in Baekdu Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Geunyoung; Che, Il-Young; Shin, Jin-Soo; Chi, Heon-Cheol

    2015-04-01

    Seismic unrest in Baekdu Mountain area between North Korea and Northeast China region has called attention to geological research community in Northeast Asia due to her historical and cultural importance. Seismic bulletin shows level of seismic activity in the area is higher than that of Jilin Province of Northeast China. Local volcanic observation shows a symptom of magmatic unrest in period between 2002 and 2006. Regional seismic data have been used to analyze seismic activity of the area. The seismic activity could be differentiated from other seismic phenomena in the region by the analysis.

  19. The Smad3 linker region contains a transcriptional activation domain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guannan; Long, Jianyin; Matsuura, Isao; He, Dongming; Liu, Fang

    2005-02-15

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)/Smads regulate a wide variety of biological responses through transcriptional regulation of target genes. Smad3 plays a key role in TGF-beta/Smad-mediated transcriptional responses. Here, we show that the proline-rich linker region of Smad3 contains a transcriptional activation domain. When the linker region is fused to a heterologous DNA-binding domain, it activates transcription. We show that the linker region physically interacts with p300. The adenovirus E1a protein, which binds to p300, inhibits the transcriptional activity of the linker region, and overexpression of p300 can rescue the linker-mediated transcriptional activation. In contrast, an adenovirus E1a mutant, which cannot bind to p300, does not inhibit the linker-mediated transcription. The native Smad3 protein lacking the linker region is unable to mediate TGF-beta transcriptional activation responses, although it can be phosphorylated by the TGF-beta receptor at the C-terminal tail and has a significantly increased ability to form a heteromeric complex with Smad4. We show further that the linker region and the C-terminal domain of Smad3 synergize for transcriptional activation in the presence of TGF-beta. Thus our findings uncover an important function of the Smad3 linker region in Smad-mediated transcriptional control. PMID:15588252

  20. Prediction of Active-Region CME Productivity from Magnetograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.

    2004-01-01

    We report results of an expanded evaluation of whole-active-region magnetic measures as predictors of active-region coronal mass ejection (CME) productivity. Previously, in a sample of 17 vector magnetograms of 12 bipolar active regions observed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) vector magnetograph, from each magnetogram we extracted a measure of the size of the active region (the active region s total magnetic flux a) and four measures of the nonpotentiality of the active region: the strong-shear length L(sub SS), the strong-gradient length L(sub SG), the net vertical electric current I(sub N), and the net-current magnetic twist parameter alpha (sub IN). This sample size allowed us to show that each of the four nonpotentiality measures was statistically significantly correlated with active-region CME productivity in time windows of a few days centered on the day of the magnetogram. We have now added a fifth measure of active-region nonpotentiality (the best-constant-alpha magnetic twist parameter (alpha sub BC)), and have expanded the sample to 36 MSFC vector magnetograms of 31 bipolar active regions. This larger sample allows us to demonstrate statistically significant correlations of each of the five nonpotentiality measures with future CME productivity, in time windows of a few days starting from the day of the magnetogram. The two magnetic twist parameters (alpha (sub 1N) and alpha (sub BC)) are normalized measures of an active region s nonpotentially in that they do not depend directly on the size of the active region, while the other three nonpotentiality measures (L(sub SS), L(sub SG), and I(sub N)) are non-normalized measures in that they do depend directly on active-region size. We find (1) Each of the five nonpotentiality measures is statistically significantly correlated (correlation confidence level greater than 95%) with future CME productivity and has a CME prediction success rate of approximately 80%. (2) None of the nonpotentiality

  1. THE COLD SHOULDER: EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTIONS OF ACTIVE REGION CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.

    2012-09-10

    The coronal heating mechanism for active region core loops is difficult to determine because these loops are often not resolved and cannot be studied individually. Rather, we concentrate on the 'inter-moss' areas between loop footpoints. We use observations from the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer and the X-Ray Telescope to calculate the emission measure distributions of eight inter-moss areas in five different active regions. The combined data sets provide both high- and low-temperature constraints and ensure complete coverage in the temperature range appropriate for active regions. For AR 11113, the emission can be modeled with heating events that occur on timescales less than the cooling time. The loops in the core regions appear to be close to equilibrium and are consistent with steady heating. The other regions studied, however, appear to be dominated by nanoflare heating. Our results are consistent with the idea that active region age is an important parameter in determining whether steady or nanoflare heating is primarily responsible for the core emission, that is, older regions are more likely to be dominated by steady heating, while younger regions show more evidence of nanoflares.

  2. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Md. Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  3. Effective management of regulator RI/FS comments

    SciTech Connect

    Wolinsky, S.M.; Lojek, D.; George, R.D.; Houser, S.M.; Strimbu, M.J.

    1995-12-31

    This paper describes a successful strategy that facilitates regulatory approval of CERCLA documents required by compliance agreement and CERCLA, based on the experience of Operable Unit 1, Waste Storage Area, of the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP). This strategy, which has become the site standard at the FEMP, was instrumental in obtaining regulator approval of the OU1 RI and FS, and early approval of the Record of Decision during a very tight compliance agreement-driven schedule. This strategy can be applied at any DOE Superfund site, especially where there is need to recover lost schedule, an incentive to meet milestones early, a need to improve the relationship between the DOE and the regulators, or where the regulatory agencies have historically provided a large volume of comments on CERCLA documents. The strategy focuses on early identification and resolution of issues relating to draft RI/FS documents, as raised in regulatory agency review comments. This pro-active strategy has the potential for schedule and cost savings, as well as for improved communication between DOE and the regulators. The strategy includes preparation of a separate comment response document, integration of comment responses with RI/FS documents, development of a database of agency comments and their resolution, and sharing lessons learned with preparers of subsequent RI/FS documents. The paper provides background on the FEMP and describes the FEMP comment response strategy; DOE and regulator interface; the Sitewide Comment Database; networked electronic file management; the process for classifying, analyzing, and responding to comments; integration with base RI/FS documents; and a conclusion.

  4. DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Török, T.; Titov, V. S.; Mikić, Z.; Leake, J. E.; Archontis, V.; Linton, M. G.; Dalmasse, K.; Aulanier, G.; Kliem, B.

    2014-02-10

    There has been a long-standing debate on the question of whether or not electric currents in solar active regions are neutralized. That is, whether or not the main (or direct) coronal currents connecting the active region polarities are surrounded by shielding (or return) currents of equal total value and opposite direction. Both theory and observations are not yet fully conclusive regarding this question, and numerical simulations have, surprisingly, barely been used to address it. Here we quantify the evolution of electric currents during the formation of a bipolar active region by considering a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the emergence of a sub-photospheric, current-neutralized magnetic flux rope into the solar atmosphere. We find that a strong deviation from current neutralization develops simultaneously with the onset of significant flux emergence into the corona, accompanied by the development of substantial magnetic shear along the active region's polarity inversion line. After the region has formed and flux emergence has ceased, the strong magnetic fields in the region's center are connected solely by direct currents, and the total direct current is several times larger than the total return current. These results suggest that active regions, the main sources of coronal mass ejections and flares, are born with substantial net currents, in agreement with recent observations. Furthermore, they support eruption models that employ pre-eruption magnetic fields containing such currents.

  5. Photospheric Magnetic Diffusion by Measuring Moments of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engell, Alexander; Longcope, D.

    2013-07-01

    Photospheric magnetic surface diffusion is an important constraint for the solar dynamo. The HMI Active Region Patches (HARPs) program automatically identify all magnetic regions above a certain flux. In our study we measure the moments of ARs that are no longer actively emerging and can thereby give us good statistical constraints on photospheric diffusion. We also present the diffusion properties as a function of latitude, flux density, and single polarity (leading or following) within each HARP.

  6. Differential activity of regions of transversus abdominis during trunk rotation.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Donna M; Hodges, Paul W

    2005-05-01

    The role of the abdominal muscles in trunk rotation is not comprehensively understood. This study investigated the electromyographic (EMG) activity of anatomically distinct regions of the abdominal muscles during trunk rotation in six subjects with no history of spinal pain. Fine-wire electrodes were inserted into the right abdominal wall; upper region of transversus abdominis (TrA), middle region of TrA, obliquus internus abdominis (OI) and obliquus externus abdominis (OE), and lower region of TrA and OI. Surface electrodes were placed over right rectus abdominis (RA). Subjects performed trunk rotation to the left and right in sitting by rotating their pelvis relative to a fixed thorax. EMG activity was recorded in relaxed supine and sitting, and during an isometric hold at end range. TrA was consistently active during trunk rotation, with the recruitment patterns of the upper fascicles opposite to that of the middle and lower fascicles. During left rotation, there was greater activity of the lower and middle regions of contralateral TrA and the lower region of contralateral OI. The upper region of ipsilateral TrA and OE were predominately active during right rotation. In contrast, there was no difference in activity of RA and middle OI between directions (although middle OI was different between directions for all but one subject). This study indicates that TrA is active during trunk rotation, but this activity varies between muscle regions. These normative data will assist in understanding the role of TrA in lumbopelvic control and movement, and the effect of spinal pain on abdominal muscle recruitment. PMID:15940481

  7. Solar Irradiance Variations on Active Region Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labonte, B. J. (Editor); Chapman, G. A. (Editor); Hudson, H. S. (Editor); Willson, R. C. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The variations of the total solar irradiance is an important tool for studying the Sun, thanks to the development of very precise sensors such as the ACRIM instrument on board the Solar Maximum Mission. The largest variations of the total irradiance occur on time scales of a few days are caused by solar active regions, especially sunspots. Efforts were made to describe the active region effects on total and spectral irradiance.

  8. Radio Coronal Magnetography of a Large Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, Timothy S.; Gary, Dale E.; White, Stephen; Fleishman, Gregory; Chen, Bin

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative knowledge of coronal magnetic fields is fundamental to understanding energetic phenomena such as solar flares. Flares occur in solar active regions where strong, non-potential magnetic fields provide free energy. While constraints on the coronal magnetic field topology are readily available through high resolution SXR and EUV imaging of solar active regions, useful quantitative measurements of coronal magnetic fields have thus far been elusive. Recent progress has been made at infrared (IR) wavelengths in exploiting both the Zeeman and Hanle effects to infer the line-of-sight magnetic field strength or the orientation of the magnetic field vector in the plane of the sky above the solar limb. However, no measurements of coronal magnetic fields against the solar disk are possible using IR observations. Radio observations of gyroresonance emission from active regions offer the means of measuring coronal magnetic fields above the limb and on the solar disk. In particular, for plasma plasma conditions in the solar corona, active regions typically become optically thick to emission over a range of radio frequencies through gyroresonance absorption at a low harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency. The specific range of resonant frequencies depends on the range of coronal magnetic field strengths present in the active region.The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array was used in November 2014 to image NOAA/USAF active region AR12209 over a continuous frequency range of 1-8 GHz, corresponding to a wavelength range of 3.75-30 cm. This frequency range is sensitive to coronal magnetic field strengths ranging from ~120-1400G. The active region was observed on four different dates - November 18, 20, 22, and 24 - during which the active region longitude ranged from -15 to +70 degrees, providing a wide range of aspect angles. In this paper we provide a preliminary description of the coronal magnetic field measurements derived from the radio observations.

  9. Some features of active regions and bursts in millimetric range.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xingfeng; Yao, Jinxing

    1995-09-01

    The characteristics of active regions and bursts at mm wavelengths, observed with the 13.7 m radio telescope at Quinghai from Nov 16 to Dec 1, 1993, are analyzed. It appears that the active region collapsed and vanished while there occurred a coronal loop with two polarities. GRE bursts at mm wavelength may be interpreted by thermal gyro-resonance radiation and are part of the chromospheric eruption. There is no indication of FFS in 10 ms recordings.

  10. SeaWiFS views hurricane Aletta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The year's first Northeast Pacific hurricane, Aletta, appears in this image from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). On May 24, 2000 the hurricane was spinning 300 miles off the coast of Mexico with sustained winds of 80 miles per hour and gusts up to 100 miles per hour. For more information, see the SeaWiFS Project web site. Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  11. Earth resources-regional transfer activity contracts review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensko, J., Jr.; Daniels, J. L.; Downs, S. W., Jr.; Jones, N. L.; Morton, R. R.; Paludan, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    A regional transfer activity contracts review held by the Earth Resources Office was summarized. Contracts in the earth resources field primarily directed toward applications of satellite data and technology in solution of state and regional problems were reviewed. A summary of the progress of each contract was given in order to share experiences of researchers across a seven state region. The region included Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and North Carolina. Research in several earth science disciplines included forestry, limnology, water resources, land use, geology, and mathematical modeling. The use of computers for establishment of information retrieval systems was also emphasized.

  12. Differential Magnetic Field Shear in an Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmeider, B.; DeMoulin, P.; Aulanier, G.; Golub, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The three-dimensional extrapolation of magnetic field lines from a magnetogram obtained at Kitt Peak allows us to understand the global structure of the NOAA active region 6718, as observed in X-rays with the Normal Incidence X-ray Telescope (NIXT) and in Ha with the Multichannel Subtractive Double Pass spectrograph (MSDP) in Meudon on 1991 July 11. This active region was in a quiet stage. Bright X-ray loops connect plages having field strengths of approx. 300 G, while H-alpha fibriles connect penumbrae having strong spot fields to the surrounding network. Small, intense X-ray features in the moat region around a large spot, which could be called X-ray-bright points, are due mainly to the emergence of magnetic flux and merging of these fields with surrounding ones. A set of large-scale, sheared X-ray loops is observed in the central part of the active region. Based on the fit between the observed coronal structure and the field configurations (and assuming a linear force-free field), we propose a differential magnetic field shear model for this active region. The decreasing shear in outer portions of the active region may indicate a continual relaxation of the magnetic field to a lower energy state in the progressively older portions of the AR.

  13. Calcium alone does not fully activate the thin filament for S1 binding to rigor myofibrils.

    PubMed Central

    Swartz, D R; Moss, R L; Greaser, M L

    1996-01-01

    Skeletal muscle contraction is regulated by calcium via troponin and tropomyosin and appears to involve cooperative activation of cross-bridge binding to actin. We studied the regulation of fluorescent myosin subfragment 1 (fS1) binding to rigor myofibrils over a wide range of fS1 and calcium levels using highly sensitive imaging techniques. At low calcium and low fS1, the fluorescence was restricted to the actin-myosin overlap region. At high calcium and very low fS1, the fluorescence was still predominantly in the overlap region. The ratio of nonoverlap to overlap fluorescence intensity showed that increases in the fS1 level resulted in a shift in maximum fluorescence from the overlap to the nonoverlap region at both low and high calcium; this transition occurred at lower fS1 levels in myofibrils with high calcium. At a fixed fS1 level, increases in calcium also resulted in a shift in maximum fluorescence from the overlap region to the nonoverlap region. These results suggest that calcium alone does not fully activate the thin filament for rigor S1 binding and that, even at high calcium, the thin filament is not activated along its entire length. Images FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 9 FIGURE 11 PMID:8889164

  14. Active Tectonics And Modern Geodynamics Of Sub-Yerevan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanesyan, M.

    2004-05-01

    The given work is dedicated to active tectonics and modern geodynamics of Sub-Yerevan region. This region is interesting as a one of regions with maximal seismic activity in Armenia. The high level of seismic risk of this region is conditioned by high level of seismic hazard, high density of the population, as well as presence of objects of special importance and industrial capacities. The modern structure of Sub-Yerevan region and the adjacent area, as well as the Caucasus entirely, has mosaic-block appearance, typical for collision zone of Arabian and Eurasian plates. Distinctively oriented active faults of various ranges and morphological types are distinguished. These faults, in their turn, form various-scale active blocks of the Earth's crust and their movement defines seismic activity of the region. The researches show, that all strong earthquakes in the region were caused by movements by newest and activated ancient faults. In order to reveal the character of Earth's crust active blocks movement, separation of high gradients of horizontal and vertical movements and definition of stress fields highest concentration regions by GPS observations, high-accuracy leveling and study of earthquake focal mechanisms a new seismotectonic model is developed, which represents a combination of tectonic structure, seismic data, newest and modern movements. On the basis of comparison and analysis of these data zones with potential maximal seismic hazard are separated. The zone of joint of Azat-Sevan active and Yerevan abysmal faults is the most active on the territory of Sub-Yerevan region. The directions relatively the Earth's crust movement in the zones of horizontal and vertical movement gradients lead to conclusion, that Aragats-Tsakhkunian and Gegam active blocks undergo clockwise rotation. This means, that additional concentration of stress must be observed in block corners, that is confirmed by location of strong earthquakes sources. Thus, on the North 1988 Spitak (M

  15. Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

  16. End of SeaWiFS

    NASA Video Gallery

    After 13 years of service, researchers are no longer able to communicate with SeaWiFS. This extremely important instrument, which gave scientists data on ocean color, filled in a vital information ...

  17. SeaWiFS: Summer in Antarctica

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    The Ross Sea has been somewhat cloud free lately, providing SeaWiFS with views such as this one from December 26, 2001. Note the deep green water; this is a highly productive part of the world'd oceans. Also note the ice gathered around McMurdo Sound. The ice is making it difficult for penguins to reach their food supply. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  18. Comparative Genome Analyses of Serratia marcescens FS14 Reveals Its High Antagonistic Potential

    PubMed Central

    Li, Pengpeng; Kwok, Amy H. Y.; Jiang, Jingwei; Ran, Tingting; Xu, Dongqing; Wang, Weiwu; Leung, Frederick C.

    2015-01-01

    S. marcescens FS14 was isolated from an Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz plant that was infected by Fusarium oxysporum and showed symptoms of root rot. With the completion of the genome sequence of FS14, the first comprehensive comparative-genomic analysis of the Serratia genus was performed. Pan-genome and COG analyses showed that the majority of the conserved core genes are involved in basic cellular functions, while genomic factors such as prophages contribute considerably to genome diversity. Additionally, a Type I restriction-modification system, a Type III secretion system and tellurium resistance genes are found in only some Serratia species. Comparative analysis further identified that S. marcescens FS14 possesses multiple mechanisms for antagonism against other microorganisms, including the production of prodigiosin, bacteriocins, and multi-antibiotic resistant determinants as well as chitinases. The presence of two evolutionarily distinct Type VI secretion systems (T6SSs) in FS14 may provide further competitive advantages for FS14 against other microbes. To our knowledge, this is the first report of comparative analysis on T6SSs in the genus, which identifies four types of T6SSs in Serratia spp.. Competition bioassays of FS14 against the vital plant pathogenic bacterium Ralstonia solanacearum and fungi Fusarium oxysporum and Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were performed to support our genomic analyses, in which FS14 demonstrated high antagonistic activities against both bacterial and fungal phytopathogens. PMID:25856195

  19. EVIDENCE OF IMPULSIVE HEATING IN ACTIVE REGION CORE LOOPS

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2010-11-01

    Using a full spectral scan of an active region from the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) we have obtained emission measure EM(T) distributions in two different moss regions within the same active region. We have compared these with theoretical transition region EMs derived for three limiting cases, namely, static equilibrium, strong condensation, and strong evaporation from Klimchuk et al. The EM distributions in both the moss regions are strikingly similar and show a monotonically increasing trend from log T[K] = 5.15-6.3. Using photospheric abundances, we obtain a consistent EM distribution for all ions. Comparing the observed and theoretical EM distributions, we find that the observed EM distribution is best explained by the strong condensation case (EM{sub con}), suggesting that a downward enthalpy flux plays an important and possibly dominant role in powering the transition region moss emission. The downflows could be due to unresolved coronal plasma that is cooling and draining after having been impulsively heated. This supports the idea that the hot loops (with temperatures of 3-5 MK) seen in the core of active regions are heated by nanoflares.

  20. Eruptions that Drive Coronal Jets in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Akiyama, Sachiko; Yashiro, Seiji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2016-01-01

    Solar coronal jets are common in both coronal holes and in active regions (e.g., Shibata et al. 1992, Shimojo et al. 1996, Cirtain et al. 2007. Savcheva et al. 2007). Recently, Sterling et al. (2015), using data from Hinode/XRT and SDO/AIA, found that coronal jets originating in polar coronal holes result from the eruption of small-scale filaments (minifilaments). The jet bright point (JBP) seen in X-rays and hotter EUV channels off to one side of the base of the jet's spire develops at the location where the minifilament erupts, consistent with the JBPs being miniature versions of typical solar flares that occur in the wake of large-scale filament eruptions. Here we consider whether active region coronal jets also result from the same minifilament-eruption mechanism, or whether they instead result from a different mechanism (e.g. Yokoyama & Shibata 1995). We present observations of an on-disk active region (NOAA AR 11513) that produced numerous jets on 2012 June 30, using data from SDO/AIA and HMI, and from GOES/SXI. We find that several of these active region jets also originate with eruptions of miniature filaments (size scale 20'') emanating from small-scale magnetic neutral lines of the region. This demonstrates that active region coronal jets are indeed frequently driven by minifilament eruptions. Other jets from the active region were also consistent with their drivers being minifilament eruptions, but we could not confirm this because the onsets of those jets were hidden from our view. This work was supported by funding from NASA/LWS, NASA/HGI, and Hinode. A full report of this study appears in Sterling et al. (2016).

  1. SeaWiFS Science Algorithm Flow Chart

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darzi, Michael

    1998-01-01

    This flow chart describes the baseline science algorithms for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Data Processing System (SDPS). As such, it includes only processing steps used in the generation of the operational products that are archived by NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) Distributed Active Archive Center (DAAC). It is meant to provide the reader with a basic understanding of the scientific algorithm steps applied to SeaWiFS data. It does not include non-science steps, such as format conversions, and places the greatest emphasis on the geophysical calculations of the level-2 processing. Finally, the flow chart reflects the logic sequences and the conditional tests of the software so that it may be used to evaluate the fidelity of the implementation of the scientific algorithm. In many cases however, the chart may deviate from the details of the software implementation so as to simplify the presentation.

  2. Quarry residuals RI/FS scoping document. [Weldon Spring quarry

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-10-01

    The purpose of this document is to serve as a planning tool for the implementation of the Quarry Residual Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) process and to provide direct input to revising and updating the 1988 Work Plan for the Weldon Spring Site Remedial Action Project (WSSRAP) Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study-Environmental Impact Statement for the Weldon Spring Site (RI/FS-EIS) (Peterson et al. 1988) for this effort. The scoping process is intended to outline the tasks necessary to develop and implement activities in compliance with the Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation and Liability Act-National Environmental Policy Act (CERCLA-NEPA) process from detailed planning through the appropriate decision document. In addition to scoping the entire process, this document will serve as the primary tool for planning and accomplishing all activities to be developed in the Quarry Residual RI/FS Work Plan. Subsequent tasks are difficult to plan at this time. 10 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.

  3. TARPs: Tracked Active Region Patches from SoHO/MDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turmon, M.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Bobra, M.

    2013-12-01

    We describe progress toward creating a retrospective MDI data product consisting of tracked magnetic features on the scale of solar active regions, abbreviated TARPs (Tracked Active Region Patches). The TARPs are being developed as a backward-looking extension (covering approximately 3500 regions spanning 1996-2010) to the HARP (HMI Active Region Patch) data product that has already been released for HMI (2010-present). Like the HARPs, the MDI TARP data set is designed to be a catalog of active regions (ARs), indexed by a region ID number, analogous to a NOAA AR number, and time. TARPs from MDI are computed based on the 96-minute synoptic magnetograms and pseudo-continuum intensitygrams. As with the related HARP data product, the approximate threshold for significance is 100G. Use of both image types together allows faculae and sunspots to be separated out as sub-classes of activity, in addition to identifying the overall active region that the faculae/sunspots are part of. After being identified in single images, the magnetically-active patches are grouped and tracked from image to image. Merges among growing active regions, as well as faint active regions hovering at the threshold of detection, are handled automatically. Regions are tracked from their inception until they decay within view, or transit off the visible disk. The final data product is indexed by a nominal AR number and time. For each active region and for each time, a bitmap image is stored containing the precise outline of the active region. Additionaly, metadata such as areas and integrated fluxes are stored for each AR and for each time. Because there is a calibration between the HMI and MDI magnetograms (Liu, Hoeksema et al. 2012), it is straightforward to use the same classification and tracking rules for the HARPs (from HMI) and the MDI TARPs. We anticipate that this will allow a consistent catalog spanning both instruments. We envision several uses for the TARP data product, which will be

  4. Active Region Moss: Doppler Shifts from Hinode/EIS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Studying the Doppler shifts and the temperature dependence of Doppler shifts in moss regions can help us understand the heating processes in the core of the active regions. In this paper we have used an active region observation recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard Hinode on 12-Dec- 2007 to measure the Doppler shifts in the moss regions. We have distinguished the moss regions from the rest of the active region by defining a low density cut-off as derived by Tripathi et al. (2010). We have carried out a very careful analysis of the EIS wavelength calibration based on the method described in Young, O Dwyer and Mason (2012). For spectral lines having maximum sensitivity between log T = 5.85 and log T = 6.25 K, we find that the velocity distribution peaks at around 0 km/s with an estimated error of 4 km/s. The width of the distribution decreases with temperature. The mean of the distribution shows a blue shift which increases with increasing temperature and the distribution also shows asymmetries towards blue-shift. Comparing these results with observables predicted from different coronal heating models, we find that these results are consistent with both steady and impulsive heating scenarios. Further observational constraints are needed to distinguish between these two heating scenarios.

  5. Photoexcitation dynamics in SWCNT from sub-10 fs to ms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lanzani, Guglielmo

    2006-03-01

    Photophisics in Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes, SWCNT-PEG, prepared by HiPco embedded PMMA is investigated with cw and pulse photo-excitation. Using ultra-short pulses in the visible and near infrared, with time duration of 7 fs and 20 fs respectively, pump-probe spectroscopy is carried out in SWCNT-PEG films in air at room temperature. Photo-bleaching recovery and photoinduced absorption build-up, upon excitation into the second absorption band, are time resolved providing a time constant of 40 plus/minus 5 fs. This is associated to exciton relaxation within semiconducting NTs, due to Fano-type resonances between localized excitonic levels and the underlying continuum density. Pumping in different regions of the absorption spectrum and probing a broad range of wavelengths, gives a complete description of the phenomenon. After relaxation, the decay of the equilibrated exciton occurs with a broad distribution of time constants, which is consistent with the inhomogeneous broadening of the sample. When using the shortest pulses (sub-10 fs) coherent phonons are clearly detected in the transmission difference traces. A radial breathing mode (RBM) at 250 wavenumber is observed, with dephasing of 1.2 ps. Anharmonic coupling between the RBM mode and the G-mode is detected for the first time in the time domain. Using cw excitation at 2.3 and 1.3 eV we observed photorefractivity in SWCNT-PEG samples, kept in vacuum at low temperature, in close analogy with conjugated polymers. Charges, which are photogenerated in the films, can separate giving rise to local electric fields which in turn induce Stark shift of the excitonic resonance.

  6. A Novel Analysis of Acoustic Oscillations in Chromospheric Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsue, Teresa; Hill, Frank; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2015-04-01

    A helioseismic analysis of the chromosphere is employed in H-alpha to study how solar flares around active regions affect the behavior of acoustic oscillations. Our analysis deals with flares directly over sunspots, where the region is highly magnetized. In our current study of analyzing these oscillations in the chromosphere we study the temporal evolution of the oscillatory behavior from data taken from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) H-alpha detectors. We investigate the wave behavior across different frequency bands (1 < ν < 8.33 mHz). In order to analyze the frequency bands of the oscillations, our analysis utilizes time series data to create Fourier power spectra of individual pixels spatially resolved and temporally evolved around the flare region; thereby creating a movie of each frequency band. This study entails three active regions, directly over sunspots, in which flaring activity is taking place from two solar flares, which occurred on June 13th and July 12th, 2012. We found that the intensity of the flare has an effect on the oscillations within different frequency bands. A suppression of power was observed in dark anomalous structures across the total frequency bands and in other regions there was an observed boost in power due to flaring activity. We find that, in the heart of all three regions, the low-frequency power (˜1-2 mHz) is substantially enhanced immediately prior to and after the flare, and that power at all frequencies up to 8 mHz is depleted at flare maximum. This depletion is both frequency and time dependent, which probably reflects the changing depths visible during the flare in the bandpass of the filter. These variations are not observed outside the flaring region. The depletion may indicate that acoustic energy is being converted into thermal energy at flare maximum, while the low-frequency enhancement may arise from an instability in the chromosphere and provide an early warning of the flare onset.

  7. On the Active Region Bright Grains Observed in the Transition Region Imaging Channels of IRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skogsrud, H.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; De Pontieu, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) provides spectroscopy and narrow band slit-jaw (SJI) imaging of the solar chromosphere and transition region at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions. Combined with high-resolution context spectral imaging of the photosphere and chromosphere as provided by the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope (SST), we can now effectively trace dynamic phenomena through large parts of the solar atmosphere in both space and time. IRIS SJI 1400 images from active regions, which primarily sample the transition region with the Si iv 1394 and 1403 Å lines, reveal ubiquitous bright “grains” which are short-lived (two to five minute) bright roundish small patches of sizes 0.″5-1.″7 that generally move limbward with velocities up to about 30 km s-1. In this paper, we show that many bright grains are the result of chromospheric shocks impacting the transition region. These shocks are associated with dynamic fibrils (DFs), most commonly observed in Hα. We find that the grains show the strongest emission in the ascending phase of the DF, that the emission is strongest toward the top of the DF, and that the grains correspond to a blueshift and broadening of the Si iv lines. We note that the SJI 1400 grains can also be observed in the SJI 1330 channel which is dominated by C ii lines. Our observations show that a significant part of the active region transition region dynamics is driven from the chromosphere below rather than from coronal activity above. We conclude that the shocks that drive DFs also play an important role in the heating of the upper chromosphere and lower transition region.

  8. Skylab observations of X-ray loops connecting separate active regions. [solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R. C.; Krieger, A. S.; Svestka, Z.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    One hundred loops interconnecting 94 separate active solar regions detectable in soft X-rays were identified during the Skylab mission. While close active regions are commonly interconnected with loops, the number of such interconnections decreases steeply for longer distances; the longest interconnecting loop observed in the Skylab data connected regions separated by 37 deg. Several arguments are presented which support the point of view that this is the actual limit of the size of magnetic interconnections between active regions. No sympathetic flares could be found in the interconnected regions. These results cast doubt on the hypothesis that accelerated particles can be guided in interconnecting loops from one active region to another over distances of 100 deg or more and eventually produce sympathetic flares in them.

  9. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making PMID:27355465

  10. IFLA General Conference, 1987. Division of Regional Activities. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Six of the seven papers in this collection focus on regional library activities in Africa, Asia and Oceania, and Latin America and the Caribbean: (1) "Libraries and Information Services in a Changing World: The Challenges African Information Services Face at the End of the 1980s" (Dejen Abate, Ethiopia); (2) "The Computer and Knowledge Information…

  11. A solar cycle timing predictor - The latitude of active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A 'Spoerer butterfly' method is used to examine solar cycle 22. It is shown from the latitude of active regions that the cycle can now be expected to peak near November 1989 + or - 8 months, basically near the latter half of 1989.

  12. SNS Devices With Pinhole-Defined Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Brian D.; Barner, Jeffrey B.

    1996-01-01

    Superconductor/normal conductor/superconductor (SNS) microbridge devices with pinhole-defined active regions undergoing development. Device includes thin, electrically insulating layer deposited epitaxially, with controlled formation of pinholes, on one of two superconducting layers. Normally conducting metal deposited epitaxially in pinholes and on insulating layer, forming electrical contact between two superconducting layers. Junction resistances and maximum junction voltages expected to be increased.

  13. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  14. Urban, Rural, and Regional Variations in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sarah Levin; Kirkner, Gregory J.; Mayo, Kelly; Matthews, Charles E.; Durstine, J. Larry; Hebert, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: There is some speculation about geographic differences in physical activity (PA) levels. We examined the prevalence of physical inactivity (PIA) and whether US citizens met the recommended levels of PA across the United States. In addition, the association between PIA/PA and degree of urbanization in the 4 main US regions (Northeast,…

  15. Unwinding motion of a twisted active region filament

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Kong, D. F.; Liu, J. H.; Xu, C. L.

    2014-12-10

    To better understand the structures of active region filaments and the eruption process, we study an active region filament eruption in active region NOAA 11082 in detail on 2010 June 22. Before the filament eruption, the opposite unidirectional material flows appeared in succession along the spine of the filament. The rising of the filament triggered two B-class flares at the upper part of the filament. As the bright material was injected into the filament from the sites of the flares, the filament exhibited a rapid uplift accompanying the counterclockwise rotation of the filament body. From the expansion of the filament, we can see that the filament consisted of twisted magnetic field lines. The total twist of the filament is at least 5π obtained by using a time slice method. According to the morphology change during the filament eruption, it is found that the active region filament was a twisted flux rope and its unwinding motion was like a solar tornado. We also find that there was a continuous magnetic helicity injection before and during the filament eruption. It is confirmed that magnetic helicity can be transferred from the photosphere to the filament. Using the extrapolated potential fields, the average decay index of the background magnetic fields over the filament is 0.91. Consequently, these findings imply that the mechanism of solar filament eruption could be due to the kink instability and magnetic helicity accumulation.

  16. Inferred flows of electric currents in solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Y. J.; Hong, Q. F.; Hagyard, M. J.; Deloach, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques to identify sources of major current systems in active regions and their channels of flow are explored. Measured photospheric vector magnetic fields together with high resolution white light and H-alpha photographs provide the data base to derive the current systems in the photosphere and chromosphere of a solar active region. Simple mathematical constructions of active region fields and currents are used to interpret these data under the assumptions that the fields in the lower atmosphere (below 200 km) may not be force free but those in the chromosphere and higher are. The results obtained for the complex active region AR 2372 are: (1) Spots exhibiting significant spiral structure in the penumbral filaments were the source of vertical currents at the photospheric surface; (2) Magnetic neutral lines where the transverse magnetic field was strongly sheared were channels along which a strong current system flowed; (3) The inferred current systems produced a neutral sheet and oppositely-flowing currents in the area of the magnetic delta configuration that was the site of flaring.

  17. Heating of active region cores: Impulsive or steady?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh

    The question of active region heating has proven to be highly challenging since its discovery in 1940s. The recent observational facilities have shed new lights towards the understanding of this problem. In this paper we review some of the new measurements to study the heating mechanisms in the hot core loops of active regions using the observations recorded by Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) onboard SoHO and the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) aboard Hinode. These new measurements show that the properties of hot core loops are consistent with by impulsive heating -- low frequency nanoflare - scenario. However, the evidences are not strong enough to rule-out steady heating completely. Further measurement using better spectral resolution and temperature coverage is required, which will be provided by Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) and Solar-C in near future.

  18. Evolution of two Flaring Active Regions With CME Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalmann, J. K.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2008-12-01

    We study the coronal magnetic field structure of two active regions, one during solar activity minimum (June 2007) and another one during a more active time (January 2004). The temporal evolution was explored with the help of nonlinear force-free coronal magnetic field extrapolations of SOLIS/VSM and NAOJ/SFT photospheric vector magnetograms. We study the active region NOAA 10960 observed on 2007 June 7 with three SOLIS/VSM snapshots taken during a small C1.0 flare of time cadence 10 minutes and six snapshots during a quiet period. The total magnetic energy in the active region was approximately 3 × 1025 J. Before the flare the free magnetic energy was about 5~% of the potential field energy. A part of this excess energy was released during the flare, producing almost a potential configuration at the beginning of the quiet period. The return to an almost potential structure can be assigned to a CME as recorded by the SoHO/LASCO instrument on 2007 June 07 around 10 minutes after the flare peaked, so that whatever magnetic helicity was bodily removed from the structure. This was compared with active region 10540 observed on 2004 January 18 -- 21, which was analyzed with the help of vector magnetograph data from the Solar Flare Telescope in Japan of time cadence of about 1 day. The free energy was Efree≈ 66~% of the total energy which was sufficiently high to power a M6.1 flare on January 20, which was associated with a CME 20 minutes later. The activity of AR 10540 was significantly higher than for AR 10960, as was the total magnetic energy. Furthermore, we found the common feature that magnetic energy accumulates before the flare/CME and a significant part of the excess energy is released during the eruption.

  19. Doppler Shifts in Active Region Moss Using SOHO/SUMER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winebarger, Amy; Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Del Zanna, Giulio

    2013-04-01

    The velocity of the plasma at the footpoint of hot loops in active region cores can be used to discriminate between different heating frequencies. Velocities on the order of a few kilometers per second would indicate low-frequency heating on sub-resolution strands, while velocities close to zero would indicate high-frequency (steady) heating. To discriminate between these two values requires accurate velocity measurements; previous velocity measurements suffer from large uncertainties, mainly due to the lack of an absolute wavelength reference scale. In this paper, we determine the velocity in the loop footpoints using observations from Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) on Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. We use neutral spectral lines to determine the wavelength scale of the observations with an uncertainty in the absolute velocity of <3.5 km s-1 and co-aligned Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) images to identify footpoint regions. We studied three different active regions and found average redshifts in the Ne VIII 770 Å emission line (formed at 6 × 105 K) of 5.17 ± 5.37 km s-1 and average redshifts in the C IV 1548 and 1550 Å emission lines (formed at 1 × 105 K) of 13.94 ± 4.93 km s-1 and 14.91 ± 6.09 km s-1, respectively. We find no correlation between the brightness in the spectral line and the measured velocity, nor do we find correlation between the Ne VIII and C IV velocities measured co-spatially and co-temporally. SUMER scanned two of the active regions twice; in those active regions we find positive correlation between the co-spatial velocities measured during the first and second scans. These results provide definitive and quantitative measurements for comparisons with simulations of different coronal heating mechanisms.

  20. New class of compact diode pumped sub 10-fs lasers for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le, T.; Müller, A.; Sumpf, B.; Jensen, O. B.; Hansen, A. K.; Andersen, P. E.

    2016-03-01

    Diode-pumping Ti:sapphire lasers promises a new approach to low-cost femtosecond light sources. Thus in recent years much effort has been taken just to overcome the quite low power and low beam qualities of available green diodes to obtain output powers of several hundred milliwatts from a fs-laser. In this work we present an alternative method by deploying frequency-doubled IR diodes with good beam qualities to pump fs-lasers. The revolutionary approach allows choosing any pump wavelengths in the green region and avoids complicated relay optics for the diodes. For the first time we show results of a diode-pumped 10 fs-laser and how a single diode setup can be integrated into a 30 x 30 cm2 fs-laser system generating sub 20 fs laser pulses with output power towards half a Watt. This technology paves the way for a new class of very compact and cost-efficient fs-lasers for life science and industrial applications.

  1. Patterns of Activity Revealed by a Time Lag Analysis of a Model Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Stephen; Viall, Nicholeen

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of average frequencies. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine an extrapolated magnetic skeleton with hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes to create a model active region, and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is to recover some typical properties and patterns of activity observed in active regions. Our key findings are: 1. Cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. 2. Shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. 3. All channel pairs show zero time lag when the line-of-sight passes through coronal loop foot-points. 4. There is strong evidence that plasma must be re-energized on a time scale comparable to the cooling timescale to reproduce the observed coronal activity, but it is likely that a relatively broad spectrum of heating frequencies operates across active regions. 5. Due to their highly dynamic nature, we find nanoflare trains produce zero time lags along entire flux tubes in our model active region that are seen between the same channel pairs in observed active regions.

  2. Active sonar, beaked whales and European regional policy.

    PubMed

    Dolman, Sarah J; Evans, Peter G H; Notarbartolo-di-Sciara, Giuseppe; Frisch, Heidrun

    2011-01-01

    Various reviews, resolutions and guidance from international and regional fora have been produced in recent years that acknowledge the significance of marine noise and its potential impacts on cetaceans. Within Europe, ACCOBAMS and ASCOBANS have shown increasing attention to the issue. The literature highlights concerns surrounding the negative impacts of active sonar on beaked whales in particular, where concerns primarily relate to the use of mid-frequency active sonar (1-10kHz), as used particularly in military exercises. The authors review the efforts that European regional policies have undertaken to acknowledge and manage possible negative impacts of active sonar and how these might assist the transition from scientific research to policy implementation, including effective management and mitigation measures at a national level. PMID:20451221

  3. SeaWiFS: Grand Banks Brightening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is a hole in the cloud cover today over the Grand Banks of Newfoundland through which SeaWiFS was able to catch this view of a very large patch of bright aquamarine water. Either a large storm has passed over the Banks stirring up the bottom sediments, or some large bloom of phytoplankton is under way. Part of the Island of Newfoundland, including the snow-covered Avalon Peninsula, can also be seen in the northwest corner of the image. Credit: Provided by the SeaWiFS Project, NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, and ORBIMAGE

  4. THE EVOLUTION OF DARK CANOPIES AROUND ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.-M.; Robbrecht, E.; Muglach, K. E-mail: eva.robbrecht@oma.be

    2011-05-20

    As observed in spectral lines originating from the chromosphere, transition region, and low corona, active regions are surrounded by an extensive 'circumfacular' area which is darker than the quiet Sun. We examine the properties of these dark moat- or canopy-like areas using Fe IX 17.1 nm images and line-of-sight magnetograms from the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The 17.1 nm canopies consist of fibrils (horizontal fields containing extreme-ultraviolet-absorbing chromospheric material) clumped into featherlike structures. The dark fibrils initially form a quasiradial or vortical pattern as the low-lying field lines fanning out from the emerging active region connect to surrounding network and intranetwork elements of opposite polarity. The area occupied by the 17.1 nm fibrils expands as supergranular convection causes the active-region flux to spread into the background medium; the outer boundary of the dark canopy stabilizes where the diffusing flux encounters a unipolar region of opposite sign. The dark fibrils tend to accumulate in regions of weak longitudinal field and to become rooted in mixed-polarity flux. To explain the latter observation, we note that the low-lying fibrils are more likely to interact with small loops associated with weak, opposite-polarity flux elements in close proximity, than with high loops anchored inside strong unipolar network flux. As a result, the 17.1 nm fibrils gradually become concentrated around the large-scale polarity inversion lines (PILs), where most of the mixed-polarity flux is located. Systematic flux cancellation, assisted by rotational shearing, removes the field component transverse to the PIL and causes the fibrils to coalesce into long PIL-aligned filaments.

  5. Patterns of Activity in a Global Model of a Solar Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, S. J.; Viall, N. M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of frequencies. What differs is the average frequency of the distributions. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes with a magnetic field extrapolation to create a model active region and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is not to reproduce a particular set of observations in detail, but to recover some typical properties and patterns observed in active regions. Our key findings are the following. (1) Cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. (2) Shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. (3) All channel pairs show zero time lag when the line of sight passes through coronal loop footpoints. (4) There is strong evidence that plasma must be re-energized on a timescale comparable to the cooling timescale to reproduce the observed coronal activity, but it is likely that a relatively broad spectrum of heating frequencies are operating across active regions. (5) Due to their highly dynamic nature, we find nanoflare trains produce zero time lags along entire flux tubes in our model active region that are seen between the same channel pairs in observed active regions.

  6. Femtosecond time-resolved impulsive stimulated Raman spectroscopy using sub-7-fs pulses: Apparatus and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuramochi, Hikaru; Takeuchi, Satoshi; Tahara, Tahei

    2016-04-01

    We describe details of the setup for time-resolved impulsive stimulated Raman spectroscopy (TR-ISRS). In this method, snapshot molecular vibrational spectra of the photoreaction transients are captured via time-domain Raman probing using ultrashort pulses. Our instrument features transform-limited sub-7-fs pulses to impulsively excite and probe coherent nuclear wavepacket motions, allowing us to observe vibrational fingerprints of transient species from the terahertz to 3000-cm-1 region with high sensitivity. Key optical components for the best spectroscopic performance are discussed. The TR-ISRS measurements for the excited states of diphenylacetylene in cyclohexane are demonstrated, highlighting the capability of our setup to track femtosecond dynamics of all the Raman-active fundamental molecular vibrations.

  7. The evolution and orientation of early cycle 22 active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Anne T.; Marquette, William H.

    1991-01-01

    The evolution of six major active regions which appeared during the first phase of the present solar cycle (cycle 22) has been studied. It was found that the northern hemisphere regions exhibited a broad range of evolutionary behavior in which the commonly accepted 'normal pattern' (whereby the follower flux moves preferentially polewards ahead of the leader flux) is represented at one end of the range. At the other end of the range, the leader flux is displaced polewards of the follower flux. In the latter cases equatorward extensions of the polar coronal hole are noted.

  8. Extreme storm activity in North Atlantic and European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilova, N.

    2010-09-01

    The extreme storm activity study over North Atlantic and Europe includes the analyses of extreme cyclone (track number, integral cyclonic intensity) and extreme storm (track number) during winter and summer seasons in the regions: 1) 55°N-80N, 50°W-70°E; 2) 30°N-55°N, 50°W-70°E. Extreme cyclones were selected based on cyclone centre pressure (P<=970 mbar). Extreme storms were selected from extreme cyclones based on wind velocity on 925 mbar. The Bofort scala was used for this goal. Integral cyclonic intensity (for region) includes the calculation cyclone centers number and sum of MSLP anomalies in cyclone centers. The analyses based on automated cyclone tracking algorithm, 6-hourly MSLP and wind data (u and v on 925 gPa) from the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses from January 1948 to March 2010. The comparision of mean, calculated for every ten years, had shown, that in polar region extreme cyclone and storm track number, and integral cyclonic intensity gradually increases and have maximum during last years (as for summer, as for winter season). Every ten years means for summer season are more then for winter season, as for polar, as for tropical region. Means (ten years) for tropical region are significance less then for polar region.

  9. Armenia as a Regional Centre for Astronomy for Development activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO, Armenia, http://www.bao.am) are among the candidate IAU Regional Nodes for Astronomy for Development activities. It is one of the main astronomical centers of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East region. At present there are 48 qualified researchers at BAO, including six Doctors of Science and 30 PhDs. Five important observational instruments are installed at BAO, the larger ones being 2.6m Cassegrain (ZTA-2.6) and 1m Schmidt (the one that provided the famous Markarian survey). BAO is regarded as a national scientific-educational center, where a number of activities are being organized, such as: international conferences (4 IAU symposia and 1 IAU colloquium, JENAM-2007, etc.), small workshops and discussions, international summer schools (1987, 2006, 2008 and 2010), and Olympiads. BAO collaborates with scientists from many countries. The Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS, http://www.aras.am/) is an NGO founded in 2001; it has 93 members and it is rather active in the organization of educational, amateur, popular, promotional and other matters. The Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, http://www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) is one of the 17 national VO projects forming the International Virtual Observatories Alliance (IVOA) and is the only VO project in the region serving also for educational purposes. A number of activities are planned, such as management, coordination and evaluation of the IAU programs in the area of development and education, establishment of the new IAU endowed lectureship program and organization of seminars and public lectures, coordination and initiation of fundraising activities for astronomy development, organization of regional scientific symposia, conferences and workshops, support to Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP), production/publication of educational and promotional materials, etc.

  10. PCDD/Fs formation catalyzed by the copper chloride in the fly ash.

    PubMed

    Chin, Yu T; Lin, Chieh; Chang-Chien, Guo P; Wang, Yu M

    2011-01-01

    The secondary formation of dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in the flue gas and ash from the municipal solid waste incinerator (MSWI) systems has attracted considerable public concern. The objective of our research was thus to examine reactions in fly ash from an MSWI operated with different precursors with similar chemical compositions, such as dibenzofurans (DFs), and metal chlorides, such as copper chloride (CuCl(2)). We observed that the concentrations of PCDD/Fs in CuCl(2) and in a mixture of CuCl(2) and DFs were 369.5 and 5307.8 ng/g, respectively, and thus significantly higher in the latter. Due to the catalytic effect of copper ions and the similar structure of dibenzofurans for PCDFs, the effect of the additive in forming PCDD/Fs were obvious. The concentrations of PCDD/Fs in CuCl(2) and copper oxide (CuO) were 369.5 and 97.05 ng/g, respectively. The results also show that the PCDD/Fs concentration when copper chloride was added was four times higher than when copper oxide was added. In addition, the level of activity of the chlorine atoms is greater than that of the oxygen atoms during the formation of PCDD/Fs. This study suggests that the use of metal-containing substances (such as Cu, Cl, Zn) or chlorination precursors (such as DF, chlorobenzene) should be avoided in the combustion process. PMID:21409699

  11. Active region upflows. I. Multi-instrument observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanninathan, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Galsgaard, K.; Huang, Z.; Doyle, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Context. We study upflows at the edges of active regions, called AR outflows, using multi-instrument observations. Aims: This study intends to provide the first direct observational evidence of whether chromospheric jets play an important role in furnishing mass that could sustain coronal upflows. The evolution of the photospheric magnetic field, associated with the footpoints of the upflow region and the plasma properties of active region upflows is investigated with the aim of providing information for benchmarking data-driven modelling of this solar feature. Methods: We spatially and temporally combine multi-instrument observations obtained with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board the Hinode, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Interferometric BI-dimensional Spectro-polarimeter installed at the National Solar Observatory, Sac Peak, to study the plasma parameters of the upflows and the impact of the chromosphere on active region upflows. Results: Our analysis shows that the studied active region upflow presents similarly to those studied previously, i.e. it displays blueshifted emission of 5-20 kms-1 in Fe xii and Fe xiii and its average electron density is 1.8 × 109 cm-3 at 1 MK. The time variation of the density is obtained showing no significant change (in a 3σ error). The plasma density along a single loop is calculated revealing a drop of 50% over a distance of ~20 000 km along the loop. We find a second velocity component in the blue wing of the Fe xii and Fe xiii lines at 105 kms-1 reported only once before. For the first time we study the time evolution of this component at high cadence and find that it is persistent during the whole observing period of 3.5 h with variations of only ±15 kms-1. We also, for the first time, study the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field at high cadence and find that magnetic flux diffusion is

  12. Formation of active region and quiescent prominence magnetic field configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, C.-H.; Bao, J. J.; Wu, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the formation of prominences, researchers studied chromospheric mass injection into an overlying coronal dipole magnetic field using a 2-D ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model. Researchers propose that active region prominences are formed by chromospheric plasmas injected directly into the overlying coronal magnetic field and that quiescent prominences are formed by plasmas evaporated at the interface between spicules and corona. Hence, for the simulation of an active region prominence magnetic field we inject the mass from one side, but use a symmetric mass injection to form a quiescent prominence field configuration. Researchers try to find optimum conditions for the formation of Kippenhahn-Schuluter(K-S)type field configuration for stable support of the injection plasmas. They find that the formation of K-S type field configuration by mass injection requires a delicate balance between injection velocity, density, and overlying magnetic fields. These results may explain why a prominence does not form on every neutral line.

  13. Tilt Angles of Quiescent Filaments and Filaments of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlatov, A. G.; Kuzanyan, K. M.; Vasil'yeva, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    We carry out study of tilt angles of solar filaments using the data from the two observatories: Meudon Observatory and Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station for the century-long period 1919-2014. We developed special software for digitization of the filaments structures on Hα synoptic maps. The filaments were vectorized in semi-automatic mode. The tilt angles of filaments with respect to the equator (τ) were analyzed. Approximately 2/3 of the filaments have positive angles τ >0, which is defined as when the eastern end of the filaments are closer to the poles than the western ones. We have separated tilts for the filaments which are close to the active region structures and those of quiescent filaments. We found that long quiescent filaments mainly have negative tilts. The filaments which are close to active regions mainly have positive tilt angles.

  14. Fine structure of the magnetic field in active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustilnik, Lev; Beskrovnaya, Nina; Ikhsanov, Nazar

    High-resolution observations with SOHO, SDO, TRACE, HINODE suggest that the solar magnetic field in active regions has a complicated fine structure. There is a large number of thin magnetic arcs extended from the photosphere to corona with almost constant cross-section. We explore a possibility to model the complex of interacting arcs in terms of a dynamical percolating network. A transition of the system into flaring can be triggered by the flute instability of prominences and/or coronal condensations. We speculate around an assumption that the energy release in active regions is governed by the same scenario as dynamical current percolation through a random resistors network in which the saltatory conduction is controlled by a local current level.

  15. Electric currents and coronal heating in NOAA active region 6952

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, T. R.; Canfield, R. C.; Hudson, H. S.; Mickey, D. L.; Wulser, J. -P.; Martens, P. C. H.; Tsuneta, S.

    1994-01-01

    We examine the spatial and temporal relationship between coronal structures observed with the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on board the Yohkoh spacecraft and the vertical electric current density derived from photospheric vector magnetograms obtained using the Stokes Polarimeter at the Mees Solar Observatory. We focus on a single active region: AR 6952 which we observed on 7 days during 1991 December. For 11 independent maps of the vertical electric current density co-aligned with non-flaring X-ray images, we search for a morphological relationship between sites of high vertical current density in the photosphere and enhanced X-ray emission in the overlying corona. We find no compelling spatial or temporal correlation between the sites of vertical current and the bright X-ray structures in this active region.

  16. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Calibration and Validation Analyses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); McClain, Charles R.; Ainsworth, Ewa J.; Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Patt, Frederick S.; Robinson, Wayne D.; Wang, Menghua; Bailey, Sean W.

    2000-01-01

    The effort to resolve data quality issues and improve on the initial data evaluation methodologies of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project was an extensive one. These evaluations have resulted, to date, in three major reprocessings of the entire data set where each reprocessing addressed the data quality issues that could be identified up to the time of each reprocessing. The number of chapters (21) needed to document this extensive work in the SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series requires three volumes. The chapters in Volumes 9, 10, and 11 are in a logical order sequencing through sensor calibration, atmospheric correction, masks and flags, product evaluations, and bio-optical algorithms. The first chapter of Volume 9 is an overview of the calibration and validation program, including a table of activities from the inception of the SeaWiFS Project. Chapter 2 describes the fine adjustments of sensor detector knee radiances, i.e., radiance levels where three of the four detectors in each SeaWiFS band saturate. Chapters 3 and 4 describe the analyses of the lunar and solar calibration time series, respectively, which are used to track the temporal changes in radiometric sensitivity in each band. Chapter 5 outlines the procedure used to adjust band 7 relative to band 8 to derive reasonable aerosol radiances in band 7 as compared to those in band 8 in the vicinity of Lanai, Hawaii, the vicarious calibration site. Chapter 6 presents the procedure used to estimate the vicarious calibration gain adjustment factors for bands 1-6 using the waterleaving radiances from the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) offshore of Lanai. Chapter 7 provides the adjustments to the coccolithophore flag algorithm which were required for improved performance over the prelaunch version. Chapter 8 is an overview of the numerous modifications to the atmospheric correction algorithm that have been implemented. Chapter 9 describes the methodology used to remove artifacts of

  17. Case study of a complex active-region filament eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, X. L.; Qu, Z. Q.; Kong, D. F.; Deng, L. H.; Xue, Z. K.

    2013-09-01

    Context. We investigated a solar active-region filament eruption associated with a C6.6 class flare and a coronal mass ejection (CME) in NOAA active region 08858 on 2000 February 9. Aims: We aim to better understand the relationship between filament eruptions and the associated flares and CMEs. Methods: Using BBSO, SOHO/EIT, and TRACE observational data, we analyzed the process of the active-region filament eruption in the chromosphere and the corona. Using the SOHO/MDI magnetograms, we investigated the change of the magnetic fields in the photosphere. Using the GOES soft X-ray flux and the SOHO/LASCO images, we identified the flare and CME, which were associated with this active-region filament eruption. Results: The brightenings in the chromosphere are a precursor of the filament expansion. The eruption itself can be divided into four phases: In the initial phase, the intertwined bright and dark strands of the filament expand. Then, the bright strands are divided into three parts with different expansion velocity. Next, the erupting filament-carrying flux rope expands rapidly and combines with the lower part of the expanding bright strands. Finally, the filament erupts accompanied by other dark strands overlying the filament.The overlying magnetic loops and the expansion of the filament strands can change the direction of the eruption. Conclusions: The time delay between the velocity peaks of the filament and that of the two parts of the bright strands clearly demonstrates that the breakup of the bright loops tying on the filament into individual strands is important for its eruption. The eruption is a collection of multiple processes that are physically coupled rather than a single process.

  18. The Three Fs of Classroom Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniels, Mark L.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a cohesive theory of classroom management, developed by the author. This "three Fs" theory, predicated upon extant empiricism and scholarship vis-a-vis classroom management, was devised and implemented over several semesters within a field-based course at the University of Texas at Austin for preservice mathematics majors…

  19. Streamlining the RI/FS process

    SciTech Connect

    Dumas, L.; Doss, R.C.

    1998-07-01

    In 1994, Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG and E) contracted with CH2M HILL to manage remedial investigations and feasibility studies (RI/FS) at its former manufactured gas plant (MGP) sites in Chico, Willows, and Marysville, California. These three sites had similar histories, MGP-related contaminants, similar geologic settings, and geographically were close together. Recognizing the advantages that may be gained, both in time and money, by streamlining the RI/FS process, PG and E and CH2M HILL combined the sites into one project. From the start of the project, PG and E and CH2M HILL looked for an implemented changes to the RI/FS process to streamline the project. These changes included combining deliverables, linking field programs at the three sites, and negotiating bulk discounts on laboratory and other services by combining the work to be done at the three sites under one contract. CH2M HILL later proposed additional measures to streamline the project that were eventually adopted by both PG and E and the regulatory agencies. PG and E and CH2M HILL are currently working with the regulatory agencies to negotiate realistic measures to address contaminants in soil and groundwater, and are jointly preparing the FS with the regulatory agencies using a unique means of documentation.

  20. SeaWiFS: California Coastal Blooms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There was a good bit of variety in the water colors off the California coast on September 3, 2001. This SeaWiFS image shows various phytoplankton blooms that paint the water green, aquamarine, and even rust colored in places.

  1. Simulation of Active-Region-Scale Flux Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, W.; van der Holst, B.

    2015-12-01

    Shear flows long observed in solar active regions are now understood to be a consequence of the Lorentz force that develops from a complex interaction between magnetic fields and the thermal pressure of the Sun's gravitationally stratified atmosphere. The shearing motions transport magnetic flux and energy from the submerged portion of the field to the corona providing the necessary energy for flares, filament eruptions and CMEs. To further examine this shearing process, we simulate flux emergence on the scale of active regions with a large-scale model of the near surface convection zone constructed on an adaptive spherical grid. This model is designed to simulate flux emerging on the scale of active regions from a depth of 30 Mm. Here, we show results of a twisted flux rope emerging through the hierarchy of granular convection, and examine the flow patterns that arise as the flux approaches the photosphere. We show how these organized flows driven by the Lorentz force cause the coronal field evolve to a highly non-potential configuration capable of driving solar eruptions such as CMEs and flares.

  2. Mold-free fs laser shock micro forming and its plastic deformation mechanism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yunxia; Feng, Yayun; Lian, Zuchang; Hua, Yinqun

    2015-04-01

    Mold-free micro forming using a fs laser was investigated by producing micro pits on pure aluminum foil. The characteristics of the pit profiles, their forming mechanisms, and the influences of some important parameters on the pit profiles were investigated by measuring the profiles and the surface morphologies of the pits. The microstructures of the shocked aluminum foil were observed through transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Pits obtained through fs laser shock forming are composed of two regions: the directly impacted region and the plastically bending region. Diameters of the former strongly depend on laser beam sizes. The plastically bending region has a negative effect on forming precision. Shorter laser pulse width is beneficial for narrowing the range of the plastically bending region and enhancing the forming precision. Using a single-side clamping mode can also narrow the plastically bending region through buffering the local bending. Fs laser-induced microstructures are characteristic of fragmentary short dislocation lines and parallel slip lines, which are the results of the ultrafast and ultrahigh pressure loading. The localization of the fs laser shock forming induced by ultrafast loading can enhance the precision of mold-free forming.

  3. Altered regional activity and inter-regional functional connectivity in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Li, Yibo; An, Dongmei; Gong, Qiyong; Zhou, Dong; Chen, Huafu

    2015-01-01

    Although various imaging studies have focused on detecting the cerebral function underlying psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES), the nature of PNES remains poorly understood. In this study, we combined the resting state fMRI with fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and functional connectivity based on the seed voxel linear correlation approach to examine the alterations of regional and inter-regional network cerebral functions in PNES. A total of 20 healthy controls and 18 patients were enrolled. The PNES patients showed significantly increased fALFF mainly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), parietal cortices, and motor areas, as well as decreased fALFF in the triangular inferior frontal gyrus. Thus, our results add to literature suggesting abnormalities of neural synchrony in PNES. Moreover, PNES exhibited widespread inter-regional neural network deficits, including increased (DLPFC, sensorimotor, and limbic system) and decreased (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex) connectivity, indicating that changes in the regional cerebral function are related to remote inter-regional network deficits. Correlation analysis results revealed that the connectivity between supplementary motor area and anterior cingulate cortex correlated with the PNES frequency, further suggesting the skewed integration of synchronous activity could predispose to the occurrence of PNES. Our findings provided novel evidence to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of PNES. PMID:26109123

  4. Active region upflows. II. Data driven magnetohydrodynamic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galsgaard, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Vanninathan, K.; Huang, Z.; Presmann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Observations of many active regions show a slow systematic outflow/upflow from their edges lasting from hours to days. At present no physical explanation has been proven, while several suggestions have been put forward. Aims: This paper investigates one possible method for maintaining these upflows assuming, that convective motions drive the magnetic field to initiate them through magnetic reconnection. Methods: We use Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) data to provide an initial potential 3D magnetic field of the active region NOAA 11123 on 2010 November 13 where the characteristic upflow velocities are observed. A simple 1D hydrostatic atmospheric model covering the region from the photosphere to the corona is derived. Local correlation tracking of the magnetic features in the HMI data is used to derive a proxy for the time dependent velocity field. The time dependent evolution of the system is solved using a resistive 3D magnetohydrodynamic code. Results: The magnetic field contains several null points located well above the photosphere, with their fan planes dividing the magnetic field into independent open and closed flux domains. The stressing of the interfaces between the different flux domains is expected to provide locations where magnetic reconnection can take place and drive systematic flows. In this case, the region between the closed and open flux is identified as the region where observations find the systematic upflows. Conclusions: In the present experiment, the driving only initiates magneto-acoustic waves without driving any systematic upflows at any of the flux interfaces. Movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  5. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 39; SeaWiFS Calibration Topics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Barnes, Robert A.; Yeh, Eueng-nan; Eplee, Robert E.

    1996-01-01

    For Earth-observing satellite instruments, it was standard to consider each instrument band to have a spectral response that is infinitely narrow, i.e., to have a response from a single wavelength. The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) bands, however, have nominal spectral bandwidths of 20 and 40nm. These bandwidths affect the SeaWiFS measurements on orbit. The effects are also linked to the manner in which the instrument was calibrated and to the spectral shape of the radiance that SeaWiFS views. Currently, SeaWiFS is calibrated such that the digital counts from each instrument band are linked to the Earth-exiting radiance at an individual center wavelength. Before launch, SeaWiFS will be recalibrated so that the digital counts from each band will be linked to the Earth-exiting radiance integrated over the spectral response of that band. In this technical memorandum, the effects of the instrument calibration and the source spectral shape on SeaWiFS measurements, including the in-band and out-of-band responses, and the center wavelengths are discussed.

  6. Holocene fire activity in the Carpathian region: regional climate vs. local controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florescu, Gabriela; Feurdean, Angelica

    2015-04-01

    Introduction. Fire drives significant changes in ecosystem structure and function, diversity, species evolution, biomass dynamics and atmospheric composition. Palaeodata and model-based studies have pointed towards a strong connection between fire activity, climate, vegetation and people. Nevertheless, the relative importance of these factors appears to be strongly variable and a better understanding of these factors and their interaction needs a thorough investigation over multiple spatial (local to global) and temporal (years to millennia) scales. In this respect, sedimentary charcoal, associated with other proxies of climate, vegetation and human impact, represents a powerful tool of investigating changes in past fire activity, especially in regions with scarce fire dataset such as the CE Europe. Aim. To increase the spatial and temporal coverage of charcoal records and facilitate a more critical examination of the patterns, drivers and consequences of biomass burning over multiple spatial and temporal scales in CE Europe, we have investigated 6 fossil sequences in the Carpathian region (northern Romania). These are located in different geographical settings, in terms of elevation, vegetation composition, topography and land-use. Specific questions are: i) determine trends in timing and magnitude of fire activity, as well as similarities and differences between elevations; ii) disentangle the importance of regional from local controls in fire activity; iii) evaluate ecological consequences of fire on landscape composition, structure and diversity. Methods. We first determine the recent trends in fire activity (the last 150 years) from charcoal data and compare them with instrumental records of temperature, precipitation, site history and topography for a better understanding of the relationship between sedimentary charcoal and historical fire activity. We then statistically quantify centennial to millennial trends in fire activity (frequency, magnitude) based on

  7. Monitoring rice farming activities in the Mekong Delta region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, S. T.; Chen, C. F.; Chen, C. R.; Chiang, S. H.; Chang, L. Y.; Khin, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    Half of the world's population depends on rice for survival. Rice agriculture thus plays an important role in the developing world's economy. Vietnam is one of the largest rice producers and suppliers on earth and more than 80% of the exported rice was produced from the Mekong Delta region, which is situated in the southwestern Vietnam and encompasses approximately 40,000 km2. Changes in climate conditions could likely trigger the increase of insect populations and rice diseases, causing the potential loss of rice yields. Monitoring rice-farming activities through crop phenology detection can provide policymakers with timely strategies to mitigate possible impacts on the potential yield as well as rice grain exports to ensure food security for the region. The main objective of this study is to develop a logistic-based algorithm to investigate rice sowing and harvesting activities from the multi-temporal Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Landsat fusion data. We processed the data for two main cropping seasons (i.e., winter-spring and summer-autumn seasons) through a three-step procedure: (1) MODIS-Landsat data fusion, (2) construction of the time-series enhanced vegetation index 2 (EVI2) data, (3) rice crop phenology detection. The EVI2 data derived from the fusion results between MODIS and Landsat data were compared with that of Landsat data indicated close correlation between the two datasets (R2 = 0.93). The time-series EVI2 data were processed using the double logistic method to detect the progress of sowing and harvesting activities in the region. The comparisons between the estimated sowing and harvesting dates and the field survey data revealed the root mean squared error (RMSE) values of 8.4 and 5.5 days for the winter-spring crop and 9.4 and 12.8 days for the summer-autumn crop, respectively. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the double logistic-based algorithm for rice crop monitoring from temporal MODIS-Landsat fusion data

  8. FORMATION OF CORONAL HOLES ON THE ASHES OF ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Karachik, Nina V.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Abramenko, Valentyna I. E-mail: apevtsov@nso.ed

    2010-05-10

    We investigate the formation of isolated non-polar coronal holes (CHs) on the remnants of decaying active regions (ARs) at the minimum/early ascending phase of sunspot activity. We follow the evolution of four bipolar ARs and measure several parameters of their magnetic fields including total flux, imbalance, and compactness. As regions decay, their leading and following polarities exhibit different dissipation rates: loose polarity tends to dissipate faster than compact polarity. As a consequence, we see a gradual increase in flux imbalance inside a dissipating bipolar region, and later a formation of a CH in place of more compact magnetic flux. Out of four cases studied in detail, two CHs had formed at the following polarity of the decaying bipolar AR, and two CHs had developed in place of the leading polarity field. All four CHs contain a significant fraction of magnetic field of their corresponding AR. Using potential field extrapolation, we show that the magnetic field lines of these CHs were closed on the polar CH at the North, which at the time of the events was in imbalance with the polar CH at the South. This topology suggests that the observed phenomenon may play an important role in transformation of toroidal magnetic field to poloidal field, which is a key step in transitioning from an old solar cycle to a new one. The timing of this observed transition may indicate the end of solar cycle 23 and the beginning of cycle 24.

  9. Helioseismology of pre-emerging active regions. III. Statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, G.; Leka, K. D.; Braun, D. C.; Birch, A. C.

    2014-05-01

    The subsurface properties of active regions (ARs) prior to their appearance at the solar surface may shed light on the process of AR formation. Helioseismic holography has been applied to samples taken from two populations of regions on the Sun (pre-emergence and without emergence), each sample having over 100 members, that were selected to minimize systematic bias, as described in Paper I. Paper II showed that there are statistically significant signatures in the average helioseismic properties that precede the formation of an AR. This paper describes a more detailed analysis of the samples of pre-emergence regions and regions without emergence based on discriminant analysis. The property that is best able to distinguish the populations is found to be the surface magnetic field, even a day before the emergence time. However, after accounting for the correlations between the surface field and the quantities derived from helioseismology, there is still evidence of a helioseismic precursor to AR emergence that is present for at least a day prior to emergence, although the analysis presented cannot definitively determine the subsurface properties prior to emergence due to the small sample sizes.

  10. Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Active Region NOAA 7154

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, M. E.; Nitta, N. V.; Frank. Z. A.; Dame, L.; Suematsu, Y.

    2000-01-01

    We report on observations of a solar active region in May 1992 by the Solar Plasma Diagnostic Experiment (SPDE) in coordination with the Yohkoh satellite (producing soft X-ray images) and ground-based observatories (producing photospheric magnetograms and various filtergrams including those at the CN 3883 A line). The main focus is a study of the physical conditions of hot (T is approximately greater than 3 MK) coronal loops at their foot-points. The coronal part of the loops is fuzzy but what appear to be their footpoints in the transition region down to the photosphere are compact. Despite the morphological similarities, the footpoint emission at 10(exp 5) K is not quantitatively correlated with that at approximately 300 km above the tau (sub 5000) = 1 level, suggesting that the heat transport and therefore magnetic field topology in the intermediate layer is complicated. High resolution imaging observations with continuous temperature coverage are crucially needed.

  11. High Spatial Resolution Fe XII Observations of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Paola; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo

    2016-08-01

    We use UV spectral observations of active regions with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to investigate the properties of the coronal Fe xii 1349.4 Å emission at unprecedented high spatial resolution (∼0.33″). We find that by using appropriate observational strategies (i.e., long exposures, lossless compression), Fe xii emission can be studied with IRIS at high spatial and spectral resolution, at least for high-density plasma (e.g., post-flare loops and active region moss). We find that upper transition region (TR; moss) Fe xii emission shows very small average Doppler redshifts ({v}{{D}} ∼ 3 km s‑1) as well as modest non-thermal velocities (with an average of ∼24 km s‑1 and the peak of the distribution at ∼15 km s‑1). The observed distribution of Doppler shifts appears to be compatible with advanced three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations in which impulsive heating is concentrated at the TR footpoints of a hot corona. While the non-thermal broadening of Fe xii 1349.4 Å peaks at similar values as lower resolution simultaneous Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) measurements of Fe xii 195 Å, IRIS observations show a previously undetected tail of increased non-thermal broadening that might be suggestive of the presence of subarcsecond heating events. We find that IRIS and EIS non-thermal line broadening measurements are affected by instrumental effects that can only be removed through careful analysis. Our results also reveal an unexplained discrepancy between observed 195.1/1349.4 Å Fe xii intensity ratios and those predicted by the CHIANTI atomic database.

  12. Ancient Tectonic and Volcanic Activity in the Tharsis Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, S. C.; Kronberg, P.; Hauber, E.; Grott, M.; Steinberger, B.; Torsvik, T. H.; Neukum, G.

    The two topographically dominating volcanic provinces on Mars are the Tharsis and the Elysium regions, situated close to the equator on the dichotomy boundary between the heavily cratered (older) highlands and the northern lowlands (about 100 degrees apart). The regions are characterized by volcanoes whose morphologies are analogous to volcanic landforms on Earth, and the huge volcanoes in the Tharsis region (Olympus Mons and Tharsis Montes) are prime examples resembling many characteristics of Hawaiian shield volcanoes. The main difference between the Martian and terrestrial volcanoes are their size and the length of the flows, possibly due to higher eruption rates, the "stationary" character of the source (no plate tectonics) and the lower gravity. The Tharsis plateau is the topographically most prominent region on Mars, and associated with an areoid high. On Earth, large geoid highs are related to longlived heterogeneities near the core-mantle boundary that are sources for large igneous provinces. The Tharsis' volcanic vent structures were active at least episodically over the past 4 billion years (based on crater count statistics), which indicates long-lived volcanic and magmatic activity. Two major groups of tectonic features are related to the Tharsis bulge: a concentric set of wrinkle ridges indicating compression radial to Tharsis,and several sets of extensional structures that radiate outward from different centers within Tharsis, indicating tension circumferential to Tharsis. No landforms imply ancient plate tectonics. Here, we present surface ages associated with volcanic and tectonic landforms with a special focus on the ancient magma-tectonic environment (see Grott et al. 2006, this volume). We will examine the long-lived volcanism and tectonic surface expressions and discuss whether Mars volcanism could represent deep mantle plumes.

  13. High Spatial Resolution Fe XII Observations of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Paola; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo

    2016-08-01

    We use UV spectral observations of active regions with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to investigate the properties of the coronal Fe xii 1349.4 Å emission at unprecedented high spatial resolution (˜0.33″). We find that by using appropriate observational strategies (i.e., long exposures, lossless compression), Fe xii emission can be studied with IRIS at high spatial and spectral resolution, at least for high-density plasma (e.g., post-flare loops and active region moss). We find that upper transition region (TR; moss) Fe xii emission shows very small average Doppler redshifts ({v}{{D}} ˜ 3 km s‑1) as well as modest non-thermal velocities (with an average of ˜24 km s‑1 and the peak of the distribution at ˜15 km s‑1). The observed distribution of Doppler shifts appears to be compatible with advanced three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations in which impulsive heating is concentrated at the TR footpoints of a hot corona. While the non-thermal broadening of Fe xii 1349.4 Å peaks at similar values as lower resolution simultaneous Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) measurements of Fe xii 195 Å, IRIS observations show a previously undetected tail of increased non-thermal broadening that might be suggestive of the presence of subarcsecond heating events. We find that IRIS and EIS non-thermal line broadening measurements are affected by instrumental effects that can only be removed through careful analysis. Our results also reveal an unexplained discrepancy between observed 195.1/1349.4 Å Fe xii intensity ratios and those predicted by the CHIANTI atomic database.

  14. Chromospheric Evolution and the Flare Activity of Super-Active Region NOAA 6555

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    PrasadC, Debi; Ambastha, Ashok; Srivastava, Nandita; Tripathy, Sushanta C.; Hagyard, Mona J.

    1997-01-01

    Super-active region NOAA 6555 was highly flare productive during the period March 21st - 27th, 1991 of its disk passage. We have studied its chromospheric activity using high spatial resolution H alpha filtergrams taken at Udaipur along with MSFC vector magnetograms. A possible relationship of flare productivity and the variation in shear has been explored. Flares were generally seen in those subareas of the active region which possessed closed magnetic field configuration, whereas only minor flares and/or surges occurred in subareas showing open magnetic field configuration. Physical mechanisms responsible for the observed surges are also discussed.

  15. Implications of Special Regions to Conducting Human Activities on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J. D.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D. W.; Jones, M. A.; Hipkin, V.

    2014-12-01

    A MEPAG Science Analysis Group (SAG) has undertaken an analysis of Special Regions (SR) on Mars—regions where indigenous martian life could exist or where Earth microbes, if introduced, could survive and reproduce. The SR-SAG has considered the impact of SR on future human activities on the martian surface. Human exploration requires access to in-situ resources, some of which may be found in SR. Water and oxygen for ISRU are found in the atmosphere, surface/near-surface ice, hydrated minerals, and perchlorates. Water ice is most abundant at latitudes poleward of ~60 degrees, but polar darkness, cold temperatures, and CO2 degassing present hazards to human operations in these regions. Accessible water is more limited toward the equator, though temperature and solar energy conditions become more favorable. The possible presence of liquid water in Recurring Slope Lineae and active gullies leads to their treatment as SR. Fuel for surface operations and propellants for crew ascent could be manufactured from the martian atmosphere and surface materials, but dust in the atmosphere may clog ISRU equipment and perchlorate is toxic to humans. Power may be produced from solar or nuclear energy. Reliance on solar energy limits operations to the equatorial zone where easily accessible ice resources are limited. Nuclear power allows surface operations at a range of latitudes, but waste heat could convert some non-SR into SR. Radiation shielding is necessary for long-term human operations on Mars and could be obtained by deposition of regolith or by water storage in tanks or as ice around habitats, or the use of underground habitats. SR-SAG recognizes that it will be impossible for all human-associated processes and operations to be conducted within entirely closed systems. Protocols need to be established so (1) human missions to Mars will not contaminate SR nor be contaminated by materials from them, and (2) human activities on Mars will avoid converting areas into SR.

  16. THE EXPANSION OF ACTIVE REGIONS INTO THE EXTENDED SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Huw; Jeska, Lauren; Leonard, Drew

    2013-06-01

    Advanced image processing of Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (LASCO) C2 observations reveals the expansion of the active region closed field into the extended corona. The nested closed-loop systems are large, with an apparent latitudinal extent of 50 Degree-Sign , and expanding to heights of at least 12 R{sub Sun }. The expansion speeds are {approx}10 km s{sup -1} in the AIA/SDO field of view, below {approx}20 km s{sup -1} at 2.3 R{sub Sun }, and accelerate linearly to {approx}60 km s{sup -1} at 5 R{sub Sun }. They appear with a frequency of one every {approx}3 hr over a time period of around three days. They are not coronal mass ejections (CMEs) since their gradual expansion is continuous and steady. They are also faint, with an upper limit of 3% of the brightness of background streamers. Extreme ultraviolet images reveal continuous birth and expansion of hot, bright loops from a new active region at the base of the system. The LASCO images show that the loops span a radial fan-like system of streamers, suggesting that they are not propagating within the main coronal streamer structure. The expanding loops brighten at low heights a few hours prior to a CME eruption, and the expansion process is temporarily halted as the closed field system is swept away. Closed magnetic structures from some active regions are not isolated from the extended corona and solar wind, but can expand to large heights in the form of quiescent expanding loops.

  17. Temporal evolution of continental lithospheric strength in actively deforming regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, W.; Pollitz, F.F.

    2008-01-01

    It has been agreed for nearly a century that a strong, load-bearing outer layer of earth is required to support mountain ranges, transmit stresses to deform active regions and store elastic strain to generate earthquakes. However the dept and extent of this strong layer remain controversial. Here we use a variety of observations to infer the distribution of lithospheric strength in the active western United States from seismic to steady-state time scales. We use evidence from post-seismic transient and earthquake cycle deformation reservoir loading glacio-isostatic adjustment, and lithosphere isostatic adjustment to large surface and subsurface loads. The nearly perfectly elastic behavior of Earth's crust and mantle at the time scale of seismic wave propagation evolves to that of a strong, elastic crust and weak, ductile upper mantle lithosphere at both earthquake cycle (EC, ???10?? to 103 yr) and glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA, ???103 to 104 yr) time scales. Topography and gravity field correlations indicate that lithosphere isostatic adjustment (LIA) on ???106-107 yr time scales occurs with most lithospheric stress supported by an upper crust overlying a much weaker ductile subtrate. These comparisons suggest that the upper mantle lithosphere is weaker than the crust at all time scales longer than seismic. In contrast, the lower crust has a chameleon-like behavior, strong at EC and GIA time scales and weak for LIA and steady-state deformation processes. The lower crust might even take on a third identity in regions of rapid crustal extension or continental collision, where anomalously high temperatures may lead to large-scale ductile flow in a lower crustal layer that is locally weaker than the upper mantle. Modeling of lithospheric processes in active regions thus cannot use a one-size-fits-all prescription of rheological layering (relation between applied stress and deformation as a function of depth) but must be tailored to the time scale and tectonic

  18. Emission Measure Distribution and Heating of Two Active Region Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode, we have studied the coronal plasma in the core of two active regions. Concentrating on the area between opposite polarity moss, we found emission measure distributions having an approximate power-law form EM/T(exp 2.4) from log T = 5.55 up to a peak at log T = 6.57. The observations are explained extremely well by a simple nanoflare model. However, in the absence of additional constraints, the observations could possibly also be explained by steady heating.

  19. SOI/MDI studies of active region seismology and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, Ted D.; Title, Alan; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Scherrer, Phil; Zweibel, Ellen

    1995-01-01

    The solar oscillations investigation (SOI) will study solar active regions using both helioseismic and conventional observation techniques. The Michelson Doppler imager (MDI) can perform Doppler continuum and line depth imagery and can produce longitudinal magnetograms, showing either the full disk or a high resolution field of view. A dynamics program of continuous full disk Doppler observations for two months per year, campaign programs of eight hours of continuous observation per day, and a synoptic magnetic program of about 15 full disk magnetograms per day, are planned. The scientific plans, measurements and observation programs, are described.

  20. C IV Doppler shifts observed in active region filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Doppler shift properties of 21 active region filaments were studied using C IV Dopplergram data. Most are associated with corridors of weak magnetic field that separate opposite polarity strong fields seen in photospheric magnetograms. A majority of the filaments are relatively blue shifted, although several lie very close to the dividing lines between blue and red shift. Only one filament in the samples is clearly red shifted. A new calibration procedure for Dopplergrams indicates that sizable zero point offsets are often required. The center-to-limb behavior of the resulting absolute Doppler shifts suggests that filament flows are usually quite small. It is possible that they vanish.

  1. Hinode Observations of an Eruption from a Sigmoidal Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, L. M.; Wallace, A. J.; Kliem, B.

    2012-08-01

    We analyse the evolution of a bipolar active region which produces an eruption during its decay phase. The soft X-ray arcade develops high shear over a time span of two days and transitions to sigmoidal shortly before the eruption. We propose that the continuous sigmoidal soft X-ray threads indicate that a flux rope has formed which is lying low in the solar atmosphere with a bald patch separatrix surface topology. The formation of the flux rope is driven by the photospheric evolution which is dominated by fragmentation of the main polarities, motion due to supergranular flows and cancellation at the polarity inversion line.

  2. Substrate-emitting semiconductor laser with a trapezoidal active region

    SciTech Connect

    Dikareva, N V; Nekorkin, S M; Karzanova, M V; Zvonkov, B N; Aleshkin, V Ya; Dubinov, A A; Afonenko, A A

    2014-04-28

    Semiconductor lasers with a narrow (∼2°) directional pattern in the planes both parallel and perpendicular to the p–n junction are fabricated. To achieve a low radiation divergence in the p–n junction plane, the active region in this plane was designed in the form of a trapezium. The narrow directional pattern in the plane perpendicular to the p–n junction was ensured by the use of a leaky mode, through which more than 90% of laser power was coupled out. (lasers)

  3. Estimating crop production in Iowa from Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Indian National Remote Sensing Agency ResourceSat-1 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) data for the USA is being provided online by the USDA Foreign Agricultural Service (FAS) and Arctic Slope Regional Corporation – Management Services (ASRC-MS). Because of the frequent revisit time and pixel sizes...

  4. Peptides of the constant region of antibodies display fungicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Polonelli, Luciano; Ciociola, Tecla; Magliani, Walter; Zanello, Pier Paolo; D'Adda, Tiziana; Galati, Serena; De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Gabrielli, Elena; Pericolini, Eva; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Arruda, Denise C; Pinto, Marcia R; Travassos, Luiz R; Pertinhez, Thelma A; Spisni, Alberto; Conti, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic peptides with sequences identical to fragments of the constant region of different classes (IgG, IgM, IgA) of antibodies (Fc-peptides) exerted a fungicidal activity in vitro against pathogenic yeasts, such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Malassezia furfur, including caspofungin and triazole resistant strains. Alanine-substituted derivatives of fungicidal Fc-peptides, tested to evaluate the critical role of each residue, displayed unaltered, increased or decreased candidacidal activity in vitro. An Fc-peptide, included in all human IgGs, displayed a therapeutic effect against experimental mucosal and systemic candidiasis in mouse models. It is intriguing to hypothesize that some Fc-peptides may influence the antifungal immune response and constitute the basis for devising new antifungal agents. PMID:22470523

  5. SeaWiFS: Grand Banks Brightening

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    There is a hole in the cloud cover today over the Grand Banks of Newfoundland through which SeaWiFS was able to catch this view of a very large patch of bright aquamarine water. Either a large storm has passed over the Banks stirring up the bottom sediments, or some large bloom of phytoplankton is under way. Part of the Island of Newfoundland, including the snow-covered Avalon Peninsula, can also be seen in the northwest corner of the image.

  6. The morphology of flare phenomena, magnetic fields, and electric currents in active regions. II - NOAA active region 5747 (1989 October)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leka, K. D.; Canfield, Richard C.; Mcclymont, A. N.; De La Beaujardiere, J.-F.; Fan, Yuhong; Tang, F.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes October 1989 observations in NOAA Active Region 5747 of the morphology of energetic electron precipitation and high-pressure coronal flare plasmas of three flares and their relation to the vector magnetic field and vertical electric currents. The H-alpha spectroheliograms were coaligned with the vector magnetograms using continuum images of sunspots, enabling positional accuracy of a few arcsec. It was found that, during the gradual phase, the regions of the H-alpha flare that show the effects of enhanced pressure in the overlying corona often encompass extrema of the vertical current density, consistent with earlier work showing a close relationship between H-alpha emission and line-of-sight currents. The data are also consistent with the overall morphology and evolution described by erupting-filament models such as those of Kopp and Pneuman (1976) and Sturrock (1989).

  7. Plasma Beta Above a Solar Active Region: Rethinking the Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model of the plasma beta above an active region and discuss its consequences in terms of coronal magnetic field modeling. The beta-plasma model is representative and derived from a collection of sources. The resulting beta variation with height is used to emphasize the assumption that the magnetic pressure dominates over the plasma pressure must be carefully considered depending on what part of the solar atmosphere is being considered. This paper points out (1) that the paradigm that the coronal magnetic field can be constructed from a force-free magnetic field must be used in the correct context, since the forcefree region is sandwiched between two regions which have beta greater than 1, (2) that the chromospheric MgIICIV magnetic measurements occur near the beta-minimum, and (3) that, moving from the photosphere upwards, beta can return to 1 at relatively low coronal heights, e.g. R approximately 1.2R(sub)s.

  8. Chemical Fingerprints of Star Forming Regions and Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Beaupuits, Juan-Pablo

    2010-10-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of the physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and Galactic star-forming regions, using mostly single-dish millimeter observations. I first study the excitation conditions of dense gas in a group of Seyfert galaxies using radiative transfer models (Chapter 2). I then study the galaxy NGC 1068, and try to distinguish signatures of the contributions from the AGN and the starburst ring by incorporating observations of high-J transitions of dense gas tracers (Chapter 3). Later, I venture into the mid-infrared spectral region to study different aspects of the AGN and starburst components in the galaxy NGC 4945 (Chapter 4). In Chapter 5 I delve into theoretical aspects of the dynamical evolution of gas in an AGN torus. I use a 3D hydrodynamic simulation with chemical abundances driven by X-rays. The aim is to understand the effects of X-ray irradiation by the AGN on the temperature, formation and destruction of the molecular gas. I finally explore a Galactic star-forming region, the Omega Nebula, with high resolution single dish observations, to study the properties of the warm gas and to constrain chemical models (Chapters 6 and 7).

  9. Behaviour of oscillations in loop structures above active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolobov, D. Y.; Kobanov, N. I.; Chelpanov, A. A.; Kochanov, A. A.; Anfinogentov, S. A.; Chupin, S. A.; Myshyakov, I. I.; Tomin, V. E.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we combine the multiwavelength ultraviolet-optical (Solar Dynamics Observatory, SDO) and radio (Nobeyama Radioheliograph, NoRH) observations to get further insight into space-frequency distribution of oscillations at different atmospheric levels of the Sun. We processed the observational data on NOAA 11711 active region and found oscillations propagating from the photospheric level through the transition region upward into the corona. The power maps of low-frequency (1-2 mHz) oscillations reproduce well the fan-like coronal structures visible in the Fe IX 171 Å line. High frequency oscillations (5-7 mHz) propagate along the vertical magnetic field lines and concentrate inside small-scale elements in the umbra and at the umbra-penumbra boundary. We investigated the dependence of the dominant oscillation frequency upon the distance from the sunspot barycentre to estimate inclination of magnetic tubes in higher levels of sunspots where it cannot be measured directly, and found that this angle is close to 40° above the umbra boundaries in the transition region.

  10. Infrared Observations of FS CMa Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sitko, Michael L.; Russell, R. W.; Lynch, D. K.; Grady, C. A.; Hammel, H. B.; Beerman, L. C.; Day, A. N.; Huelsman, D.; Rudy, R. J.; Brafford, S. M.; Halbedel, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    A subset of non-supergiant B[e] stars has recently been recognized as forming a fairly unique class of objects with very strong emission lines, infrared excesses, and locations not associated with star formation. The exact evolutionary state of these stars, named for the prototype FS CMa, is uncertain, and they have often been classified as isolated Herbig AeBe stars. We present infrared observations of two of these stars, HD 45677 (FS CMa), HD 50138 (MWC 158), and the candidate FS CMa star HD 190073 (V1295 Aql) that span over a decade in time. All three exhibit an emission band at 10 microns due to amorphous silicates, confirming that much (if not all) of the infrared excess is due to dust. HD 50138 is found to exhibit 20% variability between 3-13 microns that resembles that found in pre-main sequence systems (HD 163296 and HD 31648). HD 45677, despite large changes at visual wavelengths, has remained relatively stable in the infrared. To date, no significant changes have been observed in HD 190073. This work is supported in part by NASA Origins of Solar Systems grant NAG5-9475, NASA Astrophysics Data Program contract NNH05CD30C, and the Independent Research and Development program at The Aerospace Corporation.

  11. The Magnetic Classification of Solar Active Regions 1992-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeggli, S. A.; Norton, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this Letter is to address a blindspot in our knowledge of solar active region (AR) statistics. To the best of our knowledge, there are no published results showing the variation of the Mount Wilson magnetic classifications as a function of solar cycle based on modern observations. We show statistics for all ARs reported in the daily Solar Region Summary from 1992 January 1 to 2015 December 31. We find that the α and β class ARs (including all sub-groups, e.g., βγ, βδ) make up fractions of approximately 20% and 80% of the sample, respectively. This fraction is relatively constant during high levels of activity however, an increase in the α fraction to about 35% and and a decrease in the β fraction to about 65% can be seen near each solar minimum and are statistically significant at the 2σ level. Over 30% of all ARs observed during the years of solar maxima were appended with the classifications γ and/or δ, while these classifications account for only a fraction of a percent during the years near the solar minima. This variation in the AR types indicates that the formation of complex ARs may be due to the pileup of frequent emergence of magnetic flux during solar maximum, rather than the emergence of complex, monolithic flux structures.

  12. Active Region Filaments Might Harbor Weak Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Baso, C. J.; Martínez González, M. J.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2016-05-01

    Recent spectropolarimetric observations of active region filaments have revealed polarization profiles with signatures typical of the strong field Zeeman regime. The conspicuous absence in those observations of scattering polarization and Hanle effect signatures was then pointed out by some authors. This was interpreted as either a signature of mixed “turbulent” field components or as a result of optical thickness. In this article, we present a natural scenario to explain these Zeeman-only spectropolarimetric observations of active region (AR) filaments. We propose a two-component model, one on top of the other. Both components have horizontal fields, with the azimuth difference between them being close to 90°. The component that lies lower in the atmosphere is permeated by a strong field of the order of 600 G, while the upper component has much weaker fields, of the order of 10 G. The ensuing scattering polarization signatures of the individual components have opposite signs, so its combination along the line of sight reduces—and even can cancel out—the Hanle signatures, giving rise to an apparent Zeeman-only profile. This model is also applicable to other chromospheric structures seen in absorption above ARs.

  13. Magnetic field measurements in and above a limb active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Judge

    2013-07-01

    We analyze spectropolarimetric data of a limb active region (NOAA 11302) obtained on September 22nd 2011 using the Facility Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). Stokes profiles including lines of Si I 1028.7 nm and He I 1083 nm were obtained in three scans over a 45"x75" area. Simultaneous narrow band Ca II K and G-band intensity data were acquired with a cadence of 5s at the DST. The He I data show not only typical active region polarization signatures, but also signatures in plumes -- cool post flare loops -- which extend many Mm into the corona across the visible limb. The plumes have remarkably uniform brightness, and the plume plasma is significantly Doppler shifted as it drains from the corona. Using carefully constructed observing and calibration sequences and applying Principal Component Analysis to remove instrumental artifacts, we achieved a polarization sensitivity approaching 0.02%. With this sensitivity we attempt to diagnose the vector magnetic fields and plasma properties of chromospheric and cool coronal material in and above NOAA 11302. Inversions using various radiative transfer models in the HAZEL code are remarkably consistent with the idea that plume spectra are formed in a simple, slab-like geometry, but that the ``disk'' spectra are formed under more traditional models (Milne-Eddington). The inverted magnetic data of He I lines are compared with photospheric inversions of DST Si I and Fe I data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory.

  14. High power VCSEL device with periodic gain active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Y. Q., II; Qin, L.; Sun, Y. F.; Li, T.; Cui, J. J.; Peng, B.; Liu, G. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Wang, L. J.; Cui, D. F.; Xu, Z. Y.

    2007-11-01

    High power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with large aperture have been fabricated through improving passivation, lateral oxidation and heat dissipation techniques. Different from conventional three quantum well structure, a periodic gain active region with nine quantum wells was incorporated into the VCSEL structure, with which high efficiency and high power operation were expected. The nine quantum wells were divided into three groups with each of them located at the antinodes of the cavity to enhance the coupling between the optical field and the gain region. Large aperture and bottom-emitting configuration was used to improve the beam quality and the heat dissipation. A maximum output power of 1.4W was demonstrated at CW operation for a 400μm-diameter device. The lasing wavelength shifted to 995.5nm with a FWHM of 2nm at a current of 4.8A due to the internal heating and the absence of active water cooling. A ring-shape farfield pattern was induced by the non-homogeneous lateral current distribution in large diameter device. The light intensity at the center of the ring increased with increasing current. A symmetric round light spot at the center and single transverse mode operation with a divergence angle of 16° were observed with current beyond 4.8A.

  15. Instant Stereoscopic Tomography of Active Regions with STEREO/EUVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, M. J.; Wuelser, J.; Nitta, N.; Lemen, J.; Sandman, A.

    2008-12-01

    We develop a novel 3D reconstruction method of the coronal plasma of an active region by combining stereoscopic triangulation of loops with density and temperature modeling of coronal loops with a filling factor equivalent to tomographic volume rendering. Because this method requires only a stereoscopic image pair in multiple temperature filters, which are sampled within ~1 minute with the recent STEREO/EUVI instrument, this method is about 4 orders of magnitude faster than conventional solar rotation-based tomography. We reconstruct the 3D density and temperature distribution of active region NOAA 10955 by stereoscopic triangulation of 70 loops, which are used as a skeleton for a 3D field interpolation of some 7000 loop components, leading to a 3D model that reproduces the observed fluxes in each stereosocpic image pair with an accuracy of a few percent (of the average flux) in each pixel. With the stereoscopic tomography we infer also a differential emission measure (DEM) distribution over the entire temperature range of T~0.01-10 MK, with predictions for the transition region and hotter corona in soft X-rays. The tomographic 3D model provides also large statistics of physical parameters. We find that the EUV loops with apex temperatures of T = 1- 3 MK tend to be super-hydrostatic, while hotter loops with T = 4-7 MK are near-hydrostatic. The new 3D reconstruction model is fully independent of any magnetic field data and is promising for future tests of theoretical magnetic field models and coronal heating models.

  16. Photospheric electric current and transition region brightness within an active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, A. C.; Hagyard, M. J.; Rabin, D.; Moore, R. L.; Smith, B. J., Jr.; West, E. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1984-01-01

    Distributions of vertical electrical current density J(z) calculated from vector measurements of the photospheric magnetic field are compared with ultraviolet spectroheliograms to investigate whether resistive heating is an important source of enhanced emission in the transition region. The photospheric magnetic fields in Active Region 2372 were measured on April 6 and 7, 1980 with the Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograph; ultraviolet wavelength spectroheliograms (L-alpha and N V 1239 A) were obtained with the UV Spectrometer and Polarimeter experiment aboard the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. Spatial registration of the J(z) (5 arcsec resolution) and UV (3 arcsec resolution) maps indicates that the maximum current density is cospatial with a minor but persistent UV enhancement, but there is little detected current associated with other nearby bright areas. It is concluded that, although resistive heating may be important in the transition region, the currents responsible for the heating are largely unresolved in the present measurements and have no simple correlation with the residual current measured on 5-arcsec scales.

  17. CHP REGIONAL APPLICATION CENTERS: ACTIVITIES AND SELECTED RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created a set of eight Regional Application Centers (RACs) to facilitate the development and deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies. By utilizing the thermal energy that is normally wasted when electricity is produced at central generating stations, Combined Heat and Power installations can save substantial amounts of energy compared to more traditional technologies. In addition, the location of CHP facilities at or near the point of consumption greatly reduces or eliminates electric transmission and distribution losses. The regional nature of the RACs allows each one to design and provide services that are most relevant to the specific economic and market conditions in its particular geographic area. Between them, the eight RACs provide services to all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Through the end of the federal 2009 fiscal year (FY 2009), the primary focus of the RACs was on providing CHP-related information to targeted markets, encouraging the creation and adoption of public policies and incentives favorable to CHP, and providing CHP users and prospective users with technical assistance and support on specific projects. Beginning with the 2010 fiscal year, the focus of the regional centers broadened to include district energy and waste heat recovery and these entities became formally known as Clean Energy Application Centers, as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. In 2007, ORNL led a cooperative effort to establish metrics to quantify the RACs accomplishments. That effort began with the development of a detailed logic model describing RAC operations and outcomes, which provided a basis for identifying important activities and accomplishments to track. A data collection spreadsheet soliciting information on those activities for FY 2008 and all previous years of RAC operations was developed and sent to the RACs in the summer of 2008. This

  18. Photonic crystal lasers using wavelength-scale embedded active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Shinji; Sato, Tomonari; Takeda, Koji; Shinya, Akihiko; Nozaki, Kengo; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya; Fujii, Takuro; Hasebe, Koichi; Kakitsuka, Takaaki

    2014-01-01

    Lasers with ultra-low operating energy are desired for use in chip-to-chip and on-chip optical interconnects. If we are to reduce the operating energy, we must reduce the active volume. Therefore, a photonic crystal (PhC) laser with a wavelength-scale cavity has attracted a lot of attention because a PhC provides a large Q-factor with a small volume. To improve this device's performance, we employ an embedded active region structure in which the wavelength-scale active region is buried with an InP PhC slab. This structure enables us to achieve effective confinement of both carriers and photons, and to improve the thermal resistance of the device. Thus, we have obtained a large external differential quantum efficiency of 55% and an output power of -10 dBm by optical pumping. For electrical pumping, we use a lateral p-i-n structure that employs Zn diffusion and Si ion implantation for p-type and n-type doping, respectively. We have achieved room-temperature continuous-wave operation with a threshold current of 7.8 µA and a maximum 3 dB bandwidth of 16.2 GHz. The results of an experimental bit error rate measurement with a 10 Gbit s-1 NRZ signal reveal the minimum operating energy for transferring a single bit of 5.5 fJ. These results show the potential of this laser to be used for very short reach interconnects. We also describe the optimal design of cavity quality (Q) factor in terms of achieving a large output power with a low operating energy using a calculation based on rate equations. When we assume an internal absorption loss of 20 cm-1, the optimized coupling Q-factor is 2000.

  19. Environmental variation of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs in two tropical Andean Colombian cities using passive samplers.

    PubMed

    Cortés, J; Cobo, M; González, C M; Gómez, C D; Abalos, M; Aristizábal, B H

    2016-10-15

    Passive air-sampling data of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) taken in Manizales (a medium-sized city) and Bogotá (a megacity), Colombia, were analyzed in order to identify potential sources of pollution and the possible influence of meteorological variables like temperature and precipitation. The results indicate important differences in levels of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs between Bogotá and Manizales, attributed to differences in site characteristics and potential local/regional sources. Higher PCDD/Fs concentrations were observed in Bogotá (373fg/m(3)) compared to those observed in Manizales, with mean levels ranging from 64fg/m(3) in a residential zone to 151fg/m(3) around a vehicular-influenced area. Higher dl-PCBs concentrations were observed in the industrial area of Manizales compared to those observed in Bogotá, with mean levels of 6668fg/m(3) and 4388fg/m(3) respectively. In terms of PCDD/Fs congener distribution, there was a predominance of octachlorodibenzodioxin (OCDD) followed by 1,2,3,4,6,7.8-heptachlorodibenzofuran (HpCDF) congeners, with both cities showing higher levels in zones of high vehicular activity. Industrial influence was most evident in dl-PCB levels. In comparison to the mean levels of dl-PCB congeners obtained in the vehicular zones of Bogotá and Manizales, the industrially influenced sampling stations showed higher concentrations of dl-PCB congeners. Passive sampling results suggested that congener concentration profiles are characteristic of their different emission sources, and can be used to distinguish between their industrial or vehicular origins. PMID:26953138

  20. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

    1998-12-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

  1. Cell optoporation with a sub-15 fs and a 250-fs laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breunig, Hans Georg; Batista, Ana; Uchugonova, Aisada; König, Karsten

    2016-06-01

    We employed two commercially available femtosecond lasers, a Ti:sapphire and a ytterbium-based oscillator, to directly compare from a user's practical point-of-view in one common experimental setup the efficiencies of transient laser-induced cell membrane permeabilization, i.e., of so-called optoporation. The experimental setup consisted of a modified multiphoton laser-scanning microscope employing high-NA focusing optics. An automatic cell irradiation procedure was realized with custom-made software that identified cell positions and controlled relevant hardware components. The Ti:sapphire and ytterbium-based oscillators generated broadband sub-15-fs pulses around 800 nm and 250-fs pulses at 1044 nm, respectively. A higher optoporation rate and posttreatment viability were observed for the shorter fs pulses, confirming the importance of multiphoton effects for efficient optoporation.

  2. Comparison of Solar Active Region Complexity Andgeomagnetic Activity from 1996 TO 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanskanen, E. I.; Nikbakhsh, S.; Perez-Suarez, D.; Hackman, T.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the influence of magnetic complexity of solar Active Regions (ARs)on geomagnetic activity from 1996 to 2014. Sunspots are visual indicators of ARswhere the solar magnetic field is disturbed. We have used International, American,Space Environment Service Center (SESC) and Space Weather Prediction Center(SWPC) sunspot numbers to examine ARs. Major manifestations of solar magneticactivity, such as flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), are associated withARs. For this study we chose the Mount Wilson scheme. It classifies ARs in terms oftheir magnetic topology from the least complex (?) to the most complex one ( ?).Several cases have been found where the more complex structures produce strongerflares and CMEs than the less complex ones. We have a list of identified substormsavailable with different phases and their durations. This will be compared to ourmagnetic complexity data to analyse the effects of active region magnetic complexityto the magnetic activity on the vicinity of the Earth.

  3. REGION 4-SESD TRAINING ACTIVITIES: OCTOBER 2006 – JULY 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Each year, the Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) provides training and technical assistance to hundreds of students. Training courses are presented to Region 4 employees, Region 4 States, Indian Tribes, Universities, Federal Agencies, and other audiences outs...

  4. On the modified active region design of interband cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, M.; Ryczko, K.; Dyksik, M.; Sęk, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Weih, R.; Dallner, M.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.

    2015-02-28

    Type II InAs/GaInSb quantum wells (QWs) grown on GaSb or InAs substrates and designed to be integrated in the active region of interband cascade lasers (ICLs) emitting in the mid infrared have been investigated. Optical spectroscopy, combined with band structure calculations, has been used to probe their electronic properties. A design with multiple InAs QWs has been compared with the more common double W-shaped QW and it has been demonstrated that it allows red shifting the emission wavelength and enhancing the transition oscillator strength. This can be beneficial for the improvements of the ICLs performances, especially when considering their long-wavelength operation.

  5. Chromospheric magnetic fields of an active region filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.; Solanki, S.; Lagg, A.

    2012-06-01

    Vector magnetic fields of an active region filament are co-spatially and co-temporally mapped in photosphere and upper chromosphere, by using spectro-polarimetric observations made by Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP II) at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT). A Zeeman-based ME inversion is performed on the full Stokes vectors of both the photospheric Si I 1082.7 nm and the chromospheric He I 1083.0 nm lines. We found that the strong magnetic fields, with the field strength of 600 - 800 G in the He I line formation height, are not uncommon among AR filaments. But such strong magnetic field is not always found in AR filaments.

  6. Active region studies with coordinated SOHO, microwave, and magnetograph observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1992-01-01

    The scientific justification for an observing campaign to study the quantitative magnetic and plasma properties of coronal loops in active regions is presented. The SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) instruments of primary relevance are CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer), EIT, SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation), and MDI. The primary ground based instruments would be the VLA (Very Large Array), the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, and vector and longitudinal field magnetographs. Similar campaigns have successfully been carried out with the Solar Maximum Mission x-ray polychromator and the Soft X-ray Imaging Sounding Rocket Payload (CoMStOC '87), the Goddard Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph, the Lockheed Solar Plasma Diagnostics Experiment rocket payload, and the Soft X-ray Telescope in Yohkoh (CoMStoc '92). The scientific payoff from such a campaign is discussed in light of the results from these previous campaigns.

  7. Slow Magnetosonic Waves and Fast Flows in Active Region Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, L.; Wang, T. J.; Davila, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent extreme ultraviolet spectroscopic observations indicate that slow magnetosonic waves are present in active region (AR) loops. Some of the spectral data were also interpreted as evidence of fast (approx 100-300 km/s) quasiperiodic flows. We have performed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) modeling of a bipolar AR that contains impulsively generated waves and flows in coronal loops. The model AR is initiated with a dipole magnetic field and gravitationally stratified density, with an upflow-driven steadily or periodically in localized regions at the footpoints of magnetic loops. The resulting flows along the magnetic field lines of the AR produce higher density loops compared to the surrounding plasma by injection of material into the flux tubes and the establishment of siphon flow.We find that the impulsive onset of flows with subsonic speeds result in the excitation of damped slow magnetosonic waves that propagate along the loops and coupled nonlinearly driven fast-mode waves. The phase speed of the slow magnetosonic waves is close to the coronal sound speed. When the amplitude of the driving pulses is increased we find that slow shock-like wave trains are produced. When the upflows are driven periodically, undamped oscillations are produced with periods determined by the periodicity of the upflows. Based on the results of the 3D MHD model we suggest that the observed slow magnetosonic waves and persistent upflows may be produced by the same impulsive events at the bases of ARs.

  8. SLOW MAGNETOSONIC WAVES AND FAST FLOWS IN ACTIVE REGION LOOPS

    SciTech Connect

    Ofman, L.; Wang, T. J.; Davila, J. M.

    2012-08-01

    Recent extreme ultraviolet spectroscopic observations indicate that slow magnetosonic waves are present in active region (AR) loops. Some of the spectral data were also interpreted as evidence of fast ({approx}100-300 km s{sup -1}) quasi-periodic flows. We have performed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) modeling of a bipolar AR that contains impulsively generated waves and flows in coronal loops. The model AR is initiated with a dipole magnetic field and gravitationally stratified density, with an upflow-driven steadily or periodically in localized regions at the footpoints of magnetic loops. The resulting flows along the magnetic field lines of the AR produce higher density loops compared to the surrounding plasma by injection of material into the flux tubes and the establishment of siphon flow. We find that the impulsive onset of flows with subsonic speeds result in the excitation of damped slow magnetosonic waves that propagate along the loops and coupled nonlinearly driven fast-mode waves. The phase speed of the slow magnetosonic waves is close to the coronal sound speed. When the amplitude of the driving pulses is increased we find that slow shock-like wave trains are produced. When the upflows are driven periodically, undamped oscillations are produced with periods determined by the periodicity of the upflows. Based on the results of the 3D MHD model we suggest that the observed slow magnetosonic waves and persistent upflows may be produced by the same impulsive events at the bases of ARs.

  9. Long-Period ULF Wave Activity in the Cusp Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, V.; Belakhovsky, V.; Engebretson, M. J.; Kozlovsky, A.

    2013-12-01

    We compare simultaneous observations of long-period ULF wave activity from the Svalbard/IMAGE and Greenland fluxgate magnetometer profiles covering the expected cusp geomagnetic latitudes. Irregular Pulsations at Cusp Latitudes (IPCL) and narrow-band Pc5 waves are found to be a ubiquitous element of ULF activity in the dayside high-latitude region. To identify the ionospheric projections of the cusp, we use the width of the return signal of the SuperDARN radar covering the Svalbard archipelago, predictions of empirical cusp models, and augmented whenever possible by DMSP identification of magnetospheric boundary domains. The meridional spatial structure of IPCL/Pc5 pulsation spectral power has been found to have a localized latitudinal peak, but not under the cusp proper as was previously thought, but several degrees southward from the equatorward cusp boundary. Possible mechanisms and their relevance to observational data are discussed. The occurrence of IPCL and Pc5 waves in the dayside boundary layers is a challenge to modelers, because so far their mechanism has not been firmly identified.

  10. Regional Triggering of Volcanic Activity Following Large Magnitude Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill-Butler, Charley; Blackett, Matthew; Wright, Robert

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous reports of a spatial and temporal link between volcanic activity and high magnitude seismic events. In fact, since 1950, all large magnitude earthquakes have been followed by volcanic eruptions in the following year - 1952 Kamchatka M9.2, 1960 Chile M9.5, 1964 Alaska M9.2, 2004 & 2005 Sumatra-Andaman M9.3 & M8.7 and 2011 Japan M9.0. While at a global scale, 56% of all large earthquakes (M≥8.0) in the 21st century were followed by increases in thermal activity. The most significant change in volcanic activity occurred between December 2004 and April 2005 following the M9.1 December 2004 earthquake after which new eruptions were detected at 10 volcanoes and global volcanic flux doubled over 52 days (Hill-Butler et al. 2014). The ability to determine a volcano's activity or 'response', however, has resulted in a number of disparities with <50% of all volcanoes being monitored by ground-based instruments. The advent of satellite remote sensing for volcanology has, therefore, provided researchers with an opportunity to quantify the timing, magnitude and character of volcanic events. Using data acquired from the MODVOLC algorithm, this research examines a globally comparable database of satellite-derived radiant flux alongside USGS NEIC data to identify changes in volcanic activity following an earthquake, February 2000 - December 2012. Using an estimate of background temperature obtained from the MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) product (Wright et al. 2014), thermal radiance was converted to radiant flux following the method of Kaufman et al. (1998). The resulting heat flux inventory was then compared to all seismic events (M≥6.0) within 1000 km of each volcano to evaluate if changes in volcanic heat flux correlate with regional earthquakes. This presentation will first identify relationships at the temporal and spatial scale, more complex relationships obtained by machine learning algorithms will then be examined to establish favourable

  11. 77 FR 24952 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Regional Haze...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... ICR (August 26, 2009; 74 FR 43118). The last collection request anticipated the program progressing... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Regional Haze... organizations and facilities potentially regulated under the regional haze rule. Title: Regional...

  12. ON MAGNETIC ACTIVITY BAND OVERLAP, INTERACTION, AND THE FORMATION OF COMPLEX SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Scott W.; Leamon, Robert J.

    2014-11-20

    Recent work has revealed a phenomenological picture of the how the ∼11 yr sunspot cycle of the Sun arises. The production and destruction of sunspots is a consequence of the latitudinal-temporal overlap and interaction of the toroidal magnetic flux systems that belong to the 22 yr magnetic activity cycle and are rooted deep in the Sun's convective interior. We present a conceptually simple extension of this work, presenting a hypothesis on how complex active regions can form as a direct consequence of the intra- and extra-hemispheric interaction taking place in the solar interior. Furthermore, during specific portions of the sunspot cycle, we anticipate that those complex active regions may be particularly susceptible to profoundly catastrophic breakdown, producing flares and coronal mass ejections of the most severe magnitude.

  13. The morphology of flare phenomena, magnetic fields, and electric currents in active regions. III - NOAA active region 6233 (1990 August)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De La Beaujardiere, J.-F.; Canfield, Richard C.; Leka, K. D.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the spatial relationship between vertical electric currents and flare phenomena in NOAA Active Region 6233, which was observed 1990, August 28-31 at Mees Solar Observatory. The two flares studied are the 1N/M1.8 flare on August 28, 22:30 UT and the 1N/M1.6 flare on August 29, 20:35 UT. Using Stokes polarimetry we make magnetograms of the region and compute the vertical current density. Using H-alpha imaging spectroscopy we identify sites of intense nonthermal electron precipitation or of high coronal pressure. The precipitation in these flares is barely strong enough to be detectable. We find that both precipitation and high pressure tend to occur near vertical currents, but that neither phenomenon is cospatial with current maxima. In contrast with the conclusion of other authors, we argue that these observations do not support a current-interruption model for flares, unless the relevant currents are primarily horizontal. The magnetic morphology and temporal evolution of these flares suggest that an erupting filament model may be relevant, but this model does not explicitly predict the relationship between precipitation, high pressure, and vertical currents.

  14. TRACE and SVST Observations of an Active-Region Filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Deluca, E. E.

    1999-05-01

    In June 1998 the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) observed filaments and prominences in coordination with various ground-based solar observatories, including the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope (SVST) on La Palma. Here we present results for an active-region filament observed on June 21-22. This horse-shoe shaped filament had a "barb" that reached down from the filament spine to the chomosphere below. We use high-resolution images obtained at the SVST on June 21 from 18:03 to 19:04 UT to study the fine structure and dynamics of plasmas in the barb and other parts of the filament. The data consist of narrowband Hα images taken with the Lockheed Tunable Filtergraph operating at a cadence of 20 s. We present Doppler maps derived from these images. The filament erupted six hours after the SVST observations. The eruption was observed with TRACE, which obtained images in Fe IX/X 171, Fe XII 195, Fe XV 284 and H I Lyalpha . At the start of the event, a thin bright loop appears high above the filament at the location of the barb. We interpret this feature as the outline of a magnetic "bubble" which forms as a result of kink instability in the magnetic field that supports the filament. The bright loop appears to be due to particle acceleration and impulsive heating along certain field lines on the periphery of this magnetic structure. A few minutes later, the dark filament threads turn into emission and move outward, exhibiting a helical structure. We discuss the magnetic structure of the barb and its possible role in the filament eruption.

  15. Breakout coronal mass ejections from solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, C. Richard; Lynch, Benjamin; MacNeice, Peter; Olson, Kevin; Antiochos, Spiro

    We are performing magnetohydrodynamic simulations of single bipolar active regions (ARs) embedded in the Sun's global background field and of pairs of ARs interacting with each other. The magnetic flux near the polarity inversion lines (PILs) of the ARs is subjected to twisting footpoint displacements that introduce strong magnetic shear between the two polarities and gradually inflate the coronal volume occupied by the AR fields. If the initially current-free coronal field contains a magnetic null, then it is vulnerable to eruptions triggered by magnetic breakout, which reconnects aside the previously restraining field lines overhead. The sheared core flux promptly expands outward at the Alfven speed, opening the magnetic field in the vicinity of the PIL. Flare reconnection below the ejecta, across the vertical current sheet thus established, thereafter reforms the magnetic-null configuration above the AR. This reformation sets the stage for subsequent homologous episodes of breakout reconnection and eruption, if the energizing footpoint motions are sustained. The magnetic flux and energy of an isolated AR, relative to those of the background field, determine whether the eruption is confined or ejective, as the sheared flux either comes to rest in the corona or escapes the Sun to interplanetary space, respectively. In the latter case, the field lines accompanying the coronal mass ejection can comprise a weakly twisted "magnetic bottle" as readily as a strongly twisted flux rope, both of which are observed routinely in situ. The latest developments in this research will be reported. In particular, we will emphasize the observational signatures inferred from the simulations that could be sought in STEREO data, such as multiple three-dimensional views, EUV brightenings at reconnection sites, and coronal dimmings in regions of strong expansion. Our research is sponsored by NASA and ONR.

  16. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 40; SeaWiFS Calibration Topics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Yeh, Eueng-nan; Esaias, Wayne E.

    1997-01-01

    For Earth-observing satellite instruments, it was standard to consider each instrument band to have a spectral response that is infinitely narrow, i.e., to have a response from a single wavelength. The SeaWiFS bands, however, have nominal spectral bandwidths of 20 and 40 nm. These bandwidths effect the SeaWiFS measurements on orbit. The effects are also linked to the manner in which the instrument was calibrated and to the spectral shape of the radiance that SeaWiFS views. The spectral shape of that radiance will not be well known on orbit. In this technical memorandum, two source spectra are examined. The first is a 12,000 K Planck function, and the second is based on the modeling results of H. Gordon at the University of Miami. By comparing these spectra, the best available corrections to the SeaWiFS measurements for source spectral shape, plus estimates of the uncertainties in these corrections, can be tabulated.

  17. High resolution studies of complex solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Na

    Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are energetic events, which can even impact the near-Earth environment and are the principal source of space weather. Most of them originate in solar active regions. The most violent events are produced in sunspots with a complex magnetic field topology. Studying their morphology and dynamics is helpful in understanding the energy accumulation and release mechanisms for flares and CMEs, which are intriguing problems in solar physics. The study of complex active regions is based on high-resolution observations from space missions and new instruments at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). Adaptive optics (AO) in combination with image restoration techniques (speckle masking imaging) can achieve improved image quality and a spatial resolution (about 100 km on the solar surface) close to the diffraction limit of BBSO's 65 cm vacuum telescope. Dopplergrams obtained with a two-dimensional imaging spectrometer combined with horizontal flow maps derived with Local Correlation Tracking (LCT) provide precise measurements of the three-dimensional velocity field in sunspots. Magnetic field measurements from ground- and space-based instruments complement these data. At the outset of this study, the evolution and morphology of a typical round sunspot are described in some detail. The sunspot was followed from disk center to the limb, thus providing some insight into the geometry of the magnetic flux system. Having established a benchmark for a stable sunspot, the attention is turned to changes of the sunspot structure associated with flares and CMEs. Rapid penumbral decay and the strengthening of sunspot umbrae are manifestations of photospheric magnetic field changes after a flare. These sudden intensity changes are interpreted as a result of magnetic reconnection during the flare, which causes the magnetic field lines to be turned from more inclined to more vertical. Strong photospheric shear flows along the flaring magnetic

  18. SeaWiFS Third Anniversary Global Biosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    September 18,2000 is the third anniversary of the start of regular SeaWiFS operations of this remarkable planet called Earth. This SeaWiFS image is of the Global Biosphere depicting the ocean's long-term average phytoplankton chlorophyll concentration acquired between September 1997 and August 2000 combined with the SeaWiFS-derived Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) over land during July 2000.

  19. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 19: Case studies for SeaWiFS calibration and validation, part 2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Acker, James G. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Mcclain, Charles R.; Fraser, Robert S.; Mclean, James T.; Darzi, Michael; Firestone, James K.; Patt, Frederick S.; Schieber, Brian D.

    1994-01-01

    This document provides brief reports, or case studies, on a number of investigations and data set development activities sponsored by the Calibration and Validation Team (CVT) within the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project. Chapter 1 is a comparison with the atmospheric correction of Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) data using two independent radiative transfer formulations. Chapter 2 is a study on lunar reflectance at the SeaWiFS wavelengths which was useful in establishing the SeaWiFS lunar gain. Chapter 3 reports the results of the first ground-based solar calibration of the SeaWiFS instrument. The experiment was repeated in the fall of 1993 after the instrument was modified to reduce stray light; the results from the second experiment will be provided in the next case studies volume. Chapter 4 is a laboratory experiment using trap detectors which may be useful tools in the calibration round-robin program. Chapter 5 is the original data format evaluation study conducted in 1992 which outlines the technical criteria used in considering three candidate formats, the hierarchical data format (HDF), the common data format (CDF), and the network CDF (netCDF). Chapter 6 summarizes the meteorological data sets accumulated during the first three years of CZCS operation which are being used for initial testing of the operational SeaWiFS algorithms and systems and would be used during a second global processing of the CZCS data set. Chapter 7 describes how near-real time surface meteorological and total ozone data required for the atmospheric correction algorithm will be retrieved and processed. Finally, Chapter 8 is a comparison of surface wind products from various operational meteorological centers and field observations. Surface winds are used in the atmospheric correction scheme to estimate glint and foam radiances.

  20. FIP Bias Evolution in a Decaying Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; Yardley, S. L.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Long, D. M.; Green, L. M.

    2015-04-01

    Solar coronal plasma composition is typically characterized by first ionization potential (FIP) bias. Using spectra obtained by Hinode’s EUV Imaging Spectrometer instrument, we present a series of large-scale, spatially resolved composition maps of active region (AR)11389. The composition maps show how FIP bias evolves within the decaying AR during the period 2012 January 4-6. Globally, FIP bias decreases throughout the AR. We analyzed areas of significant plasma composition changes within the decaying AR and found that small-scale evolution in the photospheric magnetic field is closely linked to the FIP bias evolution observed in the corona. During the AR’s decay phase, small bipoles emerging within supergranular cells reconnect with the pre-existing AR field, creating a pathway along which photospheric and coronal plasmas can mix. The mixing timescales are shorter than those of plasma enrichment processes. Eruptive activity also results in shifting the FIP bias closer to photospheric in the affected areas. Finally, the FIP bias still remains dominantly coronal only in a part of the AR’s high-flux density core. We conclude that in the decay phase of an AR’s lifetime, the FIP bias is becoming increasingly modulated by episodes of small-scale flux emergence, i.e., decreasing the AR’s overall FIP bias. Our results show that magnetic field evolution plays an important role in compositional changes during AR development, revealing a more complex relationship than expected from previous well-known Skylab results showing that FIP bias increases almost linearly with age in young ARs.

  1. REGION 4-SESD TRAINING ACTIVITIES: OCTOBER 2005 – SEPTEMBER 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Each year, the Science and Ecosytem Support Division (SESD) provides training and technical assistance to hundreds of students in EPA Region 4. Training courses are presented to Region 4 employees, Region 4 States, Indian Tribes, Universities and other Federal Agencies in the are...

  2. Catalytic destruction of PCDD/Fs over vanadium oxide-based catalysts.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming-Feng; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Li, Xiao-Dong; Yan, Mi; Prabowo, Bayu; Li, Wen-Wei; Chen, Tong; Yan, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Vanadium oxide-based catalysts were developed for the destruction of vapour phase PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans). A vapour phase PCDD/Fs generating system was designed to supply stable PCDD/Fs steam with initial concentration of 3.2 ng I-TEQ Nm(-3). Two kinds of titania (nano-TiO2 and conventional TiO2) and alumina were used as catalyst supports. For vanadium-based catalysts supported on nano-TiO2, catalyst activity is enhanced with operating temperature increasing from 160 to 300 °C and then reduces with temperature rising further to 350 °C. It is mainly due to the fact that high volatility of organic compounds at 350 °C suppresses adsorption of PCDD/Fs on catalysts surface and then further inhibits the reaction between catalyst and PCDD/Fs. The optimum loading of vanadium on nano-TiO2 support is 5 wt.% where vanadium oxide presents highly dispersed amorphous state according to the Raman spectra and XRD patterns. Excessive vanadium will block the pore space and form microcrystalline V2O5 on the support surface. At the vanadium loading of 5 wt.%, nano-TiO2-supported catalyst performs best on PCDD/Fs destruction compared to Al2O3 and conventional TiO2. Chemical states of vanadium in the fresh, used and reoxidized VOx(5 %)/TiO2 catalysts at different operating temperature are also analysed by XPS. PMID:27154842

  3. Catalytic hydrodechlorination of PCDD/Fs from condensed water with Pd/γ-Al2O3.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mei-Chen; Chang, Shu-Hao; Chang, Moo-Been

    2016-07-01

    A continuous pyrolysis system (CPS) with effective air pollution control devices (APCDs) is designed and constructed to remediate the soil containing high-concentration PCDD/Fs. The quench tower of the APCDs system can capture the pollutants of high boiling points from the flue gas of CPS and produces condensed water of high PCDD/Fs concentration (16-44 ng I-TEQ/L), and needs further treatment. First, the result of activated carbon adsorption test displays the PCDD/Fs toxicity concentration of effluents meet the regulatory standards as the liquid to solid ratio is controlled at 3: 1. However, large amount of activated carbon need to achieve the high removal efficiency leads to high cost, so catalytic hydrodechlorination technology with Pd/Al2O3 as catalyst is applied to treat the condensed water. The PCDD/Fs mass removal efficiency achieved without the reducing agent is 53.21% with the operating time of 180 min. As 5% reducing agent (methanol) is added, the removal efficiency increases to 71.86%. In addition, to better understand the differences between molecular hydrogen and hydrogen donor, the condensed water was pre-aerated with hydrogen and catalytic hydrodechlorination test with palladium as catalyst was conducted. The results show that the PCDD/Fs mass removal efficiency increases to 97.34% with the operating time of 180 min, demonstrating the high PCDD/Fs removal efficiency of catalytic hydrodechlorination. PMID:27088535

  4. Optical Properties of Active Regions in Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyksik, M.; Motyka, M.; Rudno-Rudziński, W.; Sęk, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Pucicki, D.; Kosiel, K.; Sankowska, I.; Kubacka-Traczyk, J.; Bugajski, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, AlGaAs/GaAs superlattice, with layers' sequence and compositions imitating the active and injector regions of a quantum cascade laser designed for emission in the terahertz spectral range, was investigated. Three independent absorption-like optical spectroscopy techniques were employed in order to study the band structure of the minibands formed within the conduction band. Photoreflectance measurements provided information about interband transitions in the investigated system. Common transmission spectra revealed, in the target range of intraband transitions, mainly a number of lines associated with the phonon-related processes, including two-phonon absorption. In contrast, differential transmittance realized by means of Fourier-transform spectroscopy was utilized to probe the confined states of the conduction band. The obtained energy separation between the second and third confined electron levels, expected to be predominantly contributing to the lasing, was found to be ~9 meV. The optical spectroscopy measurements were supported by numerical calculations performed in the effective mass approximation and XRD measurements for layers' width verification. The calculated energy spacings are in a good agreement with the experimental values.

  5. Activation of cutaneous immune responses in complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Birklein, Frank; Drummond, Peter D.; Li, Wenwu; Schlereth, Tanja; Albrecht, Nahid; Finch, Philip M.; Dawson, Linda F.; Clark, J. David; Kingery, Wade S.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is unresolved, but TNF-α and IL-6 are elevated in experimental skin blister fluid from CRPS affected limbs, as is tryptase, a marker for mast cells. In the rat fracture model of CRPS exaggerated sensory and sympathetic neural signaling stimulate keratinocyte and mast cell proliferation, causing the local production of high levels of inflammatory cytokines leading to pain behavior. The current investigation used CRPS patient skin biopsies to determine whether keratinocyte and mast cell proliferation occur in CRPS skin and to identify the cellular source of the up-regulated TNF-α, IL-6, and tryptase observed in CRPS experimental skin blister fluid. Skin biopsies were collected from the affected skin and the contralateral mirror site in 55 CRPS patients and the biopsy sections were immunostained for keratinocyte, cell proliferation, mast cell markers, TNF-α, and IL-6. In early CRPS keratinocytes were activated in the affected skin, resulting in proliferation, epidermal thickening, and up-regulated TNF-α and IL-6 expression. In chronic CRPS there was reduced keratinocyte proliferation with epidermal thinning in the affected skin. Acute CRPS patients also had increased mast cell accumulation in the affected skin, but there was no increase in mast cell numbers in chronic CRPS. PMID:24462502

  6. Active region emission measure distributions and implications for nanoflare heating

    SciTech Connect

    Cargill, P. J.

    2014-03-20

    The temperature dependence of the emission measure (EM) in the core of active regions coronal loops is an important diagnostic of heating processes. Observations indicate that EM(T) ∼ T{sup a} below approximately 4 MK, with 2 < a < 5. Zero-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of nanoflare trains are used to demonstrate the dependence of a on the time between individual nanoflares (T{sub N} ) and the distribution of nanoflare energies. If T{sub N} is greater than a few thousand seconds, a < 3. For smaller values, trains of equally spaced nanoflares cannot account for the observed range of a if the distribution of nanoflare energies is either constant, randomly distributed, or a power law. Power law distributions where there is a delay between consecutive nanoflares proportional to the energy of the second nanoflare do lead to the observed range of a. However, T{sub N} must then be of the order of hundreds to no more than a few thousand seconds. If a nanoflare leads to the relaxation of a stressed coronal field to a near-potential state, the time taken to build up the required magnetic energy is thus too long to account for the EM measurements. Instead, it is suggested that a nanoflare involves the relaxation from one stressed coronal state to another, dissipating only a small fraction of the available magnetic energy. A consequence is that nanoflare energies may be smaller than previously envisioned.

  7. Static and Impulsive Models of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patsourakos, S.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The physical modeling of active regions (ARs) and of the global coronal is receiving increasing interest lately. Recent attempts to model ARs using static equilibrium models were quite successful in reproducing AR images of hot soft X-ray (SXR) loops. They however failed to predict the bright EUV warm loops permeating ARs: the synthetic images were dominated by intense footpoint emission. We demonstrate that this failure is due to the very weak dependence of loop temperature on loop length which cannot simultaneously account for both hot and warm loops in the same AR. We then consider time-dependent AR models based on nanoflare heating. We demonstrate that such models can simultaneously reproduce EUV and SXR loops in ARs. Moreover, they predict radial intensity variations consistent with the localized core and extended emissions in SXR and EUV AR observations respectively. We finally show how the AR morphology can be used as a gauge of the properties (duration, energy, spatial dependence, repetition time) of the impulsive heating.

  8. Plasma Composition in a Sigmoidal Anemone Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Green, L. M.; Steed, K.; Carlyle, J.

    2013-11-01

    Using spectra obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359'' × 485''. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the age of the AR, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP bias along these loops to be the beginning of fractionated plasma mixing in the loops. Low FIP bias in a sigmoidal channel above the AR's main polarity inversion line, where ongoing flux cancellation is taking place, provides new evidence of a bald patch magnetic topology of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  9. Plasma composition in a sigmoidal anemone active region

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Green, L. M.; Carlyle, J.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; Steed, K.

    2013-11-20

    Using spectra obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359'' × 485''. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the age of the AR, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP bias along these loops to be the beginning of fractionated plasma mixing in the loops. Low FIP bias in a sigmoidal channel above the AR's main polarity inversion line, where ongoing flux cancellation is taking place, provides new evidence of a bald patch magnetic topology of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  10. SIMULATION OF THE FORMATION OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, M. C. M.; Title, A. M.; Rempel, M.; Schuessler, M.

    2010-09-01

    We present a radiative magnetohydrodynamics simulation of the formation of an active region (AR) on the solar surface. The simulation models the rise of a buoyant magnetic flux bundle from a depth of 7.5 Mm in the convection zone up into the solar photosphere. The rise of the magnetic plasma in the convection zone is accompanied by predominantly horizontal expansion. Such an expansion leads to a scaling relation between the plasma density and the magnetic field strength such that B {proportional_to} rhov{sup 1/2}. The emergence of magnetic flux into the photosphere appears as a complex magnetic pattern, which results from the interaction of the rising magnetic field with the turbulent convective flows. Small-scale magnetic elements at the surface first appear, followed by their gradual coalescence into larger magnetic concentrations, which eventually results in the formation of a pair of opposite polarity spots. Although the mean flow pattern in the vicinity of the developing spots is directed radially outward, correlations between the magnetic field and velocity field fluctuations allow the spots to accumulate flux. Such correlations result from the Lorentz-force-driven, counterstreaming motion of opposite polarity fragments. The formation of the simulated AR is accompanied by transient light bridges between umbrae and umbral dots. Together with recent sunspot modeling, this work highlights the common magnetoconvective origin of umbral dots, light bridges, and penumbral filaments.

  11. Theoretical model for calculation of helicity in solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, P.

    We (Choudhuri, Chatterjee and Nandy, 2005) calculate helicities of solar active regions based on the idea of Choudhuri (2003) that poloidal flux lines get wrapped around a toroidal flux tube rising through the convection zone, thereby giving rise to the helicity. Rough estimates based on this idea compare favourably with the observed magnitude of helicity. We use our solar dynamo model based on the Babcock--Leighton α-effect to study how helicity varies with latitude and time. At the time of solar maximum, our theoretical model gives negative helicity in the northern hemisphere and positive helicity in the south, in accordance with observed hemispheric trends. However, we find that, during a short interval at the beginning of a cycle, helicities tend to be opposite of the preferred hemispheric trends. Next we (Chatterjee, Choudhuri and Petrovay 2006) use the above idea along with the sunspot decay model of Petrovay and Moreno-Insertis, (1997) to estimate the distribution of helicity inside a flux tube as it keeps collecting more azimuthal flux during its rise through the convection zone and as turbulent diffusion keeps acting on it. By varying parameters over reasonable ranges in our simple 1-d model, we find that the azimuthal flux penetrates the flux tube to some extent instead of being confined to a narrow sheath outside.

  12. Static and Impulsive Models of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsourakos, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The physical modeling of active regions (ARs) and of the global corona is receiving increasing interest lately. Recent attempts to model ARs using static equilibrium models were quite successful in reproducing AR images of hot soft X-ray (SXR) loops. They however failed to predict the bright extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) warm loops permeating ARs: the synthetic images were dominated by intense footpoint emission. We demonstrate that this failure is due to the very weak dependence of loop temperature on loop length which cannot simultaneously account for both hot and warm loops in the same AR. We then consider time-dependent AR models based on nanoflare heating. We demonstrate that such models can simultaneously reproduce EUV and SXR loops in ARs. Moreover, they predict radial intensity variations consistent with the localized core and extended emissions in SXR and EUV AR observations, respectively. We finally show how the AR morphology can be used as a gauge of the properties (duration, energy, spatial dependence, and repetition time) of the impulsive heating.

  13. Active folded structures of the Western Caucasus (Sochi region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trikhunkov, Yaroslav; Zelenin, Egor

    2014-05-01

    The Western Caucasus as a margin segment of folded system of the Greater Caucasus was formed at the periphery of collision interaction of the Scythian Plate and the Transcaucasian Massif. The estimated age of the primary folded deformations of the initial surface of that territory ranges from the late Eocene to late Neogene. We have obtained new data on modern folded deformations of the anticlinal ridges, which prevail in Sochi region in the southern macroslope of the mountain system. Very similar Alek, Galitsinsky, Akhun, Nikolaevsky anticlinal ridges are uplifting in the main Caucasus direction (NW - SE) and are crossed by narrow antecedent river valleys. These ridges stand out contrasting to sinclinal depressions, where fluviatile accumulation prevails. At the intersection of the Mzymta river and the Galitsinsky anticlinal ridge a narrow Akhshtyr canyon with steep, 150 meters high slopes were formed. Downstream in the neighboring Akhshtyr synclinal depression the valley expands. Here the floodplain and two levels of terraces with the height of 20 - 30 and 50 - 60 m correspondingly were formed. The age of the first terrace was defined by archeologic data of V. Shchelinsky (2007) and by correlation with marine Black Sea Late Karangat terrace as a 135 - 90 ka (Eemian interglacial). The second terrace is apparently older and dates back to Middle Pleistocene. The field research and analysis of the elevations by ASTER GDEM allowed us to trace both terraces in the southern structural slope of the Galitsinsky ridge above the canyon, adjacent to the Akhshtyr depression, at the heights 70 and 110 m correspondingly. Alluvial deposits in outcrops of lower terrace (elongated pebbles, which look like modern alluvium of the Mzymta) were traced on the surface of the slope. Thereby, described fragments of the Mzymta terraces were uplifted above the level of the corresponding terraces in the synclinal depression as a result of dislocation on the slope of the actively uplifting

  14. Transcription activation at class II CRP-dependent promoters: the role of different activating regions.

    PubMed Central

    Rhodius, V A; West, D M; Webster, C L; Busby, S J; Savery, N J

    1997-01-01

    Transcription activation by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) at Class II promoters is dependent on direct interactions between two surface-exposed activating regions (AR1 and AR2) and two contact sites in RNA polymerase. The effects on transcription activation of disrupting either AR1 or AR2 have been measured at different Class II promoters. AR2 but not AR1 is essential for activation at all the Class II promoters that were tested. The effects of single positive control substitutions in AR1 and AR2 vary from one promoter to another: the effects of the different substitutions are contingent on the -35 hexamer sequence. Abortive initiation assays have been used to quantify the effects of positive control substitutions in each activating region on the kinetics of transcription initiation at the Class II CRP- dependent promoter pmelRcon. At this promoter, the HL159 substitution in AR1 results in a defect in the initial binding of RNA polymerase whilst the KE101 substitution in AR2 reduces the rate of isomerization from the closed to the open complex. PMID:9016561

  15. Observation and Modelling of Micropore Formation in Active Network Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T. E.; Löfdahl, M. G.; Bercik, D. J.

    2002-06-01

    We present phase-diversity corrected G-band 4305 Å and 4364 Å continuum image time series showing the formation of a micropore in a small active region near disk center. The data were acquired at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope on La Palma in June of 1997 and post-processed using the Phase Diverse Speckle (PDS) algorithm to produce diffraction limited images throughout the majority of both time series. The micropore dataset comprises a 29x29 Mm field of view and spans 5.1 hours with a 38 second cadence. The micropore forms in a strong sink area that can be seen to ``collect" many G-band bright points over the first 2 hours of the observation. During this time there is an occasional darkening at the sink point that may be the first unstable phase of the micropore formation. Once a stable dark pore forms in the flowfield, it grows to a maximum diameter of 1.2 Mm in approximately 1.9 hours. The pore persists for another 35 minutes before apparently being broken up by the intergranular flowfield. The total ``lifetime" of the stable pore phase is 2.5 hours. A separate nearby micropore of 1.5 Mm maximum diameter exists for the entire 5.2 hour data span. We show G-band and continuum movies of the micropore formation, correlation tracking flowfield analyses, G-band bright point tracking results, and area versus time plots for the micropore formation lifetime. The observational data are compared with fully compressible 3D MHD numerical simulations which show the development of a similar micropore structure within the computational domain. This research was supported by NASA SR&T grant NASW-98008, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, NSF and NASA funding at Michigan State University, and Lockheed Martin IRAD funding.

  16. ASYMMETRY OF HELICITY INJECTION FLUX IN EMERGING ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Lirong; Alexander, David

    2009-04-20

    Observational and modeling results indicate that typically the leading magnetic field of bipolar active regions (ARs) is often spatially more compact, while more dispersed and fragmented in following polarity. In this paper, we address the origin of this morphological asymmetry, which is not well understood. Although it may be assumed that, in an emerging {omega}-shaped flux tube, those portions of the flux tube in which the magnetic field has a higher twist may maintain its coherence more readily, this has not been tested observationally. To assess this possibility, it is important to characterize the nature of the fragmentation and asymmetry in solar ARs and this provides the motivation for this paper. We separately calculate the distribution of the helicity flux injected in the leading and following polarities of 15 emerging bipolar ARs, using the Michelson Doppler Image 96 minute line-of-sight magnetograms and a local correlation tracking technique. We find from this statistical study that the leading (compact) polarity injects several times more helicity flux than the following (fragmented) one (typically 3-10 times). This result suggests that the leading polarity of the {omega}-shaped flux tube possesses a much larger amount of twist than the following field prior to emergence. We argue that the helicity asymmetry between the leading and following magnetic field for the ARs studied here results in the observed magnetic field asymmetry of the two polarities due to an imbalance in the magnetic tension of the emerging flux tube. We suggest that the observed imbalance in the helicity distribution results from a difference in the speed of emergence between the leading and following legs of an inclined {omega}-shaped flux tube. In addition, there is also the effect of magnetic flux imbalance between the two polarities with the fragmented following polarity displaying spatial fluctuation in both the magnitude and sign of helicity measured.

  17. Identifying the Main Driver of Active Region Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Mandrini, C. H.; Démoulin, P.; Murray, M. J.

    2012-08-01

    Hinode's EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) has discovered ubiquitous outflows of a few to 50 km s-1 from active regions (ARs). The characteristics of these outflows are very curious in that they are most prominent at the AR boundary and appear over monopolar magnetic areas. They are linked to strong non-thermal line broadening and are stronger in hotter EUV lines. The outflows persist for at least several days. Whereas red-shifted down flows observed in AR closed loops are well understood, to date there is no general consensus for the mechanism(s) driving blue-shifted AR-related outflows. We use Hinode EIS and X-Ray Telescope observations of AR 10942 coupled with magnetic modeling to demonstrate for the first time that the outflows originate from specific locations of the magnetic topology where field lines display strong gradients of magnetic connectivity, namely quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs), or in the limit of infinitely thin QSLs, separatrices. The strongest AR outflows were found to be in the vicinity of QSL sections located over areas of strong magnetic field. We argue that magnetic reconnection at QSLs, separating closed field lines of the AR and either large-scale externally connected or ‘open’ field lines, is a viable mechanism for driving AR outflows which are potentially sources of the slow solar wind. In fact, magnetic reconnection along QSLs (including separatricies) is the first theory to explain the most puzzling characteristics of the outflows, namely their occurrence over monopolar areas at the periphery of ARs and their longevity.

  18. ABRUPT LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIC FIELD CHANGES IN FLARING ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G. J. D.; Sudol, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    We characterize the changes in the longitudinal photospheric magnetic field during 38 X-class and 39 M-class flares within 65{sup 0} of disk center using 1 minute GONG magnetograms. In all 77 cases, we identify at least one site in the flaring active region where clear, permanent, stepwise field changes occurred. The median duration of the field changes was about 15 minutes and was approximately equal for X-class and for M-class flares. The absolute values of the field changes ranged from the detection limit of {approx}10 G to as high as {approx}450 G in two exceptional cases. The median value was 69 G. Field changes were significantly stronger for X-class than for M-class flares and for limb flares than for disk-center flares. Longitudinal field changes less than 100 G tended to decrease longitudinal field strengths, both close to disk center and close to the limb, while field changes greater than 100 G showed no such pattern. Likewise, longitudinal flux strengths tended to decrease during flares. Flux changes, particularly net flux changes near disk center, correlated better than local field changes with GOES peak X-ray flux. The strongest longitudinal field and flux changes occurred in flares observed close to the limb. We estimate the change of Lorentz force associated with each flare and find that this is large enough in some cases to power seismic waves. We find that longitudinal field decreases would likely outnumber increases at all parts of the solar disk within 65{sup 0} of disk center, as in our observations, if photospheric field tilts increase during flares as predicted by Hudson et al.

  19. Spectroscopic Observations of Fe XVIII in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teriaca, Luca; Warren, Harry P.; Curdt, Werner

    2012-08-01

    The large uncertainties associated with measuring the amount of high temperature emission in solar active regions (ARs) represents a significant impediment to making progress on the coronal heating problem. Most current observations at temperatures of 3 MK and above are taken with broadband soft X-ray instruments. Such measurements have proven difficult to interpret unambiguously. Here, we present the first spectroscopic observations of the Fe XVIII 974.86 Å emission line in an on-disk AR taken with the SUMER instrument on SOHO. Fe XVIII has a peak formation temperature of 7.1 MK and provides important constraints on the amount of impulsive heating in the corona. Detailed evaluation of the spectra and comparison of the SUMER data with soft X-ray images from the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode confirm that this line is unblended. We also compare the spectroscopic data with observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 94 Å channel on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The AIA 94 Å channel also contains Fe XVIII, but is blended with emission formed at lower temperatures. We find that it is possible to remove the contaminating blends and form relatively pure Fe XVIII images that are consistent with the spectroscopic observations from SUMER. The observed spectra also contain the Ca XIV 943.63 Å line that, although a factor 2-6 weaker than the Fe XVIII 974.86 Å line, allows us to probe the plasma around 3.5 MK. The observed ratio between the two lines indicates (isothermal approximation) that most of the plasma in the brighter Fe XVIII AR loops is at temperatures between 3.5 and 4 MK.

  20. MAGNETIC HELICITY AND ENERGY SPECTRA OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongqi; Brandenburg, Axel; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2014-04-01

    We compute for the first time the magnetic helicity and energy spectra of the solar active region NOAA 11158 during 2011 February 11-15 at 20° southern heliographic latitude using observational photospheric vector magnetograms. We adopt the isotropic representation of the Fourier-transformed two-point correlation tensor of the magnetic field. The sign of the magnetic helicity turns out to be predominantly positive at all wavenumbers. This sign is consistent with what is theoretically expected for the southern hemisphere. The magnetic helicity normalized to its theoretical maximum value, here referred to as relative helicity, is around 4% and strongest at intermediate wavenumbers of k ≈ 0.4 Mm{sup –1}, corresponding to a scale of 2π/k ≈ 16 Mm. The same sign and a similar value are also found for the relative current helicity evaluated in real space based on the vertical components of magnetic field and current density. The modulus of the magnetic helicity spectrum shows a k {sup –11/3} power law at large wavenumbers, which implies a k {sup –5/3} spectrum for the modulus of the current helicity. A k {sup –5/3} spectrum is also obtained for the magnetic energy. The energy spectra evaluated separately from the horizontal and vertical fields agree for wavenumbers below 3 Mm{sup –1}, corresponding to scales above 2 Mm. This gives some justification to our assumption of isotropy and places limits resulting from possible instrumental artifacts at small scales.

  1. ON THE ROLE OF ROTATING SUNSPOTS IN THE ACTIVITY OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 11158

    SciTech Connect

    Vemareddy, P.; Ambastha, A.; Maurya, R. A. E-mail: ambastha@prl.res.in

    2012-12-10

    We study the role of rotating sunspots in relation to the evolution of various physical parameters characterizing the non-potentiality of the active region (AR) NOAA 11158 and its eruptive events using the magnetic field data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and multi-wavelength observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. From the evolutionary study of HMI intensity and AIA channels, it is observed that the AR consists of two major rotating sunspots, one connected to a flare-prone region and another with coronal mass ejection (CME). The constructed space-time intensity maps reveal that the sunspots exhibited peak rotation rates coinciding with the occurrence of major eruptive events. Further, temporal profiles of twist parameters, namely, average shear angle, {alpha}{sub av}, {alpha}{sub best}, derived from HMI vector magnetograms, and the rate of helicity injection, obtained from the horizontal flux motions of HMI line-of-sight magnetograms, correspond well with the rotational profile of the sunspot in the CME-prone region, giving predominant evidence of rotational motion causing magnetic non-potentiality. Moreover, the mean value of free energy from the virial theorem calculated at the photospheric level shows a clear step-down decrease at the onset time of the flares revealing unambiguous evidence of energy release intermittently that is stored by flux emergence and/or motions in pre-flare phases. Additionally, distribution of helicity injection is homogeneous in the CME-prone region while in the flare-prone region it is not and often changes sign. This study provides a clear picture that both proper and rotational motions of the observed fluxes played significant roles in enhancing the magnetic non-potentiality of the AR by injecting helicity, twisting the magnetic fields and thereby increasing the free energy, leading to favorable conditions for the observed transient activity.

  2. Fs-laser processing of polydimethylsiloxane

    SciTech Connect

    Atanasov, Petar A. Nedyalkov, Nikolay N.; Valova, Eugenia I.; Georgieva, Zhenya S.; Armyanov, Stefan A.; Kolev, Konstantin N.; Amoruso, Salvatore; Wang, Xuan; Bruzzese, Ricardo; Sawczak, Miroslaw; Śliwiński, Gerard

    2014-07-14

    We present an experimental analysis on surface structuring of polydimethylsiloxane films with UV (263 nm) femtosecond laser pulses, in air. Laser processed areas are analyzed by optical microscopy, SEM, and μ-Raman spectroscopy. The laser-treated sample shows the formation of a randomly nanostructured surface morphology. μ-Raman spectra, carried out at both 514 and 785 nm excitation wavelengths, prior and after laser treatment allow evidencing the changes in the sample structure. The influence of the laser fluence on the surface morphology is studied. Finally, successful electro-less metallization of the laser-processed sample is achieved, even after several months from the laser-treatment contrary to previous observation with nanosecond pulses. Our findings address the effectiveness of fs-laser treatment and chemical metallization of polydimethylsiloxane films with perspective technological interest in micro-fabrication devices for MEMS and nano-electromechanical systems.

  3. MarFS-Requirements-Design-Configuration-Admin

    SciTech Connect

    Kettering, Brett Michael; Grider, Gary Alan

    2015-07-08

    This document will be organized into sections that are defined by the requirements for a file system that presents a near-POSIX (Portable Operating System Interface) interface to the user, but whose data is stored in whatever form is most efficient for the type of data being stored. After defining the requirement the design for meeting the requirement will be explained. Finally there will be sections on configuring and administering this file system. More and more, data dominates the computing world. There is a “sea” of data out there in many different formats that needs to be managed and used. “Mar” means “sea” in Spanish. Thus, this product is dubbed MarFS, a file system for a sea of data.

  4. The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are (sup L) WL(sub SG), a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and sup L(sub theta), a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 R(sub Sun) central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size (sup L) (sub theta) of the active region, (2) in (Log (sup L)WL(sub SG), Log(sup L) theta) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: =- theta/A approximately equal to 300 G, where theta is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (less than 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division and NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences.

  5. Fatty liver and hepatic function for residents with markedly high serum PCDD/Fs levels in Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ching-Chang; Yao, Yei-Jen; Chen, Hsiu-Ling; Guo, Yue-Liang; Su, Huey-Jen

    2006-03-01

    This study was designed to examine the associations between serum polychtorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) levels and adverse hepatic-related health outcomes. Residents living in the vicinity of a closed pentachlorophenol (PCP) manufacturing factory (exposure area) and other areas nearby (control area) were identified from prior investigation of serum PCDD/Fs measurements. A total of 85 subjects were recruited for the study, 52 from exposure area and 33 from control, respectively. Average level of serum PCDD/Fs was 80.1 6 50.9 pg WHO-TEQ/g lipid for those residing in exposure area, and 25.5 6 18.2 in control area. Statistically higher odds ratio (ORs) for fatty liver and gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) activity was found in subjects with higher serum PCDD/Fs levels and high body mass index (BMI) as compared to those with lower PCDD/Fs levels and less BMI. Data suggest that dioxin exposure and high lipid content affect the prevalence of fatty liver in exposed subjects. Future study should be directed to prevent continuous exposure to environmental PCDD/Fs from the defunct PCP factory, and to characterize prospectively, with a larger study sample size, the potential long-term consequences on hepatic function associated with contaminant exposure. PMID:16455615

  6. Chemical and conformational changes in chromosome regions being actively transcribed.

    PubMed Central

    Pagés, M; Alonso, C

    1978-01-01

    U.V. microspectrophotometry has been used to calculate quantities of nucleic acids and proteins of complete polytene chromosomal sets and specific regions of these chromosomes. It has been found that in chromosomes the ratio of DNA to proteins is approximately 1:4. This ratio however changes when specific regions are compared. The average ratio of DNA to proteins in a puffed region (2-48B4C5) increases to 1:16 in contrast to 1:6 from the same region but in non puffed state. At the same time the RNA quantity increases by a factor of 2. thermal denaturation profiles of formaldehyde fixed chromosomes show that the Tm of this region in puffed and non puffed state differ by 10 degrees C. Moreover these profiles suggest that a large fraction of histone-bound DNA is destabilized during puffing. PMID:634798

  7. Rapid Developmental Maturation of Neocortical FS Cell Intrinsic Excitability

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Hyo-Young; Kruglikov, Ilya; Tremblay, Robin; Lazarenko, Roman M.

    2011-01-01

    Fast-spiking (FS) cells are a prominent subtype of neocortical γ-aminobutyric acidergic interneurons that mediate feed-forward inhibition and the temporal sculpting of information transfer in neural circuits, maintain excitation/inhibition balance, and contribute to network oscillations. FS cell dysfunction may be involved in the pathogenesis of disorders such as epilepsy, autism, and schizophrenia. Mature FS cells exhibit coordinated molecular and cellular specializations that facilitate rapid responsiveness, including brief spikes and sustained high-frequency discharge. We show that these features appear during the second and third postnatal weeks driven by upregulation of K+ channel subunits of the Kv3 subfamily. The low membrane resistance and fast time constant characteristic of FS cells also appears during this time, driven by expression of a K+ leak current mediated by Kir2 subfamily inward rectifier K+ channels and TASK subfamily 2-pore K+ channels. Blockade of this leak produces dramatic depolarization of FS cells suggesting the possibility for potent neuromodulation. Finally, the frequency of FS cell membrane potential oscillations increases during development and is markedly slower in TASK-1/3 knockout mice, suggesting that TASK channels regulate FS cell rhythmogenesis. Our findings imply that some of the effects of acidosis and/or anesthetics on brain function may be due to blockade of TASK channels in FS cells. PMID:20705896

  8. Validation of SeaWiFS chlorophyll a in Massachusetts Bay

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hyde, Kimberly J. W.; O'Reilly, John E.; Oviatt, Candace A.

    2007-07-01

    Massachusetts Bay, a semi-enclosed embayment (50×100 km) in the Northwest Atlantic, is the focus of a monitoring program designed to measure the effects of relocating the Boston Harbor sewage outfall to a site 15 km offshore in Massachusetts Bay. The Massachusetts Water Resources Authority (MWRA) in situ monitoring program samples selected stations up to 17 times per year to observe seasonal changes in phytoplankton biomass and other water quality variables. We investigated the feasibility of augmenting the monitoring data with satellite ocean color data to increase the spatial and temporal resolution of quantitative phytoplankton measurements. In coastal regions such as Massachusetts Bay, ocean color remote sensing can be complicated by in-water constituents whose concentrations vary independently of phytoplankton and by inaccurate modeling of absorbing aerosols that tend to be concentrated near the coast. An evaluation of in situ and sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS) measurements from 1998 to 2005 demonstrated that SeaWiFS overestimated chlorophyll a mainly due to atmospheric correction errors that were amplified by absorption from elevated concentrations of chlorophyll a and colored dissolved organic matter. Negative water-leaving radiances in the 412 nm band, an obvious artifact of inadequate atmospheric correction, were recorded in approximately 60-80% of the cloud-free images along the coast, while the remaining portions of the Bay only experience negative radiances 35-55% of the time with a clear nearshore to offshore decrease in frequency. Seasonally, the greatest occurrences of negative 412 nm radiances were in November and December and the lowest were recorded during the summer months. Concentrations of suspended solids in Massachusetts Bay were low compared with other coastal regions and did not have a significant impact on SeaWiFS chlorophyll a measurements. A regional empirical algorithm was developed to correct the SeaWiFS data to agree

  9. Probing the central regions of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohfink, Anne Maria

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are one of the key players in the Universe. Their energy output can strongly affect the growth of their host galaxy and can promote or suppress star formation on galactic scales. Most of the processes that determine the power of an AGN as well as the form in which that power is released take place in the immediate surroundings of its supermassive black hole, a region that is still not entirely understood. A comprehension of these inner regions is, however, crucial to any ultimate understanding of the AGN's vast influence. This dissertation explores these close-in environments of the black hole using two approaches: X-ray spectroscopy and variability studies. We begin by summarizing our current understanding of why AGN play such a significant role in galaxy formation. This is followed by a discussion of why X-ray spectroscopy is one of the best means to investigate them. We point out that, in particular, the X-ray reflection spectrum is interesting as it can directly probe parameters such as the black hole spin or the inclination of the accretion disk. Since the reflection spectrum is a broad band component, that usually only contributes a fraction of the total observed X-ray flux, the entire X-ray spectrum requires careful modeling. To perform such modeling and gain access to the parameters of the reflection spectrum, we first select a target in which the spectral decomposition is simplified by the absence of absorption - the Seyfert 1 galaxy Fairall 9. We apply a multi-epoch fitting method that uses more than one spectrum at a time to get the best possible results on the parameters of the reflection spectrum that are invariant on human timescales. This technique enables us to tightly constrain the reflection parameters and leads us to conclude that Fairall 9 most likely possesses a composite soft X-ray excess, consisting of blurred reflection and a separate component such as Comptonization. The reflection spectrum also provides a way

  10. Modeling Source Surface Plasma and Magnetic Field Based on Expansion Factor fS and Angular Distance θb Between the Foot Points

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shen, F.; Feng, X.; Xiang, C.; Wu, S. T.

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this paper is to model the distribution of plasma and magnetic field on the source surface of 2.5 RS covering four different phases of solar activity. We use the expansion factor fS and the angular distance θb in specifying the solar wind speed on the source surface, which can separate the open field region and the close field region effectively. We select 136 Carrington Rotations (CRs) covering four different phases of solar activity, and use an empirical model of the magnetic field topology by Wilcox Solar Observatory (WSO) and an empirically derived global coronal density distribution by MKIII in High Altitude Observatory (HAO) as input. The solar wind speed at 1AU derived from the new distribution on the source surface works much better than one derived from the previous method (Shen et al. 2010), as compared with observational data.

  11. THE LIMIT OF MAGNETIC-SHEAR ENERGY IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2012-05-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region's magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region's magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a coronal mass ejection/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy-limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free-energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free-energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free-energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non-free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of the order of one in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free-energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than one cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches one, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is one, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  12. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region's magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region's magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a coronal mass ejection/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy-limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free-energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free-energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free-energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non-free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of the order of one in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free-energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than one cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches one, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is one, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  13. Removal of PCDD/Fs and PCBs from flue gas using a pilot gas cleaning system.

    PubMed

    Lin, Xiaoqing; Jin, Yuqi; Wu, Hailong; Chen, Tong; Li, Xiaodong; Lu, Shengyong; Jiang, Xuguang; Yan, Jianhua

    2013-09-01

    A 100 Nm3/hr capacity pilot scale dual bag filter (DBF) system was tested on the flue gas from an actual hazardous waste incinerator (HWI), the removal efficiency of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) was also studied. The first filter collected most of the fly ash and associated chlorinated organic; then activated carbon (AC) was injected and used to collect phase chlorinated organic from the gas. Concentrations of PCDD/Fs and PCBs after the DBF system were 0.07 and 0.01 ng TEQ/Nm3, respectively, which were both far below the national emission standard. Comparing with the original single bag filter system, the PCDD/Fs concentration dropped a lot from 0.36 to 0.07 ng TEQ/Nm3. Increasing AC feeding rate enhanced their collection efficiency, yet reduced the AC utilization efficiency, and it still needs further study to select an appropriate feeding rate in the system. These results will be useful for industrial application and assist in controlling emissions of PCDD/Fs and other persistent organic pollutions from stationary sources in China. PMID:24520726

  14. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 2; AMT-5 Cruise Report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Aiken, James; Cummings, Denise G.; Gibb, Stuart W.; Rees, Nigel W.; Woodd-Walker, Rachel; Woodward, E. Malcolm S.; Woolfenden, James; Berthon, Jean-Francois; Dempsey, Cyril D.; Suggett, David J.; Wood, Peter; Donlon, Craig; Gonzalez-Benitez, Natalia; Huskin, Ignacio; Quevedo, Mario; Barciela-Fernandez, Rosa; deVargas, Colomban; McKee, Connor

    1998-01-01

    This report documents the scientific activities on board the Royal Research Ship (RRS) James Clark Ross (JCR) during the fifth Atlantic Meridional Transect (AMT-5), 14 September to 17 October 1997. There are three objectives of the AMT Program. The first is to derive an improved understanding of the links between biogeochemical processes, biogenic gas exchange, air-sea interactions, and the effects on, and responses of, oceanic ecosystems to climate change. The second is to investigate the functional roles of biological particles and processes that influence ocean color in ecosystem dynamics. The Program relates directly to algorithm development and the validation of remotely-sensed observations of ocean color. Because the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) instrument achieved operational status during the cruise (on 18 September), AMT-5 was designated the SeaWiFS Atlantic Characterization Experiment (SeaACE) and was the only major research cruise involved in the validation of SeaWiFS data during the first 100 days of operations. The third objective involved the near-real time reporting of in situ light and pigment observations to the SeaWiFS Project, so the performance of the satellite sensor could be determined.

  15. Orientation of functional activating regions in the Escherichia coli CRP protein during transcription activation at class II promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, R M; Rhodius, V A; Bell, A I; Kolb, A; Busby, S J

    1996-01-01

    At class II CRP-dependent promoters the DNA site for CRP overlaps the DNA site for RNA polymerase, covering the -35 region. Transcription activation at class II CRP- dependent promoters requires a contact between an activating region in the upstream subunit of the bound CRP dimer and a contact site in the C-terminal domain of the alpha-subunit of RNA polymerase. Transcription activation is suppressed by amino acid substitutions in the activating region, but activation can be restored by second site substitutions at K52 or E96. These substitutions identify two separate regions on the surface of CRP that appear to be able to interact with RNA polymerase specifically at class II promoters. Using the method of 'oriented heterodimers' we show that these alternative activating regions are functional in the downstream subunit of the bound CRP dimer. PMID:8604346

  16. Analysis of body calcium (regional changes in body calcium by in vivo neutron activation analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suki, W.; Johnson, P. C.; Leblanc, A.; Evans, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of space flight on urine and fecal calcium loss was documented during the three long-term Skylab flights. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine regional calcium loss. Various designs for regional analysis were investigated.

  17. The multi-thermal emission in solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zanna, G.

    2013-10-01

    We present simultaneous SDO AIA and Hinode EIS observations of the hot cores of active regions (ARs) and assess the dominant contributions to the AIA EUV bands. This is an extension of our previous work. We find good agreement between SDO AIA, EVE and EIS observations, using our new EIS calibration and the latest EVE v.3 data. We find that all the AIA bands are multi-thermal, with the exception of the 171 and 335 Å, and provide ways to roughly estimate the main contributions directly from the AIA data. We present and discuss new atomic data for the AIA bands, showing that they are now sufficiently complete to obtain temperature information in the cores of ARs, with the exception of the 211 Å band. We found that the newly identified Fe xiv 93.61 Å line is the dominant contribution to the 94 Å band, whenever Fe xviii is not present. Three methods to estimate the Fe xviii emission in this band are presented, two using EIS and one directly from the AIA data. Fe xviii emission is often present in the cores of ARs, but we found cases where it is formed at 3 MK and not 7 MK, the temperature of peak ion abundance in equilibrium. The best EIS lines for elemental abundance determination and differential emission measure (DEM) analysis are discussed. A new set of abundances for many elements are obtained from EIS observations of hot 3 MK loops. The abundances of the elements with low first ionisation potential (FIP), relative to those of the high-FIP elements, are found to be enhanced by about a factor of three, compared to the photospheric values. A measurement of the path length implies that the absolute abundances of the low-FIP elements are higher than the photospheric values by at least a factor of three. We present a new DEM method customised for the AIA bands, to study the thermal structure of ARs at 1'' resolution. This was tested on a few ARs, including one observed during the Hi-C rocket flight. We found excellent agreement between predicted and observed AIA

  18. The solar atmosphere and the structure of active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    The existence of 'holes' in the corona is reported characterized by abnormally low densities and temperatures. It was found that such coronal holes appear to be the source of high-velocity, enhanced-density streams in the solar wind as observed at the earth's orbit. It was further noted that coronal holes appear to be associated with regions of diverging magnetic fields in the corona. Models were developed to accomplish the objective for the principal energy flows in the transition region and corona.

  19. Antibody Constant Region Peptides Can Display Immunomodulatory Activity through Activation of the Dectin-1 Signalling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cenci, Elio; Monari, Claudia; Magliani, Walter; Ciociola, Tecla; Conti, Stefania; Gatti, Rita; Bistoni, Francesco; Polonelli, Luciano; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that a synthetic peptide with sequence identical to a CDR of a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for difucosyl human blood group A exerted an immunomodulatory activity on murine macrophages. It was therapeutic against systemic candidiasis without possessing direct candidacidal properties. Here we demonstrate that a selected peptide, N10K, putatively deriving from the enzymatic cleavage of the constant region (Fc) of human IgG1, is able to induce IL-6 secretion and pIkB-α activation. More importantly, it causes an up-regulation of Dectin-1 expression. This leads to an increased activation of β-glucan-induced pSyk, CARD9 and pIkB-α, and an increase in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12, IL-1β and TNF-α. The increased activation of this pathway coincides with an augmented phagocytosis of non opsonized Candida albicans cells by monocytes. The findings suggest that some Fc-peptides, potentially deriving from the proteolysis of immunoglobulins, may cause an unexpected immunoregulation in a way reminiscent of innate immunity molecules. PMID:22952831

  20. Candidate gene selection and detailed morphological evaluations of fs8.1, a quantitative trait locus controlling tomato fruit shape

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Liang; Rodriguez, Gustavo R.; Clevenger, Josh P.; Illa-Berenguer, Eudald; Lin, Jinshan; Blakeslee, Joshua J.; Liu, Wenli; Fei, Zhangjun; Wijeratne, Asela; Meulia, Tea; van der Knaap, Esther

    2015-01-01

    fs8.1 is a major quantitative trait locus (QTL) that controls the elongated shape of tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) fruit. In this study, we fine-mapped the locus from a 47Mb to a 3.03Mb interval on the long arm of chromosome 8. Of the 122 annotated genes found in the fs8.1 region, 51 were expressed during floral development and six were differentially expressed in anthesis-stage ovaries in fs8.1 and wild-type (WT) lines. To identify possible nucleotide polymorphisms that may underlie the fruit shape phenotype, genome sequence analyses between tomato cultivars carrying the mutant and WT allele were conducted. This led to the identification of 158 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and five small indels in the fs8.1 interval, including 31 that could be associated with changes in gene expression or function. Morphological and histological analyses showed that the effects of fs8.1 were mainly on reproductive organ elongation by increasing cell number in the proximal–distal direction. Fruit weight was also increased in fs8.1 compared with WT, which was predominantly attributed to the increased fruit length. By combining the findings from the different analyses, we consider 12 likely candidate genes to underlie fs8.1, including Solyc08g062580 encoding a pentatricopeptide repeat protein, Solyc08g061560 encoding a putative orthologue of ERECTA, which is known to control fruit morphology and inflorescence architecture in Arabidopsis, Solyc08g061910 encoding a GTL2-like trihelix transcription factor, Solyc08g061930 encoding a protein that regulates cytokinin degradation, and two genes, Solyc08g062340 and Solyc08g062450, encoding 17.6kDa class II small heat-shock proteins. PMID:26175354

  1. LOW-LATITUDE CORONAL HOLES, DECAYING ACTIVE REGIONS, AND GLOBAL CORONAL MAGNETIC STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G. J. D.; Haislmaier, K. J.

    2013-10-01

    We study the relationship between decaying active-region magnetic fields, coronal holes, and the global coronal magnetic structure using Global Oscillations Network Group synoptic magnetograms, Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory extreme-ultraviolet synoptic maps, and coronal potential-field source-surface models. We analyze 14 decaying regions and associated coronal holes occurring between early 2007 and late 2010, 4 from cycle 23 and 10 from cycle 24. We investigate the relationship between asymmetries in active regions' positive and negative magnetic intensities, asymmetric magnetic decay rates, flux imbalances, global field structure, and coronal hole formation. Whereas new emerging active regions caused changes in the large-scale coronal field, the coronal fields of the 14 decaying active regions only opened under the condition that the global coronal structure remained almost unchanged. This was because the dominant slowly varying, low-order multipoles prevented opposing-polarity fields from opening and the remnant active-region flux preserved the regions' low-order multipole moments long after the regions had decayed. Thus, the polarity of each coronal hole necessarily matched the polar field on the side of the streamer belt where the corresponding active region decayed. For magnetically isolated active regions initially located within the streamer belt, the more intense polarity generally survived to form the hole. For non-isolated regions, flux imbalance and topological asymmetry prompted the opposite to occur in some cases.

  2. Observation of excited state charge transfer with fs/ps-CARS

    SciTech Connect

    Blom, Alex Jason

    2009-01-01

    Excited state charge transfer processes are studied using the fs/ps-CARS probe technique. This probe allows for multiplexed detection of Raman active vibrational modes. Systems studied include Michler's Ketone, Coumarin 120, 4-dimethylamino-4'-nitrostilbene, and several others. The vibrational spectrum of the para di-substituted benzophenone Michler's Ketone in the first excited singlet state is studied for the first time. It is found that there are several vibrational modes indicative of structural changes of the excited molecule. A combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to study the simplest 7-amino-4-methylcoumarin, Coumarin 120. Vibrations observed in FTIR and spontaneous Raman spectra are assigned using density functional calculations and a continuum solvation model is used to predict how observed modes are affected upon inclusion of a solvent. The low frequency modes of the excited state charge transfer species 4-dimethylamino-4{prime}-nitrostilbene are studied in acetonitrile. Results are compared to previous work on this molecule in the fingerprint region. Finally, several partially completed projects and their implications are discussed. These include the two photon absorption of Coumarin 120, nanoconfinement in cyclodextrin cavities and sensitization of titania nanoparticles.

  3. A Tale of Two Super-Active Active Regions: On the Magnetic Origin of Flares and CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Dhakal, Suman; Chintzoglou, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    From a comparative study of two super-active active regions, we find that the magnetic origin of CMEs is different from that of flares. NOAA AR 12192 is one of the largest active regions in the recorded history with a sunspot number of 66 and area of 2410 millonths. During its passage through the front disk from Oct. 14-30, 2014, the active region produced 93 C-class, 30 M-class and 6 X-class flares. However, all six X-class flares are confined; in other words, none of them are associated with CMEs; most other flares are also confined. This behavior of low-CME production rate for such as a super active region is rather peculiar, given the usual hand-on-hand occurrence of CMEs with flares. To further strengthen this point, we also investigated the super-active NOAA AR 11429, which had a sunspot number of 28 and area of 1270 millionths. During its passage from March 02-17, 2012, the active region produced 47 C-class, 15 M-class and 3 X-class flares. In this active region, all three X-class flares were accompanied by CMEs, and the same for most M-class flares. Given the relative sizes of the two active regions, the production rates of flares are comparable. But the CME production rates are not. Through a careful study of the magnetic configuration on the surface and the extrapolated magnetic field in the corona, we argue that the generation of flares largely depends on the amount of free energy in the active region. On the other hand, the generation of CMEs largely depends on the complexity, such as measured by magnetic helicity. In particular, we argue that the high CME generation rate in the smaller active region is caused by the emergence and continuous generation of magnetic flux ropes in the region.

  4. THE 'MAIN SEQUENCE' OF EXPLOSIVE SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS: DISCOVERY AND INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Adams, Mitzi; Gary, G. Allen

    2009-08-01

    We examine the location and distribution of the production of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and major flares by sunspot active regions in the phase space of two whole-active-region magnetic quantities measured from 1897 SOHO/MDI magnetograms. These magnetograms track the evolution of 44 active regions across the central disk of radius 0.5 R {sub Sun}. The two quantities are {sup L}WL{sub SG}, a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and {sup L}{phi}, a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these data and each active region's history of production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, we find (1) that CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line 'main sequence' in (log {sup L}WL{sub SG}, log {sup L}{phi}) space, (2) that main-sequence active regions have nearly their maximum attainable free magnetic energy, and (3) evidence that this arrangement plausibly results from equilibrium between input of free energy to an explosive active region's magnetic field in the chromosphere and corona by contortion of the field via convection in and below the photosphere and loss of free energy via CMEs, flares, and coronal heating, an equilibrium between energy gain and loss that is analogous to that of the main sequence of hydrogen-burning stars in (mass, luminosity) space.

  5. Sub-100 fs high average power directly blue-diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohrbacher, Andreas; Markovic, Vesna; Pallmann, Wolfgang; Resan, Bojan

    2016-03-01

    Ti:sapphire oscillators are a proven technology to generate sub-100 fs (even sub-10 fs) pulses in the near infrared and are widely used in many high impact scientific fields. However, the need for a bulky, expensive and complex pump source, typically a frequency-doubled multi-watt neodymium or optically pumped semiconductor laser, represents the main obstacle to more widespread use. The recent development of blue diodes emitting over 1 W has opened up the possibility of directly diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillators. Beside the lower cost and footprint, a direct diode pumping provides better reliability, higher efficiency and better pointing stability to name a few. The challenges that it poses are lower absorption of Ti:sapphire at available diode wavelengths and lower brightness compared to typical green pump lasers. For practical applications such as bio-medicine and nano-structuring, output powers in excess of 100 mW and sub-100 fs pulses are required. In this paper, we demonstrate a high average power directly blue-diode-laser-pumped Ti:sapphire oscillator without active cooling. The SESAM modelocking ensures reliable self-starting and robust operation. We will present two configurations emitting 460 mW in 82 fs pulses and 350 mW in 65 fs pulses, both operating at 92 MHz. The maximum obtained pulse energy reaches 5 nJ. A double-sided pumping scheme with two high power blue diode lasers was used for the output power scaling. The cavity design and the experimental results will be discussed in more details.

  6. Lightning activity and aerosols in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proestakis, E.; Kazadzis, S.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Kazantzidis, A.

    2016-03-01

    In the framework of this study, the effect of aerosols on lightning activity has been investigated for the first time over the broader Mediterranean Sea. Atmospheric optical depth data retrieved by MODIS on board Aqua satellite and cloud to ground lightning activity data provided by ZEUS network operated by the National Observatory of Athens were analyzed for a time period spanning from 01/01/2005 up to 31/12/2013. The results indicate the importance of aerosols in lightning modulation. The mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) values of the days with lightning activity were found to be higher than the mean seasonal AOD in 90% of the under study domain. Furthermore, the increasing rate of lightning activity with increasing aerosol loading was found to be more pronounced during summertime and for AOD values up to 0.4. Additionally, the spatial analysis showed that the percentage of days with lightning activity during summertime is increasing with increasing AOD. Finally, time series showed similar temporal behavior between AOD seasonal anomalies and days with lightning activity differences. Both the spatial and temporal analysis showed that lightning activity is correlated to AOD, a characteristic consistent for all seasons.

  7. Seismic activity monitoring in the Izvorul Muntelui dam region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borleanu, Felix; Otilia Placinta, Anca; Popa, Mihaela; Adelin Moldovan, Iren; Popescu, Emilia

    2016-04-01

    Earthquakes occurrences near the artificial water reservoirs are caused by stress variation due to the weight of water, weakness of fractures or faults and increasing of pore pressure in crustal rocks. In the present study we aim to investigate how Izvorul Muntelui dam, located in the Eastern Carpathians influences local seismicity. For this purpose we selected from the seismic bulletins computed within National Data Center of National Institute for Earth Physics, Romania, crustal events occurred between 984 and 2015 in a range of 0.3 deg around the artificial lake. Subsequently to improve the seismic monitoring of the region we applied a cross-correlation detector on the continuous recordings of Bicaz (BIZ) seismic stations. Besides the tectonic events we detected sources within this region that periodically generate artificial evens. We couldn't emphasize the existence of a direct correlation between the water level variations and natural seismicity of the investigated area.

  8. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Star Tracker with Regional Electronic Shutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Pain, Bedabrata; Staller, Craig; Clark, Christopher; Fossum, Eric

    1996-01-01

    The guidance system in a spacecraft determines spacecraft attitude by matching an observed star field to a star catalog....An APS(active pixel sensor)-based system can reduce mass and power consumption and radiation effects compared to a CCD(charge-coupled device)-based system...This paper reports an APS (active pixel sensor) with locally variable times, achieved through individual pixel reset (IPR).

  9. Automatic Tracking of Active Regions and Detection of Solar Flares in Solar EUV Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, C.; Aranda, M. C.

    2014-05-01

    Solar catalogs are frequently handmade by experts using a manual approach or semi-automated approach. The appearance of new tools is very useful because the work is automated. Nowadays it is impossible to produce solar catalogs using these methods, because of the emergence of new spacecraft that provide a huge amount of information. In this article an automated system for detecting and tracking active regions and solar flares throughout their evolution using the Extreme UV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft is presented. The system is quite complex and consists of different phases: i) acquisition and preprocessing; ii) segmentation of regions of interest; iii) clustering of these regions to form candidate active regions which can become active regions; iv) tracking of active regions; v) detection of solar flares. This article describes all phases, but focuses on the phases of tracking and detection of active regions and solar flares. The system relies on consecutive solar images using a rotation law to track the active regions. Also, graphs of the evolution of a region and solar evolution are presented to detect solar flares. The procedure developed has been tested on 3500 full-disk solar images (corresponding to 35 days) taken from the spacecraft. More than 75 % of the active regions are tracked and more than 85 % of the solar flares are detected.

  10. Relation between Thermal and Magnetic Properties of Active Regions as a Probe of Coronal Heating Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashiro, Seiji; Shibata, Kazunari

    2001-03-01

    We study the relation between thermal and magnetic properties of active regions in the corona observed with the soft X-ray telescope aboard Yohkoh. We derive the mean temperature and pressure of 64 mature active regions using the filter ratio technique, and examine the relationship of region size with temperature and pressure. We find that the temperature T of active regions increases with increasing region size L as T~L0.28, while the pressure P slightly decreases with the region size as P~L-0.16. We confirm the scaling law T~(PL)1/3 for mature active regions found by R. Rosner, W. H. Tucker, & G. S. Vaiana. We examined the magnetic properties of active regions by analyzing 31 active regions observed with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager and find the following empirical scaling law between thermal and magnetic properties,Uth~Φ1.33,P~B0.78,where Uth, Φ, and B are the total thermal energy content, total magnetic flux, and average magnetic flux density of active regions, respectively. The former is consistent with the results of L. Golub et al., but the latter is not. Implications of our findings for coronal heating mechanisms are discussed.

  11. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 4; The 1997 Prelaunch Radiometric Calibration of SeaWiFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Johnson, B. Carol; Early, Edward E.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Barnes, Robert A.; Caffrey, Robert T.

    1999-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) was originally calibrated by the instrument's manufacturer, Santa Barbara Research Center (SBRC), in November 1993. In preparation for an August 1997 launch, the SeaWiFS Project and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) undertook a second calibration of SeaWiFS in January and April 1997 at the facility of the spacecraft integrator, Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). This calibration occurred in two phases, the first after the final thermal vacuum test, and the second after the final vibration test of the spacecraft. For the calibration, SeaWiFS observed an integrating sphere from the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) at four radiance levels. The spectral radiance of the sphere at these radiance levels was also measured by the SeaWiFS Transfer Radiometer (SXR). In addition, during the calibration, SeaWiFS and the SXR observed the sphere at 16 radiance levels to determine the linearity of the SeaWiFS response. As part of the calibration analysis, the GSFC sphere was also characterized using a GSFC spectroradiometer. The 1997 calibration agrees with the initial 1993 calibration to within +/- 4%. The new calibration coefficients, computed before and after the vibration test, agree to within 0.5%. The response of the SeaWiFS channels in each band is linear to better than 1%. In order to compare to previous and current methods, the SeaWiFS radiometric responses are presented in two ways: using the nominal center wave-lengths for the eight bands; and using band-averaged spectral radiances. The band-averaged values are used in the flight calibration table. An uncertainty analysis for the calibration coefficients is also presented.

  12. Synthetic Physical Interactions Map Kinetochore-Checkpoint Activation Regions

    PubMed Central

    Ólafsson, Guðjón; Thorpe, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a key mechanism to regulate the timing of mitosis and ensure that chromosomes are correctly segregated to daughter cells. The recruitment of the Mad1 and Mad2 proteins to the kinetochore is normally necessary for SAC activation. This recruitment is coordinated by the SAC kinase Mps1, which phosphorylates residues at the kinetochore to facilitate binding of Bub1, Bub3, Mad1, and Mad2. There is evidence that the essential function of Mps1 is to direct recruitment of Mad1/2. To test this model, we have systematically recruited Mad1, Mad2, and Mps1 to most proteins in the yeast kinetochore, and find that, while Mps1 is sufficient for checkpoint activation, recruitment of either Mad1 or Mad2 is not. These data indicate an important role for Mps1 phosphorylation in SAC activation, beyond the direct recruitment of Mad1 and Mad2. PMID:27280788

  13. Synthetic Physical Interactions Map Kinetochore-Checkpoint Activation Regions.

    PubMed

    Ólafsson, Guðjón; Thorpe, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a key mechanism to regulate the timing of mitosis and ensure that chromosomes are correctly segregated to daughter cells. The recruitment of the Mad1 and Mad2 proteins to the kinetochore is normally necessary for SAC activation. This recruitment is coordinated by the SAC kinase Mps1, which phosphorylates residues at the kinetochore to facilitate binding of Bub1, Bub3, Mad1, and Mad2. There is evidence that the essential function of Mps1 is to direct recruitment of Mad1/2. To test this model, we have systematically recruited Mad1, Mad2, and Mps1 to most proteins in the yeast kinetochore, and find that, while Mps1 is sufficient for checkpoint activation, recruitment of either Mad1 or Mad2 is not. These data indicate an important role for Mps1 phosphorylation in SAC activation, beyond the direct recruitment of Mad1 and Mad2. PMID:27280788

  14. Impact of AWiFS derived land use land cover on simulation of heavy rainfall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karri, Srinivasarao; Gharai, Biswadip; Sai Krishna, S. V. S.; Rao, P. V. N.

    2016-05-01

    Land use/land cover (LU/LC) changes are considered to be one of the most important factors affecting regional climate and are thus an area of public concern. The land surface plays a crucial role in boundary layer evolution and precipitation patterns thereby establishing the need for LU/LC inputs as a critical part of modeling systems. Inaccurate LU/LC information often leads to very large errors in surface energy fluxes thus leading to errors in boundary layer state. We have investigated an incident of heavy rainfall during August 2015 over West Bengal, India using Weather Research and Forecast (WRF) model by incorporating different LU/LC datasets, IRS P6 Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) LU/LC data for 2012-13 and the default Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectro-radiometer (MODIS) derived USGS LU/LC data for 2001. In the present study, we have made a comparative assessment between AWiFS derived LU/LC and USGS LU/LC by incorporating these datasets as one of the lower boundary conditions over Indian region in WRF model version 3.5.1 to simulate, at 10km resolution, a heavy rainfall event associated with landfall of a cyclonic system over West Bengal. The results of the study suggested influence of LU/LC in occurrence of heavy rainfall with WRF model using AWiFS LU/LC showing more realistic simulation as AWiFS LU/LC is more up-to-date and features recent changes in LU/LC over India.

  15. Laser shock microforming of aluminum foil with fs laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Yunxia; Feng, Yayun; Xuan, Ting; Hua, Xijun; Hua, Yinqun

    2014-12-01

    Laser shock microforming of Aluminum(Al) foil through fs laser has been researched in this paper. The influences of confining layer, clamping method and impact times on induced dent depths were investigated experimentally. Microstructure of fs laser shock forming Al foil was observed through Transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Under the condition of tightly clamping, the dent depths increase with impact times and finally tend to saturating. Another new confining layer, the main component of which is polypropylene, was applied and the confining effect of it is better because of its higher impedance. TEM results show that dislocation is one of the main deformation mechanisms of fs laser shock forming Al foil. Specially, most of dislocations exist in the form of short and discrete dislocation lines. Parallel straight dislocation slip line also were observed. We analyzed that these unique dislocation arrangements are due to fs laser-induced ultra high strain rate.

  16. View of Stand Pipe (Surge Tank) from FS 502. Looking ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Stand Pipe (Surge Tank) from FS 502. Looking northeast - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Stand Pipe (Surge Tank), Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  17. Ergot alkaloid biosynthesis in Aspergillus fumigatus: Conversion of chanoclavine-I aldehyde to festuclavine by the festuclavine synthase FgaFS in the presence of the old yellow enzyme FgaOx3.

    PubMed

    Wallwey, Christiane; Matuschek, Marco; Xie, Xiu-Lan; Li, Shu-Ming

    2010-08-01

    Ergot alkaloids are toxins and important pharmaceuticals which are produced biotechnologically on an industrial scale. A putative gene fgaFS has been identified in the biosynthetic gene cluster of fumigaclavine C, an ergot alkaloid of the clavine-type. The deduced gene product FgaFS comprises 290 amino acids with a molecular mass of about 32.1 kDa. The coding region of fgaFS consisting of three exons was amplified by PCR from a cDNA library of Aspergillus fumigatus, cloned into pQE70 and overexpressed in E. coli. The soluble monomeric His(6)-FgaFS was purified by affinity chromatography and used for enzyme assays. It has been shown that FgaFS is responsible for the conversion of chanoclavine-I aldehyde to festuclavine in the presence of the old yellow enzyme FgaOx3. The structure of festuclavine including the stereochemistry was unequivocally elucidated by NMR and MS analyses. Festuclavine formation was only observed when chanoclavine-I aldehyde was incubated with FgaOx3 and FgaFS simultaneously or as a tandem-reaction with a sequence of FgaOx3 before FgaFS. In the absence of FgaFS, two shunt products were formed and did not serve as substrates for FgaFS reaction. PMID:20526482

  18. 50 CFR 216.240 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Active Sonar Training (AFAST) § 216.240 Specified activity and specified geographical region. (a... Navy is only authorized if it occurs incidental to the use of the following mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS) sources, high frequency active sonar (HFAS) sources, explosive sonobuoys, or similar sources,...

  19. 50 CFR 216.240 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Active Sonar Training (AFAST) § 216.240 Specified activity and specified geographical region. (a... Navy is only authorized if it occurs incidental to the use of the following mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS) sources, high frequency active sonar (HFAS) sources, explosive sonobuoys, or similar sources,...

  20. 50 CFR 216.240 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Active Sonar Training (AFAST) § 216.240 Specified activity and specified geographical region. (a... Navy is only authorized if it occurs incidental to the use of the following mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS) sources, high frequency active sonar (HFAS) sources, explosive sonobuoys, or similar sources,...

  1. Influence of long-range atmospheric transportation (LRAT) on mono-to octa-chlorinated PCDD/Fs levels and distributions in soil around Qinghai Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Han, Ying; Liu, Wenbin; Hansen, Hans Chr Bruun; Chen, Xuebin; Liao, Xiao; Li, Haifeng; Wang, Mengjing; Yan, Nan

    2016-08-01

    Long-range atmospheric transportation (LRAT) of persistent organic pollutants followed by their deposition in cold, arid regions is of wide concern. This problem occurs at Qinghai Lake in the northeastern Tibetan Plateau, a sparsely populated area with extreme weather conditions and little current or historical anthropogenic pollution. The concentrations and distribution patterns of the mono-to octa-chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) congeners in surface soil samples collected from around Qinghai Lake were quantified. Concentration differences between low-(mono-to tri-) chlorinated PCDD/Fs and high-(tetra-to octa-) chlorinated PCDD/Fs were measured. High PCDD/F levels were detected, with total concentrations of 15,108 ± 6323 pg/g for the 27 PCDD/F congeners and 15,104 ± 6324 pg/g for the low-chlorinated PCDD/Fs. The concentrations of 17 2,3,7,8-substituted PCDD/Fs were only 3.1 ± 4.4 pg/g and the corresponding international toxicity equivalency (I-TEQ) was 0.11 ± 0.22 pg I-TEQ/g. Given their higher vapor pressures and lower boiling points, low-chlorinated PCDD/Fs, were predominantly gaseous, whereas high-chlorinated PCDD/Fs were predominantly solid, indicating that there is a higher potential for long-range transport of low-chlorinated PCDD/Fs. Overall, because of their high LRAT potential, low-chlorinated PCDD/Fs may pose a greater risk to local ecosystems in cold, remote areas than high-chlorinated PCDD/Fs. PMID:27174827

  2. The Atlantic Canada-New England Region and Environment. A Learning Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. New England - Atlantic Provinces - Quebec Center.

    In this Learning Activity Packet (LAP) students examine the geographic and ecological bases of the Eastern international region. The overall objective of activities is to help students comprehend the man-earth relationship concept. By studying this familiar relevant region students gain geographic knowledge and skills applicable to other areas.…

  3. 76 FR 58533 - Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities; Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities; Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting. SUMMARY: The Powder... management activities in the Powder River Coal Production Region. DATES: The RCT meeting will begin at 9...

  4. 78 FR 23951 - Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities: Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Bureau of Land Management Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities: Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Powder... management activities in the Powder River Coal Production Region. DATES: The RCT meeting will begin at 9...

  5. Diode laser threshold current density and lasing wavelength as functions of active region thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Streifer, W.; Scifres, D.R.; Burnham, R.D.

    1983-03-01

    Based on a simple model of the band-to-band absorption of a diode laser active region, we formulatean expression for modal gain as a function of pumping current. Using this result yields expressions for threshold current density and lasing photon energy which depend on device parameters including active region thickness, laser length, internal losses, facet reflectivity, etc.

  6. Toxic effects of PCDD/Fs mixtures on Eisenia andrei earthworms.

    PubMed

    Belmeskine, Hayet; Haddad, Sami; Vandelac, Louise; Sauvé, Sébastien; Fournier, Michel

    2012-06-01

    The earthworms Eisenia andrei were used to study the toxicity of PCDD/Fs mixtures to earthworms during 28 day of exposure. The experiments were performed on artificial soils contaminated with dioxins at levels of C1 (0.1 ng 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD/g soil), C2 (1 ng 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD/g soil) and C3 (1.5 ng 2, 3, 7, 8-TCDD/g soil). Effects of PCDD/Fs on survival, growth rate and immune responses; phagocytosis and NK-like cell activity, were determined. No mortality was observed at the lowest concentration (C1), while mortalities of 10 and 100% were noted at the highest concentrations tested C2 and C3, respectively. A significant reduction in growth rate was obtained at C2 and no effects at C1. Additionally, an inhibition of phagocytic activity and efficiency was observed at higher concentrations. In contrast, an enhancement of NK-like cell activity was shown at lower concentrations. Based on our results, we hypothesize that the PCDD/Fs mixtures tested at levels equal or higher to C2 (1 ng 2378-TCDD/g soil), lead to adverse effects on biotic potential and immune functions in E. andrei earthworms. PMID:22401954

  7. Observations of Small-scale IRIS Bombs (Reconnection Events) in an Evolving Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C. A.; Tian, H.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) observations of small-scale bombs evolving with their host active region. Bombs appear most clearly in the IRIS 1330 Å and 1400 Å slit-jaw images as small (~1 arcsec), compact, intense brightenings at transition region temperatures. Their NUV/FUV emission spectra exhibit dramatic line splitting and strong absorption features indicative of bidirectional flows from magnetic reconnection embedded deep within the cool lower solar atmosphere. The bombs may contribute significantly to the heating of the solar atmosphere in active regions; however, it's unclear how prevalent the bombs are throughout the lifetime of an active region. Using a semi-automated detection method, we locate bombs within AR 11850 over the course of four observations from 06:00 UT on September 25, 2013 until 11:30 UT the next day. The active region is first observed in an emerging phase and rapidly grows into a mature active region with well-developed sunspots. The bomb occurrence rate drops dramatically as the active region fully emerges. We also find that the bombs fall into two distinct populations: one appears largely during active region emergence and contains a majority of the bombs, while the other population is present regardless of active region age. The first population of bombs is typically found embedded in the low-lying loops prominent in the young active region. Furthermore, we use Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI) line-of-sight magnetograms to show that the bombs associated with the first population occur at the boundaries between the upward and downward flux of small, isolated bipolar regions. These regions dissipate as the active region emerges and reconfigures its magnetic field into two large network patches of upward and downward flux with a clear inversion line. The second, smaller population of bombs usually occurs far from the active region loop structures in the plage and

  8. Contribution of aluminas and aluminosilicates to the formation of PCDD/Fs on fly ashes.

    PubMed

    Potter, Phillip M; Dellinger, Barry; Lomnicki, Slawomir M

    2016-02-01

    Chlorinated aromatics undergo surface-mediated reactions with metal oxides to form Environmentally Persistent Free Radicals (EPFRs) which can further react to produce polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs). Previous work using laboratory-made fly ash surrogates composed of transition metal oxides deposited on silica powder has confirmed their ability to mimic fly ash in the production of PCDD/Fs. However, little is known about the propensity of aluminas and aluminosilicates, other components of fly ash, to form PCDD/Fs. A fly ash sample containing both alumina and mullite, an aluminosilicate, was tested for PCDD/F formation ability and compared to PCDD/F yields from the thermal degradation of 2-monochlorophenol (2-MCP) precursor over γ-alumina, α-alumina, and mullite. A packed-bed flow reactor was used to investigate the thermal degradation of 2-MCP over the various catalysts at 200-600 °C. Fly ash gave similar PCDD/F yields to surrogates made with similar transition metal content. γ-alumina, which is thermodynamically unfavorable, was very catalytically active and gave low PCDD/F yields despite a high destruction of 2-MCP. Mullite and α-alumina, the thermodynamically favorable form of alumina, yielded higher concentrations of dioxins and products with a higher degree of chlorine substitution than γ-alumina. The data suggest that certain aluminas and aluminosilicates, commonly found in fly ash, are active catalytic surfaces in the formation of PCDD/Fs in the post-flame cool zones of combustion systems and should be considered as additional catalytic surfaces active in the process. PMID:26615490

  9. MAG4 Versus Alternative Techniques for Forecasting Active-Region Flare Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free-magnetic-energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region's major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the "Present MAG4" technique and each of three alternative techniques, called "McIntosh Active-Region Class," "Total Magnetic Flux," and "Next MAG4." We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major-flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique-performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4).

  10. Thermal removal of PCDD/Fs from medical waste incineration fly ash--effect of temperature and nitrogen flow rate.

    PubMed

    Wu, Hai-long; Lu, Sheng-yong; Yan, Jian-hua; Li, Xiao-dong; Chen, Tong

    2011-06-01

    The fly ash used in this study was collected from a bag filter in a medical waste rotary kiln incineration system, using lime and activated carbon injection followed by their collection as mixed fly ash. Experiments were conducted on fly ash in a quartz tube, heated in a laboratory-scale horizontal tube furnace, in order to study the effect of temperature and nitrogen flow rate on the removal of PCDD/Fs. Results indicated that in this study PCDD/Fs in the fly ash mostly were removed and desorbed very little into the flue gas under thermal treatment especially when the heating temperature was higher than 350 °C, and dechlorination and destruction reactions took important part in the removal of PCDD/Fs. However, in terms of flow rate, when flow rate was higher than 4 cm s(-1), destruction efficiency of PCDD/Fs decreased dramatically and the main contributors were P(5)CDF, H(6)CDF and H(7)CDF desorbed to flue gas, the PCDD/Fs in the fly ash decreased with enhanced flow rate. PMID:21474161

  11. Atmospheric energetics in regions of intense convective activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    Synoptic-scale budgets of kinetic and total potential energy are computed using 3- and 6-h data at nine times from NASA's fourth Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE IV). Two intense squall lines occurred during the period. Energy budgets for areas that enclose regions of intense convection are shown to have systematic changes that relate to the life cycles of the convection. Some of the synoptic-scale energy processes associated with the convection are found to be larger than those observed in the vicinity of mature cyclones. Volumes enclosing intense convection are found to have large values of cross-contour conversion of potential to kinetic energy and large horizontal export of kinetic energy. Although small net vertical transport of kinetic energy is observed, values at individual layers indicate large upward transport. Transfer of kinetic energy from grid to subgrid scales of motion occurs in the volumes. Latent heat release is large in the middle and upper troposphere and is thought to be the cause of the observed cyclic changes in the budget terms. Total potential energy is found to be imported horizontally in the lower half of the atmosphere, transported aloft, and then exported horizontally. Although local changes of kinetic energy and total potential energy are small, interaction between volumes enclosing convection with surrounding larger volumes is quite large.

  12. Flare activity, sunspot motions, and the evolution of vector magnetic fields in Hale region 17244

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neidig, Donald F.; Hagyard, Mona J.; Machado, Marcos E.; Smith, Jesse B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic and dynamical circumstances leading to the 1B/M4 flare of November 5, 1980 are studied, and a strong association is found between the buildup of magnetic shear and the onset of flare activity within the active region. The development of shear, as observed directly in vector magnetograms, is consistent in detail with the dynamical history of the active region and identifies the precise location of the optical and hard-X-ray kernels of the flare emission.

  13. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 5: Ocean optics protocols for SeaWiFS validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mueller, James L.; Austin, Roswell W.; Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Protocols are presented for measuring optical properties, and other environmental variables, to validate the radiometric performance of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), and to develop and validate bio-optical algorithms for use with SeaWiFS data. The protocols are intended to establish foundations for a measurement strategy to verify the challenging SeaWiFS accuracy goals of 5 percent in water-leaving radiances and 35 percent in chlorophyll alpha concentration. The protocols first specify the variables which must be measured, and briefly review rationale. Subsequent chapters cover detailed protocols for instrument performance specifications, characterizing and calibration instruments, methods of making measurements in the field, and methods of data analysis. These protocols were developed at a workshop sponsored by the SeaWiFS Project Office (SPO) and held at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California (9-12 April, 1991). This report is the proceedings of that workshop, as interpreted and expanded by the authors and reviewed by workshop participants and other members of the bio-optical research community. The protocols are a first prescription to approach unprecedented measurement accuracies implied by the SeaWiFS goals, and research and development are needed to improve the state-of-the-art in specific areas. The protocols should be periodically revised to reflect technical advances during the SeaWiFS Project cycle.

  14. Investigations for the correction of presbyopia by fs-laser-induced cuts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ripken, Tammo; Oberheide, Uwe; Heisterkamp, Alexander; Ertmer, Wolfgang; Gerten, Georg; Lubatschowski, Holger

    2004-07-01

    The most probable reason for presbyopia is an age-related loss of the elasticity of the lens. It develops through the whole life, but is first noticeable typically at the age of about 45. From that on it leads within 15 years to a total loss of the accommodation ability. However, both, the ciliary muscle and the lens capsule stay active and elastic, respectively. With respect to this, a possible treatment conception is to increase or regain the elasticity. The possibility to increase elasticity with ps-laser induced cuts inside the lens was already shown by Krueger. We made an improvement in cutting quality while using a fs laser with 5~kHz repetition rate emitting in the near infrared. Different fs-laser-induced μm smooth cuts inside fresh enucleated ex-vivo pig lenses will be presented.

  15. Colors of active regions on comet 67P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.-B.; Sierks, H.; Besse, S.; Fornasier, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Lara, L.; Scholten, F.; Preusker, F.; Lazzarin, M.; Pajola, M.; La Forgia, F.

    2015-10-01

    The OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) scientific imager (Keller et al. 2007) is successfully delivering images of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from its both wide angle camera (WAC) and narrow angle camera (NAC) since ESA's spacecraft Rosetta's arrival to the comet. Both cameras are equipped with filters covering the wavelength range of about 200 nm to 1000 nm. The comet nucleus is mapped with different combination of the filters in resolutions up to 15 cm/px. Besides the determination of the surface morphology in great details (Thomas et al. 2015), such high resolution images provided us a mean to unambiguously link some activity in the coma to a series of pits on the nucleus surface (Vincent et al. 2015).

  16. Generation of sub-100-fs pulses from a CW mode-locked chromium-doped forsterite laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Seas, A.; Petricevic, V.; Alfano, R. R.

    1992-01-01

    Generation of femtosecond pulses from a continuous-wave mode-locked chromium-doped forsterite laser is reported. The forsterite laser was actively mode locked by using an acoustooptic modulator operating at 78 MHz with two Brewster high-dispersion glass prisms for intracavity chirp compensation. Transform-limited sub-100-fs pulses were routinely generated in the TEM(00) mode with 85 mW of continuous power (with 1 percent output coupler), tunable over 1230-1280 nm. The shortest pulses measured had a 60-fs pulse width.

  17. Coronal and transition-region Doppler shifts of an active region 3D-MHD model as indicator for the magnetic activity cycle of solar-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, Philippe A.

    2015-08-01

    For the Sun and solar-like stars, Doppler blueshifts are observed in the hot corona, while in average redshifts are seen in the cooler transition region layer below the corona. This clearly contradicts the idea of a continuous flow-equilibrium starting from a star's atmosphere and forming the stellar wind. To explain this, we implement a 3D-MHD model of the solar corona above an observed active region and use an atomic database to obtain the emission from the million Kelvin hot plasma. The generated EUV-bright loops system from the model compares well to the observed coronal loops. Therefore, we have access to realistic plasma parameters, including the flow dynamics within the active region core, and can derive total spectra as if we look the Sun as a star. We compare the model spectra to actual statistical observations of the Sun taken at different magnetic activity levels. We find characteristic Doppler-shift statistics that can be used to identify the magnetic activity state of the Sun and solar-like stars. This should help to model the variability of such stars by inferring their activity level from total spectra of coronal and transition-region emission lines.

  18. Development of new transition metal oxide catalysts for the destruction of PCDD/Fs.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming-Feng; Li, Wen-Wei; Li, Xiao-Dong; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Chen, Tong; Yan, Jian-Hua

    2016-08-01

    Various transition metal oxide and vanadium-containing multi-metallic oxide catalysts were developed for the destruction of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans). A stable PCDD/Fs generating system was installed to support the catalytic destruction tests in this study. Nano-titania supported vanadium catalyst (VOx/TiO2) showed the highest activity, followed by CeOx, MnOx, WOx and finally MoOx. Multi-metallic oxide catalysts, prepared by doping WOx, MoOx, MnOx and CeOx into VOx/TiO2 catalysts, showed different activities on the decomposition of PCDD/Fs. The highest destruction efficiency of 92.5% was observed from the destruction test over VOxCeOx/TiO2 catalyst. However, the addition of WOx and MoOx even played a negative role in multi-metallic VOx/TiO2 catalysts. Characterizations of transition metal oxides and multi-metallic VOx/TiO2 catalysts were also investigated with XRD and TPR. After the catalysts were used, the conversion from high valent metals to low valence states was observed by XPS. PMID:27186687

  19. Levels, profiles and source identification of PCDD/Fs in farmland soils of Guiyu, China.

    PubMed

    Xu, Pengjun; Tao, Bu; Li, Nan; Qi, Li; Ren, Yue; Zhou, Zhiguang; Zhang, Lifei; Liu, Aimin; Huang, Yeru

    2013-05-01

    The present study finished the first comprehensive survey of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in farmland soils of Guiyu, China. Guiyu was a major electronic wastes (EWs) dismantling area, but primitive and crude EWs disposal manner had led to severe PCDD/Fs pollution there. Twenty-three farmland soil samples covering the entire Guiyu region were analyzed. Toxic equivalent quantities (I-TEQs) of soils in EWs disposal areas were 5.7-57pg TEQ g(-1), and the total concentrations of tetra- to octa-homologues were 2816-17738pgg(-1). The SL district was a heavily contaminated area, and the neighboring SMP town was influenced by Guiyu. EWs disposal might be the source of PCDD/Fs. The homologue profiles were of three types, representing different disposal manner of EWs. Tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxins (TCDDs) and octachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) could be used as indicators for source identification, open thermal disposal of EWs was inclined to lead to formation of TCDDs, OCDD was a product of non-thermal processes. PMID:23466087

  20. Enhanced internal gravity wave activity and breaking over the northeastern Pacific-eastern Asian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šácha, P.; Kuchař, A.; Jacobi, C.; Pišoft, P.

    2015-11-01

    We have found a stratospheric area of anomalously low annual cycle amplitude and specific dynamics in the stratosphere over the northeastern Pacific-eastern Asia coastal region. Using GPS radio occultation density profiles from the Formosat Satellite Mission 3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC), we have discovered an internal gravity wave (IGW) activity and breaking hotspot in this region. Conditions supporting orographic wave sourcing and propagation were found. Other possible sources of wave activity in this region are listed. The reasons why this particular IGW activity hotspot was not discovered before as well as why the specific dynamics of this region have not been pointed out are discussed together with the weaknesses of using the mean potential energy as a wave activity proxy. Possible consequences of the specific dynamics in this region on the middle atmospheric dynamics and transport are outlined.

  1. An Active Region Model for Capturing Fractal Flow Patterns inUnsaturated Soils: Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Zhang, R.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2005-06-11

    Preferential flow commonly observed in unsaturated soils allows rapid movement of solute from the soil surface or vadose zone to the groundwater, bypassing a significant volume of unsaturated soil and increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A variety of evidence indicates that complex preferential patterns observed from fields are fractals. In this study, we developed a relatively simple active region model to incorporate the fractal flow pattern into the continuum approach. In the model, the flow domain is divided into active and inactive regions. Flow occurs preferentially in the active region (characterized by fractals), and inactive region is simply bypassed. A new constitutive relationship (the portion of the active region as a function of saturation) was derived. The validity of the proposed model is demonstrated by the consistency between field observations and the new constitutive relationship.

  2. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 21: The heritage of SeaWiFS. A retrospective on the CZCS NIMBUS Experiment Team (NET) program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Acker, James G.; Hooker, Stanford B.; Firestone, Elaine R.

    1994-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) mission is based on the scientific heritage of the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), a proof-of-concept instrument carried on the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) NIMBUS-7 environmental satellite for the purpose of measuring upwelling radiance from the ocean surface. The CZCS mission provided the first observations of ocean color from space, and over the mission lifetime of 1978-1986, allowed oceanographers an initial opportunity to observe the variable patterns of global biological productivity. One of the key elements of the CZCS mission was the formation of the CZCS NIMBUS Experiment Team (NET), a group of optical physicists and biological oceanographers. The CZCS NET was designated to validate the accuracy of the CZCS radiometric measurements and to connect the instrument's measurements to standard measures of oceanic biological productivity and optical seawater clarity. In the period following the cessation of CZCS observations, some of the insight and experience gained by the CZCS NET activity has dissipated as several proposed follow-on sensors failed to achieve active status. The Sea WiFS mission will be the first dedicated orbital successor to CZCS it in turn precedes observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) of the Earth Observing System (EOS). Since the CZCS NET experience is an important model for Sea WiFS and MODIS surface truth efforts, this document is intended to provide a comprehensive review of the validation of oceanographic data for the first orbital ocean color sensor mission. This document also summarizes the history of the CZCS NET activities. The references listed in the Bibliography are a listing of published scientific research which relied upon the CZCS BET algorithms, or research which was conducted on the basis of CZCS mission elements.

  3. VLA observations of solar active regions at 6 and 20 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alissandrakis, C. E.; Kundu, M. R.; Shevgaonkar, K. R.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution observations are presented of two active regions at 6 and 20 cm over a period of 5 days, together with H-alpha and photospheric magnetic fields. The large-scale emission at 20 cm is associated with the H-alpha plage. In one region the strongest source was over the neutral line, near the tip of an active-region filament, which indicates that the emission probably originated in small-scale coronal loops. In the second region the peak of the emission was near a well-developed sunspot. Neither region showed evidence of large-scale loops joining their preceding and following parts. Several other sources were observed at 20 cm; a source associated with an H-alpha plage region crossed by a filament and one associated with a small bipolar region are briefly discussed. The 6-cm emission from a well-developed spot showed clearly the characteristics expected from gyroresonance model computations.

  4. Global morphology of ionospheric F-layer scintillations using FS3/COSMIC GPS radio occultation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Lung-Chih; Su, Shin-Yi

    2016-07-01

    The FormoSat-3/ Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere and Climate (FS3/COSMIC) has been proven a successful mission on profiling and modeling of ionospheric electron density by the radio occultation (RO) technique. In this study we report FS3/COSMIC limb-viewing observations of the GPS L-band scintillation since mid 2006 and propose to study F-layer irregularity morphology. Generally the FS3/COSMIC has performed >1000 ionospheric RO observations per day. Most of these observations can provide limb-viewing profiles of S4 scintillation index at dual L-band frequencies. There are a few percentage of FS3/COSMIC RO observations having >0.08 S4 values on average. However, seven identified areas at Central Pacific Area (-20∘~ 20∘dip latitude, 160∘E~130∘W), South American Area (-20∘~ 20∘dip latitude, 100∘W~30∘W), African Area (-20∘~ 20∘dip latitude, 30∘W~50∘E), European Area (30∘~55∘N, 0∘~55∘E), Japan See Area (35∘~55∘N, 120∘~150∘E), Arctic Area (> 65∘dip latitude), and Antarctic Area (< -65∘dip latitude) have been designated to have much higher percentage of strong L-band RO scintillation. During these years in most of the last sunspot cycle from mid 2006 to end 2014 the climatology of scintillations, namely, its variations with each identified area, season, local time, magnetic activity and solar activity have been documented.

  5. The development and validation of command schedules for SeaWiFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodward, Robert H.; Gregg, Watson W.; Patt, Frederick S.

    1994-01-01

    An automated method for developing and assessing spacecraft and instrument command schedules is presented for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) project. SeaWiFS is to be carried on the polar-orbiting SeaStar satellite in 1995. The primary goal of the SeaWiFS mission is to provide global ocean chlorophyll concentrations every four days by employing onboard recorders and a twice-a-day data downlink schedule. Global Area Coverage (GAC) data with about 4.5 km resolution will be used to produce the global coverage. Higher resolution (1.1 km resolution) Local Area Coverage (LAC) data will also be recorded to calibrate the sensor. In addition, LAC will be continuously transmitted from the satellite and received by High Resolution Picture Transmission (HRPT) stations. The methods used to generate commands for SeaWiFS employ numerous hierarchical checks as a means of maximizing coverage of the Earth's surface and fulfilling the LAC data requirements. The software code is modularized and written in Fortran with constructs to mirror the pre-defined mission rules. The overall method is specifically developed for low orbit Earth-observing satellites with finite onboard recording capabilities and regularly scheduled data downlinks. Two software packages using the Interactive Data Language (IDL) for graphically displaying and verifying the resultant command decisions are presented. Displays can be generated which show portions of the Earth viewed by the sensor and spacecraft sub-orbital locations during onboard calibration activities. An IDL-based interactive method of selecting and testing LAC targets and calibration activities for command generation is also discussed.

  6. Regional vulnerability of the hippocampus to repeated motor activity deprivation.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Jamshid; Soltanpour, Nabiollah; Moeeini, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Abedin; Pakdel, Shiva; Moharrerie, Alireza; Arjang, Kaveh; Soltanpour, Nasrin; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2016-03-15

    Spontaneous vertical and horizontal exploratory movements are integral components of rodent behavior. Little is known, however, about the structural and functional consequences of restricted spontaneous exploration. Here, we report two experiments to probe whether restriction in vertical activity (rearing) in rats could induce neuro-hormonal and behavioral disturbances. Rearing movements in rats were deprived for 3h/day for 30 consecutive days by placing the animal into a circular tunnel task. Rats temporarily deprived of rearing behavior showed elevated plasma corticosterone levels but no detectable psychological distress and/or anxiety-related behavior within an elevated plus maze. However, rats emitted a greater number of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and spent significantly more time vocalizing than controls when deprived of their rearing behavior. Despite intact spatial performance within wet- and dry-land spatial tasks, rearing-deprived rats also exhibited a significant alteration in search strategies within both spatial tasks along with reduced volume and neuron number in the hippocampal subregion CA2. These data suggest a new approach to test the importance of free exploratory behavior in endocrine and structural manifestations. The results support a central role of the CA2 in spontaneous exploratory behavior and vulnerability to psychological stress. PMID:26723539

  7. A note on chromospheric fine structure at active region polarity boundaries.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prata, S. W.

    1971-01-01

    High resolution H-alpha filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory reveal that some filamentary features in active regions have fine structure and hence magnetic field transverse to the gross structure and the zero longitudinal field line. These features are distinct from the usual active region filament, in which fine structure, magnetic field, and filament are all parallel to the zero longitudinal field line. The latter occur on boundaries between regions of weaker fields, while the former occur at boundaries between regions of stronger field.

  8. Active region upflow plasma: its relation to small activity and the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mandrini, Cristina H.; Culhane, J. Leonard; Cristiani, Germán; Vásquez, Alberto; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Baker, Deborah; Pick, Monique; Demoulin, Pascal; Nuevo, Federico

    Recent studies show that active region (AR) upflowing plasma, observed by the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS), can gain access to open field lines and be released into the solar wind via magnetic interchange reconnection occurring below the source surface at magnetic null-points in pseudo-streamer configurations. When only one simple bipolar AR is present on the Sun and it is fully covered by the separatrix of a streamer, like AR 10978 on December 2007, it seems unlikely that the upflowing AR plasma could find its way into the slow solar wind. However, signatures of plasma with AR composition at 1 AU that appears to originate from the West of AR 10978 were recently found by Culhane and coworkers. We present a detailed topology analysis of AR 10978 based on a linear force-free magnetic field model at the AR scale, combined with a global PFSS model. This allows us, on one hand, to explain the variations observed in the upflows to the West of the AR as the result of magnetic reconnection at quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs). While at a global scale, we show that reconnection, occurring in at least two main steps, first at QSLs and later at a high-altitude coronal null-point, allows the AR plasma to get around the topological obstacle of the streamer separatrix and be released into the solar wind.

  9. Enzymatic activation of autotaxin by divalent cations without EF-hand loop region involvement.

    PubMed

    Lee, J; Jung, I D; Nam, S W; Clair, T; Jeong, E M; Hong, S Y; Han, J W; Lee, H W; Stracke, M L; Lee, H Y

    2001-07-15

    Autotaxin (ATX) is a recently described member of the nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase (NPP) family of proteins with potent tumor cell motility-stimulating activity. Like other NPPs, ATX is a glycoprotein with peptide sequences homologous to the catalytic site of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphodiesterase (PDE) and the loop region of an EF-hand motif. The PDE active site of ATX has been associated with the motility-stimulating activity of ATX. In this study, we examined the roles of the EF-hand loop region and of divalent cations on the enzymatic activities of ATX. Ca(2+) or Mg(2+) was each demonstrated to increase the PDE activity of ATX in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas incubation of ATX with chelating agents abolished this activity, indicating a requirement for divalent cations. Non-linear regression analysis of enzyme kinetic data indicated that addition of these divalent cations increases reaction velocity predominantly through an effect on V(max.) Three mutant proteins, Ala(740)-, Ala(742)-, and Ala(751)-ATX, in the EF-hand loop region of ATX had enzymatic activity comparable to that of the wild-type protein. A deletion mutation of the entire loop region resulted in slightly reduced PDE activity but normal motility-stimulating activity. However, the PDE activity of this same deletion mutant remained sensitive to augmentation by cations, strongly implying that cations exert their effect by interactions outside of the EF-hand loop region. PMID:11389881

  10. Neutralizing test of hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (HEV) in FS-L3 cells cultured without serum.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Ikuko; Kazusa, Yoshinori; Shirai, Junsuke; Taniguchi, Takahide; Honda, Eiichi

    2003-03-01

    FS-L3 cells, originating from porcine kidney, were used for propagation of Hemagglutinating encephalomyelitis virus (HEV) and development of a virus neutralizing (VN) test. Sera of pigs, rats, cows and dogs had VN activities to HEV. On the other hand, sera of mice, rabbits, goats, sheep, horses, cats, chickens, hamsters and human did not have measurable VN activities, although these sera had high HI activities. Our results support the idea that the VN is a more reliable measure of HEV infection than the conventionally used HI test. PMID:12679570

  11. Global Aerosol Optical Thickness Trends from SeaWiFS, MODIS and MISR over Megacities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vountas, Marco; Yoon, Jongmin; Schlundt, Cornelia; von Hoyningen-Huene, Wolfgang; Burrows, John

    2013-04-01

    Aside from adverse health effects urban aerosols can have significant impact on regional and potentially global climate. In this study Aerosol Optical Depth (AOD) retrievals over land are performed to study the medium to long-term trends of aerosols in largest urban agglomerations (aka megacities) to investigate recent changes related to potential "brightening" or "dimming" effects due to aerosols. For this study, suitable instruments need to provide sufficiently long data records on a global scale. Space borne sensors can be an interesting choice but need excellent in-flight performance/calibration. Instruments meeting the objective to provide long, well-calibrated data records are SeaWiFS, MODIS-Terra/Aqua and MISR. As SeaWiFS does not provide reliable AOD retrievals operationally we have used the Bremen AErosol Retrieval (BAER) algorithm to retrieve AOD. For all others we have used L2 data and applied a modified linear long term trend analysis. Here, AOD trends over several of the world's largest urban agglomerations have been studied using BAER based on SeaWiFS (SEA) data for one decade - from 1998 to 2007, and L2 data from MODIS-Terra (MOD) for 2000-2009, MISR (MIS) from 2000-2010 and MODIS-Aqua (MYD) (2003-2008). All comparisons are focussing on 550 nm. Trends have been gridded to 1° x 1° except for MIS, where 0.5° x 0.5° were used globally/regionally. Regional analysis is done for the eleven largest megacities (and the German Rhein-Ruhr-Region, assigned with "l").

  12. Low temperature destruction of PCDD/Fs over V2O5-CeO2/TiO2 catalyst with ozone.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ming-Feng; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Yan, Mi; Li, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Tong; Yan, Jian-Hua

    2016-09-01

    Catalytic destruction of PCDD/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and furans) over V2O5-CeO2/TiO2 catalyst was investigated at a low temperature range of 140-180 °C, in the absence and presence of ozone (200 ppm). Nano-TiO2 support was used to prepare the catalyst by step impregnation method. A stable PCDD/Fs-generating system was established to support the catalytic destruction tests. In the presence of ozone alone, destruction efficiencies of PCDD/Fs are between 32.2 and 43.1 % with temperature increasing from 140 to 180 °C. The activity of V2O5-CeO2/TiO2 catalyst alone on PCDD/Fs destruction is also studied. The increase of temperature from 140 to 180 °C enhances the activity of catalyst with destruction efficiencies increasing from 54.7 to 73.4 %. However, ozone addition greatly enhances the catalytic activity of V2O5-CeO2/TiO2 catalyst on PCDD/Fs decomposition. At 180 °C, the destruction efficiency of PCDD/Fs achieved with V2O5-CeO2/TiO2 catalyst and ozone is above 86.0 %. It indicates that the combined use of ozone and catalyst reduces the reaction temperature of PCDD/Fs oxidation and offers a new method to destroy PCDD/Fs with high destruction efficiency at a low temperature. Furthermore, the destruction efficiencies of 17 toxic PCDD/F congeners, achieved with ozone alone, catalyst alone, and catalyst/ozone are analyzed. PMID:27234830

  13. Identification of a novel ovine LH-beta promoter region, which dramatically enhances its promoter activity.

    PubMed

    Aherrahrou, Redouane; Aherrahrou, Zouhair; Erdmann, Jeanette; Moumni, Mohieddine

    2015-01-01

    The luteinizing hormone beta subunit (LH-beta) gene plays a critical role in reproduction. In order to characterize and analyze the promoter region of LH-beta in sheep, a genomic library was constructed in phage lambda gt 10 and screened. A novel region of 1,224 bp upstream from the targeted LH-beta gene was identified. Blasting this sequence showed a perfect homology for the first 721 bp sequence with an upstream ovine LH-beta sequence in the database. However, the remaining 5'-503 bp showed no sequence matching. DNA from Moroccan breeds was isolated and the whole region was amplified and confirmed by sequencing. To further confirm the promoter activity of this region, an in vitro analysis using a luciferase assay was carried out. An increase in the promoter activity of the whole region was demonstrated compared to the empty vector. More interestingly, the unpublished region significantly enhanced the promoter activity compared to the known region alone. To predict putative transcription factor binding-sites (TFBSs), an in silico analysis was performed using the TFSEARCH program. The region features many TFBSs and contains two palindrome sequences of 17- and 18-bp. Taken together, a novel region was identified and confirmed in sheep which contained a promoter activity rich with binding sites for a putative regulatory element as shown in silico. PMID:26355566

  14. A STATISTICAL STUDY OF CORONAL ACTIVE EVENTS IN THE NORTH POLAR REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Sako, Nobuharu; Shimojo, Masumi; Watanabe, Tetsuya; Sekii, Takashi

    2013-09-20

    In order to study the relationship between characteristics of polar coronal active events and the magnetic environment in which such events take place, we analyze 526 X-ray jets and 1256 transient brightenings in the polar regions and in regions around the equatorial limbs. We calculate the occurrence rates of these polar coronal active events as a function of distance from the boundary of coronal holes, and find that most events in the polar quiet regions occur adjacent to and equatorward of the coronal hole boundaries, while events in the polar coronal holes occur uniformly within them. Based primarily on the background intensity, we define three categories of regions that produce activity: polar coronal holes, coronal hole boundary regions, and polar quiet regions. We then investigate the properties of the events produced in these regions. We find no significant differences in their characteristics, for example, length and lifetime, but there are differences in the occurrence rates. The mean occurrence rate of X-ray jets around the boundaries of coronal holes is higher than that in the polar quiet regions, equatorial quiet regions, and polar coronal holes. Furthermore, the mean occurrence rate of transient brightenings is also higher in these regions. We make comparison with the occurrence rates of emerging and canceling magnetic fields in the photosphere reported in previous studies, and find that they do not agree with the occurrence rates of transient brightenings found in this study.

  15. Differential activation of protein kinase A in various regions of myocardium during sepsis.

    PubMed

    Hsu, C; Yang, S L; Hsu, S P; Hsu, H K; Liu, M S

    1997-08-01

    Changes in the activities of protein kinase A (PKA) (cAMP-dependent protein kinase) in various regions of rat myocardium during different cardiodynamic phases of sepsis were studied in an attempt to understand the pathophysiology of cardiac dysfunction during sepsis. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture (CLP). Experiments were divided into three groups: control, early sepsis, and late sepsis. Early and late sepsis refers to those animals sacrificed at 9 and 18 hr, respectively, after CLP. Cardiac PKA was extracted and partially purified by acid precipitation, ammonium sulfate fractionation, and DEAE-cellulose chromatography. PKA was eluted from DEAE-cellulose column with a linear NaCl gradient. Two types of PKA, Type I (eluted at low ionic strength) and Type II (eluted at high ionic strength), were collected, and their activities were determined based on the rate of incorporation of [gamma-32P]ATP into histone. Under physiological conditions, Type I PKA activities were unevenly distributed (left atrium > right atrium > pacemaker region > left ventricle > right ventricle > ventricular septum) while Type II PKA activities were evenly distributed among different regions of myocardium. During early sepsis, Type I PKA activities remained unchanged while Type II PKA activities were activated by 32 and 70% in right atrium and pacemaker regions, respectively. During late sepsis, Type I PKA activities were stimulated by 228% in ventricular septum while Type II PKA activities were not affected. These data demonstrate that different PKA activities exist in various regions of the myocardium and that PKA activities were preferentially activated in certain areas during the progression of sepsis. Since PKA plays an important role in the regulation of myocardial function and metabolism, the activation of PKA in different regions of myocardial during different stages of sepsis may contribute to the altered cardiac function during the progression of sepsis. PMID:9299285

  16. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series Cumulative Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    2001-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operations in 1986, after an eight-year mission. SeaWiFS was launched on 1 August 1997, onboard the OrbView-2 satellite, built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), undertook the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. The start of this documentation was titled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, which ended after 43 volumes were published. A follow-on series was started, titled the SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. This particular volume of the so-called "Postlaunch Series" serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous 11 volumes and consists of 5 sections including an errata, an addendum, an index to key words and phrases, a list of acronyms used, and a list of all references cited. The editors will publish a cumulative index of this type after every five volumes.

  17. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 25: Ocean optics protocols for SeaWiFS validation, revision 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Acker, James G. (Editor); Mueller, James L.; Austin, Roswell W.

    1995-01-01

    This report presents protocols for measuring optical properties, and other environmental variables, to validate the radiometric performance of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS), and to develop and validate bio-optical algorithms for use with SeaWiFS data. The protocols are intended to establish foundations for a measurement strategy to verify the challenging SeaWiFS uncertainty goals of 5 percent in water-leaving radiances and 35 percent in chlorophyll alpha concentration. The protocols first specify the variables which must be measured, and briefly review the rationale for measuring each variable. Subsequent chapters cover detailed protocols for instrument performance specifications, characterizing and calibrating instruments, methods of making measurements in the field, and methods of data analysis. These protocols were developed at a workshop sponsored by the SeaWiFS Project Office (SPO) and held at the Naval Postgraduate School in Monterey, California (9-12 April 1991). This report began as the proceedings of the workshop, as interpreted and expanded by the authors and reviewed by workshop participants and other members of the bio-optical research community. The protocols are an evolving prescription to allow the research community to approach the unprecedented measurement uncertainties implied by the SeaWiFS goals; research and development are needed to improve the state-of-the-art in specific areas. These protocols should be periodically revised to reflect technical advances during the SeaWiFS Project cycle. The present edition (Revision 1) incorporates new protocols in several areas, including expanded protocol descriptions for Case-2 waters and other improvements, as contributed by several members of the SeaWiFS Science Team.

  18. Doppler wavelength shifts of ultraviolet spectral lines in solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.; Cohen, L.

    1982-01-01

    Doppler shifts are measured for solar UV emission lines formed in the lower transition region of active regions. Doppler shifts in different regions at the same solar location, variations of Doppler shift with position of an active region on the disk, and variations of Doppler shift with time at the same solar location in the same active region were studied. Observations were made with the NRL slit spectrograph on Skylab. Excluding flare and flare-related phenomena, only redshifts are found whose magnitudes correspond to downflow velocities between about 4 and 17 km/s. Shifts are largest for lines formed between about 50,000 and 100,000 K, and are distinctly less for lines formed above 100,000 K. The shifts persist out to the limb, but not above it. There is no obvious change in redshift for lines measured at the same solar location over time intervals of about 20 minutes.

  19. Mapping brain region activity during chewing: a functional magnetic resonance imaging study.

    PubMed

    Onozuka, M; Fujita, M; Watanabe, K; Hirano, Y; Niwa, M; Nishiyama, K; Saito, S

    2002-11-01

    Mastication has been suggested to increase neuronal activities in various regions of the human brain. However, because of technical difficulties, the fine anatomical and physiological regions linked to mastication have not been fully elucidated. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging during cycles of rhythmic gum-chewing and no chewing, we therefore examined the interaction between chewing and brain regional activity in 17 subjects (aged 20-31 years). In all subjects, chewing resulted in a bilateral increase in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signals in the sensorimotor cortex, supplementary motor area, insula, thalamus, and cerebellum. In addition, in the first three regions, chewing of moderately hard gum produced stronger BOLD signals than the chewing of hard gum. However, the signal was higher in the cerebellum and not significant in the thalamus, respectively. These results suggest that chewing causes regional increases in brain neuronal activities which are related to biting force. PMID:12407087

  20. Time resolved EUV pump-probe microscopy of fs-LASER induced nanostructure formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Freiberger, R.; Hauck, J.; Reininghaus, M.; Wortmann, D.; Juschkin, L.

    2011-05-01

    We report on our efforts in design and construction of a compact Extreme Ultraviolet (EUV)-pump-probe microscope. The goal is the observation of formation of nanostructures, induced by a femtosecond (fs)-laser pulse. The unique interaction processes of fs-laser radiation with matter open up new markets in laser material processing and, therefore, are actively investigated in the last decade. The resulting "sub 100 nm"-structures offer vast potential benefits in photonics, biotechnology, tribological surface design, plasmonic applications and production of nanoparticles. Focused fs-laser radiation causes a local modification resulting in nanostructures of high precision and reproducibility. However the formation dynamics is not well understood. Research in this field requires high temporal and spatial resolution. A combination of fs-laser and EUV-microscope provides a tool for "in situ"-observation of the formation dynamics. As exemplary structures to be investigated, we use nanojets on thin gold films and periodic surface structures (ripples) on dielectrics. In the future, the EUV-pump-probe microscope can become a versatile tool to observe physical or biological processes. Microscopy using EUV-light is capable of detecting structures on a scale down to several tens of nanometers. For detailed investigations a compact EUV-microscope has been realized utilizing OVI Balmer-alpha radiation at 17.3 nm coming from a discharge produced oxygen plasma. As optical elements a grazing incidence elliptical collector and a zone plate with a width of outermost zone of 50 nm and a spectral filter to avoid chromatic aberrations are used. The detector is a fast gated microchannel plate with a pore size of 2 microns contacted by a low impedance transmission line. The expected spatial resolution of the setup is better than 100 nm and the time resolution is better than 1 ns. The newly developed EUV-microscope is a powerful tool for a wide field of investigations that need high time

  1. HELIOSEISMOLOGY OF PRE-EMERGING ACTIVE REGIONS. II. AVERAGE EMERGENCE PROPERTIES

    SciTech Connect

    Birch, A. C.; Braun, D. C.; Leka, K. D.; Barnes, G.; Javornik, B.

    2013-01-10

    We report on average subsurface properties of pre-emerging active regions as compared to areas where no active region emergence was detected. Helioseismic holography is applied to samples of the two populations (pre-emergence and without emergence), each sample having over 100 members, which were selected to minimize systematic bias, as described in Leka et al. We find that there are statistically significant signatures (i.e., difference in the means of more than a few standard errors) in the average subsurface flows and the apparent wave speed that precede the formation of an active region. The measurements here rule out spatially extended flows of more than about 15 m s{sup -1} in the top 20 Mm below the photosphere over the course of the day preceding the start of visible emergence. These measurements place strong constraints on models of active region formation.

  2. Complex active regions as the main source of extreme and large solar proton events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ishkov, V. N.

    2013-12-01

    A study of solar proton sources indicated that solar flare events responsible for ≥2000 pfu proton fluxes mostly occur in complex active regions (CARs), i.e., in transition structures between active regions and activity complexes. Different classes of similar structures and their relation to solar proton events (SPEs) and evolution, depending on the origination conditions, are considered. Arguments in favor of the fact that sunspot groups with extreme dimensions are CARs are presented. An analysis of the flare activity in a CAR resulted in the detection of "physical" boundaries, which separate magnetic structures of the same polarity and are responsible for the independent development of each structure.

  3. ATM increases activation-induced cytidine deaminase activity at downstream S regions during class-switch recombination.

    PubMed

    Khair, Lyne; Guikema, Jeroen E J; Linehan, Erin K; Ucher, Anna J; Leus, Niek G J; Ogilvie, Colin; Lou, Zhenkun; Schrader, Carol E; Stavnezer, Janet

    2014-05-15

    Activation-induced cytidine deaminase (AID) initiates Ab class-switch recombination (CSR) in activated B cells resulting in exchanging the IgH C region and improved Ab effector function. During CSR, AID instigates DNA double-strand break (DSB) formation in switch (S) regions located upstream of C region genes. DSBs are necessary for CSR, but improper regulation of DSBs can lead to chromosomal translocations that can result in B cell lymphoma. The protein kinase ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM) is an important proximal regulator of the DNA damage response (DDR), and translocations involving S regions are increased in its absence. ATM phosphorylates H2AX, which recruits other DNA damage response (DDR) proteins, including mediator of DNA damage checkpoint 1 (Mdc1) and p53 binding protein 1 (53BP1), to sites of DNA damage. As these DDR proteins all function to promote repair and recombination of DSBs during CSR, we examined whether mouse splenic B cells deficient in these proteins would show alterations in S region DSBs when undergoing CSR. We find that in atm(-/-) cells Sμ DSBs are increased, whereas DSBs in downstream Sγ regions are decreased. We also find that mutations in the unrearranged Sγ3 segment are reduced in atm(-/-) cells. Our data suggest that ATM increases AID targeting and activity at downstream acceptor S regions during CSR and that in atm(-/-) cells Sμ DSBs accumulate as they lack a recombination partner. PMID:24729610

  4. A statistical study of active regions 1967-1981. [of sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tang, F.; Howard, R.; Adkins, J. M.

    1984-01-01

    A study is conducted of 15 years of active region data based on the Mount Wilson daily magnetograms in the interval 1967-1981. The analysis revealed the following: (1) The integral number of regions decreases exponentially with increasing region sizes, or N(A) = 4788 exp(-A/175) for the 15 years of data, where A is the area in square degrees and N(A) is the number of active regions with area equal to or greater than A; (2) the average area of active regions varies with the phase of the solar cycle. There are more larger regions during maximum than during minimum. (3) Regions in the north are 10 percent larger on average than those in the south during this interval. This coincides with a similar asymmetry in the total magnetic flux between the hemispheres. (4) Regions of all sizes and magnetic complexities show the same characteristic latitude variation with phase in the solar cycle. The largest regions, however, show a narrower latitude range.

  5. 400W Yb:YAG Innoslab fs-Amplifier.

    PubMed

    Russbueldt, P; Mans, T; Rotarius, G; Weitenberg, J; Hoffmann, H D; Poprawe, R

    2009-07-20

    The Innoslab design, already established for neodymium doped laser crystals, was applied to ytterbium doped laser materials. Recent progresses in brightness of high power diode lasers facilitate efficient pumping of quasi-three-level laser materials. Innoslab amplifiers are compared to competing thin-disk and fiber fs-amplifiers. A compact diode-pumped Yb:YAG Innoslab fs-oscillator-amplifier system, scalable to the kilowatt range, was realized. Numerical simulations result in conditions for high efficiency and beam quality. Nearly transform and diffraction limited 680 fs pulses at 400 W average output power and 76 MHz repetition rate without using CPA technology have been achieved at room temperature so far. PMID:19654625

  6. GlusterFS One Storage Server to Rule Them All

    SciTech Connect

    Boyer, Eric B.; Broomfield, Matthew C.; Perrotti, Terrell A.

    2012-07-30

    GlusterFS is a Linux based distributed file system, designed to be highly scalable and serve many clients. Some reasons to use GlusterFS are: No centralized metadata server, Scalability, Open Source, Dynamic and live service modifications, Can be used over Infiniband or Ethernet, Can be tuned for speed and/or resilience and Flexible administration. It's useful for enterprise environments - virtualization; high performance computing (HPC) and it works with Mac, Linux and Windows clients. Conclusions are: (1) GlusterFS proved to have widespread capabilities as a virtual file system; (2) Scalability is very dependent upon the underlying hardware; (3) Lack of built-in encryption and security paradigm; and (4) Best suited in a general purpose computing environment.

  7. Infrared absorption of fs-laser textured CVD diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvani, P.; Bellucci, A.; Girolami, M.; Orlando, S.; Valentini, V.; Polini, R.; Mezzetti, A.; Di Fonzo, F.; Trucchi, D. M.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoscale periodic texturing on polycrystalline CVD diamond surface was performed to obtain a significant increase in optical absorptance to visible and near-infrared radiation. Surface texturing, obtained by the use of fs-laser ultrashort pulses, has been demonstrated to induce a controlled periodicity of ripples of about 170 nm and length of several µm, able to drastically increase the diamond capability of interacting with solar radiation from its intrinsic visible blindness. Ultraviolet and visible Raman spectroscopy has been used to confirm the absence of non-diamond phases resulting from the process for the fs-laser-textured sample. Moreover, here we investigate the optical properties in the range 200 nm-25 µm. Absorbance of fs-laser-textured CVD diamond is considerably higher than the untreated one at every wavelength, resulting in a remarkable increase in the emittance: It points out the need for an optimization of process parameters to enhance the selective absorption capability.

  8. Schedule Optimization Study, Hanford RI/FS Program

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    A Schedule Optimization Study (SOS) of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Hanford Site Remedial Investigation/Feasibility Study (RI/FS) Program was conducted by an independent team of professionals from other federal agencies and the private sector experienced in environmental restoration. This team spent two weeks at Hanford in September 1992 examining the reasons for the lengthy RI/FS process at Hanford and developing recommendations to expedite the process. The need for the study arose out of a schedule dispute regarding the submission of the 1100-EM-1 Operable Unit RI/FS Work Plan. This report documents the study called for in the August 29, 1991, Dispute Resolution Committee Decision Statement. Battelle's Environmental Management Operations (EMO) coordinated the effort for DOE's Richland Field Office (RL).

  9. MBE growth of active regions for electrically pumped, cw-operating GaSb-based VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashani-Shirazi, K.; Bachmann, A.; Boehm, G.; Ziegler, S.; Amann, M.-C.

    2009-03-01

    Electrically pumped, cw-operating, single-mode GaSb-based VCSELs are attractive light sources for trace-gas sensing systems using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) [A. Vicet, D.A. Yarekha, A. Pérona, Y. Rouillard, S. Gaillard, Spectrochimica Acta Part A 58 (2002) 2405-2412]. Only recently, the first electrically pumped (EP) devices emitting at 2.325 μm in cw-mode at room temperature have been reported [A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, M.-C. Amann, Electronics Letters 44(3) (2008) 202-203]. The fabrication of these devices employs the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of GaSb/AlAsSb-distributed Bragg mirrors, a multi-quantum-well active region made of AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb and an InAsSb/GaSb-buried-tunnel junction. As VCSELs are usually driven under high injection rates, an optimum electrical design of active regions is essential for high-performance devices. In this paper we present an enhanced simulation of current flow in the active region under operation conditions. The calculation includes carrier transport by drift, diffusion and tunneling. We discuss different design criteria and material compositions for active regions. Active regions with various barrier materials were incorporated into edge emitter samples to evaluate their performance. Aluminum-containing barriers show better internal efficiency compared to active regions with GaSb as the barrier material.

  10. Changes in the Radiometric Sensitivity of SeaWiFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McClain, Charles R.; Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Patt, Frederick S.

    1998-01-01

    We report on the lunar and solar measurements used to determine the changes in the radiometric sensitivity of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS). Radiometric sensitivity is defined as the output from the instrument (or from one of the instrument bands) per unit spectral radiance at the instrument's input aperture. Knowledge of the long-term repeatability of the SeaWiFS measurements is crucial to maintaining the quality of the ocean scenes derived from measurements by the instrument. For SeaWiFS bands 1 through 6 (412 nm through 670 rim), the change in radiometric sensitivity is less than 0.2% for the period from November 1997 through November 1998. For band 7 (765 nm), the change is about 1.5%, and for band 8 (865 nm) about 5%. The rates of change of bands 7 and 8, which were linear with time for the first eight months of lunar measurements, are now slowing. The scatter in the data points about the trend lines in this analysis is less than 0.3% for all eight SeaWiFS bands. These results are based on monthly measurements of the moon. Daily solar measurements using an onboard diffuser show that the radiometric sensitivities of the SeaWiFS bands have changed smoothly during the time intervals between lunar measurements. Since SeaWiFS measurements have continued past November 1998, the results presented here are considered as a snapshot of the instrument performance as of that date.

  11. Calibration of SeaWiFS. I. Direct techniques.

    PubMed

    Barnes, R A; Eplee, R E; Schmidt, G M; Patt, F S; McClain, C R

    2001-12-20

    We present an overview of the calibration of the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of View Sensor (SeaWiFS) from its performance verification at the manufacturer's facility to the completion of its third year of on-orbit measurements. These calibration procedures have three principal parts: a prelaunch radiometric calibration that is traceable to the National Institute of Standards and Technology; the Transfer-to-Orbit Experiment, a set of measurements that determine changes in the instrument's calibration from its manufacture to the start of on-orbit operations; and measurements of the sun and the moon to determine radiometric changes on orbit. To our knowledge, SeaWiFS is the only instrument that uses routine lunar measurements to determine changes in its radiometric sensitivity. On the basis of these methods, the overall uncertainty in the SeaWiFS top-of-the-atmosphere radiances is estimated to be 4-5%. We also show the results of comparison campaigns with aircraft- and ground-based measurements, plus the results of an experiment, called the Southern Ocean Band 8 Gain Study. These results are used to check the calibration of the SeaWiFS bands. To date, they have not been used to change the instrument's prelaunch calibration coefficients. In addition to these procedures, SeaWiFS is a vicariously calibrated instrument for ocean-color measurements. In the vicarious calibration of the SeaWiFS visible bands, the calibration coefficients are modified to force agreement with surface truth measurements from the Marine Optical Buoy, which is moored off the Hawaiian Island of Lanai. This vicarious calibration is described in a companion paper. PMID:18364980

  12. HARPs: Tracked Active Region Patch Data Product from SDO/HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turmon, M.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Sun, X.; Bobra, M.

    2012-12-01

    We describe an HMI data product consisting of tracked magnetic features on the scale of solar active regions, abbreviated HARPs (HMI Active Region Patches). The HARP data series has been helpful for subsetting individual active regions, for development of near-real-time (NRT) space weather indices for individual active regions, and for defining closed magnetic structures for computationally-intensive algorithms like vector field disambiguation. The data series builds upon the 720s cadence activity masks, which identify large-scale instantaneously-observed magnetic features. Using these masks as a starting point, large spatially-coherent structures are identified using convolution with a longitudinally-extended kernel on a spherical domain. The resulting set of identified regions is then tracked from image to image. The metric for inter-image association is area of overlap between the best current estimate of AR location, as predicted by temporally extrapolating each currently tracked object, and the set of instantaneously-observed magnetic structures. Once completed tracks have been extracted, they are made into a standardized HARP data series by finding the smallest constant-angular-velocity box, of constant width in latitude and longitude, that encompasses all appearances of the active region. This data product is currently available, in definitive and near-real-time forms, with accompanying region-strength, location, and NOAA-AR metadata, on HMI's Joint Science Operations Center (JSOC) data portal.; HARP outlines for three days (2001 February 14, 15, and 16, 00:00 TAI, flipped N-S, selected from the 12-minute cadence original data product). HARPs are shown in the same color (some colors repeated) with a thin white box surrounding each HARP. HARPs are tracked and associated from image to image. HARPs, such as the yellow one in the images above, need not be connected regions. Merges and splits, such as the light blue region, are accounted for automatically.

  13. Regional activation within the vastus medialis in stimulated and voluntary contractions.

    PubMed

    Gallina, Alessio; Ivanova, Tanya D; Garland, S Jayne

    2016-08-01

    This study examined the contribution of muscle fiber orientation at different knee angles to regional activation identified with high-density surface electromyography (HDsEMG). Monopolar HDsEMG signals were collected using a grid of 13 × 5 electrodes placed over the vastus medialis (VM). Intramuscular electrical stimulation was used to selectively activate two regions within VM. The distribution of EMG responses to stimulation was obtained by calculating the amplitude of the compound action potential for each channel; the position of the peak amplitude was tracked across knee angles to describe shifts of the active muscle regions under the electrodes. In a separate experiment, regional activation was investigated in 10 knee flexion-extension movements against a fixed resistance. Intramuscular stimulation of different VM regions resulted in clear differences in amplitude distribution along the columns of the electrode grid (P < 0.001); changes in knee angle resulted in consistent shifts along the rows (P < 0.01) and negligible shifts along the columns of the electrode grid. Regional VM activation was identified in dynamic movement, with distal shifts of the EMG distribution in the eccentric phase of the movement (P < 0.05) and at more flexed knee angles (P < 0.05). HDsEMG was used to describe regional activation across the VM that was not attributable to anatomic factors. Changes in muscle fiber orientation associated with knee joint angle mainly influence the amplitude distribution along the fiber direction. Future studies are needed to understand possible functional roles for regional activation within the VM in dynamic tasks. PMID:27365281

  14. Regional activation of rapid onset vasodilatation in mouse skeletal muscle: regulation through α-adrenoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Moore, Alex W; Bearden, Shawn E; Segal, Steven S

    2010-09-01

    Exercise onset entails motor unit recruitment and the initiation of vasodilatation. Dilatation can ascend the arteriolar network to encompass proximal feed arteries but is opposed by sympathetic nerve activity, which promotes vasoconstriction and inhibits ascending vasodilatation through activating α-adrenoreceptors. Whereas contractile activity can antagonize sympathetic vasoconstriction, more subtle aspects of this interaction remain to be defined. We tested the hypothesis that constitutive activation of α-adrenoreceptors governs blood flow distribution within individual muscles. The mouse gluteus maximus muscle (GM) consists of Inferior and Superior regions. Each muscle region is supplied by its own motor nerve and feed artery with an anastomotic arteriole (resting diameter 25 microm) that spans both muscle regions. In anaesthetized male C57BL/6J mice (3-5 months old), the GM was exposed and superfused with physiological saline solution (35 degrees C; pH 7.4). Stimulating the inferior gluteal motor nerve (0.1 ms pulse, 100 Hz for 500 ms) evoked a brief tetanic contraction and produced rapid (<1 s) onset vasodilatation (ROV; diameter change, 10 +/- 1 μm) of the anastomotic arteriole along the active (Inferior) muscle region but not along the inactive (Superior) region (n = 8). In contrast, microiontophoresis of acetylcholine (1 μm micropipette tip, 1 μA, 500 ms) initiated dilatation that travelled along the anastomotic arteriole from the Inferior into the Superior muscle region (diameter change, 5 +/- 2 μm). Topical phentolamine (1 μm) had no effect on resting diameter but this inhibition of α-adrenoreceptors enabled ROV to spread along the anastomotic arteriole into the inactive muscle region (dilatation, 7 +/- 1 μm; P < 0.05), where remote dilatation to acetylcholine then doubled (P < 0.05). These findings indicate that constitutive activation of α-adrenoreceptors in skeletal muscle can restrict the spread of dilatation within microvascular resistance

  15. Sub-fs electron pulses for ultrafast electron diffraction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fill, Ernst; Veisz, Laszlo; Apolonski, Alexander; Krausz, Ferenc

    2006-11-01

    We present a new concept for an electron gun generating subrelativistic electron pulses with a duration down to the attosecond range. It is based on a cylindrical RF cavity (a so-called pill-box cavity) oscillating in its TM010 eigenmode with a photocathode triggered by a fs-laser pulse. Injecting electrons at an appropriate phase of the RF cycle compensates for their initial velocities and time delays and makes the electrons arrive at a target in a sub-fs temporal window. Such electron pulses will allow nuclear motion and electronic dynamics to be studied on an attosecond time scale.

  16. High-order dispersion in sub-200-fs pulsed VECSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Head, C. R.; Hein, Alexander; Turnbull, Andrew P.; Polanik, Markus; Shaw, Edward A.; Chen Sverre, Theo; Unger, Peter; Tropper, Anne C.

    2016-03-01

    We present a VECSEL based on a gain sample design which utilizes only a single-layer dielectric Al2O3 coating for dispersion management. The gain structure generated pulse durations down to 193 fs in combination with a surface-recombination SESAM, with an average power of 400 mW at 1.6 GHz setting a new peak power record for sub-200 fs mode-locked VECSELs. The pulses obtained were, however, 2x transform-limited and a further FROG measurement of a similar laser is presented revealing a linear chirp and cubic spectral phase.

  17. Different metabolic activity in placental and reflected regions of the human amniotic membrane.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Asmita; Weidinger, Adelheid; Hofer, Martin; Steinborn, Ralf; Lindenmair, Andrea; Hennerbichler-Lugscheider, Simone; Eibl, Johann; Redl, Heinz; Kozlov, Andrey V; Wolbank, Susanne

    2015-11-01

    Cells of the human amniotic membrane (hAM) have stem cell characteristics with low immunogenicity and anti-inflammatory properties. While hAM is an excellent source for tissue engineering, so far, its sub-regions have not been taken into account. We show that placental and reflected hAM differ distinctly in morphology and functional activity, as the placental region has significantly higher mitochondrial activity, however significantly less reactive oxygen species. Since mitochondria may participate in processes such as cell rescue, we speculate that amniotic sub-regions may have different potential for tissue regeneration, which may be crucial for clinical applications. PMID:26386652

  18. Multiwavelength observations of a preflare solar active region using the VLA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kundu, M. R.; Shevgaonkar, R. K.

    1985-01-01

    A preflare active region was studied using the Very Large Array at 2, 6, and 20 cm. At 2 cm the region is composed of two components located in regions of opposite polarity. Both components are preheated prior to the impulsive onset of a flare. However, one component develops new structures during preburst phase, and the burst occurs in this location. It is believed that the new structures represent emerging flux regions which interact with an overlying loop to produce a neutral sheet, which ultimately is responsible for triggering the flare.

  19. MAG4 versus alternative techniques for forecasting active region flare productivity

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, David A; Moore, Ronald L; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free magnetic energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region's major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the “Present MAG4” technique and each of three alternative techniques, called “McIntosh Active-Region Class,” “Total Magnetic Flux,” and “Next MAG4.” We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4). Key Points Quantitative comparison of performance of pairs of forecasting techniques Next MAG4 forecasts major flares more accurately than Present MAG4 Present MAG4 forecast outperforms McIntosh AR Class and total magnetic flux PMID:26213517

  20. Magnetic flux transport of decaying active regions and enhanced magnetic network. [of solar supergranulation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Haimin; Zirin, Harold; Ai, Guoxiang

    1991-01-01

    Several series of coordinated observations on decaying active regions and enhanced magnetic network regions on the sun were carried out jointly at Big Bear Solar Observatory and at the Huairou Solar Observing Station of the Bejing Astronomical Observatory in China. The magnetic field evolution in several regions was followed closely for three to seven days. The magnetic flux transport from the remnants of decayed active regions was studied, along with the evolution and lifetime of the magnetic network which defines the boundaries of supergranules. The magnetic flux transport in an enhanced network region was studied in detail and found to be negative. Also briefly described are some properties of moving magnetic features around a sunspot. Results of all of the above studies are presented.

  1. 10 Years of Asian Dust Storm Observations from SeaWiFS: Source, Pathway, and Interannual Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Tsay, S.-C.; King, M.D.; Jeong, M.-J.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, we will demonstrate the capability of a new satellite algorithm to retrieve aerosol optical thickness and single scattering albedo over bright-reflecting surfaces such as urban areas and deserts. Such retrievals have been difficult to perform using previously available algorithms that use wavelengths from the mid-visible to the near IR because they have trouble separating the aerosol signal from the contribution due to the bright surface reflectance. The new algorithm, called Deep Blue, utilizes blue-wavelength measurements from instruments such as SeaWiFS and MODIS to infer the properties of aerosols, since the surface reflectance over land in the blue part of the spectrum is much lower than for longer wavelength channels. We have validated the satellite retrieved aerosol optical thickness with data from AERONET sunphotometers over desert and semi-desert regions. The comparisons show reasonable agreements between these two. These new satellite products will allow scientists to determine quantitatively the aerosol properties near sources using high spatial resolution measurements from SeaWiFS and MODIS-like instruments. The multiyear satellite measurements (1998 - 2007) from SeaWiFS will be utilized to investigate the interannual variability of source, pathway, and dust loading associated with these dust outbreaks in East Asia. The monthly averaged aerosol optical thickness during the springtime from SeaWiFS will also be compared with the MODIS Deep Blue products.

  2. MAGNETIC FIELD TOPOLOGY AND THE THERMAL STRUCTURE OF THE CORONA OVER SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Schrijver, Carolus J.; DeRosa, Marc L.; Title, Alan M.

    2010-08-20

    Solar extreme ultraviolet (EUV) images of quiescent active-region coronae are characterized by ensembles of bright 1-2 MK loops that fan out from select locations. We investigate the conditions associated with the formation of these persistent, relatively cool, loop fans within and surrounding the otherwise 3-5 MK coronal environment by combining EUV observations of active regions made with TRACE with global source-surface potential-field models based on the full-sphere photospheric field from the assimilation of magnetograms that are obtained by the Michelson Doppler Imager (MDI) on SOHO. We find that in the selected active regions with largely potential-field configurations these fans are associated with (quasi-)separatrix layers (QSLs) within the strong-field regions of magnetic plage. Based on the empirical evidence, we argue that persistent active-region cool-loop fans are primarily related to the pronounced change in connectivity across a QSL to widely separated clusters of magnetic flux, and confirm earlier work that suggested that neither a change in loop length nor in base field strengths across such topological features are of prime importance to the formation of the cool-loop fans. We discuss the hypothesis that a change in the distribution of coronal heating with height may be involved in the phenomenon of relatively cool coronal loop fans in quiescent active regions.

  3. Rendering Three-Dimensional Solar Coronal Structures of Active Region 8227

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. A.; Alexander, D. A.

    1999-01-01

    Coronal X-ray and EUV synthesized images are constructed of Active Region 8227 (May-June 1996) and are compared with Yohkoh/SXT, SOHO/EIT, and TRACE observations. Using the rendering technique of Gary (1997) and Alexander, Gary, and Thompson (1998), specific geometric and physical models are used to integrated the plasma emission along the line of sight to obtain a rendered image. The specific instrumental profiles are convolved in the integration process as well as specific heating functions. We analyze coronal X-ray and EUV structures by constructing synthesized image and comparison with observations provide test of specific physical models. We investigate how different pressure distributions within the active region loop system affect the emission characteristics and compare the various results with coronal observations. We investigate how the different heating functions in the active region are reflected in the effect of overall structure of the region. Specific heating rates are tested.

  4. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 41; Case Studies for SeaWiFS Calibration and Validation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeh, Eueng-nan; Barnes, Robert A.; Darzi, Michael; Kumar, Lakshmi; Early, Edward A.; Johnson, B. Carol; Mueller, James L.; Trees, Charles C.

    1997-01-01

    This document provides brief reports, or case studies, on a number of investigations sponsored by the Calibration and Validation Team (CVT) within the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project. Chapter I describes the calibration and characterization of the GSFC sphere, which was used in the recent recalibration of the SeaWiFS instrument. Chapter 2 presents a revision of the diffuse attenuation coefficient, K(490), algorithm based on the SeaWiFS wavelengths. Chapter 3 provides an implementation scheme for an algorithm to remove out-of-band radiance when using a sensor calibration based on a finite width (truncated) spectral response function, e.g., between the 1% transmission points. Chapter 4 describes the implementation schemes for the stray light quality flag (local area coverage [LAC] and global area coverage [GAC]) and the LAC stray light correction.

  5. 50 CFR 217.151 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... activity and specified geographical region. (a) Regulations in this subpart apply only to Port Dolphin Energy LLC (Port Dolphin) and those persons it authorizes to conduct activities on its behalf for the... incidental to construction and operation of the Port Dolphin Deepwater Port (Port). (b) The taking of...

  6. 50 CFR 217.151 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... activity and specified geographical region. (a) Regulations in this subpart apply only to Port Dolphin Energy LLC (Port Dolphin) and those persons it authorizes to conduct activities on its behalf for the... incidental to construction and operation of the Port Dolphin Deepwater Port (Port). (b) The taking of...

  7. Hepatitis C virus nonstructural region 5A protein is a potent transcriptional activator.

    PubMed Central

    Kato, N; Lan, K H; Ono-Nita, S K; Shiratori, Y; Omata, M

    1997-01-01

    The hepatitis C virus (HCV) nonstructural region 5A (NS5A) protein, without its 146 amino-terminal amino acids and fused to the DNA-binding domain of GAL4, strongly activates transcription in yeast and human hepatoma cells. Transcriptional activation by the HCV NS5A protein may play a role in viral replication and hepatocarcinogenesis. PMID:9343247

  8. 50 CFR 217.170 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Operation and Maintenance of the Neptune Liquefied Natural Gas Facility Off Massachusetts § 217.170 Specified activity and specified geographical region. (a) Regulations in this subpart apply only to Neptune LNG LLC (Neptune) and those persons it authorizes to conduct activities on its behalf for the...

  9. 50 CFR 217.170 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Operation and Maintenance of the Neptune Liquefied Natural Gas Facility Off Massachusetts § 217.170 Specified activity and specified geographical region. (a) Regulations in this subpart apply only to Neptune LNG LLC (Neptune) and those persons it authorizes to conduct activities on its behalf for the...

  10. 50 CFR 217.170 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Operation and Maintenance of the Neptune Liquefied Natural Gas Facility Off Massachusetts § 217.170 Specified activity and specified geographical region. (a) Regulations in this subpart apply only to Neptune LNG LLC (Neptune) and those persons it authorizes to conduct activities on its behalf for the...

  11. 50 CFR 217.170 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Operation and Maintenance of the Neptune Liquefied Natural Gas Facility Off Massachusetts § 217.170 Specified activity and specified geographical region. (a) Regulations in this subpart apply only to Neptune LNG LLC (Neptune) and those persons it authorizes to conduct activities on its behalf for the...

  12. Efficacy of the Quorum Sensing Inhibitor FS10 Alone and in Combination with Tigecycline in an Animal Model of Staphylococcal Infected Wound

    PubMed Central

    Cacciatore, Ivana; Baldassarre, Leonardo; Orlando, Fiorenza; Pierpaoli, Elisa; Lucarini, Guendalina; Orsetti, Elena; Provinciali, Mauro; Fornasari, Erika; Di Stefano, Antonio; Giacometti, Andrea; Offidani, Annamaria

    2016-01-01

    In staphylococci, quorum sensing regulates both biofilm formation and toxin production, moreover it has been demonstrated to be inhibited by RNAIII inhibiting peptide (RIP). Aim our study was to evaluate the in vitro activity and its in vivo efficacy of the combined administration of FS10, a novel RIP derivative, and tigecycline in an animal model of methicillin-resistant (MR) and methicillin-sensitive (MS) Staphylococcus aureus wound infection. Using a 1.x2 cm template, one full thickness wound was established through the panniculus carnosus on the back subcutaneous tissue of each animal. Infection was determined by inoculation of 5x107 CFU/ml of bacteria, that produced an abscess within 24 h, after this, treatment was initiated. The study included, for each strain, a control group without infection, a control infected group that did not receive any treatment and a control infected group with drug-free foam dressing, and three infected groups treated, respectively, with: FS10-soaked foam dressing (containing 20 μg FS10), daily intraperitoneal tigecycline (7 mg/Kg), FS10-soaked foam dressing (containing 20 μg FS10) and daily intraperitoneal injections of tigecycline (7 mg/Kg). The main outcome measures were quantitative culture and histological examination of tissue repair. The highest inhibition of infection was achieved in the group that received FS10-soaked and parenteral tigecycline reducing the bacterial load from 107 CFU/ml to about 103 CFU/g for MSSA and to about 104 CFU/g for MRSA. The group treated with FS10-soaked foam dressing associated with parenteral tigecycline showed, histologically, better overall healing with epithelialization and collagen scores significantly higher than those of the other groups in both strains. In conclusion, the combined use of topical FS10 with i.p. tigecycline induced positive interaction in vivo, resulting in an enhanced therapeutic benefit versus staphylococcal infections in murine wound models. PMID:27253706

  13. Medical Image Segmentation Based on a Hybrid Region-Based Active Contour Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tingting; Xu, Haiyong; Liu, Zhen; Zhao, Yiming; Tian, Wenzhe

    2014-01-01

    A novel hybrid region-based active contour model is presented to segment medical images with intensity inhomogeneity. The energy functional for the proposed model consists of three weighted terms: global term, local term, and regularization term. The total energy is incorporated into a level set formulation with a level set regularization term, from which a curve evolution equation is derived for energy minimization. Experiments on some synthetic and real images demonstrate that our model is more efficient compared with the localizing region-based active contours (LRBAC) method, proposed by Lankton, and more robust compared with the Chan-Vese (C-V) active contour model. PMID:25028593

  14. Special Issues Related to Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation in the Eastern Mediterranean Region and the First Regional Activity Report

    PubMed Central

    Aljurf, Mahmoud; Zaidi, Syed Z; El Solh, Hassan; Hussain, Fazal; Ghavamzadeh, Ardeshir; Mahmoud, Hossam Kamel; Shamsi, Tahir; Othman, Tarek Ben; Sarhan, Mahmoud M.; Dennison, David; Ibrahim, Ahmad; Benchekroun, Said; Chaudhri, Naeem; Labar, Boris; Horowitz, Mary; Niederwieser, Dietger; Gratwohl, Alois

    2012-01-01

    Although several centers are now performing allogeneic HSCT in the Eastern Mediterranean (EM) region, the availability is still limited. Special issues including compatible donor availability and potential for alternate donor programs are discussed. In comparison to Europe & North America, differences in pattern of diseases and pre-HSCT general status particularly for patients with BM failure are described. Other differences including high seropositivity for CMV, Hepatitis B and C infection and specific observations about GVHD with its relation to genetically homogeneous community are also discussed. We report that a total of 17 HSCT programs (performing 5 or more HSCTs annually) exist in 9 countries of the EM region. Only 6 programs are currently reporting to EBMT or IBMTR. A total of 7617 HSCTs have been performed by these programs including 5701 allogeneic HSCTs. Due to low HSCT team density (1.5583 teams/10 million inhabitants vs. 14.4333 in Europe) and very low HSCT team distribution (0.2729 teams/10,000 sq km area vs. <1 to 6 teams in Europe). GNI/capita had no clear association with low HSCT activity; however improvement in infrastructure & formation of EM regional HSCT registry are needed. PMID:19043456

  15. Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis Virus Activity in the Gulf Coast Region of Mexico, 2003–2010

    PubMed Central

    Adams, A. Paige; Navarro-Lopez, Roberto; Ramirez-Aguilar, Francisco J.; Lopez-Gonzalez, Irene; Leal, Grace; Flores-Mayorga, Jose M.; Travassos da Rosa, Amelia P. A.; Saxton-Shaw, Kali D.; Singh, Amber J.; Borland, Erin M.; Powers, Ann M.; Tesh, Robert B.; Weaver, Scott C.; Estrada-Franco, Jose G.

    2012-01-01

    Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV) has been the causative agent for sporadic epidemics and equine epizootics throughout the Americas since the 1930s. In 1969, an outbreak of Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE) spread rapidly from Guatemala and through the Gulf Coast region of Mexico, reaching Texas in 1971. Since this outbreak, there have been very few studies to determine the northward extent of endemic VEEV in this region. This study reports the findings of serologic surveillance in the Gulf Coast region of Mexico from 2003–2010. Phylogenetic analysis was also performed on viral isolates from this region to determine whether there have been substantial genetic changes in VEEV since the 1960s. Based on the findings of this study, the Gulf Coast lineage of subtype IE VEEV continues to actively circulate in this region of Mexico and appears to be responsible for infection of humans and animals throughout this region, including the northern State of Tamaulipas, which borders Texas. PMID:23133685

  16. MAG4 versus Alternative Techniques for Forecasting Active-Region Flare Productivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Falconer, David; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-06-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free-magnetic-energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region’s major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the “Present MAG4” technique and each of three alternative techniques, called “McIntosh Active-Region Class,” “Total Magnetic Flux,” and “Next MAG4.” We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major-flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique-performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4). Funding for this research came from NASA’s Game Changing Development Program, Johnson Space Center’s Space Radiation Analysis Group (SRAG), and AFOSR’s Multi-University Research Initiative. In particular, funding was facilitated by Dr. Dan Fry (NASA-JSC) and David Moore (NASA-LaRC).

  17. Validating and Improving Long-Term Aerosol Data Records from SeaWiFS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bettenhausen, Corey; Hsu, N. Christina; Sayer, Andrew; Huang, Jinhfeng; Gautam, Ritesh

    2011-01-01

    Natural and anthropogenic aerosols influence the radiative balance of the Earth through direct and indirect interactions with incoming solar radiation. However, the quantification of these interactions and their ultimate effect on the Earth's climate still have large uncertainties. This is partly due to the limitations of current satellite data records which include short satellite lifetimes, retrieval algorithm uncertainty, or insufficient calibration accuracy. We have taken the first steps in overcoming this hurdle with the production and public release of an aerosol data record using the radiances from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (Sea WiFS). Sea WiFS was launched in late 1997 and provided exceptionally well-calibrated top-of-atmosphere radiance data until December 2010, more than 13 years. We have partnered this data with an expanded Deep Blue aerosol retrieval algorithm. In accordance with Deep Blue's original focus, the latest algorithm retrieves aerosol properties not only over bright desert surfaces, but also over oceans and vegetated surfaces. With this combination of a long time series and global algorithm, we can finally identify the changing patterns of regional aerosol loading and provide insight into longterm variability and trends of aerosols on regional and global scales. In this work, we provide an introduction to Sea WiFS, the current algorithms, and our aerosol data records. We have validated the data over land and ocean with ground measurements from the Aerosol Robotic Network (AERONET) and compared them with other satellites such as MODIS and MISR. Looking ahead to the next data release, we will also provide details on the implemented and planned algorithm improvements, and subsequent validation results.

  18. Regional brain effects of sodium azide treatment on cytochrome oxidase activity: a quantitative histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Cada, A; Gonzalez-Lima, F; Rose, G M; Bennett, M C

    1995-12-01

    The objective of the present study was to determine if regional variation in brain cytochrome oxidase activity was observed following systemic administration of sodium azide. An image analysis system calibrated with internal standards of known cytochrome oxidase activity was used to quantify cytochrome oxidase in histochemically stained brain sections. Rats receiving chronic infusion of sodium azide (400 micrograms/hr), which were sacrificed after two weeks, showed a substantial decrease in brain cytochrome oxidase activity over those infused with saline. All of the 22 regions sampled from telencephalic, diencephalic, and mesencephalic levels, showed a significant activity reduction which ranged between 26% and 37%. The regions that appeared significantly more vulnerable to the sodium azide effects were the mesencephalic reticular formation and the central amygdala, which displayed the largest decrease in activity. In addition, interregional correlations of activity showed a deeply modified pattern of correlative metabolic activity between hippocampal, amygdaloid and cortical areas after azide treatment. The regional effects found were consistent with azide-induced learning and memory dysfunctions. PMID:8847994

  19. Determining heating timescales in solar active region cores from AIA/SDO Fe XVIII images

    SciTech Connect

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Warren, Harry P.

    2014-03-01

    We present a study of the frequency of transient brightenings in the core of solar active regions as observed in the Fe XVIII line component of AIA/SDO 94 Å filter images. The Fe XVIII emission is isolated using an empirical correction to remove the contribution of 'warm' emission to this channel. Comparing with simultaneous observations from EIS/Hinode, we find that the variability observed in Fe XVIII is strongly correlated with the emission from lines formed at similar temperatures. We examine the evolution of loops in the cores of active regions at various stages of evolution. Using a newly developed event detection algorithm, we characterize the distribution of event frequency, duration, and magnitude in these active regions. These distributions are similar for regions of similar age and show a consistent pattern as the regions age. This suggests that these characteristics are important constraints for models of solar active regions. We find that the typical frequency of the intensity fluctuations is about 1400 s for any given line of sight, i.e., about two to three events per hour. Using the EBTEL 0D hydrodynamic model, however, we show that this only sets a lower limit on the heating frequency along that line of sight.

  20. Investigation of possible fs-LASIK induced retinal damage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schumacher, S.; Sander, M.; Stolte, A.; Doepke, C.; Baumgaertner, W.; Lubatschowski, H.

    2006-02-01

    Rapid development of new laser technologies enabled the application of ultra short lasers in refractive surgery. Focused ultra short laser pulses in near-infrared spectral range can generate a laser induced breakdown (LIB) in the cornea, which will disrupt the tissue. Cutting depth and position can be established by varying the laser focus. The fs-LASIK technique allows both flap and lenticule to be formed by using fs-pulses without the presence of any mechanical impact. During the cutting process not all of the pulse energy is deposited into the cornea; approximately half of the remaining energy propagates through the eye and reaches the retina. Though defocused, the transmitted energy can still induce damage to the retina due to absorption by the retinal pigment epithelium and the transfer of thermal energy to surrounding tissue. The fs-LASIK process was simulated with two laser systems; one continous-wave and one in the fs-regime. For the simulation the exposure time and focusing numerical aperature which defines the retinal spot size were varied. The Damage thresholds of the laser beam exposed eyes were determined in terms of ophthalmoscopic and histopathologic observations.

  1. Spatial Resolution Characterization for AWiFS Multispectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Stanley, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    Within the framework of the Joint Agency Commercial Imagery Evaluation program, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration, the National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency, and the U.S. Geological Survey cooperate in the characterization of high-to-moderate-resolution commercial imagery of mutual interest. One of the systems involved in this effort is the Advanced Wide Field Sensor (AWiFS) onboard the Indian Remote Sensing (IRS) Reourcesat-1 satellite, IRS-P6. Spatial resolution of the AWiFS multispectral images was characterized by estimating the value of the system Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) at the Nyquist spatial frequency. The Nyquist frequency is defined as half the sampling frequency, and the sampling frequency is equal to the inverse of the ground sample distance. The MTF was calculated as a ratio of the Fourier transform of a profile across an AWiFS image of the Lake Pontchartrain Causeway Bridge and the Fourier transform of a profile across an idealized model of the bridge for each spectral band evaluated. The mean MTF value for the AWiFS imagery evaluated was estimated to be 0.1.

  2. Spatial Resolution Characterization for AWiFS Multispectral Images

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blonski, Slawomir; Ryan, Robert E.; Pagnutti, Mary; Stanley, Thomas

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation describes the spatial resolution of the AWiFS multispectral images characterized by an estimation of the Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) at Nyquist frequency. The contents include: 1) MTF Analysis; 2) Target Analysis; 3) "Pulse Target"; 4) "Pulse" Method; 5) Target Images; 6) Bridge Profiles; 7) MTF Calculation; 8) MTF Results; and 9) Results Summary.

  3. View of Stehr Lake from FS 502 looking upstream (northeast). ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Stehr Lake from FS 502 looking upstream (northeast). Vehicle at right center is parked on earthen Upper Stehr Lake Dam. - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Stehr Lake & Dams, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  4. View of Flume Bridge #5 from FS 502 looking downstream ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    View of Flume Bridge #5 from FS 502 looking downstream (south). Bridge is on the left side of the photograph. This is similar to other flume bridges in the system and is the only photograph representing these features. - Childs-Irving Hydroelectric Project, Childs System, Flume Bridge No. 5, Forest Service Road 708/502, Camp Verde, Yavapai County, AZ

  5. Variegation of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko in regions showing activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.-B.; Fornasier, S.; Pajola, M.; Besse, S.; Davidsson, B. J. R.; Lara, L. M.; Mottola, S.; Naletto, G.; Sierks, H.; Barucci, A. M.; Scholten, F.; Preusker, F.; Pommerol, A.; Masoumzadeh, N.; Lazzarin, M.; Barbieri, C.; Lamy, P. L.; Rodrigo, R.; Koschny, D.; Rickman, H.; A'Hearn, M. F.; Bertaux, J.-L.; Bertini, I.; Bodewits, D.; Cremonese, G.; Da Deppo, V.; Debei, S.; De Cecco, M.; Fulle, M.; Groussin, O.; Gutiérrez, P. J.; Güttler, C.; Hall, I.; Hofmann, M.; Hviid, S. F.; Ip, W.-H.; Jorda, L.; Keller, H. U.; Knollenberg, J.; Kovacs, G.; Kramm, J.-R.; Kührt, E.; Küppers, M.; Lin, Z.-Y.; Lopez Moreno, J. J.; Marzari, F.; Moreno, F.; Shi, X.; Thomas, N.; Toth, I.; Tubiana, C.

    2016-02-01

    Aims.We carried out an investigation of the surface variegation of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, the detection of regions showing activity, the determination of active and inactive surface regions of the comet with spectral methods, and the detection of fallback material. Methods: We analyzed multispectral data generated with Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System (OSIRIS) narrow angle camera (NAC) observations via spectral techniques, reflectance ratios, and spectral slopes in order to study active regions. We applied clustering analysis to the results of the reflectance ratios, and introduced the new technique of activity thresholds to detect areas potentially enriched in volatiles. Results: Local color inhomogeneities are detected over the investigated surface regions. Active regions, such as Hapi, the active pits of Seth and Ma'at, the clustered and isolated bright features in Imhotep, the alcoves in Seth and Ma'at, and the large alcove in Anuket, have bluer spectra than the overall surface. The spectra generated with OSIRIS NAC observations are dominated by cometary emissions of around 700 nm to 750 nm as a result of the coma between the comet's surface and the camera. One of the two isolated bright features in the Imhotep region displays an absorption band of around 700 nm, which probably indicates the existence of hydrated silicates. An absorption band with a center between 800-900 nm is tentatively observed in some regions of the nucleus surface. This absorption band can be explained by the crystal field absorption of Fe2+, which is a common spectral feature seen in silicates.

  6. Minifilament Eruptions that Drive Coronal Jets in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David; Panesar, Navdeep; Akiyama, Sachiko; Yashiro, Seiji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2016-05-01

    Solar coronal jets are common in both coronal holes and in active regions. Recently, Sterling et al. (2015), using data from Hinode/XRT and SDO/AIA, found that coronal jets originating in polar coronal holes result from the eruption of small-scale filaments (minifilaments). The jet bright point (JBP) seen in X-rays and hotter EUV channels off to one side of the base of the jet's spire develops at the location where the minifilament erupts, consistent with the JBPs being miniature versions of typical solar flares that occur in the wake of large-scale filament eruptions. Here we consider whether active region coronal jets also result from the same minifilament-eruption mechanism, or whether they instead result from a different mechanism, such as the hitherto popular ``emerging flux'' model for jets. We present observations of an on-disk active region that produced numerous jets on 2012 June 30, using data from SDO/AIA and HMI, and from GOES/SXI. We find that several of these active region jets also originate with eruptions of miniature filaments (size scale ~20'') emanating from small-scale magnetic neutral lines of the region. This demonstrates that active region coronal jets are indeed frequently driven by minifilament eruptions. Other jets from the active region were also consistent with their drivers being minifilament eruptions, but we could not confirm this because the onsets of those jets were hidden from our view. This work was supported by funding from NASA/LWS, NASA/HGI, and Hinode.

  7. Analysis of Seismic Activity of the last 15 Years Nearby Puerto Rico and Caribbean Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huerta-Lopez, C. I.; Torres-Ortíz, D. M.; Fernández-Heredia, A. I.; Martínez-Cruzado, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    An earthquake catalog of the seismicity occurred during the last 15 years in the Caribbean region, nearby the vicinity of Puerto Rico Island (PRI) was compiled in order to capture the big picture of the regional seismic activity ratio and in particular at the epicentral regions of several historical and instrumentally recorded (during 2008-20015) large to moderate magnitude earthquakes occurred nearby PRI in onshore and offshore, which include the M6.4 earthquake of 01/13/2014, the largest earthquake recorded instrumentally nearby PRI. From the point of view of joint temporal-spatial distribution of epicenters, episodic temporal-spatial seismic activity is clearly seen as temporal-spatial concentrations during certain time intervals in different regions. These localized concentrations of epicenters that occur during certain time intervals in well localized/concentrated regions may suggest "seismic gaps" that shows no regular time interval, neither spatial pattern. In the epicentral region of the M6.4 01/13/2014 earthquake and the historical Mona Passage M7.5 earthquake of 10/11/1918, episodic concentrations in time and space of small magnitude earthquakes epicenters is evident, however do not show temporal pattern. Preliminary results of statistical analysis of an ongoing research in terms of the parameter b (Gutenberg-Richter relationship), and the Omori's law with the aim to relate the tectonic framework of the region (or sub-regions) such as structural heterogeneity stress are here presented/discussed.

  8. The study of a spatial relationship between the Equatorial coronal hole and the Active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karna, Mahendra; Karna, Nishu

    2016-05-01

    The 11-year solar cycle is characterized by the periodic change in the solar activity like sunspot numbers, coronal holes, active regions, eruptions such as flares and coronal mass ejections. We study the relationship between equatorial coronal holes (ECH) and the active regions (AR) as coronal hole positions and sizes change with the solar cycle. We made a detailed study for two solar maximum: Solar Cycle 23 (1999, 2000, 2001 and 2002) and Solar Cycle 24 (2011, 2012 and 2013). We used publically available Heliophysics Feature Catalogue and NOAA Solar Geophysical data for. Moreover, we used daily Solar Region Summary (SRS) data from SWPC/NOAA website. We examined the position of ECH and AR and noted that during a maximum of 23, the majority of ECH were not near active regions. However, in cycle 24 coronal holes and equatorial holes were more close to each other. Moreover, we noticed the asymmetry in AR migrations towards the lower latitude in both Northern and Southern hemisphere in cycle 23. While, no such notable asymmetrical behavior was observed in a maximum of cycle 24. Our goal is to extend the study with cycle 21 and 22 and examine the correlation between equatorial holes, the active regions, and the flares. This combined study will shed light in determining the distribution of flares.

  9. Evidence for Widespread Cooling in an Active Region Observed with the SDO Atmospheric Imaging Assembly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Viall, Nicholeen M.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    A well known behavior of EUV light curves of discrete coronal loops is that the peak intensities of cooler channels or spectral lines are reached at progressively later times. This time lag is understood to be the result of hot coronal loop plasma cooling through these lower respective temperatures. However, loops typically comprise only a minority of the total emission in active regions. Is this cooling pattern a common property of active region coronal plasma, or does it only occur in unique circumstances, locations, and times? The new SDO/AIA data provide a wonderful opportunity to answer this question systematically for an entire active region. We measure the time lag between pairs of SDO/AIA EUV channels using 24 hours of images of AR 11082 observed on 19 June 2010. We find that there is a time-lag signal consistent with cooling plasma, just as is usually found for loops, throughout the active region including the diffuse emission between loops for the entire 24 hour duration. The pattern persists consistently for all channel pairs and choice of window length within the 24 hour time period, giving us confidence that the plasma is cooling from temperatures of greater than 3 MK, and sometimes exceeding 7 MK, down to temperatures lower than approx. 0.8 MK. This suggests that the bulk of the emitting coronal plasma in this active region is not steady; rather, it is dynamic and constantly evolving. These measurements provide crucial constraints on any model which seeks to describe coronal heating.

  10. Different Modes of Turbulence in the Active Regions of the Solar Photosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozak, L. V.; Kostik, R. I.; Cheremnykh, O. K.

    In work the range of different methods for the analysis of characteristics of turbulent processes in the active regions of the solar photosphere has been used. The changes of fluctuations distribution function and its moments were analyzed, spectral analysis was carried out.It was found out from the observations of active region carried out with the 70-cm vacuum tower telescope VTT in Isanie (Tenerife Island, Spain) that the turbulent processes in the sun photosphere are characterized by two different spectra of turbulence. The first one of them is well known Kolmohorov spectrum, which describes the plasma with zero mean magnetic field. The second one is the Kraichnan spectrum with a different from zero mean magnetic field. Transition from one spectrum type to another one occurs at scale of 3 Mm.We have to note that the scale 3 Mm corresponds to one of mesogranulation and testifies about non-zero mean magnetic fields for the consideration of regions exceeding the granulation in active regions of the photosphere. Besides, this clears the possibility of appearance of selforganizing magnetic plasma structures such as spots, active regions and complexes of activity.

  11. Spontaneous regional brain activity links restrained eating to later weight gain among young women.

    PubMed

    Dong, Debo; Jackson, Todd; Wang, Yulin; Chen, Hong

    2015-07-01

    Theory and prospective studies have linked restrained eating (RE) to risk for future weight gain and the onset of obesity, but little is known about resting state neural activity that may underlie this association. To address this gap, resting fMRI was used to test the extent to which spontaneous neural activity in regions associated with inhibitory control and food reward account for potential relations between baseline RE levels and changes in body weight among dieters over a one-year interval. Spontaneous regional activity patterns corresponding to RE were assessed among 50 young women using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which measured temporal synchronization of spontaneous fluctuations within a food deprivation condition. Analyses indicated higher baseline RE scores predicted more weight gain at a one-year follow-up. Furthermore, food-deprived dieting women with high dietary restraint scores exhibited more spontaneous local activity in brain regions associated with the expectation and valuation for food reward [i.e., orbitofrontal cortex (OFC)/ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC)] and reduced spontaneous local activity in inhibitory control regions [i.e., bilateral dorsal-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC)] at baseline. Notably, the association between baseline RE and follow-up weight gain was mediated by decreased local synchronization of the right DLPFC in particular and, to a lesser degree, increased local synchronization of the right VMPFC. In conjunction with previous research, these findings highlight possible neural mechanisms underlying the relation between RE and risk for weight gain. PMID:26004091

  12. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 7; The Fifth Sea-WiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-5), July 1996

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Johnson, B. Carol; Yoon, Howard W.; Bruce, Sally S.; Shaw, Ping-Shine; Thompson, Ambler; Hooker, Stanford B.; Barnes, Robert A.; Eplee, Robert E., Jr.; Maritorena, Stephane; Mueller, James L.

    1999-01-01

    This report documents the fifth Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiment (SIRREX-5), which was held at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) on 23-30 July 1996. The agenda for SIRREX-5 was established based on recommendations made during SIRREX-4. For the first time in a SIRREX activity, instrument intercomparisons were performed at field sites, which were near NIST. The goals of SIRREX-5 were to continue the emphasis on training and the implementation of standard measurement practices, investigate the calibration methods and measurement chains in use by the oceanographic community, provide opportunities for discussion, and intercompare selected instruments. As at SIRREX-4, the day was divided between morning lectures and afternoon laboratory exercises. A set of core laboratory sessions were performed: 1) in-water radiant flux measurements; 2) in-air radiant flux measurements; 3) spectral radiance responsivity measurements using the plaque method; 4) device calibration or stability monitoring with portable field sources; and 5) various ancillary exercises designed to illustrate radiometric concepts. Before, during, and after SIRREX-5, NIST calibrated the SIRREX-5 participating radiometers for radiance and irradiance responsivity. The Facility for Automated Spectroradiometric Calibrations (FASCAL) was scheduled for spectral irradiance calibrations for standard lamps during SIRREX-5. Three lamps from the SeaWiFS community were submitted and two were calibrated.

  13. Preliminary fsLIBS study on bone tumors.

    PubMed

    Gill, Ruby K; Smith, Zachary J; Panchal, Ripul R; Bishop, John W; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the capability of femtosecond Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (fsLIBS) to discriminate between normal and cancerous bone, with implications to femtosecond laser surgery procedures. The main advantage of using femtosecond lasers for surgery is that the same laser that is being used to ablate can also be used for a feedback system to prevent ablation of certain tissues. For bone tumor removal, this technique has the potential to reduce the number of repeat surgeries that currently must be performed due to incomplete removal of the tumor mass. In this paper, we performed fsLIBS on primary bone tumor, secondary tumor in bone, and normal bone. These tissues were excised from consenting patients and processed through the UC Davis Cancer Center Biorepository. For comparison, each tumor sample had a matched normal bone sample. fsLIBS was performed to characterize the spectral signatures of each tissue type. A minimum of 20 spectra were acquired for each sample. We did not detect significant differences between the fsLIBS spectra of secondary bone tumors and their matched normal bone samples, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of secondary bone tumors, with normal and cancerous tissue intermingling. However, we did observe an increase in the fsLIBS magnesium peak intensity relative to the calcium peak intensity for the primary bone tumor samples compared to the normal bone samples. These results show the potential of using femtosecond lasers for both ablation and a real-time feedback control system for treatment of primary bone tumors. PMID:26713199

  14. PCDD/Fs' suppression by sulfur-amine/ammonium compounds.

    PubMed

    Fu, Jian-Ying; Li, Xiao-Dong; Chen, Tong; Lin, Xiao-Qing; Buekens, Alfons; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Yan, Jian-Hua; Cen, Ke-Fa

    2015-03-01

    Three distinct -S and -NH2 or NH4(+) containing compounds, including ammonium thiosulfate, aminosulfonic acid and thiourea, were studied as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) inhibitors. All these three -S and -N containing compounds tested show strong suppression of PCDD/Fs formation, especially for thiourea which has not been studied before. With a (S+N)/Cl molar ratio of only 0.47, thiourea could inhibit 97.3% of PCDD/Fs and even 99.8% of I-TEQ. At an unusually high de novo test temperature (650 °C), the PCDD/Fs' formation was still very low but also the inhibition capacity of thiourea was weak, with an efficiency of 59% for PCDD/Fs when with a (S+N)/Cl molar ratio of 1.40. The results also revealed that the inhibition capability of the combined -S/-NH2 or -S/NH4(+) suppressant was strongly influenced by both the nature of the functional group of nitrogen and the value of the molar ratio (S+N)/Cl. The amine functional group -NH2 tends to be more efficient than ammonium NH4(+) and within a certain range a higher (S+N)/Cl value leads to a higher inhibition efficiency. Moreover, the emission of gases was continuously monitored: the Gasmet results revealed that SO2, HCN and NH3 were the most important decomposition products of thiourea. Thiourea is non-toxic, environment-friendly and can be sprayed into the post-combustion zone in form of powder or aqueous solution. The cost of thiourea at least can be partially compensated by its high inhibition efficiency. Therefore, the application of thiourea in a full-scale incinerator system is promising and encouraging. PMID:25481352

  15. Preliminary fsLIBS study on bone tumors

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Ruby K.; Smith, Zachary J.; Panchal, Ripul R.; Bishop, John W.; Gandour-Edwards, Regina; Wachsmann-Hogiu, Sebastian

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the capability of femtosecond Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (fsLIBS) to discriminate between normal and cancerous bone, with implications to femtosecond laser surgery procedures. The main advantage of using femtosecond lasers for surgery is that the same laser that is being used to ablate can also be used for a feedback system to prevent ablation of certain tissues. For bone tumor removal, this technique has the potential to reduce the number of repeat surgeries that currently must be performed due to incomplete removal of the tumor mass. In this paper, we performed fsLIBS on primary bone tumor, secondary tumor in bone, and normal bone. These tissues were excised from consenting patients and processed through the UC Davis Cancer Center Biorepository. For comparison, each tumor sample had a matched normal bone sample. fsLIBS was performed to characterize the spectral signatures of each tissue type. A minimum of 20 spectra were acquired for each sample. We did not detect significant differences between the fsLIBS spectra of secondary bone tumors and their matched normal bone samples, likely due to the heterogeneous nature of secondary bone tumors, with normal and cancerous tissue intermingling. However, we did observe an increase in the fsLIBS magnesium peak intensity relative to the calcium peak intensity for the primary bone tumor samples compared to the normal bone samples. These results show the potential of using femtosecond lasers for both ablation and a real-time feedback control system for treatment of primary bone tumors. PMID:26713199

  16. Development and application of a novel method for high-throughput determination of PCDD/Fs and PCBs in sediments.

    PubMed

    Aguilar, Lissette; Williams, E Spencer; Brooks, Bryan W; Usenko, Sascha

    2014-07-01

    A selective pressurized liquid extraction technique was developed for the simultaneous extraction of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs) from contaminated sediments. The final method incorporated cleanup adsorbents (Florisil, alumina, and silica) into the extraction cell in a 1:1 ratio of matrix to individual adsorbent (w/w). Sulfur, a common interference found in sediments, was successfully removed by placing activated copper in the extraction bottle prior to extraction. No additional postextraction cleanup was required, and sample throughput was reduced to 2.5 h per sample. Target analytes were quantified using high-resolution gas chromatography/electron-capture negative ionization mass spectrometry and verified by high-resolution gas chromatography/high-resolution mass spectrometry. Though mean analyte recoveries (n = 3) of PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were 84 ± 5.8% and 70 ± 8.4%, respectively, mean surrogate recoveries for all PCDD/Fs using this novel method were greatly improved compared with US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) method 1613 (∼25-155%) and USEPA method 8290a (40-135%). After development, the method was used to examine surficial sediment samples from the San Jacinto River waste pits, a Superfund site in Houston, Texas, USA. In all samples, PCDD/Fs and dl-PCBs were detected, and the contaminant concentrations ranged over 5 orders of magnitude. PMID:24648260

  17. Seasonal forecasting of lightning and thunderstorm activity in tropical and temperate regions of the world

    PubMed Central

    Dowdy, Andrew J.

    2016-01-01

    Thunderstorms are convective systems characterised by the occurrence of lightning. Lightning and thunderstorm activity has been increasingly studied in recent years in relation to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and various other large-scale modes of atmospheric and oceanic variability. Large-scale modes of variability can sometimes be predictable several months in advance, suggesting potential for seasonal forecasting of lightning and thunderstorm activity in various regions throughout the world. To investigate this possibility, seasonal lightning activity in the world’s tropical and temperate regions is examined here in relation to numerous different large-scale modes of variability. Of the seven modes of variability examined, ENSO has the strongest relationship with lightning activity during each individual season, with relatively little relationship for the other modes of variability. A measure of ENSO variability (the NINO3.4 index) is significantly correlated to local lightning activity at 53% of locations for one or more seasons throughout the year. Variations in atmospheric parameters commonly associated with thunderstorm activity are found to provide a plausible physical explanation for the variations in lightning activity associated with ENSO. It is demonstrated that there is potential for accurately predicting lightning and thunderstorm activity several months in advance in various regions throughout the world. PMID:26865431

  18. Seasonal forecasting of lightning and thunderstorm activity in tropical and temperate regions of the world

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dowdy, Andrew J.

    2016-02-01

    Thunderstorms are convective systems characterised by the occurrence of lightning. Lightning and thunderstorm activity has been increasingly studied in recent years in relation to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and various other large-scale modes of atmospheric and oceanic variability. Large-scale modes of variability can sometimes be predictable several months in advance, suggesting potential for seasonal forecasting of lightning and thunderstorm activity in various regions throughout the world. To investigate this possibility, seasonal lightning activity in the world’s tropical and temperate regions is examined here in relation to numerous different large-scale modes of variability. Of the seven modes of variability examined, ENSO has the strongest relationship with lightning activity during each individual season, with relatively little relationship for the other modes of variability. A measure of ENSO variability (the NINO3.4 index) is significantly correlated to local lightning activity at 53% of locations for one or more seasons throughout the year. Variations in atmospheric parameters commonly associated with thunderstorm activity are found to provide a plausible physical explanation for the variations in lightning activity associated with ENSO. It is demonstrated that there is potential for accurately predicting lightning and thunderstorm activity several months in advance in various regions throughout the world.

  19. Divalent cations activate TRPV1 through promoting conformational change of the extracellular region

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Fan; Ma, Linlin; Cao, Xu

    2014-01-01

    Divalent cations Mg2+ and Ba2+ selectively and directly potentiate transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 heat activation by lowering the activation threshold into the room temperature range. We found that Mg2+ potentiates channel activation only from the extracellular side; on the intracellular side, Mg2+ inhibits channel current. By dividing the extracellularly accessible region of the channel protein into small segments and perturbing the structure of each segment with sequence replacement mutations, we observed that the S1–S2 linker, the S3–S4 linker, and the pore turret are all required for Mg2+ potentiation. Sequence replacements at these regions substantially reduced or eliminated Mg2+-induced activation at room temperature while sparing capsaicin activation. Heat activation was affected by many, but not all, of these structural alternations. These observations indicate that extracellular linkers and the turret may interact with each other. Site-directed fluorescence resonance energy transfer measurements further revealed that, like heat, Mg2+ also induces structural changes in the pore turret. Interestingly, turret movement induced by Mg2+ precedes channel activation, suggesting that Mg2+-induced conformational change in the extracellular region most likely serves as the cause of channel activation instead of a coincidental or accommodating structural adjustment. PMID:24344245

  20. Seasonal forecasting of lightning and thunderstorm activity in tropical and temperate regions of the world.

    PubMed

    Dowdy, Andrew J

    2016-01-01

    Thunderstorms are convective systems characterised by the occurrence of lightning. Lightning and thunderstorm activity has been increasingly studied in recent years in relation to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation (ENSO) and various other large-scale modes of atmospheric and oceanic variability. Large-scale modes of variability can sometimes be predictable several months in advance, suggesting potential for seasonal forecasting of lightning and thunderstorm activity in various regions throughout the world. To investigate this possibility, seasonal lightning activity in the world's tropical and temperate regions is examined here in relation to numerous different large-scale modes of variability. Of the seven modes of variability examined, ENSO has the strongest relationship with lightning activity during each individual season, with relatively little relationship for the other modes of variability. A measure of ENSO variability (the NINO3.4 index) is significantly correlated to local lightning activity at 53% of locations for one or more seasons throughout the year. Variations in atmospheric parameters commonly associated with thunderstorm activity are found to provide a plausible physical explanation for the variations in lightning activity associated with ENSO. It is demonstrated that there is potential for accurately predicting lightning and thunderstorm activity several months in advance in various regions throughout the world. PMID:26865431

  1. Plasma outflows at the border of active regions and the solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuevo, F. A.; Mandrini, C. H.; Vásquez, A. M.; Deumoulin, P.; Van Driel-Gesztely, L.; Baker, D.; Cristiani, G. D.; Pick, M.; Culhane, J. L.

    We present a detailed topological analysis of active region (AR) 10978; based on a Potential Field Source Surface (PFSS) model. AR 10978 is a standard bipolar region which appears fully covered by the magnetic field lines of a coronal streamer. Despite this simple magnetic configuration; our analysis shows that it is possible for the AR plasma; contained in the outflows observed at the AR borders; to be released into the solar wind via magnetic reconnection.

  2. A statistical study of the subsurface structure and eruptivity of solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, C.-H.

    2014-08-01

    A statistical study of 77 solar active regions (ARs) is conducted to investigate the existence of identifiable correlations between the subsurface structural disturbances and the activity level of the active regions. The disturbances examined in this study are <| δΓ 1/ Γ 1|>, <| δc 2/ c 2|>, and <| δc 2/ c 2- δΓ 1/ Γ 1|>, where Γ 1 and c are the thermodynamic properties of first adiabatic index and sound speed modified by magnetic field, respectively. The averages are over three depth layers: 0.975-0.98 R ⊙, 0.98-0.99 R ⊙ and 0.99-0.995 R ⊙ to represent the structural disturbances in that layer. The level of the surface magnetic activity is measured by the Magnetic Activity Index (MAI) of active region and the relative and absolute MAI differences (rdMAI and dMAI) between the active and quiet regions. The eruptivity of each active region is quantified by its Flare Index, total number of coronal mass ejections (CMEs), and total kinetic energy of the CMEs. The existence and level of the correlations are evaluated by scatter plots and correlation coefficients. No definitive correlation can be claimed from the results. While a weak positive trend is visible between dMAI and <| δΓ 1/ Γ 1|> and <| δc 2/ c 2|> in the layer 0.975-0.98 R ⊙, their correlation levels, being approximately 0.6, are not sufficiently high to justify the correlation. Some subsurface disturbances are seen to increase with eruptivity indices among ARs with high eruptivity. The statistical significance of such trend, however, cannot be ascertained due to the small number of very eruptive ARs in our sample.

  3. Detailed correlation of type III radio bursts with H alpha activity. I - Active region of 22 May 1970.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuiper, T. B. H.; Pasachoff, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    Comparison of observations of type III impulsive radio bursts made at the Clark Lake Radio Observatory with high-spatial-resolution cinematographic observations taken at the Big Bear Solar Observatory. Use of the log-periodic radio interferometer makes it possible to localize the radio emission uniquely. This study concentrates on the particularly active region close to the limb on May 22, 1970. Sixteen of the 17 groups were associated with some H alpha activity, 11 of them with the start of such activity.

  4. Using Magnetic Helicity Diagnostics to Determine the Nature of Solar Active-Region Formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulis, Manolis K.

    Employing a novel nonlinear force-free (NLFF) method that self-consistently infers instantaneous free magnetic-energy and relative magnetic-helicity budgets from single photospheric vector magnetograms, we recently constructed the magnetic energy-helicity (EH) diagram of solar active regions. The EH diagram implies dominant relative helicities of left-handed or right-handed chiralities for the great majority of active regions. The amplitude (budget) of these helicities scales monotonically with the free magnetic energy. This constructive, strongly preferential accumulation of a certain sense of magnetic helicity seems to disqualify recently proposed mechanisms relying on a largely random near-surface convection for the formation of the great majority of active regions. The existing qualitative formation mechanism for these regions remains the conventional Omega-loop emergence following a buoyant ascension from the bottom of the convection zone. However, exceptions to this rule include even eruptive active regions: NOAA AR 11283 is an obvious outlier to the EH diagram, involving significant free magnetic energy with a small relative magnetic helicity. Relying on a timeseries of vector magnetograms of this region, our methodology shows nearly canceling amounts of both senses of helicity and an overall course from a weakly left-handed to a weakly right-handed structure, in the course of which a major eruption occurs. For this and similarly behaving active regions the latest near-surface formation scenario might conceivably be employed successfully. Research partially supported by the EU Seventh Framework Programme under grant agreement No. PIRG07-GA-2010-268245 and by the European Union Social Fund (ESF) and Greek national funds through the Operational Program "Education and Lifelong Learning" of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF) - Research Funding Program: Thales. Investing in knowledge society through the European Social Fund.

  5. Anemone structure of Active Region NOAA 10798 and related geo-effective flares/ CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, A.; Ishii, T. T.; Shibata, K.; Gopalswamy, N.

    2006-08-01

    Introduction: We report the evolution and the coronal features of an active region NOAA 10798, and the related magnetic storms. Method: We examined in detail the photospheric and coronal features of the active region by using observational data in soft X-rays, in extreme ultraviolet images, and in magnetogram obtained with GOES, SOHO satellites. We also examined the interplanetary disturbances from the ACE data. Results: This active region was located in the middle of a small coronal hole, and generated 3 M-class flares. The flares are associated with high speed CMEs up to 2000 km/s. The interplanetary disturbances also show a structure with southward strong magnetic field. These produced a magnetic storm on 2005 August 24. Conclusions: The anemone structure may play a role for producing the high-speed and geo-effective CMEs even the near limb locations.

  6. Calculating Non-Potentiality in Solar Active Regions Using SDO/HMI Vector Magnetic Field Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bobra, M.; Hoeksema, J. T.

    2010-12-01

    Non-potential magnetic fields in solar active regions are thought to be associated with flare occurrence. In this study, we parametrize the non-potentiality of several active regions, using data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO), and correlate these parameters with flare occurrence. In particular, we focus on a parameter that we call the Gradient-Weighted Inversion Line Length (GWILL). Using data from SOHO/MDI, Mason et al. found that GWILL generally tends to increase before a solar flare. We investigate whether extending the analysis of Mason et. al. to a three-dimensional field enables us to derive better near real-time indicators of flare occurrence. Before HMI, the availability of vector magnetograms was sparse at best. HMI provides continuous vector magnetogram data at a 12-minute cadence. As such, this study represents the first parametrization of non-potentiality in solar active regions using continuous vector magnetic field data.

  7. SeaWiFS Technical Report Series. Volume 43; SeaWiFS Prelaunch Technical Report Series Final Cumulative Index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Hooker, Stanford B.

    1998-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) is the follow-on ocean color instrument to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operations in 1986, after an eight-year mission. SeaWiFS was launched on 1 August 1997, on the SeaStar satellite, built by Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC). The SeaWiFS Project at the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC), undertook the responsibility of documenting all aspects of this mission, which is critical to the ocean color and marine science communities. This documentation, entitled the SeaWiFS Technical Report Series, is in the form of NASA Technical Memorandum Number 104566 and 1998-104566. All reports published are volumes within the series. This particular volume, which is the last of the so-called Prelaunch Series serves as a reference, or guidebook, to the previous 42 volumes and consists of 6 sections including: an addenda, an errata, an index to key words and phrases, lists of acronyms and symbols used, and a list of all references cited. The editors have published a cumulative index of this type after every five volumes. Each index covers the reference topics published in all previous editions, that is, each new index includes all of the information contained in the preceding indexes with the exception of any addenda.

  8. Light Bridge in a Developing Active Region. I. Observation of Light Bridge and its Dynamic Activity Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toriumi, Shin; Katsukawa, Yukio; Cheung, Mark C. M.

    2015-10-01

    Light bridges, the bright structures that divide the umbra of sunspots and pores into smaller pieces, are known to produce a wide variety of activity events in solar active regions (ARs). It is also known that the light bridges appear in the assembling process of nascent sunspots. The ultimate goal of this series of papers is to reveal the nature of light bridges in developing ARs and the occurrence of activity events associated with the light bridge structures from both observational and numerical approaches. In this first paper, exploiting the observational data obtained by Hinode, the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph, and the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we investigate the detailed structure of the light bridge in NOAA AR 11974 and its dynamic activity phenomena. As a result, we find that the light bridge has a weak, horizontal magnetic field, which is transported from the interior by a large-scale convective upflow and is surrounded by strong, vertical fields of adjacent pores. In the chromosphere above the bridge, a transient brightening occurs repeatedly and intermittently, followed by a recurrent dark surge ejection into higher altitudes. Our analysis indicates that the brightening is the plasma heating due to magnetic reconnection at lower altitudes, while the dark surge is the cool, dense plasma ejected from the reconnection region. From the observational results, we conclude that the dynamic activity observed in a light bridge structure such as chromospheric brightenings and dark surge ejections are driven by magnetoconvective evolution within the light bridge and its interaction with the surrounding magnetic fields.

  9. Signatures of Slow Solar Wind Streams from Active Regions in the Inner Corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Slemzin, V.; Harra, L.; Urnov, A.; Kuzin, S.; Goryaev, F.; Berghmans, D.

    2013-08-01

    The identification of solar-wind sources is an important question in solar physics. The existing solar-wind models ( e.g., the Wang-Sheeley-Arge model) provide the approximate locations of the solar wind sources based on magnetic field extrapolations. It has been suggested recently that plasma outflows observed at the edges of active regions may be a source of the slow solar wind. To explore this we analyze an isolated active region (AR) adjacent to small coronal hole (CH) in July/August 2009. On 1 August, Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer observations showed two compact outflow regions in the corona. Coronal rays were observed above the active-region coronal hole (ARCH) region on the eastern limb on 31 July by STEREO-A/EUVI and at the western limb on 7 August by CORONAS- Photon/TESIS telescopes. In both cases the coronal rays were co-aligned with open magnetic-field lines given by the potential field source surface model, which expanded into the streamer. The solar-wind parameters measured by STEREO-B, ACE, Wind, and STEREO-A confirmed the identification of the ARCH as a source region of the slow solar wind. The results of the study support the suggestion that coronal rays can represent signatures of outflows from ARs propagating in the inner corona along open field lines into the heliosphere.

  10. Warrego Valles and Other Candidate Sites of Local Hydrothermal Activity Within The Thaumasia Region, Mars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dohm, J. M.; Tanaka, K. L.; Lias, J. H.; Hare, T. M.; Anderson, R. C.; Gulick, V. C.

    1998-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated for the Thaumasia region of Mars that: (1) valley formation peaked during the Noachian and declined substantially during the Hesperian and Amazonian Periods and (2) valleys, many of which form networking systems, largely occur near volcanoes, highly faulted terrains, and large impact craters of similar age, thus suggesting hydrothermal activity. In Tanaka et al, the various hypotheses for valley formation on Mars are presented, and a geologic explanation for valley erosion in the Thaumasia region is given that "best fits" the region's geographic and geologic datasets. That comprehensive GIS-based investigation suggests that hydrothermal and seismic activity were the primary causes of valley formation in the Thaumasia region; the data make widespread precipitation less likely as a major factor in valley formation, except perhaps during the Early Noachian, for which much of the geologic record has been destroyed. Based on the reconstruction of the stratigraphic, tectonic, volcanic, and erosional histories and the close association of valleys in time and space with Noachian to Early Hesperian volcanoes and rift systems and Hesperian to Early Amazonian impact craters less than 50 km in diameter, we propose 13 sites of hydrothermal activity within the Thaumasia region; these are the best examples of valleys associated with these geologic features, but there are other less pronounced correlations elsewhere in the region.

  11. Associations of season and region on objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour.

    PubMed

    Hagströmer, Maria; Rizzo, Nico S; Sjöström, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Seasonal and regional variation may influence physical activity (PA) patterns. These associations are in need of further investigation. The objective of the current study was to examine the association of season and region on objectively measured PA. The study was designed as a cross-sectional study with 1172 participants living in Sweden. Data on PA were collected throughout a calendar year using accelerometry. Regions were categorised as south (Götaland), central (Svealand) and north (Norrland). Outcome variables included accelerometer-measured mean counts per minute, sedentary time and time in low intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity (MVPA) or greater. ANCOVA was used to determine the associations of season and region with PA, adjusting for sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and education. The results showed that during the Spring season more time was spent in MVPA than during the Autumn. For participants living in the south of Sweden, a significant trend for season was found for MVPA, with Spring having the highest MVPA (P = 0.025). Season had a borderline significant association with MVPA or higher intensity activities (P = 0.051). No significant effects of region or season on total PA, low-intensity PA and sedentary periods of time were observed. The results indicate that studies conducted in a population living in high latitudes, may not be significantly affected by seasonality or region when assessing PA. PMID:24102558

  12. ON THE STRENGTH OF THE HEMISPHERIC RULE AND THE ORIGIN OF ACTIVE-REGION HELICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.-M.

    2013-10-01

    Vector magnetograph and morphological observations have shown that the solar magnetic field tends to have negative (positive) helicity in the northern (southern) hemisphere, although only ∼60%-70% of active regions appear to obey this 'hemispheric rule'. In contrast, at least ∼80% of quiescent filaments and filament channels that form during the decay of active regions follow the rule. We attribute this discrepancy to the difficulty in determining the helicity sign of newly emerged active regions, which are dominated by their current-free component; as the transverse field is canceled at the polarity inversion lines, however, the axial component becomes dominant there, allowing a more reliable determination of the original active-region chirality. We thus deduce that the hemispheric rule is far stronger than generally assumed, and cannot be explained by stochastic processes. Earlier studies have shown that the twist associated with the axial tilt of active regions is too small to account for the observed helicity; here, both tilt and twist are induced by the Coriolis force acting on the diverging flow in the emerging flux tube. However, in addition to this east-west expansion about the apex of the loop, each of its legs must expand continually in cross section during its rise through the convection zone, thereby acquiring a further twist through the Coriolis force. Since this transverse pressure effect is not limited by drag or tension forces, the final twist depends mainly on the rise time, and may be large enough to explain the observed active-region helicity.

  13. Determining the solar wind speed above active regions using remote radio-wave observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fainberg, J.; Stone, R. G.; Bougeret, J.-L.

    1983-01-01

    A new technique has made it possible to measure the velocity of portions of the solar wind during its flow outward from the sun. This analysis utilizes spacecraft (ISEE-3) observations of radio emission generated in regions of the solar wind associated with solar active regions. By tracking the source of these radio waves over periods of days, it is possible to measure the motion of the emission regions. Evidence of solar wind acceleration during this outward flow, consistent with theoretical models, has also been obtained.

  14. Videomagnetograph studies of solar magnetic fields. II - Field changes in an active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schoolman, S. A.

    1973-01-01

    Using the Caltech videomagnetograph, we obtained a 6.5-hr movie of the magnetic fields in a young active region. The major contribution to the short term magnetic evolution of the region was provided by many discrete magnetic points which move in apparently random directions with typical velocities of 0.4 - 1.0 km/sec. The majority of these features appear to be footpoints of new EFR's, which emerge at an observed rate of one to two per hour. The pattern of the motions suggests that the magnetic evolution of a growing region cannot be principally due to photospheric convective cells.

  15. Doppler shift of hot coronal lines in a moss area of an active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadashi, N.; Teriaca, L.; Tripathi, D.; Solanki, S. K.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2012-12-01

    The moss is the area at the footpoint of the hot (3 to 5 MK) loops forming the core of the active region where emission is believed to result from the heat flux conducted down to the transition region from the hot loops. Studying the variation of Doppler shift as a function of line formation temperatures over the moss area can give clues on the heating mechanism in the hot loops in the core of the active regions. We investigate the absolute Doppler shift of lines formed at temperatures between 1 MK and 2 MK in a moss area within active region NOAA 11243 using a novel technique that allows determining the absolute Doppler shift of EUV lines by combining observations from the SUMER and EIS spectrometers. The inner (brighter and denser) part of the moss area shows roughly constant blue shift (upward motions) of 5 km s-1 in the temperature range of 1 MK to 1.6 MK. For hotter lines the blue shift decreases and reaches 1 km s-1 for Fe xv 284 Å (~2 MK). The measurements are discussed in relation to models of the heating of hot loops. The results for the hot coronal lines seem to support the quasi-steady heating models for nonsymmetric hot loops in the core of active regions.

  16. Space charge effects on the active region of a planar organic photodetector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Agostinelli, T.; Caironi, M.; Natali, D.; Sampietro, M.; Biagioni, P.; Finazzi, M.; Duò, L.

    2007-06-01

    Planar organic photodetectors represent a simple, cheap, and versatile alternative to devices built in sandwich configuration. The nonuniform electric field distribution in these structures has significant consequences on the extent of the device active region, because photogeneration of free carriers in organic semiconductors is a field-assisted phenomenon. By means of microscopy mapping of the photocurrent in a poly(p-phenylene vinylene) based planar device, we show that due to the deep trapping of photogenerated electrons leading to negative space charge accumulation, exciton dissociation occurs only close to the positively biased electrode. The effect of large leakage currents in defining the device active region is also analyzed and discussed.

  17. RESEARCH PAPER: A logistic model for magnetic energy storage in solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hua-Ning; Cui, Yan-Mei; He, Han

    2009-06-01

    Previous statistical analyses of a large number of SOHO/MDI full disk longitudinal magnetograms provided a result that demonstrated how responses of solar flares to photospheric magnetic properties can be fitted with sigmoid functions. A logistic model reveals that these fitted sigmoid functions might be related to the free energy storage process in solar active regions. Although this suggested model is rather simple, the free energy level of active regions can be estimated and the probability of a solar flare with importance over a threshold can be forecast within a given time window.

  18. Activities of the US Geological Survey in Applications of Remote Sensing in the Chesapeake Bay Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wray, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    The application of remote sensing in the Chesapeake Bay region has been a central concern of three project activities of the U.S. Geological Survey: two are developmental, and one is operational. The two developmental activities were experiments in land-use and land-cover inventory and change detection using remotely sensed data from aircraft and from the LANDSAT and Skylab satellites. One of these is CARETS (Central Atlantic Regional Ecological Test Site). The other developmental task is the Census Cities Experiment in Urban Change Detection. The present major concern is an operational land-use and land-cover data-analysis program, including a supporting geographical information system.

  19. Real-Time CME Forecasting Using HMI Active-Region Magnetograms and Flare History

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David; Moore, Ron; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2011-01-01

    We have recently developed a method of predicting an active region s probability of producing a CME, an X-class Flare, an M-class Flare, or a Solar Energetic Particle Event from a free-energy proxy measured from SOHO/MDI line-of-sight magnetograms. This year we have added three major improvements to our forecast tool: 1) Transition from MDI magnetogram to SDO/HMI magnetogram allowing us near-real-time forecasts, 2) Automation of acquisition and measurement of HMI magnetograms giving us near-real-time forecasts (no older than 2 hours), and 3) Determination of how to improve forecast by using the active region s previous flare history in combination with its free-energy proxy. HMI was turned on in May 2010 and MDI was turned off in April 2011. Using the overlap period, we have calibrated HMI to yield what MDI would measure. This is important since the value of the free-energy proxy used for our forecast is resolution dependent, and the forecasts are made from results of a 1996-2004 database of MDI observations. With near-real-time magnetograms from HMI, near-real-time forecasts are now possible. We have augmented the code so that it continually acquires and measures new magnetograms as they become available online, and updates the whole-sun forecast from the coming day. The next planned improvement is to use an active region s previous flare history, in conjunction with its free-energy proxy, to forecast the active region s event rate. It has long been known that active regions that have produced flares in the past are likely to produce flares in the future, and that active regions that are nonpotential (have large free-energy) are more likely to produce flares in the future. This year we have determined that persistence of flaring is not just a reflection of an active region s free energy. In other words, after controlling for free energy, we have found that active regions that have flared recently are more likely to flare in the future.

  20. Inter-Calibration of EIS, XRT and AIA using Active Region and Bright Point Data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mulu-Moore, Fana M.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Winebarger, Amy R.; Farid, Samaiyah I.

    2012-01-01

    Certain limitations in our solar instruments have created the need to use several instruments together for long term and/or large field of view studies. We will, therefore, present an intercalibration study of the EIS, XRT and AIA instruments using active region and bright point data. We will use the DEMs calculated from EIS bright point observations to determine the expected AIA and XRT intensities. We will them compare to the observed intensities and calculate a correction factor. We will consider data taken over a year to see if there is a time dependence to the correction factor. We will then determine if the correction factors are valid for active region observations.

  1. Forward Modeling Transient Brightenings and Microflares around an Active Region Observed with Hi-C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobelski, Adam R.; McKenzie, David E.

    2014-10-01

    Small-scale flare-like brightenings around active regions are among the smallest and most fundamental of energetic transient events in the corona, providing a testbed for models of heating and active region dynamics. In a previous study, we modeled a large collection of these microflares observed with Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT) using EBTEL and found that they required multiple heating events, but could not distinguish between multiple heating events on a single strand, or multiple strands each experiencing a single heating event. We present here a similar study, but with extreme-ultraviolet data of Active Region 11520 from the High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket. Hi-C provides an order of magnitude improvement to the spatial resolution of XRT, and a cooler temperature sensitivity, which combine to provide significant improvements to our ability to detect and model microflare activity around active regions. We have found that at the spatial resolution of Hi-C (≈0.''3), the events occur much more frequently than expected (57 events detected, only 1 or 2 expected), and are most likely made from strands of the order of 100 km wide, each of which is impulsively heated with multiple heating events. These findings tend to support bursty reconnection as the cause of the energy release responsible for the brightenings.

  2. Forward modeling transient brightenings and microflares around an active region observed with Hi-C

    SciTech Connect

    Kobelski, Adam R.; McKenzie, David E.

    2014-10-20

    Small-scale flare-like brightenings around active regions are among the smallest and most fundamental of energetic transient events in the corona, providing a testbed for models of heating and active region dynamics. In a previous study, we modeled a large collection of these microflares observed with Hinode/X-Ray Telescope (XRT) using EBTEL and found that they required multiple heating events, but could not distinguish between multiple heating events on a single strand, or multiple strands each experiencing a single heating event. We present here a similar study, but with extreme-ultraviolet data of Active Region 11520 from the High Resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) sounding rocket. Hi-C provides an order of magnitude improvement to the spatial resolution of XRT, and a cooler temperature sensitivity, which combine to provide significant improvements to our ability to detect and model microflare activity around active regions. We have found that at the spatial resolution of Hi-C (≈0.''3), the events occur much more frequently than expected (57 events detected, only 1 or 2 expected), and are most likely made from strands of the order of 100 km wide, each of which is impulsively heated with multiple heating events. These findings tend to support bursty reconnection as the cause of the energy release responsible for the brightenings.

  3. Evaluation of PCDD/Fs emissions during ceramic production: a laboratory study.

    PubMed

    Lu, Mang; Luo, Yi-Jing; Zhang, Zhong-Zhi; Xiao, Meng; Zhang, Min

    2012-08-30

    Because of the ubiquity of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in kaolinitic clays, the ceramic industry is considered to be a potential source of PCDD/Fs. However, studies on the emission of PCDD/Fs from ceramic production are still very scarce. In this study, PCDD/Fs emissions during ceramic production were investigated in an electric laboratory batch kiln. The results showed that the PCDD/Fs were completely removed from the ceramic pieces after 30 min of firing at the peak temperature of 1200°C. Nevertheless, on the mass and international toxic equivalent basis, 27.5% and 46.2% of the total PCDD/Fs amount in the raw clay were released into the atmosphere during firing, respectively. These PCDD/Fs were emitted into the air before the temperature was elevated to a level high enough for their destruction. Dechlorination reactions generated a broad distribution within the PCDD/Fs congeners including a variety of non-2,3,7,8-substituted ones. The emission of PCDD/Fs was decreased to 16.3 wt.% of the total PCDD/Fs amount in the raw clay, when the initial kiln temperature was enhanced to 600°C. The emission of PCDD/Fs could be reduced significantly in the presence of a glaze coating on the ceramic test piece. These results indicated that ceramic production is an un-neglectable source of PCDD/Fs in the environment. PMID:22727484

  4. Hippocampal sub-regional shape and physical activity in older adults.

    PubMed

    Varma, Vijay R; Tang, Xiaoying; Carlson, Michelle C

    2016-08-01

    Hippocampal atrophy is a hallmark of Alzheimer's disease pathology, and a target biomarker region for testing intervention efficacy. Over the last few decades, a growing body of evidence from animal and human models suggests that physical activity (PA) is associated with structural benefits to the hippocampus in older adults. Very few human studies, however have explored hippocampal sub-regional specificity of PA; this is significant considering that sub-regions of the hippocampus are associated with distinct cognitive tasks and are differentially affected by disease pathology. This study used objective and self-reported measures of daily walking activity and exercise, and surface-based regional shape analysis using high-field hippocampal sub-regional partitions to explore sub-region specific hippocampal associations in a sample of nondemented, community-dwelling older adults at elevated sociodemographic risk for cognitive decline. Vertex-wise surface areas, which may be more sensitive than global volume measures, were calculated using shape diffeomorphometry, and PA was assessed using step activity monitors and PA questionnaires. We found that daily walking activity in a participant's environment was associated in cross-section mainly with larger surface areas of the subiculum in women. Associations remained significant when controlling for self-reported exercise. Prior studies have found that PA related to exercise and aerobic fitness may be most closely associated with the anterior hippocampus, particularly the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. These novel findings are the first, to our knowledge, in human models to suggest that PA related to navigation that may not reach the level of moderate-intensity exercise may be associated with specific sub-regions of the hippocampus. These findings underscore the importance of better understanding the independent and related biological mechanisms and pathways by which increasing exercise as well as non

  5. Phosphorylation in intrinsically disordered regions regulates the activity of Neurogenin2

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Neuronal differentiation is largely under the control of basic Helix-Loop-Helix (bHLH) proneural transcription factors that play key roles during development of the embryonic nervous system. In addition to well-characterised regulation of their expression, increasing evidence is emerging for additional post-translational regulation of proneural protein activity. Of particular interest is the bHLH proneural factor Neurogenin2 (Ngn2), which orchestrates progression from neural progenitor to differentiated neuron in several regions of the central nervous system. Previous studies have demonstrated a key role for cell cycle-dependent multi-site phosphorylation of Ngn2 protein at Serine-Proline (SP) sites for regulation of its neuronal differentiation activity, although the potential structural and functional consequences of phosphorylation at different regions of the protein are unclear. Results Here we characterise the role of phosphorylation of specific regions of Ngn2 on the stability of Ngn2 protein and on its neuronal differentiation activity in vivo in the developing embryo, demonstrating clearly that the location of SP sites is less important than the number of SP sites available for control of Ngn2 activity in vivo. We also provide structural evidence that Ngn2 contains large, intrinsically disordered regions that undergo phosphorylation by cyclin-dependent kinases (cdks). Conclusions Phosphorylation of Ngn2 occurs in both the N- and C-terminal regions, either side of the conserved basic Helix-Loop-Helix domain. While these phosphorylation events do not change the intrinsic stability of Ngn2, phosphorylation on multiple sites acts to limit its ability to drive neuronal differentiation in vivo. Phosphorylated regions of Ngn2 are predicted to be intrinsically disordered and cdk-dependent phosphorylation of these intrinsically disordered regions contributes to Ngn2 regulation. PMID:25374254

  6. Interacting active regions and coronal holes: implications for coronal outflows and solar wind structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Culhane, J. Leonard; Baker, Deborah; Rouillard, Alexis; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia

    When active regions are adjacent to coronal holes a variety of magnetic field interactions can result. These may include the interchange reconnection between the closed active region (AR) fields and the open field of the coronal hole (CH), leading to fast and significant evolution of coronal hole boundaries. Outcomes may include variability of -or changes in, active region-associated hot plasma outflows seen with Hinode/EIS and the modulation of the solar wind flows on open field lines. Depending on their relative positions on the Sun, the AR-CH interactions may have their signatures embedded in co-rotating interaction regions (CIRs) or rarefaction regions. During two intervals -8/11 January, 2008 and 7/9 December, 2008, we have made observations with Hinode of two oppositely configured situations on the Sun. For 8/11 January, the coronal hole leads the active region while for 7/9 December the order is reversed. The Hinode EIS instrument is used to locate outflows and measure their velocities while the XRT is used to image the source regions, including the variable nature of the outflows. SOHO EIT imaging is used to follow the longer-term evolution of the coronal hole boundaries while MDI is used to observe changes in the magnetic field. STEREO imaging and in-situ data are also employed -as are ACE observations, to assess the resulting impacts on interplanetary solar wind structures. The contrasting behaviour that results from magnetic interactions in the two different configurations is described and assessed.

  7. Global Distributions of Mineral Dust Properties from SeaWiFS and MODIS: From Sources to Sinks

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hsu, N. Christina; Bettenhausen, C.; Sayer, A.

    2011-01-01

    The impact of natural and anthropogenic sources of mineral dust has gained increasing attention from scientific communities in recent years. Indeed, these airborne dust particles, once lifted over the source regions, can be transported out of the boundary layer into the free troposphere and can travel thousands of kilometers across the oceans resulting in important biogeochemical impacts on the ecosystem. Due to the relatively short lifetime (a few hours to about a week), the distributions of these mineral dust particles vary extensively in both space and time. Consequently, satellite observations are needed over both source and sink regions for continuous temporal and spatial sampling of aerosol properties. With the launch of SeaWiFS in 1997, Terra/MODIS in 1999, and Aqua/MODIS in 2002, high quality comprehensive aerosol climatology is becoming feasible for the first time. As a result of these unprecedented satellite data records, studies of the radiative and biogeochemical effects due to dust aerosols are now possible. In this study, we will show the comparisons of satellite retrieved aerosol optical thickness using Deep Blue algorithm with data from AERONET sunphotometers over desert and semi-desert regions as well as vegetated areas. Our results indicate reasonable agreements between these two. These new satellite products will allow scientists to determine quantitatively the aerosol properties near sources using high spatial resolution measurements from Sea WiFS and MODIS-like instruments. The multiyear satellite measurements since 1997 from Sea WiFS will be compared with those retrieved from MODIS and MISR, and will be utilized to investigate the interannual variability of source, pathway, and dust loading associated with the dust outbreaks over the entire globe. Finally, the trends observed over the last decade based upon the SeaWiFS time series in the amounts of tropospheric aerosols due to natural and anthropogenic sources (such as changes in the frequency

  8. Differential Activation Patterns in the Same Brain Region Led to Opposite Emotional States.

    PubMed

    Shibata, Kazuhisa; Watanabe, Takeo; Kawato, Mitsuo; Sasaki, Yuka

    2016-09-01

    In human studies, how averaged activation in a brain region relates to human behavior has been extensively investigated. This approach has led to the finding that positive and negative facial preferences are represented by different brain regions. However, using a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) decoded neurofeedback (DecNef) method, we found that different patterns of neural activations within the cingulate cortex (CC) play roles in representing opposite directions of facial preference. In the present study, while neutrally preferred faces were presented, multi-voxel activation patterns in the CC that corresponded to higher (or lower) preference were repeatedly induced by fMRI DecNef. As a result, previously neutrally preferred faces became more (or less) preferred. We conclude that a different activation pattern in the CC, rather than averaged activation in a different area, represents and suffices to determine positive or negative facial preference. This new approach may reveal the importance of an activation pattern within a brain region in many cognitive functions. PMID:27608359

  9. Altered Intrinsic Regional Activity and Interregional Functional Connectivity in Post-stroke Aphasia

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Mi; Li, Jiao; Li, Yibo; Li, Rong; Pang, Yajing; Yao, Dezhong; Liao, Wei; Chen, Huafu

    2016-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies have examined cerebral function in patients who suffer from aphasia, but the mechanism underlying this disorder remains poorly understood. In this study, we examined alterations in the local regional and remote interregional network cerebral functions in aphasia combined with amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations and interregional functional connectivity (FC) using resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. A total of 17 post-stroke aphasic patients, all having suffered a stroke in the left hemisphere, as well as 20 age- and sex-matched healthy controls, were enrolled in this study. The aphasic patients showed significantly increased intrinsic regional activity mainly in the contralesional mesial temporal (hippocampus/parahippocampus, [HIP/ParaHIP]) and lateral temporal cortices. In addition, intrinsic regional activity in the contralesional HIP/ParaHIP was negatively correlated with construction score. Aphasic patients showed increased remote interregional FC between the contralesional HIP/ParaHIP and fusiform gyrus, but reduced FC in the ipsilesional occipital and parietal cortices. These findings suggested that the intrinsic regional brain dysfunctions in aphasia were related to interregional functional connectivity. Changes in the intrinsic regional brain activity and associated remote functional connectivity pattern would provide valuable information to enhance the understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of aphasia. PMID:27091494

  10. Seasonal distribution of microbial activity in bioaerosols in the outdoor environment of the Qingdao coastal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhong, Xi; Qi, Jianhua; Li, Hongtao; Dong, Lijie; Gao, Dongmei

    2016-09-01

    Microbial activities in the atmosphere can indicate the physiological processes of microorganisms and can indirectly affect cloud formation and environmental health. In this study, the microbial activity in bioaerosols collected in the Qingdao coastal region was investigated using the fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis method to detect the enzyme activity of microorganisms. The results showed that the microbial activity ranged from 5.49 to 102 ng/m3 sodium fluorescein from March 2013 to February 2014; the average value was 34.4 ng/m3. Microbial activity has no statistical correlation with total microbial quantity. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that meteorological factors such as atmospheric temperature, relative humidity and wind speed accounted for approximately 35.7% of the variation of the microbial activity, although their individual impacts on microbial activity varied. According to the correlation analysis, atmospheric temperature and wind speed had a significant positive and negative influence on microbial activity, respectively, whereas relative humidity and wind direction had no significant influence. The seasonal distribution of microbial activity in bioaerosols was in the order of summer > autumn > winter > spring, with high fluctuations in the summer and autumn. Microbial activity in bioaerosols differed in different weather conditions such as the sunny, foggy, and hazy days of different seasons. Further in situ observations in different weather conditions at different times and places are needed to understand the seasonal distribution characteristics of microbial activity in bioaerosols and the influence factors of microbial activity.

  11. Ultraviolet observations of the structure and dynamics of an active region at the limb

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Korendyke, C. M.; Dere, K. P.; Socker, D. G.; Brueckner, G. E.; Schmieder, B.

    1995-01-01

    The structure and dynamics of active region NOAA 7260 at the limb have been studied using ultraviolet spectra and spectroheliograms obtained during the eighth rocket flight of the Naval Research Laboratory's High Resolution Telescope an Spectrograph (HRTS). The instrument configuration included a narrow-bandpass spectroheliograph to observe the Sun in the lines of C IV lambda 550 and a tandem-Wadsworth mount spectrograph to record the profiles of chromospheric transition region and coronal lines in the 1850-2670 A region. The combination of high spatial resolution and high spectral purity C IV slit jaw images with ultraviolet emission-line spectra corresponding allows examination of a variety of active region phenomena. A time series of spectroheliograms shows large-scale loop systems composed of fine-scale threads with some extending up to 100 Mm above the limb. The proper motion of several supersonic features, including a surge were measured. The accelerated plasmas appear in several different geometries and environments. Spectrograph exposures were taken with the slit positioned at a range of altitudes above the limb and provide a direct comparison between coronal, transition region and chromospheric emission line profiles. The spectral profiles of chromospheric and transition region emission lines show line-of-sight velocities up to 70 km/s. These lower temperature, emission-line spectra show small-scale spatial and velocity variations which are correlated with the threadlike structures seen in C IV. Coronal lines of Fe XII show much lower velocities and no fine structure.

  12. Witnessing hateful people in pain modulates brain activity in regions associated with physical pain and reward

    PubMed Central

    Fox, Glenn R.; Sobhani, Mona; Aziz-Zadeh, Lisa

    2013-01-01

    How does witnessing a hateful person in pain compare to witnessing a likable person in pain? The current study compared the brain bases for how we perceive likable people in pain with those of viewing hateful people in pain. While social bonds are built through sharing the plight and pain of others in the name of empathy, viewing a hateful person in pain also has many potential ramifications. In this functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) study, Caucasian Jewish male participants viewed videos of (1) disliked, hateful, anti-Semitic individuals, and (2) liked, non-hateful, tolerant individuals in pain. The results showed that, compared with viewing liked people, viewing hateful people in pain elicited increased responses in regions associated with observation of physical pain (the insular cortex, the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and the somatosensory cortex), reward processing (the striatum), and frontal regions associated with emotion regulation. Functional connectivity analyses revealed connections between seed regions in the left ACC and right insular cortex with reward regions, the amygdala, and frontal regions associated with emotion regulation. These data indicate that regions of the brain active while viewing someone in pain may be more active in response to the danger or threat posed by witnessing the pain of a hateful individual more so than the desire to empathize with a likable person's pain. PMID:24167496

  13. DECONSTRUCTING ACTIVE REGION AR10961 USING STEREO, HINODE, TRACE, AND SOHO

    SciTech Connect

    Noglik, Jane B.; Walsh, Robert W.; Marsh, M. S.; Maclean, Rhona C.

    2009-10-01

    Active region 10961 was observed over a five-day period (2007 July 2-6) by instrumentation on-board STEREO, Hinode, TRACE, and SOHO. As it progressed from Sun's center to the solar limb, a comprehensive analysis of the extreme ultraviolet, X-ray, and magnetic field data reveals clearly observable changes in the global nature of the region. Temperature analyses undertaken using STEREO Extreme Ultraviolet Imager double filter ratios and X-ray imaging telescope single and combined filter ratios demonstrate an overall cooling of the region from between 1.6-3.0 MK to 1.0-2.0 MK over the five days. Similarly, Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrograph density measurements show a corresponding increase in density of 27%. Moss, cool (1 MK) outer loop areas, and hotter core loop regions were examined and compared with potential magnetic field extrapolations from SOHO Michelson Doppler Imager magnetogram data. In particular, it was found that the potential field model was able to predict the structure of the hotter X-ray loops and that the larger cool loops seen in 171 A images appeared to follow the separatrix surfaces. The reasons behind the high-density moss regions only observed on one side of the active region are examined further.

  14. Nano-structured surfaces by laser interference lithography and fs-laser direct writing as substrates for surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ben Mohammadi, L.; Hundertmark, N.; Kullmann, F.; Fleissner, F.; Klotzbücher, T.

    2012-03-01

    Nano-structured surfaces were generated by laser interference lithography and femtosecond-laser direct writing of photo resists that subsequently were metallized by electroless plating or sputter deposition of silver. Laser lithography was performed with a 405 nm coherent diode laser in AZ9260, using two-beam interference with double illumination by 90° rotating of the substrate, leading to 2D periodic surface patterns with smallest features of the order of 200 nm. With fs-laser direct writing using a Ti-sapphire oscillator of 800 nm and 15 fs pulse length, feature sizes down to 100 nm were realized in SU8, even with aspect ratios much larger than 1. Metallization with electroless plating delivered either grainy silver coatings with a grain size around 100 nm or needle-like silver coatings with a needle length around 100 nm and a width of around 10 nm. The metallized substrates were exposed to aqueous solutions of Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) of different concentrations and the corresponding Raman signals were recorded with a Raman micro-probe spectrometer. The nano-structured surfaces lead to formation of Raman bands attributable to Rh6G. In case of the grainy silver coatings, surfaces without nano-structures did not show Raman activity, indicating that grating-coupled surface plasmons play the dominant role for Raman enhancement. In case of substrates coated with the needle-shaped silver crystallites, Raman activity was also seen in regions without laser-generated nano-structures, indicating that localized particle plasmons play the dominant role for Raman enhancement. A comparison with Raman spectra measured with conventional Raman spectrometer showed that the enhancement factor achieved by the laser-generated nano-structures themself, is of the order of 6×104. Raman intensity as a function of Rh6G concentration revealed a regular behaviour, as expected from a Langmuir isotherm.

  15. Identifying induced seismicity in active tectonic regions: A case study of the San Joaquin Basin, California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminzadeh, F.; Göbel, T.

    2013-12-01

    Understanding the connection between petroleum-industry activities, and seismic event occurrences is essential to monitor, quantify, and mitigate seismic risk. While many studies identified anthropogenically-induced seismicity in intraplate regions where background seismicity rates are generally low, little is known about how to distinguish naturally occurring from induced seismicity in active tectonic regions. Further, it is not clear how different oil and gas operational parameters impact the frequency and magnitude of the induced seismic events. Here, we examine variations in frequency-size and spatial distributions of seismicity within the Southern Joaquin basin, an area of both active petroleum production and active fault systems. We analyze a newly available, high-quality, relocated earthquake catalog (Hauksson et al. 2012). This catalog includes many seismic events with magnitudes up to M = 4.5 within the study area. We start by analyzing the overall quality and consistence of the seismic catalog, focusing on temporal variations in seismicity rates and catalog completeness which could indicate variations in network sensitivity. This catalog provides relatively homogeneous earthquake recordings after 1981, enabling us to compare seismicity rates before and after the beginning of more pervasive petroleum-industry activities, for example, hydraulic-fracturing and waste-water disposals. We conduct a limited study of waste-water disposal wells to establish a correlation between seismicity statistics (i.e. rate changes, fractal dimension, b-value) within specific regions and anthropogenic influences. We then perform a regional study, to investigate spatial variations in seismicity statistics which are then correlated to oil field locations and well densities. In order to distinguish, predominantly natural seismicity from induced seismicity, we perform a spatial mapping of b-values and fractal dimensions of earthquake hypocenters. Seismic events in the proximity to

  16. Cross-modal activation of auditory regions during visuo-spatial working memory in early deafness.

    PubMed

    Ding, Hao; Qin, Wen; Liang, Meng; Ming, Dong; Wan, Baikun; Li, Qiang; Yu, Chunshui

    2015-09-01

    Early deafness can reshape deprived auditory regions to enable the processing of signals from the remaining intact sensory modalities. Cross-modal activation has been observed in auditory regions during non-auditory tasks in early deaf subjects. In hearing subjects, visual working memory can evoke activation of the visual cortex, which further contributes to behavioural performance. In early deaf subjects, however, whether and how auditory regions participate in visual working memory remains unclear. We hypothesized that auditory regions may be involved in visual working memory processing and activation of auditory regions may contribute to the superior behavioural performance of early deaf subjects. In this study, 41 early deaf subjects (22 females and 19 males, age range: 20-26 years, age of onset of deafness < 2 years) and 40 age- and gender-matched hearing controls underwent functional magnetic resonance imaging during a visuo-spatial delayed recognition task that consisted of encoding, maintenance and recognition stages. The early deaf subjects exhibited faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task than did the hearing controls. Compared with hearing controls, deaf subjects exhibited increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the recognition stage. This increased activation amplitude predicted faster and more accurate working memory performance in deaf subjects. Deaf subjects also had increased activation in the superior temporal gyrus bilaterally during the maintenance stage and in the right superior temporal gyrus during the encoding stage. These increased activation amplitude also predicted faster reaction times on the spatial working memory task in deaf subjects. These findings suggest that cross-modal plasticity occurs in auditory association areas in early deaf subjects. These areas are involved in visuo-spatial working memory. Furthermore, amplitudes of cross-modal activation during the maintenance stage were

  17. Gross alpha and beta activities in tap waters in Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey.

    PubMed

    Damla, N; Cevik, U; Karahan, G; Kobya, A I

    2006-02-01

    Gross alpha and gross beta activities were determined for 27 different tap water samples collected from Eastern Black Sea region of Turkey. The instrumentation used to count the gross alpha and gross beta activities was a alpha/beta counter of the low background multiple detector type with 10 sample detectors (Berthold LB770). The obtained results showed that natural activity concentrations of alpha- and beta-emitting radionuclides in tap water samples did not exceed WHO and ITS recommended levels. Concentrations ranging from 0.2 mBq/l to 15 mBq/l and from 25.2 mBq/l to 264.4 mBq/l were observed for the gross alpha and gross beta activities, respectively. For all samples the gross beta activities were higher than the corresponding gross alpha activities. PMID:16084570

  18. Purification and variability in thrombin-like activity of Bothrops atrox venom from different geographic regions.

    PubMed

    Cavinato, R A; Remold, H; Kipnis, T L

    1998-02-01

    Bothrops atrox snake venoms from two different Amazon regions, i.e., Manaus, AM (3 degrees 0.6'40"S; 60 degrees 0.1'6.0"W) and Tucurui, PA (3 degrees 0.42'30"S; 49 degrees 0.41'45"W), were analyzed with respect to the thrombin-like activity component by elution profile on gel-filtration and reverse phase HPLC chromatography, electrophoretic mobility on SDS-PAGE, and enzymatic activity on fibrinogen. Despite some individual discrepancies among venom specimens, the thrombin-like activity present in the Manaus pool was eluted earlier compared with the Tucurui pool but its enzymatic specific activity on thrombin was lower (s.a. = 6.0) than that observed in the Tucurui pool (s.a. = 134.0). However, the electrophoretic mobilities of the pools were similar, with most protein bands being concentrated around three main regions, i.e., protein bands with an apparent mr of 100 kDa, of 38-37 kDa and 30 kDa. However, no significant differences were observed in amidolytic activity on the synthetic substrate Tos-Gly-Pro-Arg-pNa, and there was no correlation between thrombin-like and amidolytic activities. A 32 kDa protein endowed with thrombin-like activity and specific activity of 2444 recognized and neutralized by horse anti-B. atrox antivenom, was purified by the successive use of gel filtration, electrofocusing and reverse phase HPLC. PMID:9620574

  19. Spontaneous fast gamma activity in the septal hippocampal region correlates with spatial learning in humans.

    PubMed

    Cornwell, B R; Overstreet, C; Grillon, C

    2014-03-15

    Hippocampal neuronal populations exhibit multiple kinds of activity patterns, from the dominant theta rhythm during active exploration to high-frequency ripple-like activity during periods of relative inactivity. In animals, evidence is rapidly accruing that these high-frequency ripple activity patterns subserve retention of spatial learning performance. In a translational effort to address the possible function of offline hippocampal processes in humans, we measured spontaneous gamma activity during an awake rest period within a virtual spatial learning context. Whole-head magnetoencephalographic (MEG) recordings were taken while healthy participants (N=24) quietly rested (eyes open) between encoding and retrieval phases of a hippocampal-dependent virtual Morris water maze task. Results are that fast gamma activity (80-140 Hz) in the septal or posterior region of the hippocampus (bilaterally) was positively correlated across participants with subsequent within-session spatial learning rate. Fast gamma did not predict initial retrieval performance following rest, failing to provide evidence of a direct link between spontaneous high-frequency activity patterns during awake rest and consolidation of previous spatial memories. The findings nevertheless are consistent with a prospective role for offline human hippocampal processes in spatial learning and indicate that higher spontaneous gamma activity in the septal hippocampal region is related to faster updating of spatial knowledge in familiar virtual surroundings. PMID:24388977

  20. Time-resolved study of fs laser-induced plasma in bulk a-SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mermillod-Blondin, Alexandre; Stoian, Razvan; Rosenfeld, Arkadi

    2012-07-01

    When focusing an ultrashort laser pulse inside a transparent material, a permanent alteration of the (complex) refractive index takes place in the irradiated region. In the tight focusing regime, a precise control over the energy deposition can be achieved. Based on this principle, point by point fabrication of embedded microoptical systems has been demonstrated in the bulk of amorphous fused silica (a-SiO2). Although the permanent laser-induced structural changes are starting to be known, the mechanisms underlying material modification are not completely understood. A widely accepted scenario of the laser-matter interaction still has to be elaborated. Specifically, the identification and the relative importance of localized and delocalized energy relaxation channels are under debate. The laser energy is coupled into the material through free carriers generated via photoionization mechanisms. Our goal is to study the energy transfer from the free carriers to the bulky material by measuring the time-resolved absorption in the interaction region. Our setup, based on an optical microscope employed in a pump-probe scheme, allows for time-resolved imaging of the interaction region with a temporal resolution about 300 fs and a spatial resolution of 650 nm. By processing ultrafast photographs of the laser generated electron-hole plasma, we are able to monitor the absorbance in-situ. We present results obtained with two illumination probe wavelengths at 400 nm and 800 nm. The time span covered ranges from the very first moments of the laser-matter interaction up to 1 ns. We observe that the absorption kinetics is not homogeneous over the irradiated volume and depends strongly on the initial distribution of laser energy. We propose a correlation of the observed absorption with the creation and decay of optically active defects.

  1. "Not Greenies" at School: Investigating the Discourses of Environmental Activism in Regional Australia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitehouse, Hilary

    2014-01-01

    Implementing environmental activism at school can be socially risky business. This paper explores the narratives of three women who undertook award winning environmental projects in two regional Australian schools. Tara (student, age 15) and Andrea (principal, age 42) document the complex and courageous social negotiations they were forced to…

  2. "Power, Regulation and Physically Active Identities": The Experiences of Rural and Regional Living Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, M.; Mooney, A.; Smyth, J.; Payne, W.

    2016-01-01

    Drawing on interpretations of Foucault's techniques of power, we explored the discourses and power relations operative between groups of girls that appeared to influence their participation in Physical Education (PE) and outside of school in sport and physical activity (PA) in rural and regional communities. Interviews and focus groups were…

  3. [Obstetrical activity of a regional hospital center in the northern Ivory Coast].

    PubMed

    Ribault, L

    1989-05-01

    Rupture of the uterus remains, in some countries, a frequent occurrence. This report of the obstetrical activity of a Regional Hospital Center in the Ivory Coast, demonstrates all the difficulties of a disconcerting pathology for visiting physicians, not used to this type of accident in Europe. PMID:2544976

  4. Coupled-resonator vertical-cavity lasers with two active gain regions

    DOEpatents

    Fischer, Arthur J.; Choquette, Kent D.; Chow, Weng W.

    2003-05-20

    A new class of coupled-resonator vertical-cavity semiconductor lasers has been developed. These lasers have multiple resonant cavities containing regions of active laser media, resulting in a multi-terminal laser component with a wide range of novel properties.

  5. Active region plasma outflows as sources of slow/intermediate solar wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia M.

    2015-08-01

    L. van Driel-Gesztelyi (1,2,3), D. Baker (1), P. Démoulin (2), Culhane, J.L. (1), M.L. DeRosa (4) C.H. Mandrini (5,6), D.H. Brooks (7), A.N. Fazakerley (1), L.K. Harra (1), L. Zhao (7), T.H. Zurbuchen (7), F.A. Nuevo (5,6), A.M. Vásquez (5,6), G.D. Cristiani (5,6) M. Pick (2)1) UCL/MSSL, UK, (2) Paris Observatory, LESIA, CNRS, France, (3) Konkoly Observatory, Hungary, (4) Lockheed Martin Solar and Astrophysics Laboratory, USA, (5) IAFE, CONICET-UBA, Argentina (6) FCEN, UBA, Argentina (7) Dept. of Atmospheric, Oceanic and Earth Sciences, Univ. of Michigan, USAWe analyse plasma upflows of tens of km/s from the edges of solar active regions discovered by Hinode/EIS and investigate whether or not they become outflows, i.e. find their way into the solar wind. We analyse two magnetic configurations: bipolar and quadrupolar and find that the active region plasma may be directly channeled into the solar wind via interchange reconnection at a high-altitude null point above the active region especially when active regions are located besides coronal holes or in a more complex way via multiple reconnections even from under a closed helmet streamer. We relate the solar observations to in-situ slow/intermediate solar wind streams.

  6. Magnetic Characteristics of Active Region Heating Observed with TRACE, SOHO/EIT, and Yohkoh/SXT

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Porter, J. G.; Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Over the past several years, we have reported results from studies that have compared the magnetic structure and heating of the transition region and corona (both in active regions and in the quiet Sun) by combining X-ray and EUV images from Yohkoh and Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) with photospheric magnetograms from ground-based observatories. Our findings have led us to the hypothesis that most heating throughout the corona is driven from near and below the base of the corona by eruptive microflares occurring in compact low-lying "core magnetic fields (i.e., fields rooted along and closely enveloping polarity inversion lines in the photospheric magnetic flux). We now extend these studies, comparing sequences of UV images from Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) with longitudinal magnetograms from Kitt Peak and vector magnetograms from MUSIC. These comparisons confirm the previous results regarding the importance of core-field activity to active region heating. Activity in fields associated with satellite polarity inclusions and/or magnetically sheared configurations is especially prominent. This work is funded by NASA's Office of Space Science through the Sun-Earth Connection Guest Investigator Program and the Solar Physics Supporting Research and Technology Program.

  7. Magnetoseismology of Active Regions using Multi-wavelength Observations from GONG and SDO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathy, Sushanta; Jain, Kiran; Kholikov, Shukur; Hill, Frank; Cally, Paul

    2016-05-01

    The structure and dynamics of active regions beneath the surface show significant uncertainties due to our limited understanding of the wave interaction with magnetic field. Recent numerical simulations further demonstrate that the atmosphere above the photospheric levels also modifies the seismic observables at the surface. Thus the key to improve helioseismic interpretation beneath the active regions requires a synergy between models and helioseismic inferences from observations. In this context, using data from Global Oscillation Network Group and from Helioseismic Magnetic Imager and Atmospheric Imaging Assembly onboard Solar Dynamics Observatory, we characterize the spatio-temporal power distribution in and around active regions. Specifically, we focus on the power enhancements seen around active regions as a function of wave frequencies, strength, inclination of magnetic field and observation height as well as the relative phases of the observables and their cross-coherence functions. It is expected that these effects will help us to comprehend the interaction of acoustic waves with magnetic field in the solar photosphere.

  8. How Much Energy Can Be Stored in Solar Active Region Magnetic Fields?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Linker, J.; Downs, C.; Torok, T.; Titov, V. S.; Lionello, R.; Mikic, Z.; Riley, P.

    2015-12-01

    Major solar eruptions such as X-class flares and very fast coronal mass ejections usually originate in active regions on the Sun. The energy that powers these events is believed to be stored as free magnetic energy (energy above the potential field state) prior to eruption. While coronal magnetic fields are not in general force-free, active regions have very strong magnetic fields and at low coronal heights the plasma beta is therefore very small, making the field (in equilibrium) essentially force-free. The Aly-Sturrock theorem shows that the energy of a fully force-free field cannot exceed the energy of the so-called open field. If the theorem holds, this places an upper limit on the amount of free energy that can be stored: the maximum free energy (MFE) is the difference between the open field energy and the potential field energy of the active region. In thermodynamic MHD simulations of a major eruption (the July 14, 2000 'Bastille' day event) and a modest event (February 13, 2009, we have found that the MFE indeed bounds the energy stored prior to eruption. We compute the MFE for major eruptive events in cycles 23 and 24 to investigate the maximum amount of energy that can be stored in solar active regions.Research supported by AFOSR, NASA, and NSF.

  9. Regional cholinesterase activity in white-throated sparrow brain is differentially affected by acephate (Orthene?)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vyas, N.B.; Kuenzel, W.J.; Hill, E.F.; Romo, G.A.; Komaragiri, M.V.S.

    1996-01-01

    Effects of a 14-day dietary exposure to an organophosphorus pesticide, acephate (acetylphosphoramidothioic acid O,S-dimethyl ester), were determined on cholinesterase activity in three regions (basal ganglia, hippocampus, and hypothalamus) of the white-throated sparrow, Zonotrichia albicollis, brain. All three regions experienced depressed cholinesterase activity between 0.5-2 ppm acephate. The regions exhibited cholinesterase recovery at 2-16 ppm acephate; however, cholinesterase activity dropped and showed no recovery at higher dietary levels (>16 ppm acephate). Evidence indicates that the recovery is initiated by the magnitude of depression, not the duration. In general, as acephate concentration increased, differences in ChE activity among brain regions decreased. Three terms are introduced to describe ChE response to acephate exposure: (1) ChE resistance threshold, (2) ChE compensation threshold, and (3) ChE depression threshold. It is hypothesized that adverse effects to birds in the field may occur at pesticide exposure levels customarily considered negligible.

  10. Technology Transfer Activities of NASA/MSFC: Enhancing the Southeast Region's Production Capabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Trivoli, George W.

    1998-01-01

    The researcher was charged with the task of developing a simplified model to illustrate the impact of how NASA/MSFC technology transfer activities contribute to shifting outward the Southeast region's and the nation's productive capacity. The report is a background of the impact of technological growth on the nation's production possibility frontier (ppf).

  11. 50 CFR 216.120 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specified activity and specified geographical region. 216.120 Section 216.120 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE...

  12. 50 CFR 216.150 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specified activity and specified geographical region. 216.150 Section 216.150 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE...

  13. 50 CFR 217.50 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Specified activity and specified geographical region. 217.50 Section 217.50 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL...

  14. 50 CFR 216.120 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specified activity and specified geographical region. 216.120 Section 216.120 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE...

  15. 50 CFR 216.150 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Specified activity and specified geographical region. 216.150 Section 216.150 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE...

  16. CURRENT HELICITY OF ACTIVE REGIONS AS A TRACER OF LARGE-SCALE SOLAR MAGNETIC HELICITY

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H.; Gao, Y.; Xu, H.; Moss, D.; Kleeorin, N.; Rogachevskii, I.; Kuzanyan, K.; Sokoloff, D.

    2012-05-20

    We demonstrate that the current helicity observed in solar active regions traces the magnetic helicity of the large-scale dynamo generated field. We use an advanced two-dimensional mean-field dynamo model with dynamo saturation based on the evolution of the magnetic helicity and algebraic quenching. For comparison, we also studied a more basic two-dimensional mean-field dynamo model with simple algebraic alpha-quenching only. Using these numerical models we obtained butterfly diagrams both for the small-scale current helicity and also for the large-scale magnetic helicity, and compared them with the butterfly diagram for the current helicity in active regions obtained from observations. This comparison shows that the current helicity of active regions, as estimated by -A {center_dot} B evaluated at the depth from which the active region arises, resembles the observational data much better than the small-scale current helicity calculated directly from the helicity evolution equation. Here B and A are, respectively, the dynamo generated mean magnetic field and its vector potential. A theoretical interpretation of these results is given.

  17. International Youth Year: Activities of ECLAC in Fulfillment of the Regional Plan of Action.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    United Nations Economic and Social Council, New York, NY.

    The report discusses the implementation by the Economic Commission for Latin America and the Caribbean (ECLAC) of the concrete program of measures and activities proposed by the Regional Plan of Action for Latin America and the Caribbean for the International Youth Year. The central objectives of the Plan are to create greater awareness concerning…

  18. 50 CFR 217.70 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specified activity and specified geographical region. 217.70 Section 217.70 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL...

  19. 50 CFR 216.120 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specified activity and specified geographical region. 216.120 Section 216.120 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE...

  20. 50 CFR 216.150 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specified activity and specified geographical region. 216.150 Section 216.150 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE...

  1. 50 CFR 216.120 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Specified activity and specified geographical region. 216.120 Section 216.120 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKING AND IMPORTING OF MARINE...

  2. 50 CFR 217.70 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Specified activity and specified geographical region. 217.70 Section 217.70 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL...

  3. 50 CFR 217.200 - Specified activities and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 10 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Specified activities and specified geographical region. 217.200 Section 217.200 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE MARINE MAMMALS REGULATIONS GOVERNING THE TAKE OF MARINE MAMMALS INCIDENTAL...

  4. 50 CFR 217.220 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Elliott Bay Seawall Project § 217.220 Specified activity and specified geographical region. (a) Regulations in this subpart apply only to the Elliott Bay Seawall project and those persons it authorizes to... paragraph (b) of this section incidental to seawall construction associated with the Elliott Bay...

  5. Analysis of rice Act1 5' region activity in transgenic rice plants.

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, W; McElroy, D; Wu, R

    1991-01-01

    The 5' region of the rice actin 1 gene (Act1) has been developed as an efficient regulator of foreign gene expression in transgenic rice plants. To determine the pattern and level of rice Act1 5' region activity, transgenic rice plants containing the Act1 5' region fused to a bacterial beta-glucuronidase (Gus) coding sequence were generated. Two independent clonal lines of transgenic rice plants were analyzed in detail. Quantitative analysis showed that tissue from these transgenic rice plants have a level of GUS protein that represents as much as 3% of total soluble protein. We were able to demonstrate that Act1-Gus gene expression is constitutive throughout the sporophytic and gametophytic tissues of these transgenic rice plants. Plants from one transgenic line were analyzed for the segregation of GUS activity in pollen by in situ histochemical staining, and the inheritance and stability of Act1-Gus expression were assayed in subsequently derived progeny plants. PMID:1821763

  6. The temperature structure and pressure balance of magnetic loops in active regions. [in solar atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Foukal, P.

    1975-01-01

    EUV observations show many active region loops in lines formed at temperatures between 10,000 and 2,000,000 K. The brightest loops are associated with flux tubes leading to the umbrae of sunspots. It is shown that the high visibility of certain loops in transition region lines is due principally to a sharp radial decrease of temperature to chromospheric values toward the loop axis. The plasma density of these cool loops is not significantly greater than in the hot gas immediately surrounding it. Consequently, the internal gas pressure of the cool material is clearly lower. The hot material immediately surrounding the cool loops is generally denser than the external corona by a factor 3-4. When the active region is examined in coronal lines, this hot high pressure plasma shows up as loops that are generally parallel to the cool loops but significantly displaced laterally.

  7. Optical power of semiconductor lasers with a low-dimensional active region

    SciTech Connect

    Asryan, Levon V.; Sokolova, Zinaida N.

    2014-01-14

    A comprehensive analytical model for the operating characteristics of semiconductor lasers with a low-dimensional active region is developed. Particular emphasis is given to the effect of capture delay of both electrons and holes from a bulk optical confinement region into a quantum-confined active region and an extended set of rate equations is used. We derive a closed-form expression for the internal quantum efficiency as an explicit function of the injection current and parameters of a laser structure. Due to either electron or hole capture delay, the internal efficiency decreases with increasing injection current above the lasing threshold thus causing sublinearity of the light-current characteristic of a laser.

  8. Forecasting the Solar Drivers of Severe Space Weather from Active-Region Magnetograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2012-01-01

    Large flares and fast CMEs are the drivers of the most severe space weather including Solar Energetic Particle Events (SEP Events). Large flares and their co-produced CMEs are powered by the explosive release of free magnetic energy stored in non-potential magnetic fields of sunspot active regions. The free energy is stored in and released from the low-beta regime of the active region s magnetic field above the photosphere, in the chromosphere and low corona. From our work over the past decade and from similar work of several other groups, it is now well established that (1) a proxy of the free magnetic energy stored above the photosphere can be measured from photospheric magnetograms, and (2) an active region s rate of production of major CME/flare eruptions in the coming day or so is strongly correlated with its present measured value of the free-energy proxy. These results have led us to use the large database of SOHO/MDI full-disk magnetograms spanning Solar Cycle 23 to obtain empirical forecasting curves that from an active region s present measured value of the free-energy proxy give the active region s expected rates of production of major flares, CMEs, fast CMEs, and SEP Events in the coming day or so (Falconer et al 2011, Space Weather, 9, S04003). We will present these forecasting curves and demonstrate the accuracy of their forecasts. In addition, we will show that the forecasts for major flares and fast CMEs can be made significantly more accurate by taking into account not only the value of the free energy proxy but also the active region s recent productivity of major flares; specifically, whether the active region has produced a major flare (GOES class M or X) during the past 24 hours before the time of the measured magnetogram. By empirically determining the conversion of the value of free-energy proxy measured from a GONG or HMI magnetogram to that which would be measured from an MDI magnetogram, we have made GONG and HMI magnetograms useable with

  9. Cosmic rays and the emission line regions of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ferland, G. J.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    1984-01-01

    The effects that the synchrotron emitting relativistic electrons could have on the emission line regions which characterize active nuclei are discussed. Detailed models of both the inner, dense, broad line region and the outer, lower density, narrow line region are presented, together with the first models of the optically emitting gas often found within extended radio lobes. If the relativistic gas which produces the synchrotron radio emission is mixed with the emission line region gas then significant changes in the emission line spectrum will result. The effects of the synchrotron emitting electrons on filaments in the Crab Nebula are discussed in an appendix, along with a comparison between the experimental calculations, which employ the mean escape probability formalism, and recent Hubbard and Puetter models.

  10. Properties of solar coronal active regions deduced from X-ray line spectra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McKenzie, D. L.

    1987-11-01

    Spectra from the SOLEX B RAP spectrometer have been used to analyze the temperature and density structure of over 100 nonflaring solar active regions. Density measurements that used the R ratio of O VII indicated that few regions have electron densities higher than ≡3×109cm-3. In a few cases, flare-productive regions had measured densities approximately twice this high. Temperature-sensitive line ratios in the helium-like ions O VII, Ne IX, and Mg XI were used to decude the general properties of the differential emission-measure function B(T) for nonflaring regions. B(T) falls off with increasing temperature above a peak temperature that is almost always lower than Tm(O VII) = 1.8×106K.

  11. Unique Properties of Thermally Tailored Copper: Magnetically Active Regions and Anomalous X-ray Fluorescence Emissions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    When high-purity copper (≥99.98%wt) is melted, held in its liquid state for a few hours with iterative thermal cycling, then allowed to resolidify, the ingot surface is found to have many small regions that are magnetically active. X-ray fluorescence analysis of these regions exhibit remarkably intense lines from “sensitized elements” (SE), including in part or fully the contiguous series V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co. The XRF emissions from SE are far more intense than expected from known impurity levels. Comparison with blanks and standards show that the thermal “tailoring” also introduces strongly enhanced SE emissions in samples taken from the interior of the copper ingots. For some magnetic regions, the location as well as the SE emissions, although persistent, vary irregularly with time. Also, for some regions extraordinarily intense “sensitized iron” (SFe) emissions occur, accompanied by drastic attenuation of Cu emissions. PMID:20037657

  12. Storm activity in North Atlantic and precipitation anomalies in European region during winter seasons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilova, N. A.; Vyazilova, A. E.

    2009-09-01

    The purpose of this paper is to show the storm activity influence on the formation of wet and dry zone in North Atlantic and European region during winter seasons 1994/95, 2006/07 and 2007/08 years with positive mode of NAO, 1995/96, 2000/01 and 2005/06 years with negative mode of NAO. The study of storm activity includes the analyses of cyclonic intensity and cyclone track number. Analyses of cyclonic intensity based on calculation cyclone centers number (CCN) and sum of cyclone centers MSLP anomalies (CCMA). This analyses based on automated cyclone tracking algorithm and the 6-hourly MSLP from the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses 2 from 1979 to 2009. Precipitation anomalies were calculated from CMAP archive. Analyses had included the calculation of cyclone track number in all region [30°N-80°N, 50°W-70°E]and selected latitude zone for long cyclones (with lifetime more 2 day) and short cyclones (with lifetime less 2 day). The study had shown the special features of CCN and CCMA patterns in region for long and short cyclones. The study shows, that every winter season short cyclone track number twice as much long cyclone track number. However, the contribution of long cyclones in main determines the CCMA in region. Study had shown that winter seasons with positive NAO mode Nord Europe were outstanding by strong positive precipitation anomalies and strong cyclonic intensity, and during winter seasons with negative NAO mode in this region were observed negative precipitation anomalies and weak cyclonic activity. Standartizide anomalies of integral CCMA for selected latitude zone [55°N-80°N, 50°W-70°E] had shown the intensification of cyclonic activity over North Atlantic and North European region in last years.

  13. Geometric effects in SeaWiFS lunar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eplee, Robert E.; Patt, Frederick S.; Meister, Gerhard

    2015-09-01

    The radiometric stability requirements for ocean color climate data records place tight constraints on the onorbit calibration of ocean color instruments. A major component of the on-orbit calibration methodology for NASA ocean color sensors is the normalization of lunar observations for variations in observing geometry by the USGS ROLO photometric model of the Moon. SeaWiFS made 204 lunar observations over its 13-year mission. 145 radiometric trending observations were made at low phase angles (-8° to -6° and +5° to +10°). 59 additional observations were made at high phase angles (-49° to -27° and +27° to +66° degrees). The NASA Ocean Biology Processing Group has undertaken a reanalysis of residual geometric effects in the SeaWiFS lunar observations. Ratios of SeaWiFS observations to ROLO model predictions were fit with quadratic functions of phase angle and linear functions of sub-spacecraft point and sub-solar point libration longitude and latitude angles. The resulting phase and libration fit coefficients have been used as additional geometric corrections for the SeaWiFS lunar observations. For the low phase angle observations, the phase corrections are 0.16% and the libration corrections are 0.18%. For the low and high phase angle observations, the phase corrections are 1.8% and the libration corrections are 0.22%. These geometric corrections have reduced the overall scatter in the lunar observations, bringing the high phase angle data into family with the low phase angle measurements without impacting the radiometric response in the low phase angle observations.

  14. SeaWiFS calibration and validation plan, volume 3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Mcclain, Charles R.; Esaias, Wayne E.; Barnes, William; Guenther, Bruce; Endres, Daniel; Mitchell, B. Greg; Barnes, Robert

    1992-01-01

    The Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) will be the first ocean-color satellite since the Nimbus-7 Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS), which ceased operation in 1986. Unlike the CZCS, which was designed as a proof-of-concept experiment, SeaWiFS will provide routine global coverage every 2 days and is designed to provide estimates of photosynthetic concentrations of sufficient accuracy for use in quantitative studies of the ocean's primary productivity and biogeochemistry. A review of the CZCS mission is included that describes that data set's limitations and provides justification for a comprehensive SeaWiFS calibration and validation program. To accomplish the SeaWiFS scientific objectives, the sensor's calibration must be constantly monitored, and robust atmospheric corrections and bio-optical algorithms must be developed. The plan incorporates a multi-faceted approach to sensor calibration using a combination of vicarious (based on in situ observations) and onboard calibration techniques. Because of budget constraints and the limited availability of ship resources, the development of the operational algorithms (atmospheric and bio-optical) will rely heavily on collaborations with the Earth Observing System (EOS), the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) oceans team, and projects sponsored by other agencies, e.g., the U.S. Navy and the National Science Foundation (NSF). Other elements of the plan include the routine quality control of input ancillary data (e.g., surface wind, surface pressure, ozone concentration, etc.) used in the processing and verification of the level-0 (raw) data to level-1 (calibrated radiances), level-2 (derived products), and level-3 (gridded and averaged derived data) products.

  15. Identification of Chronic Stress Activated Regions Reveals a Potential Recruited Circuit in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Flak, Jonathan N.; Solomon, Matia B.; Jankord, Ryan; Krause, Eric G.; Herman, James P.

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress induces pre-synaptic and post-synaptic modifications in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus (PVN) that are consistent with enhanced excitatory hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis drive. The brain regions mediating these molecular modifications are not known. We hypothesized that chronic variable stress (CVS) tonically activates stress-excitatory regions that interact with the PVN, culminating in stress facilitation. In order to identify chronically activated brain regions, ΔFosB, a documented marker of tonic neuronal activation, was assessed in known stress regulatory limbic and brainstem sites. Four experimental groups were included: CVS, repeated restraint (RR) (control for HPA habituation), animals weight-matched (WM) to CVS animals (control for changes in circulating metabolic factors due to reduced weight gain), and non-handled controls. CVS, but not RR or WM, induced adrenal hypertrophy, indicating that sustained HPA axis drive only occurred in the CVS group. CVS (but not RR or WM) selectively increased the number of FosB/ΔFosB nuclei in the nucleus of the solitary tract, posterior hypothalamic nucleus, and both the infralimbic and prelimbic divisions of the medial prefrontal cortex, indicating an involvement of these regions in chronic drive of the HPA axis. Increases in FosB/ΔFosB-immunoreactive cells were observed following both RR and CVS in the other regions (e.g., the dorsomedial hypothalamus), suggesting activation by both habituating and non-habituating stress conditions. The data suggest that unpredictable stress uniquely activates interconnected cortical, hypothalamic, and brainstem nuclei, potentially revealing the existence of a recruited circuitry mediating chronic drive of brain stress effector systems. PMID:22789020

  16. Small activating RNA binds to the genomic target site in a seed-region-dependent manner

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xing; Jiang, Qian; Chang, Nannan; Wang, Xiaoxia; Liu, Chujun; Xiong, Jingwei; Cao, Huiqing; Liang, Zicai

    2016-01-01

    RNA activation (RNAa) is the upregulation of gene expression by small activating RNAs (saRNAs). In order to investigate the mechanism by which saRNAs act in RNAa, we used the progesterone receptor (PR) gene as a model, established a panel of effective saRNAs and assessed the involvement of the sense and antisense strands of saRNA in RNAa. All active saRNAs had their antisense strand effectively incorporated into Ago2, whereas such consistency did not occur for the sense strand. Using a distal hotspot for saRNA targeting at 1.6-kb upstream from the PR transcription start site, we further established that gene activation mediated by saRNA depended on the complementarity of the 5′ region of the antisense strand, and that such activity was largely abolished by mutations in this region of the saRNA. We found markedly reduced RNAa effects when we created mutations in the genomic target site of saRNA PR-1611, thus providing evidence that RNAa depends on the integrity of the DNA target. We further demonstrated that this saRNA bound the target site on promoter DNA. These results demonstrated that saRNAs work via an on-site mechanism by binding to target genomic DNA in a seed-region-dependent manner, reminiscent of miRNA-like target recognition. PMID:26873922

  17. The solar extreme ultra-violet corona: Resolved loops and the unresolved active region corona

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirtain, Jonathan Wesley

    In this work, physical characteristics of the solar corona as observed in the Extreme Ultra-Violet (EUV) regime are investigated. The focus will be the regions of intense EUV radiation generally found near the locations of sunspots. These regions are commonly called active regions. Multiple space- based observing platforms have been deployed in the last decade; it is possible to use several of these observatories in combination to develop a more complete picture of the solar corona. Joint Observing Program 146 was created to collect spectroscopic intensities using the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer on Solar and Heliospheric Observatory and EUV images using NASA's Transition Region and Coronal Explorer. The emission line intensities are analyzed to develop an understanding of the temperature and density of the active region coronal plasma. However, the performance of the CDS instrument in the spatial and temporal domains is limited and to compensate for these limitations, data collected by the TRACE instrument provide a high spatial and temporal resolution set of observations. One of the most exciting unsolved problems in solar astrophysics is to understand why the corona maintains a temperature roughly two orders of magnitude higher than the underlying material. A detailed investigation of the coronal emission has provided constraints on models of the heating mechanism, since the temperature, density and evolution of emission rates for multiple ionic species are indicative of the mechanism(s) working to heat the corona. The corona appears to consist of multiple unresolved structures as well as resolved active region structures, called coronal loops. The purpose of the present work is to determine the characteristics of the unresolved background corona. Using the characterizations of the coronal unresolved background, results for loops after background subtraction are also presented. This work demonstrates the magnitude of the unresolved coronal emission with

  18. IS FS Tau B DRIVING AN ASYMMETRIC JET?

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chun-Fan; Shang, Hsien; Takami, Michihiro; Yan, Chi-Hung; Wang, Shiang-Yu; Ohashi, Nagayoshi; Pyo, Tae-Soo; Walter, Frederick M.; Hayashi, Masahiko

    2012-04-10

    FS Tau B is one of the few T Tauri stars that possess a jet and a counterjet as well as an optically visible cavity wall. We obtained images and spectra of its jet-cavity system in the near-infrared H and K bands using the Subaru/Infrared Camera and Spectrograph and detected the jet and the counterjet in the [Fe II] 1.644 {mu}m line for the first time. Within 2'' the blueshifted jet is brighter, whereas beyond {approx}5'' the redshifted counterjet dominates the [Fe II] emission. The innermost blueshifted knot is spectrally resolved to have a large line width of {approx}110 km s{sup -1}, while the innermost redshifted knot appears spectrally unresolved. The velocity ratio of the jet to the counterjet is {approx}1.34, which suggests that FS Tau B is driving an asymmetric jet, similar to those found in several T Tauri stars. Combining with optical observations in the literature, we showed that the blueshifted jet has a lower density and higher excitation than the redshifted counterjet. We suggest that the asymmetry in brightness and velocity is the manifestation of a bipolar outflow driving at different mass-loss rates, while maintaining balance of linear momentum. A full explanation of the asymmetry in the FS Tau B system awaits detail modeling and further investigation of the kinematic structure of the wind-associated cavity walls.

  19. Energy balance in solar active regions - The dip of April, 1985

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hudson, H. S.

    1986-01-01

    The presence of a solar active region affects the luminosity of the sun. Sunspots directly produce 'dips' in the total solar irradiance approximately proportionally to their projected area, while faculae produce excess energy. These effects were discovered during the solar maximum period of 1980, and the sunspot effect during solar minimum is examined. The 'dip' due to an active region in April, 1985, as observed in the total solar irradiance by the ACRIM instrument on the Solar Maximum Mission is examined. These data (obtained after the spacecraft repair in May, 1984) have simple variations, relative to those observed in 1980, because of the reduced level of activity approaching solar minimum. It is found that the PSI index of projected sunspot area as defined in 1980 appears to describe this 'dip' satisfactorily.

  20. Diverse activation pathways in class A GPCRs converge near the G-protein-coupling region.

    PubMed

    Venkatakrishnan, A J; Deupi, Xavier; Lebon, Guillaume; Heydenreich, Franziska M; Flock, Tilman; Miljus, Tamara; Balaji, Santhanam; Bouvier, Michel; Veprintsev, Dmitry B; Tate, Christopher G; Schertler, Gebhard F X; Babu, M Madan

    2016-08-25

    Class A G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) are a large family of membrane proteins that mediate a wide variety of physiological functions, including vision, neurotransmission and immune responses. They are the targets of nearly one-third of all prescribed medicinal drugs such as beta blockers and antipsychotics. GPCR activation is facilitated by extracellular ligands and leads to the recruitment of intracellular G proteins. Structural rearrangements of residue contacts in the transmembrane domain serve as 'activation pathways' that connect the ligand-binding pocket to the G-protein-coupling region within the receptor. In order to investigate the similarities in activation pathways across class A GPCRs, we analysed 27 GPCRs from diverse subgroups for which structures of active, inactive or both states were available. Here we show that, despite the diversity in activation pathways between receptors, the pathways converge near the G-protein-coupling region. This convergence is mediated by a highly conserved structural rearrangement of residue contacts between transmembrane helices 3, 6 and 7 that releases G-protein-contacting residues. The convergence of activation pathways may explain how the activation steps initiated by diverse ligands enable GPCRs to bind a common repertoire of G proteins. PMID:27525504

  1. Characterization of MODIS and SeaWiFS solar diffuser on-orbit degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, X.; Eplee, R. E., Jr.; Sun, J.; Patt, F. S.; Angal, A.; McClain, C. R.

    2009-08-01

    MODIS has 20 reflective solar bands (RSB), covering the VIS, NIR, and SWIR spectral regions. They are calibrated on-orbit using a solar diffuser (SD) panel, made of space-grade Spectralon. The SD bi-directional reflectance factor (BRF) was characterized pre-launch by the instrument vendor with reference to the NIST reflectance standard. Its on-orbit degradation is tracked by an on-board solar diffuser stability monitor (SDSM). The SeaWiFS on-orbit calibration strategy uses monthly lunar observations to monitor the long-term radiometric stability of the instrument and applies daily observations of its solar diffuser (an aluminum plate coated with YB71 paint) to track the short-term changes in the instrument response. This paper provides an overview of MODIS and SeaWiFS SD observations, applications, and approaches used to track their on-orbit degradations. Results from both sensors are presented with emphasis on the spectral dependence and temporal trends of the SD degradation. Lessons and challenges from the use of SD for sensor on-orbit calibration are also discussed.

  2. Testing of several distributed file-systems (HDFS, Ceph and GlusterFS) for supporting the HEP experiments analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donvito, Giacinto; Marzulli, Giovanni; Diacono, Domenico

    2014-06-01

    The activity of testing new storage solution is of great importance in order to provide both features and performance evaluation and give few hints to small-medium sites that are interested in exploiting new storage technologies. In particular this work will cover storage solutions that provide both standard POSIX storage access and cloud technologies; we focused our attention and our test on HDFS, Ceph, and GlusterFS.

  3. Antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of plant seed extracts from Brazilian semiarid region.

    PubMed

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (-) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μ g/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 μ g/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

  4. Antibacterial, Antioxidant, and Anticholinesterase Activities of Plant Seed Extracts from Brazilian Semiarid Region

    PubMed Central

    Farias, Davi Felipe; Souza, Terezinha Maria; Viana, Martônio Ponte; Soares, Bruno Marques; Cunha, Arcelina Pacheco; Vasconcelos, Ilka Maria; Ricardo, Nágila Maria Pontes Silva; Ferreira, Paulo Michel Pinheiro; Melo, Vânia Maria Maciel; Carvalho, Ana Fontenele Urano

    2013-01-01

    The antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anticholinesterase activities of ethanolic seed extracts of twenty-one plant species from Brazilian semiarid region were investigated. The extracts were tested for antimicrobial activity against six bacteria strains and three yeasts. Six extracts presented activity against the Gram (−) organism Salmonella choleraesuis and the Gram (+) organisms Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis. The MIC values ranged from 4.96 to 37.32 mg/mL. The Triplaris gardneriana extract presented activity against the three species, with MIC values 18.8, 13.76, and 11.15 mg/mL, respectively. Five extracts presented antioxidant activity, with EC50 values ranging from 69.73 μg/mL (T. gardneriana) to 487.51 μg/mL (Licania rigida). For the anticholinesterase activity, eleven extracts were capable of inhibiting the enzyme activity. From those, T. gardneriana, Parkia platycephala and Connarus detersus presented the best activities, with inhibition values of 76.7, 71.5, and 91.9%, respectively. The extracts that presented antimicrobial activity were tested for hemolytic assay against human A, B, and O blood types and rabbit blood. From those, only the Myracrodruon urundeuva extract presented activity (about 20% of hemolysis at the lowest tested concentration, 1.9 µg/mL). Infrared spectroscopy of six representative extracts attested the presence of tannins, polyphenols, and flavonoids, which was confirmed by a qualitative phytochemical assay. PMID:24386637

  5. A Preliminary Study on Geological Structure and Seismological Activity in Fuxian Lake and Neighbouring Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Jun; Lou, Ke

    2008-06-01

    The area around the Fuxian Lake is in the west branch of the Xiaojiang faulted zone, and is one of the regions with potential seismic activities. Destructive earthquakes with magnitudes larger than 5 (with intensity grade VI) happened in the region in history, and the region was affected many times by earthquakes with magnitudes larger than 6 occurring in neighbouring regions. From the analyses of geological structure of seismology and the characteristics of the seismic activities in recent years, the Fuxian Lake and the regions nearby are possible potential locations of epicenter for magnitude 7 to 7.5 earthquakes in the future. Therefore, according to the rules and regulations stipulated in "Anti Seismic and Natural Disaster Reduction Act", "Ordinance of Anti Seismic and Natural Disaster Reduction of Yuxi City", it is suggested that Yunnan Observatory should carry out evaluation of the seismic security in its construction of the Fuxian Lake Solar Observatory in accordance with the national technical standards decribed in "Technical Specifications for Evaluation of Seismic Security at Engineering Sites"

  6. Magnetic Flux Transport and the Long-term Evolution of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ugarte-Urra, Ignacio; Upton, Lisa; Warren, Harry P.; Hathaway, David H.

    2015-12-01

    With multiple vantage points around the Sun, Solar Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) and Solar Dynamics Observatory imaging observations provide a unique opportunity to view the solar surface continuously. We use He ii 304 Å data from these observatories to isolate and track ten active regions and study their long-term evolution. We find that active regions typically follow a standard pattern of emergence over several days followed by a slower decay that is proportional in time to the peak intensity in the region. Since STEREO does not make direct observations of the magnetic field, we employ a flux-luminosity relationship to infer the total unsigned magnetic flux evolution. To investigate this magnetic flux decay over several rotations we use a surface flux transport model, the Advective Flux Transport model, that simulates convective flows using a time-varying velocity field and find that the model provides realistic predictions when information about the active region's magnetic field strength and distribution at peak flux is available. Finally, we illustrate how 304 Å images can be used as a proxy for magnetic flux measurements when magnetic field data is not accessible.

  7. Particle acceleration in solar active regions being in the state of self-organized criticality.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlahos, Loukas

    We review the recent observational results on flare initiation and particle acceleration in solar active regions. Elaborating a statistical approach to describe the spatiotemporally intermittent electric field structures formed inside a flaring solar active region, we investigate the efficiency of such structures in accelerating charged particles (electrons and protons). The large-scale magnetic configuration in the solar atmosphere responds to the strong turbulent flows that convey perturbations across the active region by initiating avalanche-type processes. The resulting unstable structures correspond to small-scale dissipation regions hosting strong electric fields. Previous research on particle acceleration in strongly turbulent plasmas provides a general framework for addressing such a problem. This framework combines various electromagnetic field configurations obtained by magnetohydrodynamical (MHD) or cellular automata (CA) simulations, or by employing a statistical description of the field’s strength and configuration with test particle simulations. We work on data-driven 3D magnetic field extrapolations, based on a self-organized criticality models (SOC). A relativistic test-particle simulation traces each particle’s guiding center within these configurations. Using the simulated particle-energy distributions we test our results against observations, in the framework of the collisional thick target model (CTTM) of solar hard X-ray (HXR) emission and compare our results with the current observations.

  8. Hydrogen over helium enhancement in successive solar flare particle events from the same active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, P. R.; Armstrong, T. P.; Krimigis, S. M.

    1979-01-01

    An analysis of all of the identified solar-flare-associated energetic particle events in the 1972-1975 period observed with instruments aboard the IMP 7 and IMP 8 satellites has revealed at least eight occasions when more than one particle-producing flare occurred within the same McMath active plage region during its transit of the visible solar disk. A strong tendency for second flares to produce hydrogen over helium (p/alpha) enhanced energetic particle fluxes when compared with the first flare in the 1.8-10.0 MeV per nucleon range emerged in these multiflare regions. The p/alpha enhancement is apparently transient, and for flares separated by at least about 100 hours the p/alpha ratio tends toward its preflare value. It is suggested that the substrate plasma in an active region may be enriched prior to a flare in elements heavier than hydrogen and the composition may not be significantly altered during subsequent acceleration, escape, and propagation. Thus, the preflare history of the active region must be added to the list of factors influencing observed solar-particle-event composition.

  9. ACTIVE REGION MOSS: DOPPLER SHIFTS FROM HINODE/EXTREME-ULTRAVIOLET IMAGING SPECTROMETER OBSERVATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-07-01

    Studying the Doppler shifts and the temperature dependence of Doppler shifts in moss regions can help us understand the heating processes in the core of the active regions. In this paper, we have used an active region observation recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on board Hinode on 2007 December 12 to measure the Doppler shifts in the moss regions. We have distinguished the moss regions from the rest of the active region by defining a low-density cutoff as derived by Tripathi et al. in 2010. We have carried out a very careful analysis of the EIS wavelength calibration based on the method described by Young et al. in 2012. For spectral lines having maximum sensitivity between log T = 5.85 and log T = 6.25 K, we find that the velocity distribution peaks at around 0 km s{sup -1} with an estimated error of 4-5 km s{sup -1}. The width of the distribution decreases with temperature. The mean of the distribution shows a blueshift which increases with increasing temperature and the distribution also shows asymmetries toward blueshift. Comparing these results with observables predicted from different coronal heating models, we find that these results are consistent with both steady and impulsive heating scenarios. However, the fact that there are a significant number of pixels showing velocity amplitudes that exceed the uncertainty of 5 km s{sup -1} is suggestive of impulsive heating. Clearly, further observational constraints are needed to distinguish between these two heating scenarios.

  10. Underground storage tanks 200W-FS-34 and 200W-FS-35 excavated soil field sample plan

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, J.G.

    1994-09-07

    This plan outlines the process that will be used to collect samples from soil excavated during removal of underground storage tanks 200W-FS-34 and 200W-FS-35. The samples will be analyzed to determine if gasoline and diesel fuel are present in the soil at levels above action levels specified by the Washington State Department of Ecology. On April 15, 1992, the underground storage tanks were removed and soil samples were collected at each former tank location and from around the associated piping. Soil was excavated from the site until field instrumentation indicated that the former tank sites were clean in the judgment of the field team leader. Field monitoring consisted of using an organic vapor monitor to survey soil shaken in a plastic bag. Monitoring indicated that petroleum contamination ranged from 40 to 800 ppm.

  11. On the Origin of the Asymmetric Helicity Injection in Emerging Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fan, Y.; Alexander, D.; Tian, L.

    2009-12-01

    To explore the possible causes of the observed asymmetric helicity flux in emerging active regions between the leading and following polarities reported in a recent study by Tian & Alexander, we examine the subsurface evolution of buoyantly rising Ω-shaped flux tubes using three-dimensional, spherical-shell anelastic MHD simulations. We find that due to the asymmetric stretching of the Ω-shaped tube by the Coriolis force, the leading side of the emerging tube has a greater field strength, is more buoyant, and remains more cohesive compared to the following side. As a result, the magnetic field lines in the leading leg show more coherent values of local twist α ≡ (∇ × B) · B/B 2, whereas the values in the following leg show large fluctuations and are of mixed sign. On average, however, the field lines in the leading leg do not show a systematically greater mean twist compared to the following leg. Due to the higher rise velocity of the leading leg, the upward helicity flux through a horizontal cross section at each depth in the upper half of the convection zone is significantly greater in the leading polarity region than that in the following leg. This may contribute to the observed asymmetric helicity flux in emerging active regions. Furthermore, based on a simplified model of active region flux emergence into the corona by Longcope & Welsch, we show that a stronger field strength in the leading tube can result in a faster rotation of the leading polarity sunspot driven by torsional Alfvén waves during flux emergence into the corona, contributing to a greater helicity injection rate in the leading polarity of an emerging active region.

  12. ON THE ORIGIN OF THE ASYMMETRIC HELICITY INJECTION IN EMERGING ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Fan, Y.; Alexander, D.; Tian, L.

    2009-12-10

    To explore the possible causes of the observed asymmetric helicity flux in emerging active regions between the leading and following polarities reported in a recent study by Tian and Alexander, we examine the subsurface evolution of buoyantly rising OMEGA-shaped flux tubes using three-dimensional, spherical-shell anelastic MHD simulations. We find that due to the asymmetric stretching of the OMEGA-shaped tube by the Coriolis force, the leading side of the emerging tube has a greater field strength, is more buoyant, and remains more cohesive compared to the following side. As a result, the magnetic field lines in the leading leg show more coherent values of local twist alpha ident to (nabla x B) centre dot B/B {sup 2}, whereas the values in the following leg show large fluctuations and are of mixed sign. On average, however, the field lines in the leading leg do not show a systematically greater mean twist compared to the following leg. Due to the higher rise velocity of the leading leg, the upward helicity flux through a horizontal cross section at each depth in the upper half of the convection zone is significantly greater in the leading polarity region than that in the following leg. This may contribute to the observed asymmetric helicity flux in emerging active regions. Furthermore, based on a simplified model of active region flux emergence into the corona by Longcope and Welsch, we show that a stronger field strength in the leading tube can result in a faster rotation of the leading polarity sunspot driven by torsional Alfven waves during flux emergence into the corona, contributing to a greater helicity injection rate in the leading polarity of an emerging active region.

  13. Active aeolian processes on Mars: A regional study in Arabia and Meridiani Terrae

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Silvestro, S.; Vaz, D.A.; Fenton, L.K.; Geissler, P.E.

    2011-01-01

    We present evidence of widespread aeolian activity in the Arabia Terra/Meridiani region (Mars), where different kinds of aeolian modifications have been detected and classified. Passing from the regional to the local scale, we describe one particular dune field in Meridiani Planum, where two ripple populations are distinguished by means of different migration rates. Moreover, a consistent change in the ripple pattern is accompanied by significant dune advancement (between 0.4-1 meter in one Martian year) that is locally triggered by large avalanche features. This suggests that dune advancement may be common throughout the Martian tropics. ?? 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

  14. SeaWiFS Postlaunch Technical Report Series. Volume 1; The SeaWiFS Transfer Radiometer (SXR)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, B. Carol; Fowler, J. B.; Cromer, Christopher L.; Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor)

    1998-01-01

    The SeaWiFS Transfer Radiometer (SXR) was built for the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) Project as part of an Interagency Agreement with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The SXR is a multichannel radiometer designed to verify and compare measurements of spectral radiance at six discrete wavelengths in the visible and near infrared for various calibration sources in the SeaWiFS Project. In addition, the SXR is used to compare these sources to standards of spectral radiance maintained at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST). The SXR was designed, built, and thoroughly characterized in the Optical Technology Division at NIST. A unique optical design provides six independent optical paths, each equipped with a temperature stabilized interference filter and silicon photodiode. A separate beam path through the input lens is used to visually align the SXR. The entrance windows for each channel overlap at the source, with each channel sampling a unique solid angle within the field of view of the SXR; this allows for simultaneous sampling of all channels. The combined standard relative uncertainty of spectral radiance measurements with the SXR is estimated to be between 0.6% and 1.3%. This report describes the design and construction of the SXR in detail, and gives the results of the optical characterization and calibrations done at NIST. The SXR has been used for several intercomparisons which include several SeaWiFS Intercalibration Round-Robin Experiments (SIRREXs); those done at the Marine Optical Buoy (MOBY) laboratories in Honolulu, Hawaii; at the NEC Corporation in Yokohama, Japan; and Orbital Sciences Corporation (OSC) in Germantown, Maryland. Thorough optical characterization and calibration of the SXR was essential to the successful application of the radiometer for these measurements.

  15. Unravelling the competing influence of regional uplift and active normal faulting in SW Calabria, Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whittaker, Alex; Roda Boluda, Duna; Boulton, Sarah; Erhardt, Sebastian

    2015-04-01

    The Neogene geological and geomorphological evolution of Southern Italy is complex and is fundamentally controlled by the subduction of the Ionian slab along the Apennine belt from the Calabrian Arc, and back-arc extension driven by trench rollback. In the area of Calabria and the Straits of Messina the presence of (i) uplifted, deformed and dissected basin sediments and marine terraces, ranging in age from the early to mid-Pleistocene and (ii) seismicity associated with NE-SW normal faults that have well-developed footwall topography and triangular facets have led workers to suggest that both significant regional uplift and extensional faulting in SW Calabria have played a role in generating relief in the area since the mid Pleistocene. However, there is considerable uncertainty in the rates of total surface uplift relative to sea level in both time and space, and the relative partitioning of this uplift between a mantle-driven regional signal, potentially related to a slab tear, and the active extensional structures. Additionally, despite the widespread recognition of normal faults in Calabria to which historical earthquakes are often linked, there is much less agreement on (i) which ones are active and for what length of time; (ii) how the faults interact; and (iii) what their throw and throw rates are. In particular, the ability to resolve both regional uplift and normal faulting in SW Calabria is essential in order to fully understand the tectonic history of the region, while an understanding of location and slip rate of active faults, in an area where the population numbers more than two million people, is essential to assess regional seismic hazards. Here we address these important questions using a combination of tectonic geomorphology and structural geology. We critically examine existing constraints on the rates and distribution of active normal faulting and regional uplift in the area, and we derive new constraints on the along-strike variation in throw

  16. Spontaneous cortical activity alternates between motifs defined by regional axonal projections

    PubMed Central

    Mohajerani, Majid H.; Chan, Allen W.; Mohsenvand, Mostafa; LeDue, Jeffrey; Liu, Rui; McVea, David A.; Boyd, Jamie D.; Wang, Yu Tian; Reimers, Mark; Murphy, Timothy H.

    2014-01-01

    In lightly anaesthetized or awake adult mice using millisecond timescale voltage sensitive dye imaging, we show that a palette of sensory-evoked and hemisphere-wide activity motifs are represented in spontaneous activity. These motifs can reflect multiple modes of sensory processing including vision, audition, and touch. Similar cortical networks were found with direct cortical activation using channelrhodopsin-2. Regional analysis of activity spread indicated modality specific sources such as primary sensory areas, and a common posterior-medial cortical sink where sensory activity was extinguished within the parietal association area, and a secondary anterior medial sink within the cingulate/secondary motor cortices for visual stimuli. Correlation analysis between functional circuits and intracortical axonal projections indicated a common framework corresponding to long-range mono-synaptic connections between cortical regions. Maps of intracortical mono-synaptic structural connections predicted hemisphere-wide patterns of spontaneous and sensory-evoked depolarization. We suggest that an intracortical monosynaptic connectome shapes the ebb and flow of spontaneous cortical activity. PMID:23974708

  17. Ellerman Bombs in a Solar Active Region: Statistical Properties and Implications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Georgoulis, M. K.; Rust, D. M.; Bernasconi, P. N.

    2001-05-01

    We have embedded the concept of Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) in deterministic Cellular Automata (CA) models in an attempt to simulate the emergence of flaring and sub-flaring activity in solar active regions. SOC CA models reproduce reasonably well several aspects of the statistical properties of flares and, moreover, they allow predictions regarding the respective properties of the unresolved nanoflares. We compare the above-mentioned predictions with observed arcsecond and sub-arcsecond activity on the low-chromosphere, in a newly formed active region. The source of the observations is the Flare Genesis Experiment (FGE) which has provided us with high-resolution maps of the magnetic field and the velocity field vectors on the photospheric boundary, as well as Hα filtergrams on the low-chromosphere. Moreover, UV and EUV data from TRACE are used for determining the activity on the overlying atmospheric layers. We present preliminary results on the statistical properties of transient Hα brightenings (Ellerman Bombs) which correlate well with significant overlying UV emission. Implications of these results, as well as potential directions for modeling the low-lying activity in the solar atmosphere are discussed. This work was sponsored by NASA grant NAG5-8331 and NSF grant OPP-9909162

  18. Spontaneous cortical activity alternates between motifs defined by regional axonal projections.

    PubMed

    Mohajerani, Majid H; Chan, Allen W; Mohsenvand, Mostafa; LeDue, Jeffrey; Liu, Rui; McVea, David A; Boyd, Jamie D; Wang, Yu Tian; Reimers, Mark; Murphy, Timothy H

    2013-10-01

    Using millisecond-timescale voltage-sensitive dye imaging in lightly anesthetized or awake adult mice, we show that a palette of sensory-evoked and hemisphere-wide activity motifs are represented in spontaneous activity. These motifs can reflect multiple modes of sensory processing, including vision, audition and touch. We found similar cortical networks with direct cortical activation using channelrhodopsin-2. Regional analysis of activity spread indicated modality-specific sources, such as primary sensory areas, a common posterior-medial cortical sink where sensory activity was extinguished within the parietal association area and a secondary anterior medial sink within the cingulate and secondary motor cortices for visual stimuli. Correlation analysis between functional circuits and intracortical axonal projections indicated a common framework corresponding to long-range monosynaptic connections between cortical regions. Maps of intracortical monosynaptic structural connections predicted hemisphere-wide patterns of spontaneous and sensory-evoked depolarization. We suggest that an intracortical monosynaptic connectome shapes the ebb and flow of spontaneous cortical activity. PMID:23974708

  19. Bioimpedance Harmonic Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool to Assess Regional Circulation and Neural Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudraya, I. S.; Revenko, S. V.; Khodyreva, L. A.; Markosyan, T. G.; Dudareva, A. A.; Ibragimov, A. R.; Romich, V. V.; Kirpatovsky, V. I.

    2013-04-01

    The novel technique based on harmonic analysis of bioimpedance microvariations with original hard- and software complex incorporating a high-resolution impedance converter was used to assess the neural activity and circulation in human urinary bladder and penis in patients with pelvic pain, erectile dysfunction, and overactive bladder. The therapeutic effects of shock wave therapy and Botulinum toxin detrusor injections were evaluated quantitatively according to the spectral peaks at low 0.1 Hz frequency (M for Mayer wave), respiratory (R) and cardiac (C) rhythms with their harmonics. Enhanced baseline regional neural activity identified according to M and R peaks was found to be presumably sympathetic in pelvic pain patients, and parasympathetic - in patients with overactive bladder. Total pulsatile activity and pulsatile resonances found in the bladder as well as in the penile spectrum characterised regional circulation and vascular tone. The abnormal spectral parameters characteristic of the patients with genitourinary diseases shifted to the norm in the cases of efficient therapy. Bioimpedance harmonic analysis seems to be a potent tool to assess regional peculiarities of circulatory and autonomic nervous activity in the course of patient treatment.

  20. Altered regional homogeneity of spontaneous brain activity in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yanping; Zhang, Xiaoling; Guan, Qiaobing; Wan, Lihong; Yi, Yahui; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN) has conventionally been thought to be induced by neurovascular compression theory. Recent structural brain imaging evidence has suggested an additional central component for ITN pathophysiology. However, far less attention has been given to investigations of the basis of abnormal resting-state brain activity in these patients. The objective of this study was to investigate local brain activity in patients with ITN and its correlation with clinical variables of pain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 17 patients with ITN and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were analyzed using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which is a data-driven approach used to measure the regional synchronization of spontaneous brain activity. Patients with ITN had decreased ReHo in the left amygdala, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum and increased ReHo in the right inferior temporal gyrus, right thalamus, right inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus (corrected). Furthermore, the increase in ReHo in the left precentral gyrus was positively correlated with visual analog scale (r=0.54; P=0.002). Our study found abnormal functional homogeneity of intrinsic brain activity in several regions in ITN, suggesting the maladaptivity of the process of daily pain attacks and a central role for the pathophysiology of ITN. PMID:26508861

  1. Altered regional homogeneity of spontaneous brain activity in idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanping; Zhang, Xiaoling; Guan, Qiaobing; Wan, Lihong; Yi, Yahui; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2015-01-01

    The pathophysiology of idiopathic trigeminal neuralgia (ITN) has conventionally been thought to be induced by neurovascular compression theory. Recent structural brain imaging evidence has suggested an additional central component for ITN pathophysiology. However, far less attention has been given to investigations of the basis of abnormal resting-state brain activity in these patients. The objective of this study was to investigate local brain activity in patients with ITN and its correlation with clinical variables of pain. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data from 17 patients with ITN and 19 age- and sex-matched healthy controls were analyzed using regional homogeneity (ReHo) analysis, which is a data-driven approach used to measure the regional synchronization of spontaneous brain activity. Patients with ITN had decreased ReHo in the left amygdala, right parahippocampal gyrus, and left cerebellum and increased ReHo in the right inferior temporal gyrus, right thalamus, right inferior parietal lobule, and left postcentral gyrus (corrected). Furthermore, the increase in ReHo in the left precentral gyrus was positively correlated with visual analog scale (r=0.54; P=0.002). Our study found abnormal functional homogeneity of intrinsic brain activity in several regions in ITN, suggesting the maladaptivity of the process of daily pain attacks and a central role for the pathophysiology of ITN. PMID:26508861

  2. Horizontal Flows in the Photosphere and Subphotosphere of Two Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Yang; Zhao, Junwei; Schuck, P. W.

    2012-01-01

    We compare horizontal flow fields in the photosphere and in the subphotosphere (a layer 0.5 megameters below the photosphere) in two solar active regions: AR11084 and AR11158. AR11084 is a mature, simple active region without significant flaring activity, and AR11158 is a multipolar, complex active region with magnetic flux emerging during the period studied. Flows in the photosphere are derived by applying the Differential Affine Velocity Estimator for Vector Magnetograms (DAVE4VM) on HMI-observed vector magnetic fields, and the subphotospheric flows are inferred by time-distance helioseismology using HMI-observed Dopplergrams. Similar flow patterns are found for both layers for AR11084: inward flows in the sunspot umbra and outward flows surrounding the sunspot. The boundary between the inward and outward flows, which is slightly different in the photosphere and the subphotosphere, is within the sunspot penumbra. The area having inward flows in the subphotosphere is larger than that in the photosphere. For AR11158, flows in these two layers show great similarities in some areas and significant differences in other areas. Both layers exhibit consistent outward flows in the areas surrounding sunspots. On the other hand, most well-documented flux-emergence-related flow features seen in the photosphere do not have counterparts in the subphotosphere. This implies that the horizontal flows caused by flux emergence do not extend deeply into the subsurface.

  3. Radiative and magnetic properties of solar active regions. I. Global magnetic field and EUV line intensities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fludra, A.; Ireland, J.

    2008-05-01

    Context: The relationships between the photospheric magnetic flux and either the X-ray or extreme ultraviolet emission from the solar atmosphere have been studied by several authors. Power-law relations have been found between the total magnetic flux and X-ray flux or intensities of the chromospheric, transition region, and coronal emission lines in solar active regions. These relations were then used to infer the mechanism of the coronal heating. Aims: We derive accurate power laws between EUV line intensities and the total magnetic flux in solar active regions and discuss their applications. We examine whether these global power laws are capable of providing the diagnostics of the coronal heating mechanism. Methods: This analysis is based on EUV lines recorded by the Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer (CDS) on SOHO for 48 solar active regions, as they crossed the central meridian in years 1996-1998. Four spectral lines are used: He I 584.3 Å (3×104 K), O V 629.7 Å (2.2×105 K), Mg IX 368.06 Å (9.5×105 K), and Fe XVI 360.76 Å (2.0×106 K). In particular, the Fe XVI 360.76 Å line, seen only in areas of enhanced heating in active regions or bright points, has not been used before for this analysis. Results: Empirical power laws are established between the total active region intensity in the lines listed above and the total magnetic flux. We demonstrate the usefulness of some spatially integrated EUV line intensities, I_T, as a proxy for the total magnetic flux, Φ, in active regions. We point out the approximate, empirical nature of the I_T-Φ relationships and discuss the interpretation of the global power index. Different power index values for transition region and coronal lines are explained by their different dependence on pressure under the assumption of hydrostatic loop models. However, the global power laws are dominated by the size of the active regions, and we demonstrate for the first time the difficulties in uniquely relating the power index in the

  4. Fundus oculi pigmentation studies simulating the fs-LASIK process Fundus oculi pigmentation studies simulating the fs-LASIK process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sander, M.; Minet, O.; Zabarylo, U.; Müller, M.; Tetz, M. R.

    2012-06-01

    The femtosecond-laser in situ keratomileusis (fs-LASIK) technique has successfully entered the refractive surgery market to correct ametropia by cutting transparent corneal tissue with ultra-short laser pulses based on photodisruption. The laser pulses in the near infrared range (NIR) generate a laser-induced breakdown (LIOB) in the cornea. By propagating through the eye, a certain amount of the pulse is deposited in the cornea and the remaining energy interacts with the strong absorbing tissue behind. Due to the absorption by the retinal pigment epithelium and the transfer of the thermal energy to surrounding tissue, the transmitted energy can induce damage to the retina. The aim of this project was to find out the threshold influences concerning the tissue and the correlation between the results of the macroscopical appraisal and the fundus oculi pigmentation by simulating the fs-LASIK procedure with two various laser systems in the continuous wave (CW) and fs-regime. Therefore ex-vivo determinations were carried out macroscopically and histopathologically on porcine tissue.

  5. Ultra-Hot Plasma in Active Regions Observed by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on Hinode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doschek, G. A.; Warren, H. P.; Feldman, U.

    2008-05-01

    The Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) on the Hinode spacecraft obtains high resolution spectra of the solar atmosphere in two wavelength ranges: 170 - 210 and 250 — 290 Angstroms. These wavelength regions contain a wealth of emission lines covering temperature regions from the chromosphere/transition region (e.g., He II, Si VII) up to soft X-ray flare temperatures (Fe XXIII, Fe XXIV). EIS can obtain line profiles and intensities for the spectral lines in these wavelength regions. Of particular interest for understanding coronal heating is a line of Ca XVII, formed near a temperature of 6 MK. This line is blended with lines of Fe XI and O V. However, by using unblended lines of these ions, the Ca XVII line can be deconvolved from the blended emission. EIS has obtained many raster observations of active regions by stepping the slit in small increments across the active region, producing monochromatic images of the active region. The Ca XVII blend has been included in many of these rasters. In this paper we discuss the appearance and frequency of 6 MK plasma in active regions in the absence of strong flaring activity. This temperature region is not well-observed by normal incidence imaging spectrometers and therefore the EIS data shed light on higher temperature areas of active regions than normally available from imaging instruments alone. We discuss how to deconvolve the blend and show examples of 6 MK plasma emission in several active regions.

  6. Effect of MSW source-classified collection on the emission of PCDDs/Fs and heavy metals from incineration in China.

    PubMed

    Shi, De-Zhi; Wu, Wei-Xiang; Lu, Sheng-Yong; Chen, Tong; Huang, Hui-Liang; Chen, Ying-Xu; Yan, Jian-Hua

    2008-05-01

    Municipal solid waste (MSW) source-classified collection represents a change in MSW management in China and other developing countries. Comparative experiments were performed to evaluate the effect of a newly established MSW source-classified collection system on the emission of PCDDs/Fs (polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans) and heavy metals (HMs) from a full-scale incinerator in China. As a result of presorting and dewatering, the chlorine level, heavy metal and water content were lower, but heat value was higher in the source-classified MSW (classified MSW) as compared with the conventionally mixed collected MSW (mixed MSW). The generation of PCDDs/Fs in flue gas from the classified MSW incineration was 9.28 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3), only 69.4% of that from the mixed MSW incineration, and the final emission of PCDDs/Fs was only 0.12 ng I-TEQ/Nm(3), although activated carbon injection was reduced by 20%. The level of PCDDs/Fs in fly ash from the bag filter was 0.27 ng I-TEQ/g. These results indicated that the source-classified collection with pretreatment could improve the characteristics of MSW for incineration, and significantly decrease formation of PCDDs/Fs in MSW incineration. Furthermore, distributions of HMs such as Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Cr, As, Ni, Hg in bottom ash and fly ash were investigated to assess the need for treatment of residual ash. PMID:17936503

  7. PBDDs/Fs and PCDDs/Fs in the raw and clean flue gas during steady state and transient operation of a municipal waste combustor

    EPA Science Inventory

    Concentrations of polybrominated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PBDDs/Fs) and polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and -dibenzofurans (PCDDs/Fs) were determined in the pre- and post- air pollution control system (APCS) flue gas of a municipal waste combustor (MWC). Operationa...

  8. Age and regional cerebral blood flow at rest and during cognitive activity

    SciTech Connect

    Gur, R.C.; Gur, R.E.; Obrist, W.D.; Skolnick, B.E.; Reivich, M.

    1987-07-01

    The relationship between age and regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) activation for cognitive tasks was investigated with the xenon (Xe 133) inhalation technique. The sample consisted of 55 healthy subjects, ranging in age from 18 to 72 years, who were studied during rest and during the performance of verbal analogy and spatial orientation tasks. The dependent measures were indexes of gray-matter rCBF and average rCBF (gray and white matter) as well as the percentage of gray-matter tissue. Advanced age was associated with reduced flow, particularly pronounced in anterior regions. However, the extent and pattern of rCBF changes during cognition was unaffected by age. For the percentage of gray matter, there was a specific reduction in anterior regions of the left hemisphere. The findings suggest the utility of this research paradigm for investigating neural underpinnings of the effects of dementia on cognitive functioning, relative to the effects of normal aging.

  9. Establishment of regions of genomic activity during the Drosophila maternal to zygotic transition.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Yong; Harrison, Melissa M; Villalta, Jacqueline E; Kaplan, Tommy; Eisen, Michael B

    2014-01-01

    We describe the genome-wide distributions and temporal dynamics of nucleosomes and post-translational histone modifications throughout the maternal-to-zygotic transition in embryos of Drosophila melanogaster. At mitotic cycle 8, when few zygotic genes are being transcribed, embryonic chromatin is in a relatively simple state: there are few nucleosome free regions, undetectable levels of the histone methylation marks characteristic of mature chromatin, and low levels of histone acetylation at a relatively small number of loci. Histone acetylation increases by cycle 12, but it is not until cycle 14 that nucleosome free regions and domains of histone methylation become widespread. Early histone acetylation is strongly associated with regions that we have previously shown to be bound in early embryos by the maternally deposited transcription factor Zelda, suggesting that Zelda triggers a cascade of events, including the accumulation of specific histone modifications, that plays a role in the subsequent activation of these sequences. PMID:25313869

  10. Development Programs and Activities for Southeast Asia Regional Office of Astronomy for Development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Insiri, Wichan

    2015-08-01

    In recent years, since the establishment of SEA-ROAD in 2012, the office has seen an exponential progress as it has proved to be one of the prominent regional hubs for IAU-OAD. Recent activities over the past years ranging from Winter and Summer Schools Trainings to Astronomy Technology Transfer Camp for high school students to Internship at NARIT are some examples of what promises to be a good sign of progressive leap in astronomy for the entire region. SEA-ROAD will continue to make an impact on astronomy education, popularization and public outreach as the office is vital and imperative to the capacity building of astronomy of the entire region.

  11. Functional photoacoustic imaging to observe regional brain activation induced by cocaine hydrochloride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-09-01

    Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was used to detect small animal brain activation in response to drug abuse. Cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution was injected into the blood stream of Sprague Dawley rats through tail veins. The rat brain functional change in response to the injection of drug was then monitored by the PAM technique. Images in the coronal view of the rat brain at the locations of 1.2 and 3.4 mm posterior to bregma were obtained. The resulted photoacoustic (PA) images showed the regional changes in the blood volume. Additionally, the regional changes in blood oxygenation were also presented. The results demonstrated that PA imaging is capable of monitoring regional hemodynamic changes induced by drug abuse.

  12. Synchronous fire activity in the tropical high Andes: an indication of regional climate forcing.

    PubMed

    Román-Cuesta, R M; Carmona-Moreno, C; Lizcano, G; New, M; Silman, M; Knoke, T; Malhi, Y; Oliveras, I; Asbjornsen, H; Vuille, M

    2014-06-01

    Global climate models suggest enhanced warming of the tropical mid and upper troposphere, with larger temperature rise rates at higher elevations. Changes in fire activity are amongst the most significant ecological consequences of rising temperatures and changing hydrological properties in mountainous ecosystems, and there is a global evidence of increased fire activity with elevation. Whilst fire research has become popular in the tropical lowlands, much less is known of the tropical high Andean region (>2000 masl, from Colombia to Bolivia). This study examines fire trends in the high Andes for three ecosystems, the Puna, the Paramo and the Yungas, for the period 1982-2006. We pose three questions: (i) is there an increased fire response with elevation? (ii) does the El Niño- Southern Oscillation control fire activity in this region? (iii) are the observed fire trends human driven (e.g., human practices and their effects on fuel build-up) or climate driven? We did not find evidence of increased fire activity with elevation but, instead, a quasicyclic and synchronous fire response in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, suggesting the influence of high-frequency climate forcing on fire responses on a subcontinental scale, in the high Andes. ENSO variability did not show a significant relation to fire activity for these three countries, partly because ENSO variability did not significantly relate to precipitation extremes, although it strongly did to temperature extremes. Whilst ENSO did not individually lead the observed regional fire trends, our results suggest a climate influence on fire activity, mainly through a sawtooth pattern of precipitation (increased rainfall before fire-peak seasons (t-1) followed by drought spells and unusual low temperatures (t0), which is particularly common where fire is carried by low fuel loads (e.g., grasslands and fine fuel). This climatic sawtooth appeared as the main driver of fire trends, above local human influences and fuel build

  13. Atmospheric conditions associated with extreme fire activity in the Western Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Amraoui, Malik; Pereira, Mário G; DaCamara, Carlos C; Calado, Teresa J

    2015-08-15

    Active fire information provided by TERRA and AQUA instruments on-board sun-synchronous polar MODIS platform is used to describe fire activity in the Western Mediterranean and to identify and characterize the synoptic patterns of several meteorological fields associated with the occurrence of extreme fire activity episodes (EEs). The spatial distribution of the fire pixels during the period of 2003-2012 leads to the identification of two most affected sub-regions, namely the Northern and Western parts of the Iberian Peninsula (NWIP) and Northern Africa (NAFR). The temporal distribution of the fire pixels in these two sub-regions is characterized by: (i) high and non-concurrent inter- and intra-annual variability with maximum values during the summer of 2003 and 2005 in NWIP and 2007 and 2012 in NAFR; and, (ii) high intra-annual variability dominated by a prominent annual cycle with a main peak centred in August in both sub-regions and a less pronounced secondary peak in March only evident in NWIP region. The 34 EEs identified were grouped according to the location, period of occurrence and spatial configuration of the associated synoptic patterns into 3 clusters (NWIP-summer, NWIP-winter and NAFR-summer). Results from the composite analysis reveal similar fire weather conditions (statistically significant positive anomalies of air temperature and negative anomalies of air relative humidity) but associated with different circulation patterns at lower and mid-levels of the atmosphere associated with the occurrence of EEs in each cluster of the Western Mediterranean region. PMID:25889542

  14. Examining the Magnetic Field Strength and the Horizontal and Vertical Motions in an Emerging Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chia-Hsien; Chen, Yu-Che

    2016-03-01

    Earlier observational studies have used the time evolution of emerging magnetic flux regions at the photosphere to infer their subsurface structures, assuming that the flux structure does not change significantly over the near-surface layer. In this study, we test the validity of this assumption by comparing the horizontal and vertical motions of an emerging active region. The two motions would be correlated if the emerging structure is rigid. The selected active region (AR) NOAA 11645 is not embedded in detectable preexisting magnetic field. The observed horizontal motion is quantified by the separation of the two AR polarities and the width of the region. The vertical motion is derived from the magnetic buoyancy theory. Our results show that the separation of the polarities is fastest at the beginning with a velocity of {≈ }4 Mm hr^{-1} and decreases to ≤ 1 Mm hr^{-1} after the main growing phase of flux emergence. The derived thick flux-tube buoyant velocity is between 1 and 3 Mm hr^{-1}, while the thin flux-tube approximation results in an unreasonably high buoyant velocity, consistent with the expectation that the approximation is inappropriate at the surface layer. The observed horizontal motion is not found to directly correlate with either the magnetic field strength or the derived buoyant velocities. However, the percentage of the horizontally oriented fields and the temporal derivatives of the field strength and the buoyant velocity show some positive correlations with the separation velocity. The results of this study imply that the assumption that the emerging active region is the cross section of a rising flux tube whose structure can be considered rigid as it rises through the near-surface layer should be taken with caution.

  15. Eastern region represents a worrying cluster of active hepatitis C in Algeria in 2012.

    PubMed

    Bensalem, Aïcha; Selmani, Karima; Hihi, Narjes; Bencherifa, Nesrine; Mostefaoui, Fatma; Kerioui, Cherif; Pineau, Pascal; Debzi, Nabil; Berkane, Saadi

    2016-08-01

    Algeria is the largest country of Africa, peopled with populations living a range of traditional/rural and modern/urban lifestyles. The variations of prevalence of chronic active hepatitis care poorly known on the Algerian territory. We conducted a retrospective survey on all patients (n = 998) referred to our institution in 2012 and confirmed by us for an active hepatitis C. Half of the hepatitis C virus (HCV) isolates were genotyped. Forty Algerian regions out of the 48 were represented in our study. Three geographical clusters (Aïn-Temouchent/SidiBelAbbes, Algiers, and a large Eastern region) with an excess of active hepatitis C were observed. Patients coming from the Eastern cluster (Batna, Khenchela, Oum el Bouaghi, and Tebessa) were strongly over-represented (49% of cases, OR = 14.5, P < 0.0001). The hallmarks of Eastern region were an excess of women (65% vs. 46% in the remaining population, P < 0.0001) and the almost exclusive presence of HCV genotype 1 (93% vs. 63%, P = 0.0001). The core of the epidemics was apparently located in Khenchela (odds ratio = 24.6, P < 0.0001). This situation is plausibly connected with nosocomial transmission or traditional practices as scarification (Hijama), piercing or tattooing, very lively in this region. Distinct hepatitis C epidemics are currently affecting Algerian population. The most worrying situation is observed in rural regions located east of Algeria. J. Med. Virol. 88:1394-1403, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:26856380

  16. SeaWiFS technical report series. Volume 31: Stray light in the SeaWiFS radiometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hooker, Stanford B. (Editor); Firestone, Elaine R. (Editor); Acker, James G. (Editor); Barnes, Robert A.; Holmes, Alan W.; Esaias, Wayne E.

    1995-01-01

    Some of the measurements from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) will not be useful as ocean measurements. For the ocean data set, there are procedures in place to mask the SeaWiFS measurements of clouds and ice. Land measurements will also be masked using a geographic technique based on each measurment's latitude and longitude. Each of these masks involves a source of light much brighter than the ocean. Because of stray light in the SeaWiFS radiometer, light from these bright sources can contaminate ocean measurements located a variable number of pixels away from a bright source. In this document, the sources of stray light in the sensor are examined, and a method is developed for masking measurements near bright targets for stray light effects. In addition, a procedure is proposed for reducing the effects of stray light in the flight data from SeaWiFS. This correction can also reduce the number of pixels masked for stray light. Without these corrections, local area scenes must be masked 10 pixels before and after bright targets in the along-scan direction. The addition of these corrections reduces the along-scan masks to four pixels before and after bright sources. In the along-track direction, the flight data are not corrected, and are masked two pixels before and after. Laboratory measurements have shown that stray light within the instrument changes in a direct ratio to the intensity of the bright source. The measurements have also shown that none of the bands show peculiarities in their stray light response. In other words, the instrument's response is uniform from band to band. The along-scan correction is based on each band's response to a 1 pixel wide bright sources. Since these results are based solely on preflight laboratory measurements, their successful implementation requires compliance with two additional criteria. First, since SeaWiFS has a large data volume, the correction and masking procedures must be such that they can be

  17. Radio-derived three-dimensional structure of a solar active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tun, Samuel D.

    Solar active regions are the source of the most violent events observed on the Sun, some of which have a direct impact to modern civilization. Efforts to understand and predict such events require determination of the three-dimensional distributions of density, temperature, and magnetic fields above such active regions. This thesis presents the structure of the solar atmosphere above active region AR 10923, observed on 2006 Nov 10, as deduced from multi-wavelength studies including combined microwave observations from the Very Large Array (VLA) and the Owens Valley Solar Array (OVSA). The VLA observations provide excellent image quality at a few widely spaced frequencies while the OVSA data provide information at many intermediate frequencies to fill in the spectral coverage. In order to optimize the OVSA data for spectroscopic studies, the L1 method of self-calibration was implemented at this observatory, producing the best single frequency maps produced to date. Images at the 25 distinct, available frequencies are used to provide spatially resolved spectra along many lines of sight in the active region, from which microwave spectral diagnostics are obtained for deducing two-dimensional maps of temperature, magnetic field strength, and column density. The derived quantities are compared with multi-wavelength observations from SoHO and Hinode spacecraft, and with a standard potential magnetic field extrapolation. It is found that a two component temperature model is required to fit the data, in which a hot (> 2 MK) lower corona above the strong-field plage and sunspot regions (emitting via the gyroresonance process) is overlaid with somewhat cooler (˜ 1 MK) coronal loops that partially absorb the gyroresonance emission through the free-free (Bremsstrahlung) process. It is also found that the potential magnetic field extrapolation model can quantitatively account for the observed gyroresonance emission over most of the active region, but in a few areas a higher

  18. Paralleling power MOSFETs in their active region: Extended range of passively forced current sharing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niedra, Janis M.

    1989-01-01

    A simple passive circuit that improves current balance in parallelled power MOSFETs that are not precisely matched and that are operated in their active region from a common gate drive are exhibited. A nonlinear circuit consisting of diodes and resistors generates the differential gate potential required to correct for unbalance while maintaining low losses over a range of current. Also application of a thin tape wound magnetic core to effect dynamic current balance is reviewed, and a simple theory is presented showing that for operation in the active region the branch currents tend to revert to their normal unbalanced values even if the core is not driven into saturation. Results of several comparative experiments are given.

  19. Nickel Confined in the Interlayer Region of Birnessite: an Active Electrocatalyst for Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Thenuwara, Akila C; Cerkez, Elizabeth B; Shumlas, Samantha L; Attanayake, Nuwan H; McKendry, Ian G; Frazer, Laszlo; Borguet, Eric; Kang, Qing; Remsing, Richard C; Klein, Michael L; Zdilla, Michael J; Strongin, Daniel R

    2016-08-22

    We report a synthetic method to enhance the electrocatalytic activity of birnessite for the oxygen evolution reaction (OER) by intercalating Ni(2+) ions into the interlayer region. Electrocatalytic studies showed that nickel (7.7 atomic %)-intercalated birnessite exhibits an overpotential (η) of 400 mV for OER at an anodic current of 10 mA cm(-2) . This η is significantly lower than the η values for birnessite (η≈700 mV) and the active OER catalyst β-Ni(OH)2 (η≈550 mV). Molecular dynamics simulations suggest that a competition among the interactions between the nickel cation, water, and birnessite promote redox chemistry in the spatially confined interlayer region. PMID:27151204

  20. Global gravity wave activity in the tropopause region from CHAMP radio occultation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; de la Torre, A.; Wickert, J.

    2008-08-01

    We discuss the global gravity wave (GW) activity expressed by the specific potential energy in the altitude range from 5 km below to 10 km above the tropopause, derived from GPS radio occultation data from CHAMP (2001-2008). The GW analysis is based on vertical detrending of the individual measured temperature profiles by applying a Gaussian filter in two different ways: (i) filtering of the complete temperature profiles and (ii) separate filtering of the profiles for the tropospheric and lower stratospheric parts. The separate filtering method significantly reduces the usually observed wave activity enhancement in the tropopause region which highly depends on the performance of the complete filtering method to reproduce the change in the temperature gradient at the tropopause. We only consider vertical wavelengths less than 10 km. The global mean potential energy in the tropopause region deduced with these different background temperatures will be analyzed, differences will be emphasized and possible error sources of the new method will be considered.