Science.gov

Sample records for active region part

  1. Regional Tectonic Framework and Human Activities on the North Central Part of The Mexican Volcanic Belt.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nieto-Obregon, J.

    2001-12-01

    Faults and fractures northeasterly oriented dipping NW and SE, with slips mainly normal with a slight left lateral component, affect a suite of rocks of Mesozoic to Pleistocene age, in the area of El Bajio, in the states of Queretaro, Guanajuato, Michoacan, and Aguascalientes. The faults and fractures have affected the infrastructure of the cities and surroundings of Queretaro, Celaya, Salamanca, Irapuato, Silao, Leon and Aguascalientes. In the city of Queretaro, the Tlacote-Balvanera active fault has developed a scarp and its motion may potentially affect life lines of great importance. In Celaya City a N-S trending fault traverses the city and has produced a step wise scarp more than 1.80 m high, damaging houses, streets and life lines. In Salamanca, a fault trending N 60oE, dipping to the SE extends from Cerro Gordo to the SW traversing the city and affecting with a varying degree its infrastructure. Displacements observed within the urban area reach as much as 50 cm. Close to Irapuato City, in a quarry near La Valencianita village, a N 45oE trending fault dipping to the NW affects a lacustrine sequence bearing calcareous horizons. The fault exhibits a throw of 10 m and passes north of the urban area. A similarly oriented fault traverses the city of Irapuato, and near the Traffic Circle of Puente de Guadalupe, changes its strike to the SE and continues to the city limits. In the city of Silao, a fault oriented N 60oE, traverses the city and continues to the SW up to the localities of Venta de Ramales and La Aldea. Important displacements in urban and rural areas reach more than 60 cm. Outside the city of Leon in the junction of the highways to Aguascalientes and Guadalajara a normal fault plane NE oriented and dipping SE shows striations compatible with a normal left lateral motion. Faulting is associated with old buried scarps controlled by pre existing faults, and over exploited aquifers. Some of these faults however are considered potentially active based on

  2. Active region seismology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bogdan, Tom; Braun, D. C.

    1995-01-01

    Active region seismology is concerned with the determination and interpretation of the interaction of the solar acoustic oscillations with near-surface target structures, such as magnetic flux concentration, sunspots, and plage. Recent observations made with a high spatial resolution and a long temporal duration enabled measurements of the scattering matrix for sunspots and solar active regions to be carried out as a function of the mode properties. Based on this information, the amount of p-mode absorption, partial-wave phase shift, and mode mixing introduced by the sunspot, could be determined. In addition, the possibility of detecting the presence of completely submerged magnetic fields was raised, and new procedures for performing acoustic holography of the solar interior are being developed. The accumulating evidence points to the mode conversion of p-modes to various magneto-atmospheric waves within the magnetic flux concentration as being the unifying physical mechanism responsible for these diverse phenomena.

  3. Active region coronal evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golub, L.; Noci, G.; Poletto, G.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    Scaling relations between coronal base pressure and longitudinal photospheric magnetic field strength are tested for the case of a single active region observed for five solar rotations from Skylab. The evolution of measureable quantities, such as coronal thermal energy content, total longitudinal photospheric magnetic flux, region scale size, and peak energy density, is traced throughout the five rotations observed. The theoretically derived scaling law of Golub et al. (1980) is found to provide an acceptable fit to the data throughout the entire evolutionary history of the region from an age of about 3 days to the fully evolved state in which the mature active region merges into the general large-scale structure of the quiet corona. An alternative scaling law obtained by including the results of Galeev et al. (1981), however, is found to provide a somewhat better fit to the data. The study is seen as providing additional justification for the belief that magnetic field-related heating is the operative mechanism in the solar corona.

  4. Evolution of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Green, Lucie May

    2015-09-01

    The evolution of active regions (AR) from their emergence through their long decay process is of fundamental importance in solar physics. Since large-scale flux is generated by the deep-seated dynamo, the observed characteristics of flux emergence and that of the subsequent decay provide vital clues as well as boundary conditions for dynamo models. Throughout their evolution, ARs are centres of magnetic activity, with the level and type of activity phenomena being dependent on the evolutionary stage of the AR. As new flux emerges into a pre-existing magnetic environment, its evolution leads to re-configuration of small-and large-scale magnetic connectivities. The decay process of ARs spreads the once-concentrated magnetic flux over an ever-increasing area. Though most of the flux disappears through small-scale cancellation processes, it is the remnant of large-scale AR fields that is able to reverse the polarity of the poles and build up new polar fields. In this Living Review the emphasis is put on what we have learned from observations, which is put in the context of modelling and simulation efforts when interpreting them. For another, modelling-focused Living Review on the sub-surface evolution and emergence of magnetic flux see Fan (2009). In this first version we focus on the evolution of dominantly bipolar ARs.

  5. Radiological assistance program: Region I. Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Musolino, S.V.; Kuehner, A.V.; Hull, A.P.

    1985-07-15

    The purpose of the Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) is to make DOE resources available and provide emergency assistance to state and local agencies in order to control radiological hazards, protect the public health and safety, and minimize the loss of property. This plan is an integral part of a nationwide program of radiological assistance established by the US DOE, and is implemented on a regional basis. The Brookhaven Area Office (BHO) Radiological Assistance Program is applicable to DOE Region I, which consists of the New England States, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and the District of Columbia. The BHO RAP-1 has been developed to: (a) ensure the availability of an effective radiological assistance capability to ensure the protection of persons and property; (b) provide guidelines to RAP-1 Team personnel for the evaluation of radiological incidents and implementation of corrective actions; (c) maintain liaison with other DOE installations, Federal, State and local organizations which may become involved in radiological assistance operations in Region I; and (d) encourage development of a local capability to cope with radiological incidents.

  6. Regional Activities Division. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on library network activities in Canada, the Third World, Japan, Malaysia, Brazil, and Sweden which were presented at the 1982 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Canada: A Voluntary and Flexible Network," a review by Guy Sylvestre of the political, social, and economic structures affecting…

  7. Active Region Release Two CMEs

    NASA Video Gallery

    Solar material can be seen blowing off the sun in this video captured by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO) on the night of Feb. 5, 2013. This active region on the sun sent out two coronal ...

  8. Larvicidal activity of the extracts from different parts of the plant Solanum xanthocarpum against important mosquito vectors in the arid region.

    PubMed

    Bansal, S K; Singh, Karam V; Kumar, Suresh

    2009-03-01

    Larvicidal efficacy of the aqueous and methanol extracts from green unripe and yellow ripe fruits, seeds, leaves and roots of the plant Solanum xanthocarpum was evaluated against Anopheles culicifacies, Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus, the important mosquito vectors prevalent in the arid region. Studies were carried out on late 3rd orearly 4th instarlarvae of these species using standard WHO technique. Based on concentration mortality data LC50 and LC90 values along with their fiducial limits, regression equation, chi-square (chi2)/heterogeneity of the response have been determined bylog probit regression analysis. The 24 hr LC50 values as observed for aqueous extracts for green unripe and yellow ripe fruits were 112.7, 498.2 and 846.3 mg l(-1) and 104.7, 267.7and 832.2 mg l(-1) for Anopheles stephensi, Aedes aegypti and Culex quinquefasciatus respectively. However, the 24 hr LC50 values formethanol extracts of yellow ripe fruits and seeds were 51.6, 52.2, 118.3 and 157.1 mg l(-1) and 66.9, 73.7, 123.8 and 154.9 mg l(-1) for the above four vector species respectively. The results showed that larvae of anophelines were much more susceptible as compared to culicines to both the aqueous and methanol extracts from fruits and seeds of the plant tested. The methanol extracts were found 2-5 times more effective as compared to the aqueous extracts. The chi-square values calculated during the analysis did not show any heterogeneity of the response. Experiments conducted with aqueous and methanol extracts from leaves and roots of this plant species didn't show any larvicidal activity against any of the mosquito species tested. The study would be of great importance while formulating vector control strategy based on alternative plant based insecticides. PMID:20121022

  9. Multithermal emission in active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zanna, Giulio

    High-resolution EUV observations from SDO/AIA, Hi-C and Hinode/EIS are used, together with updated new atomic data, to study the multi-thermal emission in active region structures. Previous observations are largely confirmed, with most structures being not co-spatial and having nearly isothermal cross-sections. Those at temperatures below 1 MK appear as nearly resolved but those at 1-3 MK are still largely unresolved even at the Hi-C resolution. Very little emission above 3 MK is present in quiescent active regions. Elemental abundances vary in different structures. The active region cores show FIP enhancements of about a factor of three. X-ray spectroscopy confirms the results of the EUV observations for the hot cores.

  10. Active Region Emergence and Remote Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Yixing; Welsch, Brian T.

    2016-02-01

    We study the effect of new emerging solar active regions on the large-scale magnetic environment of existing regions. We first present a theoretical approach to quantify the "interaction energy" between new and pre-existing regions as the difference between i) the summed magnetic energies of their individual potential fields and ii) the energy of their superposed potential fields. We expect that this interaction energy can, depending upon the relative arrangements of newly emerged and pre-existing magnetic flux, indicate the existence of "topological" free magnetic energy in the global coronal field that is independent of any "internal" free magnetic energy due to coronal electric currents flowing within the newly emerged and pre-existing flux systems. We then examine the interaction energy in two well-studied cases of flux emergence, but find that the predicted energetic perturbation is relatively small compared to energies released in large solar flares. Next, we present an observational study of the influence of the emergence of new active regions on flare statistics in pre-existing active regions, using NOAA's Solar Region Summary and GOES flare databases. As part of an effort to precisely determine the emergence time of active regions in a large event sample, we find that emergence in about half of these regions exhibits a two-stage behavior, with an initial gradual phase followed by a more rapid phase. Regarding flaring, we find that the emergence of new regions is associated with a significant increase in the occurrence rate of X- and M-class flares in pre-existing regions. This effect tends to be more significant when pre-existing and new emerging active regions are closer. Given the relative weakness of the interaction energy, this effect suggests that perturbations in the large-scale magnetic field, such as topology changes invoked in the "breakout" model of coronal mass ejections, might play a significant role in the occurrence of some flares.

  11. SDO Sees Active Region Outbursts

    NASA Video Gallery

    This close up video by NASA’s Solar Dynamics Observatory shows an active region near the right-hand edge of the sun’s disk, which erupted with at least a dozen minor events over a 30-hour period fr...

  12. 47 CFR Appendix 2 to Part 97 - VEC Regions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false VEC Regions 2 Appendix 2 to Part 97 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Pt. 97, App. 2 Appendix 2 to Part 97—VEC Regions 1. Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,...

  13. 47 CFR Appendix 2 to Part 97 - VEC Regions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false VEC Regions 2 Appendix 2 to Part 97 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Pt. 97, App. 2 Appendix 2 to Part 97—VEC Regions 1. Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,...

  14. 47 CFR Appendix 2 to Part 97 - VEC Regions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false VEC Regions 2 Appendix 2 to Part 97 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Pt. 97, App. 2 Appendix 2 to Part 97—VEC Regions 1. Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,...

  15. 47 CFR Appendix 2 to Part 97 - VEC Regions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false VEC Regions 2 Appendix 2 to Part 97 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Pt. 97, App. 2 Appendix 2 to Part 97—VEC Regions 1. Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,...

  16. 47 CFR Appendix 2 to Part 97 - VEC Regions

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false VEC Regions 2 Appendix 2 to Part 97 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) SAFETY AND SPECIAL RADIO SERVICES AMATEUR RADIO SERVICE Pt. 97, App. 2 Appendix 2 to Part 97—VEC Regions 1. Connecticut, Maine, Massachusetts,...

  17. Global oscillations and active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Durrant, C. J.

    The author presents further estimates of the amplitude of the modulation of the solar global velocity signal caused by the passage of active regions across the solar disc. Using measurements of the profile of the K I λ769.9 nm line in the quiet sun and in plages he finds a global velocity variation of ≡2 m s-1 during the transit of a typical active region of area 3300 millionths of the hemisphere. However, during the period in which a velocity amplitude of 6 m s-1 was reported by Claverie et al. (1982), the sunspot areas were exceptionally large and the author confirms Schröter's (1984) result that the combination of spot and plage contributions is sufficient to account for the observed signal. The velocity modulation is thus attributable to surface inhomogeneities, not to the structure of the solar core.

  18. Cometary nucleus and active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, F. L.

    1984-01-01

    On the basis of the icy conglomerate model of cometary nuclei, various observations demonstrate the spotted nature of many or most nuclei, i.e., regions of unusual activity, either high or low. Rotation periods, spin axes and even precession of the axes are determined. The observational evidence for variations in activity over the surfaces of cometary nuclei are listed and discussed. On June 11 the comet IRAS-ARAKI-ALCOCK approached the Earth to a distance of 0.031 AU, the nearest since C/Lexell, 1770 I, providing a unique opportunity for near-nucleus observations. Preliminary analysis of these images establishes the spin axis of the nucleus, with an oblioquity to the orbit plane of approximately 50 deg, and a lag angle of sublimation approximately 35 deg from the solar meridian on the nucleus. Asymmetries of the inner coma suggests a crazy-quilt distribution of ices with differing volatility over the surface of the nucleus. The observations of Comet P/Homes 1892 III, exhibiting two 8-10 magnitude bursts, are carefully analyzed. The grazing encounter produced, besides the first great burst, an active area on the nucleus, which was rotating retrograde with a period of 16.3hr and inclination nearly 180 deg. After the first burst the total magnitude fell less than two magnitudes from November 7 to November 30 (barely naked eye) while the nuclear region remained diffuse or complex, rarely if ever showing a stellar appearance. The fading was much more rapid after the second burst. The grazing encounter distributed a volume of large chunks in the neighborhood of the nucleus, maintaining activity for weeks.

  19. 20 CFR 661.290 - Under what circumstances may States require Local Boards to take part in regional planning...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Local Boards to take part in regional planning activities? 661.290 Section 661.290 Employees' Benefits... what circumstances may States require Local Boards to take part in regional planning activities? (a) The State may require Local Boards within a designated region (as defined at 20 CFR 660.300) to:...

  20. Active material based active sealing technology: Part 1. Active seal requirements vs. active material actuator properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henry, Christopher P.; Carter, William; Herrera, Guillermo A.; McKnight, Geoffrey P.; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy L.; Bazzi, Imad F.

    2010-04-01

    Current seals used for vehicle closures/swing panels are essentially flexible, frequently hollow structures whose designs are constrained by numerous requirements, many of them competing, including door closing effort (both air bind and seal compression), sound isolation, prevention of water leaks, and accommodation of variations in vehicle build. This paper documents the first portion of a collaborative research study/exploration of the feasibility of and approaches for using active materials with shape and stiffness changing attributes to produce active seal technologies, seals with improved performance. An important design advantage of an active material approach compared to previous active seal technologies is the distribution of active material regions throughout the seal length, which would enable continued active function even with localized failure. Included as a major focus of this study was the assessment of polymeric active materials because of their potential ease of integration into the current seal manufacturing process. In Part 1 of this study, which is documented in this paper, potential materials were evaluated in terms of their cost, activation mechanisms, and mechanical and actuation properties. Based on these properties, simple designs were proposed and utilized to help determine which materials are best suited for active seals. Shape memory alloys (SMA) and electroactive polymers (EAP) were judged to be the most promising.

  1. Volcanically Active Regions on Io

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    Shown here is a portion of one of the highest-resolution images of Io (Latitude: +10 to +60 degrees, Longitude: 180 to 225 degrees) acquired by the Galileo spacecraft, revealing immense lava flows and other volcanic landforms. Several high-temperature volcanic hot spots have been detected in this region by both the Near Infrared Mapping Spectrometer and the imaging system of Galileo. The temperatures are consistent with active silicate volcanism in lava flows or lava lakes (which reside inside irregular depressions called calderas). The large dark lava flow in the upper left region of the image is more than 400 km long, similar to ancient flood basalts on Earth and mare lavas on the Moon.

    North is to the top of the picture and the sun illuminates the surface from the left. The image covers an area 1230 kilometers wide and the smallest features that can be discerned are 2.5 kilometers in size. This image was taken on November 6th, 1996, at a range of 245,719 kilometers by the Solid State Imaging (CCD) system on the Galileo Spacecraft.

    Launched in October 1989, Galileo entered orbit around Jupiter on December 7, 1995. The spacecraft's mission is to conduct detailed studies of the giant planet, its largest moons and the Jovian magnetic environment. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, CA manages the mission for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

    This image and other images and data received from Galileo are posted on the Galileo mission home page on the World Wide Web at http://galileo.jpl.nasa.gov. Background information and educational context for the images can be found at URL http://www.jpl.nasa.gov/galileo/sepo

  2. Emerging flux in active regions. [of sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liggett, M.; Zirin, H.

    1985-01-01

    The rates at which flux emerges in active and quiet solar regions within the sunspot belts are compared. The emerging flux regions (EFRs) were identified by the appearance of arch filament structures in H-alpha. All EFRs in high resolution films of active regions made at Big Bear in 1978 were counted. The comparable rate of flux emergence in quiet regions was obtained from SGD data and independently from EFRs detected outside the active region perimeter on the same films. The rate of flux emergence is 10 times higher in active regions than in quiet regions. A sample of all active regions in 31 days of 1983 gave a ratio of 7.5. Possible mechanisms which might funnel new magnetic flux to regions of strong magnetic field are discussed.

  3. Emission measure distribution for diffuse regions in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Subramanian, Srividya; Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2014-11-01

    Our knowledge of the diffuse emission that encompasses active regions is very limited. In this paper we investigate two off-limb active regions, namely, AR 10939 and AR 10961, to probe the underlying heating mechanisms. For this purpose, we have used spectral observations from Hinode/EIS and employed the emission measure (EM) technique to obtain the thermal structure of these diffuse regions. Our results show that the characteristic EM distributions of the diffuse emission regions peak at log T = 6.25 and the coolward slopes are in the range 1.4-3.3. This suggests that both low- as well as high-frequency nanoflare heating events are at work. Our results provide additional constraints on the properties of these diffuse emission regions and their contribution to the background/foreground when active region cores are observed on-disk.

  4. Region 1: Radiological Assistance Program (RAP). Revision 2, Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Hull, A.P.; Kuehner, A.V.

    1993-10-01

    The Department of Energy`s Radiological Assistance Program (RAP) is established under DOE Order 5530.3 to: (a) Establish and maintain response plans and resources to provide radiological assistance to other Federal agencies, State, local, and tribal governments, and private groups requesting such assistance. (b) Assist State, local, and tribal jurisdictions in preparing for radiological emergencies. (c) In the event of a real, or potential radiological accident, provide resources and monitoring and assessment assistance to other federal agencies, State, local, and tribal Governments. This plan is an integral part of a nationwide program of regionally based radiological assistance which has been established by DOE. The Brookhaven Area Office is the Regional Coordinating Office (RCO) for the Radiological Assistance Program in DOE Region 1, which consists of the New England States, New York, New Jersey, Pennsylvania, Delaware, Maryland and the District of Columbia.

  5. The Main Sequence of Explosive Solar Active Regions: Comparison of Emerging and Mature Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David; Moore, Ron

    2011-01-01

    For mature active regions, an active region s magnetic flux content determines the maximum free energy the active region can have. Most Large flares and CMEs occur in active regions that are near their free-energy limit. Active-region flare power radiated in the GOES 1-8 band increases steeply as the free-energy limit is approached. We infer that the free-energy limit is set by the rate of release of an active region s free magnetic energy by flares, CMEs and coronal heating balancing the maximum rate the Sun can put free energy into the active region s magnetic field. This balance of maximum power results in explosive active regions residing in a "mainsequence" in active-region (flux content, free energy content) phase space, which sequence is analogous to the main sequence of hydrogen-burning stars in (mass, luminosity) phase space.

  6. The Twist Limit for Bipolar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Gary, Allen

    2008-01-01

    We present new evidence that further supports the standard idea that active regions are emerged magnetic-flux-rope omega loops. When the axial magnetic twist of a cylindrical flux rope exceeds a critical amount, the flux rope becomes unstable to kinking, and the excess axial twist is converted into writhe twist by the kinking. This suggests that, if active regions are emerged omega loops, then (1) no active region should have magnetic twist much above the limit set by kinking, (2) active regions having twist near the limit should often arise from kinked omega loops, and (3) since active regions having large delta sunspots are outstandingly twisted, these arise from kinked omega loops and should have twist near the limit for kinking. From each of 36 vector magnetograms of bipolar active regions, we have measured (1) the total flux of the vertical field above 100 G, (2) the area covered by this flux, and (3) the net electric current that arches over the polarity inversion line. These three quantities yield an estimate of the axial magnetic twist in a simple model cylindrical flux rope that corresponds to the top of the active region s hypothetical omega loop prior to emergence. In all 36 cases, the estimated twist is below the critical limit for kinking. The 11 most twisted active regions (1) have estimated twist within a factor of approx.3 of the limit, and (2) include all of our 6 active regions having large delta sunspots. Thus, our observed twist limit for bipolar active regions is in good accord with active regions being emerged omega loops.

  7. Some features of active regions and bursts in millimetric range.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xingfeng; Yao, Jinxing

    1995-09-01

    The characteristics of active regions and bursts at mm wavelengths, observed with the 13.7 m radio telescope at Quinghai from Nov 16 to Dec 1, 1993, are analyzed. It appears that the active region collapsed and vanished while there occurred a coronal loop with two polarities. GRE bursts at mm wavelength may be interpreted by thermal gyro-resonance radiation and are part of the chromospheric eruption. There is no indication of FFS in 10 ms recordings.

  8. Hinode Captures Images of Solar Active Region

    NASA Video Gallery

    In these images, Hinode's Solar Optical Telescope (SOT) zoomed in on AR 11263 on August 4, 2011, five days before the active region produced the largest flare of this cycle, an X6.9. We show images...

  9. Software Displays Data on Active Regions of the Sun

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golightly, Mike; Weyland, Mark; Raben, Vern

    2011-01-01

    The Solar Active Region Display System is a computer program that generates, in near real time, a graphical display of parameters indicative of the spatial and temporal variations of activity on the Sun. These parameters include histories and distributions of solar flares, active region growth, coronal mass ejections, size, and magnetic configuration. By presenting solar-activity data in graphical form, this program accelerates, facilitates, and partly automates what had previously been a time-consuming mental process of interpretation of solar-activity data presented in tabular and textual formats. Intended for original use in predicting space weather in order to minimize the exposure of astronauts to ionizing radiation, the program might also be useful on Earth for predicting solar-wind-induced ionospheric effects, electric currents, and potentials that could affect radio-communication systems, navigation systems, pipelines, and long electric-power lines. Raw data for the display are obtained automatically from the Space Environment Center (SEC) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA). Other data must be obtained from the NOAA SEC by verbal communication and entered manually. The Solar Active Region Display System automatically accounts for the latitude dependence of the rate of rotation of the Sun, by use of a mathematical model that is corrected with NOAA SEC active-region position data once every 24 hours. The display includes the date, time, and an image of the Sun in H light overlaid with latitude and longitude coordinate lines, dots that mark locations of active regions identified by NOAA, identifying numbers assigned by NOAA to such regions, and solar-region visual summary (SRVS) indicators associated with some of the active regions. Each SRVS indicator is a small pie chart containing five equal sectors, each of which is color-coded to provide a semiquantitative indication of the degree of hazard posed by one aspect of the activity at

  10. The flare productivity of active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuroda, N.; Christe, S.

    2012-12-01

    Previous studies have shown that the flare frequency distribution is consistent with a power-law. Furthermore, studies have shown that regions of higher magnetic complexity produce more large flares. This may imply that the flare frequency distribution is harder for magnetically complex active regions. However, the relationship between source active regions' magnetic complexity and the flare size distribution has not been extensively studied. We present a new study of 25,000 microflares detected by the Reuven Ramaty High Energy Solar Spectroscopic Imager (RHESSI) from March 2002 to February 2007. For each flare, we have obtained the two classifications of magnetic complexity, the Mount Wilson Magnetic Classification and the Zurich/McIntosh Sunspot Classification, from the Solar Region Summary prepared by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA)/ Space Weather Prediction Center (SWPC), and compared them with the RHESSI flare size distribution as observed in the 12 to 25 keV energy range. We investigate the relationship between the slope of the microflare size distribution and the magnetic properties of source active regions. For each flare we obtain the relevant MDI magnetogram to determine properties such as the area of the source active region and total unsigned magnetic flux. These properties are then compared to properties of the associated microflares such as peak flux and microflare size distribution. We find that, for both the Mount Wilson Magnetic Classification and the Zurich/McIntosh Sunspot Classification, the slopes of the microflare size distribution tend to get harder as a function of magnetic complexity. For example, in Mount Wilson Magnetic Classification the slope for α regions was 1.66 and the slope for βγδ region was 1.51.This suggests that βγδ regions are 50 % more likely to produce X class flares than α regions.

  11. 20 CFR 661.290 - Under what circumstances may States require Local Boards to take part in regional planning...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... activities? (a) The State may require Local Boards within a designated region (as defined at 20 CFR 660.300... 20 Employees' Benefits 4 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Under what circumstances may States require Local Boards to take part in regional planning activities? 661.290 Section 661.290 Employees'...

  12. Chromospheric Acoustic Oscillations in Active Flaring Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsue, T.; Hill, F.; Stassun, K.

    2014-12-01

    Chromospheric p-mode oscillations are studied in Hα to obtain helioseismic information regarding the local structural conditions around highly magnetic regions such as sunspots. Solar flares commonly occur in active regions where these sunspots exist therefore boosting the p-mode power. In our current study of analyzing p-modes in the chromosphere we study the time evolution of acoustic p-mode oscillation data taken from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) Hα, and investigate the p-modes across the frequency band (1 < ν < 8.33 mHz). This study entails three active regions directly over sunspots, with accompanying flaring activity from two solar flares, occurring on June 13th and July 12th, 2012. Our analysis utilizes time series data to create Fourier power spectra of individual pixels spatially resolved around the flare region, to study the frequency bands. We then study how the frequency distribution evolves temporally by constructing a Power Map Movie (PMM) of the regions. From these PMMs we can take a survey of the chromospheric oscillations for each frequency band. We found that the intensity of the flare has an effect on the behavior of the p-modes within different frequency bands. The suppression of power was observed in dark anomalous structures within the PMMs and in other regions there was an observed boost in power due to flaring activity.

  13. Growth and Decay of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobias, J. J.; Chapman, G. A.; Cookson, A. M.; Preminger, D. G.; Walton, S. R.

    2002-05-01

    We report here on a study of growth and decay rates of sunspot and facular areas of solar active regions. The data used in this project come from an ongoing program of daily photometric observations of the sun with the Cartesian Full Disk Telescope No. 1 (CFDT1) at the San Fernando Observatory (SFO). Sunspot regions are determined from images taken with a red filter centered at 672.3 nm with a bandpass of 9.7 nm, while images taken with a Ca II K line filter, centered at 393.4 nm and with a bandpass of only 1nm, are used to find facular areas. Before any areas can be found on any observed images, they have to be calibrated then flattened by removing limb darkening thus producing contrast images. Sunspot areas are then determined from any pixel with contrast of -8.5% or less, while any pixel on a K line contrast image with a contrast of +4.8%/μ or higher, where μ is the cosine of the heliocentric angle, is considered to be a facular pixel. To identify the areas as clearly as possible, studied active regions were usually observed on the sun with relatively low activity; that means that each region is either alone on the sun's disk or with only very few other active regions present. Furthermore, to obtain growth and decay patterns of the areas as reliably as possible, only such active regions must be chosen for which there is as complete observational coverage as possible. At the present time studies have been finished for only a few active regions, but analysis of several others is on going. Obtained results will be presented at the meeting. This work is supported by NSF grant ATM-9912132 and NASA grants NAG5-7191 and NAG5-7778.

  14. The 17 GHz active region number

    SciTech Connect

    Selhorst, C. L.; Pacini, A. A.; Costa, J. E. R.; Giménez de Castro, C. G.; Valio, A.; Shibasaki, K.

    2014-08-01

    We report the statistics of the number of active regions (NAR) observed at 17 GHz with the Nobeyama Radioheliograph between 1992, near the maximum of cycle 22, and 2013, which also includes the maximum of cycle 24, and we compare with other activity indexes. We find that NAR minima are shorter than those of the sunspot number (SSN) and radio flux at 10.7 cm (F10.7). This shorter NAR minima could reflect the presence of active regions generated by faint magnetic fields or spotless regions, which were a considerable fraction of the counted active regions. The ratio between the solar radio indexes F10.7/NAR shows a similar reduction during the two minima analyzed, which contrasts with the increase of the ratio of both radio indexes in relation to the SSN during the minimum of cycle 23-24. These results indicate that the radio indexes are more sensitive to weaker magnetic fields than those necessary to form sunspots, of the order of 1500 G. The analysis of the monthly averages of the active region brightness temperatures shows that its long-term variation mimics the solar cycle; however, due to the gyro-resonance emission, a great number of intense spikes are observed in the maximum temperature study. The decrease in the number of these spikes is also evident during the current cycle 24, a consequence of the sunspot magnetic field weakening in the last few years.

  15. The Magnetic Free Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, Thomas R.; Mickey, Donald L.; LaBonte, Barry J.

    2001-01-01

    The magnetic field permeating the solar atmosphere governs much of the structure, morphology, brightness, and dynamics observed on the Sun. The magnetic field, especially in active regions, is thought to provide the power for energetic events in the solar corona, such as solar flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CME) and is believed to energize the hot coronal plasma seen in extreme ultraviolet or X-rays. The question remains what specific aspect of the magnetic flux governs the observed variability. To directly understand the role of the magnetic field in energizing the solar corona, it is necessary to measure the free magnetic energy available in active regions. The grant now expiring has demonstrated a new and valuable technique for observing the magnetic free energy in active regions as a function of time.

  16. Fluxon Modeling of Active Region Evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deforest, C. E.; Kankelborg, C. C.; Davey, A. R.; Rachmeler, L.

    2006-12-01

    We present current results and status on fluxon modeling of free energy buildup and release in active regions. Our publicly available code, FLUX, has the unique ability to track magnetic energy buildup with a truly constrained topology in evolving, nonlinear force-free conditions. Recent work includes validation of the model against Low &Lou force-free field solutions, initial evolution studies of idealized active regions, and inclusion of locally parameterized reconnection into the model. FLUX is uniquely able to simulate complete active regions in 3-D on a single workstation; we estimate that a parallelized fluxon model, together with computer vision code to ingest solar data, could run faster than real time on a cluster of \\textasciitilde 30 CPUs and hence provide a true predictive space weather model in the style of predictive simulations of terrestrial weather.

  17. Quantifying the Complexity of Flaring Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stark, B.; Hagyard, M. J.

    1997-05-01

    While solar physicists have a better understanding of the importance magnetic fields play in the solar heating mechanism, it is still not possible to predict whether or when an active region will flare. In recent decades, qualitative studies of the changes in active region morphology have shown that there is generally an increase in the complexity of the spatial configuration of a solar active region leading up to a flare event. In this study, we quantify the spatial structure of the region using the Differential Box-Counting Method (DBC)of fractal analysis. We analyze data from NASA/Marshall Space Flight Center's vector magnetograph from two flaring active regions: AR 6089 from June 10, 1990, which produced one M1.7 flare, and AR 6659 from June 8, 9 and 10, 1991, this data set including one C5.7 and two M(6.4 and 3.2) flares. (AR 6659 produced several other flares). Several magnetic parameters are studied, including the transverse and longitudinal magnetic field components (Bt and Bl), the total field (Bmag), and the magnetic shear, which describes the non-potentiality of the field. Results are presented for the time series of magnetograms in relation to the timing of flare events.

  18. Quantifying the Complexity of Flaring Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stark, B.; Hagyard, M. J.

    1997-01-01

    While solar physicists have a better understanding of the importance magnetic fields play in the solar heating mechanism, it is still not possible to predict whether or when an active region will flare. In recent decades, qualitative studies of the changes in active region morphology have shown that there is generally an increase in the complexity of the spatial configuration of a solar active region leading up to a flare event. In this study, we quantify the spatial structure of the region using the differential Box-Counting Method (DBC) of fractal analysis. We analyze data from NASA/Marshall Space Flight Centr's vector magnetograph from two flaring active regions: AR 6089 from June 10, 1990, which produced one M1.7 flare, and AR 6659 from June 8, 9 and 10, 1991, this data set including one C5.7 and two M(6.4 and 3.2) flare. (AR 6659 produced several other flares). Several magnetic parameters are studied, including the transverse and longitudinal magnetic field components (Bt and B1), the total field (Bmag), and the magnetic shear, which describes the non-potentiality of the field. Results are presented for the time series of magnetograms in relation to the timing of flare events.

  19. ON THE FORMATION OF ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, Ake E-mail: aake@nbi.dk

    2012-07-01

    Magnetoconvection can produce an active region without an initial coherent flux tube. A simulation was performed where a uniform, untwisted, horizontal magnetic field of 1 kG strength was advected into the bottom of a computational domain 48 Mm wide by 20 Mm deep. The up and down convective motions produce a hierarchy of magnetic loops with a wide range of scales, with smaller loops riding 'piggy-back' in a serpentine fashion on larger loops. When a large loop approaches the surface, it produces a small active region with a compact leading spot and more diffuse following spots.

  20. On the Formation of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Robert F.; Nordlund, Åke

    2012-07-01

    Magnetoconvection can produce an active region without an initial coherent flux tube. A simulation was performed where a uniform, untwisted, horizontal magnetic field of 1 kG strength was advected into the bottom of a computational domain 48 Mm wide by 20 Mm deep. The up and down convective motions produce a hierarchy of magnetic loops with a wide range of scales, with smaller loops riding "piggy-back" in a serpentine fashion on larger loops. When a large loop approaches the surface, it produces a small active region with a compact leading spot and more diffuse following spots.

  1. Solar Eruptions Initiated in Sigmoidal Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Savcheva, Antonia

    2016-07-01

    active regions that have been shown to possess high probability for eruption. They present a direct evidence of the existence of flux ropes in the corona prior to the impulsive phase of eruptions. In order to gain insight into their eruptive behavior and how they get destabilized we need to know their 3D magnetic field structure. First, we review some recent observations and modeling of sigmoidal active regions as the primary hosts of solar eruptions, which can also be used as useful laboratories for studying these phenomena. Then, we concentrate on the analysis of observations and highly data-constrained non-linear force-free field (NLFFF) models over the lifetime of several sigmoidal active regions, where we have captured their magnetic field structure around the times of major flares. We present the topology analysis of a couple of sigmoidal regions pointing us to the probable sites of reconnection. A scenario for eruption is put forward by this analysis. We demonstrate the use of this topology analysis to reconcile the observed eruption features with the standard flare model. Finally, we show a glimpse of how such a NLFFF model of an erupting region can be used to initiate a CME in a global MHD code in an unprecedented realistic manner. Such simulations can show the effects of solar transients on the near-Earth environment and solar system space weather.

  2. Asia Section. Regional Activities Division. Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Two papers on library and information activities in developing nations, particularly in India and other Asian countries, were presented at the 1983 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference. In "IFLA in Asia: A Review of the Work of the Regional Section for Asia," Edward Lim Huck Tee (Malaysia) describes the low level of…

  3. Differential Magnetic Field Shear in an Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmeider, B.; DeMoulin, P.; Aulanier, G.; Golub, Leon

    1997-01-01

    The three-dimensional extrapolation of magnetic field lines from a magnetogram obtained at Kitt Peak allows us to understand the global structure of the NOAA active region 6718, as observed in X-rays with the Normal Incidence X-ray Telescope (NIXT) and in Ha with the Multichannel Subtractive Double Pass spectrograph (MSDP) in Meudon on 1991 July 11. This active region was in a quiet stage. Bright X-ray loops connect plages having field strengths of approx. 300 G, while H-alpha fibriles connect penumbrae having strong spot fields to the surrounding network. Small, intense X-ray features in the moat region around a large spot, which could be called X-ray-bright points, are due mainly to the emergence of magnetic flux and merging of these fields with surrounding ones. A set of large-scale, sheared X-ray loops is observed in the central part of the active region. Based on the fit between the observed coronal structure and the field configurations (and assuming a linear force-free field), we propose a differential magnetic field shear model for this active region. The decreasing shear in outer portions of the active region may indicate a continual relaxation of the magnetic field to a lower energy state in the progressively older portions of the AR.

  4. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 37 - FTA Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Administration, 230 Peachtree NW., Suite 800, Atlanta, GA 30303 Region 5, Federal Transit Administration, 200 West Adams Street, Suite 320, Chicago, IL 60606 Region 6, Federal Transit Administration, 819 Taylor..., Suite 404, Kansas City, MO 64106 Region 8, Federal Transit Administration, 12300 West Dakota...

  5. 49 CFR Appendix B to Part 37 - FTA Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Administration, 206 Federal Plaza, Suite 2940, New York, NY 10278 Region II, Federal Transit Administration, Transportation Systems Center, Kendall Square, 55 Broadway, Suite 921, Cambridge, MA 02142 Region III, Federal Transit Administration, 841 Chestnut Street, Suite 714, Philadelphia, PA 19107 Region IV, Federal...

  6. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 21 - Activities to Which This Part Applies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Activities to Which This Part Applies A Appendix A... 1964 Pt. 21, App. A Appendix A to Part 21—Activities to Which This Part Applies 1. Use of grants made.... 141(a)). 6. Use of Coast Guard personnel for duty in connection with maritime instruction and...

  7. S-20 photocathode research activity. Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Gex, F.; Huen, T.; Kalibjian, R.

    1983-11-22

    The goal of this activity has been to develop and implement S-20 photocathode processing techniques at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in order to study the physical properties of the photocathode films. The present work is the initial phase of a planned activity in understanding cathode fabrication techniques and the optical/electrical characterization of these films.

  8. Magnetic helicity in emerging solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Y.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Bobra, M.; Hayashi, K.; Sun, X.; Schuck, P. W.

    2014-04-10

    Using vector magnetic field data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager instrument aboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, we study magnetic helicity injection into the corona in emerging active regions (ARs) and examine the hemispheric helicity rule. In every region studied, photospheric shearing motion contributes most of the helicity accumulated in the corona. In a sample of 28 emerging ARs, 17 follow the hemisphere rule (61% ± 18% at a 95% confidence interval). Magnetic helicity and twist in 25 ARs (89% ± 11%) have the same sign. The maximum magnetic twist, which depends on the size of an AR, is inferred in a sample of 23 emerging ARs with a bipolar magnetic field configuration.

  9. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1998-06-02

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  10. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, Anthony M.

    1996-01-01

    A method for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors.

  11. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1998-06-02

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  12. Silicon on insulator with active buried regions

    DOEpatents

    McCarthy, A.M.

    1996-01-30

    A method is disclosed for forming patterned buried components, such as collectors, sources and drains, in silicon-on-insulator (SOI) devices. The method is carried out by epitaxially growing a suitable sequence of single or multiple etch stop layers ending with a thin silicon layer on a silicon substrate, masking the silicon such that the desired pattern is exposed, introducing dopant and activating in the thin silicon layer to form doped regions. Then, bonding the silicon layer to an insulator substrate, and removing the silicon substrate. The method additionally involves forming electrical contact regions in the thin silicon layer for the buried collectors. 10 figs.

  13. Teaching for Engagement: Part 3: Designing for Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William J.

    2015-01-01

    In the first two parts of this series, ("Teaching for Engagement: Part 1: Constructivist Principles, Case-Based Teaching, and Active Learning") and ("Teaching for Engagement: Part 2: Technology in the Service of Active Learning"), William J. Hunter sought to outline the theoretical rationale and research basis for such active…

  14. Supergranule Diffusion and Active Region Decay

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Choudhary, Debi Prasad

    2004-01-01

    Models of the Sun's magnetic dynamo include turbulent diffusion to parameterize the effects of convective motions on the evolution of the Sun's magnetic field. Supergranules are known to dominate the evolution of the surface magnetic field structure as evidenced by the structure of both the active and quiet magnetic network. However, estimates for the dif hivity attributed to su perymules differ by an order of magnitude from about 100 km sup2/s to more than 1000 km sup2/s. We examine this question of the e i v i t y using three merent approaches. 1) We study the decay of more than 30,000 active regions by determining the rate of change in the sunspot area of each active region from day-to-day. 2) We study the decay of a single isolated active region near the time of solar minimum by examining the magnetic field evolution over five solar rotations fiom SOHOMDI magnetograms obtained at 96-minute intervals. 3) We study the characteristics of supergranules that influence the estimates of their diffusive properties - flow speeds and lifetimes as functions of size - fiom SOHO/MDI Dopplergrams.

  15. Ultrasonographic guidance in pediatric regional anesthesia Part 1: Theoretical background.

    PubMed

    Marhofer, Peter; Frickey, Nathalie

    2006-10-01

    Recent findings support the use of ultrasonographic guidance in pediatric regional anesthesia. This review article illustrates basic knowledge in physics of ultrasound and ultrasonographic appearance of neuronal structures, which are prerequisites for the safe application of this technique in daily clinical practice. A critical view on education and ethics in science should emphasize future developments in ultrasonography for pediatric regional anesthesia. PMID:16972828

  16. On the Active Region Bright Grains Observed in the Transition Region Imaging Channels of IRIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Skogsrud, H.; Rouppe van der Voort, L.; De Pontieu, B.

    2016-02-01

    The Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) provides spectroscopy and narrow band slit-jaw (SJI) imaging of the solar chromosphere and transition region at unprecedented spatial and temporal resolutions. Combined with high-resolution context spectral imaging of the photosphere and chromosphere as provided by the Swedish 1 m Solar Telescope (SST), we can now effectively trace dynamic phenomena through large parts of the solar atmosphere in both space and time. IRIS SJI 1400 images from active regions, which primarily sample the transition region with the Si iv 1394 and 1403 Å lines, reveal ubiquitous bright “grains” which are short-lived (two to five minute) bright roundish small patches of sizes 0.″5-1.″7 that generally move limbward with velocities up to about 30 km s-1. In this paper, we show that many bright grains are the result of chromospheric shocks impacting the transition region. These shocks are associated with dynamic fibrils (DFs), most commonly observed in Hα. We find that the grains show the strongest emission in the ascending phase of the DF, that the emission is strongest toward the top of the DF, and that the grains correspond to a blueshift and broadening of the Si iv lines. We note that the SJI 1400 grains can also be observed in the SJI 1330 channel which is dominated by C ii lines. Our observations show that a significant part of the active region transition region dynamics is driven from the chromosphere below rather than from coronal activity above. We conclude that the shocks that drive DFs also play an important role in the heating of the upper chromosphere and lower transition region.

  17. Proper Motion Of Emerging Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Lirong

    2009-05-01

    Observational and modeling results indicate that typically the leading magnetic field of bipolar active regions is often spatially more compact, while more dispersed and fragmented in following polarity. Tian & Alexander (2009, ApJ, 695) studied 15 emerging active regions and find that magnetic helicity flux injected into the corona by the leading polarity is generally several times larger than that injected by the following polarity. They argue that the asymmetry of the magnetic helicity should be responsible for the asymmetry of the magnetic morphology. This argument is supported by two resent model results that magnetic flux tubes with higher degree of twist (and therefor greater magnetic tension) have higher rates of emergence (Murray & Hood 2008, A&A, 479; Cheung et al. 2008, ApJ, 687). These results are consistent because the proper motion (related to the emergence) of the leading polarity was found to be faster than that of the following polarity (van Driel-Gesztelyi & Petrovay 1990, Solar Phys., 126). In this paper, we will reinvestigate the proper motion of leading and following polarities of the emerging active regions, and study possible relationship between the proper motion and magnetic helicity.

  18. Models of Impulsively Heated Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Airapetian, Vladimir; Klimchuk, J.

    2009-05-01

    A number of attempts to model solar active regions with steady coronal heating have been modestly successful at reproducing the observed soft X-ray emission, but they fail dramatically at explaining EUV observations. Since impulsive heating (nanoflare) models can reproduce individual EUV loops, it seems reasonable to consider that entire active regions are impulsively heated. However, nanoflares are characterized by many parameters, such as magnitude, duration, and time delay between successive events, and these parameters may depend on the strength of the magnetic field or the length of field lines, for example, so a wide range of active region models must be examined. We have recently begun such a study. Each model begins with a magnetic "skeleton” obtained by extrapolating an observed photospheric magnetogram into the corona. Field lines are populated with plasma using our highly efficient hydro code called Enthalpy Based Thermal Evolution of Loops (EBTEL). We then produce synthetic images corresponding to emission line or broad-band observations. By determining which set of nanoflare parameters best reproduces actual observations, we hope to constrain the properties of the heating and ultimately to reveal the physical mechanism. We here report on the initial progress of our study.

  19. Arctic Oscillation impact on thermal regime of the Baltic region Eastern part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gecaite, Indre; Pogoreltsev, Aleksandr; Ugryumov, Aleksandr

    2016-04-01

    Statistical estimations of Arctic Oscillation (AO) impact on air temperature regime in the Eastern part of Baltic region are presented. The region is characterized by high inter-annual and inter-seasonal variabilities. It is important to note that in the region of global warming extremely low winter temperatures can be observed on the European territory of Russia. AO is one of large-scale global structures of atmospheric circulation closely associated with weather variability in Northern Europe. AO anomalies occur in the upper atmosphere (stratosphere) and only then transferred to tropospheric lower layers. The anomalies can be preserved during long period up to two months, so they can be predictors in long-range weather forecast. In turn, changes in stratospheric polar vortex and sudden stratospheric warmings can be related to the geomagnetic activity. Perhaps, the geomagnetic activity influences the meridional temperature gradient and then changes in the structure of the stratospheric zonal wind. In turn, the changes have an impact on the tropospheric circulation. The stratosphere-troposphere connection occurs during winter months. Therefore, the paper presents the analysis of extremely cold winter anomalies in the Eastern part of Baltic Sea region. At the same time, we considered atmospheric circulation peculiarities related to AO phase change. The analyzable time interval covers 1951-2014.

  20. Evolution of two Flaring Active Regions With CME Association

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalmann, J. K.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2008-12-01

    We study the coronal magnetic field structure of two active regions, one during solar activity minimum (June 2007) and another one during a more active time (January 2004). The temporal evolution was explored with the help of nonlinear force-free coronal magnetic field extrapolations of SOLIS/VSM and NAOJ/SFT photospheric vector magnetograms. We study the active region NOAA 10960 observed on 2007 June 7 with three SOLIS/VSM snapshots taken during a small C1.0 flare of time cadence 10 minutes and six snapshots during a quiet period. The total magnetic energy in the active region was approximately 3 × 1025 J. Before the flare the free magnetic energy was about 5~% of the potential field energy. A part of this excess energy was released during the flare, producing almost a potential configuration at the beginning of the quiet period. The return to an almost potential structure can be assigned to a CME as recorded by the SoHO/LASCO instrument on 2007 June 07 around 10 minutes after the flare peaked, so that whatever magnetic helicity was bodily removed from the structure. This was compared with active region 10540 observed on 2004 January 18 -- 21, which was analyzed with the help of vector magnetograph data from the Solar Flare Telescope in Japan of time cadence of about 1 day. The free energy was Efree≈ 66~% of the total energy which was sufficiently high to power a M6.1 flare on January 20, which was associated with a CME 20 minutes later. The activity of AR 10540 was significantly higher than for AR 10960, as was the total magnetic energy. Furthermore, we found the common feature that magnetic energy accumulates before the flare/CME and a significant part of the excess energy is released during the eruption.

  1. TARPs: Tracked Active Region Patches from SoHO/MDI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turmon, M.; Hoeksema, J. T.; Bobra, M.

    2013-12-01

    We describe progress toward creating a retrospective MDI data product consisting of tracked magnetic features on the scale of solar active regions, abbreviated TARPs (Tracked Active Region Patches). The TARPs are being developed as a backward-looking extension (covering approximately 3500 regions spanning 1996-2010) to the HARP (HMI Active Region Patch) data product that has already been released for HMI (2010-present). Like the HARPs, the MDI TARP data set is designed to be a catalog of active regions (ARs), indexed by a region ID number, analogous to a NOAA AR number, and time. TARPs from MDI are computed based on the 96-minute synoptic magnetograms and pseudo-continuum intensitygrams. As with the related HARP data product, the approximate threshold for significance is 100G. Use of both image types together allows faculae and sunspots to be separated out as sub-classes of activity, in addition to identifying the overall active region that the faculae/sunspots are part of. After being identified in single images, the magnetically-active patches are grouped and tracked from image to image. Merges among growing active regions, as well as faint active regions hovering at the threshold of detection, are handled automatically. Regions are tracked from their inception until they decay within view, or transit off the visible disk. The final data product is indexed by a nominal AR number and time. For each active region and for each time, a bitmap image is stored containing the precise outline of the active region. Additionaly, metadata such as areas and integrated fluxes are stored for each AR and for each time. Because there is a calibration between the HMI and MDI magnetograms (Liu, Hoeksema et al. 2012), it is straightforward to use the same classification and tracking rules for the HARPs (from HMI) and the MDI TARPs. We anticipate that this will allow a consistent catalog spanning both instruments. We envision several uses for the TARP data product, which will be

  2. 6 CFR Appendix A to Part 21 - Activities to Which This Part Applies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Activities to Which This Part Applies A Appendix A to Part 21 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF RACE, COLOR, OR NATIONAL ORIGIN IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING...

  3. 6 CFR Appendix A to Part 21 - Activities to Which This Part Applies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Activities to Which This Part Applies A Appendix A to Part 21 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF RACE, COLOR, OR NATIONAL ORIGIN IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING...

  4. 6 CFR Appendix A to Part 21 - Activities to Which This Part Applies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Activities to Which This Part Applies A Appendix A to Part 21 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF RACE, COLOR, OR NATIONAL ORIGIN IN PROGRAMS OR ACTIVITIES RECEIVING...

  5. Verification of regional climates of GISS GCM. Part 1: Winter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Rind, David

    1988-01-01

    Verification is made of the synoptic fields, sea level pressure, precipitation rate, 200 mb zonal wind and the surface resultant wind, generated by two versions of the GISS climate model. The models differ regarding the horizontal resolution of the computational grids and the specification of the sea surface temperatures. Maps of the regional distributions of seasonal variations of the model fields are shown alongside maps showing the observed distributions. Comparisons of the model results with observations are discussed, and also summarized in tables according to geographic regions.

  6. Verification of regional climates of GISS GCM. Part 2: Summer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Druyan, Leonard M.; Rind, David

    1989-01-01

    Verification is made of the synoptic fields, sea-level pressure, precipitation rate, 200mb zonal wind and the surface resultant wind generated by two versions of the Goddard Institute for Space Studies (GISS) climate model. The models differ regarding the horizontal resolution of the computation grids and the specification of the sea-surface temperatures. Maps of the regional distributions of seasonal means of the model fields are shown alongside maps that show the observed distributions. Comparisons of the model results with observations are discussed and also summarized in tables according to geographic region.

  7. Solar irradiance variations due to active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Oster, L.; Schatten, K.H.; Sofia, S.

    1982-05-15

    We have been able to reproduce the variations of the solar irradiance observed by ACRIM to an accuracy of better than +- 0.4 W m/sup -2/, assuming that during the 6 month observation period in 1980 the solar luminosity was constant. The improvement over previous attempts is primarily due to the inclusion of faculae. The reproduction scheme uses simple geometrical data on spot and facula areas, and conventional parameters for the respective fluxes and angular dependencies. The quality of reproduction is not very sensitive to most of the details of these parameters; nevertheless, there conventional parameters cannot be very different from their actual values in the solar atmosphere. It is interesting that the time average of the integrated excess emission (over directions) of the faculae cancels out the integrated deficit produced by the spots, within an accuracy of about 10%. If this behavior were maintained over longer periods of time, say, on the order of an activity cycle, active regions could be viewed as a kind of lighthouse where the energy deficit near the normal direction, associated with the spots, is primarily reemitted close to the tangential directions by the faculae. The currently available data suggest that energy ''storage'' associated with the redirection of flux near active regions on the Sun is comparable to the lifetime of the faculae.

  8. Meadow Fescue in the Driftless Region, Part Two

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have identified meadow fescue on over 250 farms in the driftless region of SW Wisconsin, NW Illinois, NE Iowa, and SE Minnesota. Most plants are similar in appearance and their habitats range from wet bottomlands to dry hilltops, dense monocultures to highly degraded pastures with few meadow fes...

  9. Case study of a complex active-region filament eruption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, X. L.; Qu, Z. Q.; Kong, D. F.; Deng, L. H.; Xue, Z. K.

    2013-09-01

    Context. We investigated a solar active-region filament eruption associated with a C6.6 class flare and a coronal mass ejection (CME) in NOAA active region 08858 on 2000 February 9. Aims: We aim to better understand the relationship between filament eruptions and the associated flares and CMEs. Methods: Using BBSO, SOHO/EIT, and TRACE observational data, we analyzed the process of the active-region filament eruption in the chromosphere and the corona. Using the SOHO/MDI magnetograms, we investigated the change of the magnetic fields in the photosphere. Using the GOES soft X-ray flux and the SOHO/LASCO images, we identified the flare and CME, which were associated with this active-region filament eruption. Results: The brightenings in the chromosphere are a precursor of the filament expansion. The eruption itself can be divided into four phases: In the initial phase, the intertwined bright and dark strands of the filament expand. Then, the bright strands are divided into three parts with different expansion velocity. Next, the erupting filament-carrying flux rope expands rapidly and combines with the lower part of the expanding bright strands. Finally, the filament erupts accompanied by other dark strands overlying the filament.The overlying magnetic loops and the expansion of the filament strands can change the direction of the eruption. Conclusions: The time delay between the velocity peaks of the filament and that of the two parts of the bright strands clearly demonstrates that the breakup of the bright loops tying on the filament into individual strands is important for its eruption. The eruption is a collection of multiple processes that are physically coupled rather than a single process.

  10. Observations of an active region filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zong, W. G.; Tang, Y. H.; Fang, C.; Xu, A. A.

    An active region filament was well observed on September 4, 2002 with THEMIS at the Teide observatory and SOHO/MDI. The full Stokes parameters of the filament were obtained in Hα and FeI 6302 Å lines. Using the data, we have studied the fine structure of the filament and obtained the parameters at the barb endpoints, including intensity, velocity and longitudinal magnetic field. Our results indicate: (a) the Doppler velocities are quiet different at barb endpoints; (b) the longitudinal magnetic fields at the barb endpoints are very weak; (c) there is a strong magnetic field structure under the filament spine.

  11. Unwinding motion of a twisted active region filament

    SciTech Connect

    Yan, X. L.; Xue, Z. K.; Kong, D. F.; Liu, J. H.; Xu, C. L.

    2014-12-10

    To better understand the structures of active region filaments and the eruption process, we study an active region filament eruption in active region NOAA 11082 in detail on 2010 June 22. Before the filament eruption, the opposite unidirectional material flows appeared in succession along the spine of the filament. The rising of the filament triggered two B-class flares at the upper part of the filament. As the bright material was injected into the filament from the sites of the flares, the filament exhibited a rapid uplift accompanying the counterclockwise rotation of the filament body. From the expansion of the filament, we can see that the filament consisted of twisted magnetic field lines. The total twist of the filament is at least 5π obtained by using a time slice method. According to the morphology change during the filament eruption, it is found that the active region filament was a twisted flux rope and its unwinding motion was like a solar tornado. We also find that there was a continuous magnetic helicity injection before and during the filament eruption. It is confirmed that magnetic helicity can be transferred from the photosphere to the filament. Using the extrapolated potential fields, the average decay index of the background magnetic fields over the filament is 0.91. Consequently, these findings imply that the mechanism of solar filament eruption could be due to the kink instability and magnetic helicity accumulation.

  12. Pederson Current Dissipation In Emerging Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leake, James E.; Linton, M. G.

    2011-05-01

    Pederson current dissipation in emerging active regions. Certain regions of the solar atmosphere, such as the photosphere and chromosphere, as well as prominences, contain a significant amount of neutral atoms, and a complete description of the plasma requires including the effects of partial ionization. In the chromosphere the dissipation of Pederson currents is important for the evolution of emerging magnetic fields. Due to the relatively high number density in the chromosphere, the ion-neutral collision time-scale is much smaller than timescales associated with flux emergence. Hence we use a single-fluid approach to model the partially ionized plasma. Looking at both the emergence of large-scale sub-surface structures, and the emergence and reconnection of undulatory fields, we investigate the effect of Pederson current dissipation on the state of the emerging field, on magnetic reconnection and on dissipative heating of the atmosphere. Specifically we examine the effect of motions across fieldlines in the partially ionized regions, and how this can increase the free energy supplied to the corona by flux emergence. We also look at reconnection associated with flux emergence in the partially ionized atmosphere, and how this can account for observed small-scale brightenings (Ellerman Bombs).

  13. Localizing Region-Based Active Contours

    PubMed Central

    Lankton, Shawn; Tannenbaum, Allen

    2009-01-01

    In this paper, we propose a natural framework that allows any region-based segmentation energy to be re-formulated in a local way. We consider local rather than global image statistics and evolve a contour based on local information. Localized contours are capable of segmenting objects with heterogeneous feature profiles that would be difficult to capture correctly using a standard global method. The presented technique is versatile enough to be used with any global region-based active contour energy and instill in it the benefits of localization. We describe this framework and demonstrate the localization of three well-known energies in order to illustrate how our framework can be applied to any energy. We then compare each localized energy to its global counterpart to show the improvements that can be achieved. Next, an in-depth study of the behaviors of these energies in response to the degree of localization is given. Finally, we show results on challenging images to illustrate the robust and accurate segmentations that are possible with this new class of active contour models. PMID:18854247

  14. HEROES Observations of a Quiescent Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shih, A. Y.; Christe, S.; Gaskin, J.; Wilson-Hodge, C.

    2014-12-01

    Hard X-ray (HXR) observations of solar flares reveal the signatures of energetic electrons, and HXR images with high dynamic range and high sensitivity can distinguish between where electrons are accelerated and where they stop. Even in the non-flaring corona, high-sensitivity HXR measurements may be able to detect the presence of electron acceleration. The High Energy Replicated Optics to Explore the Sun (HEROES) balloon mission added the capability of solar observations to an existing astrophysics balloon payload, HERO, which used grazing-incidence optics for direct HXR imaging. HEROES measures HXR emission from ~20 to ~75 keV with an angular resolution of 33" HPD. HEROES launched on 2013 September 21 from Fort Sumner, New Mexico, and had a successful one-day flight. We present the detailed analysis of the 7-hour observation of AR 11850, which sets new upper limits on the HXR emission from a quiescent active region, with corresponding constraints on the numbers of tens of keV energetic electrons present. Using the imaging capability of HEROES, HXR upper limits are also obtained for the quiet Sun surrounding the active region. We also discuss what can be achieved with new and improved HXR instrumentation on balloons.

  15. Radio magnetography of the solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gelfreikh, G. B.; Shibasaki, K.

    The observations of the solar magnetic fields is one of the most important basics for study of all important processes in structuring the solar atmosphere and most kinds of the release of the energy. The radio methods are of the special interest here because they gain the information on the magnetic field strength in the solar corona and upper chromosphere where traditional optical methods do not work. The construction of the Nobeyama radio heliograph opens a new era in usage radio methods for solar radio magnetography due to some unique property of the instrument: - The 2D mapping of the whole disk of the sun both in I and V Stokes parameters with resolution of 10 arcsec. - Regular observations (without breaks due to weather conditions), eight hours a day, already for seven years. The most effective and representative radio method of measuring the solar magnetic fields is to use polarization measurements of the thermal bremsstrahlung (free-free emission). It is applicable both to analysis of chromospheric and coronal magnetic fields and presents information on longitude component of the magnetic field strength in solar active regions. Three problems are met, however: (i) One needs to measure very low degree of polarization (small fraction of a percent); (ii) To get the real value of the field the spectral data are necessary. (iii) While observing an active region on the disk we have got the overlapping effects on polarized signal of the chromospheric and coronal magnetic fields. To get higher sensitivity the averaging of the radio maps over periods of about ten minutes were used with the results of sensitivity on V-maps of the order 0.1%. Observations for a number of dates have been analysed (August 22, 1992, October 31, 1992; June 30, 1993, July 22,1994, June 15, 1995 and some more). In all cases a very good similarity was found of the polarized regions (V-maps) with the Ca^ + plages in form and total coincidence with the direction of the magnetic fields on the

  16. FIP bias in a sigmoidal active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, Lidia; Green, L. M.; Steed, K.; Carlyle, J.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in an anemone active region (AR) - coronal hole (CH) complex using an abundance map derived from Hinode/EIS spectra. The detailed, spatially resolved abundance map has a large field of view covering 359'' × 485''. Plasma with high FIP bias, or coronal abundances, is concentrated at the footpoints of the AR loops whereas the surrounding CH has a low FIP bias, ~1, i.e. photospheric abundances. A channel of low FIP bias is located along the AR's main polarity inversion line containing a filament where ongoing flux cancellation is observed, indicating a bald patch magnetic topology characteristic of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  17. The composition of a coronal active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waljeski, K.; Moses, D.; Dere, K. P.; Saba, J. L. R.; Strong, K. T.; Webb, D. F.; Zarro, D. M.

    1994-01-01

    The relative abundances of iron, oxygen, magnesium, and neon in a coronal active region are determined from measurements of soft X-ray line and broadband intensities. The emission measure, temperature, and column density are derived from these measured intensities and are used to place a constraint on the abundances of the heavier elements relative to hydrogen in the corona. The intensity measurements were made on 1987 December 11, when an active region was observed jointly by the American Science and Engineering (AS&E) High Resolution Soft X-Ray Imaging Sounding-Rocket Payload and the X-Ray Polychromator Flat Crystal Spectrometer (FCS) onboard the Solar Maximum Mission spacecraft. The coordinated observations include images through two broadband filters (8 to 29 A and 8 to 39, 44 to 60 A) and profiles of six emission lines: Fe XVII (15.01 A), FE VIII (15.26 A), O VIII (18.97 A), Mg XI (9.17 A), Ne IX (13.44 A), and Fe XVIII (14.21 A). The effects of resonance scattering are considered in the interpretation of the FCS line intensities. We calculated the expected intensity ratio of the two Fe XVII lines as a function of optical depth and compared this ratio with the observed intensity ratio to obtain the optical depths of each of the lines and the column density. The line intensities and the broadband filtered images are consistent with the emission from a thermal plasma where Fe, O, Mg, and Ne have the 'adopted coronal' abundances of Meyer (1985b) relative to one another, but are not consistent with the emission from a plasma having photospheric abundances: The ratios of the abundances of the low first ionization potential (FIP) elements (Fe and Mg) to the abundances of the high-FIP elements (Ne and O) are higher than the ratios seen in the photosphere by a factor of about 3.5. This conclusion is independent of the assumption of either an isothermal or a multithermal plasma. The column densities derived from the Fe XVII line ratio and the geometry of the active

  18. Operational Control Procedures for the Activated Sludge Process, Part I - Observations, Part II - Control Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Alfred W.

    This is the first in a series of documents developed by the National Training and Operational Technology Center describing operational control procedures for the activated sludge process used in wastewater treatment. Part I of this document deals with physical observations which should be performed during each routine control test. Part II…

  19. Anger Style, Psychopathology, and Regional Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jennifer L.; Levin, Rebecca L.; Sass, Sarah M.; Heller, Wendy; Miller, Gregory A.

    2010-01-01

    Depression and anxiety often involve high levels of trait anger and disturbances in anger expression. Reported anger experience and outward anger expression have recently been associated with left-biased asymmetry of frontal cortical activity, assumed to reflect approach motivation. However, different styles of anger expression could presumably involve different brain mechanisms and/or interact with psychopathology to produce various patterns of brain asymmetry. The present study explored these issues by comparing resting regional electroencephalographic activity in participants high in trait anger who differed in anger expression style (high anger-in, high anger-out, both) and participants low in trait anger, with depression and anxiety systematically assessed. Trait anger, not anger-in or anger-out, predicted left-biased asymmetry at medial frontal EEG sites. The anger-in group reported higher levels of anxious apprehension than did the anger-out group. Furthermore, anxious apprehension moderated the relationship between trait anger, anger-in, and asymmetry in favor of the left hemisphere. Results suggest that motivational direction is not always the driving force behind the relationship of anger and left frontal asymmetry. Findings also support a distinction between anxious apprehension and anxious arousal. PMID:18837620

  20. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 20 - United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices D Appendix D to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Pt. 20, App. D Appendix D to Part 20—United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices Address Telephone (24 hour) E-Mail...

  1. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 20 - United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices D Appendix D to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Pt. 20, App. D Appendix D to Part 20—United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional...

  2. 5 CFR Appendix II to Part 1201 - Appropriate Regional or Field Office for Filing Appeals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Appropriate Regional or Field Office for Filing Appeals II Appendix II to Part 1201 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Pt. 1201, App. II Appendix II to Part 1201—Appropriate Regional or Field Office for Filing...

  3. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 20 - United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices D Appendix D to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Pt. 20, App. D Appendix D to Part 20—United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional...

  4. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 20 - United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices D Appendix D to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Pt. 20, App. D Appendix D to Part 20—United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional...

  5. 10 CFR Appendix D to Part 20 - United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional Offices D Appendix D to Part 20 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION STANDARDS FOR PROTECTION AGAINST RADIATION Pt. 20, App. D Appendix D to Part 20—United States Nuclear Regulatory Commission Regional...

  6. 5 CFR Appendix III to Part 1201 - Approved Hearing Locations By Regional Office

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Approved Hearing Locations By Regional Office III Appendix III to Part 1201 Administrative Personnel MERIT SYSTEMS PROTECTION BOARD ORGANIZATION AND PROCEDURES PRACTICES AND PROCEDURES Pt. 1201, App. III Appendix III to Part 1201—Approved Hearing Locations By Regional Office...

  7. The Life Cycle of Active Region Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheung, M. C. M.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Martínez Pillet, V.; Thompson, M. J.

    2016-08-01

    We present a contemporary view of how solar active region magnetic fields are understood to be generated, transported and dispersed. Empirical trends of active region properties that guide model development are discussed. Physical principles considered important for active region evolution are introduced and advances in modeling are reviewed.

  8. Volume integrals associated with the inhomegeneous Helmholtz equation. Part 2: Cylindrical region; rectangular region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhong, W. F.; Fu, L. S.

    1983-01-01

    Results are presented for volume integrals associated with the Helmholtz operator, nabla(2) + alpha(2), for the cases of a finite cylindrical region and a region of rectangular parallelepiped. By using appropriate Taylor series expansions and multinomial theorem, these volume integrals are obtained in series form for regions r r' and r 4', where r and r' are distances from the origin to the point of observation and source, respectively. When the wave number approaches zero, the results reduce directly to the potentials of variable densities.

  9. MAGNETIC ENERGY SPECTRA IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Abramenko, Valentyna; Yurchyshyn, Vasyl

    2010-09-01

    Line-of-sight magnetograms for 217 active regions (ARs) with different flare rates observed at the solar disk center from 1997 January until 2006 December are utilized to study the turbulence regime and its relationship to flare productivity. Data from the SOHO/MDI instrument recorded in the high-resolution mode and data from the BBSO magnetograph were used. The turbulence regime was probed via magnetic energy spectra and magnetic dissipation spectra. We found steeper energy spectra for ARs with higher flare productivity. We also report that both the power index, {alpha}, of the energy spectrum, E(k) {approx} k{sup -}{alpha}, and the total spectral energy, W = {integral}E(k)dk, are comparably correlated with the flare index, A, of an AR. The correlations are found to be stronger than those found between the flare index and the total unsigned flux. The flare index for an AR can be estimated based on measurements of {alpha} and W as A = 10{sup b}({alpha}W){sup c}, with b = -7.92 {+-} 0.58 and c = 1.85 {+-} 0.13. We found that the regime of the fully developed turbulence occurs in decaying ARs and in emerging ARs (at the very early stage of emergence). Well-developed ARs display underdeveloped turbulence with strong magnetic dissipation at all scales.

  10. Multi-wavelength Observations of Solar Active Region NOAA 7154

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruner, M. E.; Nitta, N. V.; Frank. Z. A.; Dame, L.; Suematsu, Y.

    2000-01-01

    We report on observations of a solar active region in May 1992 by the Solar Plasma Diagnostic Experiment (SPDE) in coordination with the Yohkoh satellite (producing soft X-ray images) and ground-based observatories (producing photospheric magnetograms and various filtergrams including those at the CN 3883 A line). The main focus is a study of the physical conditions of hot (T is approximately greater than 3 MK) coronal loops at their foot-points. The coronal part of the loops is fuzzy but what appear to be their footpoints in the transition region down to the photosphere are compact. Despite the morphological similarities, the footpoint emission at 10(exp 5) K is not quantitatively correlated with that at approximately 300 km above the tau (sub 5000) = 1 level, suggesting that the heat transport and therefore magnetic field topology in the intermediate layer is complicated. High resolution imaging observations with continuous temperature coverage are crucially needed.

  11. Recurrent flares in active region NOAA 11283

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romano, P.; Zuccarello, F.; Guglielmino, S. L.; Berrilli, F.; Bruno, R.; Carbone, V.; Consolini, G.; de Lauretis, M.; Del Moro, D.; Elmhamdi, A.; Ermolli, I.; Fineschi, S.; Francia, P.; Kordi, A. S.; Landi Degl'Innocenti, E.; Laurenza, M.; Lepreti, F.; Marcucci, M. F.; Pallocchia, G.; Pietropaolo, E.; Romoli, M.; Vecchio, A.; Vellante, M.; Villante, U.

    2015-10-01

    Context. Flares and coronal mass ejections (CMEs) are solar phenomena that are not yet fully understood. Several investigations have been performed to single out their related physical parameters that can be used as indices of the magnetic complexity leading to their occurrence. Aims: In order to shed light on the occurrence of recurrent flares and subsequent associated CMEs, we studied the active region NOAA 11283 where recurrent M and X GOES-class flares and CMEs occurred. Methods: We use vector magnetograms taken by HMI/SDO to calculate the horizontal velocity fields of the photospheric magnetic structures, the shear and the dip angles of the magnetic field, the magnetic helicity flux distribution, and the Poynting fluxes across the photosphere due to the emergence and the shearing of the magnetic field. Results: Although we do not observe consistent emerging magnetic flux through the photosphere during the observation time interval, we detected a monotonic increase of the magnetic helicity accumulated in the corona. We found that both the shear and the dip angles have high values along the main polarity inversion line (PIL) before and after all the events. We also note that before the main flare of X2.1 GOES class, the shearing motions seem to inject a more significant energy than the energy injected by the emergence of the magnetic field. Conclusions: We conclude that the very long duration (about 4 days) of the horizontal displacement of the main photospheric magnetic structures along the PIL has a primary role in the energy release during the recurrent flares. This peculiar horizontal velocity field also contributes to the monotonic injection of magnetic helicity into the corona. This process, coupled with the high shear and dip angles along the main PIL, appears to be responsible for the consecutive events of loss of equilibrium leading to the recurrent flares and CMEs. A movie associated to Fig. 4 is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  12. Integrated Verification Experiment data collected as part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Source Region Program

    SciTech Connect

    Whitaker, R.W.; Noel, S.D.

    1992-12-01

    The summary report by Tom Weaver gives the overall background for the series of IVE (Integrated Verification Experiment) experiments including information on the full set of measurements made. This appendix presents details of the infrasound data for the and discusses certain aspects of a few special experiments. Prior to FY90, the emphasis of the Infrasound Program was on underground nuclear test (UGT) detection and yield estimation. During this time the Infrasound Program was a separate program at Los Alamos, and it was suggested to DOE/OAC that a regional infrasound network be established around NTS. The IVE experiments took place in a time frame that allowed simultaneous testing of possible network sites and examination of propagation in different directions. Whenever possible, infrasound stations were combined with seismic stations so that a large number could be efficiently fielded. The regional infrasound network was not pursued by DOE, as world events began to change the direction of verification toward non-proliferation. Starting in FY90 the infrasound activity became part of the Source Region Program which has a goal of understanding how energy is transported from the UGT to a variety of measurement locations.

  13. The Limit of Free Magnetic Energy in Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    By measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, it has been found previously that (1) there is an abrupt upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) the free energy is usually near its limit when the field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy ]limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, from measurement of Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograms, we find the magnetic condition that underlies the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free ]energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is approximately 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. This shows that most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1 or greater, most active regions are compelled to explode. From these results we surmise the magnetic condition that determines the free ]energy limit is the ratio of the free magnetic energy to the non-free energy the active region fs field would have were it completely relaxed to its potential ]field configuration, and that this ratio is approximately 1 at the free-energy limit and in the main sequence of explosive active regions.

  14. Statistical Analysis of Acoustic Wave Parameters Near Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabello-Soares, M. Cristina; Bogart, Richard S.; Scherrer, Philip H.

    2016-08-01

    In order to quantify the influence of magnetic fields on acoustic mode parameters and flows in and around active regions, we analyze the differences in the parameters in magnetically quiet regions nearby an active region (which we call “nearby regions”), compared with those of quiet regions at the same disk locations for which there are no neighboring active regions. We also compare the mode parameters in active regions with those in comparably located quiet regions. Our analysis is based on ring-diagram analysis of all active regions observed by the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) during almost five years. We find that the frequency at which the mode amplitude changes from attenuation to amplification in the quiet nearby regions is around 4.2 mHz, in contrast to the active regions, for which it is about 5.1 mHz. This amplitude enhacement (the “acoustic halo effect”) is as large as that observed in the active regions, and has a very weak dependence on the wave propagation direction. The mode energy difference in nearby regions also changes from a deficit to an excess at around 4.2 mHz, but averages to zero over all modes. The frequency difference in nearby regions increases with increasing frequency until a point at which the frequency shifts turn over sharply, as in active regions. However, this turnover occurs around 4.9 mHz, which is significantly below the acoustic cutoff frequency. Inverting the horizontal flow parameters in the direction of the neigboring active regions, we find flows that are consistent with a model of the thermal energy flow being blocked directly below the active region.

  15. 6 CFR Appendix A to Part 21 - Activities to Which This Part Applies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... control of the U.S. Coast Guard (14 U.S.C. 93 (n) and (o)). 2. Utilization of U.S. Coast Guard personnel... unit of the U.S. Coast Guard auxiliary, and public body or private organization not organized for... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities to Which This Part Applies A...

  16. 49 CFR Appendix A to Part 21 - Activities to Which This Part Applies

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... property under control of the Coast Guard (14 U.S.C. 93 (n) and (o)). 5. Utilization of Coast Guard..., and public body or private organization not organized for profit (14 U.S.C. 641(a)). 8. U.S. Coast... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Activities to Which This Part Applies A Appendix...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 81 - Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR's)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR's) A Appendix A to Part 81 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Pt. 81, App. A Appendix A to Part...

  18. Plasma Beta Above a Solar Active Region: Rethinking the Paradigm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, we present a model of the plasma beta above an active region and discuss its consequences in terms of coronal magnetic field modeling. The beta-plasma model is representative and derived from a collection of sources. The resulting beta variation with height is used to emphasize the assumption that the magnetic pressure dominates over the plasma pressure must be carefully considered depending on what part of the solar atmosphere is being considered. This paper points out (1) that the paradigm that the coronal magnetic field can be constructed from a force-free magnetic field must be used in the correct context, since the forcefree region is sandwiched between two regions which have beta greater than 1, (2) that the chromospheric MgIICIV magnetic measurements occur near the beta-minimum, and (3) that, moving from the photosphere upwards, beta can return to 1 at relatively low coronal heights, e.g. R approximately 1.2R(sub)s.

  19. Tracked Active Region Patches for MDI and HMI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turmon, Michael; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Bobra, Monica

    2014-06-01

    We describe tracked active-region patch data products that have been developed for HMI (HMI Active Region Patches, or HARPs) and for MDI (MDI Tracked Active Region Patches, or MDI TARPs). Both data products consist of tracked magnetic features on the scale of solar active regions. The now-released HARP data product covers 2010-present (>2000 regions to date). Like the HARPs, the MDI TARP data set is a catalog of active regions (ARs), indexed by a region ID number, analogous to a NOAA AR number, and time. The TARPs contain 6170 regions spanning 72000 images taken over 1996-2010, and will be availablein the MDI resident archive (RA).MDI TARPs are computed based on the 96-minute synoptic magnetograms and intensitygrams. As with the related HARP data product, the approximate threshold for significance is 100G. Use of both image types together allows faculae and sunspots to be separated out as sub-classes of activity, in addition to identifying the overall active region that they are in. After being identified in single images, the magnetically-active patches are grouped and tracked from image to image. Merges among growing active regions, as well as faint active regions hovering at the threshold of detection, are handled automatically. Regions are tracked from their inception until they decay within view, or transit off the visible disk. For each active region and for each time, a bitmap image is stored containing the precise outline of the active region. Also, metadata such as areas and integrated fluxes are stored for each AR and for each time. Because there is a cross-calibration between the HMI and MDI magnetograms (Liu et al. 2012), it is straightforward to use the same classification and tracking rules for the HMI HARPs and the MDI TARPs. We show results demonstrating region correspondence, region boundary agreement, and agreement of flux metadata using the approximately 140 regions in the May 2010-October 2010 time period. We envision several uses for these data

  20. A Fractal Dimension Survey of Active Region Complexity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McAteer, R. T. James; Gallagher, Peter; Ireland, Jack

    2005-01-01

    A new approach to quantifying the magnetic complexity of active regions using a fractal dimension measure is presented. This fully-automated approach uses full disc MDI magnetograms of active regions from a large data set (2742 days of the SoHO mission; 9342 active regions) to compare the calculated fractal dimension to both Mount Wilson classification and flare rate. The main Mount Wilson classes exhibit no distinct fractal dimension distribution, suggesting a self-similar nature of all active regions. Solar flare productivity exhibits an increase in both the frequency and GOES X-ray magnitude of flares from regions with higher fractal dimensions. Specifically a lower threshold fractal dimension of 1.2 and 1.25 exists as a necessary, but not sufficient, requirement for an active region to produce M- and X-class flares respectively .

  1. Homologous flares and the evolution of NOAA Active Region 2372

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strong, K. T.; Smith, J. B., Jr.; Mccabe, M. K.; Machado, M. E.; Saba, J. L. R.; Simnett, G. M.

    1984-01-01

    A detailed record of the evolution of NOAA Active Region 2372 has been compiled by the FBS Homology Study Group. It was one of the most prolific flare-producing regions observed by SMM. The flares occurred in distinct stages which corresponded to particular evolutionary phases in the development of the active region magnetic field. By comparison with a similar but less productive active region, it is found that the activity seems to be related to the magnetic complexity of the region and the amount of shear in the field. Further, the soft X-ray emission in the quiescent active region is related to its flare rate. Within the broader definition of homology adopted, there was a degree of homology between the events within each stage of evolution of AR2372.

  2. GLOBAL DYNAMICS OF SUBSURFACE SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Jouve, L.; Brun, A. S.

    2013-01-01

    We present three-dimensional numerical simulations of a magnetic loop evolving in either a convectively stable or unstable rotating shell. The magnetic loop is introduced into the shell in such a way that it is buoyant only in a certain portion in longitude, thus creating an {Omega}-loop. Due to the action of magnetic buoyancy, the loop rises and develops asymmetries between its leading and following legs, creating emerging bipolar regions whose characteristics are similar to those of observed spots at the solar surface. In particular, we self-consistently reproduce the creation of tongues around the spot polarities, which can be strongly affected by convection. We further emphasize the presence of ring-shaped magnetic structures around our simulated emerging regions, which we call 'magnetic necklace' and which were seen in a number of observations without being reported as of today. We show that those necklaces are markers of vorticity generation at the periphery and below the rising magnetic loop. We also find that the asymmetry between the two legs of the loop is crucially dependent on the initial magnetic field strength. The tilt angle of the emerging regions is also studied in the stable and unstable cases and seems to be affected both by the convective motions and the presence of a differential rotation in the convective cases.

  3. OBSERVING CORONAL NANOFLARES IN ACTIVE REGION MOSS

    SciTech Connect

    Testa, Paola; DeLuca, Ed; Golub, Leon; Korreck, Kelly; Weber, Mark; De Pontieu, Bart; Martinez-Sykora, Juan; Title, Alan; Hansteen, Viggo; Cirtain, Jonathan; Winebarger, Amy; Kobayashi, Ken; Kuzin, Sergey; Walsh, Robert; DeForest, Craig

    2013-06-10

    The High-resolution Coronal Imager (Hi-C) has provided Fe XII 193A images of the upper transition region moss at an unprecedented spatial ({approx}0.''3-0.''4) and temporal (5.5 s) resolution. The Hi-C observations show in some moss regions variability on timescales down to {approx}15 s, significantly shorter than the minute-scale variability typically found in previous observations of moss, therefore challenging the conclusion of moss being heated in a mostly steady manner. These rapid variability moss regions are located at the footpoints of bright hot coronal loops observed by the Solar Dynamics Observatory/Atmospheric Imaging Assembly in the 94 A channel, and by the Hinode/X-Ray Telescope. The configuration of these loops is highly dynamic, and suggestive of slipping reconnection. We interpret these events as signatures of heating events associated with reconnection occurring in the overlying hot coronal loops, i.e., coronal nanoflares. We estimate the order of magnitude of the energy in these events to be of at least a few 10{sup 23} erg, also supporting the nanoflare scenario. These Hi-C observations suggest that future observations at comparable high spatial and temporal resolution, with more extensive temperature coverage, are required to determine the exact characteristics of the heating mechanism(s).

  4. Mutagenic Activity of Indigofera truxillensis and I. suffruticosa Aerial Parts

    PubMed Central

    Calvo, Tamara Regina; Cardoso, Cássia Regina Primila; da Silva Moura, Adriana Candido; dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Colus, Ilce Mara Syllos; Vilegas, Wagner; Varanda, Eliana Aparecida

    2011-01-01

    Indigofera truxillensis and I. suffruticosa, are used as a source of indigo dye and to treat several diseases. The mutagenic activity of the methanolic extracts from aerial parts, glycerolipid, flavonoid and alkaloid fractions of the extract were evaluated by means of Salmonella/microsome assays using TA100, TA98, TA102 and TA97a strains. The methanolic extract of I. truxillensis showed mutagenic activity in the TA98 strain without S9 while glycerolipid fraction was devoid of activity. The flavonoid and alkaloid fractions of both plants showed mutagenicity. Chemical analysis of flavonoid fractions of I. truxillensis and I. suffruticosa resulted in the identification of kaempferol, quercetin and their derivatives. The alkaloid fraction of both the species contained indigo and indirubin and indigo was found mainly responsible for the mutagenic activity. PMID:19696193

  5. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

    1998-12-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

  6. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of different parts of Leucas aspera

    PubMed Central

    Chew, Ai Lan; Jessica, Jeyanthi James Antony; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of different parts (root, flower, leaf and stem) of Leucas aspera (L. aspera) (Labiatae). Methods Different parts of L. aspera were extracted with 80% (v/v) methanol. The methanol extracts were subjected to antioxidant, antimicrobial and brine shrimp lethality assay. Results All the extracts showed moderate to potent antioxidant activity, among which the root extract demonstrated the strongest antioxidant activity with the IC50 value of 6.552 µg/mL. Methanol extract of root possessed antioxidant activity near the range of vitamin E and thus could be a potential rich source of natural antioxidant. In case of antimicrobial screening, crude extracts of root, flower, leaf and stem showed notable antibacterial activity against tested microorganisms. The root extract showed the highest mean zone of inhibition ranging from 9.0–11.0 mm against tested microorganisms, at a concentration of 100 mg/mL. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, it was evident that the methanol root extract did not show significant toxicity. The LC50 value for 12 h and 24 h observation was 2.890 mg/mL and 1.417 mg/mL, respectively. Conclusions The present finding suggests that the methanol root extract of L. aspera could be developed as pharmaceutical products. PMID:23569893

  7. IFLA General Conference, 1985. Division on Regional Activities. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Papers on regional library activities which were presented at the 1985 International Federation of Library Associations (IFLA) conference include: (1) "Importance of Information Resources in National Development with Particular Reference to the Asian Scene" (Yogendra P. Dubey, India); (2) "Report of the Activities of the Regional Section for Asia…

  8. Mare ridges and related studies: Part C: lunar thrust faults in the Taurus-Littrow region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, K.A.; Muehlberger, W.R.

    1973-01-01

    "Wrinkle ridges" in the Taurus-Littrow region along the eastern margin of the Mare Serenitatis appear very fresh and are probably among the youngest on the Moon. They include both mare ridges and similar-looking one-sided scarps. Evidence will be presented here to suggest that these ridges and scarps may be anticlines and thrust faults that resulted from sliding on a décollement surface. Alternative interpretations are presented by Scott (part D) and Hodges (part B).

  9. 3D MHD Models of Active Region Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, Leon

    2004-01-01

    Present imaging and spectroscopic observations of active region loops allow to determine many physical parameters of the coronal loops, such as the density, temperature, velocity of flows in loops, and the magnetic field. However, due to projection effects many of these parameters remain ambiguous. Three dimensional imaging in EUV by the STEREO spacecraft will help to resolve the projection ambiguities, and the observations could be used to setup 3D MHD models of active region loops to study the dynamics and stability of active regions. Here the results of 3D MHD models of active region loops are presented, and the progress towards more realistic 3D MHD models of active regions. In particular the effects of impulsive events on the excitation of active region loop oscillations, and the generation, propagations and reflection of EIT waves are shown. It is shown how 3D MHD models together with 3D EUV observations can be used as a diagnostic tool for active region loop physical parameters, and to advance the science of the sources of solar coronal activity.

  10. THE MAGNETIC ENERGY-HELICITY DIAGRAM OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Tziotziou, Kostas; Georgoulis, Manolis K.; Raouafi, Nour-Eddine

    2012-11-01

    Using a recently proposed nonlinear force-free method designed for single-vector magnetograms of solar active regions, we calculate the instantaneous free magnetic energy and relative magnetic helicity budgets in 162 vector magnetograms corresponding to 42 different active regions. We find a statistically robust, monotonic correlation between the free magnetic energy and the relative magnetic helicity in the studied regions. This correlation implies that magnetic helicity, in addition to free magnetic energy, may be an essential ingredient for major solar eruptions. Eruptive active regions appear well segregated from non-eruptive ones in both free energy and relative helicity with major (at least M-class) flares occurring in active regions with free energy and relative helicity exceeding 4 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 31} erg and 2 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 42} Mx{sup 2}, respectively. The helicity threshold agrees well with estimates of the helicity contents of typical coronal mass ejections.

  11. VLA observations of solar active regions at 6 and 20 cm

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alissandrakis, C. E.; Kundu, M. R.; Shevgaonkar, K. R.

    1991-01-01

    High-resolution observations are presented of two active regions at 6 and 20 cm over a period of 5 days, together with H-alpha and photospheric magnetic fields. The large-scale emission at 20 cm is associated with the H-alpha plage. In one region the strongest source was over the neutral line, near the tip of an active-region filament, which indicates that the emission probably originated in small-scale coronal loops. In the second region the peak of the emission was near a well-developed sunspot. Neither region showed evidence of large-scale loops joining their preceding and following parts. Several other sources were observed at 20 cm; a source associated with an H-alpha plage region crossed by a filament and one associated with a small bipolar region are briefly discussed. The 6-cm emission from a well-developed spot showed clearly the characteristics expected from gyroresonance model computations.

  12. 40 CFR Appendix Y to Part 51 - Guidelines for BART Determinations Under the Regional Haze Rule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regional haze rule is found in this part at 40 CFR 51.300 through 51.309. These regulations require, in 40 CFR 51.308(e), that certain types of existing stationary sources of air pollutants install best... CFR 81.401 through 81.437, and you can find a map of the Class I areas at the following Internet...

  13. 40 CFR Appendix Y to Part 51 - Guidelines for BART Determinations Under the Regional Haze Rule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regional haze rule is found in this part at 40 CFR 51.300 through 51.309. These regulations require, in 40 CFR 51.308(e), that certain types of existing stationary sources of air pollutants install best... CFR 81.401 through 81.437, and you can find a map of the Class I areas at the following Internet...

  14. 40 CFR Appendix Y to Part 51 - Guidelines for BART Determinations Under the Regional Haze Rule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regional haze rule is found in this part at 40 CFR 51.300 through 51.309. These regulations require, in 40 CFR 51.308(e), that certain types of existing stationary sources of air pollutants install best... CFR 81.401 through 81.437, and you can find a map of the Class I areas at the following Internet...

  15. 40 CFR Appendix Y to Part 51 - Guidelines for BART Determinations Under the Regional Haze Rule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regional haze rule is found in this part at 40 CFR 51.300 through 51.309. These regulations require, in 40 CFR 51.308(e), that certain types of existing stationary sources of air pollutants install best... CFR 81.401 through 81.437, and you can find a map of the Class I areas at the following Internet...

  16. 40 CFR Appendix Y to Part 51 - Guidelines for BART Determinations Under the Regional Haze Rule

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... regional haze rule is found in this part at 40 CFR 51.300 through 51.309. These regulations require, in 40 CFR 51.308(e), that certain types of existing stationary sources of air pollutants install best... CFR 81.401 through 81.437, and you can find a map of the Class I areas at the following Internet...

  17. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 81 - Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR's)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Pt. 81, App. A Appendix A to Part 81—Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR's) AQCR No. Alabama: Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers 1 Columbus-Phenix City 2 East Alabama 3 Metropolitan Birmingham 4 Mobile-Pensacola-Panama City-Southern Mississippi (Fla.,...

  18. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 81 - Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR's)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Pt. 81, App. A Appendix A to Part 81—Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR's) AQCR No. Alabama: Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers 1 Columbus-Phenix City 2 East Alabama 3 Metropolitan Birmingham 4 Mobile-Pensacola-Panama City-Southern Mississippi (Fla.,...

  19. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 81 - Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR's)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Pt. 81, App. A Appendix A to Part 81—Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR's) AQCR No. Alabama: Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers 1 Columbus-Phenix City 2 East Alabama 3 Metropolitan Birmingham 4 Mobile-Pensacola-Panama City-Southern Mississippi (Fla.,...

  20. 40 CFR Appendix A to Part 81 - Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR's)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... (CONTINUED) DESIGNATION OF AREAS FOR AIR QUALITY PLANNING PURPOSES Pt. 81, App. A Appendix A to Part 81—Air Quality Control Regions (AQCR's) AQCR No. Alabama: Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers 1 Columbus-Phenix City 2 East Alabama 3 Metropolitan Birmingham 4 Mobile-Pensacola-Panama City-Southern Mississippi (Fla.,...

  1. The subthalamic nucleus part II: modelling and simulation of activity.

    PubMed

    Heida, Tjitske; Marani, Enrico; Usunoff, Kamen G

    2008-01-01

    Part I of The Subthalamic Nucleus (volume 198) (STN) accentuates the gap between experimental animal and human information concerning subthalamic development, cytology, topography and connections.The light and electron microscopical cytology focuses on the open nucleus concept and the neuronal types present in the STN. The cytochemistry encompasses enzymes, NO, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), calcium binding proteins, and receptors (dopamine, cannabinoid, opioid, glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), serotonin, cholinergic, and calcium channels). The ontogeny of the subthalamic cell cord is also reviewed. The topography concerns the rat, cat, baboon and human STN. The descriptions of the connections are also given from a historical point of view. Recent tracer studies on the rat nigro-subthalamic connection revealed contralateral projections. This monograph (Part II of the two volumes) on the subthalamic nucleus (STN) starts with a systemic model of the basal ganglia to evaluate the position of the STN in the direct, indirect and hyperdirect pathways. A summary of in vitro studies is given, describing STN spontaneous activity as well as responses to depolarizing and hyperpolarizing inputs and high-frequency stimulation. STN bursting activity and the underlying ionic mechanisms are investigated. Deep brain stimulation used for symptomatic treatment of Parkinson's disease is discussed in terms of the elements that are influenced and its hypothesized mechanisms. This part of the monograph explores the pedunculopontine-subthalamic connections and summarizes attempts to mimic neurotransmitter actions of the pedunculopontine nucleus in cell cultures and high-frequency stimulation on cultured dissociated rat subthalamic neurons. STN cell models - single- and multi-compartment models and system-level models are discussed in relation to subthalamic function and dysfunction. Parts I and II are compared. PMID:18727495

  2. Regional Observation of Seismic Activity in Baekdu Mountain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Geunyoung; Che, Il-Young; Shin, Jin-Soo; Chi, Heon-Cheol

    2015-04-01

    Seismic unrest in Baekdu Mountain area between North Korea and Northeast China region has called attention to geological research community in Northeast Asia due to her historical and cultural importance. Seismic bulletin shows level of seismic activity in the area is higher than that of Jilin Province of Northeast China. Local volcanic observation shows a symptom of magmatic unrest in period between 2002 and 2006. Regional seismic data have been used to analyze seismic activity of the area. The seismic activity could be differentiated from other seismic phenomena in the region by the analysis.

  3. The Smad3 linker region contains a transcriptional activation domain.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guannan; Long, Jianyin; Matsuura, Isao; He, Dongming; Liu, Fang

    2005-02-15

    Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta)/Smads regulate a wide variety of biological responses through transcriptional regulation of target genes. Smad3 plays a key role in TGF-beta/Smad-mediated transcriptional responses. Here, we show that the proline-rich linker region of Smad3 contains a transcriptional activation domain. When the linker region is fused to a heterologous DNA-binding domain, it activates transcription. We show that the linker region physically interacts with p300. The adenovirus E1a protein, which binds to p300, inhibits the transcriptional activity of the linker region, and overexpression of p300 can rescue the linker-mediated transcriptional activation. In contrast, an adenovirus E1a mutant, which cannot bind to p300, does not inhibit the linker-mediated transcription. The native Smad3 protein lacking the linker region is unable to mediate TGF-beta transcriptional activation responses, although it can be phosphorylated by the TGF-beta receptor at the C-terminal tail and has a significantly increased ability to form a heteromeric complex with Smad4. We show further that the linker region and the C-terminal domain of Smad3 synergize for transcriptional activation in the presence of TGF-beta. Thus our findings uncover an important function of the Smad3 linker region in Smad-mediated transcriptional control. PMID:15588252

  4. NEW RENIN-INHIBITORS--STABILITY AND ACTIVITY DETERMINATION. PART III.

    PubMed

    Marszałek, Dorota; Goldnik, Anna; Winiecka, Iwona; Jaworski, Paweł; Mazurek, Aleksander P

    2016-01-01

    A series of new four potential renin inhibitors containing pseudodipeptides were synthesized. Stability for all compounds (1-4) in homogenates of liver, kidney, lung and in serum, gastric, intestinal juice and in the presence of α-chymotrypsin was determined. Compound 1 was unstable, compounds 2, 3 were stable, compound 4 was partly unstable, (liver and kidney homogenates, (α-chymotrypsin solution). Inhibitory activity of the compounds was measured in vitro by HPLC determination of lowering concentration of substrate (angiotensinogen) in the presence of renin and the potential renin inhibitor (compounds 1-4). Compound 1, 2, 3 and 4 showed inhibitory activity (1.7 x 10(-6), 9.6 x 10(-7), 1.05 x 10(-9) and 1.31 x 10(-7)M, respectively). PMID:27180425

  5. Parent participation plays an important part in promoting physical activity

    PubMed Central

    Lindqvist, Anna-Karin; Kostenius, Catrine; Gard, Gunvor; Rutberg, Stina

    2015-01-01

    Although physical activity (PA) is an important and modifiable determinant of health, in Sweden only 15% of boys and 10% of girls aged 15 years old achieve the recommended levels of PA 7 days per week. Adolescents’ PA levels are associated with social influence exerted by parents, friends, and teachers. The purpose of this study was to describe parents’ experiences of being a part of their adolescents’ empowerment-inspired PA intervention. A qualitative interview study was performed at a school in the northern part of Sweden. A total of 10 parents were interviewed, and the collected data were analyzed with qualitative content analysis. Three subthemes were combined into one main theme, demonstrating that parents are one important part of a successful PA intervention. The life of an adolescent has many options and demands that make it difficult to prioritize PA. Although parents felt that they were important in supporting their adolescent, a successful PA intervention must have multiple components. Moreover, the parents noted that the intervention had a positive effect upon not only their adolescents’, but also their own PA. Interventions aimed at promoting PA among adolescents should include measures to stimulate parent participation, have an empowerment approach, and preferably be school-based. PMID:26282870

  6. Prediction of Active-Region CME Productivity from Magnetograms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Gary, G. A.

    2004-01-01

    We report results of an expanded evaluation of whole-active-region magnetic measures as predictors of active-region coronal mass ejection (CME) productivity. Previously, in a sample of 17 vector magnetograms of 12 bipolar active regions observed by the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) vector magnetograph, from each magnetogram we extracted a measure of the size of the active region (the active region s total magnetic flux a) and four measures of the nonpotentiality of the active region: the strong-shear length L(sub SS), the strong-gradient length L(sub SG), the net vertical electric current I(sub N), and the net-current magnetic twist parameter alpha (sub IN). This sample size allowed us to show that each of the four nonpotentiality measures was statistically significantly correlated with active-region CME productivity in time windows of a few days centered on the day of the magnetogram. We have now added a fifth measure of active-region nonpotentiality (the best-constant-alpha magnetic twist parameter (alpha sub BC)), and have expanded the sample to 36 MSFC vector magnetograms of 31 bipolar active regions. This larger sample allows us to demonstrate statistically significant correlations of each of the five nonpotentiality measures with future CME productivity, in time windows of a few days starting from the day of the magnetogram. The two magnetic twist parameters (alpha (sub 1N) and alpha (sub BC)) are normalized measures of an active region s nonpotentially in that they do not depend directly on the size of the active region, while the other three nonpotentiality measures (L(sub SS), L(sub SG), and I(sub N)) are non-normalized measures in that they do depend directly on active-region size. We find (1) Each of the five nonpotentiality measures is statistically significantly correlated (correlation confidence level greater than 95%) with future CME productivity and has a CME prediction success rate of approximately 80%. (2) None of the nonpotentiality

  7. THE COLD SHOULDER: EMISSION MEASURE DISTRIBUTIONS OF ACTIVE REGION CORES

    SciTech Connect

    Schmelz, J. T.; Pathak, S.

    2012-09-10

    The coronal heating mechanism for active region core loops is difficult to determine because these loops are often not resolved and cannot be studied individually. Rather, we concentrate on the 'inter-moss' areas between loop footpoints. We use observations from the Hinode EUV Imaging Spectrometer and the X-Ray Telescope to calculate the emission measure distributions of eight inter-moss areas in five different active regions. The combined data sets provide both high- and low-temperature constraints and ensure complete coverage in the temperature range appropriate for active regions. For AR 11113, the emission can be modeled with heating events that occur on timescales less than the cooling time. The loops in the core regions appear to be close to equilibrium and are consistent with steady heating. The other regions studied, however, appear to be dominated by nanoflare heating. Our results are consistent with the idea that active region age is an important parameter in determining whether steady or nanoflare heating is primarily responsible for the core emission, that is, older regions are more likely to be dominated by steady heating, while younger regions show more evidence of nanoflares.

  8. Active Ageing Level of Older Persons: Regional Comparison in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Haque, Md. Nuruzzaman

    2016-01-01

    Active ageing level and its discrepancy in different regions (Bangkok, Central, North, Northeast, and South) of Thailand have been examined for prioritizing the policy agenda to be implemented. Attempt has been made to test preliminary active ageing models for Thai older persons and hence active ageing index (AAI, ranges from 0 to 1) has been estimated. Using nationally representative data and confirmatory factor analysis approach, this study justified active ageing models for female and male older persons in Thailand. Results revealed that active ageing level of Thai older persons is not high (mean AAIs for female and male older persons are 0.64 and 0.61, resp., and those are significantly different (p < 0.001)). Mean AAI in Central region is lower than North, Northeast, and South regions but there is no significant difference in the latter three regions of Thailand. Special emphasis should be given to Central region and policy should be undertaken for increasing active ageing level. Implementation of an Integrated Active Ageing Package (IAAP), containing policies for older persons to improve their health and economic security, to promote participation in social groups and longer working lives, and to arrange learning programs, would be helpful for increasing older persons' active ageing level in Thailand. PMID:27375903

  9. DISTRIBUTION OF ELECTRIC CURRENTS IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Török, T.; Titov, V. S.; Mikić, Z.; Leake, J. E.; Archontis, V.; Linton, M. G.; Dalmasse, K.; Aulanier, G.; Kliem, B.

    2014-02-10

    There has been a long-standing debate on the question of whether or not electric currents in solar active regions are neutralized. That is, whether or not the main (or direct) coronal currents connecting the active region polarities are surrounded by shielding (or return) currents of equal total value and opposite direction. Both theory and observations are not yet fully conclusive regarding this question, and numerical simulations have, surprisingly, barely been used to address it. Here we quantify the evolution of electric currents during the formation of a bipolar active region by considering a three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic simulation of the emergence of a sub-photospheric, current-neutralized magnetic flux rope into the solar atmosphere. We find that a strong deviation from current neutralization develops simultaneously with the onset of significant flux emergence into the corona, accompanied by the development of substantial magnetic shear along the active region's polarity inversion line. After the region has formed and flux emergence has ceased, the strong magnetic fields in the region's center are connected solely by direct currents, and the total direct current is several times larger than the total return current. These results suggest that active regions, the main sources of coronal mass ejections and flares, are born with substantial net currents, in agreement with recent observations. Furthermore, they support eruption models that employ pre-eruption magnetic fields containing such currents.

  10. Photospheric Magnetic Diffusion by Measuring Moments of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Engell, Alexander; Longcope, D.

    2013-07-01

    Photospheric magnetic surface diffusion is an important constraint for the solar dynamo. The HMI Active Region Patches (HARPs) program automatically identify all magnetic regions above a certain flux. In our study we measure the moments of ARs that are no longer actively emerging and can thereby give us good statistical constraints on photospheric diffusion. We also present the diffusion properties as a function of latitude, flux density, and single polarity (leading or following) within each HARP.

  11. Differential activity of regions of transversus abdominis during trunk rotation.

    PubMed

    Urquhart, Donna M; Hodges, Paul W

    2005-05-01

    The role of the abdominal muscles in trunk rotation is not comprehensively understood. This study investigated the electromyographic (EMG) activity of anatomically distinct regions of the abdominal muscles during trunk rotation in six subjects with no history of spinal pain. Fine-wire electrodes were inserted into the right abdominal wall; upper region of transversus abdominis (TrA), middle region of TrA, obliquus internus abdominis (OI) and obliquus externus abdominis (OE), and lower region of TrA and OI. Surface electrodes were placed over right rectus abdominis (RA). Subjects performed trunk rotation to the left and right in sitting by rotating their pelvis relative to a fixed thorax. EMG activity was recorded in relaxed supine and sitting, and during an isometric hold at end range. TrA was consistently active during trunk rotation, with the recruitment patterns of the upper fascicles opposite to that of the middle and lower fascicles. During left rotation, there was greater activity of the lower and middle regions of contralateral TrA and the lower region of contralateral OI. The upper region of ipsilateral TrA and OE were predominately active during right rotation. In contrast, there was no difference in activity of RA and middle OI between directions (although middle OI was different between directions for all but one subject). This study indicates that TrA is active during trunk rotation, but this activity varies between muscle regions. These normative data will assist in understanding the role of TrA in lumbopelvic control and movement, and the effect of spinal pain on abdominal muscle recruitment. PMID:15940481

  12. Solar Irradiance Variations on Active Region Time Scales

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Labonte, B. J. (Editor); Chapman, G. A. (Editor); Hudson, H. S. (Editor); Willson, R. C. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    The variations of the total solar irradiance is an important tool for studying the Sun, thanks to the development of very precise sensors such as the ACRIM instrument on board the Solar Maximum Mission. The largest variations of the total irradiance occur on time scales of a few days are caused by solar active regions, especially sunspots. Efforts were made to describe the active region effects on total and spectral irradiance.

  13. Radio Coronal Magnetography of a Large Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bastian, Timothy S.; Gary, Dale E.; White, Stephen; Fleishman, Gregory; Chen, Bin

    2015-04-01

    Quantitative knowledge of coronal magnetic fields is fundamental to understanding energetic phenomena such as solar flares. Flares occur in solar active regions where strong, non-potential magnetic fields provide free energy. While constraints on the coronal magnetic field topology are readily available through high resolution SXR and EUV imaging of solar active regions, useful quantitative measurements of coronal magnetic fields have thus far been elusive. Recent progress has been made at infrared (IR) wavelengths in exploiting both the Zeeman and Hanle effects to infer the line-of-sight magnetic field strength or the orientation of the magnetic field vector in the plane of the sky above the solar limb. However, no measurements of coronal magnetic fields against the solar disk are possible using IR observations. Radio observations of gyroresonance emission from active regions offer the means of measuring coronal magnetic fields above the limb and on the solar disk. In particular, for plasma plasma conditions in the solar corona, active regions typically become optically thick to emission over a range of radio frequencies through gyroresonance absorption at a low harmonic of the electron gyrofrequency. The specific range of resonant frequencies depends on the range of coronal magnetic field strengths present in the active region.The Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array was used in November 2014 to image NOAA/USAF active region AR12209 over a continuous frequency range of 1-8 GHz, corresponding to a wavelength range of 3.75-30 cm. This frequency range is sensitive to coronal magnetic field strengths ranging from ~120-1400G. The active region was observed on four different dates - November 18, 20, 22, and 24 - during which the active region longitude ranged from -15 to +70 degrees, providing a wide range of aspect angles. In this paper we provide a preliminary description of the coronal magnetic field measurements derived from the radio observations.

  14. Orbital-science investigation: Part F: regional geology of Hadley Rille

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Howard, Keith A.; Head, James W.

    1972-01-01

    Study of the sinuous Hadley Rille (fig. 25-45) was a primary goal of the Apollo 15 mission. Local geology of the rille near the landing site is described in section 5 of this report. Preliminary study of orbital photography from Hasselblad, metric, and panoramic cameras makes possible a description of some regional relationships of the rille. Considerable use is also made of a preliminary topographic map (10-m contour interval) of part of the rille (part C of this section). Contours in the mare area generalized from the map (fig. 25-35(a)) are shown in figure 25-46.

  15. TRACE and SVST Observations of an Active-Region Filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Ballegooijen, A. A.; Deluca, E. E.

    1999-05-01

    In June 1998 the Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) observed filaments and prominences in coordination with various ground-based solar observatories, including the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope (SVST) on La Palma. Here we present results for an active-region filament observed on June 21-22. This horse-shoe shaped filament had a "barb" that reached down from the filament spine to the chomosphere below. We use high-resolution images obtained at the SVST on June 21 from 18:03 to 19:04 UT to study the fine structure and dynamics of plasmas in the barb and other parts of the filament. The data consist of narrowband Hα images taken with the Lockheed Tunable Filtergraph operating at a cadence of 20 s. We present Doppler maps derived from these images. The filament erupted six hours after the SVST observations. The eruption was observed with TRACE, which obtained images in Fe IX/X 171, Fe XII 195, Fe XV 284 and H I Lyalpha . At the start of the event, a thin bright loop appears high above the filament at the location of the barb. We interpret this feature as the outline of a magnetic "bubble" which forms as a result of kink instability in the magnetic field that supports the filament. The bright loop appears to be due to particle acceleration and impulsive heating along certain field lines on the periphery of this magnetic structure. A few minutes later, the dark filament threads turn into emission and move outward, exhibiting a helical structure. We discuss the magnetic structure of the barb and its possible role in the filament eruption.

  16. A Biomimetic Propulsor for Active Noise Control. Part 2: Theory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annaswamy Krol, A., Jr.; Bandyopadhyay, P. R.

    2000-11-01

    The alteration of radiated noise in underwater propulsors using biomimetic active control is considered. Wake momentum filling is carried out by introducing artificial muscles at the trailing edge of a stator blade of an upstream stator propulsor, and articulating them like a fish tail (see companion abstract Part 1). Using a systems framework, we derive a methodology for the articulation of the muscles with active control. The unsteady force produced on the rotor because of velocity perturbations due to actuator displacements, wake deficits caused by stator boundary layers, and blade rotation is modeled. Linear and adaptive nonlinear control strategies are described for articulating the tail using unsteady force measurements. This active control procedure can be viewed as the realization of “virtual” blades with different sweep and noise characteristics and can affect the noise spectrum due to direct radiation significantly. The work provides an understanding of the effect of nonuniform wakes on radiated noise and can lead to a general approach by which wakes can be altered.

  17. Earth resources-regional transfer activity contracts review

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bensko, J., Jr.; Daniels, J. L.; Downs, S. W., Jr.; Jones, N. L.; Morton, R. R.; Paludan, C. T.

    1977-01-01

    A regional transfer activity contracts review held by the Earth Resources Office was summarized. Contracts in the earth resources field primarily directed toward applications of satellite data and technology in solution of state and regional problems were reviewed. A summary of the progress of each contract was given in order to share experiences of researchers across a seven state region. The region included Missouri, Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama, Georgia, and North Carolina. Research in several earth science disciplines included forestry, limnology, water resources, land use, geology, and mathematical modeling. The use of computers for establishment of information retrieval systems was also emphasized.

  18. Active Tectonics And Modern Geodynamics Of Sub-Yerevan Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avanesyan, M.

    2004-05-01

    The given work is dedicated to active tectonics and modern geodynamics of Sub-Yerevan region. This region is interesting as a one of regions with maximal seismic activity in Armenia. The high level of seismic risk of this region is conditioned by high level of seismic hazard, high density of the population, as well as presence of objects of special importance and industrial capacities. The modern structure of Sub-Yerevan region and the adjacent area, as well as the Caucasus entirely, has mosaic-block appearance, typical for collision zone of Arabian and Eurasian plates. Distinctively oriented active faults of various ranges and morphological types are distinguished. These faults, in their turn, form various-scale active blocks of the Earth's crust and their movement defines seismic activity of the region. The researches show, that all strong earthquakes in the region were caused by movements by newest and activated ancient faults. In order to reveal the character of Earth's crust active blocks movement, separation of high gradients of horizontal and vertical movements and definition of stress fields highest concentration regions by GPS observations, high-accuracy leveling and study of earthquake focal mechanisms a new seismotectonic model is developed, which represents a combination of tectonic structure, seismic data, newest and modern movements. On the basis of comparison and analysis of these data zones with potential maximal seismic hazard are separated. The zone of joint of Azat-Sevan active and Yerevan abysmal faults is the most active on the territory of Sub-Yerevan region. The directions relatively the Earth's crust movement in the zones of horizontal and vertical movement gradients lead to conclusion, that Aragats-Tsakhkunian and Gegam active blocks undergo clockwise rotation. This means, that additional concentration of stress must be observed in block corners, that is confirmed by location of strong earthquakes sources. Thus, on the North 1988 Spitak (M

  19. Universities and Economic Development Activities: A UK Regional Comparison

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decter, Moira; Cave, Frank; Rose, Mary; Peers, Gill; Fogg, Helen; Smith, Susan M.

    2011-01-01

    A number of UK universities prioritize economic development or regeneration activities and for some of these universities such activities are the main focus of their knowledge transfer work. This study compares two regions of the UK--the North West and the South East of England--which have very different levels of economic performance.…

  20. STS-113 crew members take part in CEIT activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. - As part of Crew Equipment Interface Test activities, STS-113 Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria (left) and John Herrington (center) look over equipment that will be carried on the mission. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1 Truss, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the International Space Station, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B that can be used by spacewalkers to move along the truss with equipment. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1. The mission will also deliver the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return Expedition 5 to Earth. Space Shuttle Endeavour is scheduled to launch Nov. 10 on the 11-day mission.

  1. STS-113 crew members take part in CEIT activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- As part of Crew Equipment Interface Test activities, STS-113 Mission Specialists John Herrington (left) and Michael Lopez-Alegria (center) practice working with equipment in Endeavour. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1 Truss, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the International Space Station, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B that can be used by spacewalkers to move along the truss with equipment. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1. The mission will also deliver the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return Expedition 5 to Earth. Space Shuttle Endeavour is scheduled to launch Nov. 10 on the 11-day mission.

  2. STS-113 crew members take part in CEIT activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- As part of Crew Equipment Interface Test activities, STS-113 Mission Specialists Michael Lopez-Alegria (left) and John Herrington (right) practice working with flight equipment in Endeavour. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1 Truss, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the International Space Station, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B that can be used by spacewalkers to move along the truss with equipment. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1. The mission will also deliver the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return Expedition 5 to Earth. Space Shuttle Endeavour is scheduled to launch Nov. 10 on the 11-day mission.

  3. STS-113 crew members take part in CEIT activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- As part of Crew Equipment Interface Test activities, STS-113 Mission Specialist John Herrington looks over paperwork for equipment in Endeavour that will be carried on the mission. The primary payloads on mission STS-113 are the first port truss segment, P1 Truss, to be attached to the central truss segment, S0, on the International Space Station, and the Crew and Equipment Translation Aid (CETA) Cart B that can be used by spacewalkers to move along the truss with equipment. Once delivered, the P1 truss will remain stowed until flight 12A.1. The mission will also deliver the Expedition 6 crew to the Station and return Expedition 5 to Earth. Space Shuttle Endeavour is scheduled to launch Nov. 10 on the 11-day mission.

  4. FIP Bias Evolution in a Decaying Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; Yardley, S. L.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Long, D. M.; Green, L. M.

    2015-04-01

    Solar coronal plasma composition is typically characterized by first ionization potential (FIP) bias. Using spectra obtained by Hinode’s EUV Imaging Spectrometer instrument, we present a series of large-scale, spatially resolved composition maps of active region (AR)11389. The composition maps show how FIP bias evolves within the decaying AR during the period 2012 January 4-6. Globally, FIP bias decreases throughout the AR. We analyzed areas of significant plasma composition changes within the decaying AR and found that small-scale evolution in the photospheric magnetic field is closely linked to the FIP bias evolution observed in the corona. During the AR’s decay phase, small bipoles emerging within supergranular cells reconnect with the pre-existing AR field, creating a pathway along which photospheric and coronal plasmas can mix. The mixing timescales are shorter than those of plasma enrichment processes. Eruptive activity also results in shifting the FIP bias closer to photospheric in the affected areas. Finally, the FIP bias still remains dominantly coronal only in a part of the AR’s high-flux density core. We conclude that in the decay phase of an AR’s lifetime, the FIP bias is becoming increasingly modulated by episodes of small-scale flux emergence, i.e., decreasing the AR’s overall FIP bias. Our results show that magnetic field evolution plays an important role in compositional changes during AR development, revealing a more complex relationship than expected from previous well-known Skylab results showing that FIP bias increases almost linearly with age in young ARs.

  5. Techniques: Paying Attention to the Place. Part 1--Activities for Instructors and Adult Learners [and] Part 2--Activities for Planning Places for Adult Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Rodney D.

    1992-01-01

    This two-part article discusses the role of the physical environment in adult learning. In the first part, two activities--environment introduction and visualization--are discussed as ways to develop an awareness for improving the learning environment. In the second part, two planning activities--mapping and geometric coding--are discussed as ways…

  6. Eigen analysis of tree-ring records: Part 1, a limited representativeness of regional curve

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Bao; Sonechkin, Dmitry M.; Datsenko, Nina M.; Ivashchenko, Nadezda N.; Liu, Jingjing; Qin, Chun

    2011-12-01

    Based on a set of very long-living (2,000 years) Qilian junipers ( Sabina przewalskii Kom.) from the north-eastern part of the Tibetan Plateau (the region of Dulan), we carefully consider the regional curve standardization (RCS) technique. For this goal, we correlate deviations of individual tree-ring width records from their regional mean age-dependent curve (RC). It turns out that these correlations keep their positivity for almost all shifts between ages compared (up to 500 years and even more) evidencing each Dulan juniper to be a unique "thermometer". Just the unification of these "thermometers" in the form RC creates a spurious positive trend in the Dulan chronology. We modify the RCS technique to closer attach RC to these "thermometers" in order to construct a new chronology in which the trend is absent.

  7. EVIDENCE OF IMPULSIVE HEATING IN ACTIVE REGION CORE LOOPS

    SciTech Connect

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2010-11-01

    Using a full spectral scan of an active region from the Extreme-Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) we have obtained emission measure EM(T) distributions in two different moss regions within the same active region. We have compared these with theoretical transition region EMs derived for three limiting cases, namely, static equilibrium, strong condensation, and strong evaporation from Klimchuk et al. The EM distributions in both the moss regions are strikingly similar and show a monotonically increasing trend from log T[K] = 5.15-6.3. Using photospheric abundances, we obtain a consistent EM distribution for all ions. Comparing the observed and theoretical EM distributions, we find that the observed EM distribution is best explained by the strong condensation case (EM{sub con}), suggesting that a downward enthalpy flux plays an important and possibly dominant role in powering the transition region moss emission. The downflows could be due to unresolved coronal plasma that is cooling and draining after having been impulsively heated. This supports the idea that the hot loops (with temperatures of 3-5 MK) seen in the core of active regions are heated by nanoflares.

  8. Regional forecasting system of marine state and variability of dynamical processes in the easternmost part of the Black Sea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kordzadze, Avtandil; Demetrashvili, Demuri

    2014-05-01

    The regional forecasting system for the easternmost part of the Black Sea developed at M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics of I. Javakhishvili Tbilisi State University under the EU framework projects ARENA and ECOOP is a part of the Black Sea basin-scale Nowcasting/Forecasting System. A core of the regional forecasting system is a baroclinic regional model of Black Sea dynamics with 1 km spacing based on hydrostatic primitive equations of ocean hydrothermodynamics, which are written in z-coordinates for deviations of thermodynamic values from their standard vertical distributions. To solve the problem the two-cycle method of splitting the model equation system with respect to both physical processes and coordinate planes and lines is used. The regional model of M. Nodia Institute of Geophysics is nested in the basin-scale model of Black Sea dynamics of Marine Hydrophysical Institute (Sevastopol/Ukraine). The regional forecasting system provides 3 days' forecasts of current, temperature and salinity for the easternmost part of the Black Sea, which is limited to the Caucasian and Turkish coastal lines and the western liquid boundary coinciding with the meridian 39.080E. Data needed on liquid and upper boundaries, also the 3-D initial hydrophysical fields for the easternmost regional area are provided in near operative mode from Marine hydrophysical Institute via Internet. These data on the liquid boundary are values of velocity components, temperature and salinity predicted by the basin-scale model of Black Sea dynamics of Marine Hydrophysical Institute and on the sea surface 2-D meteorological boundary fields - wind stress, heat fluxes, evaporation and precipitation rates predicted by the regional atmospheric model ALADIN are used. The analysis of the results of modeling and forecast of dynamic processes developed for 2010-2014 showed that the easternmost water area of the Black Sea is a dynamically very active zone, where continuously there are processes of generation

  9. Eruptions that Drive Coronal Jets in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sterling, Alphonse C.; Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Panesar, Navdeep K.; Akiyama, Sachiko; Yashiro, Seiji; Gopalswamy, Nat

    2016-01-01

    Solar coronal jets are common in both coronal holes and in active regions (e.g., Shibata et al. 1992, Shimojo et al. 1996, Cirtain et al. 2007. Savcheva et al. 2007). Recently, Sterling et al. (2015), using data from Hinode/XRT and SDO/AIA, found that coronal jets originating in polar coronal holes result from the eruption of small-scale filaments (minifilaments). The jet bright point (JBP) seen in X-rays and hotter EUV channels off to one side of the base of the jet's spire develops at the location where the minifilament erupts, consistent with the JBPs being miniature versions of typical solar flares that occur in the wake of large-scale filament eruptions. Here we consider whether active region coronal jets also result from the same minifilament-eruption mechanism, or whether they instead result from a different mechanism (e.g. Yokoyama & Shibata 1995). We present observations of an on-disk active region (NOAA AR 11513) that produced numerous jets on 2012 June 30, using data from SDO/AIA and HMI, and from GOES/SXI. We find that several of these active region jets also originate with eruptions of miniature filaments (size scale 20'') emanating from small-scale magnetic neutral lines of the region. This demonstrates that active region coronal jets are indeed frequently driven by minifilament eruptions. Other jets from the active region were also consistent with their drivers being minifilament eruptions, but we could not confirm this because the onsets of those jets were hidden from our view. This work was supported by funding from NASA/LWS, NASA/HGI, and Hinode. A full report of this study appears in Sterling et al. (2016).

  10. Neutron Activation Analysis of Soil Samples from Different Parts of Edirne in Turkey*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaim, N.; Dogan, C.; Camtakan, Z.

    2016-05-01

    The concentrations of constituent elements were determined in soil samples collected from different parts of the Maritza Basin, Edirne, Turkey. Neutron activation analysis, an extremely accurate technique, and the comparator method (using a standard) were applied for the first time in this region. After preparing the soil samples for neutron activation analysis, they were activated with thermal neutrons in a nuclear reactor, TRIGA-MARK II, at Istanbul Technical University. The activated samples were analyzed using a high-efficiency high-purity germanium detector, and gamma spectrometry was employed to determine the elemental concentration in the samples. Eight elements (chromium, manganese, cobalt, zinc, arsenic, molybdenum, cadmium, and barium) were qualitatively and quantitatively identified in 36 samples. The concentrations of some elements in the soil samples were high compared with values reported in the literature.

  11. 20 CFR 661.290 - Under what circumstances may States require Local Boards to take part in regional planning...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ...) The State may require Local Boards within a designated region (as defined at 20 CFR 660.300) to: (1) Participate in a regional planning process that results in regional performance measures for workforce investment activities under title I of WIA. Regions that meet or exceed the regional performance measures...

  12. Active Region Moss: Doppler Shifts from Hinode/EIS Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2012-01-01

    Studying the Doppler shifts and the temperature dependence of Doppler shifts in moss regions can help us understand the heating processes in the core of the active regions. In this paper we have used an active region observation recorded by the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) onboard Hinode on 12-Dec- 2007 to measure the Doppler shifts in the moss regions. We have distinguished the moss regions from the rest of the active region by defining a low density cut-off as derived by Tripathi et al. (2010). We have carried out a very careful analysis of the EIS wavelength calibration based on the method described in Young, O Dwyer and Mason (2012). For spectral lines having maximum sensitivity between log T = 5.85 and log T = 6.25 K, we find that the velocity distribution peaks at around 0 km/s with an estimated error of 4 km/s. The width of the distribution decreases with temperature. The mean of the distribution shows a blue shift which increases with increasing temperature and the distribution also shows asymmetries towards blue-shift. Comparing these results with observables predicted from different coronal heating models, we find that these results are consistent with both steady and impulsive heating scenarios. Further observational constraints are needed to distinguish between these two heating scenarios.

  13. Using a mesoscale prognostic model to construct a regional scale transport climatology. Part 2: Transport patterns

    SciTech Connect

    Seely, S.L.; Dean, D.; Atchison, M.K.

    1998-12-31

    This study continues an investigation of the use of a prognostic mesoscale meteorological model to construct a regional scale climatology of pollution transport patterns around a site suffering from sparse data. In Part 1 of this study, the authors examined the accuracy of the RAMS model in simulating the weather at an eastern Mediterranean site. For this part of the investigation, they examined the effect of varying types of weather data on the transport climatology results. Due to the large amounts of data generated by a lengthy weather simulation, they also attempted to reduce the amount of required simulation time by using samples of weather data. Five months (1990--1994) of NCAR/NCEP reanalysis gridded wind data are subjected to an S-mode eigenvector analysis to produce a set of 12 two-dimensional wind patterns over a 1000 km square region in the eastern Mediterranean. The five months are then clustered on the basis of similarity to these 12 patterns. A set of days is selected from each of the groups to form a sample. This set of days is considered representative of the wind patterns during the five months period. The authors will compare transport climatology results obtained using the full set of RAMS forecast data from Part 1 to those obtained using representative and random samples of the data. They also examine the effect of using sparse data on the transport climatology results.

  14. Nanoparticle mass transfer from lung airways to systemic regions--Part II: Multi-compartmental modeling.

    PubMed

    Kolanjiyil, Arun V; Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2013-12-01

    This is the second article of a two-part paper, combining high-resolution computer simulation results of inhaled nanoparticle deposition in a human airway model (Kolanjiyil and Kleinstreuer, 2013, "Nanoparticle Mass Transfer From Lung Airways to Systemic Regions--Part I: Whole-Lung Aerosol Dynamics," ASME J. Biomech. Eng., 135(12), p. 121003) with a new multicompartmental model for insoluble nanoparticle barrier mass transfer into systemic regions. Specifically, it allows for the prediction of temporal nanoparticle accumulation in the blood and lymphatic systems and in organs. The multicompartmental model parameters were determined from experimental retention and clearance data in rat lungs and then the validated model was applied to humans based on pharmacokinetic cross-species extrapolation. This hybrid simulator is a computationally efficient tool to predict the nanoparticle kinetics in the human body. The study provides critical insight into nanomaterial deposition and distribution from the lungs to systemic regions. The quantitative results are useful in diverse fields such as toxicology for exposure-risk analysis of ubiquitous nanomaterial and pharmacology for nanodrug development and targeting. PMID:24008585

  15. MBE growth of active regions for electrically pumped, cw-operating GaSb-based VCSELs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashani-Shirazi, K.; Bachmann, A.; Boehm, G.; Ziegler, S.; Amann, M.-C.

    2009-03-01

    Electrically pumped, cw-operating, single-mode GaSb-based VCSELs are attractive light sources for trace-gas sensing systems using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) [A. Vicet, D.A. Yarekha, A. Pérona, Y. Rouillard, S. Gaillard, Spectrochimica Acta Part A 58 (2002) 2405-2412]. Only recently, the first electrically pumped (EP) devices emitting at 2.325 μm in cw-mode at room temperature have been reported [A. Bachmann, T. Lim, K. Kashani-Shirazi, O. Dier, C. Lauer, M.-C. Amann, Electronics Letters 44(3) (2008) 202-203]. The fabrication of these devices employs the molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of GaSb/AlAsSb-distributed Bragg mirrors, a multi-quantum-well active region made of AlGaAsSb/InGaAsSb and an InAsSb/GaSb-buried-tunnel junction. As VCSELs are usually driven under high injection rates, an optimum electrical design of active regions is essential for high-performance devices. In this paper we present an enhanced simulation of current flow in the active region under operation conditions. The calculation includes carrier transport by drift, diffusion and tunneling. We discuss different design criteria and material compositions for active regions. Active regions with various barrier materials were incorporated into edge emitter samples to evaluate their performance. Aluminum-containing barriers show better internal efficiency compared to active regions with GaSb as the barrier material.

  16. ABRUPT LONGITUDINAL MAGNETIC FIELD CHANGES IN FLARING ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G. J. D.; Sudol, J. J.

    2010-12-01

    We characterize the changes in the longitudinal photospheric magnetic field during 38 X-class and 39 M-class flares within 65{sup 0} of disk center using 1 minute GONG magnetograms. In all 77 cases, we identify at least one site in the flaring active region where clear, permanent, stepwise field changes occurred. The median duration of the field changes was about 15 minutes and was approximately equal for X-class and for M-class flares. The absolute values of the field changes ranged from the detection limit of {approx}10 G to as high as {approx}450 G in two exceptional cases. The median value was 69 G. Field changes were significantly stronger for X-class than for M-class flares and for limb flares than for disk-center flares. Longitudinal field changes less than 100 G tended to decrease longitudinal field strengths, both close to disk center and close to the limb, while field changes greater than 100 G showed no such pattern. Likewise, longitudinal flux strengths tended to decrease during flares. Flux changes, particularly net flux changes near disk center, correlated better than local field changes with GOES peak X-ray flux. The strongest longitudinal field and flux changes occurred in flares observed close to the limb. We estimate the change of Lorentz force associated with each flare and find that this is large enough in some cases to power seismic waves. We find that longitudinal field decreases would likely outnumber increases at all parts of the solar disk within 65{sup 0} of disk center, as in our observations, if photospheric field tilts increase during flares as predicted by Hudson et al.

  17. A Novel Analysis of Acoustic Oscillations in Chromospheric Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Monsue, Teresa; Hill, Frank; Stassun, Keivan G.

    2015-04-01

    A helioseismic analysis of the chromosphere is employed in H-alpha to study how solar flares around active regions affect the behavior of acoustic oscillations. Our analysis deals with flares directly over sunspots, where the region is highly magnetized. In our current study of analyzing these oscillations in the chromosphere we study the temporal evolution of the oscillatory behavior from data taken from the Global Oscillation Network Group (GONG) H-alpha detectors. We investigate the wave behavior across different frequency bands (1 < ν < 8.33 mHz). In order to analyze the frequency bands of the oscillations, our analysis utilizes time series data to create Fourier power spectra of individual pixels spatially resolved and temporally evolved around the flare region; thereby creating a movie of each frequency band. This study entails three active regions, directly over sunspots, in which flaring activity is taking place from two solar flares, which occurred on June 13th and July 12th, 2012. We found that the intensity of the flare has an effect on the oscillations within different frequency bands. A suppression of power was observed in dark anomalous structures across the total frequency bands and in other regions there was an observed boost in power due to flaring activity. We find that, in the heart of all three regions, the low-frequency power (˜1-2 mHz) is substantially enhanced immediately prior to and after the flare, and that power at all frequencies up to 8 mHz is depleted at flare maximum. This depletion is both frequency and time dependent, which probably reflects the changing depths visible during the flare in the bandpass of the filter. These variations are not observed outside the flaring region. The depletion may indicate that acoustic energy is being converted into thermal energy at flare maximum, while the low-frequency enhancement may arise from an instability in the chromosphere and provide an early warning of the flare onset.

  18. Event-related potentials reveal early activation of body part representations in action concept comprehension.

    PubMed

    Lu, Aitao; Liu, Jing; Zhang, John X

    2012-03-01

    With tasks involving action concept comprehension, many fMRI studies have reported brain activations in sensori-motor regions specific to effectors of the referent action. There is relatively less evidence whether such activations reflect early semantic access or late conceptual re-processing. Here we recorded event-related potentials when participants recognized noun-verb pairs. For Congruent pairs, the verb was the one most commonly associated with the noun (e.g., football-kick). Compared with a control condition, verbs in Congruent pairs showed priming effects in the time windows of 100-150 ms and 210-260 ms. Such activation seems to be specific to body part but not other aspects of the action as similar priming effect was also found when the noun and verb involved different actions though sharing the same body part (e.g., football-jump), documenting for the first time the early activation of body part representations in action concept comprehension. PMID:22306088

  19. Effectiveness of a regional model calibrated to different parts of a flow regime in regionalisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, H. S.

    2015-07-01

    The objective of this study was to reduce the parameter uncertainty which has an effect on the identification of the relationship between the catchment characteristics and the catchment response dynamics in ungauged catchments. A water balance model calibrated to represent the rainfall runoff characteristics over long time scales had a potential limitation in the modelling capacity to accurately predict the hydrological effects of non-stationary catchment response dynamics under different climate conditions (distinct wet and dry periods). The accuracy and precision of hydrological modelling predictions was assessed to yield a better understanding for the potential improvement of the model's predictability. In the assessment of model structure suitability to represent the non-stationary catchment response characteristics, there was a flow-dependent bias in the runoff simulations. In particular, over-prediction of the streamflow was dominant for the dry period. The poor model performance during the dry period was associated with the largely different impulse response estimates for the entire period and the dry period. The refined calibration approach was established based on assessment of model deficiencies. The rainfall-runoff models were separately calibrated to different parts of the flow regime, and the calibrated models for the separated time series were used to establish the regional models of relevant parts of the flow regime (i.e. wet and dry periods). The effectiveness of the parameter values for the refined approach in regionalisation was evaluated through investigating the accuracy of predictions of the regional models. The predictability was demonstrated using only the dry period to highlight the improvement in model performance easily veiled by the performance of the model for the whole period. The regional models from the refined calibration approach clearly enhanced the hydrological behaviour by improving the identification of the relationships between

  20. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 15 - Location Information for HUD FOIA Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel A Appendix A to Part 15 Housing and Urban..., App. A Appendix A to Part 15—Location Information for HUD FOIA Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel The Department maintains a reading room in Headquarters and in each of...

  1. Evaluation of the Impact of AIRS Radiance and Profile Data Assimilation in Partly Cloudy Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Jedlovec, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Improvements to global and regional numerical weather prediction have been demonstrated through assimilation of data from NASA s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Current operational data assimilation systems use AIRS radiances, but impact on regional forecasts has been much smaller than for global forecasts. Retrieved profiles from AIRS contain much of the information that is contained in the radiances and may be able to reveal reasons for this reduced impact. Assimilating AIRS retrieved profiles in an identical analysis configuration to the radiances, tracking the quantity and quality of the assimilated data in each technique, and examining analysis increments and forecast impact from each data type can yield clues as to the reasons for the reduced impact. By doing this with regional scale models individual synoptic features (and the impact of AIRS on these features) can be more easily tracked. This project examines the assimilation of hyperspectral sounder data used in operational numerical weather prediction by comparing operational techniques used for AIRS radiances and research techniques used for AIRS retrieved profiles. Parallel versions of a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) are run to examine the impact AIRS radiances and retrieved profiles. Statistical evaluation of a long-term series of forecast runs will be compared along with preliminary results of in-depth investigations for select case comparing the analysis increments in partly cloudy regions and short-term forecast impacts.

  2. Skylab observations of X-ray loops connecting separate active regions. [solar activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, R. C.; Krieger, A. S.; Svestka, Z.; Vaiana, G. S.

    1976-01-01

    One hundred loops interconnecting 94 separate active solar regions detectable in soft X-rays were identified during the Skylab mission. While close active regions are commonly interconnected with loops, the number of such interconnections decreases steeply for longer distances; the longest interconnecting loop observed in the Skylab data connected regions separated by 37 deg. Several arguments are presented which support the point of view that this is the actual limit of the size of magnetic interconnections between active regions. No sympathetic flares could be found in the interconnected regions. These results cast doubt on the hypothesis that accelerated particles can be guided in interconnecting loops from one active region to another over distances of 100 deg or more and eventually produce sympathetic flares in them.

  3. Socioeconomic and regional differences in active transportation in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    de Sá, Thiago Hérick; Pereira, Rafael Henrique Moraes; Duran, Ana Clara; Monteiro, Carlos Augusto

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT OBJECTIVE To present national estimates regarding walking or cycling for commuting in Brazil and in 10 metropolitan regions. METHODS By using data from the Health section of 2008’s Pesquisa Nacional por Amostra de Domicílio (Brazil’s National Household Sample Survey), we estimated how often employed people walk or cycle to work, disaggregating our results by sex, age range, education level, household monthly income per capita, urban or rural address, metropolitan regions, and macro-regions in Brazil. Furthermore, we estimated the distribution of this same frequency according to quintiles of household monthly income per capita in each metropolitan region of the country. RESULTS A third of the employed men and women walk or cycle from home to work in Brazil. For both sexes, this share decreases as income and education levels rise, and it is higher among younger individuals, especially among those living in rural areas and in the Northeast region of the country. Depending on the metropolitan region, the practice of active transportation is two to five times more frequent among low-income individuals than among high-income individuals. CONCLUSIONS Walking or cycling to work in Brazil is most frequent among low-income individuals and the ones living in less economically developed areas. Active transportation evaluation in Brazil provides important information for public health and urban mobility policy-making PMID:27355465

  4. A Multilevel Study of Ammonia in Star Forming Regions - Part Five - the SAGITTARIUS-B2 Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huttemeister, S.; Wilson, T. L.; Henkel, C.; Mauersberger, R.

    1993-09-01

    Maps of the Sgr B2 region covering up to 4' have been made in 5 metastable (J = K) and 4 non-metastable (J > K) NH3 inversion transitions with a 40" resolution. Toward Sgr B2 (M) and (N), spectra of 20 additional inversion transitions have been taken arising from energy levels up to E/k=1340 K above ground. From the NH3 data, we obtained rotational and kinetic temperatures (Tkin), cloud sizes, virial masses, NH3 column densities, spatial densities (n(H2)), and NH3 abundances relative to H2 (X(NH3)). In addition to a cool (Tkin˜20K) component detected at -40km s-1 (presumably a foreground cloud associated with the 3 kpc arm), seven regions containing gas with Tkin≥100 K are identified. All are part of the Sgr B2 molecular complex. (1) A low density (n(H2) ˜1O4 cm-3) molecular cloud at υLSR=5O to 80 km s-1 is shown to be extended over several arcmin in metastable transitions up to at least the (6,6) line. A second cooler component (Trot ˜ 20K) appears to coexist with the warm gas. Together, their area filling factor is almost one. Of all mapped lines from other molecular species, only HC3N emission from the vibrational ground state may arise from the same two gas components. (2) Another warm low density feature, at υLSR ˜ 85 km s-1, is detected in the metastable lines toward Sgr B2 (N) and becomes increasingly prominent as J rises. (3) Toward the peak positions Sgr B2 (M) and (N) the metastable lines with J ≤ 5 show an absorption feature at υLSR ˜ 0 km s-1. (4) A region with υLSR ˜ 65 km s-1 has n(H2) 105 cm-3 and is observed in non-metastable NH3 emission lines. It is centered along a ridge 10" west of the main continuum sources. (5) Three Ori-KL like hot cores are identified, one at υLSR ˜65 km s-1 toward SgrB2 (N) and two, at 55 and 65km s-1 toward Sgr B2(M). Provided that the NH3 inversion lines are thermalized and that the clouds are approximately in virial equilibrium, these are the three most massive hot cores known to exist in the galaxy. With

  5. IFLA General Conference, 1987. Division of Regional Activities. Papers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    International Federation of Library Associations, The Hague (Netherlands).

    Six of the seven papers in this collection focus on regional library activities in Africa, Asia and Oceania, and Latin America and the Caribbean: (1) "Libraries and Information Services in a Changing World: The Challenges African Information Services Face at the End of the 1980s" (Dejen Abate, Ethiopia); (2) "The Computer and Knowledge Information…

  6. A solar cycle timing predictor - The latitude of active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schatten, Kenneth H.

    1990-01-01

    A 'Spoerer butterfly' method is used to examine solar cycle 22. It is shown from the latitude of active regions that the cycle can now be expected to peak near November 1989 + or - 8 months, basically near the latter half of 1989.

  7. SNS Devices With Pinhole-Defined Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hunt, Brian D.; Barner, Jeffrey B.

    1996-01-01

    Superconductor/normal conductor/superconductor (SNS) microbridge devices with pinhole-defined active regions undergoing development. Device includes thin, electrically insulating layer deposited epitaxially, with controlled formation of pinholes, on one of two superconducting layers. Normally conducting metal deposited epitaxially in pinholes and on insulating layer, forming electrical contact between two superconducting layers. Junction resistances and maximum junction voltages expected to be increased.

  8. Early life stress affects limited regional brain activity in depression

    PubMed Central

    Du, Lian; Wang, Jingjie; Meng, Ben; Yong, Na; Yang, Xiangying; Huang, Qingling; Zhang, Yan; Yang, Lingling; Qu, Yuan; Chen, Zhu; Li, Yongmei; Lv, Fajin; Hu, Hua

    2016-01-01

    Early life stress (ELS) can alter brain function and increases the risk of major depressive disorder (MDD) in later life. This study investigated whether ELS contributes to differences in regional brain activity between MDD patients and healthy controls (HC), as measured by amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF)/fractional (f)ALFF. Eighteen first-episode, treatment-naïve MDD patients and HC were assessed with the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire and resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging. We compared ALFF/fALFF between MDD patients and HC, with or without controlling for ELS, and determined whether ELS level was correlated with regional brain activity in each group. After regressing out ELS, we found that ALFF increased in bilateral amygdala and left orbital/cerebellum, while fALFF decreased in left inferior temporal and right middle frontal gyri in MDD patients relative to controls. ELS positively correlated with regional activity in the left cerebellum in MDD and in the right post-central/inferior temporal/superior frontal cingulate, inferior frontal gyrus and bilateral cerebellum in HC. Our findings indicate that there is only very limited region showing correlation between ELS and brain activity in MDD, while diverse areas in HC, suggesting ELS has few impacts on MDD patients. PMID:27138376

  9. Urban, Rural, and Regional Variations in Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martin, Sarah Levin; Kirkner, Gregory J.; Mayo, Kelly; Matthews, Charles E.; Durstine, J. Larry; Hebert, James R.

    2005-01-01

    Purpose: There is some speculation about geographic differences in physical activity (PA) levels. We examined the prevalence of physical inactivity (PIA) and whether US citizens met the recommended levels of PA across the United States. In addition, the association between PIA/PA and degree of urbanization in the 4 main US regions (Northeast,…

  10. Inferred flows of electric currents in solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ding, Y. J.; Hong, Q. F.; Hagyard, M. J.; Deloach, A. C.

    1985-01-01

    Techniques to identify sources of major current systems in active regions and their channels of flow are explored. Measured photospheric vector magnetic fields together with high resolution white light and H-alpha photographs provide the data base to derive the current systems in the photosphere and chromosphere of a solar active region. Simple mathematical constructions of active region fields and currents are used to interpret these data under the assumptions that the fields in the lower atmosphere (below 200 km) may not be force free but those in the chromosphere and higher are. The results obtained for the complex active region AR 2372 are: (1) Spots exhibiting significant spiral structure in the penumbral filaments were the source of vertical currents at the photospheric surface; (2) Magnetic neutral lines where the transverse magnetic field was strongly sheared were channels along which a strong current system flowed; (3) The inferred current systems produced a neutral sheet and oppositely-flowing currents in the area of the magnetic delta configuration that was the site of flaring.

  11. Heating of active region cores: Impulsive or steady?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh

    The question of active region heating has proven to be highly challenging since its discovery in 1940s. The recent observational facilities have shed new lights towards the understanding of this problem. In this paper we review some of the new measurements to study the heating mechanisms in the hot core loops of active regions using the observations recorded by Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) onboard SoHO and the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) aboard Hinode. These new measurements show that the properties of hot core loops are consistent with by impulsive heating -- low frequency nanoflare - scenario. However, the evidences are not strong enough to rule-out steady heating completely. Further measurement using better spectral resolution and temperature coverage is required, which will be provided by Interface Region Imaging Spectrometer (IRIS) and Solar-C in near future.

  12. Doppler Shifts in Active Region Moss Using SOHO/SUMER

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winebarger, Amy; Tripathi, Durgesh; Mason, Helen E.; Del Zanna, Giulio

    2013-04-01

    The velocity of the plasma at the footpoint of hot loops in active region cores can be used to discriminate between different heating frequencies. Velocities on the order of a few kilometers per second would indicate low-frequency heating on sub-resolution strands, while velocities close to zero would indicate high-frequency (steady) heating. To discriminate between these two values requires accurate velocity measurements; previous velocity measurements suffer from large uncertainties, mainly due to the lack of an absolute wavelength reference scale. In this paper, we determine the velocity in the loop footpoints using observations from Solar Ultraviolet Measurements of Emitted Radiation (SUMER) on Solar and Heliospheric Observatory. We use neutral spectral lines to determine the wavelength scale of the observations with an uncertainty in the absolute velocity of <3.5 km s-1 and co-aligned Transition Region and Coronal Explorer (TRACE) images to identify footpoint regions. We studied three different active regions and found average redshifts in the Ne VIII 770 Å emission line (formed at 6 × 105 K) of 5.17 ± 5.37 km s-1 and average redshifts in the C IV 1548 and 1550 Å emission lines (formed at 1 × 105 K) of 13.94 ± 4.93 km s-1 and 14.91 ± 6.09 km s-1, respectively. We find no correlation between the brightness in the spectral line and the measured velocity, nor do we find correlation between the Ne VIII and C IV velocities measured co-spatially and co-temporally. SUMER scanned two of the active regions twice; in those active regions we find positive correlation between the co-spatial velocities measured during the first and second scans. These results provide definitive and quantitative measurements for comparisons with simulations of different coronal heating mechanisms.

  13. Patterns of Activity Revealed by a Time Lag Analysis of a Model Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, Stephen; Viall, Nicholeen

    2016-05-01

    We investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of average frequencies. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine an extrapolated magnetic skeleton with hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes to create a model active region, and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is to recover some typical properties and patterns of activity observed in active regions. Our key findings are: 1. Cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. 2. Shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. 3. All channel pairs show zero time lag when the line-of-sight passes through coronal loop foot-points. 4. There is strong evidence that plasma must be re-energized on a time scale comparable to the cooling timescale to reproduce the observed coronal activity, but it is likely that a relatively broad spectrum of heating frequencies operates across active regions. 5. Due to their highly dynamic nature, we find nanoflare trains produce zero time lags along entire flux tubes in our model active region that are seen between the same channel pairs in observed active regions.

  14. Active sonar, beaked whales and European regional policy.

    PubMed

    Dolman, Sarah J; Evans, Peter G H; Notarbartolo-di-Sciara, Giuseppe; Frisch, Heidrun

    2011-01-01

    Various reviews, resolutions and guidance from international and regional fora have been produced in recent years that acknowledge the significance of marine noise and its potential impacts on cetaceans. Within Europe, ACCOBAMS and ASCOBANS have shown increasing attention to the issue. The literature highlights concerns surrounding the negative impacts of active sonar on beaked whales in particular, where concerns primarily relate to the use of mid-frequency active sonar (1-10kHz), as used particularly in military exercises. The authors review the efforts that European regional policies have undertaken to acknowledge and manage possible negative impacts of active sonar and how these might assist the transition from scientific research to policy implementation, including effective management and mitigation measures at a national level. PMID:20451221

  15. THE EVOLUTION OF DARK CANOPIES AROUND ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Y.-M.; Robbrecht, E.; Muglach, K. E-mail: eva.robbrecht@oma.be

    2011-05-20

    As observed in spectral lines originating from the chromosphere, transition region, and low corona, active regions are surrounded by an extensive 'circumfacular' area which is darker than the quiet Sun. We examine the properties of these dark moat- or canopy-like areas using Fe IX 17.1 nm images and line-of-sight magnetograms from the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The 17.1 nm canopies consist of fibrils (horizontal fields containing extreme-ultraviolet-absorbing chromospheric material) clumped into featherlike structures. The dark fibrils initially form a quasiradial or vortical pattern as the low-lying field lines fanning out from the emerging active region connect to surrounding network and intranetwork elements of opposite polarity. The area occupied by the 17.1 nm fibrils expands as supergranular convection causes the active-region flux to spread into the background medium; the outer boundary of the dark canopy stabilizes where the diffusing flux encounters a unipolar region of opposite sign. The dark fibrils tend to accumulate in regions of weak longitudinal field and to become rooted in mixed-polarity flux. To explain the latter observation, we note that the low-lying fibrils are more likely to interact with small loops associated with weak, opposite-polarity flux elements in close proximity, than with high loops anchored inside strong unipolar network flux. As a result, the 17.1 nm fibrils gradually become concentrated around the large-scale polarity inversion lines (PILs), where most of the mixed-polarity flux is located. Systematic flux cancellation, assisted by rotational shearing, removes the field component transverse to the PIL and causes the fibrils to coalesce into long PIL-aligned filaments.

  16. Patterns of Activity in a Global Model of a Solar Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bradshaw, S. J.; Viall, N. M.

    2016-04-01

    In this work we investigate the global activity patterns predicted from a model active region heated by distributions of nanoflares that have a range of frequencies. What differs is the average frequency of the distributions. The activity patterns are manifested in time lag maps of narrow-band instrument channel pairs. We combine hydrodynamic and forward modeling codes with a magnetic field extrapolation to create a model active region and apply the time lag method to synthetic observations. Our aim is not to reproduce a particular set of observations in detail, but to recover some typical properties and patterns observed in active regions. Our key findings are the following. (1) Cooling dominates the time lag signature and the time lags between the channel pairs are generally consistent with observed values. (2) Shorter coronal loops in the core cool more quickly than longer loops at the periphery. (3) All channel pairs show zero time lag when the line of sight passes through coronal loop footpoints. (4) There is strong evidence that plasma must be re-energized on a timescale comparable to the cooling timescale to reproduce the observed coronal activity, but it is likely that a relatively broad spectrum of heating frequencies are operating across active regions. (5) Due to their highly dynamic nature, we find nanoflare trains produce zero time lags along entire flux tubes in our model active region that are seen between the same channel pairs in observed active regions.

  17. Crystalline rocks of the Lake Superior region, United States. Part 1

    SciTech Connect

    Harrison, W.; Sood, M.; Flower, M.; Tisue, M.

    1983-10-01

    This report is a compendium of the available information on exposed crystalline rocks in the Lake Superior region (Wisconsin, Minnesota, and the Upper Peninsula of Michigan). The report provides background information to assist in evaluating the suitability of these crystalline rock bodies for isolating high-level radioactive waste. For each crystalline rock body or complex greater than approximately 78 km/sup 2/ (30 mi/sup 2/) in area, information is presented on size, shape, location, relative and absolute age, origin, petrography, rock structure, and geophysics. Precambrian crystalline rocks of the Lake Superior region are predominantly tonalite to granite in composition in the Archean; granodiorite and granite, with subordinate tonalite, in the early Proterozoic; and alkalic syenite, rapakivi granite, and layered gabbro-troctolite-anorthosite in the Middle Proterozoic. Vertical and horizontal movements, regional and thermal metamorphism, deformation, and intrusion are evident in the region. Based on radiometric ages, three major episodes of orogenic/igneous activity are recognized: Algoman (approx. 2650 My), Penokean (approx. 1850 My), and Keweenawan (900 to 1200 My). Anorogenic magmatism approximately 1500 My ago also played an important role, particularly in Wisconsin. References, 66 figures, 10 tables.

  18. The evolution and orientation of early cycle 22 active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannon, Anne T.; Marquette, William H.

    1991-01-01

    The evolution of six major active regions which appeared during the first phase of the present solar cycle (cycle 22) has been studied. It was found that the northern hemisphere regions exhibited a broad range of evolutionary behavior in which the commonly accepted 'normal pattern' (whereby the follower flux moves preferentially polewards ahead of the leader flux) is represented at one end of the range. At the other end of the range, the leader flux is displaced polewards of the follower flux. In the latter cases equatorward extensions of the polar coronal hole are noted.

  19. Extreme storm activity in North Atlantic and European region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vyazilova, N.

    2010-09-01

    The extreme storm activity study over North Atlantic and Europe includes the analyses of extreme cyclone (track number, integral cyclonic intensity) and extreme storm (track number) during winter and summer seasons in the regions: 1) 55°N-80N, 50°W-70°E; 2) 30°N-55°N, 50°W-70°E. Extreme cyclones were selected based on cyclone centre pressure (P<=970 mbar). Extreme storms were selected from extreme cyclones based on wind velocity on 925 mbar. The Bofort scala was used for this goal. Integral cyclonic intensity (for region) includes the calculation cyclone centers number and sum of MSLP anomalies in cyclone centers. The analyses based on automated cyclone tracking algorithm, 6-hourly MSLP and wind data (u and v on 925 gPa) from the NCEP/NCAR reanalyses from January 1948 to March 2010. The comparision of mean, calculated for every ten years, had shown, that in polar region extreme cyclone and storm track number, and integral cyclonic intensity gradually increases and have maximum during last years (as for summer, as for winter season). Every ten years means for summer season are more then for winter season, as for polar, as for tropical region. Means (ten years) for tropical region are significance less then for polar region.

  20. Armenia as a Regional Centre for Astronomy for Development activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mickaelian, A.

    2015-03-01

    The Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory (BAO, Armenia, http://www.bao.am) are among the candidate IAU Regional Nodes for Astronomy for Development activities. It is one of the main astronomical centers of the former Soviet Union and the Middle East region. At present there are 48 qualified researchers at BAO, including six Doctors of Science and 30 PhDs. Five important observational instruments are installed at BAO, the larger ones being 2.6m Cassegrain (ZTA-2.6) and 1m Schmidt (the one that provided the famous Markarian survey). BAO is regarded as a national scientific-educational center, where a number of activities are being organized, such as: international conferences (4 IAU symposia and 1 IAU colloquium, JENAM-2007, etc.), small workshops and discussions, international summer schools (1987, 2006, 2008 and 2010), and Olympiads. BAO collaborates with scientists from many countries. The Armenian Astronomical Society (ArAS, http://www.aras.am/) is an NGO founded in 2001; it has 93 members and it is rather active in the organization of educational, amateur, popular, promotional and other matters. The Armenian Virtual Observatory (ArVO, http://www.aras.am/Arvo/arvo.htm) is one of the 17 national VO projects forming the International Virtual Observatories Alliance (IVOA) and is the only VO project in the region serving also for educational purposes. A number of activities are planned, such as management, coordination and evaluation of the IAU programs in the area of development and education, establishment of the new IAU endowed lectureship program and organization of seminars and public lectures, coordination and initiation of fundraising activities for astronomy development, organization of regional scientific symposia, conferences and workshops, support to Galileo Teacher Training Program (GTTP), production/publication of educational and promotional materials, etc.

  1. Brain regions engaged by part- and whole-task performance in a video game: a model-based test of the decomposition hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Anderson, John R; Bothell, Daniel; Fincham, Jon M; Anderson, Abraham R; Poole, Ben; Qin, Yulin

    2011-12-01

    Part- and whole-task conditions were created by manipulating the presence of certain components of the Space Fortress video game. A cognitive model was created for two-part games that could be combined into a model that performed the whole game. The model generated predictions both for behavioral patterns and activation patterns in various brain regions. The activation predictions concerned both tonic activation that was constant in these regions during performance of the game and phasic activation that occurred when there was resource competition. The model's predictions were confirmed about how tonic and phasic activation in different regions would vary with condition. These results support the Decomposition Hypothesis that the execution of a complex task can be decomposed into a set of information-processing components and that these components combine unchanged in different task conditions. In addition, individual differences in learning gains were predicted by individual differences in phasic activation in those regions that displayed highest tonic activity. This individual difference pattern suggests that the rate of learning of a complex skill is determined by capacity limits. PMID:21557648

  2. Landslide susceptibility assessment in the Southern part of Vrancea-Buzau Seismic Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micu, M.; Balteanu, D.; Jurchescu, M.; Chendes, V.; Sima, M.; Zumpano, V.

    2012-04-01

    Vrancea-Buzau Region (extending across some 8,000 km2 of the Romania's Curvature Carpathians) represents one of Europe's most seismically-active areas. The sub-crustal earthquakes occurring there are responsible for the damages inflicted to half of Romania's territory, and its effects are extending towards NW in Ukraine and to the SW, to Bulgaria. The region's seismicity represents an important landslide preparing (and in certain conditions even triggering) factor, integrating itself into a landslide-prone framework which includes heavy summer rainfalls alternating with long-lasting droughts and spring showers overlapping snowmelt. The purpose of this paper is to outline the landslides mechanisms, forms and processes, and also to present a landslide susceptibility assessment for the southern half of the region, a case-study within FP7 MC-ITN Project CHANGES, as a basis for the entire region's landslide risk assessment. The GIS database includes thematic maps, aerial images, different-scale DEM's (and derived parameters), climatic data and landslide inventories derived from geomorphological field mapping and local authorities (Buzau County Inspectorate for Emergency Situations) databases. The evaluation of susceptibility classes was performed through statistical analysis (bivariate and multivariate), the results being also validated through statistical methods and also on field. In the mean time, the susceptibility classes resulted helped in assessing the quality of a previously-done, expert-judgment-based landslide susceptibility assessment which covers the entire Romanian territory (Balteanu at al., 2010). The importance of this paper is that it provides a strong background for the assessment of landslide hazard, vital in establishing proper risk management strategies, necessary for such an affected yet poor region of Europe.

  3. Active region upflows. I. Multi-instrument observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vanninathan, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Galsgaard, K.; Huang, Z.; Doyle, J. G.

    2015-12-01

    Context. We study upflows at the edges of active regions, called AR outflows, using multi-instrument observations. Aims: This study intends to provide the first direct observational evidence of whether chromospheric jets play an important role in furnishing mass that could sustain coronal upflows. The evolution of the photospheric magnetic field, associated with the footpoints of the upflow region and the plasma properties of active region upflows is investigated with the aim of providing information for benchmarking data-driven modelling of this solar feature. Methods: We spatially and temporally combine multi-instrument observations obtained with the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer on board the Hinode, the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly and the Helioseismic Magnetic Imager instruments on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory and the Interferometric BI-dimensional Spectro-polarimeter installed at the National Solar Observatory, Sac Peak, to study the plasma parameters of the upflows and the impact of the chromosphere on active region upflows. Results: Our analysis shows that the studied active region upflow presents similarly to those studied previously, i.e. it displays blueshifted emission of 5-20 kms-1 in Fe xii and Fe xiii and its average electron density is 1.8 × 109 cm-3 at 1 MK. The time variation of the density is obtained showing no significant change (in a 3σ error). The plasma density along a single loop is calculated revealing a drop of 50% over a distance of ~20 000 km along the loop. We find a second velocity component in the blue wing of the Fe xii and Fe xiii lines at 105 kms-1 reported only once before. For the first time we study the time evolution of this component at high cadence and find that it is persistent during the whole observing period of 3.5 h with variations of only ±15 kms-1. We also, for the first time, study the evolution of the photospheric magnetic field at high cadence and find that magnetic flux diffusion is

  4. Formation of active region and quiescent prominence magnetic field configurations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    An, C.-H.; Bao, J. J.; Wu, S. T.

    1986-01-01

    To investigate the formation of prominences, researchers studied chromospheric mass injection into an overlying coronal dipole magnetic field using a 2-D ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) numerical model. Researchers propose that active region prominences are formed by chromospheric plasmas injected directly into the overlying coronal magnetic field and that quiescent prominences are formed by plasmas evaporated at the interface between spicules and corona. Hence, for the simulation of an active region prominence magnetic field we inject the mass from one side, but use a symmetric mass injection to form a quiescent prominence field configuration. Researchers try to find optimum conditions for the formation of Kippenhahn-Schuluter(K-S)type field configuration for stable support of the injection plasmas. They find that the formation of K-S type field configuration by mass injection requires a delicate balance between injection velocity, density, and overlying magnetic fields. These results may explain why a prominence does not form on every neutral line.

  5. Tilt Angles of Quiescent Filaments and Filaments of Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tlatov, A. G.; Kuzanyan, K. M.; Vasil'yeva, V. V.

    2016-04-01

    We carry out study of tilt angles of solar filaments using the data from the two observatories: Meudon Observatory and Kislovodsk Mountain Astronomical Station for the century-long period 1919-2014. We developed special software for digitization of the filaments structures on Hα synoptic maps. The filaments were vectorized in semi-automatic mode. The tilt angles of filaments with respect to the equator (τ) were analyzed. Approximately 2/3 of the filaments have positive angles τ >0, which is defined as when the eastern end of the filaments are closer to the poles than the western ones. We have separated tilts for the filaments which are close to the active region structures and those of quiescent filaments. We found that long quiescent filaments mainly have negative tilts. The filaments which are close to active regions mainly have positive tilt angles.

  6. Fine structure of the magnetic field in active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pustilnik, Lev; Beskrovnaya, Nina; Ikhsanov, Nazar

    High-resolution observations with SOHO, SDO, TRACE, HINODE suggest that the solar magnetic field in active regions has a complicated fine structure. There is a large number of thin magnetic arcs extended from the photosphere to corona with almost constant cross-section. We explore a possibility to model the complex of interacting arcs in terms of a dynamical percolating network. A transition of the system into flaring can be triggered by the flute instability of prominences and/or coronal condensations. We speculate around an assumption that the energy release in active regions is governed by the same scenario as dynamical current percolation through a random resistors network in which the saltatory conduction is controlled by a local current level.

  7. Electric currents and coronal heating in NOAA active region 6952

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Metcalf, T. R.; Canfield, R. C.; Hudson, H. S.; Mickey, D. L.; Wulser, J. -P.; Martens, P. C. H.; Tsuneta, S.

    1994-01-01

    We examine the spatial and temporal relationship between coronal structures observed with the soft X-ray telescope (SXT) on board the Yohkoh spacecraft and the vertical electric current density derived from photospheric vector magnetograms obtained using the Stokes Polarimeter at the Mees Solar Observatory. We focus on a single active region: AR 6952 which we observed on 7 days during 1991 December. For 11 independent maps of the vertical electric current density co-aligned with non-flaring X-ray images, we search for a morphological relationship between sites of high vertical current density in the photosphere and enhanced X-ray emission in the overlying corona. We find no compelling spatial or temporal correlation between the sites of vertical current and the bright X-ray structures in this active region.

  8. 29 CFR 779.210 - Other activities which may be part of the enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Other activities which may be part of the enterprise. 779...; Enterprise Coverage Related Activities § 779.210 Other activities which may be part of the enterprise. (a) An enterprise may perform certain activities that appear entirely foreign to its principal business but...

  9. 29 CFR 779.210 - Other activities which may be part of the enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Other activities which may be part of the enterprise. 779...; Enterprise Coverage Related Activities § 779.210 Other activities which may be part of the enterprise. (a) An enterprise may perform certain activities that appear entirely foreign to its principal business but...

  10. 29 CFR 779.210 - Other activities which may be part of the enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Other activities which may be part of the enterprise. 779...; Enterprise Coverage Related Activities § 779.210 Other activities which may be part of the enterprise. (a) An enterprise may perform certain activities that appear entirely foreign to its principal business but...

  11. 29 CFR 779.210 - Other activities which may be part of the enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Other activities which may be part of the enterprise. 779...; Enterprise Coverage Related Activities § 779.210 Other activities which may be part of the enterprise. (a) An enterprise may perform certain activities that appear entirely foreign to its principal business but...

  12. 29 CFR 779.210 - Other activities which may be part of the enterprise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Other activities which may be part of the enterprise. 779...; Enterprise Coverage Related Activities § 779.210 Other activities which may be part of the enterprise. (a) An enterprise may perform certain activities that appear entirely foreign to its principal business but...

  13. The role of the Medicare fiscal intermediary and the regional home health intermediary, Part 2.

    PubMed

    Randall, D A

    1992-01-01

    The Medicare fiscal intermediaries (FIs) are private insurance companies that serve as the federal government's agents in the administration of the Medicare program, including the payment of claims. There are two primary functions of the FI--reimbursement review and medical coverage review. Hospital-based home health agencies relate to the hospital's FI for reimbursement purposes. All home health agencies are assigned to a special FI, the Regional Home Health Intermediary (RHHI), for medical review issues. This may be the same FI or a different one than that audits the hospital's cost report. Freestanding home health agencies deal with separate reimbursement and medical review divisions within a single RHHI's office. The author reviews the role of the Medicare FI and the RHHI and their relationship to home health agencies. Part 1 was featured in the June issue. PMID:1506908

  14. Mare ridges and related studies: Part D: small structures of the Taurus-Littrow region

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Scott, David H.

    1973-01-01

    Apollo 17 permission geologic studies of the Taurus-Littrow region of the Moon revealed numerous small structures, in both mare and terra, having somewhat similar morphologies and variously resembling fault scarps, flow fronts, and mare ridges. Many of these features are too small to be identified on Lunar Orbiter IV photographs, which provided the most comprehensive, high-resolution coverage of this area before the later Apollo missions. The panoramic- and metric-camera photographs of Apollo 17 were taken at lower Sun angles than those of Apollo 15, which were used for the geologic mapping (refs. 31-40 and 31-41), and thus more clearly reveal fine details of texture and relief. In the illustrations of this part, several of these small structures are compared. It is concluded that they probably developed as lava extrusions from fractures and fissures; they cannot be easily explained by faulting.

  15. Evaluation of quality of beef produced and sold in parts of Tigray Region of Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashwani; Kebede, Etsay; Kassaye, Enquebaher

    2010-03-01

    Microbiological and physical quality of 83 samples of beef produced and marketed in some parts of Tigray region of Ethiopia were evaluated. The color, marbling, pH, bleeding status and aerobic plate count (APC) were within permissible limits in 35(42.16%), 47(56.63%), 51 (61.44%), 13(15.66%) and 20(24.09%) samples, respectively. Based on these parameters, a high percentage of samples (varying from 38.56%-84.34%) were of unsatisfactory quality. Such a widespread imperfect bleeding (84.34%) and high APC (75.91%) emphasize the need to improve the techniques of bleeding and hygienic conditions at the time of production of meat at abattoir and its marketing. PMID:19728134

  16. Simulation of Active-Region-Scale Flux Emergence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manchester, W.; van der Holst, B.

    2015-12-01

    Shear flows long observed in solar active regions are now understood to be a consequence of the Lorentz force that develops from a complex interaction between magnetic fields and the thermal pressure of the Sun's gravitationally stratified atmosphere. The shearing motions transport magnetic flux and energy from the submerged portion of the field to the corona providing the necessary energy for flares, filament eruptions and CMEs. To further examine this shearing process, we simulate flux emergence on the scale of active regions with a large-scale model of the near surface convection zone constructed on an adaptive spherical grid. This model is designed to simulate flux emerging on the scale of active regions from a depth of 30 Mm. Here, we show results of a twisted flux rope emerging through the hierarchy of granular convection, and examine the flow patterns that arise as the flux approaches the photosphere. We show how these organized flows driven by the Lorentz force cause the coronal field evolve to a highly non-potential configuration capable of driving solar eruptions such as CMEs and flares.

  17. A novel double-recessed 4H-SiC MESFET with partly undoped space region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orouji, Ali A.; Aminbeidokhti, Amirhossein

    2011-12-01

    In this paper, a novel double-recessed 4H-SiC metal semiconductor field effect transistor (MESFET) with partly undoped space region (DRUS-MESFET) is introduced. The key idea in this work is to improve the DC and RF characteristics of the device by introducing an undoped space region. Using two-dimensional and two-carrier device simulation, we demonstrate that breakdown voltage ( VBR) increases from 109 V in conventional double recessed MESFET (DR-MESFET) structure to 144.5 V in the DRUS-MESFET structure due to the modified channel electric field distribution of the proposed structure. The maximum output power density of the DRUS-MESFET structure is about 25.4% larger than that of the DR-MESFET structure. Furthermore, lower gate-drain capacitance ( CGD), higher cut-off frequency ( fT), larger maximum available gain (MAG), and higher maximum oscillation frequency ( fmax) are achieved for the DRUS-MESFET structure. The results show that the fmax and fT of the proposed structure improve 95.6% and 13.07% respectively, compared with that of the DR-MESFET structure. Also, the MAG of the DRUS-MESET is 4.5 dB higher than that of the DR-MESFET structure at 40 GHz. The results show that the DRUS-MESFET structure has superior electrical characteristics and performances in comparison with the DR-MESFET structure.

  18. Altered regional activity and inter-regional functional connectivity in psychogenic non-epileptic seizures.

    PubMed

    Li, Rong; Li, Yibo; An, Dongmei; Gong, Qiyong; Zhou, Dong; Chen, Huafu

    2015-01-01

    Although various imaging studies have focused on detecting the cerebral function underlying psychogenic non-epileptic seizures (PNES), the nature of PNES remains poorly understood. In this study, we combined the resting state fMRI with fractional amplitude of low-frequency fluctuations (fALFF) and functional connectivity based on the seed voxel linear correlation approach to examine the alterations of regional and inter-regional network cerebral functions in PNES. A total of 20 healthy controls and 18 patients were enrolled. The PNES patients showed significantly increased fALFF mainly in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC), parietal cortices, and motor areas, as well as decreased fALFF in the triangular inferior frontal gyrus. Thus, our results add to literature suggesting abnormalities of neural synchrony in PNES. Moreover, PNES exhibited widespread inter-regional neural network deficits, including increased (DLPFC, sensorimotor, and limbic system) and decreased (ventrolateral prefrontal cortex) connectivity, indicating that changes in the regional cerebral function are related to remote inter-regional network deficits. Correlation analysis results revealed that the connectivity between supplementary motor area and anterior cingulate cortex correlated with the PNES frequency, further suggesting the skewed integration of synchronous activity could predispose to the occurrence of PNES. Our findings provided novel evidence to investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of PNES. PMID:26109123

  19. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 - Manufacturing Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... better than 5 parts per million boron equivalent and with a density greater than 1.50 g/cm3; (11) The... irradiated fuel element chopping machines. Irradiated fuel element chopping machines means equipment as... or greater than the equivalent of 0.5 meters of concrete, with a density of 3.2 g/cm3 or...

  20. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 - Manufacturing Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... better than 5 parts per million boron equivalent and with a density greater than 1.50 g/cm3; (11) The... irradiated fuel element chopping machines. Irradiated fuel element chopping machines means equipment as... or greater than the equivalent of 0.5 meters of concrete, with a density of 3.2 g/cm3 or...

  1. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 - Manufacturing Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... better than 5 parts per million boron equivalent and with a density greater than 1.50 g/cm3; (11) The... irradiated fuel element chopping machines. Irradiated fuel element chopping machines means equipment as... or greater than the equivalent of 0.5 meters of concrete, with a density of 3.2 g/cm3 or...

  2. Active region upflows. II. Data driven magnetohydrodynamic modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galsgaard, K.; Madjarska, M. S.; Vanninathan, K.; Huang, Z.; Presmann, M.

    2015-12-01

    Context. Observations of many active regions show a slow systematic outflow/upflow from their edges lasting from hours to days. At present no physical explanation has been proven, while several suggestions have been put forward. Aims: This paper investigates one possible method for maintaining these upflows assuming, that convective motions drive the magnetic field to initiate them through magnetic reconnection. Methods: We use Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) data to provide an initial potential 3D magnetic field of the active region NOAA 11123 on 2010 November 13 where the characteristic upflow velocities are observed. A simple 1D hydrostatic atmospheric model covering the region from the photosphere to the corona is derived. Local correlation tracking of the magnetic features in the HMI data is used to derive a proxy for the time dependent velocity field. The time dependent evolution of the system is solved using a resistive 3D magnetohydrodynamic code. Results: The magnetic field contains several null points located well above the photosphere, with their fan planes dividing the magnetic field into independent open and closed flux domains. The stressing of the interfaces between the different flux domains is expected to provide locations where magnetic reconnection can take place and drive systematic flows. In this case, the region between the closed and open flux is identified as the region where observations find the systematic upflows. Conclusions: In the present experiment, the driving only initiates magneto-acoustic waves without driving any systematic upflows at any of the flux interfaces. Movie is available in electronic form at http://www.aanda.org

  3. Doppler shift of hot coronal lines in a moss area of an active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dadashi, N.; Teriaca, L.; Tripathi, D.; Solanki, S. K.; Wiegelmann, T.

    2012-12-01

    The moss is the area at the footpoint of the hot (3 to 5 MK) loops forming the core of the active region where emission is believed to result from the heat flux conducted down to the transition region from the hot loops. Studying the variation of Doppler shift as a function of line formation temperatures over the moss area can give clues on the heating mechanism in the hot loops in the core of the active regions. We investigate the absolute Doppler shift of lines formed at temperatures between 1 MK and 2 MK in a moss area within active region NOAA 11243 using a novel technique that allows determining the absolute Doppler shift of EUV lines by combining observations from the SUMER and EIS spectrometers. The inner (brighter and denser) part of the moss area shows roughly constant blue shift (upward motions) of 5 km s-1 in the temperature range of 1 MK to 1.6 MK. For hotter lines the blue shift decreases and reaches 1 km s-1 for Fe xv 284 Å (~2 MK). The measurements are discussed in relation to models of the heating of hot loops. The results for the hot coronal lines seem to support the quasi-steady heating models for nonsymmetric hot loops in the core of active regions.

  4. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Headquarters is: 300 West Adams Street, Rm 310, Chicago, Illinois 60606. The fax number is 312-886-9634. The E...-3804. The E-mail address of the Regional Administrator for Region 5 is: John.Megary@fra.dot.gov....

  5. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Headquarters is: 300 West Adams Street, Rm 310, Chicago, Illinois 60606. The fax number is 312-886-9634. The E...-3804. The E-mail address of the Regional Administrator for Region 5 is: John.Megary@fra.dot.gov....

  6. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Headquarters is: 300 West Adams Street, Rm 310, Chicago, Illinois 60606. The fax number is 312-886-9634. The E...-3804. The E-mail address of the Regional Administrator for Region 5 is: John.Megary@fra.dot.gov....

  7. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Headquarters is: 300 West Adams Street, Rm 310, Chicago, Illinois 60606. The fax number is 312-886-9634. The E...-3804. The E-mail address of the Regional Administrator for Region 5 is: John.Megary@fra.dot.gov....

  8. 49 CFR Appendix C to Part 241 - Geographical Boundaries of FRA's Regions and Addresses of FRA's Regional Headquarters

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Headquarters is: 300 West Adams Street, Rm 310, Chicago, Illinois 60606. The fax number is 312-886-9634. The E...-3804. The E-mail address of the Regional Administrator for Region 5 is: John.Megary@fra.dot.gov....

  9. Unique Properties of Thermally Tailored Copper: Magnetically Active Regions and Anomalous X-ray Fluorescence Emissions

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    When high-purity copper (≥99.98%wt) is melted, held in its liquid state for a few hours with iterative thermal cycling, then allowed to resolidify, the ingot surface is found to have many small regions that are magnetically active. X-ray fluorescence analysis of these regions exhibit remarkably intense lines from “sensitized elements” (SE), including in part or fully the contiguous series V, Cr, Mn, Fe, and Co. The XRF emissions from SE are far more intense than expected from known impurity levels. Comparison with blanks and standards show that the thermal “tailoring” also introduces strongly enhanced SE emissions in samples taken from the interior of the copper ingots. For some magnetic regions, the location as well as the SE emissions, although persistent, vary irregularly with time. Also, for some regions extraordinarily intense “sensitized iron” (SFe) emissions occur, accompanied by drastic attenuation of Cu emissions. PMID:20037657

  10. Holocene fire activity in the Carpathian region: regional climate vs. local controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florescu, Gabriela; Feurdean, Angelica

    2015-04-01

    Introduction. Fire drives significant changes in ecosystem structure and function, diversity, species evolution, biomass dynamics and atmospheric composition. Palaeodata and model-based studies have pointed towards a strong connection between fire activity, climate, vegetation and people. Nevertheless, the relative importance of these factors appears to be strongly variable and a better understanding of these factors and their interaction needs a thorough investigation over multiple spatial (local to global) and temporal (years to millennia) scales. In this respect, sedimentary charcoal, associated with other proxies of climate, vegetation and human impact, represents a powerful tool of investigating changes in past fire activity, especially in regions with scarce fire dataset such as the CE Europe. Aim. To increase the spatial and temporal coverage of charcoal records and facilitate a more critical examination of the patterns, drivers and consequences of biomass burning over multiple spatial and temporal scales in CE Europe, we have investigated 6 fossil sequences in the Carpathian region (northern Romania). These are located in different geographical settings, in terms of elevation, vegetation composition, topography and land-use. Specific questions are: i) determine trends in timing and magnitude of fire activity, as well as similarities and differences between elevations; ii) disentangle the importance of regional from local controls in fire activity; iii) evaluate ecological consequences of fire on landscape composition, structure and diversity. Methods. We first determine the recent trends in fire activity (the last 150 years) from charcoal data and compare them with instrumental records of temperature, precipitation, site history and topography for a better understanding of the relationship between sedimentary charcoal and historical fire activity. We then statistically quantify centennial to millennial trends in fire activity (frequency, magnitude) based on

  11. Monitoring rice farming activities in the Mekong Delta region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nguyen, S. T.; Chen, C. F.; Chen, C. R.; Chiang, S. H.; Chang, L. Y.; Khin, L. V.

    2015-12-01

    Half of the world's population depends on rice for survival. Rice agriculture thus plays an important role in the developing world's economy. Vietnam is one of the largest rice producers and suppliers on earth and more than 80% of the exported rice was produced from the Mekong Delta region, which is situated in the southwestern Vietnam and encompasses approximately 40,000 km2. Changes in climate conditions could likely trigger the increase of insect populations and rice diseases, causing the potential loss of rice yields. Monitoring rice-farming activities through crop phenology detection can provide policymakers with timely strategies to mitigate possible impacts on the potential yield as well as rice grain exports to ensure food security for the region. The main objective of this study is to develop a logistic-based algorithm to investigate rice sowing and harvesting activities from the multi-temporal Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)-Landsat fusion data. We processed the data for two main cropping seasons (i.e., winter-spring and summer-autumn seasons) through a three-step procedure: (1) MODIS-Landsat data fusion, (2) construction of the time-series enhanced vegetation index 2 (EVI2) data, (3) rice crop phenology detection. The EVI2 data derived from the fusion results between MODIS and Landsat data were compared with that of Landsat data indicated close correlation between the two datasets (R2 = 0.93). The time-series EVI2 data were processed using the double logistic method to detect the progress of sowing and harvesting activities in the region. The comparisons between the estimated sowing and harvesting dates and the field survey data revealed the root mean squared error (RMSE) values of 8.4 and 5.5 days for the winter-spring crop and 9.4 and 12.8 days for the summer-autumn crop, respectively. This study demonstrates the effectiveness of the double logistic-based algorithm for rice crop monitoring from temporal MODIS-Landsat fusion data

  12. FORMATION OF CORONAL HOLES ON THE ASHES OF ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Karachik, Nina V.; Pevtsov, Alexei A.; Abramenko, Valentyna I. E-mail: apevtsov@nso.ed

    2010-05-10

    We investigate the formation of isolated non-polar coronal holes (CHs) on the remnants of decaying active regions (ARs) at the minimum/early ascending phase of sunspot activity. We follow the evolution of four bipolar ARs and measure several parameters of their magnetic fields including total flux, imbalance, and compactness. As regions decay, their leading and following polarities exhibit different dissipation rates: loose polarity tends to dissipate faster than compact polarity. As a consequence, we see a gradual increase in flux imbalance inside a dissipating bipolar region, and later a formation of a CH in place of more compact magnetic flux. Out of four cases studied in detail, two CHs had formed at the following polarity of the decaying bipolar AR, and two CHs had developed in place of the leading polarity field. All four CHs contain a significant fraction of magnetic field of their corresponding AR. Using potential field extrapolation, we show that the magnetic field lines of these CHs were closed on the polar CH at the North, which at the time of the events was in imbalance with the polar CH at the South. This topology suggests that the observed phenomenon may play an important role in transformation of toroidal magnetic field to poloidal field, which is a key step in transitioning from an old solar cycle to a new one. The timing of this observed transition may indicate the end of solar cycle 23 and the beginning of cycle 24.

  13. Demonstrating Electrical Activity in Nerve and Muscle. Part II

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, D. J.

    1976-01-01

    Describes the construction of an amplifier and force transducer that can be used to demonstrate electrical activity in nerve and muscle using the gastrocnemius muscle and sciatic nerve of the frog. (MLH)

  14. Demonstrating Electrical Activity in Nerve and Muscle. Part I

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robinson, D. J.

    1975-01-01

    Describes a demonstration for showing the electrical activity in nerve and muscle including action potentials, refractory period of a nerve, and fatigue. Presents instructions for constructing an amplifier, electronic stimulator, and force transducer. (GS)

  15. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 - Manufacturing Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE-RELATED ACTIVITIES NOT INVOLVING NUCLEAR MATERIALS Pt. 783, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to... heavy water or deuterium. Heavy water or deuterium means deuterium, heavy water (deuterium oxide)...

  16. 15 CFR Supplement No. 2 to Part 783 - Manufacturing Activities

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE-RELATED ACTIVITIES NOT INVOLVING NUCLEAR MATERIALS Pt. 783, Supp. 2 Supplement No. 2 to... heavy water or deuterium. Heavy water or deuterium means deuterium, heavy water (deuterium oxide)...

  17. Helioseismology of pre-emerging active regions. III. Statistical analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Barnes, G.; Leka, K. D.; Braun, D. C.; Birch, A. C.

    2014-05-01

    The subsurface properties of active regions (ARs) prior to their appearance at the solar surface may shed light on the process of AR formation. Helioseismic holography has been applied to samples taken from two populations of regions on the Sun (pre-emergence and without emergence), each sample having over 100 members, that were selected to minimize systematic bias, as described in Paper I. Paper II showed that there are statistically significant signatures in the average helioseismic properties that precede the formation of an AR. This paper describes a more detailed analysis of the samples of pre-emergence regions and regions without emergence based on discriminant analysis. The property that is best able to distinguish the populations is found to be the surface magnetic field, even a day before the emergence time. However, after accounting for the correlations between the surface field and the quantities derived from helioseismology, there is still evidence of a helioseismic precursor to AR emergence that is present for at least a day prior to emergence, although the analysis presented cannot definitively determine the subsurface properties prior to emergence due to the small sample sizes.

  18. Biological Activities of Aerial Parts Extracts of Euphorbia characias

    PubMed Central

    Pisano, Maria Barbara; Cosentino, Sofia; Viale, Silvia; Spanò, Delia; Corona, Angela; Esposito, Francesca; Tramontano, Enzo; Montoro, Paola; Tuberoso, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni; Medda, Rosaria; Pintus, Francesca

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate antioxidant, antimicrobial, anti-HIV, and cholinesterase inhibitory activities of aqueous and alcoholic extracts from leaves, stems, and flowers of Euphorbia characias. The extracts showed a high antioxidant activity and were a good source of total polyphenols and flavonoids. Ethanolic extracts from leaves and flowers displayed the highest inhibitory activity against acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase, showing potential properties against Alzheimer's disease. Antimicrobial assay showed that leaves and flowers extracts were active against all Gram-positive bacteria tested. The ethanolic leaves extract appeared to have the strongest antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus with MIC value of 312.5 μg/mL followed by Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus that also exhibited good sensitivity with MIC values of 1250 μg/mL. Moreover, all the extracts possessed anti-HIV activity. The ethanolic flower extract was the most potent inhibitor of HIV-1 RT DNA polymerase RNA-dependent and Ribonuclease H with IC50 values of 0.26 and 0.33 μg/mL, respectively. The LC-DAD metabolic profile showed that ethanolic leaves extract contains high levels of quercetin derivatives. This study suggests that Euphorbia characias extracts represent a good source of natural bioactive compounds which could be useful for pharmaceutical application as well as in food system for the prevention of the growth of food-borne bacteria and to extend the shelf-life of processed foods. PMID:27314007

  19. Distinct representations of configural and part information across multiple face-selective regions of the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Golarai, Golijeh; Ghahremani, Dara G.; Eberhardt, Jennifer L.; Gabrieli, John D. E.

    2015-01-01

    Several regions of the human brain respond more strongly to faces than to other visual stimuli, such as regions in the amygdala (AMG), superior temporal sulcus (STS), and the fusiform face area (FFA). It is unclear if these brain regions are similar in representing the configuration or natural appearance of face parts. We used functional magnetic resonance imaging of healthy adults who viewed natural or schematic faces with internal parts that were either normally configured or randomly rearranged. Response amplitudes were reduced in the AMG and STS when subjects viewed stimuli whose configuration of parts were digitally rearranged, suggesting that these regions represent the 1st order configuration of face parts. In contrast, response amplitudes in the FFA showed little modulation whether face parts were rearranged or if the natural face parts were replaced with lines. Instead, FFA responses were reduced only when both configural and part information were reduced, revealing an interaction between these factors, suggesting distinct representation of 1st order face configuration and parts in the AMG and STS vs. the FFA. PMID:26594191

  20. Planning report for the southwest alluvial basins (east) regional aquifer-system analysis, parts of Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilkins, D.W.; Scott, W.B.; Kaehler, C.A.

    1980-01-01

    The study of the Southwest alluvial basins (east) will involve an analysis of the regional aquifer system in parts of Colorado, New Mexico, and Texas. This area has been divided into 22 basins. The study of the alluvial aquifer-system will be made in the following stages: (1) project planning, (2) literature searches, (3) compiling existing data, (4) data collection, (5) basin modeling, (6) regional aquifer modeling, and (7) reports. The regional aquifer study will be accomplished through studying each of the 22 basins. Data compilation and limited data collection will be part of each basin study. Digital computer models will be made for those basins where data are sufficient. A regional aquifer model will be developed from the basin models. In addition to this report, there will be basin hydrology reports and the final regional report. Included in the final report will be a description of the regional hydrology and geology. (USGS)

  1. 30 CFR 280.4 - What activities are not covered by this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... regulations at 30 CFR part 282; and (d) G&G exploration or G&G scientific research activities related to oil, gas, and sulphur, including gas hydrates, which are covered by regulations at 30 CFR part 251....

  2. High Spatial Resolution Fe XII Observations of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Paola; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo

    2016-08-01

    We use UV spectral observations of active regions with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to investigate the properties of the coronal Fe xii 1349.4 Å emission at unprecedented high spatial resolution (∼0.33″). We find that by using appropriate observational strategies (i.e., long exposures, lossless compression), Fe xii emission can be studied with IRIS at high spatial and spectral resolution, at least for high-density plasma (e.g., post-flare loops and active region moss). We find that upper transition region (TR; moss) Fe xii emission shows very small average Doppler redshifts ({v}{{D}} ∼ 3 km s‑1) as well as modest non-thermal velocities (with an average of ∼24 km s‑1 and the peak of the distribution at ∼15 km s‑1). The observed distribution of Doppler shifts appears to be compatible with advanced three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations in which impulsive heating is concentrated at the TR footpoints of a hot corona. While the non-thermal broadening of Fe xii 1349.4 Å peaks at similar values as lower resolution simultaneous Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) measurements of Fe xii 195 Å, IRIS observations show a previously undetected tail of increased non-thermal broadening that might be suggestive of the presence of subarcsecond heating events. We find that IRIS and EIS non-thermal line broadening measurements are affected by instrumental effects that can only be removed through careful analysis. Our results also reveal an unexplained discrepancy between observed 195.1/1349.4 Å Fe xii intensity ratios and those predicted by the CHIANTI atomic database.

  3. Ancient Tectonic and Volcanic Activity in the Tharsis Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werner, S. C.; Kronberg, P.; Hauber, E.; Grott, M.; Steinberger, B.; Torsvik, T. H.; Neukum, G.

    The two topographically dominating volcanic provinces on Mars are the Tharsis and the Elysium regions, situated close to the equator on the dichotomy boundary between the heavily cratered (older) highlands and the northern lowlands (about 100 degrees apart). The regions are characterized by volcanoes whose morphologies are analogous to volcanic landforms on Earth, and the huge volcanoes in the Tharsis region (Olympus Mons and Tharsis Montes) are prime examples resembling many characteristics of Hawaiian shield volcanoes. The main difference between the Martian and terrestrial volcanoes are their size and the length of the flows, possibly due to higher eruption rates, the "stationary" character of the source (no plate tectonics) and the lower gravity. The Tharsis plateau is the topographically most prominent region on Mars, and associated with an areoid high. On Earth, large geoid highs are related to longlived heterogeneities near the core-mantle boundary that are sources for large igneous provinces. The Tharsis' volcanic vent structures were active at least episodically over the past 4 billion years (based on crater count statistics), which indicates long-lived volcanic and magmatic activity. Two major groups of tectonic features are related to the Tharsis bulge: a concentric set of wrinkle ridges indicating compression radial to Tharsis,and several sets of extensional structures that radiate outward from different centers within Tharsis, indicating tension circumferential to Tharsis. No landforms imply ancient plate tectonics. Here, we present surface ages associated with volcanic and tectonic landforms with a special focus on the ancient magma-tectonic environment (see Grott et al. 2006, this volume). We will examine the long-lived volcanism and tectonic surface expressions and discuss whether Mars volcanism could represent deep mantle plumes.

  4. High Spatial Resolution Fe XII Observations of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Testa, Paola; De Pontieu, Bart; Hansteen, Viggo

    2016-08-01

    We use UV spectral observations of active regions with the Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) to investigate the properties of the coronal Fe xii 1349.4 Å emission at unprecedented high spatial resolution (˜0.33″). We find that by using appropriate observational strategies (i.e., long exposures, lossless compression), Fe xii emission can be studied with IRIS at high spatial and spectral resolution, at least for high-density plasma (e.g., post-flare loops and active region moss). We find that upper transition region (TR; moss) Fe xii emission shows very small average Doppler redshifts ({v}{{D}} ˜ 3 km s‑1) as well as modest non-thermal velocities (with an average of ˜24 km s‑1 and the peak of the distribution at ˜15 km s‑1). The observed distribution of Doppler shifts appears to be compatible with advanced three-dimensional radiative MHD simulations in which impulsive heating is concentrated at the TR footpoints of a hot corona. While the non-thermal broadening of Fe xii 1349.4 Å peaks at similar values as lower resolution simultaneous Hinode Extreme Ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) measurements of Fe xii 195 Å, IRIS observations show a previously undetected tail of increased non-thermal broadening that might be suggestive of the presence of subarcsecond heating events. We find that IRIS and EIS non-thermal line broadening measurements are affected by instrumental effects that can only be removed through careful analysis. Our results also reveal an unexplained discrepancy between observed 195.1/1349.4 Å Fe xii intensity ratios and those predicted by the CHIANTI atomic database.

  5. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 169a - Commercial Activities Management Information System (CAMIS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Commercial Activities Management Information System (CAMIS) D Appendix D to Part 169a National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Pt. 169a, App. D Appendix D to Part 169a—Commercial Activities...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 169a - Commercial Activities Management Information System (CAMIS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Commercial Activities Management Information System (CAMIS) D Appendix D to Part 169a National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Pt. 169a, App. D Appendix D to Part 169a—Commercial Activities...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 169a - Commercial Activities Management Information System (CAMIS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Commercial Activities Management Information System (CAMIS) D Appendix D to Part 169a National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Pt. 169a, App. D Appendix D to Part 169a—Commercial Activities...

  8. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 169a - Commercial Activities Management Information System (CAMIS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Commercial Activities Management Information System (CAMIS) D Appendix D to Part 169a National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Pt. 169a, App. D Appendix D to Part 169a—Commercial Activities...

  9. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 169a - Commercial Activities Management Information System (CAMIS)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Commercial Activities Management Information System (CAMIS) D Appendix D to Part 169a National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE DEFENSE CONTRACTING COMMERCIAL ACTIVITIES PROGRAM PROCEDURES Pt. 169a, App. D Appendix D to Part 169a—Commercial Activities...

  10. Chromospheric Evolution and the Flare Activity of Super-Active Region NOAA 6555

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    PrasadC, Debi; Ambastha, Ashok; Srivastava, Nandita; Tripathy, Sushanta C.; Hagyard, Mona J.

    1997-01-01

    Super-active region NOAA 6555 was highly flare productive during the period March 21st - 27th, 1991 of its disk passage. We have studied its chromospheric activity using high spatial resolution H alpha filtergrams taken at Udaipur along with MSFC vector magnetograms. A possible relationship of flare productivity and the variation in shear has been explored. Flares were generally seen in those subareas of the active region which possessed closed magnetic field configuration, whereas only minor flares and/or surges occurred in subareas showing open magnetic field configuration. Physical mechanisms responsible for the observed surges are also discussed.

  11. Implications of Special Regions to Conducting Human Activities on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rummel, J. D.; Barlow, N. G.; Beaty, D. W.; Jones, M. A.; Hipkin, V.

    2014-12-01

    A MEPAG Science Analysis Group (SAG) has undertaken an analysis of Special Regions (SR) on Mars—regions where indigenous martian life could exist or where Earth microbes, if introduced, could survive and reproduce. The SR-SAG has considered the impact of SR on future human activities on the martian surface. Human exploration requires access to in-situ resources, some of which may be found in SR. Water and oxygen for ISRU are found in the atmosphere, surface/near-surface ice, hydrated minerals, and perchlorates. Water ice is most abundant at latitudes poleward of ~60 degrees, but polar darkness, cold temperatures, and CO2 degassing present hazards to human operations in these regions. Accessible water is more limited toward the equator, though temperature and solar energy conditions become more favorable. The possible presence of liquid water in Recurring Slope Lineae and active gullies leads to their treatment as SR. Fuel for surface operations and propellants for crew ascent could be manufactured from the martian atmosphere and surface materials, but dust in the atmosphere may clog ISRU equipment and perchlorate is toxic to humans. Power may be produced from solar or nuclear energy. Reliance on solar energy limits operations to the equatorial zone where easily accessible ice resources are limited. Nuclear power allows surface operations at a range of latitudes, but waste heat could convert some non-SR into SR. Radiation shielding is necessary for long-term human operations on Mars and could be obtained by deposition of regolith or by water storage in tanks or as ice around habitats, or the use of underground habitats. SR-SAG recognizes that it will be impossible for all human-associated processes and operations to be conducted within entirely closed systems. Protocols need to be established so (1) human missions to Mars will not contaminate SR nor be contaminated by materials from them, and (2) human activities on Mars will avoid converting areas into SR.

  12. THE EXPANSION OF ACTIVE REGIONS INTO THE EXTENDED SOLAR CORONA

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, Huw; Jeska, Lauren; Leonard, Drew

    2013-06-01

    Advanced image processing of Large Angle and Spectrometric Coronagraph Experiment (LASCO) C2 observations reveals the expansion of the active region closed field into the extended corona. The nested closed-loop systems are large, with an apparent latitudinal extent of 50 Degree-Sign , and expanding to heights of at least 12 R{sub Sun }. The expansion speeds are {approx}10 km s{sup -1} in the AIA/SDO field of view, below {approx}20 km s{sup -1} at 2.3 R{sub Sun }, and accelerate linearly to {approx}60 km s{sup -1} at 5 R{sub Sun }. They appear with a frequency of one every {approx}3 hr over a time period of around three days. They are not coronal mass ejections (CMEs) since their gradual expansion is continuous and steady. They are also faint, with an upper limit of 3% of the brightness of background streamers. Extreme ultraviolet images reveal continuous birth and expansion of hot, bright loops from a new active region at the base of the system. The LASCO images show that the loops span a radial fan-like system of streamers, suggesting that they are not propagating within the main coronal streamer structure. The expanding loops brighten at low heights a few hours prior to a CME eruption, and the expansion process is temporarily halted as the closed field system is swept away. Closed magnetic structures from some active regions are not isolated from the extended corona and solar wind, but can expand to large heights in the form of quiescent expanding loops.

  13. Temporal evolution of continental lithospheric strength in actively deforming regions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thatcher, W.; Pollitz, F.F.

    2008-01-01

    It has been agreed for nearly a century that a strong, load-bearing outer layer of earth is required to support mountain ranges, transmit stresses to deform active regions and store elastic strain to generate earthquakes. However the dept and extent of this strong layer remain controversial. Here we use a variety of observations to infer the distribution of lithospheric strength in the active western United States from seismic to steady-state time scales. We use evidence from post-seismic transient and earthquake cycle deformation reservoir loading glacio-isostatic adjustment, and lithosphere isostatic adjustment to large surface and subsurface loads. The nearly perfectly elastic behavior of Earth's crust and mantle at the time scale of seismic wave propagation evolves to that of a strong, elastic crust and weak, ductile upper mantle lithosphere at both earthquake cycle (EC, ???10?? to 103 yr) and glacio-isostatic adjustment (GIA, ???103 to 104 yr) time scales. Topography and gravity field correlations indicate that lithosphere isostatic adjustment (LIA) on ???106-107 yr time scales occurs with most lithospheric stress supported by an upper crust overlying a much weaker ductile subtrate. These comparisons suggest that the upper mantle lithosphere is weaker than the crust at all time scales longer than seismic. In contrast, the lower crust has a chameleon-like behavior, strong at EC and GIA time scales and weak for LIA and steady-state deformation processes. The lower crust might even take on a third identity in regions of rapid crustal extension or continental collision, where anomalously high temperatures may lead to large-scale ductile flow in a lower crustal layer that is locally weaker than the upper mantle. Modeling of lithospheric processes in active regions thus cannot use a one-size-fits-all prescription of rheological layering (relation between applied stress and deformation as a function of depth) but must be tailored to the time scale and tectonic

  14. Emission Measure Distribution and Heating of Two Active Region Cores

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tripathi, Durgesh; Klimchuk, James A.; Mason, Helen E.

    2011-01-01

    Using data from the Extreme-ultraviolet Imaging Spectrometer aboard Hinode, we have studied the coronal plasma in the core of two active regions. Concentrating on the area between opposite polarity moss, we found emission measure distributions having an approximate power-law form EM/T(exp 2.4) from log T = 5.55 up to a peak at log T = 6.57. The observations are explained extremely well by a simple nanoflare model. However, in the absence of additional constraints, the observations could possibly also be explained by steady heating.

  15. SOI/MDI studies of active region seismology and evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tarbell, Ted D.; Title, Alan; Hoeksema, J. Todd; Scherrer, Phil; Zweibel, Ellen

    1995-01-01

    The solar oscillations investigation (SOI) will study solar active regions using both helioseismic and conventional observation techniques. The Michelson Doppler imager (MDI) can perform Doppler continuum and line depth imagery and can produce longitudinal magnetograms, showing either the full disk or a high resolution field of view. A dynamics program of continuous full disk Doppler observations for two months per year, campaign programs of eight hours of continuous observation per day, and a synoptic magnetic program of about 15 full disk magnetograms per day, are planned. The scientific plans, measurements and observation programs, are described.

  16. C IV Doppler shifts observed in active region filaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klimchuk, J. A.

    1986-01-01

    The Doppler shift properties of 21 active region filaments were studied using C IV Dopplergram data. Most are associated with corridors of weak magnetic field that separate opposite polarity strong fields seen in photospheric magnetograms. A majority of the filaments are relatively blue shifted, although several lie very close to the dividing lines between blue and red shift. Only one filament in the samples is clearly red shifted. A new calibration procedure for Dopplergrams indicates that sizable zero point offsets are often required. The center-to-limb behavior of the resulting absolute Doppler shifts suggests that filament flows are usually quite small. It is possible that they vanish.

  17. Hinode Observations of an Eruption from a Sigmoidal Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, L. M.; Wallace, A. J.; Kliem, B.

    2012-08-01

    We analyse the evolution of a bipolar active region which produces an eruption during its decay phase. The soft X-ray arcade develops high shear over a time span of two days and transitions to sigmoidal shortly before the eruption. We propose that the continuous sigmoidal soft X-ray threads indicate that a flux rope has formed which is lying low in the solar atmosphere with a bald patch separatrix surface topology. The formation of the flux rope is driven by the photospheric evolution which is dominated by fragmentation of the main polarities, motion due to supergranular flows and cancellation at the polarity inversion line.

  18. Substrate-emitting semiconductor laser with a trapezoidal active region

    SciTech Connect

    Dikareva, N V; Nekorkin, S M; Karzanova, M V; Zvonkov, B N; Aleshkin, V Ya; Dubinov, A A; Afonenko, A A

    2014-04-28

    Semiconductor lasers with a narrow (∼2°) directional pattern in the planes both parallel and perpendicular to the p–n junction are fabricated. To achieve a low radiation divergence in the p–n junction plane, the active region in this plane was designed in the form of a trapezium. The narrow directional pattern in the plane perpendicular to the p–n junction was ensured by the use of a leaky mode, through which more than 90% of laser power was coupled out. (lasers)

  19. Space Industrialization: Manufacturing and Construction Activities. Part 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Story, Charles H.

    1983-01-01

    Discusses how space industrialization will provide direct benefits for our nation and will transfer technology to the many diverse areas of human activity. Examples are the development of the Space Shuttle, the Space Studies Institute, and the LS Society (advocates for colonizing space). (NRJ)

  20. Effective Strategies and Activities for Developing Soft Skills, Part 2

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Diana J.; Blaszczynski, Carol

    2012-01-01

    Employers seek employees who possess soft skills. Employees who do not have excellent soft skills may not experience success in obtaining and sustaining employment. McEwen's (2010) framework for skill-building--introduce, explain, practice, and reinforce--was used to describe activities for enhancing soft skills. Soft skills building activities…

  1. Effective Strategies and Activities for Developing Soft Skills, Part 1

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blaszczynski, Carol; Green, Diana J.

    2012-01-01

    Employers seek employees who possess soft skills. Employees who do not have excellent soft skills may not experience success in obtaining and sustaining employment. McEwen's (2010) framework for skill-building--introduce, explain, practice, and reinforce--was used to describe activities for enhancing soft skills. Assessment of soft skills…

  2. Phenolic profiles and antioxidant activity of extracts from peanut parts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Edible peanut seed represent approximately forty percent of the total mass of the peanut plant at harvest. Nonseed portions of the plant, including leaves, roots, and shells were extracted using aqueous acetone to remove polar compounds. The antioxidant activity of the extracts using ORAC were det...

  3. Current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in central part of the Kanto Plain, Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hachinohe, S.; Hamamoto, H.; Ishiyama, T.; Hayashi, T.; Miyakoshi, A.; Yasuhara, M.

    2012-12-01

    The Kanto Plain is known as the largest plain in Japan, where a lot of huge cities are located and about 30% of population of Japan is concentrated. In the inland part of the Kanto Plain, dependence on groundwater for water requirements is relatively high; in particular around 40% of the municipal water supply is dependent on groundwater. On the other hand, various kinds of controlled substances such as arsenic, nitrate and nitrite-nitrogen, volatile organic compounds are detected in groundwater in excess of the Japanese environmental standards. Therefore, in order to evaluate current situation and regional characteristics of groundwater quality in the central part of the Kanto Plain, we investigated around 500 wells. These wells are distributed throughout the plain area of Saitama Prefecture, stretching about 80 kilometers from east to west and about 60 kilometers from north to south. Depths of these wells range from 5m to 200m. We analyzed heavy metals and metalloids such as Fe, Mn, Al, As, Pb, using the ICP/AES and ICP/MS and also analyzed major dissolved ions such as Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, Cl-, SO42-, using the ion chromatograph. As a result of investigation, rate of samples exceeded the Japanese environmental standards of arsenic (0.01 mg/l) in groundwater was about 1%, and the maximum concentration was about 10 times of the environmental standards. Groundwater with a high arsenic concentration was detected in the specific area, such as in the lowlands located upstream from the former shoreline at the Holocene glacial retreat. Taking the land use of surrounding area, well depth and groundwater condition of aquifers into account, detected arsenic is considered to be of natural origin and mainly originate from natural layers. According to the previous studies, the release mechanisms of natural arsenic are summarized in some ways and in case of this research area, it was explained that natural arsenic is released with dissolution of the iron oxide in the reduction

  4. Peptides of the constant region of antibodies display fungicidal activity.

    PubMed

    Polonelli, Luciano; Ciociola, Tecla; Magliani, Walter; Zanello, Pier Paolo; D'Adda, Tiziana; Galati, Serena; De Bernardis, Flavia; Arancia, Silvia; Gabrielli, Elena; Pericolini, Eva; Vecchiarelli, Anna; Arruda, Denise C; Pinto, Marcia R; Travassos, Luiz R; Pertinhez, Thelma A; Spisni, Alberto; Conti, Stefania

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic peptides with sequences identical to fragments of the constant region of different classes (IgG, IgM, IgA) of antibodies (Fc-peptides) exerted a fungicidal activity in vitro against pathogenic yeasts, such as Candida albicans, Candida glabrata, Cryptococcus neoformans, and Malassezia furfur, including caspofungin and triazole resistant strains. Alanine-substituted derivatives of fungicidal Fc-peptides, tested to evaluate the critical role of each residue, displayed unaltered, increased or decreased candidacidal activity in vitro. An Fc-peptide, included in all human IgGs, displayed a therapeutic effect against experimental mucosal and systemic candidiasis in mouse models. It is intriguing to hypothesize that some Fc-peptides may influence the antifungal immune response and constitute the basis for devising new antifungal agents. PMID:22470523

  5. The Rossby Centre Regional Atmospheric Climate Model part II: application to the Arctic climate.

    PubMed

    Jones, Colin G; Wyser, Klaus; Ullerstig, Anders; Willén, Ulrika

    2004-06-01

    The Rossby Centre regional climate model (RCA2) has been integrated over the Arctic Ocean as part of the international ARCMIP project. Results have been compared to observations derived from the SHEBA data set. The standard RCA2 model overpredicts cloud cover and downwelling longwave radiation, during the Arctic winter. This error was improved by introducing a new cloud parameterization, which significantly improves the annual cycle of cloud cover. Compensating biases between clear sky downwelling longwave radiation and longwave radiation emitted from cloud base were identified. Modifications have been introduced to the model radiation scheme that more accurately treat solar radiation interaction with ice crystals. This leads to a more realistic representation of cloud-solar radiation interaction. The clear sky portion of the model radiation code transmits too much solar radiation through the atmosphere, producing a positive bias at the top of the frequent boundary layer clouds. A realistic treatment of the temporally evolving albedo, of both sea-ice and snow, appears crucial for an accurate simulation of the net surface energy budget. Likewise, inclusion of a prognostic snow-surface temperature seems necessary, to accurately simulate near-surface thermodynamic processes in the Arctic. PMID:15264599

  6. Identification and characterization of a human smad3 splicing variant lacking part of the linker region.

    PubMed

    Kjellman, Christian; Honeth, Gabriella; Järnum, Sofia; Lindvall, Magnus; Darabi, Anna; Nilsson, Ingar; Edvardsen, Klaus; Salford, Leif G; Widegren, Bengt

    2004-03-01

    Smad3 is one of the signal transducers that are activated in response to transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). We have identified and characterized a splicing variant of smad3. The splicing variant (smad3-Delta3) lacks exon 3 resulting in a truncated linker region. We could detect mRNA expression of smad3-Delta3 in all investigated human tissues. Real-time PCR analyses demonstrated that the fraction of smad3-Delta3 mRNA compared to normal smad3 varies between tissues. The amount of spliced mRNA was estimated to represent 0.5-5% of the normal smad3 mRNA. When smad3-Delta3 is overexpressed in a fibrosarcoma cell line, the Smad3-Delta3 is translocated to the nucleus upon TGF-beta stimulation and binds the Smad responsive element. Using a CAGA luciferase reporter system, we demonstrate that Smad3-Delta3 has transcriptional activity and we conclude that Smad3-Delta3 possesses functional transactivating properties. PMID:14980711

  7. 40 CFR Appendix II to Part 310 - EPA Regions and NRC Telephone Lines

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., RI, CT) (617) 723-8928 Region II (NJ, NY, PR, VI) (800) 424-8802 Region III (PA, DE, MD, DC, VA, WV) (215) 814-3255 Region IV (NC, SC, TN, MS, AL, GA, FL, KY) (404) 562-8700 Region V (OH, IN, IL, WI,...

  8. Curve Squeal of Train Wheels, Part 3: Active Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    HECKL, MARIA A.; HUANG, X. Y.

    2000-01-01

    This paper presents a new method to annul the squeal noise that is produced by trains traversing a curve. The method is a special form of active control, applied to suppress the bending oscillations of a squealing wheel. It is essentially a feedback system with the following components: sensor, narrowband filter, phase-shifter, amplifier and actuator. The control signal driving the actuator has only a single frequency (set at the filter), and that frequency typically corresponds to one of the bending modes of the wheel. Two versions of the feedback system are considered. In the first version, the actuator exerts a control force on the wheel, and in the second version, the actuator imposes a velocity on the rail. A mathematical model is presented and predictions are made for the performance of both versions. The coupling of the different wheel modes by the control system is discussed. A model rig is described which was used for a practical demonstration of this form of active control. Differences from more conventional forms of active control are pointed out.

  9. The morphology of flare phenomena, magnetic fields, and electric currents in active regions. II - NOAA active region 5747 (1989 October)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leka, K. D.; Canfield, Richard C.; Mcclymont, A. N.; De La Beaujardiere, J.-F.; Fan, Yuhong; Tang, F.

    1993-01-01

    The paper describes October 1989 observations in NOAA Active Region 5747 of the morphology of energetic electron precipitation and high-pressure coronal flare plasmas of three flares and their relation to the vector magnetic field and vertical electric currents. The H-alpha spectroheliograms were coaligned with the vector magnetograms using continuum images of sunspots, enabling positional accuracy of a few arcsec. It was found that, during the gradual phase, the regions of the H-alpha flare that show the effects of enhanced pressure in the overlying corona often encompass extrema of the vertical current density, consistent with earlier work showing a close relationship between H-alpha emission and line-of-sight currents. The data are also consistent with the overall morphology and evolution described by erupting-filament models such as those of Kopp and Pneuman (1976) and Sturrock (1989).

  10. Chemical Fingerprints of Star Forming Regions and Active Galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pérez-Beaupuits, Juan-Pablo

    2010-10-01

    This thesis is devoted to the study of the physical conditions of the interstellar medium (ISM) in active galactic nuclei (AGNs) and Galactic star-forming regions, using mostly single-dish millimeter observations. I first study the excitation conditions of dense gas in a group of Seyfert galaxies using radiative transfer models (Chapter 2). I then study the galaxy NGC 1068, and try to distinguish signatures of the contributions from the AGN and the starburst ring by incorporating observations of high-J transitions of dense gas tracers (Chapter 3). Later, I venture into the mid-infrared spectral region to study different aspects of the AGN and starburst components in the galaxy NGC 4945 (Chapter 4). In Chapter 5 I delve into theoretical aspects of the dynamical evolution of gas in an AGN torus. I use a 3D hydrodynamic simulation with chemical abundances driven by X-rays. The aim is to understand the effects of X-ray irradiation by the AGN on the temperature, formation and destruction of the molecular gas. I finally explore a Galactic star-forming region, the Omega Nebula, with high resolution single dish observations, to study the properties of the warm gas and to constrain chemical models (Chapters 6 and 7).

  11. Behaviour of oscillations in loop structures above active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kolobov, D. Y.; Kobanov, N. I.; Chelpanov, A. A.; Kochanov, A. A.; Anfinogentov, S. A.; Chupin, S. A.; Myshyakov, I. I.; Tomin, V. E.

    2015-12-01

    In this study we combine the multiwavelength ultraviolet-optical (Solar Dynamics Observatory, SDO) and radio (Nobeyama Radioheliograph, NoRH) observations to get further insight into space-frequency distribution of oscillations at different atmospheric levels of the Sun. We processed the observational data on NOAA 11711 active region and found oscillations propagating from the photospheric level through the transition region upward into the corona. The power maps of low-frequency (1-2 mHz) oscillations reproduce well the fan-like coronal structures visible in the Fe IX 171 Å line. High frequency oscillations (5-7 mHz) propagate along the vertical magnetic field lines and concentrate inside small-scale elements in the umbra and at the umbra-penumbra boundary. We investigated the dependence of the dominant oscillation frequency upon the distance from the sunspot barycentre to estimate inclination of magnetic tubes in higher levels of sunspots where it cannot be measured directly, and found that this angle is close to 40° above the umbra boundaries in the transition region.

  12. The Magnetic Classification of Solar Active Regions 1992-2015

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaeggli, S. A.; Norton, A. A.

    2016-03-01

    The purpose of this Letter is to address a blindspot in our knowledge of solar active region (AR) statistics. To the best of our knowledge, there are no published results showing the variation of the Mount Wilson magnetic classifications as a function of solar cycle based on modern observations. We show statistics for all ARs reported in the daily Solar Region Summary from 1992 January 1 to 2015 December 31. We find that the α and β class ARs (including all sub-groups, e.g., βγ, βδ) make up fractions of approximately 20% and 80% of the sample, respectively. This fraction is relatively constant during high levels of activity however, an increase in the α fraction to about 35% and and a decrease in the β fraction to about 65% can be seen near each solar minimum and are statistically significant at the 2σ level. Over 30% of all ARs observed during the years of solar maxima were appended with the classifications γ and/or δ, while these classifications account for only a fraction of a percent during the years near the solar minima. This variation in the AR types indicates that the formation of complex ARs may be due to the pileup of frequent emergence of magnetic flux during solar maximum, rather than the emergence of complex, monolithic flux structures.

  13. Active Region Filaments Might Harbor Weak Magnetic Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Díaz Baso, C. J.; Martínez González, M. J.; Asensio Ramos, A.

    2016-05-01

    Recent spectropolarimetric observations of active region filaments have revealed polarization profiles with signatures typical of the strong field Zeeman regime. The conspicuous absence in those observations of scattering polarization and Hanle effect signatures was then pointed out by some authors. This was interpreted as either a signature of mixed “turbulent” field components or as a result of optical thickness. In this article, we present a natural scenario to explain these Zeeman-only spectropolarimetric observations of active region (AR) filaments. We propose a two-component model, one on top of the other. Both components have horizontal fields, with the azimuth difference between them being close to 90°. The component that lies lower in the atmosphere is permeated by a strong field of the order of 600 G, while the upper component has much weaker fields, of the order of 10 G. The ensuing scattering polarization signatures of the individual components have opposite signs, so its combination along the line of sight reduces—and even can cancel out—the Hanle signatures, giving rise to an apparent Zeeman-only profile. This model is also applicable to other chromospheric structures seen in absorption above ARs.

  14. Magnetic field measurements in and above a limb active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Philip, Judge

    2013-07-01

    We analyze spectropolarimetric data of a limb active region (NOAA 11302) obtained on September 22nd 2011 using the Facility Infrared Spectrometer (FIRS) at the Dunn Solar Telescope (DST). Stokes profiles including lines of Si I 1028.7 nm and He I 1083 nm were obtained in three scans over a 45"x75" area. Simultaneous narrow band Ca II K and G-band intensity data were acquired with a cadence of 5s at the DST. The He I data show not only typical active region polarization signatures, but also signatures in plumes -- cool post flare loops -- which extend many Mm into the corona across the visible limb. The plumes have remarkably uniform brightness, and the plume plasma is significantly Doppler shifted as it drains from the corona. Using carefully constructed observing and calibration sequences and applying Principal Component Analysis to remove instrumental artifacts, we achieved a polarization sensitivity approaching 0.02%. With this sensitivity we attempt to diagnose the vector magnetic fields and plasma properties of chromospheric and cool coronal material in and above NOAA 11302. Inversions using various radiative transfer models in the HAZEL code are remarkably consistent with the idea that plume spectra are formed in a simple, slab-like geometry, but that the ``disk'' spectra are formed under more traditional models (Milne-Eddington). The inverted magnetic data of He I lines are compared with photospheric inversions of DST Si I and Fe I data from the Solar Dynamics Observatory.

  15. High power VCSEL device with periodic gain active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ning, Y. Q., II; Qin, L.; Sun, Y. F.; Li, T.; Cui, J. J.; Peng, B.; Liu, G. Y.; Zhang, Y.; Liu, Y.; Wang, L. J.; Cui, D. F.; Xu, Z. Y.

    2007-11-01

    High power vertical cavity surface emitting lasers with large aperture have been fabricated through improving passivation, lateral oxidation and heat dissipation techniques. Different from conventional three quantum well structure, a periodic gain active region with nine quantum wells was incorporated into the VCSEL structure, with which high efficiency and high power operation were expected. The nine quantum wells were divided into three groups with each of them located at the antinodes of the cavity to enhance the coupling between the optical field and the gain region. Large aperture and bottom-emitting configuration was used to improve the beam quality and the heat dissipation. A maximum output power of 1.4W was demonstrated at CW operation for a 400μm-diameter device. The lasing wavelength shifted to 995.5nm with a FWHM of 2nm at a current of 4.8A due to the internal heating and the absence of active water cooling. A ring-shape farfield pattern was induced by the non-homogeneous lateral current distribution in large diameter device. The light intensity at the center of the ring increased with increasing current. A symmetric round light spot at the center and single transverse mode operation with a divergence angle of 16° were observed with current beyond 4.8A.

  16. Instant Stereoscopic Tomography of Active Regions with STEREO/EUVI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aschwanden, M. J.; Wuelser, J.; Nitta, N.; Lemen, J.; Sandman, A.

    2008-12-01

    We develop a novel 3D reconstruction method of the coronal plasma of an active region by combining stereoscopic triangulation of loops with density and temperature modeling of coronal loops with a filling factor equivalent to tomographic volume rendering. Because this method requires only a stereoscopic image pair in multiple temperature filters, which are sampled within ~1 minute with the recent STEREO/EUVI instrument, this method is about 4 orders of magnitude faster than conventional solar rotation-based tomography. We reconstruct the 3D density and temperature distribution of active region NOAA 10955 by stereoscopic triangulation of 70 loops, which are used as a skeleton for a 3D field interpolation of some 7000 loop components, leading to a 3D model that reproduces the observed fluxes in each stereosocpic image pair with an accuracy of a few percent (of the average flux) in each pixel. With the stereoscopic tomography we infer also a differential emission measure (DEM) distribution over the entire temperature range of T~0.01-10 MK, with predictions for the transition region and hotter corona in soft X-rays. The tomographic 3D model provides also large statistics of physical parameters. We find that the EUV loops with apex temperatures of T = 1- 3 MK tend to be super-hydrostatic, while hotter loops with T = 4-7 MK are near-hydrostatic. The new 3D reconstruction model is fully independent of any magnetic field data and is promising for future tests of theoretical magnetic field models and coronal heating models.

  17. Photospheric electric current and transition region brightness within an active region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deloach, A. C.; Hagyard, M. J.; Rabin, D.; Moore, R. L.; Smith, B. J., Jr.; West, E. A.; Tandberg-Hanssen, E.

    1984-01-01

    Distributions of vertical electrical current density J(z) calculated from vector measurements of the photospheric magnetic field are compared with ultraviolet spectroheliograms to investigate whether resistive heating is an important source of enhanced emission in the transition region. The photospheric magnetic fields in Active Region 2372 were measured on April 6 and 7, 1980 with the Marshall Space Flight Center vector magnetograph; ultraviolet wavelength spectroheliograms (L-alpha and N V 1239 A) were obtained with the UV Spectrometer and Polarimeter experiment aboard the Solar Maximum Mission satellite. Spatial registration of the J(z) (5 arcsec resolution) and UV (3 arcsec resolution) maps indicates that the maximum current density is cospatial with a minor but persistent UV enhancement, but there is little detected current associated with other nearby bright areas. It is concluded that, although resistive heating may be important in the transition region, the currents responsible for the heating are largely unresolved in the present measurements and have no simple correlation with the residual current measured on 5-arcsec scales.

  18. STS-100 crew takes part in TCDT activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - STS-100 Mission Specialist Chris Hadfield pauses for the camera during Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities that include emergency escape training at the pad and a simulated launch countdown. The mission is carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello and the Canadian robotic arm, SSRMS, to the International Space Station. Raffaello carries six system racks and two storage racks for the U.S. Lab. The SSRMS is crucial to the continued assembly of the orbiting complex. Launch of mission STS-100 is scheduled for April 19 at 2:41 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  19. CHP REGIONAL APPLICATION CENTERS: ACTIVITIES AND SELECTED RESULTS

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, Martin

    2010-08-01

    Between 2001 and 2005, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) created a set of eight Regional Application Centers (RACs) to facilitate the development and deployment of Combined Heat and Power (CHP) technologies. By utilizing the thermal energy that is normally wasted when electricity is produced at central generating stations, Combined Heat and Power installations can save substantial amounts of energy compared to more traditional technologies. In addition, the location of CHP facilities at or near the point of consumption greatly reduces or eliminates electric transmission and distribution losses. The regional nature of the RACs allows each one to design and provide services that are most relevant to the specific economic and market conditions in its particular geographic area. Between them, the eight RACs provide services to all 50 states and the District of Columbia. Through the end of the federal 2009 fiscal year (FY 2009), the primary focus of the RACs was on providing CHP-related information to targeted markets, encouraging the creation and adoption of public policies and incentives favorable to CHP, and providing CHP users and prospective users with technical assistance and support on specific projects. Beginning with the 2010 fiscal year, the focus of the regional centers broadened to include district energy and waste heat recovery and these entities became formally known as Clean Energy Application Centers, as required by the Energy Independence and Security Act (EISA) of 2007. In 2007, ORNL led a cooperative effort to establish metrics to quantify the RACs accomplishments. That effort began with the development of a detailed logic model describing RAC operations and outcomes, which provided a basis for identifying important activities and accomplishments to track. A data collection spreadsheet soliciting information on those activities for FY 2008 and all previous years of RAC operations was developed and sent to the RACs in the summer of 2008. This

  20. Apollo Mission Techniques Lunar Orbit Activities - Part 1a

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Interbartolo, Michael A.

    2009-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the planned sequence of events and the rationale for all lunar missions, and the flight experiences and lessons learned for the lunar orbit activities from a trajectory perspective. Shown are trajectories which include the moon's position at the various stages in the complete trip from launch, to the return and reentry. Included in the presentation are objectives and the sequence of events,for the Apollo 8, and Apollo 10. This is followed by a discussion of Apollo 11, including: the primary mission objective, the sequence of events, and the flight experience. The next mission discussed was Apollo 12. It reviews the objectives, the ground tracking, procedure changes, and the sequence of events. The aborted Apollo 13 mission is reviewed, including the objectives, and the sequence of events. Brief summaries of the flight experiences for Apollo 14-16 are reviewed. The flight sequence of events of Apollo 17 are discussed. In summary each mission consistently performing precision landings required that Apollo lunar orbit activities devote considerable attention to: (1) Improving fidelity of lunar gravity models, (2) Maximizing availability of ground tracking, (3) Minimizing perturbations on the trajectory, (4) Maximizing LM propellant reserves for hover time. Also the use of radial separation maneuvers (1) allows passive re-rendezvous after each rev, but ... (2) sensitive to small dispersions in initial sep direction

  1. Photonic crystal lasers using wavelength-scale embedded active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuo, Shinji; Sato, Tomonari; Takeda, Koji; Shinya, Akihiko; Nozaki, Kengo; Kuramochi, Eiichi; Taniyama, Hideaki; Notomi, Masaya; Fujii, Takuro; Hasebe, Koichi; Kakitsuka, Takaaki

    2014-01-01

    Lasers with ultra-low operating energy are desired for use in chip-to-chip and on-chip optical interconnects. If we are to reduce the operating energy, we must reduce the active volume. Therefore, a photonic crystal (PhC) laser with a wavelength-scale cavity has attracted a lot of attention because a PhC provides a large Q-factor with a small volume. To improve this device's performance, we employ an embedded active region structure in which the wavelength-scale active region is buried with an InP PhC slab. This structure enables us to achieve effective confinement of both carriers and photons, and to improve the thermal resistance of the device. Thus, we have obtained a large external differential quantum efficiency of 55% and an output power of -10 dBm by optical pumping. For electrical pumping, we use a lateral p-i-n structure that employs Zn diffusion and Si ion implantation for p-type and n-type doping, respectively. We have achieved room-temperature continuous-wave operation with a threshold current of 7.8 µA and a maximum 3 dB bandwidth of 16.2 GHz. The results of an experimental bit error rate measurement with a 10 Gbit s-1 NRZ signal reveal the minimum operating energy for transferring a single bit of 5.5 fJ. These results show the potential of this laser to be used for very short reach interconnects. We also describe the optimal design of cavity quality (Q) factor in terms of achieving a large output power with a low operating energy using a calculation based on rate equations. When we assume an internal absorption loss of 20 cm-1, the optimized coupling Q-factor is 2000.

  2. STS-100 crew takes part in TCDT activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - KSC'''s PAO videographer, Glenn Benson (left) and STS-100 Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby pose in front of the Canadian robotic arm, SSRMS, in the Space Station Processing Facility. The STS-100 crew is at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities that include emergency escape training at the pad and a simulated launch countdown. The mission is carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello and the SSRMS, to the International Space Station. Raffaello carries six system racks and two storage racks for the U.S. Lab. The SSRMS is crucial to the continued assembly of the orbiting complex. Launch of mission STS-100 is scheduled for April 19 at 2:41 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  3. STS-100 crew takes part in TCDT activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - The STS-100 crew gathers at the bus when Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities are hampered by the rain. Standing with the bus driver, from left, are Mission Specialist John L. Phillips, Commander Kent V. Rominger, Mission Specialists Umberto Guidoni, Chris Hadfield, [driver], and Scott E. Parazynski, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby and Mission Specialist Yuri V. Lonchakov. TCDT includes emergency escape training at the pad and a simulated launch countdown. The mission is carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello and the Canadian robotic arm, SSRMS, to the International Space Station. Raffaello carries six system racks and two storage racks for the U.S. Lab. The SSRMS is crucial to the continued assembly of the orbiting complex. Launch of mission STS-100 is scheduled for April 19 at 2:41 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  4. STS-100 crew takes part in TCDT activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - KSC'''s PAO videographer, Glenn Benson (left) listens to STS-100 Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby explain use of the Canadian robotic arm, SSRMS (left), in the Space Station Processing Facility. At right is Mission Specialist Umberto Guidoni. The STS-100 crew is at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities that include emergency escape training at the pad and a simulated launch countdown. The mission is carrying the Multi-Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello and the SSRMS, to the International Space Station. Raffaello carries six system racks and two storage racks for the U.S. Lab. The SSRMS is crucial to the continued assembly of the orbiting complex. Launch of mission STS-100 is scheduled for April 19 at 2:41 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  5. STS-100 crew takes part in TCDT activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2001-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, Fla. - The STS-100 crew gathers with the Space Station Processing Facility people who worked on the Canadian robotic arm, SSRMS. Kneeling at left is Commander Kent V. Rominger; front and ceneter, from left, Mission Specialist Chris Hadfield, Pilot Jeffrey S. Ashby and Mission Specialists Yuri V. Lonchakov and John L. Phillips; behind Hadfield (a head above the others) is Mission Specialist Scott E. Parazynski. The crew is at KSC for Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities that include emergency escape training at the pad and a simulated launch countdown. The mission is carrying the Multi- Purpose Logistics Module Raffaello and the SSRMS, to the International Space Station. Raffaello carries six system racks and two storage racks for the U.S. Lab. The SSRMS is crucial to the continued assembly of the orbiting complex. Launch of mission STS-100 is scheduled for April 19 at 2:41 p.m. EDT from Launch Pad 39A.

  6. Global gravity wave activity in the tropopause region from CHAMP radio occultation data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmidt, T.; de la Torre, A.; Wickert, J.

    2008-08-01

    We discuss the global gravity wave (GW) activity expressed by the specific potential energy in the altitude range from 5 km below to 10 km above the tropopause, derived from GPS radio occultation data from CHAMP (2001-2008). The GW analysis is based on vertical detrending of the individual measured temperature profiles by applying a Gaussian filter in two different ways: (i) filtering of the complete temperature profiles and (ii) separate filtering of the profiles for the tropospheric and lower stratospheric parts. The separate filtering method significantly reduces the usually observed wave activity enhancement in the tropopause region which highly depends on the performance of the complete filtering method to reproduce the change in the temperature gradient at the tropopause. We only consider vertical wavelengths less than 10 km. The global mean potential energy in the tropopause region deduced with these different background temperatures will be analyzed, differences will be emphasized and possible error sources of the new method will be considered.

  7. Activation of the tail open part during the magnetospheric storm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishin, V. M.; Karavaev, Yu. A.; Sapronova, L. A.; Solovyev, S. I.

    2012-07-01

    In each polar cap (PC) we mark out "old PC" observed during quiet time before the event under consideration, and "new PC" that emerges during the substorm framing the old one and expanding the PC total area. Old and new PCs are the areas for the magnetosphere old and new tail lobes, respectively. The new lobe variable magnetic flux Ψ1 is usually assumed to be active, i.e. it provides the electromagnetic energy flux (Poynting flux) ɛ' transport from solar wind (SW) into the magnetosphere. The old lobe magnetic flux Ψ2 is supposed to be passive, i.e. it remains constant during the disturbance and does not participate in the transporting process which would mean the old PC electric field absolute screening from the convection electric field created by the magnetopause reconnection. In fact, screening is observed, but far from absolute. We suggest a model of screening and determine its quantitative characteristics in the selected superstorm. The coefficient of a screening is the β = Ψ2/Ψ02, where Ψ02 = const is open magnetic flux through the old PC measured prior to the substorm, and Ψ2 is variable magnetic flux through the same area measured during the substorm. We consider three various regimes of disturbance. In each, the coefficient β decreased during the loading phase and increased at the unloading phase, but the rates and amplitudes of variations exhibited a strong dependence on the regime. We interpreted decrease in β as a result of involving the old PC magnetic flux Ψ2, which was considered to be constant earlier, in the Poynting flux ɛ' transport process from solar wind into the magnetosphere. Transport process weakening at the subsequent unloading phase creates increase in β. Estimates showed that coefficient β during each regime and the computed Poynting flux ɛ' varied manifolds. In general, unlike the existing substorm conception, the new scenario describes an unknown earlier of tail lobe activation process during a substorm growth phase that

  8. Summary of mineral industry activities in Colorado. Part I: coal

    SciTech Connect

    Pascoe, D.M.

    1981-01-01

    Coal production for 1981 was a record, with production at 19,701,496 tons of coal mined and reported to the Division of Mines. This was a 4.95% increase over 1980. Statewide Divisional efforts to support a practical type of health and safety training program while encouraging skill education appropriate to mining needs, saw extensive accomplishment in 1981. The Division gave direct or monetary support through training grant funds, largely used for reimbursed tuition from strategically located state vocational schools who taught on campus as well as at mine sites. Total miner training reported by area schools to the Division of Mines indicates that 8408 students received 86,251 hours of classroom and on-the-job training. It is hoped that the education and training programs throughout the state will be continued in an effort to educate both the new and old miners. We believe this is the best approach to the coal industry's never ending task of reducing both lost-time and fatal accidents. Coal mine certification in all categories totaled 780 certificates issued. This was a decrease from 1980, and will probably decrease again in 1982 with the initiation of the $25.00 fee for each examination. Coal mining activity is reported by district.

  9. Projects from Federal Region IX: Department of Energy Appropriate Energy Technology Program. Part II

    SciTech Connect

    Case, C.W.; Clark, H.R.; Kay, J.; Lucarelli, F.B.; Rizer, S.

    1980-01-01

    Details and progress of appropriate energy technology programs in Region IX are presented. In Arizona, the projects are Solar Hot Water for the Prescott Adult Center and Solar Prototype House for a Residential Community. In California, the projects are Solar AquaDome Demonstration Project; Solar Powered Liquid Circulating Pump; Appropriate Energy Technology Resource Center; Digester for Wastewater Grown Aquatic Plants; Performance Characteristics of an Anaerobic Wastewater Lagoon Primary Treatment System; Appropriate Energy/Energy Conservation Demonstration Project; Solar Energy for Composting Toilets; Dry Creek Rancheria Solar Demonstration Projects; Demonstration for Energy Retrofit Analysis and Implementation; and Active Solar Space Heating System for the Integral Urban House. In Hawaii, the projects are: Java Plum Electric; Low-Cost Pond Digesters for Hawaiian Pig Farm Energy Needs; Solar Beeswax Melter; Methane Gas Plant for Operating Boilers and Generating Steam; and Solar Water Heating in Sugarcane Seed-Treatment Plants. A Wind-Powered Lighted Navigation Buoys Project for Guam is also described. A revised description of the Biogas Energy for Hawaiian Small Farms and Homesteads is given in an appendix.

  10. Comparison of Solar Active Region Complexity Andgeomagnetic Activity from 1996 TO 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tanskanen, E. I.; Nikbakhsh, S.; Perez-Suarez, D.; Hackman, T.

    2015-12-01

    We have studied the influence of magnetic complexity of solar Active Regions (ARs)on geomagnetic activity from 1996 to 2014. Sunspots are visual indicators of ARswhere the solar magnetic field is disturbed. We have used International, American,Space Environment Service Center (SESC) and Space Weather Prediction Center(SWPC) sunspot numbers to examine ARs. Major manifestations of solar magneticactivity, such as flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs), are associated withARs. For this study we chose the Mount Wilson scheme. It classifies ARs in terms oftheir magnetic topology from the least complex (?) to the most complex one ( ?).Several cases have been found where the more complex structures produce strongerflares and CMEs than the less complex ones. We have a list of identified substormsavailable with different phases and their durations. This will be compared to ourmagnetic complexity data to analyse the effects of active region magnetic complexityto the magnetic activity on the vicinity of the Earth.

  11. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access C Appendix C to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF.... 552, App. C Appendix C to Part 552—Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access...

  12. 24 CFR 964.16 - HUD role in activities under this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HUD role in activities under this part. 964.16 Section 964.16 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... § 964.16 HUD role in activities under this part. (a) General. Subject to the requirements of this...

  13. 24 CFR 964.16 - HUD role in activities under this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false HUD role in activities under this part. 964.16 Section 964.16 Housing and Urban Development REGULATIONS RELATING TO HOUSING AND URBAN... § 964.16 HUD role in activities under this part. (a) General. Subject to the requirements of this...

  14. Structure-activity relationships of aromatic diamines in the Ames Salmonella typhimurium assay. Part II.

    PubMed

    Kalopissis, G

    1992-09-01

    Structure-activity relationships in the case of aromatic monoamines, diversely substituted on the ring, using the mutagenic activity in the Ames test were studied in part I. This part II is based on the same general principles but applied to phenylene diamines (ortho, para and meta) diversely substituted on the ring. PMID:1381475

  15. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 1215 - Typical User Activity Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Typical User Activity Timeline C Appendix C to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. C Appendix C to Part 1215—Typical User Activity...

  16. 12 CFR Appendix I to Part 27 - Monthly Home Loan Activity Format

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Monthly Home Loan Activity Format I Appendix I to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. I Appendix I to Part 27—Monthly Home Loan Activity Format...

  17. 12 CFR Appendix I to Part 27 - Monthly Home Loan Activity Format

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Monthly Home Loan Activity Format I Appendix I to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. I Appendix I to Part 27—Monthly Home Loan Activity Format...

  18. 12 CFR Appendix I to Part 27 - Monthly Home Loan Activity Format

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Monthly Home Loan Activity Format I Appendix I to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. I Appendix I to Part 27—Monthly Home Loan Activity Format...

  19. 12 CFR Appendix I to Part 27 - Monthly Home Loan Activity Format

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Monthly Home Loan Activity Format I Appendix I to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. I Appendix I to Part 27—Monthly Home Loan Activity Format...

  20. 12 CFR Appendix I to Part 27 - Monthly Home Loan Activity Format

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Monthly Home Loan Activity Format I Appendix I to Part 27 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY FAIR HOUSING HOME LOAN DATA SYSTEM Pt. 27, App. I Appendix I to Part 27—Monthly Home Loan Activity Format...

  1. 40 CFR Table 1 to Part 455 - List of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 30 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false List of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients 1 Table 1 to Part 455 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 1 Table 1 to Part 455—List of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients EPA census...

  2. REGION 4-SESD TRAINING ACTIVITIES: OCTOBER 2006 – JULY 2007

    EPA Science Inventory

    Each year, the Region 4 Science and Ecosystem Support Division (SESD) provides training and technical assistance to hundreds of students. Training courses are presented to Region 4 employees, Region 4 States, Indian Tribes, Universities, Federal Agencies, and other audiences outs...

  3. Ethnomedicine of the Kagera Region, north western Tanzania. Part 2: The medicinal plants used in Katoro Ward, Bukoba District

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The Kagera region of north western Tanzania has a rich culture of traditional medicine use and practices. The dynamic inter-ethnic interactions of different people from the surrounding countries constitute a rich reservoir of herbal based healing practices. This study, the second on an ongoing series, reports on the medicinal plant species used in Katoro ward, Bukoba District, and tries to use the literature to establish proof of the therapeutic claims. Methodology Ethnomedical information was collected using Semi-structured interviews in Kyamlaile and Kashaba villages of Katoro, and in roadside bushes on the way from Katoro to Bukoba through Kyaka. Data collected included the common/local names of the plants, parts used, the diseases treated, methods of preparation, dosage, frequency and duration of treatments. Information on toxicity and antidote were also collected. Literature was consulted to get corroborative information on similar ethnomedical claims and proven biological activities of the plants. Results Thirty three (33) plant species for treatement of 13 different disease categories were documented. The most frequently treated diseases were those categorized as specific diseases/conditions (23.8% of all remedies) while eye diseases were the least treated using medicinal plants (1.5% of all remedies). Literature reports support 47% of the claims including proven anti-malarial, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory activity or similar ethnomedical uses. Leaves were the most frequently used plant part (20 species) followed by roots (13 species) while making of decoctions, pounding, squeezing, making infusions, burning and grinding to powder were the most common methods used to prepare a majority of the therapies. Conclusion Therapeutic claims made on plants used in traditional medicine in Katoro ward of Bukoba district are well supported by literature, with 47% of the claims having already been reported. This study further enhances the validity of

  4. On the modified active region design of interband cascade lasers

    SciTech Connect

    Motyka, M.; Ryczko, K.; Dyksik, M.; Sęk, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Weih, R.; Dallner, M.; Kamp, M.; Höfling, S.

    2015-02-28

    Type II InAs/GaInSb quantum wells (QWs) grown on GaSb or InAs substrates and designed to be integrated in the active region of interband cascade lasers (ICLs) emitting in the mid infrared have been investigated. Optical spectroscopy, combined with band structure calculations, has been used to probe their electronic properties. A design with multiple InAs QWs has been compared with the more common double W-shaped QW and it has been demonstrated that it allows red shifting the emission wavelength and enhancing the transition oscillator strength. This can be beneficial for the improvements of the ICLs performances, especially when considering their long-wavelength operation.

  5. Chromospheric magnetic fields of an active region filament

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Z.; Solanki, S.; Lagg, A.

    2012-06-01

    Vector magnetic fields of an active region filament are co-spatially and co-temporally mapped in photosphere and upper chromosphere, by using spectro-polarimetric observations made by Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP II) at the German Vacuum Tower Telescope (VTT). A Zeeman-based ME inversion is performed on the full Stokes vectors of both the photospheric Si I 1082.7 nm and the chromospheric He I 1083.0 nm lines. We found that the strong magnetic fields, with the field strength of 600 - 800 G in the He I line formation height, are not uncommon among AR filaments. But such strong magnetic field is not always found in AR filaments.

  6. Active region studies with coordinated SOHO, microwave, and magnetograph observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.

    1992-01-01

    The scientific justification for an observing campaign to study the quantitative magnetic and plasma properties of coronal loops in active regions is presented. The SOHO (Solar and Heliospheric Observatory) instruments of primary relevance are CDS (Coronal Diagnostic Spectrometer), EIT, SUMER (Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation), and MDI. The primary ground based instruments would be the VLA (Very Large Array), the Owens Valley Radio Observatory, and vector and longitudinal field magnetographs. Similar campaigns have successfully been carried out with the Solar Maximum Mission x-ray polychromator and the Soft X-ray Imaging Sounding Rocket Payload (CoMStOC '87), the Goddard Solar EUV Rocket Telescope and Spectrograph, the Lockheed Solar Plasma Diagnostics Experiment rocket payload, and the Soft X-ray Telescope in Yohkoh (CoMStoc '92). The scientific payoff from such a campaign is discussed in light of the results from these previous campaigns.

  7. Slow Magnetosonic Waves and Fast Flows in Active Region Loops

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ofman, L.; Wang, T. J.; Davila, J. M.

    2012-01-01

    Recent extreme ultraviolet spectroscopic observations indicate that slow magnetosonic waves are present in active region (AR) loops. Some of the spectral data were also interpreted as evidence of fast (approx 100-300 km/s) quasiperiodic flows. We have performed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) modeling of a bipolar AR that contains impulsively generated waves and flows in coronal loops. The model AR is initiated with a dipole magnetic field and gravitationally stratified density, with an upflow-driven steadily or periodically in localized regions at the footpoints of magnetic loops. The resulting flows along the magnetic field lines of the AR produce higher density loops compared to the surrounding plasma by injection of material into the flux tubes and the establishment of siphon flow.We find that the impulsive onset of flows with subsonic speeds result in the excitation of damped slow magnetosonic waves that propagate along the loops and coupled nonlinearly driven fast-mode waves. The phase speed of the slow magnetosonic waves is close to the coronal sound speed. When the amplitude of the driving pulses is increased we find that slow shock-like wave trains are produced. When the upflows are driven periodically, undamped oscillations are produced with periods determined by the periodicity of the upflows. Based on the results of the 3D MHD model we suggest that the observed slow magnetosonic waves and persistent upflows may be produced by the same impulsive events at the bases of ARs.

  8. SLOW MAGNETOSONIC WAVES AND FAST FLOWS IN ACTIVE REGION LOOPS

    SciTech Connect

    Ofman, L.; Wang, T. J.; Davila, J. M.

    2012-08-01

    Recent extreme ultraviolet spectroscopic observations indicate that slow magnetosonic waves are present in active region (AR) loops. Some of the spectral data were also interpreted as evidence of fast ({approx}100-300 km s{sup -1}) quasi-periodic flows. We have performed three-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (3D MHD) modeling of a bipolar AR that contains impulsively generated waves and flows in coronal loops. The model AR is initiated with a dipole magnetic field and gravitationally stratified density, with an upflow-driven steadily or periodically in localized regions at the footpoints of magnetic loops. The resulting flows along the magnetic field lines of the AR produce higher density loops compared to the surrounding plasma by injection of material into the flux tubes and the establishment of siphon flow. We find that the impulsive onset of flows with subsonic speeds result in the excitation of damped slow magnetosonic waves that propagate along the loops and coupled nonlinearly driven fast-mode waves. The phase speed of the slow magnetosonic waves is close to the coronal sound speed. When the amplitude of the driving pulses is increased we find that slow shock-like wave trains are produced. When the upflows are driven periodically, undamped oscillations are produced with periods determined by the periodicity of the upflows. Based on the results of the 3D MHD model we suggest that the observed slow magnetosonic waves and persistent upflows may be produced by the same impulsive events at the bases of ARs.

  9. Seismic activity, inferred crustal stresses and seismotectonics in the Rana region, Northern Norway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Erik C.; Bungum, Hilmar; Lindholm, Conrad D.

    2000-10-01

    The seismotectonic significance of the Rana region is known both from the fact that this was the location of the largest known earthquake in Fennoscandia in recent times, the MS 5.8-6.2 earthquake of August 31, 1819, and from its relatively high, constant seismic activity also in the 20th century. In order to study this region in more detail, a local seismic network has been in operation there since July 1997, as part of the NEONOR (Neotectonics in Norway) project. The network was primarily designed to detect possible activity on the Båsmoen fault which runs ˜50 km subparallel to the Rana fjord, and which shows signs of likely post glacial activity. The results have revealed a quite complex spatio-temporal distribution of seismic activity, and has also shown no activity on the Båsmoen fault itself. During the first 18 months of operation (July 1997-January 1999), the network has detected 373 locatable seismic events, of which 267 were local earthquakes. Most of these earthquakes occurred in five groups in the western parts of the network. All five groups had similar NNW-ESW trends in epicenter locations, and all have shallow foci (2-12 km), similar to what has also been found earlier for other concentrated earthquake zones in Northern Norway, and the magnitude range is between ML 0.1 and 2.8. Earthquake focal mechanism solutions within the network reveal a predominance for normal faulting with the tensional stress axis perpendicular do the coastline (implying an unusual coast-parallel orientation of the principal horizontal compressive stress). The earthquakes occur in a region of maximum post-glacial uplift gradients, which supports deglaciation flexure as a viable explanation for these earthquakes. A certain influence from more local factors, however, tied in general to crustal in homogeneities, cannot be ruled out.

  10. Long-Period ULF Wave Activity in the Cusp Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pilipenko, V.; Belakhovsky, V.; Engebretson, M. J.; Kozlovsky, A.

    2013-12-01

    We compare simultaneous observations of long-period ULF wave activity from the Svalbard/IMAGE and Greenland fluxgate magnetometer profiles covering the expected cusp geomagnetic latitudes. Irregular Pulsations at Cusp Latitudes (IPCL) and narrow-band Pc5 waves are found to be a ubiquitous element of ULF activity in the dayside high-latitude region. To identify the ionospheric projections of the cusp, we use the width of the return signal of the SuperDARN radar covering the Svalbard archipelago, predictions of empirical cusp models, and augmented whenever possible by DMSP identification of magnetospheric boundary domains. The meridional spatial structure of IPCL/Pc5 pulsation spectral power has been found to have a localized latitudinal peak, but not under the cusp proper as was previously thought, but several degrees southward from the equatorward cusp boundary. Possible mechanisms and their relevance to observational data are discussed. The occurrence of IPCL and Pc5 waves in the dayside boundary layers is a challenge to modelers, because so far their mechanism has not been firmly identified.

  11. Regional Triggering of Volcanic Activity Following Large Magnitude Earthquakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hill-Butler, Charley; Blackett, Matthew; Wright, Robert

    2015-04-01

    There are numerous reports of a spatial and temporal link between volcanic activity and high magnitude seismic events. In fact, since 1950, all large magnitude earthquakes have been followed by volcanic eruptions in the following year - 1952 Kamchatka M9.2, 1960 Chile M9.5, 1964 Alaska M9.2, 2004 & 2005 Sumatra-Andaman M9.3 & M8.7 and 2011 Japan M9.0. While at a global scale, 56% of all large earthquakes (M≥8.0) in the 21st century were followed by increases in thermal activity. The most significant change in volcanic activity occurred between December 2004 and April 2005 following the M9.1 December 2004 earthquake after which new eruptions were detected at 10 volcanoes and global volcanic flux doubled over 52 days (Hill-Butler et al. 2014). The ability to determine a volcano's activity or 'response', however, has resulted in a number of disparities with <50% of all volcanoes being monitored by ground-based instruments. The advent of satellite remote sensing for volcanology has, therefore, provided researchers with an opportunity to quantify the timing, magnitude and character of volcanic events. Using data acquired from the MODVOLC algorithm, this research examines a globally comparable database of satellite-derived radiant flux alongside USGS NEIC data to identify changes in volcanic activity following an earthquake, February 2000 - December 2012. Using an estimate of background temperature obtained from the MODIS Land Surface Temperature (LST) product (Wright et al. 2014), thermal radiance was converted to radiant flux following the method of Kaufman et al. (1998). The resulting heat flux inventory was then compared to all seismic events (M≥6.0) within 1000 km of each volcano to evaluate if changes in volcanic heat flux correlate with regional earthquakes. This presentation will first identify relationships at the temporal and spatial scale, more complex relationships obtained by machine learning algorithms will then be examined to establish favourable

  12. Characteristics of Anemone Active Regions Appearing in Coronal Holes Observed with the Yohkoh Soft X-Ray Telescope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asai, Ayumi; Shibata, Kazunari; Hara, Hirohisa; Nitta, Nariaki V.

    2008-02-01

    Coronal structure of active regions appearing in coronal holes is studied, using data that were obtained with the Soft X-Ray Telescope (SXT) aboard Yohkoh between 1991 November and 1993 March. The following characteristics are found. Many of the active regions (ARs) appearing in coronal holes show a structure that looks like a sea anemone. Such active regions are called anemone ARs. About one-fourth of all active regions that were observed with SXT from their births showed the anemone structure. For almost all the anemone ARs, the order of the magnetic polarities is consistent with the Hale-Nicholson polarity law. These anemone ARs also showed, to a greater or lesser extent, an east-west asymmetry in the X-ray intensity distribution, such that the following (eastern) part of the AR was brighter than its preceding (western) part. This, as well as the anemone shape itself, is consistent with the magnetic polarity distribution around the anemone ARs. These observations also suggest that an active region appearing in coronal holes has a simpler (less sheared) and more preceding-spot-dominant magnetic structure than those appearing in other regions.

  13. 77 FR 24952 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Regional Haze...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... ICR (August 26, 2009; 74 FR 43118). The last collection request anticipated the program progressing... AGENCY Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Regional Haze... organizations and facilities potentially regulated under the regional haze rule. Title: Regional...

  14. ON MAGNETIC ACTIVITY BAND OVERLAP, INTERACTION, AND THE FORMATION OF COMPLEX SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    McIntosh, Scott W.; Leamon, Robert J.

    2014-11-20

    Recent work has revealed a phenomenological picture of the how the ∼11 yr sunspot cycle of the Sun arises. The production and destruction of sunspots is a consequence of the latitudinal-temporal overlap and interaction of the toroidal magnetic flux systems that belong to the 22 yr magnetic activity cycle and are rooted deep in the Sun's convective interior. We present a conceptually simple extension of this work, presenting a hypothesis on how complex active regions can form as a direct consequence of the intra- and extra-hemispheric interaction taking place in the solar interior. Furthermore, during specific portions of the sunspot cycle, we anticipate that those complex active regions may be particularly susceptible to profoundly catastrophic breakdown, producing flares and coronal mass ejections of the most severe magnitude.

  15. Antioxidant activity of bulbs and aerial parts of Crocus caspius, impact of extraction methods.

    PubMed

    Khalili, Masomeh; Fathi, Hamed; Ebrahimzadeh, Mohammad Ali

    2016-05-01

    Crocus genus (Iridaceae) is comprises approximately 80 species. In this study in vitro antioxidant activities of extracts from C. caspius bulbs and aerial parts were investigated. Ultrasonically assisted extraction (US), percolation method (PE) and polyphenolic fraction (PP) were used. Antioxidant activities were evaluated with five different tests. Aerial parts US extract with high levels of phenol and flavonoids were the most potent extract in DPPH radical scavenging than others. Aerial parts PE extract had shown very potent reducing power, which was so better than other extracts (p<0.01). Aerial parts PP fraction showed very good Fe(2+) chelating ability. Aerial parts US extract were the most potent extract in scavenging of H(2)O(2). Bulb PP fraction with IC(50)=22.8±0.7 µg ml(-1) was the most potent fraction in nitric oxide scavenging. The results improved high levels of antioxidant activities of C. caspius bulbs and aerial parts in all tested models. PMID:27166547

  16. Identification of protostellar clusters in the inner part of the milky way : Interaction between the ISM and star forming regions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beuret, M.; Billot, N.; Cambrésy, L.; Elia, D.; Molinari, S.; Pezzuto, S.; Pestalozzi, M.; Schisano, E.

    2014-12-01

    Interactions between the interstellar medium (ISM) and young stellar objects (YSO) need to be investigated to better understand star formation. We used the Minimum Spanning Tree (MST) method to identify protostellar clusters in the inner part of galactic plane. Using heliocentric distance estimates, we obtained about 230 clusters over a 140 × 2 square degree region. Most of these clusters are correlated with Infrared Dark Cloud (IRDC) or H II regions. We conclude that clustering is more important for protostars than for prestellar clumps and that a strong correlation can be established between the distribution of H II regions, known star formation complexes and the YSOs identified in the Hi-GAL data.

  17. The morphology of flare phenomena, magnetic fields, and electric currents in active regions. III - NOAA active region 6233 (1990 August)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De La Beaujardiere, J.-F.; Canfield, Richard C.; Leka, K. D.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate the spatial relationship between vertical electric currents and flare phenomena in NOAA Active Region 6233, which was observed 1990, August 28-31 at Mees Solar Observatory. The two flares studied are the 1N/M1.8 flare on August 28, 22:30 UT and the 1N/M1.6 flare on August 29, 20:35 UT. Using Stokes polarimetry we make magnetograms of the region and compute the vertical current density. Using H-alpha imaging spectroscopy we identify sites of intense nonthermal electron precipitation or of high coronal pressure. The precipitation in these flares is barely strong enough to be detectable. We find that both precipitation and high pressure tend to occur near vertical currents, but that neither phenomenon is cospatial with current maxima. In contrast with the conclusion of other authors, we argue that these observations do not support a current-interruption model for flares, unless the relevant currents are primarily horizontal. The magnetic morphology and temporal evolution of these flares suggest that an erupting filament model may be relevant, but this model does not explicitly predict the relationship between precipitation, high pressure, and vertical currents.

  18. Urban dust in the Guanzhong Basin of China, part I: A regional distribution of dust sources retrieved using satellite data.

    PubMed

    Long, Xin; Li, Nan; Tie, Xuexi; Cao, Junji; Zhao, Shuyu; Huang, Rujin; Zhao, Mudan; Li, Guohui; Feng, Tian

    2016-01-15

    Urban dust pollution has been becoming an outstanding environmental problem due to rapid urbanization in China. However, it is very difficult to construct an urban dust inventory, owing to its small horizontal scale and strong temporal/spatial variability. With the analysis of visual interpretation, maximum likelihood classification, extrapolation and spatial overlaying, we quantified dust source distributions of urban constructions, barrens and croplands in the Guanzhong Basin using various satellite data, including VHR (0.5m), Lansat-8 OLI (30 m) and MCD12Q1 (500 m). The croplands were the dominant dust sources, accounting for 40% (17,913 km(2)) of the study area in summer and 36% (17,913 km(2)) in winter, followed by barrens, accounting for 5% in summer and 10% in winter. Moreover, the total constructions were 126 km(2), including 84% of active and 16% inactive. In addition, 59% of the constructions aggregated on the only megacity of the study area, Xi'an. With high accuracy exceeding 88%, the proposed satellite-data based method is feasible and valuable to quantify distributions of dust sources. This study provides a new perspective to evaluate regional urban dust, which is seldom quantified and reported. In a companied paper (Part-2 of the study), the detailed distribution of the urban dust sources is applied in a dynamical/aerosol model (WRF-Dust) to assess the effect of dust sources on aerosol pollution. PMID:26518756

  19. 3D Modelling of Seismically Active Parts of Underground Faults via Seismic Data Mining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frantzeskakis, Theofanis; Konstantaras, Anthony

    2015-04-01

    During the last few years rapid steps have been taken towards drilling for oil in the western Mediterranean sea. Since most of the countries in the region benefit mainly from tourism and considering that the Mediterranean is a closed sea only replenishing its water once every ninety years careful measures are being taken to ensure safe drilling. In that concept this research work attempts to derive a three dimensional model of the seismically active parts of the underlying underground faults in areas of petroleum interest. For that purpose seismic spatio-temporal clustering has been applied to seismic data to identify potential distinct seismic regions in the area of interest. Results have been coalesced with two dimensional maps of underground faults from past surveys and seismic epicentres, having followed careful reallocation processing, have been used to provide information regarding the vertical extent of multiple underground faults in the region of interest. The end product is a three dimensional map of the possible underground location and extent of the seismically active parts of underground faults. Indexing terms: underground faults modelling, seismic data mining, 3D visualisation, active seismic source mapping, seismic hazard evaluation, dangerous phenomena modelling Acknowledgment This research work is supported by the ESPA Operational Programme, Education and Life Long Learning, Students Practical Placement Initiative. References [1] Alves, T.M., Kokinou, E. and Zodiatis, G.: 'A three-step model to assess shoreline and offshore susceptibility to oil spills: The South Aegean (Crete) as an analogue for confined marine basins', Marine Pollution Bulletin, In Press, 2014 [2] Ciappa, A., Costabile, S.: 'Oil spill hazard assessment using a reverse trajectory method for the Egadi marine protected area (Central Mediterranean Sea)', Marine Pollution Bulletin, vol. 84 (1-2), pp. 44-55, 2014 [3] Ganas, A., Karastathis, V., Moshou, A., Valkaniotis, S., Mouzakiotis

  20. Breakout coronal mass ejections from solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeVore, C. Richard; Lynch, Benjamin; MacNeice, Peter; Olson, Kevin; Antiochos, Spiro

    We are performing magnetohydrodynamic simulations of single bipolar active regions (ARs) embedded in the Sun's global background field and of pairs of ARs interacting with each other. The magnetic flux near the polarity inversion lines (PILs) of the ARs is subjected to twisting footpoint displacements that introduce strong magnetic shear between the two polarities and gradually inflate the coronal volume occupied by the AR fields. If the initially current-free coronal field contains a magnetic null, then it is vulnerable to eruptions triggered by magnetic breakout, which reconnects aside the previously restraining field lines overhead. The sheared core flux promptly expands outward at the Alfven speed, opening the magnetic field in the vicinity of the PIL. Flare reconnection below the ejecta, across the vertical current sheet thus established, thereafter reforms the magnetic-null configuration above the AR. This reformation sets the stage for subsequent homologous episodes of breakout reconnection and eruption, if the energizing footpoint motions are sustained. The magnetic flux and energy of an isolated AR, relative to those of the background field, determine whether the eruption is confined or ejective, as the sheared flux either comes to rest in the corona or escapes the Sun to interplanetary space, respectively. In the latter case, the field lines accompanying the coronal mass ejection can comprise a weakly twisted "magnetic bottle" as readily as a strongly twisted flux rope, both of which are observed routinely in situ. The latest developments in this research will be reported. In particular, we will emphasize the observational signatures inferred from the simulations that could be sought in STEREO data, such as multiple three-dimensional views, EUV brightenings at reconnection sites, and coronal dimmings in regions of strong expansion. Our research is sponsored by NASA and ONR.

  1. Regional groundwater storage changes in the Indian subcontinent: The role of anthropogenic activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhanja, S. N.; Mukherjee, A.; Rodell, M.; Velicogna, I.; Pangaluru, K.; Famiglietti, J. S.

    2014-12-01

    A large number of people around the globe depend on groundwater as a source of fresh water. Groundwater dependence will be further intensified by the world's exponentially increasing population and climate change. Therefore, quantification of groundwater storage (GWS) changes is a critical issue in the densely populated regions of the world. Approximately, 90% of groundwater withdrawals are associated with irrigational activities in the Indian subcontinent. We used a combination of Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE) observations, hydrological data from the Global Land Data Assimilation System (GLDAS) together with groundwater level measurements and ERA-Interim precipitation, for the period 2003-2012 to estimate regional GWS changes and to regionally evaluate the anthropogenic and climatic forcing control on the observed changes. Rapid GWS depletion (>10 mm/year) has been observed in the northern and eastern parts of the Indian subcontinent. Most of the groundwater depleted regions coincide with the highly fertile alluvial aquifers of Ganges-Brahmaputra basin, which is subjected to intense groundwater withdrawals associated with crop irrigation. Our GWS change estimates are consistent with ground-based water level measurements (n> 13,000) from the region. Over this ten year period, GWS data show little to moderate replenishments in southern and western regions of Indian subcontinent, probably because of advanced water resource management in these areas. Precipitation is the key factor controlling the renewability of groundwater resources, however, precipitation during the period was generally near normal to historical levels, suggesting strong anthropogenic influence on GWS change in the northern and eastern parts of India during the study period.

  2. Antioxidant activity of methanol extracts of different parts of Lantana camara

    PubMed Central

    Mahdi-Pour, Badakhshan; Jothy, Subramanion L; Latha, Lachimanan Yoga; Chen, Yeng; Sasidharan, Sreenivasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective To investigate the antioxidant activity of methanolic extracts of Lantana camara (L. camara) various parts and the determination of their total phenolics content. Methods The extract was screened for possible antioxidant activities by free radical scavenging activity(DPPH), xanthine oxidase inhibition activity and Griess-Ilosvay method. Results The results showed that all the plant parts possessed antioxidant properties including radical scavenging, xanthine oxidase inhibition and nitrites scavenging activities. The antioxidative activities were correlated with the total phenol. The leaves extract of L. camara was more effective than that of other parts. Conclusions This study suggests that L. camara extracts exhibit great potential for antioxidant activity and may be useful for their nutritional and medicinal functions. PMID:23593576

  3. 24 CFR Appendix A to Part 15 - Location Information for HUD FOIA Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Location Information for HUD FOIA Reading Rooms and Contact Information for Regional Counsel A Appendix A to Part 15 Housing and Urban... UNDER THE FREEDOM OF INFORMATION ACT AND TESTIMONY AND PRODUCTION OF INFORMATION BY HUD EMPLOYEES Pt....

  4. Moving forward with strengthening routine immunization delivery as part of measles and rubella elimination activities.

    PubMed

    Fields, Rebecca; Dabbagh, Alya; Jain, Manish; Sagar, Karan Singh

    2013-04-18

    The Global Vaccine Action Plan includes a goal of meeting global and regional measles and rubella elimination targets, noting that such efforts should not operate in silos but be coordinated with other immunization efforts. Similarly, the Global Measles and Rubella Strategic Plan for 2012-2020 emphasizes the need for integrated approaches to achieve and maintain very high levels of population immunity using both routine immunization and supplemental immunization activities (SIAs). The strategic plan also includes routine vaccination coverage targets, highlighting the critical role of strong routine immunization systems as a cornerstone for sustainable measles control/elimination efforts. It encourages exploiting the resources and visibility of SIAs to strengthen routine immunization, thereby reducing the frequency with which SIAs are needed. Documented examples of doing so include training health workers, procuring cold chain equipment, and improving injection safety and adverse events management. However, the concept has been put into practice only to a limited extent and missed opportunities persist regarding this aspect of SIA planning and execution. This paper draws on recent studies of the interaction between measles activities and health systems as well as country experiences in using SIAs to strengthen routine immunization. It identifies obstacles and enabling factors to doing so and proposes options for systematically strengthening routine immunization as part of a best practice SIA. PMID:23598472

  5. High resolution studies of complex solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, Na

    Flares and Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) are energetic events, which can even impact the near-Earth environment and are the principal source of space weather. Most of them originate in solar active regions. The most violent events are produced in sunspots with a complex magnetic field topology. Studying their morphology and dynamics is helpful in understanding the energy accumulation and release mechanisms for flares and CMEs, which are intriguing problems in solar physics. The study of complex active regions is based on high-resolution observations from space missions and new instruments at the Big Bear Solar Observatory (BBSO). Adaptive optics (AO) in combination with image restoration techniques (speckle masking imaging) can achieve improved image quality and a spatial resolution (about 100 km on the solar surface) close to the diffraction limit of BBSO's 65 cm vacuum telescope. Dopplergrams obtained with a two-dimensional imaging spectrometer combined with horizontal flow maps derived with Local Correlation Tracking (LCT) provide precise measurements of the three-dimensional velocity field in sunspots. Magnetic field measurements from ground- and space-based instruments complement these data. At the outset of this study, the evolution and morphology of a typical round sunspot are described in some detail. The sunspot was followed from disk center to the limb, thus providing some insight into the geometry of the magnetic flux system. Having established a benchmark for a stable sunspot, the attention is turned to changes of the sunspot structure associated with flares and CMEs. Rapid penumbral decay and the strengthening of sunspot umbrae are manifestations of photospheric magnetic field changes after a flare. These sudden intensity changes are interpreted as a result of magnetic reconnection during the flare, which causes the magnetic field lines to be turned from more inclined to more vertical. Strong photospheric shear flows along the flaring magnetic

  6. Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

    2012-01-01

    Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM. PMID:24716138

  7. Anti-anxiety Activity of Methanolic Extracts of Different Parts of Angelica archangelica Linn.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Dinesh; Bhat, Zulfiqar Ali

    2012-07-01

    Angelica archangelica Linn.is a herb distributed in tropical and subtropical regions of the world. In Indian and Chinese system of medicine, it is used for nervous disorders and cerebral diseases. Previously the aqueous extract of the A. archangelica was evaluated for anxiolytic activity and was found to have significant potential for the same. The present study is aimed to evaluate the anxiolytic activity of methanol extract of root (MER), stem (MES), leaf (MEL), fruit (MEF) and whole plant (MEW) of Angelica archangelica Linn. All the extracts (MER, MES, MEL, MEF and MEW) were evaluated for anxiolytic effects using elevated plus maze test (EPM) model in rats. Methanol extracts of different parts of A.archangelica had increased number of entries and time spent in open arms while they decreased the number of entries and duration of time spent in closed arm of the EPM. In a similar fashion, the diazepam increased the percentage of time spent and percentage of arm entries in the open arms (*P <0.05, **P <0.01). Whole plant and the root had the maximum, leaf and fruits showed intermediate, while stem had the least anxiolytic activity (*P <0.05, **P <0.01) in EPM (Figure 1-5). The head dip count in DZ, SMR400, SML400, SMF400 and SMW400 in open arm are significantly shown in Table 1. The DZ, SMF400 and SMW did not show the fecal bolus while other groups were reduced the fecal bolus significantly (**P <0.01) as compared to control (Table 1). Whole plant and leaf showed the most, root and fruit the intermediate and stem the least anxiolytic activity (**P <0.01) in EPM. PMID:24716138

  8. Widespread Nanoflare Variability Detected with Hinode/XRT in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reale, Fabio; Terzo, Sergio; Miceli, Marco; Klimchuk, James A.; Kano, Ryouhei; Tsuneta, Saku

    2011-01-01

    It is generally agreed that small impulsive energy bursts called nanoflares are responsible for at least some of the Sun s hot corona, but whether they are the explanation for most of the multi-million degree plasma has been a matter of ongoing debate. We here present evidence that nanoflares are widespread in an active region observed by the X-Ray Telescope on-board the Hinode mission. The distributions of intensity fluctuations have small but important asymmetries, whether taken from individual pixels, multi-pixel subregions, or the entire active region. Negative fluctuations (corresponding to reduced intensity) are greater in number but weaker in amplitude, so that the median fluctuation is negative compared to a mean of zero. Using Monte Carlo simulations, we show that only part of this asymmetry can be explained by Poisson photon statistics. The remainder is explainable with a tendency for exponentially decreasing intensity, such as would be expected from a cooling plasma produced, e.g., from a nanoflare. We suggest that nanoflares are a universal heating process within active regions.

  9. 20 CFR 665.320 - May other activities be undertaken as part of rapid response?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May other activities be undertaken as part of rapid response? 665.320 Section 665.320 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEWIDE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACTIVITIES UNDER TITLE I OF THE WORKFORCE INVESTMENT ACT Rapid Response Activities § 665.320...

  10. Changes in muscle activity after performing the FIFA 11+ programme part 2 for 4 weeks.

    PubMed

    Takata, Yasushi; Nakase, Junsuke; Inaki, Anri; Mochizuki, Takafumi; Numata, Hitoaki; Oshima, Takeshi; Kinuya, Seigo; Tsuchiya, Hiroyuki

    2016-10-01

    Changes in muscle activity were evaluated by positron emission tomography-computed tomography (PET-CT) after performing part 2 of the Fédération Internationale de Football Association's 11+ programme (11+) for 4 weeks. Eleven males performed part 2 of the 11+ for 20 min before and after 37 MBq of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was injected intravenously. PET-CT images were obtained 50 min after FDG injection. The participants were then instructed to perform part 2 of the 11+ 3 times per week for 4 consecutive weeks, after which another set of PET-CT images was obtained following the same procedure. Regions of interest were defined within 30 muscles. The standardised uptake value (SUV) of FDG by muscle tissue per unit volume was calculated, and FDG accumulation was compared between pre- and post-training PET-CT results. Performing part 2 of the 11+ for 4 weeks increased mean SUV in the sartorius, semimembranosus, biceps femoris, abductor hallucis, and flexor hallucis brevis muscles (P < 0.05). In conclusion, routinely performing part 2 of the 11+ for 4 weeks increased glucose uptake related to muscle activity in the hamstrings and hallux muscles. We speculate that there is some possibility of this change of muscle activity contributing to a decrease in sports-related injuries. PMID:26911842

  11. REGION 4-SESD TRAINING ACTIVITIES: OCTOBER 2005 – SEPTEMBER 2006

    EPA Science Inventory

    Each year, the Science and Ecosytem Support Division (SESD) provides training and technical assistance to hundreds of students in EPA Region 4. Training courses are presented to Region 4 employees, Region 4 States, Indian Tribes, Universities and other Federal Agencies in the are...

  12. A key Paleozoic section in the northern part of the Western Siberian Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chuvashov, B. I.; Bochkarev, V. S.

    2016-05-01

    A few of our predecessors considered the Eastern Siberian Region to be a huge territory with similar geological history without hydrocarbon prospecting opportunities. It was also proposed to search for oil and gas in the seas of the Arctic Ocean. Not denying these search directions, we have offered to explore the Western Siberian Region by analysis of numerous deep wells, variable facial zones of Paleozoic complexes, and real prospects of searching for oil and gas fields.

  13. Synchronous fire activity in the tropical high Andes: an indication of regional climate forcing.

    PubMed

    Román-Cuesta, R M; Carmona-Moreno, C; Lizcano, G; New, M; Silman, M; Knoke, T; Malhi, Y; Oliveras, I; Asbjornsen, H; Vuille, M

    2014-06-01

    Global climate models suggest enhanced warming of the tropical mid and upper troposphere, with larger temperature rise rates at higher elevations. Changes in fire activity are amongst the most significant ecological consequences of rising temperatures and changing hydrological properties in mountainous ecosystems, and there is a global evidence of increased fire activity with elevation. Whilst fire research has become popular in the tropical lowlands, much less is known of the tropical high Andean region (>2000 masl, from Colombia to Bolivia). This study examines fire trends in the high Andes for three ecosystems, the Puna, the Paramo and the Yungas, for the period 1982-2006. We pose three questions: (i) is there an increased fire response with elevation? (ii) does the El Niño- Southern Oscillation control fire activity in this region? (iii) are the observed fire trends human driven (e.g., human practices and their effects on fuel build-up) or climate driven? We did not find evidence of increased fire activity with elevation but, instead, a quasicyclic and synchronous fire response in Ecuador, Peru and Bolivia, suggesting the influence of high-frequency climate forcing on fire responses on a subcontinental scale, in the high Andes. ENSO variability did not show a significant relation to fire activity for these three countries, partly because ENSO variability did not significantly relate to precipitation extremes, although it strongly did to temperature extremes. Whilst ENSO did not individually lead the observed regional fire trends, our results suggest a climate influence on fire activity, mainly through a sawtooth pattern of precipitation (increased rainfall before fire-peak seasons (t-1) followed by drought spells and unusual low temperatures (t0), which is particularly common where fire is carried by low fuel loads (e.g., grasslands and fine fuel). This climatic sawtooth appeared as the main driver of fire trends, above local human influences and fuel build

  14. Optical Properties of Active Regions in Terahertz Quantum Cascade Lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dyksik, M.; Motyka, M.; Rudno-Rudziński, W.; Sęk, G.; Misiewicz, J.; Pucicki, D.; Kosiel, K.; Sankowska, I.; Kubacka-Traczyk, J.; Bugajski, M.

    2016-07-01

    In this work, AlGaAs/GaAs superlattice, with layers' sequence and compositions imitating the active and injector regions of a quantum cascade laser designed for emission in the terahertz spectral range, was investigated. Three independent absorption-like optical spectroscopy techniques were employed in order to study the band structure of the minibands formed within the conduction band. Photoreflectance measurements provided information about interband transitions in the investigated system. Common transmission spectra revealed, in the target range of intraband transitions, mainly a number of lines associated with the phonon-related processes, including two-phonon absorption. In contrast, differential transmittance realized by means of Fourier-transform spectroscopy was utilized to probe the confined states of the conduction band. The obtained energy separation between the second and third confined electron levels, expected to be predominantly contributing to the lasing, was found to be ~9 meV. The optical spectroscopy measurements were supported by numerical calculations performed in the effective mass approximation and XRD measurements for layers' width verification. The calculated energy spacings are in a good agreement with the experimental values.

  15. Activation of cutaneous immune responses in complex regional pain syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Birklein, Frank; Drummond, Peter D.; Li, Wenwu; Schlereth, Tanja; Albrecht, Nahid; Finch, Philip M.; Dawson, Linda F.; Clark, J. David; Kingery, Wade S.

    2014-01-01

    The pathogenesis of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is unresolved, but TNF-α and IL-6 are elevated in experimental skin blister fluid from CRPS affected limbs, as is tryptase, a marker for mast cells. In the rat fracture model of CRPS exaggerated sensory and sympathetic neural signaling stimulate keratinocyte and mast cell proliferation, causing the local production of high levels of inflammatory cytokines leading to pain behavior. The current investigation used CRPS patient skin biopsies to determine whether keratinocyte and mast cell proliferation occur in CRPS skin and to identify the cellular source of the up-regulated TNF-α, IL-6, and tryptase observed in CRPS experimental skin blister fluid. Skin biopsies were collected from the affected skin and the contralateral mirror site in 55 CRPS patients and the biopsy sections were immunostained for keratinocyte, cell proliferation, mast cell markers, TNF-α, and IL-6. In early CRPS keratinocytes were activated in the affected skin, resulting in proliferation, epidermal thickening, and up-regulated TNF-α and IL-6 expression. In chronic CRPS there was reduced keratinocyte proliferation with epidermal thinning in the affected skin. Acute CRPS patients also had increased mast cell accumulation in the affected skin, but there was no increase in mast cell numbers in chronic CRPS. PMID:24462502

  16. Active region emission measure distributions and implications for nanoflare heating

    SciTech Connect

    Cargill, P. J.

    2014-03-20

    The temperature dependence of the emission measure (EM) in the core of active regions coronal loops is an important diagnostic of heating processes. Observations indicate that EM(T) ∼ T{sup a} below approximately 4 MK, with 2 < a < 5. Zero-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations of nanoflare trains are used to demonstrate the dependence of a on the time between individual nanoflares (T{sub N} ) and the distribution of nanoflare energies. If T{sub N} is greater than a few thousand seconds, a < 3. For smaller values, trains of equally spaced nanoflares cannot account for the observed range of a if the distribution of nanoflare energies is either constant, randomly distributed, or a power law. Power law distributions where there is a delay between consecutive nanoflares proportional to the energy of the second nanoflare do lead to the observed range of a. However, T{sub N} must then be of the order of hundreds to no more than a few thousand seconds. If a nanoflare leads to the relaxation of a stressed coronal field to a near-potential state, the time taken to build up the required magnetic energy is thus too long to account for the EM measurements. Instead, it is suggested that a nanoflare involves the relaxation from one stressed coronal state to another, dissipating only a small fraction of the available magnetic energy. A consequence is that nanoflare energies may be smaller than previously envisioned.

  17. Static and Impulsive Models of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patsourakos, S.; Klimchuk, James A.

    2008-01-01

    The physical modeling of active regions (ARs) and of the global coronal is receiving increasing interest lately. Recent attempts to model ARs using static equilibrium models were quite successful in reproducing AR images of hot soft X-ray (SXR) loops. They however failed to predict the bright EUV warm loops permeating ARs: the synthetic images were dominated by intense footpoint emission. We demonstrate that this failure is due to the very weak dependence of loop temperature on loop length which cannot simultaneously account for both hot and warm loops in the same AR. We then consider time-dependent AR models based on nanoflare heating. We demonstrate that such models can simultaneously reproduce EUV and SXR loops in ARs. Moreover, they predict radial intensity variations consistent with the localized core and extended emissions in SXR and EUV AR observations respectively. We finally show how the AR morphology can be used as a gauge of the properties (duration, energy, spatial dependence, repetition time) of the impulsive heating.

  18. Plasma Composition in a Sigmoidal Anemone Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Green, L. M.; Steed, K.; Carlyle, J.

    2013-11-01

    Using spectra obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359'' × 485''. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the age of the AR, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP bias along these loops to be the beginning of fractionated plasma mixing in the loops. Low FIP bias in a sigmoidal channel above the AR's main polarity inversion line, where ongoing flux cancellation is taking place, provides new evidence of a bald patch magnetic topology of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  19. Plasma composition in a sigmoidal anemone active region

    SciTech Connect

    Baker, D.; Van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Green, L. M.; Carlyle, J.; Brooks, D. H.; Démoulin, P.; Steed, K.

    2013-11-20

    Using spectra obtained by the EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) instrument onboard Hinode, we present a detailed spatially resolved abundance map of an active region (AR)-coronal hole (CH) complex that covers an area of 359'' × 485''. The abundance map provides first ionization potential (FIP) bias levels in various coronal structures within the large EIS field of view. Overall, FIP bias in the small, relatively young AR is 2-3. This modest FIP bias is a consequence of the age of the AR, its weak heating, and its partial reconnection with the surrounding CH. Plasma with a coronal composition is concentrated at AR loop footpoints, close to where fractionation is believed to take place in the chromosphere. In the AR, we found a moderate positive correlation of FIP bias with nonthermal velocity and magnetic flux density, both of which are also strongest at the AR loop footpoints. Pathways of slightly enhanced FIP bias are traced along some of the loops connecting opposite polarities within the AR. We interpret the traces of enhanced FIP bias along these loops to be the beginning of fractionated plasma mixing in the loops. Low FIP bias in a sigmoidal channel above the AR's main polarity inversion line, where ongoing flux cancellation is taking place, provides new evidence of a bald patch magnetic topology of a sigmoid/flux rope configuration.

  20. SIMULATION OF THE FORMATION OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, M. C. M.; Title, A. M.; Rempel, M.; Schuessler, M.

    2010-09-01

    We present a radiative magnetohydrodynamics simulation of the formation of an active region (AR) on the solar surface. The simulation models the rise of a buoyant magnetic flux bundle from a depth of 7.5 Mm in the convection zone up into the solar photosphere. The rise of the magnetic plasma in the convection zone is accompanied by predominantly horizontal expansion. Such an expansion leads to a scaling relation between the plasma density and the magnetic field strength such that B {proportional_to} rhov{sup 1/2}. The emergence of magnetic flux into the photosphere appears as a complex magnetic pattern, which results from the interaction of the rising magnetic field with the turbulent convective flows. Small-scale magnetic elements at the surface first appear, followed by their gradual coalescence into larger magnetic concentrations, which eventually results in the formation of a pair of opposite polarity spots. Although the mean flow pattern in the vicinity of the developing spots is directed radially outward, correlations between the magnetic field and velocity field fluctuations allow the spots to accumulate flux. Such correlations result from the Lorentz-force-driven, counterstreaming motion of opposite polarity fragments. The formation of the simulated AR is accompanied by transient light bridges between umbrae and umbral dots. Together with recent sunspot modeling, this work highlights the common magnetoconvective origin of umbral dots, light bridges, and penumbral filaments.

  1. Theoretical model for calculation of helicity in solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chatterjee, P.

    We (Choudhuri, Chatterjee and Nandy, 2005) calculate helicities of solar active regions based on the idea of Choudhuri (2003) that poloidal flux lines get wrapped around a toroidal flux tube rising through the convection zone, thereby giving rise to the helicity. Rough estimates based on this idea compare favourably with the observed magnitude of helicity. We use our solar dynamo model based on the Babcock--Leighton α-effect to study how helicity varies with latitude and time. At the time of solar maximum, our theoretical model gives negative helicity in the northern hemisphere and positive helicity in the south, in accordance with observed hemispheric trends. However, we find that, during a short interval at the beginning of a cycle, helicities tend to be opposite of the preferred hemispheric trends. Next we (Chatterjee, Choudhuri and Petrovay 2006) use the above idea along with the sunspot decay model of Petrovay and Moreno-Insertis, (1997) to estimate the distribution of helicity inside a flux tube as it keeps collecting more azimuthal flux during its rise through the convection zone and as turbulent diffusion keeps acting on it. By varying parameters over reasonable ranges in our simple 1-d model, we find that the azimuthal flux penetrates the flux tube to some extent instead of being confined to a narrow sheath outside.

  2. Static and Impulsive Models of Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patsourakos, S.; Klimchuk, J. A.

    2008-12-01

    The physical modeling of active regions (ARs) and of the global corona is receiving increasing interest lately. Recent attempts to model ARs using static equilibrium models were quite successful in reproducing AR images of hot soft X-ray (SXR) loops. They however failed to predict the bright extreme-ultraviolet (EUV) warm loops permeating ARs: the synthetic images were dominated by intense footpoint emission. We demonstrate that this failure is due to the very weak dependence of loop temperature on loop length which cannot simultaneously account for both hot and warm loops in the same AR. We then consider time-dependent AR models based on nanoflare heating. We demonstrate that such models can simultaneously reproduce EUV and SXR loops in ARs. Moreover, they predict radial intensity variations consistent with the localized core and extended emissions in SXR and EUV AR observations, respectively. We finally show how the AR morphology can be used as a gauge of the properties (duration, energy, spatial dependence, and repetition time) of the impulsive heating.

  3. Atmospheric conditions associated with extreme fire activity in the Western Mediterranean region.

    PubMed

    Amraoui, Malik; Pereira, Mário G; DaCamara, Carlos C; Calado, Teresa J

    2015-08-15

    Active fire information provided by TERRA and AQUA instruments on-board sun-synchronous polar MODIS platform is used to describe fire activity in the Western Mediterranean and to identify and characterize the synoptic patterns of several meteorological fields associated with the occurrence of extreme fire activity episodes (EEs). The spatial distribution of the fire pixels during the period of 2003-2012 leads to the identification of two most affected sub-regions, namely the Northern and Western parts of the Iberian Peninsula (NWIP) and Northern Africa (NAFR). The temporal distribution of the fire pixels in these two sub-regions is characterized by: (i) high and non-concurrent inter- and intra-annual variability with maximum values during the summer of 2003 and 2005 in NWIP and 2007 and 2012 in NAFR; and, (ii) high intra-annual variability dominated by a prominent annual cycle with a main peak centred in August in both sub-regions and a less pronounced secondary peak in March only evident in NWIP region. The 34 EEs identified were grouped according to the location, period of occurrence and spatial configuration of the associated synoptic patterns into 3 clusters (NWIP-summer, NWIP-winter and NAFR-summer). Results from the composite analysis reveal similar fire weather conditions (statistically significant positive anomalies of air temperature and negative anomalies of air relative humidity) but associated with different circulation patterns at lower and mid-levels of the atmosphere associated with the occurrence of EEs in each cluster of the Western Mediterranean region. PMID:25889542

  4. A Defined Terminal Region of the E. coli Chromosome Shows Late Segregation and High FtsK Activity

    PubMed Central

    Meile, Jean-Christophe; Stouf, Mathieu; Capiaux, Hervé; Mercier, Romain; Lesterlin, Christian; Hallet, Bernard; Cornet, François

    2011-01-01

    Background The FtsK DNA-translocase controls the last steps of chromosome segregation in E. coli. It translocates sister chromosomes using the KOPS DNA motifs to orient its activity, and controls the resolution of dimeric forms of sister chromosomes by XerCD-mediated recombination at the dif site and their decatenation by TopoIV. Methodology We have used XerCD/dif recombination as a genetic trap to probe the interaction of FtsK with loci located in different regions of the chromosome. This assay revealed that the activity of FtsK is restricted to a ∼400 kb terminal region of the chromosome around the natural position of the dif site. Preferential interaction with this region required the tethering of FtsK to the division septum via its N-terminal domain as well as its translocation activity. However, the KOPS-recognition activity of FtsK was not required. Displacement of replication termination outside the FtsK high activity region had no effect on FtsK activity and deletion of a part of this region was not compensated by its extension to neighbouring regions. By observing the fate of fluorescent-tagged loci of the ter region, we found that segregation of the FtsK high activity region is delayed compared to that of its adjacent regions. Significance Our results show that a restricted terminal region of the chromosome is specifically dedicated to the last steps of chromosome segregation and to their coupling with cell division by FtsK. PMID:21799784

  5. The length of a lantibiotic hinge region has profound influence on antimicrobial activity and host specificity

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, Liang; van Heel, Auke J.; Kuipers, Oscar P.

    2015-01-01

    Lantibiotics are ribosomally synthesized (methyl)lanthionine containing peptides which can efficiently inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria. As lantibiotics kill bacteria efficiently and resistance to them is difficult to be obtained, they have the potential to be used in many applications, e.g., in pharmaceutical industry or food industry. Nisin can inhibit the growth of Gram-positive bacteria by binding to lipid II and by making pores in their membrane. The C-terminal part of nisin is known to play an important role during translocation over the membrane and forming pore complexes. However, as the thickness of bacterial membranes varies between different species and environmental conditions, this property could have an influence on the pore forming activity of nisin. To investigate this, the so-called “hinge region” of nisin (residues NMK) was engineered to vary from one to six amino acid residues and specific activity against different indicators was compared. Antimicrobial activity in liquid culture assays showed that wild type nisin is most active, while truncation of the hinge region dramatically reduced the activity of the peptide. However, one or two amino acids extensions showed only slightly reduced activity against most indicator strains. Notably, some variants (+2, +1, −1, −2) exhibited higher antimicrobial activity than nisin in agar well diffusion assays against Lactococcus lactis MG1363, Listeria monocytogenes, Enterococcus faecalis VE14089, Bacillus sporothermodurans IC4 and Bacillus cereus 4153 at certain temperatures. PMID:25688235

  6. Nanoparticle mass transfer from lung airways to systemic regions--Part I: Whole-lung aerosol dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kolanjiyil, Arun V; Kleinstreuer, Clement

    2013-12-01

    This is a two-part paper describing inhaled nanoparticle (NP) transport and deposition in a model of a human respiratory tract (Part I) as well as NP-mass transfer across barriers into systemic regions (Part II). Specifically, combining high-resolution computer simulation results of inhaled NP deposition in the human airways (Part I) with a multicompartmental model for NP-mass transfer (Part II) allows for the prediction of temporal NP accumulation in the blood and lymphatic systems as well as in organs. An understanding of nanoparticle transport and deposition in human respiratory airways is of great importance, as exposure to nanomaterial has been found to cause serious lung diseases, while the use of nanodrugs may have superior therapeutic effects. In Part I, the fluid-particle dynamics of a dilute NP suspension was simulated for the entire respiratory tract, assuming steady inhalation and planar airways. Thus, a realistic airway configuration was considered from nose/mouth to generation 3, and then an idealized triple-bifurcation unit was repeated in series and parallel to cover the remaining generations. Using the current model, the deposition of NPs in distinct regions of the lung, namely extrathoracic, bronchial, bronchiolar, and alveolar, was calculated. The region-specific NP-deposition results for the human lung model were used in Part II to determine the multicompartmental model parameters from experimental retention and clearance data in human lungs. The quantitative, experimentally validated results are useful in diverse fields, such as toxicology for exposure-risk analysis of ubiquitous nanomaterial as well as in pharmacology for nanodrug development and targeting. PMID:24008503

  7. Active folded structures of the Western Caucasus (Sochi region)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trikhunkov, Yaroslav; Zelenin, Egor

    2014-05-01

    The Western Caucasus as a margin segment of folded system of the Greater Caucasus was formed at the periphery of collision interaction of the Scythian Plate and the Transcaucasian Massif. The estimated age of the primary folded deformations of the initial surface of that territory ranges from the late Eocene to late Neogene. We have obtained new data on modern folded deformations of the anticlinal ridges, which prevail in Sochi region in the southern macroslope of the mountain system. Very similar Alek, Galitsinsky, Akhun, Nikolaevsky anticlinal ridges are uplifting in the main Caucasus direction (NW - SE) and are crossed by narrow antecedent river valleys. These ridges stand out contrasting to sinclinal depressions, where fluviatile accumulation prevails. At the intersection of the Mzymta river and the Galitsinsky anticlinal ridge a narrow Akhshtyr canyon with steep, 150 meters high slopes were formed. Downstream in the neighboring Akhshtyr synclinal depression the valley expands. Here the floodplain and two levels of terraces with the height of 20 - 30 and 50 - 60 m correspondingly were formed. The age of the first terrace was defined by archeologic data of V. Shchelinsky (2007) and by correlation with marine Black Sea Late Karangat terrace as a 135 - 90 ka (Eemian interglacial). The second terrace is apparently older and dates back to Middle Pleistocene. The field research and analysis of the elevations by ASTER GDEM allowed us to trace both terraces in the southern structural slope of the Galitsinsky ridge above the canyon, adjacent to the Akhshtyr depression, at the heights 70 and 110 m correspondingly. Alluvial deposits in outcrops of lower terrace (elongated pebbles, which look like modern alluvium of the Mzymta) were traced on the surface of the slope. Thereby, described fragments of the Mzymta terraces were uplifted above the level of the corresponding terraces in the synclinal depression as a result of dislocation on the slope of the actively uplifting

  8. Transcription activation at class II CRP-dependent promoters: the role of different activating regions.

    PubMed Central

    Rhodius, V A; West, D M; Webster, C L; Busby, S J; Savery, N J

    1997-01-01

    Transcription activation by the Escherichia coli cyclic AMP receptor protein (CRP) at Class II promoters is dependent on direct interactions between two surface-exposed activating regions (AR1 and AR2) and two contact sites in RNA polymerase. The effects on transcription activation of disrupting either AR1 or AR2 have been measured at different Class II promoters. AR2 but not AR1 is essential for activation at all the Class II promoters that were tested. The effects of single positive control substitutions in AR1 and AR2 vary from one promoter to another: the effects of the different substitutions are contingent on the -35 hexamer sequence. Abortive initiation assays have been used to quantify the effects of positive control substitutions in each activating region on the kinetics of transcription initiation at the Class II CRP- dependent promoter pmelRcon. At this promoter, the HL159 substitution in AR1 results in a defect in the initial binding of RNA polymerase whilst the KE101 substitution in AR2 reduces the rate of isomerization from the closed to the open complex. PMID:9016561

  9. 30 CFR 580.4 - What activities are not covered by this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... regulations at 30 CFR parts 582 and 282; and (d) G&G exploration or G&G scientific research activities related to oil, gas, and sulphur, including gas hydrates, which are covered by regulations at 30 CFR...

  10. 30 CFR 580.4 - What activities are not covered by this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... regulations at 30 CFR parts 582 and 282; and (d) G&G exploration or G&G scientific research activities related to oil, gas, and sulphur, including gas hydrates, which are covered by regulations at 30 CFR...

  11. 30 CFR 580.4 - What activities are not covered by this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... regulations at 30 CFR parts 582 and 282; and (d) G&G exploration or G&G scientific research activities related to oil, gas, and sulphur, including gas hydrates, which are covered by regulations at 30 CFR...

  12. Activity and effective connectivity of parietal and occipital cortical regions during haptic shape perception.

    PubMed

    Peltier, Scott; Stilla, Randall; Mariola, Erica; LaConte, Stephen; Hu, Xiaoping; Sathian, K

    2007-02-01

    It is now widely accepted that visual cortical areas are active during normal tactile perception, but the underlying mechanisms are still not clear. The goal of the present study was to use functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to investigate the activity and effective connectivity of parietal and occipital cortical areas during haptic shape perception, with a view to potentially clarifying the role of top-down and bottom-up inputs into visual areas. Subjects underwent fMRI scanning while engaging in discrimination of haptic shape or texture, and in separate runs, visual shape or texture. Accuracy did not differ significantly between tasks. Haptic shape-selective regions, identified on a contrast between the haptic shape and texture conditions in individual subjects, were found bilaterally in the postcentral sulcus (PCS), multiple parts of the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) and the lateral occipital complex (LOC). The IPS and LOC foci tended to be shape-selective in the visual modality as well. Structural equation modelling was used to study the effective connectivity among the haptic shape-selective regions in the left hemisphere, contralateral to the stimulated hand. All possible models were tested for their fit to the correlations among the observed time-courses of activity. Two equivalent models emerged as the winners. These models, which were quite similar, were characterized by both bottom-up paths from the PCS to parts of the IPS, and top-down paths from the LOC and parts of the IPS to the PCS. We conclude that interactions between unisensory and multisensory cortical areas involve bidirectional information flow. PMID:16616940

  13. Carbonate sedimentation in an extensional active margin: Cretaceous history of the Haymana region, Pontides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okay, Aral I.; Altiner, Demir

    2016-03-01

    The Haymana region in Central Anatolia is located in the southern part of the Pontides close to the İzmir-Ankara suture. During the Cretaceous, the region formed part of the south-facing active margin of the Eurasia. The area preserves a nearly complete record of the Cretaceous system. Shallow marine carbonates of earliest Cretaceous age are overlain by a 700-m-thick Cretaceous sequence, dominated by deep marine limestones. Three unconformity-bounded pelagic carbonate sequences of Berriasian, Albian-Cenomanian and Turonian-Santonian ages are recognized: Each depositional sequence is preceded by a period of tilting and submarine erosion during the Berriasian, early Albian and late Cenomanian, which corresponds to phases of local extension in the active continental margin. Carbonate breccias mark the base of the sequences and each carbonate sequence steps down on older units. The deep marine carbonate deposition ended in the late Santonian followed by tilting, erosion and folding during the Campanian. Deposition of thick siliciclastic turbidites started in the late Campanian and continued into the Tertiary. Unlike most forearc basins, the Haymana region was a site of deep marine carbonate deposition until the Campanian. This was because the Pontide arc was extensional and the volcanic detritus was trapped in the intra-arc basins and did not reach the forearc or the trench. The extensional nature of the arc is also shown by the opening of the Black Sea as a backarc basin in the Turonian-Santonian. The carbonate sedimentation in an active margin is characterized by synsedimentary vertical displacements, which results in submarine erosion, carbonate breccias and in the lateral discontinuity of the sequences, and differs from blanket like carbonate deposition in the passive margins.

  14. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Area Access C Appendix C to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF.... 552, App. C Appendix C to Part 552—Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access Military...) Installation service and maintenance (AR 420-74, FL Reg 350-30) Non-DOD personnel in transit on...

  15. 30 CFR 280.4 - What activities are not covered by this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., which are covered by regulations at 30 CFR part 282; and (d) G&G exploration or G&G scientific research activities related to oil, gas, and sulphur, including gas hydrates, which are covered by regulations at 30 CFR part 251....

  16. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2012-07-01 2009-07-01 true Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access C Appendix C to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Pt. 552, App. C Appendix C to Part...

  17. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access C Appendix C to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Pt. 552, App. C Appendix C to Part...

  18. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access C Appendix C to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Pt. 552, App. C Appendix C to Part...

  19. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 1215 - Typical User Activity Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. C Appendix C to Part 1215—Typical User Activity Timeline...-Time. Emergency service requests will be responded to per the priority system (Ref. §...

  20. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 1215 - Typical User Activity Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. C Appendix C to Part 1215—Typical User Activity Timeline...-Time. Emergency service requests will be responded to per the priority system (Ref. §...

  1. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 1215 - Typical User Activity Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to Part 1215 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION TRACKING AND DATA RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. C Appendix C to Part 1215—Typical User Activity Timeline...-Time. Emergency service requests will be responded to per the priority system (Ref. §...

  2. Educational Directory, 1919-20. Bulletin, 1919, No. 71. Part 1: Government Educational Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bureau of Education, Department of the Interior, 1920

    1920-01-01

    The Educational Directory, 1919-20 is divided into seven distinct parts. Part I, Government Educational Activities, covers the following topic areas: (1) The United States Bureau of Education; (2) Department of State; (3) Department of War; (4) Department of the Navy; (5) Department of the Treasury; (6) Department of the Interior; (7) Department…

  3. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 552 - Unauthorized Activities in Fort Lewis Maneuver Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... Areas D Appendix D to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Pt. 552, App. D Appendix D to Part 552—Unauthorized Activities in Fort Lewis Maneuver Areas Civilian...

  4. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 552 - Unauthorized Activities in Fort Lewis Maneuver Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Areas D Appendix D to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Pt. 552, App. D Appendix D to Part 552—Unauthorized Activities in Fort Lewis Maneuver Areas Civilian...

  5. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 552 - Unauthorized Activities in Fort Lewis Maneuver Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Areas D Appendix D to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Pt. 552, App. D Appendix D to Part 552—Unauthorized Activities in Fort Lewis Maneuver Areas Civilian...

  6. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 552 - Unauthorized Activities in Fort Lewis Maneuver Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Areas D Appendix D to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Pt. 552, App. D Appendix D to Part 552—Unauthorized Activities in Fort Lewis Maneuver Areas Civilian...

  7. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 552 - Unauthorized Activities in Fort Lewis Maneuver Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Areas D Appendix D to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Pt. 552, App. D Appendix D to Part 552—Unauthorized Activities in Fort Lewis Maneuver Areas Civilian...

  8. 32 CFR 143.6 - Activity not covered by this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... FORCES IN NEGOTIATION OR COLLECTIVE BARGAINING § 143.6 Activity not covered by this part. (a) This part does not limit the right of any member of the Armed Forces to: (1) Join or maintain membership in any lawful organization or association not constituting a “military labor organization” as defined in §...

  9. Regional Climate Model Simulation of U.S. Precipitation during 1982 2002. Part I: Annual Cycle.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liang, Xin-Zhong; Li, Li; Kunkel, Kenneth E.; Ting, Mingfang; Wang, Julian X. L.

    2004-09-01

    The fifth-generation PSU NCAR Mesoscale Model (MM5)-based regional climate model (CMM5) capability in simulating the U.S. precipitation annual cycle is evaluated with a 1982 2002 continuous baseline integration driven by the NCEP DOE second Atmospheric Model Intercomparison Project (AMIP II) reanalysis. The causes for major model biases (differences from observations) are studied through supplementary seasonal sensitivity experiments with various driving lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) and physics representations. It is demonstrated that the CMM5 has a pronounced rainfall downscaling skill, producing more realistic regional details and overall smaller biases than the driving global reanalysis. The precipitation simulation is most skillful in the Northwest, where orographic forcing dominates throughout the year; in the Midwest, where mesoscale convective complexes prevail in summer; and in the central Great Plains, where nocturnal low-level jet and rainfall peaks occur in summer. The actual model skill, however, is masked by existing large LBC uncertainties over data-poor areas, especially over oceans. For example, winter dry biases in the Gulf States likely result from LBC errors in the south and east buffer zones. On the other hand, several important regional biases are identified with model physics deficiencies. In particular, summer dry biases in the North American monsoon region and along the east coast of the United States can be largely rectified by replacing the Grell with the Kain Fritsch cumulus scheme. The latter scheme, however, yields excessive rainfall in the Atlantic Ocean but large deficits over the Midwest. The fall dry biases over the lower Mississippi River basin, common to all existing global and regional models, remain unexplained and the search for their responsible physical mechanisms will be challenging. In addition, the representation of cloud radiation interaction is essential in determining the precipitation distribution and regional

  10. Volume integrals associated with the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation. Part 1: Ellipsoidal region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fu, L. S.; Mura, T.

    1983-01-01

    Problems of wave phenomena in fields of acoustics, electromagnetics and elasticity are often reduced to an integration of the inhomogeneous Helmholtz equation. Results are presented for volume integrals associated with the Helmholtz operator, nabla(2) to alpha(2), for the case of an ellipsoidal region. By using appropriate Taylor series expansions and multinomial theorem, these volume integrals are obtained in series form for regions r 4' and r r', where r and r' are distances from the origin to the point of observation and source, respectively. Derivatives of these integrals are easily evaluated. When the wave number approaches zero, the results reduce directly to the potentials of variable densities.

  11. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 3--Recommended Amounts of Physical Activity for Optimal Health)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    By promoting physical activities and incorporating them into their community-based programs, Extension professionals are improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the third in a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: (1) biological health benefits of…

  12. Observation and Modelling of Micropore Formation in Active Network Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berger, T. E.; Löfdahl, M. G.; Bercik, D. J.

    2002-06-01

    We present phase-diversity corrected G-band 4305 Å and 4364 Å continuum image time series showing the formation of a micropore in a small active region near disk center. The data were acquired at the Swedish Vacuum Solar Telescope on La Palma in June of 1997 and post-processed using the Phase Diverse Speckle (PDS) algorithm to produce diffraction limited images throughout the majority of both time series. The micropore dataset comprises a 29x29 Mm field of view and spans 5.1 hours with a 38 second cadence. The micropore forms in a strong sink area that can be seen to ``collect" many G-band bright points over the first 2 hours of the observation. During this time there is an occasional darkening at the sink point that may be the first unstable phase of the micropore formation. Once a stable dark pore forms in the flowfield, it grows to a maximum diameter of 1.2 Mm in approximately 1.9 hours. The pore persists for another 35 minutes before apparently being broken up by the intergranular flowfield. The total ``lifetime" of the stable pore phase is 2.5 hours. A separate nearby micropore of 1.5 Mm maximum diameter exists for the entire 5.2 hour data span. We show G-band and continuum movies of the micropore formation, correlation tracking flowfield analyses, G-band bright point tracking results, and area versus time plots for the micropore formation lifetime. The observational data are compared with fully compressible 3D MHD numerical simulations which show the development of a similar micropore structure within the computational domain. This research was supported by NASA SR&T grant NASW-98008, The Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, NSF and NASA funding at Michigan State University, and Lockheed Martin IRAD funding.

  13. ASYMMETRY OF HELICITY INJECTION FLUX IN EMERGING ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Tian Lirong; Alexander, David

    2009-04-20

    Observational and modeling results indicate that typically the leading magnetic field of bipolar active regions (ARs) is often spatially more compact, while more dispersed and fragmented in following polarity. In this paper, we address the origin of this morphological asymmetry, which is not well understood. Although it may be assumed that, in an emerging {omega}-shaped flux tube, those portions of the flux tube in which the magnetic field has a higher twist may maintain its coherence more readily, this has not been tested observationally. To assess this possibility, it is important to characterize the nature of the fragmentation and asymmetry in solar ARs and this provides the motivation for this paper. We separately calculate the distribution of the helicity flux injected in the leading and following polarities of 15 emerging bipolar ARs, using the Michelson Doppler Image 96 minute line-of-sight magnetograms and a local correlation tracking technique. We find from this statistical study that the leading (compact) polarity injects several times more helicity flux than the following (fragmented) one (typically 3-10 times). This result suggests that the leading polarity of the {omega}-shaped flux tube possesses a much larger amount of twist than the following field prior to emergence. We argue that the helicity asymmetry between the leading and following magnetic field for the ARs studied here results in the observed magnetic field asymmetry of the two polarities due to an imbalance in the magnetic tension of the emerging flux tube. We suggest that the observed imbalance in the helicity distribution results from a difference in the speed of emergence between the leading and following legs of an inclined {omega}-shaped flux tube. In addition, there is also the effect of magnetic flux imbalance between the two polarities with the fragmented following polarity displaying spatial fluctuation in both the magnitude and sign of helicity measured.

  14. Identifying the Main Driver of Active Region Outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baker, D.; van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Mandrini, C. H.; Démoulin, P.; Murray, M. J.

    2012-08-01

    Hinode's EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) has discovered ubiquitous outflows of a few to 50 km s-1 from active regions (ARs). The characteristics of these outflows are very curious in that they are most prominent at the AR boundary and appear over monopolar magnetic areas. They are linked to strong non-thermal line broadening and are stronger in hotter EUV lines. The outflows persist for at least several days. Whereas red-shifted down flows observed in AR closed loops are well understood, to date there is no general consensus for the mechanism(s) driving blue-shifted AR-related outflows. We use Hinode EIS and X-Ray Telescope observations of AR 10942 coupled with magnetic modeling to demonstrate for the first time that the outflows originate from specific locations of the magnetic topology where field lines display strong gradients of magnetic connectivity, namely quasi-separatrix layers (QSLs), or in the limit of infinitely thin QSLs, separatrices. The strongest AR outflows were found to be in the vicinity of QSL sections located over areas of strong magnetic field. We argue that magnetic reconnection at QSLs, separating closed field lines of the AR and either large-scale externally connected or ‘open’ field lines, is a viable mechanism for driving AR outflows which are potentially sources of the slow solar wind. In fact, magnetic reconnection along QSLs (including separatricies) is the first theory to explain the most puzzling characteristics of the outflows, namely their occurrence over monopolar areas at the periphery of ARs and their longevity.

  15. Spectroscopic Observations of Fe XVIII in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teriaca, Luca; Warren, Harry P.; Curdt, Werner

    2012-08-01

    The large uncertainties associated with measuring the amount of high temperature emission in solar active regions (ARs) represents a significant impediment to making progress on the coronal heating problem. Most current observations at temperatures of 3 MK and above are taken with broadband soft X-ray instruments. Such measurements have proven difficult to interpret unambiguously. Here, we present the first spectroscopic observations of the Fe XVIII 974.86 Å emission line in an on-disk AR taken with the SUMER instrument on SOHO. Fe XVIII has a peak formation temperature of 7.1 MK and provides important constraints on the amount of impulsive heating in the corona. Detailed evaluation of the spectra and comparison of the SUMER data with soft X-ray images from the X-Ray Telescope on Hinode confirm that this line is unblended. We also compare the spectroscopic data with observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) 94 Å channel on the Solar Dynamics Observatory. The AIA 94 Å channel also contains Fe XVIII, but is blended with emission formed at lower temperatures. We find that it is possible to remove the contaminating blends and form relatively pure Fe XVIII images that are consistent with the spectroscopic observations from SUMER. The observed spectra also contain the Ca XIV 943.63 Å line that, although a factor 2-6 weaker than the Fe XVIII 974.86 Å line, allows us to probe the plasma around 3.5 MK. The observed ratio between the two lines indicates (isothermal approximation) that most of the plasma in the brighter Fe XVIII AR loops is at temperatures between 3.5 and 4 MK.

  16. MAGNETIC HELICITY AND ENERGY SPECTRA OF A SOLAR ACTIVE REGION

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Hongqi; Brandenburg, Axel; Sokoloff, D. D.

    2014-04-01

    We compute for the first time the magnetic helicity and energy spectra of the solar active region NOAA 11158 during 2011 February 11-15 at 20° southern heliographic latitude using observational photospheric vector magnetograms. We adopt the isotropic representation of the Fourier-transformed two-point correlation tensor of the magnetic field. The sign of the magnetic helicity turns out to be predominantly positive at all wavenumbers. This sign is consistent with what is theoretically expected for the southern hemisphere. The magnetic helicity normalized to its theoretical maximum value, here referred to as relative helicity, is around 4% and strongest at intermediate wavenumbers of k ≈ 0.4 Mm{sup –1}, corresponding to a scale of 2π/k ≈ 16 Mm. The same sign and a similar value are also found for the relative current helicity evaluated in real space based on the vertical components of magnetic field and current density. The modulus of the magnetic helicity spectrum shows a k {sup –11/3} power law at large wavenumbers, which implies a k {sup –5/3} spectrum for the modulus of the current helicity. A k {sup –5/3} spectrum is also obtained for the magnetic energy. The energy spectra evaluated separately from the horizontal and vertical fields agree for wavenumbers below 3 Mm{sup –1}, corresponding to scales above 2 Mm. This gives some justification to our assumption of isotropy and places limits resulting from possible instrumental artifacts at small scales.

  17. An Annotated Bibliography of Relevant Research on the Appalachian Region. Final Report, Part One of Three.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bullock, Merriel

    This annotated bibliography covers 170 selected journal articles, books, federal and state government publications, and Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) documents containing information about the mission, function, and organization of regional educational laboratories or relating to socioeconomic and educational situations in the…

  18. 5 CFR Appendix II to Part 1201 - Appropriate Regional or Field Office for Filing Appeals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...; Maryland—except the counties of Montgomery and Prince George's; Massachusetts; New Hampshire; New Jersey... Rico; and Virgin Islands). 4. Washington Regional Office, 1800 Diagonal Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, Facsimile No.: (703) 756-7112, (Maryland—counties of Montgomery and Prince George's;...

  19. 5 CFR Appendix II to Part 1201 - Appropriate Regional or Field Office for Filing Appeals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...; Maryland—except the counties of Montgomery and Prince George's; Massachusetts; New Hampshire; New Jersey... Rico; and Virgin Islands). 4. Washington Regional Office, 1901 S. Bell Street, Arlington, Virginia 22202, Facsimile No.: (703) 756-7112, (Maryland—counties of Montgomery and Prince George's;...

  20. 5 CFR Appendix II to Part 1201 - Appropriate Regional or Field Office for Filing Appeals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...; Maryland—except the counties of Montgomery and Prince George's; Massachusetts; New Hampshire; New Jersey... Rico; and Virgin Islands). 4. Washington Regional Office, 1800 Diagonal Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, Facsimile No.: (703) 756-7112, (Maryland—counties of Montgomery and Prince George's;...

  1. 5 CFR Appendix II to Part 1201 - Appropriate Regional or Field Office for Filing Appeals

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...; Maryland—except the counties of Montgomery and Prince George's; Massachusetts; New Hampshire; New Jersey... Rico; and Virgin Islands). 4. Washington Regional Office, 1800 Diagonal Road, Alexandria, Virginia 22314, Facsimile No.: (703) 756-7112, (Maryland—counties of Montgomery and Prince George's;...

  2. A REGIONAL ATMOSPHERIC FATE AND TRANSPORT MODEL FOR ATRAZINE, PART I: DEVELOPMENT AND IMPLEMENTATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system is adapted to simulate the regional transport and fate of atrazine, one of the most widely used herbicides in the United States. Model chemistry and deposition are modified, and a gas-to-particle partitioning algorithm...

  3. REGIONAL OXIDANT MODEL (ROM) USER'S GUIDE, PART 2: THE ROM PREPROCESSOR NETWORK

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) determines hourly concentrations and fates of zone and 34 other chemical species over a scale of 1000 km x 1000 km for ozone "episodes" of up to one month's duration. he model structure, based on phenomenological concepts, consists of 3 1/2 layers...

  4. REGIONAL OXIDANT MODEL (ROM) USER'S GUIDE, PART 1: THE ROM PREPROCESSORS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) determines hourly concentrations and fates of zone and 34 other chemical species over a scale of 1000 km x 1000 km for ozone "episodes" of up to one month's duration. he model structure, based on phenomenological concepts, consists of 3 1/2 layers...

  5. REGIONAL OXIDANT MODEL (ROM) USER'S GUIDE, PART 3: THE CORE MODEL

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) determines hourly concentrations and fates of zone and 34 other chemical species over a scale of 1000 km x 1000 km for ozone "episodes" of up to one month's duration. he model structure, based on phenomenological concepts, consists of 3 1/2 layers...

  6. REGIONAL OXIDANT MODEL (ROM) USER'S GUIDE - PART 4: THE ROM SYSTEM USER TUTORIAL

    EPA Science Inventory

    This volume of the Regional Oxidant Model (ROM) User's Guide is intended to be a "cookbook" for unloading the ROM system code and benchmark (test case) data from the 19 distribution tapes. he ROM runs on the following computer systems: 1) VAX hardware for the preprocessors and th...

  7. 5 CFR Appendix III to Part 1201 - Approved Hearing Locations By Regional Office

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approved Hearing Locations By Regional..., Florida Tampa/St. Petersburg, Florida Atlanta, Georgia Augusta, Georgia Macon, Georgia Savannah, Georgia... Detroit, Michigan Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota Kansas City, Missouri Springfield, Missouri St....

  8. 5 CFR Appendix III to Part 1201 - Approved Hearing Locations By Regional Office

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Approved Hearing Locations By Regional..., Florida Tampa/St. Petersburg, Florida Atlanta, Georgia Augusta, Georgia Macon, Georgia Savannah, Georgia... Detroit, Michigan Minneapolis/St. Paul, Minnesota Kansas City, Missouri Springfield, Missouri St....

  9. AN OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE FOR THE REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY. PART I

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents the development of an objective analysis program for the mesoscale gridding of wind and temperature for the Regional Air Pollution Study being conducted in St. Louis by the Environmental Protection Agency. The program is designed to produce a 5-km spaced hor...

  10. AN OBJECTIVE ANALYSIS TECHNIQUE FOR THE REGIONAL AIR POLLUTION STUDY. PART II

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report discusses the application of objective analysis techniques to the computation of trajectories from surface wind observations of the Regional Air Pollution Study in St. Louis. Trajectories were computed over a 100-kilometer square grid centered on St. Louis for two 5-h...

  11. ON THE ROLE OF ROTATING SUNSPOTS IN THE ACTIVITY OF SOLAR ACTIVE REGION NOAA 11158

    SciTech Connect

    Vemareddy, P.; Ambastha, A.; Maurya, R. A. E-mail: ambastha@prl.res.in

    2012-12-10

    We study the role of rotating sunspots in relation to the evolution of various physical parameters characterizing the non-potentiality of the active region (AR) NOAA 11158 and its eruptive events using the magnetic field data from the Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (HMI) and multi-wavelength observations from the Atmospheric Imaging Assembly (AIA) on board the Solar Dynamics Observatory. From the evolutionary study of HMI intensity and AIA channels, it is observed that the AR consists of two major rotating sunspots, one connected to a flare-prone region and another with coronal mass ejection (CME). The constructed space-time intensity maps reveal that the sunspots exhibited peak rotation rates coinciding with the occurrence of major eruptive events. Further, temporal profiles of twist parameters, namely, average shear angle, {alpha}{sub av}, {alpha}{sub best}, derived from HMI vector magnetograms, and the rate of helicity injection, obtained from the horizontal flux motions of HMI line-of-sight magnetograms, correspond well with the rotational profile of the sunspot in the CME-prone region, giving predominant evidence of rotational motion causing magnetic non-potentiality. Moreover, the mean value of free energy from the virial theorem calculated at the photospheric level shows a clear step-down decrease at the onset time of the flares revealing unambiguous evidence of energy release intermittently that is stored by flux emergence and/or motions in pre-flare phases. Additionally, distribution of helicity injection is homogeneous in the CME-prone region while in the flare-prone region it is not and often changes sign. This study provides a clear picture that both proper and rotational motions of the observed fluxes played significant roles in enhancing the magnetic non-potentiality of the AR by injecting helicity, twisting the magnetic fields and thereby increasing the free energy, leading to favorable conditions for the observed transient activity.

  12. Regional Homogeneity of Intrinsic Brain Activity in Happy and Unhappy Individuals

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Yangmei; Huang, Xiting; Yang, Zhen; Li, Baolin; Liu, Jie; Wei, Dongtao

    2014-01-01

    Background Why are some people happier than others? This question has intrigued many researchers. However, limited work has addressed this question within a neuroscientific framework. Methods The present study investigated the neural correlates of trait happiness using the resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) approach. Specifically, regional homogeneity (ReHo) was examined on two groups of young adults: happy and unhappy individuals (N = 25 per group). Results Decreased ReHo in unhappy relative to happy individuals was observed within prefrontal cortex, medial temporal lobe, superior temporal lobe, and retrosplenial cortex. In contrast, increased ReHo in unhappy relative to happy individuals was observed within the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, middle cingulate gyrus, putamen, and thalamus. In addition, the ReHo within the left thalamus was negatively correlated with Chinese Happiness Inventory (CHI) score within the happy group. Limitations As an exploratory study, we examined how general trait happiness is reflected in the regional homogeneity of intrinsic brain activity in a relatively small sample. Examining other types of happiness in a larger sample using a multitude of intrinsic brain activity indices are warranted for future work. Conclusions The local synchronization of BOLD signal is altered in unhappy individuals. The regions implicated in this alteration partly overlapped with previously identified default mode network, emotional circuitry, and rewarding system, suggesting that these systems may be involved in happiness. PMID:24454814

  13. A Helioseismic Survey to Investigate Relationships between Subsurface Flows beneath Large Active Regions and Solar Flares

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braun, Douglas; Leka, K D.; Barnes, Graham

    2014-06-01

    A survey of the subsurface flow properties of about 120 of the largest active regions, determined from the application of helioseismic holography to Dopplergrams obtained with the HMI instrument onboard the Solar Dynamics Observatory, is being carried out. The overriding goal is to characterize differences in the subsurface flows between active regions associated with eruptive flares and the flows observed in relatively quiescent regions. Applications to flare forecasting comprise only one part of this investigation, since the potential response of the subsurface environment to eruptive events during and after their occurrence is also of scientific interest. Other priorities include understanding the limitations of the helioseismic methods, identifying and correcting systematic effects, and validating the reliability of the measurements using artificial data. While inversions to determine the variation with depth of subsurface flows are planned, preliminary results will be discussed which make use of proxies for near-surface depth-integrated properties, including the horizontal component of the flow divergence and the vertical component of the flow vorticity.This work is supported by the Solar Terrestrial Program of the National Science Foundation, through grant AGS-1127327, and by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration SBIR program.

  14. Reduction, analysis, and properties of electric current systems in solar active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Demoulin, Pascal

    1995-01-01

    The specific attraction and, in large part, the significance of solar magnetograms lie in the fact that they give the most important data on the electric currents and the nonpotentiality of active regions. Using the vector magnetograms from the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), we employ a unique technique in the area of data analysis for resolving the 180 deg ambiguity in order to calculate the spatial structure of the vertical electric current density. The 180 deg ambiguity is resolved by applying concepts from the nonlinear multivariable optimization theory. The technique is shown to be of particular importance in very nonpotential active regions. The characterization of the vertical electric current density for a set of vector magnetograms using this method then gives the spatial scale, locations, and magnitude of these current systems. The method, which employs an intermediate parametric function which covers the magnetogram and which defines the local `preferred' direction, minimizes a specific functional of the observed transverse magnetic field. The specific functional that is successful is the integral of the square of the vertical current density. We find that the vertical electric current densities have common characteristics for the extended bipolar (beta) (gamma) (delta)-regions studied. The largest current systems have j(sub z)'s which maximizes around 30 mA/sq m and have a linear decreasing distribution to a diameter of 30 Mn.

  15. Reduction, Analysis, and Properties of Electric Current Systems in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gary, G. Allen; Demoulin, Pascal

    1995-01-01

    The specific attraction and, in large part, the significance of solar vector magnetograms lie in the fact that they give the most important data on the electric currents and the nonpotentiality of active regions. Using the vector magnetograms from the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC), we employ a unique technique in the area of data analysis for resolving the 180 degree ambiguity in order to calculate the spatial structure of the vertical electric current density. The 180 degree ambiguity is resolved by applying concepts from the nonlinear multivariable optimization theory. The technique is shown to be of particular importance in very nonpotential active regions. The characterization of the vertical electric current density for a set of vector magnetograms using this method then gives the spatial scale, locations, and magnitude of these current systems. The method, which employs an intermediate parametric function which covers the magnetogram and which defines the local "preferred" direction, minimizes a specific functional of the observed transverse magnetic field. The specific functional that is successful is the integral of the square of the vertical current density. We find that the vertical electric current densities have common characteristics for the extended bipolar beta gamma delta-regions studied. The largest current systems have j(sub z)'s which maximizes around 30 mA per square meter and have a linear decreasing distribution to a diameter of 30 Mm.

  16. The Maximum Free Magnetic Energy Allowed in a Solar Active Region

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.

    2009-01-01

    Two whole-active-region magnetic quantities that can be measured from a line-of-sight magnetogram are (sup L) WL(sub SG), a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and sup L(sub theta), a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these two quantities measured from 1865 SOHO/MDI magnetograms that tracked 44 sunspot active regions across the 0.5 R(sub Sun) central disk, together with each active region's observed production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, Falconer et al (2009, ApJ, submitted) found that (1) active regions have a maximum attainable free magnetic energy that increases with the magnetic size (sup L) (sub theta) of the active region, (2) in (Log (sup L)WL(sub SG), Log(sup L) theta) space, CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line main sequence along which the free magnetic energy is near its upper limit, and (3) X and M flares are restricted to large active regions. Here, from (a) these results, (b) the observation that even the greatest X flares produce at most only subtle changes in active region magnetograms, and (c) measurements from MSFC vector magnetograms and from MDI line-of-sight magnetograms showing that practically all sunspot active regions have nearly the same area-averaged magnetic field strength: =- theta/A approximately equal to 300 G, where theta is the active region's total photospheric flux of field stronger than 100 G and A is the area of that flux, we infer that (1) the maximum allowed ratio of an active region's free magnetic energy to its potential-field energy is 1, and (2) any one CME/flare eruption releases no more than a small fraction (less than 10%) of the active region's free magnetic energy. This work was funded by NASA's Heliophysics Division and NSF's Division of Atmospheric Sciences.

  17. Chemical and conformational changes in chromosome regions being actively transcribed.

    PubMed Central

    Pagés, M; Alonso, C

    1978-01-01

    U.V. microspectrophotometry has been used to calculate quantities of nucleic acids and proteins of complete polytene chromosomal sets and specific regions of these chromosomes. It has been found that in chromosomes the ratio of DNA to proteins is approximately 1:4. This ratio however changes when specific regions are compared. The average ratio of DNA to proteins in a puffed region (2-48B4C5) increases to 1:16 in contrast to 1:6 from the same region but in non puffed state. At the same time the RNA quantity increases by a factor of 2. thermal denaturation profiles of formaldehyde fixed chromosomes show that the Tm of this region in puffed and non puffed state differ by 10 degrees C. Moreover these profiles suggest that a large fraction of histone-bound DNA is destabilized during puffing. PMID:634798

  18. Integrated Verification Experiment data collected as part of the Los Alamos National Laboratory's Source Region Program

    SciTech Connect

    Fitzgerald, T.J.; Carlos, R.C.; Argo, P.E.

    1993-01-21

    As part of the integrated verification experiment (IVE), we deployed a network of hf ionospheric sounders to detect the effects of acoustic waves generated by surface ground motion following underground nuclear tests at the Nevada Test Site. The network sampled up to four geographic locations in the ionosphere from almost directly overhead of the surface ground zero out to a horizontal range of 60 km. We present sample results for four of the IVEs: Misty Echo, Texarkana, Mineral Quarry, and Bexar.

  19. Workshop on the Polar Regions of Mars: Geology, Glaciology, and Climate History, part 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clifford, S. M. (Editor); Howard, A. D. (Editor); Paterson, W. S. B. (Editor)

    1992-01-01

    Papers and abstract of papers presented at the workshop are presented. Some representative titles are as follows: Glaciation in Elysium; Orbital, rotational, and climatic interactions; Water on Mars; Rheology of water-silicate mixtures at low temperatures; Evolution of the Martian atmosphere (the role of polar caps); Is CO2 ice permanent; Dust transport into Martian polar latitudes; Mars observer radio science (MORS) observations in polar regions; and Wind transport near the poles of Mars (timescales of changes in deposition and erosion).

  20. 32 CFR 56.7 - Programs and activities subject to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Programs and activities subject to this part. 56.7 Section 56.7 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE BASIS OF HANDICAP IN PROGRAMS AND ACTIVITIES ASSISTED OR CONDUCTED BY THE DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE §...

  1. 29 CFR 778.332 - Awards for activities not normally part of employee's job.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Awards for activities not normally part of employee's job. 778.332 Section 778.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... of employee's job. (a) Where the prize is awarded for activities outside the customary working...

  2. 29 CFR 778.332 - Awards for activities not normally part of employee's job.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Awards for activities not normally part of employee's job. 778.332 Section 778.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... of employee's job. (a) Where the prize is awarded for activities outside the customary working...

  3. 29 CFR 778.332 - Awards for activities not normally part of employee's job.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Awards for activities not normally part of employee's job. 778.332 Section 778.332 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... of employee's job. (a) Where the prize is awarded for activities outside the customary working...

  4. 40 CFR Table 1 to Part 455 - List of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 29 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false List of Organic Pesticide Active...) EFFLUENT GUIDELINES AND STANDARDS PESTICIDE CHEMICALS Pt. 455, Table 1 Table 1 to Part 455—List of Organic Pesticide Active Ingredients EPA census code Pesticide code Pesticide name CAS No. 1 10501 Dicofol...

  5. 24 CFR 964.315 - HAs role in activities under this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false HAs role in activities under this... Centers (FIC) Program § 964.315 HAs role in activities under this part. The HAs shall develop a process... management office for reading; and develop a system to facilitate a regular resident role in all aspects...

  6. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 2-Mental Health Benefits)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2016-01-01

    By promoting physical activities and incorporating them into their community-based programs, Extension professionals are improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the second in a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: (1) biological health benefits of…

  7. Physical Activity: A Tool for Improving Health (Part 1--Biological Health Benefits)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Patrick J.; Hongu, Nobuko

    2015-01-01

    Extension educators have been promoting and incorporating physical activities into their community-based programs and improving the health of individuals, particularly those with limited resources. This article is the first of a three-part series describing the benefits of physical activity for human health: 1) biological health benefits of…

  8. 24 CFR 964.315 - HAs role in activities under this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 4 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false HAs role in activities under this... Centers (FIC) Program § 964.315 HAs role in activities under this part. The HAs shall develop a process... residents to assist in the development of the application. (b) Once a draft application has been...

  9. 14 CFR Appendix C to Part 1215 - Typical User Activity Timeline

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Typical User Activity Timeline C Appendix C... RELAY SATELLITE SYSTEM (TDRSS) Pt. 1215, App. C Appendix C to Part 1215—Typical User Activity Timeline... mission model. 3 years before launch (Ref. § 1215.109(c). Submit general user requirements to...

  10. 30 CFR 280.25 - When may BSEE require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When may BSEE require me to stop activities... CONTINENTAL SHELF Obligations Under This Part Interrupted Activities § 280.25 When may BSEE require me to stop..., or immediate harm. This includes damage to life (including fish and other aquatic life),...

  11. 30 CFR 280.25 - When may BSEE require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When may BSEE require me to stop activities... CONTINENTAL SHELF Obligations Under This Part Interrupted Activities § 280.25 When may BSEE require me to stop..., or immediate harm. This includes damage to life (including fish and other aquatic life),...

  12. 30 CFR 280.25 - When may BSEE require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When may BSEE require me to stop activities... CONTINENTAL SHELF Obligations Under This Part Interrupted Activities § 280.25 When may BSEE require me to stop..., or immediate harm. This includes damage to life (including fish and other aquatic life),...

  13. Probing the central regions of active galactic nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohfink, Anne Maria

    Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) are one of the key players in the Universe. Their energy output can strongly affect the growth of their host galaxy and can promote or suppress star formation on galactic scales. Most of the processes that determine the power of an AGN as well as the form in which that power is released take place in the immediate surroundings of its supermassive black hole, a region that is still not entirely understood. A comprehension of these inner regions is, however, crucial to any ultimate understanding of the AGN's vast influence. This dissertation explores these close-in environments of the black hole using two approaches: X-ray spectroscopy and variability studies. We begin by summarizing our current understanding of why AGN play such a significant role in galaxy formation. This is followed by a discussion of why X-ray spectroscopy is one of the best means to investigate them. We point out that, in particular, the X-ray reflection spectrum is interesting as it can directly probe parameters such as the black hole spin or the inclination of the accretion disk. Since the reflection spectrum is a broad band component, that usually only contributes a fraction of the total observed X-ray flux, the entire X-ray spectrum requires careful modeling. To perform such modeling and gain access to the parameters of the reflection spectrum, we first select a target in which the spectral decomposition is simplified by the absence of absorption - the Seyfert 1 galaxy Fairall 9. We apply a multi-epoch fitting method that uses more than one spectrum at a time to get the best possible results on the parameters of the reflection spectrum that are invariant on human timescales. This technique enables us to tightly constrain the reflection parameters and leads us to conclude that Fairall 9 most likely possesses a composite soft X-ray excess, consisting of blurred reflection and a separate component such as Comptonization. The reflection spectrum also provides a way

  14. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 1: Physical-environmental assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronco, P.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Zabeo, A.; Semenzin, E.; Critto, A.; Marcomini, A.

    2014-07-01

    KR-RRA methodology is based on the concept of risk being function of hazard, exposure and vulnerability. It integrates the outputs of various hydrodynamics models (hazard) with sito-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope, land cover, population density, economic activities) to develop tailored risk indexes and GIS-based maps for each of the selected targets (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructures, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritages) in the considered region, by comparing the baseline scenario with alternative scenarios, where different structural and/or non-structural mitigation measures are planned. As demonstrated in the companion paper (Part 2, Ronco et al., 2014), risk maps, along with related statistics, allow to identify and prioritize relative hotspots and targets which are more likely to be affected by flood and support the development of relevant and strategic adaptation and prevention measures to minimizing flood impacts. Moreover, the outputs of the RRA methodology can be used for the economic evaluation of different damages (e.g. tangible costs, intangible costs) and for the social assessment considering the benefits of the human dimension of vulnerability (i.e. adaptive and coping capacity).

  15. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 1: Physical-environmental assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronco, P.; Gallina, V.; Torresan, S.; Zabeo, A.; Semenzin, E.; Critto, A.; Marcomini, A.

    2014-12-01

    , exposure and vulnerability. It integrates the outputs of various hydrodynamic models with site-specific bio-geophysical and socio-economic indicators (e.g. slope, land cover, population density, economic activities etc.) to develop tailored risk indexes and GIS-based maps for each of the selected receptors (i.e. people, buildings, infrastructure, agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems, cultural heritage) in the considered region. It further compares the baseline scenario with alternative scenarios, where different structural and/or non-structural mitigation measures are planned and eventually implemented. As demonstrated in the companion paper (Part 2, Ronco et al., 2014), risk maps, along with related statistics, allow one to identify and classify, on a relative scale, areas at risk which are more likely to be affected by floods and support the development of strategic adaptation and prevention measures to minimizing flood impacts. In addition, the outcomes of the RRA can be eventually used for a further socio-economic assessment, considering the tangible and intangible costs as well as the human dimension of vulnerability.

  16. Canadian groundwater inventory: Regional hydrogeological characterization of the south-central part of the maritimes basin

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rivard, C.; Michaud, Y.; Deblonde, C.; Boisvert, V.; Carrier, C.; Morin, R.H.; Calvert, T.; Vigneault, H.; Conohan, D.; Castonguay, S.; Lefebvre, R.; Rivera, A.; Parent, M.

    2008-01-01

    The Maritimes Groundwater Initiative (MGWI) is a large, integrated, regional hydrogeological study focusing on a representative area of the Maritimes Basin in eastern Canada. The study area covers a land surface of 10 500 km2, of which 9 400 km2 are underlain by sedimentary rocks. This sedimentary bedrock is composed of a sequence of discontinuous strata of highly variable hydraulic properties, and is generally overlain by a thin layer of glacial till(mostly 4-8 m thick, but can reach 20 m). Depending on the area, 46 to 100% of the population relieson groundwater for water supply, either from municipal wells or from private residential wells. The main objectives of this project were to improve the general understanding of groundwater-flow dynamics and to provide baseline information and tools for a regional groundwater-resource assessment. This bulletin presents the current state of understanding of this hydrogeological system, along with the methodology used to characterize and analyze its distinct behaviour at three different scales. This regional bedrock aquifer system contains confined and unconfined zones, and each of its lenticular permeable strata extends only a few kilometres. Preferential groundwater recharge occurs where sandy till is present. The mean annual recharge rate to the bedrock is estimated to range between 130 and 165 mm/a. Several geological formations of this basin provide good aquifers, with hydraulic conductivity in the range 5x10-6 to 10-4m/s. Based on results of numerical flow modelling, faults were interpreted to have a key role in the regional flow. Pumping-test results revealed that the fractured aquifers can locally be very heterogeneous and anisotropic, but behave similarly to porous media. Work performed at the local scale indicated that most water-producing fractures seem to be subhorizontal and generally oriented in a northeasterly direction, in agreement with regional structures and pumping-test results. Almost all residential

  17. The N-terminal Part of Arabidopsis thaliana Starch Synthase 4 Determines the Localization and Activity of the Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Raynaud, Sandy; Ragel, Paula; Rojas, Tomás; Mérida, Ángel

    2016-05-13

    Starch synthase 4 (SS4) plays a specific role in starch synthesis because it controls the number of starch granules synthesized in the chloroplast and is involved in the initiation of the starch granule. We showed previously that SS4 interacts with fibrillins 1 and is associated with plastoglobules, suborganelle compartments physically attached to the thylakoid membrane in chloroplasts. Both SS4 localization and its interaction with fibrillins 1 were mediated by the N-terminal part of SS4. Here we show that the coiled-coil region within the N-terminal portion of SS4 is involved in both processes. Elimination of this region prevents SS4 from binding to fibrillins 1 and alters SS4 localization in the chloroplast. We also show that SS4 forms dimers, which depends on a region located between the coiled-coil region and the glycosyltransferase domain of SS4. This region is highly conserved between all SS4 enzymes sequenced to date. We show that the dimerization seems to be necessary for the activity of the enzyme. Both dimerization and the functionality of the coiled-coil region are conserved among SS4 proteins from phylogenetically distant species, such as Arabidopsis and Brachypodium This finding suggests that the mechanism of action of SS4 is conserved among different plant species. PMID:26969163

  18. Identification of saline water intrusion in part of Cauvery deltaic region, Tamil Nadu, Southern India: using GIS and VES methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanachandrasamy, G.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Chung, S. Y.; Vasudevan, S.

    2016-05-01

    We use electrical resistivity data arrayed in a 2715 km2 region with 30 locations to identify the saline water intrusion zone in part of Cauvery deltaic region, offshore Eastern India. From this dataset we are able to derive information on groundwater quality, thickness of aquifer zone, structural and stratigraphic conditions relevant to groundwater conditions, and permeability of aquifer systems. A total of 30 vertical electrode soundings (VES) were carried out by Schlumberger electrode arrangement to indicate complete lithology of this region using curve matching techniques. The electrical soundings exhibited that H and HK type curves were suitable for 16 shallow locations, and QH, KQ, K, KH, QQ, and HA curves were fit for other location. Low resistivity values suggested that saline water intrusion occurred in this region. According to final GIS map, most of the region was severely affected by seawater intrusion due to the use of over-exploitation of groundwater.The deteriorated groundwater resources in this coastal region should raise environmental and health concerns.

  19. Identification of saline water intrusion in part of Cauvery deltaic region, Tamil Nadu, Southern India: using GIS and VES methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gnanachandrasamy, G.; Ramkumar, T.; Venkatramanan, S.; Chung, S. Y.; Vasudevan, S.

    2016-06-01

    We use electrical resistivity data arrayed in a 2715 km2 region with 30 locations to identify the saline water intrusion zone in part of Cauvery deltaic region, offshore Eastern India. From this dataset we are able to derive information on groundwater quality, thickness of aquifer zone, structural and stratigraphic conditions relevant to groundwater conditions, and permeability of aquifer systems. A total of 30 vertical electrode soundings (VES) were carried out by Schlumberger electrode arrangement to indicate complete lithology of this region using curve matching techniques. The electrical soundings exhibited that H and HK type curves were suitable for 16 shallow locations, and QH, KQ, K, KH, QQ, and HA curves were fit for other location. Low resistivity values suggested that saline water intrusion occurred in this region. According to final GIS map, most of the region was severely affected by seawater intrusion due to the use of over-exploitation of groundwater.The deteriorated groundwater resources in this coastal region should raise environmental and health concerns.

  20. Neutral-Line Magnetic Shear and Enhanced Coronal Heating in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, D. A.; Moore, R. L.; Porter, J. G.; Gary, G. A.; Shimizu, T.

    1997-01-01

    By examining the magnetic structure at sites in the bright coronal interiors of active regions that are not flaring but exhibit persistent strong coronal heating, we establish some new characteristics of the magnetic origins of this heating. We have examined the magnetic structure of these sites in five active regions, each of which was well observed by both the Yohkoh SXT and the Marshall Space Flight Center Vector Magnetograph and showed strong shear in its magnetic field along part of at least one neutral line (polarity inversion). Thus, we can assess whether this form of nonpotential field structure in active regions is a characteristic of the enhanced coronal heating and vice versa. From 27 orbits' worth of Yohkoh SXT images of the five active regions, we have obtained a sample of 94 persistently bright coronal features (bright in all images from a given orbit), 40 long (greater than or approximately equals 20,000 km) neutral-line segments having strong magnetic shear throughout (shear angle greater than 45 deg), and 39 long neutral-line segments having weak magnetic shear throughout (shear angle less than 45 deg). From this sample, we find that: (1) all of our persistently bright coronal features are rooted in magnetic fields that are stronger than 150 G; (2) nearly all (95%) of these enhanced coronal features are rooted near neutral lines (closer than 10,000 km); (3) a great majority (80%) of the bright features are rooted near strong-shear portions of neutral lines; (4) a great majority (85%) of long strong-shear segments of neutral lines have persistently bright coronal features rooted near them; (5) a large minority (40%) of long weak-shear segments of neutral lines have persistently bright coronal features rooted near them; and (6) the brightness of a persistently bright Coronal feature often changes greatly over a few hours. From these results, we conclude that most persistent enhanced heating of coronal loops in active regions: (1) requires the

  1. A regional ensemble forecast system for stratiform precipitation events in the Northern China Region. Part II: Seasonal evaluation for summer 2010

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Jiangshan; Kong, Fanyou; Lei, Hengchi

    2013-01-01

    In this study, the Institute of Atmospheric Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences — regional ensemble forecast system (IAP-REFS) described in Part I was further validated through a 65-day experiment using the summer season of 2010. The verification results show that IAP-REFS is skillful for quantitative precipitation forecasts (QPF) and probabilistic QPF, but it has a systematic bias in forecasting near-surface variables. Applying a 7-day running mean bias correction to the forecasts of near-surface variables remarkably improved the reliability of the forecasts. In this study, the perturbation extraction and inflation method (proposed with the single case study in Part I) was further applied to the full season with different inflation factors. This method increased the ensemble spread and improved the accuracy of forecasts of precipitation and near-surface variables. The seasonal mean profiles of the IAP-REFS ensemble indicate good spread among ensemble members and some model biases at certain vertical levels.

  2. Earthquake and Tsunami Disaster Mitigation in the Marmara Region and Disaster Education in Turkey Part2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaneda, Yoshiyuki; Ozener, Haluk; Meral Özel, Nurcan

    2016-04-01

    Turkey is one of seismogenic countries with destructive earthquakes. In Turkey, the 1999 Izumit Earthquake as the destructive earthquake occurred along the North Anatolian fault. This fault is crossing the Marmara sea. In this SATREPS project, Marmara Sea should be focused on because of a seismic gap in the North Anatolian fault. Istanbul is located around the Marmara Sea, so, if next earthquake in the Marmara will occur near Istanbul, fatal damages will be generated as compound damages including Tsunami and liquefaction etc. The Japan and Turkey can share our own experiences during past damaging earthquakes and we can prepare for future large earthquakes in cooperation with each other. In earthquakes in Tokyo area and Istanbul area as the destructive earthquakes near high population cities, there are common disaster researches and measures in each country. For disaster mitigation, we are progressing multidisciplinary researches in this SATREPS project. Our goals of this SATREPS project are as follows, This project is composed of four research groups. 1) The first group is Marmara Earthquake Source region observationally research group. This group has 4 sub-themes such as Seismicity, Geodesy, Electromagnetics and Trench analyses. 2) The second group focuses on scenario researches of earthquake occurrence along the North Anatolia fault and precise tsunami simulation in the Marmara region. 3) Aims of the third group are improvements and constructions of seismic characterizations and damage predictions based on observation researches and precise simulations. 4) The fourth group is promoting disaster educations using research result visuals. In this SATREPS project, we will integrate these research results for disaster mitigation in Marmara region and disaster education in Turkey. Finally, these results and knowledges will be applied to Japanese disaster mitigation researches and disaster educations. We will have a presentation of the updated results of this SATREPS

  3. New efficient laser dyes for the red region of the spectrum. Part 1. Peri-indenones

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belov, S. P.; Burdukova, O. A.; Komlev, I. V.; Petukhov, V. A.; Povedailo, V. A.; Semenov, M. A.

    2016-07-01

    We report the generation characteristics of ethanol solutions of twenty newly synthesised dyes belonging to peri-indenones, including benzanthrones and phenalemines. The tuning curves of these dyes, generating light in the orange and red spectral regions, are measured, and the wavelength tuning ranges are determined. The dependence of the generation energy on the pump energy in a non-selective cavity is measured. It is shown that some of the synthesised dyes surpass the widely used laser dyes in the energy efficiency and the width of the wavelength tuning range.

  4. THE LIMIT OF MAGNETIC-SHEAR ENERGY IN SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2012-05-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region's magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region's magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a coronal mass ejection/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy-limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free-energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free-energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free-energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non-free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of the order of one in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free-energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than one cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches one, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is one, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  5. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald; Falconer, David; Sterling, Alphonse

    2012-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active-region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region's magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region's magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a coronal mass ejection/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main-sequence path bordering the free-energy-limit line in (flux content, free-energy proxy) phase space. Here, we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free-energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free-energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free-energy limit, the ratio of magnetic-shear free energy to the non-free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of the order of one in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free-energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core-field energy ratio is much less than one cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches one, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is one, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  6. The Limit of Magnetic-Shear Energy in Solar Active Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ronald L.; Falconer, David A.; Sterling, Alphonse C.

    2013-01-01

    It has been found previously, by measuring from active ]region magnetograms a proxy of the free energy in the active region fs magnetic field, (1) that there is a sharp upper limit to the free energy the field can hold that increases with the amount of magnetic field in the active region, the active region fs magnetic flux content, and (2) that most active regions are near this limit when their field explodes in a CME/flare eruption. That is, explosive active regions are concentrated in a main ]sequence path bordering the free ]energy ]limit line in (flux content, free ]energy proxy) phase space. Here we present evidence that specifies the underlying magnetic condition that gives rise to the free ]energy limit and the accompanying main sequence of explosive active regions. Using a suitable free energy proxy measured from vector magnetograms of 44 active regions, we find evidence that (1) in active regions at and near their free ]energy limit, the ratio of magnetic ]shear free energy to the non ]free magnetic energy the potential field would have is of order 1 in the core field, the field rooted along the neutral line, and (2) this ratio is progressively less in active regions progressively farther below their free ]energy limit. Evidently, most active regions in which this core ]field energy ratio is much less than 1 cannot be triggered to explode; as this ratio approaches 1, most active regions become capable of exploding; and when this ratio is 1, most active regions are compelled to explode.

  7. Regional brain cytochrome oxidase activity in beta-amyloid precursor protein transgenic mice with the Swedish mutation.

    PubMed

    Strazielle, C; Sturchler-Pierrat, C; Staufenbiel, M; Lalonde, R

    2003-01-01

    Cytochrome oxidase activity was examined in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease with overexpression of the 751 amino acid isoform of beta-amyloid precursor protein with the Swedish mutation under control of the murine thy-1 promoter. The neuritic plaques, abundantly localized in the hippocampus and anterior neocortical areas, showed a core devoid of enzymatic activity surrounded by higher cytochrome oxidase activity at the sites of the dystrophic neurites and activated glial cells. Quantitative measures, taken only in the healthy-appearing regional areas without neuritic plaques, were higher in numerous limbic and non-limbic regions of transgenic mice in comparison with controls. Enzymatic activity was higher in the dentate gyrus and CA2-CA3 region of the hippocampus, the anterior cingulate and primary visual cortex, two olfactory structures, the ventral part of the neostriatum, the parafascicularis nucleus of the thalamus, and the subthalamic nucleus. Brainstem regions anatomically related with altered forebrain regions were more heavily labeled as well, including the substantia nigra, the periaqueductal gray, the superior colliculus, the medial raphe, the locus coeruleus and the adjacent parabrachial nucleus, as well as the pontine nuclei, red nucleus, and trigeminal motor nucleus. Functional brain organization is discussed in the context of Alzheimer's disease. Although hypometabolism is generally observed in this pathology, the increased cytochrome oxidase activity obtained in these transgenic mice can be the result of a functional compensation on the surviving neurons, or of an early mitochondrial alteration related to increased oxidative damage. PMID:12732258

  8. The impact of shipping emissions on air pollution in the greater North Sea region - Part 1: Current emissions and concentrations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aulinger, A.; Matthias, V.; Zeretzke, M.; Bieser, J.; Quante, M.; Backes, A.

    2016-01-01

    The North Sea is one of the areas with the highest ship traffic densities worldwide. At any time, about 3000 ships are sailing its waterways. Previous scientific publications have shown that ships contribute significantly to atmospheric concentrations of NOx, particulate matter and ozone. Especially in the case of particulate matter and ozone, this influence can even be seen in regions far away from the main shipping routes. In order to quantify the effects of North Sea shipping on air quality in its bordering states, it is essential to determine the emissions from shipping as accurately as possible. Within Interreg IVb project Clean North Sea Shipping (CNSS), a bottom-up approach was developed and used to thoroughly compile such an emission inventory for 2011 that served as the base year for the current emission situation. The innovative aspect of this approach was to use load-dependent functions to calculate emissions from the ships' current activities instead of averaged emission factors for the entire range of the engine loads. These functions were applied to ship activities that were derived from hourly records of Automatic Identification System signals together with a database containing the engine characteristics of the vessels that traveled the North Sea in 2011. The emission model yielded ship emissions among others of NOx and SO2 at high temporal and spatial resolution that were subsequently used in a chemistry transport model in order to simulate the impact of the emissions on pollutant concentration levels. The total emissions of nitrogen reached 540 Gg and those of sulfur oxides 123 Gg within the North Sea - including the adjacent western part of the Baltic Sea until 5° W. This was about twice as much of those of a medium-sized industrialized European state like the Netherlands. The relative contribution of ships to, for example, NO2 concentration levels ashore close to the sea can reach up to 25 % in summer and 15 % in winter. Some hundred kilometers

  9. Soil occupation and atmospheric variations over Sobradinho Lake area. Part two: a regional modeling study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correia, M. F.; da Silva Dias, M. A. F.; da Silva Aragão, M. R.

    2006-11-01

    The impact of the changes on soil cover and land use brought about by the construction of the Sobradinho Dam in the semi-arid region of the São Francisco River Hydrographic Basin is analyzed by means of a numerical model RAMS. Disregarding the influence of a large scale flow, a set of factors were responsible for the creation of a rather complex circulation system that includes mountain-valley winds, lake breeze (LB) and non-conventional circulation all induced by the surface non-homogeneous aspect. Results have demonstrated that the implementation of works of such magnitude brings about environmental changes in an area that stretches far beyond the surroundings of the reservoir. The soil cover alterations due to the ever increasing development of the area with the presence of irrigated crops in a sparsely vegetated region ( caatinga) does affect land surface characteristics, occasioning for that matter the splitting of the available energy into latent and sensible heat fluxes. LB behavior varies in accordance with atmospheric conditions and also in view of the type of vegetation found in the lake surrounding areas. Hydro availability in root zones, even under adverse atmospheric conditions (high temperature and low air humidity) brings up the high rates of evaporation and plant transpiration that contribute towards the increase of humidity and the fall of temperature in lower atmospheric layers.

  10. Ambient seismic noise tomography of Canada and adjacent regions: Part I. Crustal structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Honn; Behr, Yannik; Currie, Claire A.; Hyndman, Roy; Townend, John; Lin, Fan-Chi; Ritzwoller, Michael H.; Shan, Shao-Ju; He, Jiangheng

    2013-11-01

    paper presents the first continental-scale study of the crust and upper mantle shear velocity (Vs) structure of Canada and adjacent regions using ambient noise tomography. Continuous waveform data recorded between 2003 and 2009 with 788 broadband seismograph stations in Canada and adjacent regions were used in the analysis. The higher primary frequency band of the ambient noise provides better resolution of crustal structures than previous tomographic models based on earthquake waveforms. Prominent low velocity anomalies are observed at shallow depths (<20 km) beneath the Gulf of St. Lawrence in east Canada, the sedimentary basins of west Canada, and the Cordillera. In contrast, the Canadian Shield exhibits high crustal velocities. We characterize the crust-mantle transition in terms of not only its depth and velocity but also its sharpness, defined by its thickness and the amount of velocity increase. Considerable variations in the physical properties of the crust-mantle transition are observed across Canada. Positive correlations between the crustal thickness, Moho velocity, and the thickness of the transition are evident throughout most of the craton except near Hudson Bay where the uppermost mantle Vs is relatively low. Prominent vertical Vs gradients are observed in the midcrust beneath the Cordillera and beneath most of the Canadian Shield. The midcrust velocity contrast beneath the Cordillera may correspond to a detachment zone associated with high temperatures immediately beneath, whereas the large midcrust velocity gradient beneath the Canadian Shield probably represents an ancient rheological boundary between the upper and lower crust.

  11. 6 CFR Appendix B to Part 21 - Activities to Which This Part Applies When a Primary Objective of the Federal Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Pt. 21, App. B Appendix B to Part 21—Activities to Which This... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Activities to Which This Part Applies When a... Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY NONDISCRIMINATION ON THE...

  12. Orientation of functional activating regions in the Escherichia coli CRP protein during transcription activation at class II promoters.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, R M; Rhodius, V A; Bell, A I; Kolb, A; Busby, S J

    1996-01-01

    At class II CRP-dependent promoters the DNA site for CRP overlaps the DNA site for RNA polymerase, covering the -35 region. Transcription activation at class II CRP- dependent promoters requires a contact between an activating region in the upstream subunit of the bound CRP dimer and a contact site in the C-terminal domain of the alpha-subunit of RNA polymerase. Transcription activation is suppressed by amino acid substitutions in the activating region, but activation can be restored by second site substitutions at K52 or E96. These substitutions identify two separate regions on the surface of CRP that appear to be able to interact with RNA polymerase specifically at class II promoters. Using the method of 'oriented heterodimers' we show that these alternative activating regions are functional in the downstream subunit of the bound CRP dimer. PMID:8604346

  13. Analysis of body calcium (regional changes in body calcium by in vivo neutron activation analysis)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Suki, W.; Johnson, P. C.; Leblanc, A.; Evans, H. J.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of space flight on urine and fecal calcium loss was documented during the three long-term Skylab flights. Neutron activation analysis was used to determine regional calcium loss. Various designs for regional analysis were investigated.

  14. Paleotectonic investigations of the Pennsylvanian System in the United States, part I: introduction and regional analyses of the Pennsylvanian System

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKee, Edwin D.; Crosby, Eleanor J.; Bachman, George O.; Bell, Kenneth G.; Dixon, George H.; Frezon, Sherwood E.; Glick, Ernest E.; Irwin, William P.; Mallory, William W.; Mapel, William J.; Maughan, Edwin K.; Prichard, George E.; Shideler, Gerald L.; Stewart, Gary F.; Wanless, Harold R.; Wilson, Richard F.

    1975-01-01

    The Pennsylvanian is the fourth geologic system to be analyzed and synthesized by geologists of the U.S. Geological Survey in the form of a paleotectonic study covering the conterminous United States. Earlier investigations were of the Jurassic, Triassic, and Permian Systems. Results were published as Miscellaneous Geologic Investigation Maps I-175, I-300, and I-450 and in Professional Paper 515. The objective of these investigations is to provide in graphic form the factual basis for recognition of tectonic events of each system on a countrywide scale. The maps in this publication depict rock thickness, generalized lithology, ancient geography, and other regional relations of the Pennsylvanian System. Method of preparation of the maps, the stratigraphic limits of the map units, and various stratigraphic and structural features and their probable tectonic significance are discussed. Pennsylvanian data were largely compiled between 1961 and 196 by 16 geologists, including the late Harold R. Wanless, who covered the five eastern regions and contributed to several of the special studies. The areas of responsibility of the cooperating geologists are indicated in figure 1. Work in Kansas was done by Gary F. Stewart, of the Kansas Geological Survey. Results of this investigation are presented in three units. Part I comprises an introduction and 17 chapters, each describing and discussing one of the regions in which the conterminous United States was divided for purposes of study and mapping. Part II is a synthesis of Pennsylvanian history to accompany interpretive maps of the five divisions of the Pennsylvanian System treated in this publication; it also includes a series of chapters on depositional environments, climatic conditions, and economic products of the system. The final section of part II is devoted to an index of localities and sources used in construction of the principal maps of this publication. Part III consists of the plates on which are presented the

  15. The multi-thermal emission in solar active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Zanna, G.

    2013-10-01

    We present simultaneous SDO AIA and Hinode EIS observations of the hot cores of active regions (ARs) and assess the dominant contributions to the AIA EUV bands. This is an extension of our previous work. We find good agreement between SDO AIA, EVE and EIS observations, using our new EIS calibration and the latest EVE v.3 data. We find that all the AIA bands are multi-thermal, with the exception of the 171 and 335 Å, and provide ways to roughly estimate the main contributions directly from the AIA data. We present and discuss new atomic data for the AIA bands, showing that they are now sufficiently complete to obtain temperature information in the cores of ARs, with the exception of the 211 Å band. We found that the newly identified Fe xiv 93.61 Å line is the dominant contribution to the 94 Å band, whenever Fe xviii is not present. Three methods to estimate the Fe xviii emission in this band are presented, two using EIS and one directly from the AIA data. Fe xviii emission is often present in the cores of ARs, but we found cases where it is formed at 3 MK and not 7 MK, the temperature of peak ion abundance in equilibrium. The best EIS lines for elemental abundance determination and differential emission measure (DEM) analysis are discussed. A new set of abundances for many elements are obtained from EIS observations of hot 3 MK loops. The abundances of the elements with low first ionisation potential (FIP), relative to those of the high-FIP elements, are found to be enhanced by about a factor of three, compared to the photospheric values. A measurement of the path length implies that the absolute abundances of the low-FIP elements are higher than the photospheric values by at least a factor of three. We present a new DEM method customised for the AIA bands, to study the thermal structure of ARs at 1'' resolution. This was tested on a few ARs, including one observed during the Hi-C rocket flight. We found excellent agreement between predicted and observed AIA

  16. The solar atmosphere and the structure of active regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, P. A.

    1974-01-01

    The existence of 'holes' in the corona is reported characterized by abnormally low densities and temperatures. It was found that such coronal holes appear to be the source of high-velocity, enhanced-density streams in the solar wind as observed at the earth's orbit. It was further noted that coronal holes appear to be associated with regions of diverging magnetic fields in the corona. Models were developed to accomplish the objective for the principal energy flows in the transition region and corona.

  17. Antibody Constant Region Peptides Can Display Immunomodulatory Activity through Activation of the Dectin-1 Signalling Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Cenci, Elio; Monari, Claudia; Magliani, Walter; Ciociola, Tecla; Conti, Stefania; Gatti, Rita; Bistoni, Francesco; Polonelli, Luciano; Vecchiarelli, Anna

    2012-01-01

    We previously reported that a synthetic peptide with sequence identical to a CDR of a mouse monoclonal antibody specific for difucosyl human blood group A exerted an immunomodulatory activity on murine macrophages. It was therapeutic against systemic candidiasis without possessing direct candidacidal properties. Here we demonstrate that a selected peptide, N10K, putatively deriving from the enzymatic cleavage of the constant region (Fc) of human IgG1, is able to induce IL-6 secretion and pIkB-α activation. More importantly, it causes an up-regulation of Dectin-1 expression. This leads to an increased activation of β-glucan-induced pSyk, CARD9 and pIkB-α, and an increase in the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-12, IL-1β and TNF-α. The increased activation of this pathway coincides with an augmented phagocytosis of non opsonized Candida albicans cells by monocytes. The findings suggest that some Fc-peptides, potentially deriving from the proteolysis of immunoglobulins, may cause an unexpected immunoregulation in a way reminiscent of innate immunity molecules. PMID:22952831

  18. LOW-LATITUDE CORONAL HOLES, DECAYING ACTIVE REGIONS, AND GLOBAL CORONAL MAGNETIC STRUCTURE

    SciTech Connect

    Petrie, G. J. D.; Haislmaier, K. J.

    2013-10-01

    We study the relationship between decaying active-region magnetic fields, coronal holes, and the global coronal magnetic structure using Global Oscillations Network Group synoptic magnetograms, Solar TErrestrial RElations Observatory extreme-ultraviolet synoptic maps, and coronal potential-field source-surface models. We analyze 14 decaying regions and associated coronal holes occurring between early 2007 and late 2010, 4 from cycle 23 and 10 from cycle 24. We investigate the relationship between asymmetries in active regions' positive and negative magnetic intensities, asymmetric magnetic decay rates, flux imbalances, global field structure, and coronal hole formation. Whereas new emerging active regions caused changes in the large-scale coronal field, the coronal fields of the 14 decaying active regions only opened under the condition that the global coronal structure remained almost unchanged. This was because the dominant slowly varying, low-order multipoles prevented opposing-polarity fields from opening and the remnant active-region flux preserved the regions' low-order multipole moments long after the regions had decayed. Thus, the polarity of each coronal hole necessarily matched the polar field on the side of the streamer belt where the corresponding active region decayed. For magnetically isolated active regions initially located within the streamer belt, the more intense polarity generally survived to form the hole. For non-isolated regions, flux imbalance and topological asymmetry prompted the opposite to occur in some cases.

  19. A Tale of Two Super-Active Active Regions: On the Magnetic Origin of Flares and CMEs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jie; Dhakal, Suman; Chintzoglou, Georgios

    2015-04-01

    From a comparative study of two super-active active regions, we find that the magnetic origin of CMEs is different from that of flares. NOAA AR 12192 is one of the largest active regions in the recorded history with a sunspot number of 66 and area of 2410 millonths. During its passage through the front disk from Oct. 14-30, 2014, the active region produced 93 C-class, 30 M-class and 6 X-class flares. However, all six X-class flares are confined; in other words, none of them are associated with CMEs; most other flares are also confined. This behavior of low-CME production rate for such as a super active region is rather peculiar, given the usual hand-on-hand occurrence of CMEs with flares. To further strengthen this point, we also investigated the super-active NOAA AR 11429, which had a sunspot number of 28 and area of 1270 millionths. During its passage from March 02-17, 2012, the active region produced 47 C-class, 15 M-class and 3 X-class flares. In this active region, all three X-class flares were accompanied by CMEs, and the same for most M-class flares. Given the relative sizes of the two active regions, the production rates of flares are comparable. But the CME production rates are not. Through a careful study of the magnetic configuration on the surface and the extrapolated magnetic field in the corona, we argue that the generation of flares largely depends on the amount of free energy in the active region. On the other hand, the generation of CMEs largely depends on the complexity, such as measured by magnetic helicity. In particular, we argue that the high CME generation rate in the smaller active region is caused by the emergence and continuous generation of magnetic flux ropes in the region.

  20. Broca's region and Visual Word Form Area activation differ during a predictive Stroop task.

    PubMed

    Wallentin, Mikkel; Gravholt, Claus Højbjerg; Skakkebæk, Anne

    2015-12-01

    Competing theories attempt to explain the function of Broca's area in single word processing. Studies have found the region to be more active during processing of pseudo words than real words and during infrequent words relative to frequent words and during Stroop (incongruent) color words compared to Non-Stroop (congruent) words. Two related theories explain these findings as reflecting either "cognitive control" processing in the face of conflicting input or a linguistic prediction error signal, based on a predictive coding approach. The latter implies that processing cost refers to violations of expectations based on the statistical distributions of input. In this fMRI experiment we attempted to disentangle single word processing cost originating from cognitive conflict and that stemming from predictive expectation violation. Participants (N = 49) responded to whether the words "GREEN" or "RED" were displayed in green or red (incongruent vs congruent colors). One of the colors, however, was presented three times as often as the other, making it possible to study both congruency and frequency effects independently. Auditory stimuli saying "GREEN" or "RED" had the same distribution, making it possible to study frequency effects across modalities. We found significant behavioral effects of both incongruency and frequency. A significant effect (p < .05 FWE) of incongruency was found in Broca's region, but no effect of frequency was observed and no interaction. Conjoined effects of incongruency and frequency were found in parietal regions as well as in the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA). No interaction between perceptual modality and frequency was found in VWFA suggesting that the region is not strictly visual. These findings speak against a strong version of the prediction error processing hypothesis in Broca's region. They support the idea that prediction error processes in the intermediate timeframe are allocated to more posterior parts of the brain. PMID:26478962

  1. Chromospheric and photospheric evolution of an extremely active solar region in solar cycle 19

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mckenna-Lawlor, S. M. P.

    1981-01-01

    a comprehensive investigation was made of phenomena attending the disk passage, July 7 to 21, 1959, of active solar center HAO-59Q. At the photospheric level that comprised an aggregate of groups of sunspots of which one group, Mt. Wilson 14284, showed all the attributes deemed typical of solar regions associated with the production of major flares. A special characteristic of 59Q was its capability to eject dark material. Part of this material remained trapped in the strong magnetic fields above group 14284 where it formed a system of interrelated arches, the legs of which passed through components of the bright chromospheric network of the plage and were rooted in various underlying umbrae. Two apparently diffeent kinds of flare were identified in 59Q; namely, prominence flares (which comprised brightenings within part of the suspended dark prominence) and plage flares (which comprised brightenings within part of the chromospheric network). Prominence flares were of three varieties described as 'impact', 'stationary' and 'moving' prominence flares. Plage flares were accompanied in 3 percent of cases by Type III bursts. These latter radio events indicate the associated passage through the corona of energetic electrons in the approximate energy range 10 to 100 keV. At least 87.5 percent, and probably all, impulsive brightenings in 59Q began directly above minor spots, many of which satellites to major umbrae. Stationary and moving prominence flares were individually triggered at sites beneath which magnetic changes occurred within intervals which included each flare's flash phase.

  2. Chromospheric and photospheric evolution of an extremely active solar region in solar cycle 19

    SciTech Connect

    Mckenna-Lawlor, S.M.P.

    1981-08-01

    a comprehensive investigation was made of phenomena attending the disk passage, July 7 to 21, 1959, of active solar center HAO-59Q. At the photospheric level that comprised an aggregate of groups of sunspots of which one group, Mt. Wilson 14284, showed all the attributes deemed typical of solar regions associated with the production of major flares. A special characteristic of 59Q was its capability to eject dark material. Part of this material remained trapped in the strong magnetic fields above group 14284 where it formed a system of interrelated arches, the legs of which passed through components of the bright chromospheric network of the plage and were rooted in various underlying umbrae. Two apparently diffeent kinds of flare were identified in 59Q namely, prominence flares (which comprised brightenings within part of the suspended dark prominence) and plage flares (which comprised brightenings within part of the chromospheric network). Prominence flares were of three varieties described as 'impact', 'stationary' and 'moving' prominence flares. Plage flares were accompanied in 3 percent of cases by Type III bursts. These latter radio events indicate the associated passage through the corona of energetic electrons in the approximate energy range 10 to 100 keV. At least 87.5 percent, and probably all, impulsive brightenings in 59Q began directly above minor spots, many of which satellites to major umbrae. Stationary and moving prominence flares were individually triggered at sites beneath which magnetic changes occurred within intervals which included each flare's flash phase.

  3. High rate of unrecognized dengue virus infection in parts of the rainforest region of Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Onoja, A B; Adeniji, J A; Olaleye, O D

    2016-08-01

    Outbreaks and sporadic dengue virus infections continue to occur in Africa. Several reports of dengue among travellers returning from some African countries to Europe and North America have raised concerns about the epidemiological situation in Africa. We investigated recent dengue infections in febrile patients during the rainy season in various urban centres in the rainforest region of Nigeria, West Africa. This cross-sectional study was conducted for 8 months in 2014 with study participants from Adeoyo Hospital Yemetu - Ibadan, Nigeria. Plasma were collected from 274 febrile patients residing in 11 Local Government Areas of Oyo State. IgM antibodies were determined using semi-quantitative sandwich ELISA. Data was analyzed using Chi - Square and Fisher's exact test with SPSS 16.0. An overall prevalence of 23.4% dengue virus infection was found among study participants. Highest monthly prevalence of 40% was in April and August. The monthly distribution pattern of dengue virus infection indicates efficient virus transmission. Routine diagnosis will enhance dengue virus surveillance and improve patient care in West Africa. PMID:27140859

  4. Spectral tuning by opsin coexpression in retinal regions that view different parts of the visual field.

    PubMed

    Dalton, Brian E; Loew, Ellis R; Cronin, Thomas W; Carleton, Karen L

    2014-12-22

    Vision frequently mediates critical behaviours, and photoreceptors must respond to the light available to accomplish these tasks. Most photoreceptors are thought to contain a single visual pigment, an opsin protein bound to a chromophore, which together determine spectral sensitivity. Mechanisms of spectral tuning include altering the opsin, changing the chromophore and incorporating pre-receptor filtering. A few exceptions to the use of a single visual pigment have been documented in which a single mature photoreceptor coexpresses opsins that form spectrally distinct visual pigments, and in these exceptions the functional significance of coexpression is unclear. Here we document for the first time photoreceptors coexpressing spectrally distinct opsin genes in a manner that tunes sensitivity to the light environment. Photoreceptors of the cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra, mix different pairs of opsins in retinal regions that view distinct backgrounds. The mixing of visual pigments increases absorbance of the corresponding background, potentially aiding the detection of dark objects. Thus, opsin coexpression may be a novel mechanism of spectral tuning that could be useful for detecting prey, predators and mates. However, our calculations show that coexpression of some opsins can hinder colour discrimination, creating a trade-off between visual functions. PMID:25377457

  5. Regional parent flood frequency distributions in Europe - Part 2: Climate and scale controls

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salinas, J. L.; Castellarin, A.; Kohnová, S.; Kjeldsen, T. R.

    2014-11-01

    This study aims to better understand the effect of catchment scale and climate on the statistical properties of regional flood frequency distributions. A database of L-moment ratios of annual maximum series (AMS) of peak discharges from Austria, Italy and Slovakia, involving a total of 813 catchments with more than 25 yr of record length is presented, together with mean annual precipitation (MAP) and basin area as catchment descriptors surrogates of climate and scale controls. A purely data-based investigation performed on the database shows that the generalized extreme value (GEV) distribution provides a better representation of the averaged sample L-moment ratios compared to the other distributions considered, for catchments with medium to higher values of MAP independently of catchment area, while the three-parameter lognormal distribution is probably a more appropriate choice for drier (lower MAP) intermediate-sized catchments, which presented higher skewness values. Sample L-moment ratios do not follow systematically any of the theoretical two-parameter distributions. In particular, the averaged values of L-coefficient of skewness (L-Cs) are always larger than Gumbel's fixed L-Cs. The results presented in this paper contribute to the progress in defining a set of "process-driven" pan-European flood frequency distributions and to assess possible effects of environmental change on its properties.

  6. Spectral tuning by opsin coexpression in retinal regions that view different parts of the visual field

    PubMed Central

    Dalton, Brian E.; Loew, Ellis R.; Cronin, Thomas W.; Carleton, Karen L.

    2014-01-01

    Vision frequently mediates critical behaviours, and photoreceptors must respond to the light available to accomplish these tasks. Most photoreceptors are thought to contain a single visual pigment, an opsin protein bound to a chromophore, which together determine spectral sensitivity. Mechanisms of spectral tuning include altering the opsin, changing the chromophore and incorporating pre-receptor filtering. A few exceptions to the use of a single visual pigment have been documented in which a single mature photoreceptor coexpresses opsins that form spectrally distinct visual pigments, and in these exceptions the functional significance of coexpression is unclear. Here we document for the first time photoreceptors coexpressing spectrally distinct opsin genes in a manner that tunes sensitivity to the light environment. Photoreceptors of the cichlid fish, Metriaclima zebra, mix different pairs of opsins in retinal regions that view distinct backgrounds. The mixing of visual pigments increases absorbance of the corresponding background, potentially aiding the detection of dark objects. Thus, opsin coexpression may be a novel mechanism of spectral tuning that could be useful for detecting prey, predators and mates. However, our calculations show that coexpression of some opsins can hinder colour discrimination, creating a trade-off between visual functions. PMID:25377457

  7. THE 'MAIN SEQUENCE' OF EXPLOSIVE SOLAR ACTIVE REGIONS: DISCOVERY AND INTERPRETATION

    SciTech Connect

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Adams, Mitzi; Gary, G. Allen

    2009-08-01

    We examine the location and distribution of the production of coronal mass ejections (CMEs) and major flares by sunspot active regions in the phase space of two whole-active-region magnetic quantities measured from 1897 SOHO/MDI magnetograms. These magnetograms track the evolution of 44 active regions across the central disk of radius 0.5 R {sub Sun}. The two quantities are {sup L}WL{sub SG}, a gauge of the total free energy in an active region's magnetic field, and {sup L}{phi}, a measure of the active region's total magnetic flux. From these data and each active region's history of production of CMEs, X flares, and M flares, we find (1) that CME/flare-productive active regions are concentrated in a straight-line 'main sequence' in (log {sup L}WL{sub SG}, log {sup L}{phi}) space, (2) that main-sequence active regions have nearly their maximum attainable free magnetic energy, and (3) evidence that this arrangement plausibly results from equilibrium between input of free energy to an explosive active region's magnetic field in the chromosphere and corona by contortion of the field via convection in and below the photosphere and loss of free energy via CMEs, flares, and coronal heating, an equilibrium between energy gain and loss that is analogous to that of the main sequence of hydrogen-burning stars in (mass, luminosity) space.

  8. 2011 Operations and Maintenance Activities in the East Region of UNAVCO's Plate Boundary Observatory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dittmann, T.; Feaux, K.; Kasmer, D.; Jenkins, F.; Mencin, D.

    2011-12-01

    2011 marked Year 3 of Operations and Maintenance of the Plate Boundary Observatory (PBO). In the East Region of PBO, it was a year characterized by several major projects as well as scheduled ongoing maintenance activities. The most significant major project was a USGS/ARRA funded communications upgrade in Yellowstone National Park. This upgrade consisted of bringing 8 existing PBO stations within the Yellowstone volcanic region to near real-time communications. This work will be completed on time and in collaboration with the National Park Service. The upgrade promises to provide much faster latency for invaluable data being recorded for one of the most geodetically critical regions of the current PBO network. Another significant ongoing project in the East Region has been supporting the community that continues to use PBO data. In particular, support of Kristine Larson (Univ of CO) both in installing webcams at PBO sites for monitoring snow depth as well as supporting vegetative surveys at current PBO sites. Similarly, the East Region responded promptly to the community with requests for data quality issues that are station hardware related, including replacing GPS antennae and receivers. With regards to ongoing operations and maintenance projects, reasons for site visits in 2011 were dominated by two significant situations: battery replacement and CDMA modem swaps. 83 site visits were required as part of the Operations and Maintenance strategic battery plan of 5 year battery replacements. This proved to be a considerable challenge due to the scale and geography of the scheduled replacements- the sites were spread throughout the entire network, east to west and north to south. 20 station visits were required due to a Verizon upgrade of the older Alltel network purchased by Verizon. These stations are predominantly in the Rocky Mountain region, but often times had limited access to due weather. Overall, despite record snowfalls throughout the west, state of health

  9. Lightning activity and aerosols in the Mediterranean region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proestakis, E.; Kazadzis, S.; Lagouvardos, K.; Kotroni, V.; Kazantzidis, A.

    2016-03-01

    In the framework of this study, the effect of aerosols on lightning activity has been investigated for the first time over the broader Mediterranean Sea. Atmospheric optical depth data retrieved by MODIS on board Aqua satellite and cloud to ground lightning activity data provided by ZEUS network operated by the National Observatory of Athens were analyzed for a time period spanning from 01/01/2005 up to 31/12/2013. The results indicate the importance of aerosols in lightning modulation. The mean aerosol optical depth (AOD) values of the days with lightning activity were found to be higher than the mean seasonal AOD in 90% of the under study domain. Furthermore, the increasing rate of lightning activity with increasing aerosol loading was found to be more pronounced during summertime and for AOD values up to 0.4. Additionally, the spatial analysis showed that the percentage of days with lightning activity during summertime is increasing with increasing AOD. Finally, time series showed similar temporal behavior between AOD seasonal anomalies and days with lightning activity differences. Both the spatial and temporal analysis showed that lightning activity is correlated to AOD, a characteristic consistent for all seasons.

  10. Agricultural terraces montoring and modeling: a field survey in Chianti region, Firenze, Italy – Second part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preti, Federico; Caruso, Marco; Dani, Andrea; Cassiani, Giorgio; Romano, Nunzio; Tarolli, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The two abstracts present the design and set-up of an experimental campaign which aims at sup-porting the modeling (conceptual and numerical) of water circulation in a terraced slope, and its in-fluence on stability of retaining dry stone walls. The case study is located at "Fattoria di Lamole" (Greve in Chianti, Firenze, Italy). At Lamole site both ancient and recently restored or rebuilt (with different techniques) dry stone walls are present. Furthermore the intense vineyards cultivation makes it very representative in terms of range of external stresses that affect both hillslopes and wall. The survey is developed within the bigger framework of landscape preservation as a way to prevent hydrogeological instabilities and landslide risks. Second Part A second effort is devoted to couple hydrological, hydraulic and geotechnical modeling: - Flow directions and the drainage area have been derived from DTM (high-resolution digital terrain model obtained by a terrestrial laser scanner.), and served for the RPII index calcula-tion (Tarolli et al., 2013), that is coherent with the critical spots observed in situ and marked with GPS. - Direct shear test on undisturbed and reconstituted soil samples will offer an estimation of the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope parameters (friction angle and cohesion). - Retention curves related with different depths have been derived. - Geoelectric analysis in order to locate the bedrock and to determine the subterranean water flows originated from controlled infitration tests (1 l/s discharge). - A simple dry-wall stability model has been carried out; this model analyses the wall stability with finite elements method, evaluating pressures derived from uphill water infiltration, stone friction and buoyancy in retaining wall layers: simulated deformation are suitable with the observed ones. Acknowledgements Italian Research Project of Relevant Interest (PRIN2010-2011), prot. 20104ALME4, National network for monitoring, modeling, and

  11. Agricultural terraces montoring and modeling: a field survey in Chianti region, Firenze, Italy - First part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Preti, Federico; Caruso, Marco; Dani, Andrea; Errico, Alessandro; Guastini, Enrico; Trucchi, Paolo

    2015-04-01

    The two abstracts present the design and set-up of an experimental field plant whose aim is the study and modeling of water circulation in a terraced slope together with its influence on the stability of the retaining dry stone walls. The pilot plant is located at "Fattoria di Lamole" (Greve in Chianti, Firenze, Italy) where both ancient and recently restored or rebuilt dry stone retaining walls are present. The intense vineyards cultivation makes it very representative in terms of range of external stresses that affect both hillslopes and walls. The research is developed within a bigger framework of landscape preservation as a way to prevent hydrogeological instabilities and landslide risks. First Part A first/preliminary field survey was carried out in order to estimate the hydraulic and mechanical soil characteristics. Field saturated hydraulic conductivity measurements with the Simplified Falling Head (SFH) method on a terrace along an alignment were performed. Infiltrometer tests with a double ring device and soil texture determinations with both fine particle-size and skeleton fraction distributions were also performed. The Direct shear test on undisturbed and reconstituted soil samples will offer an estimation of the Mohr-Coulomb failure envelope parameters (friction angle and cohesion). A reference portion of a dry stone wall will be also monitored. Lateral earth pressure at backfill-retaining wall interface (compared to temperature and air pressure measured values), backfill volumetric water content (both in saturated and unsaturated states) and ground-water level are measured. Acknowledgements Italian Research Project of Relevant Interest (PRIN2010-2011), prot. 20104ALME4, National network for monitoring, modeling, and sustainable management of erosion processes in agricultural land and hilly-mountainous area

  12. Landslide susceptibility zonation in part of Tehri reservoir region using frequency ratio, fuzzy logic and GIS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, Rohan; Anbalagan, R.

    2015-03-01

    A comprehensive study for the identification of landslide susceptible zones using landslide frequency ratio and fuzzy logic in GIS environment is presented for Tehri reservoir rim region (Uttarakhand, India). Temporal remote sensing data was used to prepare important landslide causative factor layers and landslide inventory. Primary and secondary topographic attributes namely slope, aspect, relative relief, profile curvature, topographic wetness index, and stream power index, were derived from digital elevation model. Landslide frequency ratio technique was adopted to correlate factors with landslides. Further, fuzzy logic method was applied for the integration of factors (causative factor) to map landslide susceptible zones. Normalized landslide frequency ratio value was used for the fuzzy membership function and different fuzzy operators were considered for the preparation of landslide susceptibility/hazard index map. The factors considered in this study were found to be carrying a wide range of information. Accordingly, a methodology was evolved to integrate the factors using combined fuzzy gamma and fuzzy OR operation. Fuzzy gamma integration was performed for six different gamma values (range: 0-1). Gamma value of 0.95 was selected for the preparation of final susceptibility map. Landslide susceptibility index map was divided into the following five hazard zones - very low, low, moderate, high, and very high - on the basis of natural break classification. Validation of the model was performed by using cumulative percentage curve technique. Area under curve value of cumulative percentage curve of proposed landslide susceptibility map (gamma = 0.95) was found to be 0.834 and it can be said that 83.4% accuracy was achieved by applying combined fuzzy logic and landslide frequency ratio method.

  13. Orbital-science investigation: Part O: regional variations in the magnitude of heiligenschein and causal connections

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wildey, Robert L.

    1972-01-01

    Approximately 35 reasonably good candidates for specialized photometric studies were found during a thorough examination of the frames exposed by the Apollo 15 metric camera. Of these, the majority was of value in heiligenschein studies (refs. 25-36 to 25-38). A few were of value for limited-interval delineation of the photometric functions of crater walls, wherein it is now known from past Apollo Program studies that younger craters have walls much more Lambertian in reflective properties than those of the standard lunar surface (ref. 25-39). It has now become apparent that some difficulty exists in such crater-wall studies with regard to varying the domain of mathematical definition over which such photometric functions are delineated to encompass much more of phase-angle-brightness-longitude space than has already been carried out Nearer to zero-phase angle, the brightness of the illuminated wall becomes so intense compared with the general luminance of the surrounding lunar terrain that it approaches the saturated region of the D/log E curve of the photograph where D is density and E is exposure. Conversely, for phase angles approaching 180°, most of the illuminated wall is seen so obliquely that the image size is small and reliable photometry is difficult. Also, difficulties inherent in the methodology exist—the descriptive geometry used to extract configurations begins to fail as craters become either too old or are imaged too near a vertical view Nevertheless, some useful candidates for crater-wall studies have been found in the Apollo 15 data, although their analysis is too lengthy for incorporation in this preliminary report.

  14. Soil loss tolerance in the central chernozemic region of the European part of Russia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuznetsov, M. S.; Abdulkhanova, D. R.

    2013-07-01

    To calculate the soil loss tolerance for chernozems of the central chernozemic region, a linear modification of Skidmore's equation was used. The soil loss tolerance values were obtained with due account for the soil type, the degree of erodibility, and the crop rotation pattern. The maximum possible value (10 t/ha per year) was obtained for a typical noneroded chernozem in all the crop rotations. Close values were obtained for noneroded leached and typical chernozems (9.6-9.9 t/ha per year depending on the crop rotation pattern). The soil loss tolerance for the noneroded podzolized chernozem was somewhat lower: 9.1 t/ha per year in the grain-herb-intertilled crop rotation and 6.3 t/ha/year in the grain-intertilled crop rotation. With an increase in the degree of the soil erosion, the soil loss tolerance decreased in all the variants of the experiment with an especially abrupt decrease in the grain-intertilled crop rotation (from 9.9-10.0 to 0.3-2.0 t/ha per year in the, respectively, noneroded and slightly eroded ordinary and typical chernozems). In the grain-herb-intertilled crop rotation, these differences were much smaller: in the slightly eroded typical chernozem the soil loss tolerance was estimated at 9.7 t/ha per year, while, in the slightly eroded typical chernozem, at 8.1 t/ha per year. The moderately eroded chernozems without the addition of manure could only be used in the grain-herb-intertilled crop rotation; the soil loss tolerance was estimated at 9.0 t/ha per year for the typical chernozem and 4.3 t/ha per year for the ordinary chernozem.

  15. Seismic activity monitoring in the Izvorul Muntelui dam region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borleanu, Felix; Otilia Placinta, Anca; Popa, Mihaela; Adelin Moldovan, Iren; Popescu, Emilia

    2016-04-01

    Earthquakes occurrences near the artificial water reservoirs are caused by stress variation due to the weight of water, weakness of fractures or faults and increasing of pore pressure in crustal rocks. In the present study we aim to investigate how Izvorul Muntelui dam, located in the Eastern Carpathians influences local seismicity. For this purpose we selected from the seismic bulletins computed within National Data Center of National Institute for Earth Physics, Romania, crustal events occurred between 984 and 2015 in a range of 0.3 deg around the artificial lake. Subsequently to improve the seismic monitoring of the region we applied a cross-correlation detector on the continuous recordings of Bicaz (BIZ) seismic stations. Besides the tectonic events we detected sources within this region that periodically generate artificial evens. We couldn't emphasize the existence of a direct correlation between the water level variations and natural seismicity of the investigated area.

  16. CMOS Active Pixel Sensor Star Tracker with Regional Electronic Shutter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly; Pain, Bedabrata; Staller, Craig; Clark, Christopher; Fossum, Eric

    1996-01-01

    The guidance system in a spacecraft determines spacecraft attitude by matching an observed star field to a star catalog....An APS(active pixel sensor)-based system can reduce mass and power consumption and radiation effects compared to a CCD(charge-coupled device)-based system...This paper reports an APS (active pixel sensor) with locally variable times, achieved through individual pixel reset (IPR).

  17. The KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 2: Application to the Zurich case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronco, P.; Bullo, M.; Torresan, S.; Critto, A.; Olschewski, R.; Zappa, M.; Marcomini, A.

    2014-07-01

    The main objective of the paper is the application of the KULTURisk Regional Risk Assessment (KR-RRA) methodology, presented in the companion paper (Part 1, Ronco et al., 2014), to the Sihl River valley, in Switzerland. Through a tuning process of the methodology to the site-specific context and features, flood related risks have been assessed for different receptors lying on the Sihl River valley including the city of Zurich, which represents a typical case of river flooding in urban area. After characterizing the peculiarities of the specific case study, risk maps have been developed under a 300 years return period scenario (selected as baseline) for six identified relevant targets, exposed to flood risk in the Sihl valley, namely: people, economic activities (including buildings, infrastructures and agriculture), natural and semi-natural systems and cultural heritage. Finally, the total risk index map, which allows to identify and rank areas and hotspots at risk by means of Multi Criteria Decision Analysis tools, has been produced to visualize the spatial pattern of flood risk within the area of study. By means of a tailored participative approach, the total risk maps supplement the consideration of technical experts with the (essential) point of view of the relevant stakeholders for the appraisal of the specific scores and weights related to the receptor-relative risks. The total risk maps obtained for the Sihl River case study are associated with the lower classes of risk. In general, higher relative risks are concentrated in the deeply urbanized area within and around the Zurich city centre and areas that rely just behind to the Sihl River course. Here, forecasted injuries and potential fatalities are mainly due to high population density and high presence of old (vulnerable) people; inundated buildings are mainly classified as continuous and discontinuous urban fabric; flooded roads, pathways and railways, the majority of them referring to the Zurich main

  18. KULTURisk regional risk assessment methodology for water-related natural hazards - Part 2: Application to the Zurich case study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ronco, P.; Bullo, M.; Torresan, S.; Critto, A.; Olschewski, R.; Zappa, M.; Marcomini, A.

    2015-03-01

    The aim of this paper is the application of the KULTURisk regional risk assessment (KR-RRA) methodology, presented in the companion paper (Part 1, Ronco et al., 2014), to the Sihl River basin, in northern Switzerland. Flood-related risks have been assessed for different receptors lying on the Sihl River valley including Zurich, which represents a typical case of river flooding in an urban area, by calibrating the methodology to the site-specific context and features. Risk maps and statistics have been developed using a 300-year return period scenario for six relevant targets exposed to flood risk: people; economic activities: buildings, infrastructure and agriculture; natural and semi-natural systems; and cultural heritage. Finally, the total risk index map has been produced to visualize the spatial pattern of flood risk within the target area and, therefore, to identify and rank areas and hotspots at risk by means of multi-criteria decision analysis (MCDA) tools. Through a tailored participatory approach, risk maps supplement the consideration of technical experts with the (essential) point of view of relevant stakeholders for the appraisal of the specific scores weighting for the different receptor-relative risks. The total risk maps obtained for the Sihl River case study are associated with the lower classes of risk. In general, higher (relative) risk scores are spatially concentrated in the deeply urbanized city centre and areas that lie just above to river course. Here, predicted injuries and potential fatalities are mainly due to high population density and to the presence of vulnerable people; flooded buildings are mainly classified as continuous and discontinuous urban fabric; flooded roads, pathways and railways, most of them in regards to the Zurich central station (Hauptbahnhof) are at high risk of inundation, causing severe indirect damage. Moreover, the risk pattern for agriculture, natural and semi-natural systems and cultural heritage is relatively

  19. Automatic Tracking of Active Regions and Detection of Solar Flares in Solar EUV Images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caballero, C.; Aranda, M. C.

    2014-05-01

    Solar catalogs are frequently handmade by experts using a manual approach or semi-automated approach. The appearance of new tools is very useful because the work is automated. Nowadays it is impossible to produce solar catalogs using these methods, because of the emergence of new spacecraft that provide a huge amount of information. In this article an automated system for detecting and tracking active regions and solar flares throughout their evolution using the Extreme UV Imaging Telescope (EIT) on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) spacecraft is presented. The system is quite complex and consists of different phases: i) acquisition and preprocessing; ii) segmentation of regions of interest; iii) clustering of these regions to form candidate active regions which can become active regions; iv) tracking of active regions; v) detection of solar flares. This article describes all phases, but focuses on the phases of tracking and detection of active regions and solar flares. The system relies on consecutive solar images using a rotation law to track the active regions. Also, graphs of the evolution of a region and solar evolution are presented to detect solar flares. The procedure developed has been tested on 3500 full-disk solar images (corresponding to 35 days) taken from the spacecraft. More than 75 % of the active regions are tracked and more than 85 % of the solar flares are detected.

  20. Relation between Thermal and Magnetic Properties of Active Regions as a Probe of Coronal Heating Mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yashiro, Seiji; Shibata, Kazunari

    2001-03-01

    We study the relation between thermal and magnetic properties of active regions in the corona observed with the soft X-ray telescope aboard Yohkoh. We derive the mean temperature and pressure of 64 mature active regions using the filter ratio technique, and examine the relationship of region size with temperature and pressure. We find that the temperature T of active regions increases with increasing region size L as T~L0.28, while the pressure P slightly decreases with the region size as P~L-0.16. We confirm the scaling law T~(PL)1/3 for mature active regions found by R. Rosner, W. H. Tucker, & G. S. Vaiana. We examined the magnetic properties of active regions by analyzing 31 active regions observed with the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory/Michelson Doppler Imager and find the following empirical scaling law between thermal and magnetic properties,Uth~Φ1.33,P~B0.78,where Uth, Φ, and B are the total thermal energy content, total magnetic flux, and average magnetic flux density of active regions, respectively. The former is consistent with the results of L. Golub et al., but the latter is not. Implications of our findings for coronal heating mechanisms are discussed.

  1. An Analysis of Strain Accumulation in the Western Part of Black Sea Region in Turkey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deniz, I.; Avsar, N. B.; Deniz, R.; Mekik, C.; Kutoglu, S.

    2014-12-01

    Turkish National Horizontal Control Network (TNHCN) based on the European Datum 1950 (ED50) was used as the principal geodetic network until 2005 in Turkey. Since 2005, Turkish Large Scale Map and Map Information Production Regulation have required that that all the densification points have been produced within the same datum of Turkish National Fundamental GPS Network (TNFGN) put into practise in 2002 and based on International Terrestrial Reference Frame (ITRF). Hence, the common points were produced in both European Datum 1950 (ED50), and TNFGN.It is known that the geological and geophysical information about the network area can be obtained by the evaluation of the coordinate and scale variations in a geodetic network. For one such evaluation, the coordinate variations and velocities of network points, and also the strains are investigated. However, the principal problem in derivation of velocities arises from two different datums. In this context, the computation of velocities using the coordinate data of the ED50 and TNFGN is not accurate and reliable. Likewise, the analysis of strain from the coordinate differences is not reliable. However, due to the fact that the scale of a geodetic network is independent from datum, the strains can be derived from scale variations accurately and reliably.In this study, a test area limited 39.5°-42.0° northern latitudes and 31.0°-37.0° eastern longitudes was chosen. The benchmarks in this test area are composed of 30 geodetic control points derived with the aim of cadastral and engineering applications. We used data mining to investigate the common benchmarks in both reference systems for this area. Accordingly, the ED50 and TNFGN coordinates refer 1954 and 2005, respectively. Thus, it has been investigated the strain accumulation of 51 years in this region. It should be also noted that since 1954, the earthquakes have not registered greater than magnitude 6.0 in the test area. It is a considerable situation for this

  2. Understanding of regional air pollution over China using CMAQ, part I performance evaluation and seasonal variation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xiao-Huan; Zhang, Yang; Cheng, Shu-Hui; Xing, Jia; Zhang, Qiang; Streets, David G.; Jang, Carey; Wang, Wen-Xing; Hao, Ji-Ming

    2010-07-01

    The U.S. EPA Models-3 Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system with the process analysis tool is applied to China to study the seasonal variations and formation mechanisms of major air pollutants. Simulations show distinct seasonal variations, with higher surface concentrations of sulfur dioxide (SO 2), nitrogen dioxide (NO 2), and particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 μm (PM 10), column mass of carbon monoxide (CO) and NO 2, and aerosol optical depth (AOD) in winter and fall than other seasons, and higher 1-h O 3 and troposphere ozone residual (TOR) in spring and summer than other seasons. Higher concentrations of most species occur over the eastern China, where the air pollutant emissions are the highest in China. Compared with surface observations, the simulated SO 2, NO 2, and PM 10 concentrations are underpredicted throughout the year with NMBs of up to -51.8%, -32.0%, and -54.2%, respectively. Such large discrepancies can be attributed to the uncertainties in emissions, simulated meteorology, and deviation of observations based on air pollution index. Max. 1-h O 3 concentrations in Jan. and Jul. at 36-km are overpredicted with NMBs of 12.0% and 19.3% and agree well in Apr. and Oct. Simulated column variables can capture the high concentrations over the eastern China and low values in the central and western China. Underpredictions occur over the northeastern China for column CO in Apr., TOR in Jul., and AODs in both Apr. and Jul.; and overpredictions occur over the eastern China for column CO in Oct., NO 2 in Jan. and Oct., and AODs in Jan. and Oct. The simulations at 12-km show a finer structure in simulated concentrations than that at 36-km over higher polluted areas, but do not always give better performance than 36-km. Surface concentrations are more sensitive to grid resolution than column variables except for column NO 2, with higher sensitivity over mountain and coastal areas than other regions.

  3. Provincial division of the Asian part of the Siberian-Canadian paleofloristic region in the Late Cretaceous

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Golovneva, L. B.

    2014-05-01

    The following provinces are recognized in the Late Cretaceous within the Asian part of the Siberian-Canadian paleofloristic region: Chulym-Yenisei, Lena-Vilyui, North Siberian, Verkhoyansk, Mountain Okhotsk-Chukotka, Anadyr', Amur, Sikhote-Alin, and Sakhalin-Japanese. It is proposed to consider the Central Asian (Turan) Province as belonging to the Euro-Sinian paleofloristic region. In the Cenomanian, the province also included the area of the southern Chulym-Yenisei Depression. In the maritime and northern provinces, a considerable occurrence of Mesozoic relics compared to the southern and continental ones is recorded. Similarity and distinctions between the floras of different provinces varied during the Late Cretaceous. Climatic conditions played a considerable role in species diversity and degree of differentiation or unification of the floras.

  4. Regional alterations in long bone 85Sr clearance produced by internal fixation devices. Part II. Histomorphometry.

    PubMed

    Simmons, D J; Daum, W J; Calhoun, J H

    1988-01-01

    The effects of each of the surgical stages involved in compression plating on the development of cortical thinning and porosity were assessed in the intact midshaft, stress-shielded femoral segments of adult mongrel dogs 6 months postoperatively. The data were evaluated in terms of a postsurgical tetracycline-based measure of remodeling and terminal 85Sr clearance (SrC) values for the plated segments of bone. Drilling had no effect on any parameter. Screw application was associated with minimal cortical thinning (p less than 0.05), while plate fixation clearly promoted thinning (p less than 0.01) and porosity (p less than 0.05). The percentage of labeled osteons, a measure of remodeling activity, increased only after plate fixation (p less than 0.05), and the labeling patterns suggested that most osteons had formed during the first 4 postsurgical months. That none of these changes were correlated with the 6-month SrC values suggests that the development of plate-induced osteopenia involves disparate histomorphometric time constants, rather than lack of any association. PMID:3225712

  5. Evaluation of the Impact of Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) Radiance and Profile Data Assimilation in Partly Cloudy Regions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zavodsky, Bradley; Srikishen, Jayanthi; Jedlovec, Gary

    2013-01-01

    Improvements to global and regional numerical weather prediction have been demonstrated through assimilation of data from NASA s Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS). Current operational data assimilation systems use AIRS radiances, but impact on regional forecasts has been much smaller than for global forecasts. Retrieved profiles from AIRS contain much of the information that is contained in the radiances and may be able to reveal reasons for this reduced impact. Assimilating AIRS retrieved profiles in an identical analysis configuration to the radiances, tracking the quantity and quality of the assimilated data in each technique, and examining analysis increments and forecast impact from each data type can yield clues as to the reasons for the reduced impact. By doing this with regional scale models individual synoptic features (and the impact of AIRS on these features) can be more easily tracked. This project examines the assimilation of hyperspectral sounder data used in operational numerical weather prediction by comparing operational techniques used for AIRS radiances and research techniques used for AIRS retrieved profiles. Parallel versions of a configuration of the Weather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model with Gridpoint Statistical Interpolation (GSI) are run to examine the impact AIRS radiances and retrieved profiles. Statistical evaluation of 6 weeks of forecast runs will be compared along with preliminary results of in-depth investigations for select case comparing the analysis increments in partly cloudy regions and short-term forecast impacts.

  6. Synthetic Physical Interactions Map Kinetochore-Checkpoint Activation Regions

    PubMed Central

    Ólafsson, Guðjón; Thorpe, Peter H.

    2016-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a key mechanism to regulate the timing of mitosis and ensure that chromosomes are correctly segregated to daughter cells. The recruitment of the Mad1 and Mad2 proteins to the kinetochore is normally necessary for SAC activation. This recruitment is coordinated by the SAC kinase Mps1, which phosphorylates residues at the kinetochore to facilitate binding of Bub1, Bub3, Mad1, and Mad2. There is evidence that the essential function of Mps1 is to direct recruitment of Mad1/2. To test this model, we have systematically recruited Mad1, Mad2, and Mps1 to most proteins in the yeast kinetochore, and find that, while Mps1 is sufficient for checkpoint activation, recruitment of either Mad1 or Mad2 is not. These data indicate an important role for Mps1 phosphorylation in SAC activation, beyond the direct recruitment of Mad1 and Mad2. PMID:27280788

  7. Synthetic Physical Interactions Map Kinetochore-Checkpoint Activation Regions.

    PubMed

    Ólafsson, Guðjón; Thorpe, Peter H

    2016-01-01

    The spindle assembly checkpoint (SAC) is a key mechanism to regulate the timing of mitosis and ensure that chromosomes are correctly segregated to daughter cells. The recruitment of the Mad1 and Mad2 proteins to the kinetochore is normally necessary for SAC activation. This recruitment is coordinated by the SAC kinase Mps1, which phosphorylates residues at the kinetochore to facilitate binding of Bub1, Bub3, Mad1, and Mad2. There is evidence that the essential function of Mps1 is to direct recruitment of Mad1/2. To test this model, we have systematically recruited Mad1, Mad2, and Mps1 to most proteins in the yeast kinetochore, and find that, while Mps1 is sufficient for checkpoint activation, recruitment of either Mad1 or Mad2 is not. These data indicate an important role for Mps1 phosphorylation in SAC activation, beyond the direct recruitment of Mad1 and Mad2. PMID:27280788

  8. The Solomon Sea eddy activity from a 1/36° regional model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Djath, Bughsin; Babonneix, Antoine; Gourdeau, Lionel; Marin, Frédéric; Verron, Jacques

    2013-04-01

    In the South West Pacific, the Solomon Sea exhibits the highest levels of eddy kinetic energy but relatively little is known about the eddy activity in this region. This Sea is directly influenced by a monsoonal regime and ENSO variability, and occupies a strategical location as the Western Boundary Currents exiting it are known to feed the warm pool and to be the principal sources of the Equatorial UnderCurrent. During their transit in the Solomon Sea, meso-scale eddies are suspected to notably interact and influence these water masses. The goal of this study is to give an exhaustive description of this eddy activity. A dual approach, based both on altimetric data and high resolution modeling, has then been chosen for this purpose. First, an algorithm is applied on nearly 20 years of 1/3° x 1/3° gridded SLA maps (provided by the AVISO project). This allows eddies to be automatically detected and tracked, thus providing some basic eddy properties. The preliminary results show that two main and distinct types of eddies are detected. Eddies in the north-eastern part shows a variability associated with the mean structure, while those in the southern part are associated with generation/propagation processes. However, the resolution of the AVISO dataset is not very well suited to observe fine structures and to match with the numerous islands bordering the Solomon Sea. For this reason, we will confront these observations with the outputs of a 1/36° resolution realistic model of the Solomon Sea. The high resolution numerical model (1/36°) indeed permits to reproduce very fine scale features, such as eddies and filaments. The model is two-way embedded in a 1/12° regional model which is itself one-way embedded in the DRAKKAR 1/12° global model. The NEMO code is used as well as the AGRIF software for model nestings. Validation is realized by comparison with AVISO observations and available in situ data. In preparing the future wide-swath altimetric SWOT mission that is

  9. Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project: Active Fault Database for the Middle East Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gülen, L.; Wp2 Team

    2010-12-01

    The Earthquake Model of the Middle East (EMME) Project is a regional project of the umbrella GEM (Global Earthquake Model) project (http://www.emme-gem.org/). EMME project region includes Turkey, Georgia, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Syria, Lebanon, Jordan, Iran, Pakistan, and Afghanistan. Both EMME and SHARE projects overlap and Turkey becomes a bridge connecting the two projects. The Middle East region is tectonically and seismically very active part of the Alpine-Himalayan orogenic belt. Many major earthquakes have occurred in this region over the years causing casualties in the millions. The EMME project will use PSHA approach and the existing source models will be revised or modified by the incorporation of newly acquired data. More importantly the most distinguishing aspect of the EMME project from the previous ones will be its dynamic character. This very important characteristic is accomplished by the design of a flexible and scalable database that will permit continuous update, refinement, and analysis. A digital active fault map of the Middle East region is under construction in ArcGIS format. We are developing a database of fault parameters for active faults that are capable of generating earthquakes above a threshold magnitude of Mw≥5.5. Similar to the WGCEP-2007 and UCERF-2 projects, the EMME project database includes information on the geometry and rates of movement of faults in a “Fault Section Database”. The “Fault Section” concept has a physical significance, in that if one or more fault parameters change, a new fault section is defined along a fault zone. So far over 3,000 Fault Sections have been defined and parameterized for the Middle East region. A separate “Paleo-Sites Database” includes information on the timing and amounts of fault displacement for major fault zones. A digital reference library that includes the pdf files of the relevant papers, reports is also being prepared. Another task of the WP-2 of the EMME project is to prepare

  10. Bilateral motor tasks involve more brain regions and higher neural activation than unilateral tasks: an fMRI study

    PubMed Central

    Noble, Jeremy W.; Eng, Janice J.; Boyd, Lara A.

    2015-01-01

    Movements that involve simultaneous coordination of muscles of the right and left lower limbs form a large part of our daily activities (e.g., standing, rising from a chair). This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to determine which brain areas are used to control coordinated lower limb movements, specifically comparing regions that are activated during bilateral exertions to those performed unilaterally. Plantarflexor exertions were produced at a target force level of 15% of the participants’ maximum voluntary contraction, in three conditions, with their right (dominant) foot, with their left foot and with both feet simultaneously. A voxel-wise analysis determined which regions were active in the bilateral, but not in the unilateral conditions. In addition, a regions of interest (ROI) approach was used to determine differences in the percent signal change (PSC) between the conditions within motor areas. The voxel-wise analysis showed a large number of regions (cortical, subcortical and cerebellar) that were active during the bilateral condition, but not during either unilateral condition. The ROI analysis showed several motor regions with higher activation in the bilateral condition than unilateral conditions; further, the magnitude of bilateral PSC was more than the sum of the two unilateral conditions in several of these regions. We postulate that the greater levels of activation during bilateral exertions may arise from interhemispheric inhibition, as well as from the greater need for motor coordination (e.g., synchronizing the two limbs to activate together) and visual processing (e.g., monitoring of two visual stimuli). PMID:24770862

  11. Eruption of the magnetic flux rope in a fast decayed active region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shangbin

    2012-07-01

    An isolated and fast decayed active region was observed when passing through solar disk. There is only one CME related with it that give us a good opportunity to investigate the whole process of the CME. Filament in this active region rises up rapidly and then hesitates and disintegrates into flare loops. The rising filament from EIT images separates into two parts just before eruption. It is interesting that this filament rises up with positive kink which is opposite to the negative helicity according to the inverse S-shaped X-ray sigmoid and accumulated magnetic helicity. A new filament reforms several hours later after CME and the axis of this new one rotates clockwise about 22° comparing with that of the former one. We also observed a bright transient J-shaped X-ray sigmoid immediately appears after filament eruption. It quickly develops into a soft X-ray cusp and rises up firstly then drops down. We propose that field lines underneath bald-patch sparatrix surface (BPSS) where for the formation of a magnetic tangential discontinuity are locally rooted to the photosphere near the bald-patch (BP) inversion line. Field lines above the surface are detached from the photosphere to form this CME and partially open the field which make the filament loses equilibrium to rise quickly and then be drawn back by the tension force of magnetic field after eruption to form a new filament. Two magnetic cancelation regions have been observed clearly just before filament eruption that reflect the existence of BPs. On the other hand, the values of total magnetic helicity to the corona taken by emergence and differential rotation normalized by the square total magnetic flux implies the possibility of upper bound on the total magnetic helicity that a force-free field can contain.

  12. 30 CFR 280.25 - When may MMS require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false When may MMS require me to stop activities under this part? 280.25 Section 280.25 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, REGULATION, AND ENFORCEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR OFFSHORE PROSPECTING FOR MINERALS OTHER THAN OIL, GAS, AND SULPHUR ON THE OUTER CONTINENTAL...

  13. 30 CFR 280.25 - When may MMS require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false When may MMS require me to stop activities under this part? 280.25 Section 280.25 Mineral Resources MINERALS MANAGEMENT SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE... resource; (2) You failed to comply with any applicable law, regulation, order or provision of the...

  14. 78 FR 22251 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IDEA Part B State Performance Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Performance Plan (SPP) and Annual Performance Report (APR). OMB Control Number: 1820-0624. Type of Review: a... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IDEA Part B State Performance Plan (SPP) and Annual Performance Report (APR) AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services...

  15. 78 FR 22253 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IDEA Part C State Performance Plan...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-15

    ... Performance Plan (SPP) and Annual Performance Report (APR). OMB Control Number: 1820-0578. Type of Review: a... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; IDEA Part C State Performance Plan (SPP) and Annual Performance Report (APR) AGENCY: Office of Special Education and Rehabilitative Services...

  16. 32 CFR 56.7 - Programs and activities subject to this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Logistics Agency loans of industrial equipment to educational institutions (Tools for Schools). (16) Title... 32 National Defense 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Programs and activities subject to this part. 56.7 Section 56.7 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE...

  17. 20 CFR 645.220 - What activities are allowable under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... medical treatment); (3) Child care assistance; (4) Emergency or short term housing assistance; and (5... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What activities are allowable under this part? 645.220 Section 645.220 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT...

  18. Teaching for Engagement: Part 2: Technology in the Service of Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunter, William J.

    2015-01-01

    In the first piece in this series ("Teaching for Engagement: Part 1: Constructivist Principles, Case-Based Teaching, and Active Learning"), William Hunter sought to make the case that a wide range of teaching methods (e.g., case-based teaching, problem-based learning, anchored instruction) that share an intellectual grounding in…

  19. 30 CFR 580.25 - When may BOEM require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false When may BOEM require me to stop activities under this part? 580.25 Section 580.25 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... an archaeological resource; (2) You failed to comply with any applicable law, regulation, order...

  20. 30 CFR 580.25 - When may BOEM require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false When may BOEM require me to stop activities under this part? 580.25 Section 580.25 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... an archaeological resource; (2) You failed to comply with any applicable law, regulation, order...

  1. 30 CFR 580.25 - When may BOEM require me to stop activities under this part?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false When may BOEM require me to stop activities under this part? 580.25 Section 580.25 Mineral Resources BUREAU OF OCEAN ENERGY MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT... an archaeological resource; (2) You failed to comply with any applicable law, regulation, order...

  2. 50 CFR Table 8 to Part 679 - Harvest Zone Codes for Use With Vessel Activity Reports

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Harvest Zone Codes for Use With Vessel... ECONOMIC ZONE OFF ALASKA Pt. 679, Table 8 Table 8 to Part 679—Harvest Zone Codes for Use With Vessel Activity Reports Harvest Zone Description A1 BSAI EEZ off Alaska A2 GOA EEZ off Alaska B State waters...

  3. 32 CFR 143.6 - Activity not covered by this part.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Activity not covered by this part. 143.6 Section 143.6 National Defense Department of Defense OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY OF DEFENSE PERSONNEL, MILITARY AND CIVILIAN DOD POLICY ON ORGANIZATIONS THAT SEEK TO REPRESENT OR ORGANIZE MEMBERS OF THE ARMED FORCES IN NEGOTIATION OR COLLECTIVE BARGAINING §...

  4. 50 CFR 216.240 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Active Sonar Training (AFAST) § 216.240 Specified activity and specified geographical region. (a... Navy is only authorized if it occurs incidental to the use of the following mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS) sources, high frequency active sonar (HFAS) sources, explosive sonobuoys, or similar sources,...

  5. 50 CFR 216.240 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Active Sonar Training (AFAST) § 216.240 Specified activity and specified geographical region. (a... Navy is only authorized if it occurs incidental to the use of the following mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS) sources, high frequency active sonar (HFAS) sources, explosive sonobuoys, or similar sources,...

  6. 50 CFR 216.240 - Specified activity and specified geographical region.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Active Sonar Training (AFAST) § 216.240 Specified activity and specified geographical region. (a... Navy is only authorized if it occurs incidental to the use of the following mid-frequency active sonar (MFAS) sources, high frequency active sonar (HFAS) sources, explosive sonobuoys, or similar sources,...

  7. The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belik, Anton; Devyatova, Tatiana; Bozhko, Svetlana; Gorbunova, Yulia

    2016-04-01

    The infield varietu of available forms in the forest-steppe of western part Central Chernozemic region The Central Chernozemic region of Russia has been a region with a strong agricultural industry and determines the food security of the state by most part. The soil cover of the region is represented mainly by chernozems and is favorable for the cultivation of major crops and produce high crop yields. However, the high development of agriculture in the territory of Central Chernozemic region are led to the development of agrogenic degradation processes which impacts on the growth of the soil cover complexity and contrast, and as a consequence a significant infield variety of soil fertility and yields of major crops. In this regard, very promising direction in CChR is the development and practical application technologies of precision agriculture, which implies the spatial variety of soil fertility analysis within specific fields and work areas, especially the content of available forms of nutrients. The aim of our research was a study of the agro-ecological characteristics of the spatial variety of the content by available forms to plants of major nutrients in representative areas of sloping agricultural landscapes with forest-steppe chernozems in the western part of Central Chernozemic region of Russia. The research of infield variety by content of available forms of major nutrients are carried in the fields of Russian Research Institute of Agriculture and Protect the Soil from Erosion experimental and industrial farm in Medvensky district of Kursk region. The area characterized by a complex organization of relief. The soil cover is represented by full-profile typical (conventional and carbonate), leached chernozems. The growth of contrast of the soil cover are largely determined by the appearance of eroded soils of these analogues, as well as zoogenic dug and accumulative soils All of the studied areas with the forest-steppe chernozems were characterized by

  8. The Atlantic Canada-New England Region and Environment. A Learning Activity Packet.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maine Univ., Orono. New England - Atlantic Provinces - Quebec Center.

    In this Learning Activity Packet (LAP) students examine the geographic and ecological bases of the Eastern international region. The overall objective of activities is to help students comprehend the man-earth relationship concept. By studying this familiar relevant region students gain geographic knowledge and skills applicable to other areas.…

  9. 76 FR 58533 - Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities; Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, WY

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Bureau of Land Management Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities; Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, WY AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of Public Meeting. SUMMARY: The Powder... management activities in the Powder River Coal Production Region. DATES: The RCT meeting will begin at 9...

  10. 78 FR 23951 - Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities: Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, Wyoming

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-23

    ... Bureau of Land Management Powder River Regional Coal Team Activities: Notice of Public Meeting in Casper, Wyoming AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management, Interior. ACTION: Notice of public meeting. SUMMARY: The Powder... management activities in the Powder River Coal Production Region. DATES: The RCT meeting will begin at 9...

  11. Diode laser threshold current density and lasing wavelength as functions of active region thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Streifer, W.; Scifres, D.R.; Burnham, R.D.

    1983-03-01

    Based on a simple model of the band-to-band absorption of a diode laser active region, we formulatean expression for modal gain as a function of pumping current. Using this result yields expressions for threshold current density and lasing photon energy which depend on device parameters including active region thickness, laser length, internal losses, facet reflectivity, etc.

  12. Active materials for automotive adaptive forward lighting Part 1: system requirements vs. material properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keefe, Andrew C.; Browne, Alan L.; Johnson, Nancy L.

    2011-04-01

    Adaptive Frontlighting Systems (AFS in GM usage) improve visibility by automatically optimizing the beam pattern to accommodate road, driving and environmental conditions. By moving, modifying, and/or adding light during nighttime, inclement weather, or in sharp turns, the driver is presented with dynamic illumination not possible with static lighting systems The objective of this GM-HRL collaborative research project was to assess the potential of active materials to decrease the cost, mass, and packaging volume of current electric stepper-motor AFS designs. Solid-state active material actuators, if proved suitable for this application, could be less expensive than electric motors and have lower part count, reduced size and weight, and lower acoustic and EMF noise1. This paper documents Part 1 of the collaborative study, assessing technically mature, commercially available active materials for use as actuators. Candidate materials should reduce cost and improve AFS capabilities, such as increased angular velocity on swivel. Additional benefits to AFS resulting from active materials actuators were to be identified as well such as lower part count. In addition, several notional approaches to AFS were documented to illustrate the potential function, which is developed more fully in Part 2. Part 1 was successful in verifying the feasibility of using two active materials for AFS: shape memory alloys, and piezoelectrics. In particular, this demonstration showed that all application requirements including those on actuation speed, force, and cyclic stability to effect manipulation of the filament assembly and/or the reflector could be met by piezoelectrics (as ultrasonic motors) and SMA wire actuators.

  13. Biological activities and phytochemical profiles of extracts from different parts of bamboo (Phyllostachys pubescens).

    PubMed

    Tanaka, Akinobu; Zhu, Qinchang; Tan, Hui; Horiba, Hiroki; Ohnuki, Koichiro; Mori, Yasuhiro; Yamauchi, Ryoko; Ishikawa, Hiroya; Iwamoto, Akira; Kawahara, Hiroharu; Shimizu, Kuniyoshi

    2014-01-01

    Besides being a useful building material, bamboo also is a potential source of bioactive substances. Although some studies have been performed to examine its use in terms of the biological activity, only certain parts of bamboo, especially the leaves or shoots, have been studied. Comprehensive and comparative studies among different parts of bamboo would contribute to a better understanding and application of this knowledge. In this study, the biological activities of ethanol and water extracts from the leaves, branches, outer culm, inner culm, knots, rhizomes and roots of Phyllostachys pubescens, the major species of bamboo in Japan, were comparatively evaluated. The phytochemical profiles of these extracts were tentatively determined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis. The results showed that extracts from different parts of bamboo had different chemical compositions and different antioxidative, antibacterial and antiallergic activities, as well as on on melanin biosynthesis. Outer culm and inner culm were found to be the most important sources of active compounds. 8-C-Glucosylapigenin, luteolin derivatives and chlorogenic acid were the most probable compounds responsible for the anti-allergy activity of these bamboo extracts. Our study suggests the potential use of bamboo as a functional ingredient in cosmetics or other health-related products. PMID:24945578

  14. Copernican tectonic activities in the northwestern Imbrium region of the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daket, Yuko; Yamaji, Atsushi; Sato, Katsushi

    2015-04-01

    Mare ridges and lobate scarps are the manifestations of horizontal compression in the shallow part of the Moon. Conventionally, tectonism within mascon basins has been thought to originate from mascon loading which is syndepositional tectonics (e.g., Solomon and Head, 1980). However, Ono et al. (2009) have pointed out that the subsurface tectonic structures beneath some mare ridges in Serenitatis appeared to be formed after the deposition of mare strata. Watters et al. (2010) also reported Copernican lobate scarps. Those young deformations cannot be explained by the mascon loading and are possibly ascribed to global cooling, orbital evolution and/or regional factors. Since mare ridges are topographically larger than lobate scarps, they might have large contribution to the recent contraction. In this study, we estimated until when the tectonic activities of mare ridges lasted in the northwestern Imbrium region. In order to infer the timing of the latest ages of tectonic activities, we used craters dislocated by the thrust faults that run along to the mare ridges in the study area. The ages of dislocated craters indicate the oldest estimate of the latest tectonic activity of the faults, because those craters must have existed during the tectonic activities. The ages of craters are inferred by the degradation levels classified by Trask (1971). We found ~450 dislocated craters in the study area. About 40 of them are smaller than 100 meter in diameter. Sub-hundred-meter-sized craters that still maintain their morphology sharp are classified into Copernican Period. Those small dislocated craters are interspersed all over the region, indicating that the most of the mare ridges in the study area were tectonically active in Copernican Period. In addition, we also found two sub-hundred-meter-sized craters dislocated by a graben at the west of Promontorium Laplace, indicating horizontal extension existed at Copernican Period. Consequently, tectonic activities in the study

  15. Magnetic flux cancellation and Doppler shifts in flaring active regions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burtseva, Olga; Petrie, Gordon

    2016-05-01

    Flux cancellation plays an important role in some theories of solar eruptions. The mechanism of flux cancellation is suggested by many models to be a necessary condition of flare initiation as a part of slow reconnection processes in the lower atmosphere. In our earlier work we analyzed flux cancellation events during major flares using GONG line-of-sight magnetograms. In this work we use vector magnetic field data from SDO/HMI for better interpretation of the longitudinal field changes. We also compute Doppler velocity shifts at the cancellation sites in attempt to distinguish between the three physical processes that could stand behind flux removal from the photosphere: submergence of U-shaped loops, emergence of Ω-shaped loops and magnetic reconnection.

  16. Study of Quasi-Homologous Coronal Mass Ejections from Super Active Regions in Solar Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Wang, Y.; Shen, C.; Liu, R.; Ye, P.; Wang, S.

    2014-12-01

    Coronal Mass Ejections are most severe eruptive phenomenon in the solar atmosphere and are believed as the major energy source of the Near-Earth Space Environment. The study of CMEs is very important for the Space Weather forecast. The active regions , especially super-active regions, containing lots of magnetic free energy, are considered as the most important source regions of CMEs. Knowing why and how may some active regions (ARs) frequently produce CMEs is one of the key questions to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms and processes of energy accumulation and sudden release in ARs as well as improving our capability of space weather prediction. Based on above, we have done two parts of work: the first one is selecting all 37 SARs in the entire 23 solar cycle, using data provided by SOHO/LASCO C2|EIT|MDI, manually determining 285 CMEs produced by those SARs; second, we use the term 'quasi-homologous'to refer to successive CMEs originating from the same ARs within a short interval, analyze the rules of quasi-homologous CMEs' generation. Finally, we got two conclusions. 1. The waiting times of quasi-homologous CMEs have a two-component distribution with a separation at about 18 hours. The first component is a Gaussian-like distribution with a peak at about 7 hours, which indicates a tight physical connection between these quasi-homologous CMEs. The likelihood of occurrences of two or more CMEs faster than 1200 km /s from the same AR within 18 hours is about 20%. 2. The correlation analysis among CME waiting times, CME speeds and CME occurrence rates reveals that these quantities are independent to each other, suggesting that the perturbation by preceding CMEs rather than free energy input be the direct cause of quasi-homologous CMEs. The peak waiting time of 7 hours probably characterize the time scale of the growth of instabilities triggered by preceding CMEs. This study uncovers more clues from a statistical perspective for us to understand quasi

  17. Observations of Small-scale IRIS Bombs (Reconnection Events) in an Evolving Active Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Madsen, C. A.; Tian, H.; DeLuca, E. E.

    2015-12-01

    We present the first Interface Region Imaging Spectrograph (IRIS) observations of small-scale bombs evolving with their host active region. Bombs appear most clearly in the IRIS 1330 Å and 1400 Å slit-jaw images as small (~1 arcsec), compact, intense brightenings at transition region temperatures. Their NUV/FUV emission spectra exhibit dramatic line splitting and strong absorption features indicative of bidirectional flows from magnetic reconnection embedded deep within the cool lower solar atmosphere. The bombs may contribute significantly to the heating of the solar atmosphere in active regions; however, it's unclear how prevalent the bombs are throughout the lifetime of an active region. Using a semi-automated detection method, we locate bombs within AR 11850 over the course of four observations from 06:00 UT on September 25, 2013 until 11:30 UT the next day. The active region is first observed in an emerging phase and rapidly grows into a mature active region with well-developed sunspots. The bomb occurrence rate drops dramatically as the active region fully emerges. We also find that the bombs fall into two distinct populations: one appears largely during active region emergence and contains a majority of the bombs, while the other population is present regardless of active region age. The first population of bombs is typically found embedded in the low-lying loops prominent in the young active region. Furthermore, we use Solar Dynamics Observatory/Helioseismic and Magnetic Imager (SDO/HMI) line-of-sight magnetograms to show that the bombs associated with the first population occur at the boundaries between the upward and downward flux of small, isolated bipolar regions. These regions dissipate as the active region emerges and reconfigures its magnetic field into two large network patches of upward and downward flux with a clear inversion line. The second, smaller population of bombs usually occurs far from the active region loop structures in the plage and

  18. Profile of Administrators of Schools of Nursing, Part I: Resources for Goal Achievement. Part II: Mentoring Relationships and Influence Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Short, Judy D.

    1997-01-01

    The first part of a survey of 441 nursing school deans/directors (324 responses) identified important sources affecting goal achievement: communication skills, interpersonal skills, and creative thinking. The second part revealed that 70% had had a mentor but only 27% did while serving as dean/director. Psychosocial functions of mentoring were…

  19. 6 CFR Appendix B to Part 21 - Activities to Which This Part Applies When a Primary Objective of the Federal Financial...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Primary Objective of the Federal Financial Assistance Is To Provide Employment B Appendix B to Part 21... FROM THE DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY Pt. 21, App. B Appendix B to Part 21—Activities to Which This...: Failure to list a type of Federal assistance in appendix B shall not mean, if title VI is...

  20. MAG4 Versus Alternative Techniques for Forecasting Active-Region Flare Productivity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Falconer, David A.; Moore, Ronald L.; Barghouty, Abdulnasser F.; Khazanov, Igor

    2014-01-01

    MAG4 is a technique of forecasting an active region's rate of production of major flares in the coming few days from a free-magnetic-energy proxy. We present a statistical method of measuring the difference in performance between MAG4 and comparable alternative techniques that forecast an active region's major-flare productivity from alternative observed aspects of the active region. We demonstrate the method by measuring the difference in performance between the "Present MAG4" technique and each of three alternative techniques, called "McIntosh Active-Region Class," "Total Magnetic Flux," and "Next MAG4." We do this by using (1) the MAG4 database of magnetograms and major-flare histories of sunspot active regions, (2) the NOAA table of the major-flare productivity of each of 60 McIntosh active-region classes of sunspot active regions, and (3) five technique-performance metrics (Heidke Skill Score, True Skill Score, Percent Correct, Probability of Detection, and False Alarm Rate) evaluated from 2000 random two-by-two contingency tables obtained from the databases. We find that (1) Present MAG4 far outperforms both McIntosh Active-Region Class and Total Magnetic Flux, (2) Next MAG4 significantly outperforms Present MAG4, (3) the performance of Next MAG4 is insensitive to the forward and backward temporal windows used, in the range of one to a few days, and (4) forecasting from the free-energy proxy in combination with either any broad category of McIntosh active-region classes or any Mount Wilson active-region class gives no significant performance improvement over forecasting from the free-energy proxy alone (Present MAG4).

  1. Magnetic Topology of Active Regions and Coronal Holes: Implications for Coronal Outflows and the Solar Wind

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Driel-Gesztelyi, L.; Culhane, J. L.; Baker, D.; Démoulin, P.; Mandrini, C. H.; DeRosa, M. L.; Rouillard, A. P.; Opitz, A.; Stenborg, G.; Vourlidas, A.; Brooks, D. H.

    2012-11-01

    During 2 - 18 January 2008 a pair of low-latitude opposite-polarity coronal holes (CHs) were observed on the Sun with two active regions (ARs) and the heliospheric plasma sheet located between them. We use the Hinode/EUV Imaging Spectrometer (EIS) to locate AR-related outflows and measure their velocities. Solar-Terrestrial Relations Observatory (STEREO) imaging is also employed, as are the Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) in-situ observations, to assess the resulting impacts on the solar wind (SW) properties. Magnetic-field extrapolations of the two ARs confirm that AR plasma outflows observed with EIS are co-spatial with quasi-separatrix layer locations, including the separatrix of a null point. Global potential-field source-surface modeling indicates that field lines in the vicinity of the null point extend up to the source surface, enabling a part of the EIS plasma upflows access to the SW. We find that similar upflow properties are also observed within closed-field regions that do not reach the source surface. We conclude that some of plasma upflows observed with EIS remain confined along closed coronal loops, but that a fraction of the plasma may be released into the slow SW. This suggests that ARs bordering coronal holes can contribute to the slow SW. Analyzing the in-situ data, we propose that the type of slow SW present depends on whether the AR is fully or partially enclosed by an overlying streamer.

  2. Atmospheric energetics in regions of intense convective activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fuelberg, H. E.

    1977-01-01

    Synoptic-scale budgets of kinetic and total potential energy are computed using 3- and 6-h data at nine times from NASA's fourth Atmospheric Variability Experiment (AVE IV). Two intense squall lines occurred during the period. Energy budgets for areas that enclose regions of intense convection are shown to have systematic changes that relate to the life cycles of the convection. Some of the synoptic-scale energy processes associated with the convection are found to be larger than those observed in the vicinity of mature cyclones. Volumes enclosing intense convection are found to have large values of cross-contour conversion of potential to kinetic energy and large horizontal export of kinetic energy. Although small net vertical transport of kinetic energy is observed, values at individual layers indicate large upward transport. Transfer of kinetic energy from grid to subgrid scales of motion occurs in the volumes. Latent heat release is large in the middle and upper troposphere and is thought to be the cause of the observed cyclic changes in the budget terms. Total potential energy is found to be imported horizontally in the lower half of the atmosphere, transported aloft, and then exported horizontally. Although local changes of kinetic energy and total potential energy are small, interaction between volumes enclosing convection with surrounding larger volumes is quite large.

  3. Flavonoid analyses and antimicrobial activity of various parts of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl fruit.

    PubMed

    Hendra, Rudi; Ahmad, Syahida; Sukari, Aspollah; Shukor, M Yunus; Oskoueian, Ehsan

    2011-01-01

    Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl (Thymelaceae) is commonly known as 'Crown of God', 'Mahkota Dewa', and 'Pau'. It originates from Papua Island, Indonesia and it grows in tropical areas. Empirically, it is potent in treating the hypertensive, diabetic, cancer and diuretic patients. It has a long history of ethnopharmacological usage, and the lack of information about its biological activities led us to investigate the possible biological activities by characterisation of flavonoids and antimicrobial activity of various part of P. macrocarpa against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The results showed that kaempferol, myricetin, naringin, and rutin were the major flavonoids present in the pericarp while naringin and quercetin were found in the mesocarp and seed. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of different parts of P. macrocarpa fruit showed a weak ability to moderate antibacterial activity against pathogenic tested bacteria (inhibition range: 0.93-2.17 cm) at concentration of 0.3 mg/disc. The anti fungi activity was only found in seed extract against Aspergillus niger (1.87 cm) at concentration of 0.3 mg/well. From the results obtained, P. macrocarpa fruit could be considered as a natural antimicrobial source due to the presence of flavonoid compounds. PMID:21747685

  4. Flavonoid Analyses and Antimicrobial Activity of Various Parts of Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl Fruit

    PubMed Central

    Hendra, Rudi; Ahmad, Syahida; Sukari, Aspollah; Shukor, M. Yunus; Oskoueian, Ehsan

    2011-01-01

    Phaleria macrocarpa (Scheff.) Boerl (Thymelaceae) is commonly known as ‘Crown of God’, ‘Mahkota Dewa’, and ‘Pau’. It originates from Papua Island, Indonesia and it grows in tropical areas. Empirically, it is potent in treating the hypertensive, diabetic, cancer and diuretic patients. It has a long history of ethnopharmacological usage, and the lack of information about its biological activities led us to investigate the possible biological activities by characterisation of flavonoids and antimicrobial activity of various part of P. macrocarpa against pathogenic bacteria and fungi. The results showed that kaempferol, myricetin, naringin, and rutin were the major flavonoids present in the pericarp while naringin and quercetin were found in the mesocarp and seed. Furthermore, the antibacterial activity of different parts of P. macrocarpa fruit showed a weak ability to moderate antibacterial activity against pathogenic tested bacteria (inhibition range: 0.93–2.17 cm) at concentration of 0.3 mg/disc. The anti fungi activity was only found in seed extract against Aspergillus niger (1.87 cm) at concentration of 0.3 mg/well. From the results obtained, P. macrocarpa fruit could be considered as a natural antimicrobial source due to the presence of flavonoid compounds. PMID:21747685

  5. Sensitivity of Boreal-Summer Circulation and Precipitation to Atmospheric Aerosols in Selected Regions: Part I Africa and India

    SciTech Connect

    Sud, Yogesh C.; Wilcox, Eric; Lau, William K.; Walker, Greg K.; Liu, Xiaohong; Nenes, Athanasios; Lee , Dongmin; Kim, K. - M.; Zhou, Yaping; Bhattacharjee, P. S.

    2009-10-23

    Version-4 of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-4) General Circulation Model (GCM) was employed to assess the influence of potential changes in aerosols on the regional circulation, ambient temperatures, and precipitation in four selected regions: India and Africa (current paper), as well as North and South America (companion paper). Ensemble-simulations were carried out with the GCM to assess the aerosol direct and indirect effects, hereafter ADE and AIE. Each simulation was started from the NCEP-analyzed initial conditions for May 1 and was integrated through May-June-July-August of each year: 1982-1987 to provide an ensemble set of six simulations. In the first set, called the baseline experiment (#1), climatological aerosols were prescribed. The next two experiments (#2 and #3) had two sets of simulations each: one with 2X and another with 1/2X the climatological aerosols over each of the four selected regions. In experiment#2, the anomaly regions were advectively restricted (AR), i.e., the large-scale prognostic fields outside the aerosol anomaly regions were prescribed while in experiment#3, the anomaly regions were advectively Interactive (AI) as is the case in a normal GCM integrations, but with the same aerosols anomalies as in experiment #2. Intercomparisons of circulation, diabatic heating, and precipitation difference fields showed large disparities among the AR and AI simulations, which raised serious questions about the AR assumption, commonly invoked in regional climate simulation studies. Consequently AI simulation mode was chosen for the subsequent studies. Two more experiments (#4 and #5) were performed in the AI mode in which ADE and AIE were activated one at a time. The results showed that ADE and AIE work in concert to make the joint influences larger than sum of each acting alone. Moreover, the ADE and AIE influences were vastly different for the Indian and Africa regions, which suggest an imperative need to include them rationally in

  6. Sensitivity of boreal-summer circulation and precipitation to atmospheric aerosols in selected regions - Part 1: Africa and India

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sud, Y. C.; Wilcox, E.; Lau, W. K.-M.; Walker, G. K.; Liu, X.-H.; Nenes, A.; Lee, D.; Kim, K.-M.; Zhou, Y.; Bhattacharjee, P. S.

    2009-10-01

    Version-4 of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-4) General Circulation Model (GCM) was employed to assess the influence of potential changes in aerosols on the regional circulation, ambient temperatures, and precipitation in four selected regions: India and Africa (current paper), as well as North and South America (companion paper). Ensemble-simulations were carried out with the GCM to assess the aerosol direct and indirect effects, hereafter ADE and AIE. Each simulation was started from the NCEP-analyzed initial conditions for 1 May and was integrated through May-June-July-August of each year: 1982-1987 to provide an ensemble set of six simulations. In the first set, called experiment (#1), climatological aerosols were prescribed. The next two experiments (#2 and #3) had two sets of simulations each: one with 2X and other with 1/2X the climatological aerosols over each of the four selected regions. In experiment #2, the anomaly regions were advectively restricted (AR), i.e., the large-scale prognostic fields outside the aerosol anomaly regions were prescribed while in experiment #3, the anomaly regions were advectively Interactive (AI) as is the case in a normal GCM integrations, but with the same aerosols anomalies as in experiment #2. Intercomparisons of circulation, diabatic heating, and precipitation difference fields showed large disparities among the AR and AI simulations, which raised serious questions about the proverbial AR assumption, commonly invoked in regional climate simulation studies. Consequently AI simulation mode was chosen for the subsequent studies. Two more experiments (#4 and #5) were performed in the AI mode in which ADE and AIE were activated one at a time. The results showed that ADE and AIE work in concert to make the joint influences larger than sum of each acting alone. Moreover, the ADE and AIE influences were vastly different for the Indian and Africa regions, which suggest an imperative need to include them rationally in

  7. Flare activity, sunspot motions, and the evolution of vector magnetic fields in Hale region 17244

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neidig, Donald F.; Hagyard, Mona J.; Machado, Marcos E.; Smith, Jesse B., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    The magnetic and dynamical circumstances leading to the 1B/M4 flare of November 5, 1980 are studied, and a strong association is found between the buildup of magnetic shear and the onset of flare activity within the active region. The development of shear, as observed directly in vector magnetograms, is consistent in detail with the dynamical history of the active region and identifies the precise location of the optical and hard-X-ray kernels of the flare emission.

  8. Determination of filling factors of Active Regions, Coronal Holes and Quiet Sun for the EIT archive 1997-2011

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Verbeeck, Cis; Delouille, Veronique; De Visscher, Ruben; Mampaey, Benjamin; Haberreiter, Margit

    2013-04-01

    In previous work, we have proposed a multi-channel unsupervised spatially-constrained multichannel fuzzy clustering algorithm (SPoCA) that automatically segments EUV solar images into Active Regions (AR), Coronal Holes (CH), and Quiet Sun (QS). This algorithm has been running in near real time on AIA data as part of the SDO Feature Finding Team Project since 2010, populating the Heliophysics Events Knowledgebase (HEK) with Active Region and Coronal Hole events. After having corrected for the limb brightening effect, SPoCA computes an optimal clustering with respect to the regions of interest using fuzzy segmentation. The process is fast and automatic. Morphological dilation is employed to assemble neighboring bright AR cores into individual AR regions. Combining SPoCA's detection of AR, and CH on subsequent images allows automatic tracking and naming of any region of interest. We applied SPOCA on SOHO-EIT, SECCHI-EUVI, PROBA2-SWAP, and SDO-AIA, and show in particular the filling factors of AR/QS/CH as well as AR and CH mean intensity time series obtained from the full dataset of synoptic SOHO/EIT images taken between 1997 and 2011. Such segmentation can be used for several applications. Filling factors or AR, QS, and CH can be included into (semi-) empirical models of the solar atmosphere, which can in turn feed models of solar EUV irradiance. Another application is the investigation of active longitudes as well as long-term statistical studies of AR and CH parameters.

  9. Sensitivity of Boreal-Summer Circulation and Precipitation to Atmospheric Aerosols in Selected Regions. Part 2; The Americas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, E. M.; Sud, Y. C.; Walker, G.

    2009-01-01

    Aerosol perturbations over selected land regions are imposed in Version-4 of the Goddard Earth Observing System (GEOS-4) general circulation model (GCM) to assess the influence of increasing aerosol concentrations on regional circulation patterns and precipitation in four selected regions: India, Africa, and North and South America. Part 1 of this paper addresses the responses to aerosol perturbations in India and Africa. This paper presents the same for aerosol perturbations over the Americas. GEOS-4 is forced with prescribed aerosols based on climatological data, which interact with clouds using a prognostic scheme for cloud microphysics including aerosol nucleation of water and ice cloud hydrometeors. In clear-sky conditions the aerosols interact with radiation. Thus the model includes comprehensive physics describing the aerosol direct and indirect effects on climate (hereafter ADE and AIE respectively). Each simulation is started from analyzed initial conditions for 1 May and was integrated through June-July-August of each of the six years: 1982 1987 to provide a 6-ensemble set. Results are presented for the difference between simulations with double the climatological aerosol concentration and one-half the climatological aerosol concentration for three experiments: two where the ADE and AIE are applied separately and one in which both the ADE and AIE are applied. The ADE and AIE both yield reductions in net radiation at the top of the atmosphere and surface while the direct absorption of shortwave radiation contributes a net radiative heating in the atmosphere. A large net heating of the atmosphere is also apparent over the subtropical North Atlantic Ocean that is attributable to the large aerosol perturbation imposed over Africa. This atmospheric warming and the depression of the surface pressure over North America contribute to a northward shift of the inter-Tropical Convergence Zone over northern America, an increase in precipitation over Central America

  10. Colors of active regions on comet 67P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oklay, N.; Vincent, J.-B.; Sierks, H.; Besse, S.; Fornasier, S.; Barucci, M. A.; Lara, L.; Scholten, F.; Preusker, F.; Lazzarin, M.; Pajola, M.; La Forgia, F.

    2015-10-01

    The OSIRIS (Optical, Spectroscopic, and Infrared Remote Imaging System) scientific imager (Keller et al. 2007) is successfully delivering images of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko from its both wide angle camera (WAC) and narrow angle camera (NAC) since ESA's spacecraft Rosetta's arrival to the comet. Both cameras are equipped with filters covering the wavelength range of about 200 nm to 1000 nm. The comet nucleus is mapped with different combination of the filters in resolutions up to 15 cm/px. Besides the determination of the surface morphology in great details (Thomas et al. 2015), such high resolution images provided us a mean to unambiguously link some activity in the coma to a series of pits on the nucleus surface (Vincent et al. 2015).

  11. Coronal and transition-region Doppler shifts of an active region 3D-MHD model as indicator for the magnetic activity cycle of solar-like stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourdin, Philippe A.

    2015-08-01

    For the Sun and solar-like stars, Doppler blueshifts are observed in the hot corona, while in average redshifts are seen in the cooler transition region layer below the corona. This clearly contradicts the idea of a continuous flow-equilibrium starting from a star's atmosphere and forming the stellar wind. To explain this, we implement a 3D-MHD model of the solar corona above an observed active region and use an atomic database to obtain the emission from the million Kelvin hot plasma. The generated EUV-bright loops system from the model compares well to the observed coronal loops. Therefore, we have access to realistic plasma parameters, including the flow dynamics within the active region core, and can derive total spectra as if we look the Sun as a star. We compare the model spectra to actual statistical observations of the Sun taken at different magnetic activity levels. We find characteristic Doppler-shift statistics that can be used to identify the magnetic activity state of the Sun and solar-like stars. This should help to model the variability of such stars by inferring their activity level from total spectra of coronal and transition-region emission lines.

  12. Hydroclimate of the Western United States Based on Observations and Regional Climate Simulations of 1981-2000. Part II: Mesoscale ENSO Anomalies

    SciTech Connect

    Leung, Lai R.; Qian, Yun; Bian, Xindi; Hunt, Allen G.

    2003-06-15

    Regional climate of the western U.S. shows clear footprints of interactions between atmospheric circulation and orography. The unique features of the diverse climate regimes challenge climate modeling. These papers provide detailed analyses of observations and regional climate simulations to improve our understanding and modeling of regional climate of the region. Part II focuses on evaluation of simulated interannual climate variability associated with the El Nino-Southern Oscillation.

  13. Enhanced internal gravity wave activity and breaking over the northeastern Pacific-eastern Asian region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Šácha, P.; Kuchař, A.; Jacobi, C.; Pišoft, P.

    2015-11-01

    We have found a stratospheric area of anomalously low annual cycle amplitude and specific dynamics in the stratosphere over the northeastern Pacific-eastern Asia coastal region. Using GPS radio occultation density profiles from the Formosat Satellite Mission 3/Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate (FORMOSAT-3/COSMIC), we have discovered an internal gravity wave (IGW) activity and breaking hotspot in this region. Conditions supporting orographic wave sourcing and propagation were found. Other possible sources of wave activity in this region are listed. The reasons why this particular IGW activity hotspot was not discovered before as well as why the specific dynamics of this region have not been pointed out are discussed together with the weaknesses of using the mean potential energy as a wave activity proxy. Possible consequences of the specific dynamics in this region on the middle atmospheric dynamics and transport are outlined.

  14. An Active Region Model for Capturing Fractal Flow Patterns inUnsaturated Soils: Model Development

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hui-Hai; Zhang, R.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2005-06-11

    Preferential flow commonly observed in unsaturated soils allows rapid movement of solute from the soil surface or vadose zone to the groundwater, bypassing a significant volume of unsaturated soil and increasing the risk of groundwater contamination. A variety of evidence indicates that complex preferential patterns observed from fields are fractals. In this study, we developed a relatively simple active region model to incorporate the fractal flow pattern into the continuum approach. In the model, the flow domain is divided into active and inactive regions. Flow occurs preferentially in the active region (characterized by fractals), and inactive region is simply bypassed. A new constitutive relationship (the portion of the active region as a function of saturation) was derived. The validity of the proposed model is demonstrated by the consistency between field observations and the new constitutive relationship.

  15. Regional vulnerability of the hippocampus to repeated motor activity deprivation.

    PubMed

    Faraji, Jamshid; Soltanpour, Nabiollah; Moeeini, Reza; Hosseini, Seyed Abedin; Pakdel, Shiva; Moharrerie, Alireza; Arjang, Kaveh; Soltanpour, Nasrin; Metz, Gerlinde A S

    2016-03-15

    Spontaneous vertical and horizontal exploratory movements are integral components of rodent behavior. Little is known, however, about the structural and functional consequences of restricted spontaneous exploration. Here, we report two experiments to probe whether restriction in vertical activity (rearing) in rats could induce neuro-hormonal and behavioral disturbances. Rearing movements in rats were deprived for 3h/day for 30 consecutive days by placing the animal into a circular tunnel task. Rats temporarily deprived of rearing behavior showed elevated plasma corticosterone levels but no detectable psychological distress and/or anxiety-related behavior within an elevated plus maze. However, rats emitted a greater number of 22-kHz ultrasonic vocalizations and spent significantly more time vocalizing than controls when deprived of their rearing behavior. Despite intact spatial performance within wet- and dry-land spatial tasks, rearing-deprived rats also exhibited a significant alteration in search strategies within both spatial tasks along with reduced volume and neuron number in the hippocampal subregion CA2. These data suggest a new approach to test the importance of free exploratory behavior in endocrine and structural manifestations. The results support a central role of the CA2 in spontaneous exploratory behavior and vulnerability to psychological stress. PMID:26723539

  16. Increased Functional Activation of Limbic Brain Regions during Negative Emotional Processing in Migraine.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, Sophie L; Veggeberg, Rosanna; Lemme, Jordan; Hodkinson, Duncan J; Scrivani, Steven; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2016-01-01

    Pain is both an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. This is highly relevant in migraine where cortical hyperexcitability in response to sensory stimuli (including pain, light, and sound) has been extensively reported. However, migraine may feature a more general enhanced response to aversive stimuli rather than being sensory-specific. To this end we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural activation in migraineurs interictaly in response to emotional visual stimuli from the International Affective Picture System. Migraineurs, compared to healthy controls, demonstrated increased neural activity in response to negative emotional stimuli. Most notably in regions overlapping in their involvement in both nociceptive and emotional processing including the posterior cingulate, caudate, amygdala, and thalamus (cluster corrected, p < 0.01). In contrast, migraineurs and healthy controls displayed no and minimal differences in response to positive and neutral emotional stimuli, respectively. These findings support the notion that migraine may feature more generalized altered cerebral processing of aversive/negative stimuli, rather than exclusively to sensory stimuli. A generalized hypersensitivity to aversive stimuli may be an inherent feature of migraine, or a consequential alteration developed over the duration of the disease. This proposed cortical-limbic hypersensitivity may form an important part of the migraine pathophysiology, including psychological comorbidity, and may represent an innate sensitivity to aversive stimuli that underpins attack triggers, attack persistence and (potentially) gradual headache chronification. PMID:27507939

  17. Increased Functional Activation of Limbic Brain Regions during Negative Emotional Processing in Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Wilcox, Sophie L.; Veggeberg, Rosanna; Lemme, Jordan; Hodkinson, Duncan J.; Scrivani, Steven; Burstein, Rami; Becerra, Lino; Borsook, David

    2016-01-01

    Pain is both an unpleasant sensory and emotional experience. This is highly relevant in migraine where cortical hyperexcitability in response to sensory stimuli (including pain, light, and sound) has been extensively reported. However, migraine may feature a more general enhanced response to aversive stimuli rather than being sensory-specific. To this end we used functional magnetic resonance imaging to assess neural activation in migraineurs interictaly in response to emotional visual stimuli from the International Affective Picture System. Migraineurs, compared to healthy controls, demonstrated increased neural activity in response to negative emotional stimuli. Most notably in regions overlapping in their involvement in both nociceptive and emotional processing including the posterior cingulate, caudate, amygdala, and thalamus (cluster corrected, p < 0.01). In contrast, migraineurs and healthy controls displayed no and minimal differences in response to positive and neutral emotional stimuli, respectively. These findings support the notion that migraine may feature more generalized altered cerebral processing of aversive/negative stimuli, rather than exclusively to sensory stimuli. A generalized hypersensitivity to aversive stimuli may be an inherent feature of migraine, or a consequential alteration developed over the duration of the disease. This proposed cortical-limbic hypersensitivity may form an important part of the migraine pathophysiology, including psychological comorbidity, and may represent an innate sensitivity to aversive stimuli that underpins attack triggers, attack persistence and (potentially) gradual headache chronification. PMID:27507939

  18. Evaluation of CNS activities of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. in mice.

    PubMed

    Pal, Dilipkumar

    2008-01-01

    The dried extracts of aerial parts of Cynodon dactylon Pers. (Graminae) were evaluated for CNS activities in mice. The ethanol extract of aerial parts of C. dactylon (EECD) was found to cause significant depression in general behavioral profiles in mice. EECD significantly potentiated the sleeping time in mice induced by standard hypnotics viz. pentobarbitone sodium, diazepam, and meprobamate in a dose dependant manner. EECD showed significant analgesic properties as evidenced by the significant reduction in the number of writhes and stretches induced in mice by 1.2% acetic acid solution. It also potentiated analgesia induced by morphine and pethidine in mice. EECD inhibited the onset and the incidence of convulsion in a dose dependent manner against pentylenetetrazole (PTZ)-induced convulsion. The present study indicates that EECD has significant CNS depressant activities. PMID:18536171

  19. Antioxidant activity and phenolic profile of various morphological parts of underutilised Baccaurea angulata fruit.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Idris Adewale; Mikail, Maryam Abimbola; Bin Ibrahim, Muhammad; Bin Hazali, Norazlanshah; Rasad, Mohammad Syaiful Bahari Abdul; Ghani, Radiah Abdul; Wahab, Ridhwan Abdul; Arief, Solachuddin Jahuari; Yahya, Mohammad Noor Adros

    2015-04-01

    Baccaurea angulata is an underutilised tropical fruit of Borneo Island of Malaysia. The effect of solvents was examined on yield, total phenolic (TPC), total flavonoids (TFC), total carotene content (TCC), free radical scavenging activities and lipid peroxidation inhibition activities. The results indicated that the pulp (edible portion) had the highest yield, while methanol extracts were significantly (p < 0.01) found to contain higher TPC, TFC and TCC than phosphate buffered saline (PBS) extracts for all the fruits parts. The methanol extracts also showed remarkable antiradical activity and significant lipid peroxidation inhibition activities, with their IC50 results highly comparable to that of commercial blueberry. The variations in the results among the extracts suggest different interactions, such as negative or antagonistic (interference), additive and synergistic effect interactions. The study indicated that B. angulata like other underutilised tropical fruits contained remarkable primary antioxidants. Thus, the fruit has the potential to be sources of antioxidant components. PMID:25442620

  20. A note on chromospheric fine structure at active region polarity boundaries.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prata, S. W.

    1971-01-01

    High resolution H-alpha filtergrams from Big Bear Solar Observatory reveal that some filamentary features in active regions have fine structure and hence magnetic field transverse to the gross structure and the zero longitudinal field line. These features are distinct from the usual active region filament, in which fine structure, magnetic field, and filament are all parallel to the zero longitudinal field line. The latter occur on boundaries between regions of weaker fields, while the former occur at boundaries between regions of stronger field.