Science.gov

Sample records for active research area

  1. Research activities in nuclear astrophysics and related areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1996-01-01

    NASA/GRO grant NAG 5-2081, at the University of Chicago, has provided support for a broad program of theoretical research in nuclear astrophysics and related areas, with regard to gamma-ray and hard X-ray emission from classical nova explosions. This research emphasized the possible detection of 22Na gamma-ray line emission from nearby novae involving ONeMg white dwarfs, the detailed examination of 26Al production in novae, and the possible detection of the predicted early gamma ray emission from novae that arises from the decay of the short lived, positron emitting isotopes of CNO elements. Studies of nova related problems have consumed an increasing fraction of the Principal Investigator's research efforts over the past decade. Current research addresses problems associated with the standard model for the outbursts of the classical novae: the occurrence of thermonuclear runaways (TNR) in the accreted hydrogen rich envelopes on white dwarfs in close binary systems (see, e.g., the reviews by Truran 1982; and Shara 1989). Research in progress and planned for the next three years has three main objectives: (1) to gain an improved understanding of the early evolution of the light curves of, particularly, the fastest novae; (2) to gain an improved understanding of the relative importance of the various possible mechanisms of envelope hydrogen depletion (e.g. winds, common envelope driven mass loss, and nuclear burning) to the long term evolution of novae in outburst; and (3) to seek to provide a somewhat more definitive statement of the role of classical novae in nucleosynthesis. Our proposed 2-D studies of convection during the early phases of the TNR and our systematic attempt to incorporate an improved treatment of radiation hydrodynamics into the hydrodynamic code utilized in our calculations, are particularly relevant to the first of these objectives. Further 2-D studies of the effects of common envelope evolution are intended to provide more realistic constraints

  2. Malumfashi Endemic Diseases Research Project, XI. Water-contact activities in the schistosomiasis study area.

    PubMed

    Tayo, M A; Pugh, R N; Bradley, A K

    1980-06-01

    Fishing, bathing, swimming and playing in water were the most important activities at the Ruwan Sanyi dam site, northern Nigeria, in terms of schistosomiasis transmission. Various washing activities were important in exposure to the infection. Males were responsible for 98% of activity involving contamination and exposure. This accounted for the marked male predominance of Schitosoma haematobium infection in the Muslim communities of this area, where boys under the age of 21 years were responsible for more than 77% of environmental egg contamination. Peak water-contact activity occurred in the afternoon and this coincided with the peak cercarial shedding period and the peak urinary egg output. As a result of the construction of many such dams in this part of northern Nigeria, the recent upward trend in schistosomiasis tramission is likely to be maintained. Fishing is a new and a potentially important activity in transmission. Any future programme to control urinary schistosomiasis in this area should pay particular attention to this activity as well as group swimming activity by young males, who should be the prime target.

  3. Physical activity and postmenopausal breast cancer: proposed biologic mechanisms and areas for future research.

    PubMed

    Neilson, Heather K; Friedenreich, Christine M; Brockton, Nigel T; Millikan, Robert C

    2009-01-01

    Convincing evidence now supports a probable preventive role for physical activity in postmenopausal breast cancer. The mechanisms by which long-term physical activity affect risk, however, remain unclear. The aims of this review were to propose a biological model whereby long-term physical activity lowers postmenopausal breast cancer risk and to highlight gaps in the epidemiologic literature. To address the second aim, we summarized epidemiologic literature on 10 proposed biomarkers, namely, body mass index (BMI), estrogens, androgens, sex hormone binding globulin, leptin, adiponectin, markers of insulin resistance, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and C-reactive protein, in relation to postmenopausal breast cancer risk and physical activity, respectively. Associations were deemed "convincing," "probable," "possible," or "hypothesized" using set criteria. Our proposed biological model illustrated the co-occurrence of overweight/obesity, insulin resistance, and chronic inflammation influencing cancer risk through interrelated mechanisms. The most convincing epidemiologic evidence supported associations between postmenopausal breast cancer risk and BMI, estrogens, and androgens, respectively. In relation to physical activity, associations were most convincing for BMI, estrone, insulin resistance, and C-reactive protein. Only BMI and estrone were convincingly (or probably) associated with both postmenopausal breast cancer risk and physical activity. There is a need for prospective cohort studies relating the proposed biomarkers to cancer risk and for long-term exercise randomized controlled trials comparing biomarker changes over time, specifically in postmenopausal women. Future etiologic studies should consider interactions among biomarkers, whereas exercise trials should explore exercise effects independently of weight loss, different exercise prescriptions, and effects on central adiposity.

  4. Research Areas: Liver Disease

    MedlinePlus

    ... 900 drugs and supplements.​​ Recent discoveries from NIDDK research include: New medication shows promise against liver fibrosis ... linked to biliary atresia in newborn animals Support Research NIDDK invests in basic, clinical and translational research ...

  5. Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Santa Fe Community Coll., Gainesville, FL.

    The five parts of this report are: research on instruction; faculty dissertations; inter-institutional research; in-college research; and college-endorsed research. The first covers experiments in teaching French, practical nursing, English, math, and chemistry, and in giving examinations. Faculty dissertations include studies of post-graduate…

  6. Research Areas - Clinical Trials

    Cancer.gov

    Information about NCI programs and initiatives that sponsor, conduct, develop, or support clinical trials, including NCI’s Clinical Trial Network (NCTN) and NCI Community Oncology Research Program (NCORP) initiatives.

  7. Research Areas: Diagnosis

    Cancer.gov

    Accurate information derived from diagnostic tools is crucial for making decisions at all stages of cancer care. NCI supports research on the development of tests and imaging technologies that can provide specific information about an individual’s cancer.

  8. Principal Areas of Insect Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williams, Carroll M.

    1973-01-01

    Research for insect control has been quite complex. However, recent knowledge of using insect hormones against them has opened new vistas for producing insecticides which may be harmless to human population. Current areas of insect research are outlined. (PS)

  9. Library History Revisited: Research Areas and Methodology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Byberg, Lis

    This paper discusses research areas and methods related to library history. The first section outlines research areas, including activities such as services to children in public libraries, mobile libraries, cataloging rules and practice, classification rules and practices, development of bibliographies, organization models, literature offered to…

  10. [Memorandum prevention research - research areas and methods].

    PubMed

    Walter, U; Nöcker, G; Plaumann, M; Linden, S; Pott, E; Koch, U; Pawils, S; Altgeld, T; Dierks, M L; Frahsa, A; Jahn, I; Krauth, C; Pomp, M; Rehaag, R; Robra, B P; Süß, W; Töppich, J; Trojan, A; von Unger, H; Wildner, M; Wright, M

    2012-10-01

    From 2004 to 2012, the German Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF) established its first funding programme for the promotion of prevention research. 60 projects on primary prevention and health promotion and the meta-project entitled "Cooperation for Sustainable Prevention Research" (KNP) received BMBF grants under this programme during this period. The experience and knowledge gained and recommendations arising from the research funded under this programme are compiled in memorandum format. The "Memorandum on Prevention Research - Research Areas and Methods" highlights 5 research areas that are considered to be especially relevant from the perspective of the involved scientists and practice partners.The promotion of structural development and sustainability enhancement in disease prevention and health promotion are central areas that should branch out from existing nuclei of crystallization. Improving the health competence of the population and of specific subpopulations is another major area. Research in these areas should contribute to the development of theoretical concepts and to the empirical testing of these concepts. The transfer of knowledge for effective use of developed disease prevention and health promotion programmes and measures is still a scarcely researched area. Among other things, studies of the transfer of programmes from one context to another, analyses of the coop-eration between politics and science, and the continued theoretical and conceptual development of transfer research are needed. Long-term data on the effects of intervention studies are also needed for proper evaluation of sustainability. The latter dem-onstrates the importance of method development in disease prevention and health promotion research as an area that should receive separate funding and support. This research should include, in particular, studies of the efficacy of complex interventions, health economic analyses, and participative health research. PMID:23165608

  11. Does research help to safeguard protected areas?

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F

    2013-05-01

    Although many protected areas are foci for scientific research, they also face growing threats from illegal encroachment and overharvesting. Does the presence of field researchers help to limit such threats? Although evidence is largely anecdotal, researchers do appear to provide some protective effects, both actively (such as by deterring poachers) and passively (such as by benefiting local communities economically and thereby generating support for protected areas). However, much remains unknown about the generality and impacts of such benefits. A key priority is to develop a better understanding of the advantages and limitations of field research for aiding protected areas and their biodiversity. PMID:23462294

  12. Does research help to safeguard protected areas?

    PubMed

    Laurance, William F

    2013-05-01

    Although many protected areas are foci for scientific research, they also face growing threats from illegal encroachment and overharvesting. Does the presence of field researchers help to limit such threats? Although evidence is largely anecdotal, researchers do appear to provide some protective effects, both actively (such as by deterring poachers) and passively (such as by benefiting local communities economically and thereby generating support for protected areas). However, much remains unknown about the generality and impacts of such benefits. A key priority is to develop a better understanding of the advantages and limitations of field research for aiding protected areas and their biodiversity.

  13. Terminal Area ATM Research at NASA Ames

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tobias, Leonard

    1997-01-01

    The presentation will highlight the following: (1) A brief review of ATC research underway 15 years ago; (2) A summary of Terminal Area ATM Tool Development ongoing at NASA Ames; and (3) A projection of research activities 10-15 years from now.

  14. Explosively activated egress area

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bement, L. J.; Bailey, J. W. (Inventor)

    1983-01-01

    A lightweight, add on structure which employs linear shaped pyrotechnic charges to smoothly cut an airframe along an egress area periphery is provided. It compromises reaction surfaces attached to the exterior surface of the airframe's skin and is designed to restrict the skin deflection. That portion of the airframe within the egress area periphery is jettisoned. Retention surfaces and sealing walls are attached to the interior surface of the airframe's skin and are designed to shield the interior of the aircraft during detonation of the pyrotechnic charges.

  15. Activities report of PTT Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In the field of postal infrastructure research, activities were performed on postcode readers, radiolabels, and techniques of operations research and artificial intelligence. In the field of telecommunication, transportation, and information, research was made on multipurpose coding schemes, speech recognition, hypertext, a multimedia information server, security of electronic data interchange, document retrieval, improvement of the quality of user interfaces, domotics living support (techniques), and standardization of telecommunication prototcols. In the field of telecommunication infrastructure and provisions research, activities were performed on universal personal telecommunications, advanced broadband network technologies, coherent techniques, measurement of audio quality, near field facilities, local beam communication, local area networks, network security, coupling of broadband and narrowband integrated services digital networks, digital mapping, and standardization of protocols.

  16. Research Areas in Adult and Continuing Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Röbken, Heinke; Ehrenspeck-Kolasa, Yvonne; von Ossietzky, Carl

    2014-01-01

    This study builds upon a Delphi study carried out by Zawacki-Richter (2009) which posited a validated classification of research areas in the special area of distance education. We now replicate the study for the broader field of adult and continuing education (ACE). The aims of this paper are: firstly, to develop a categorisation of research…

  17. REL Pacific Research Alliances and Priority Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Regional Educational Laboratory Pacific, 2014

    2014-01-01

    The mission of the Regional Educational Laboratories (RELs) is to help states, districts, and territories use data and research to improve student outcomes. RELs build capacity to do three things: (1) Use data to identify target areas for improvement; (2) Select the best approaches for improvement, drawing on credible and up-to-date research; and…

  18. Facility Focus: Student Activity Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    College Planning & Management, 2001

    2001-01-01

    Discusses the design of student activity facilities that are showpieces containing both business and entertainment elements. Four examples are highlighted including a performing arts center, a college gym, a student services facility, and a student union. (GR)

  19. Tank Focus Area pretreatment activities

    SciTech Connect

    McGinnis, C.P.; Welch, T.D.; Manke, K.L.

    1997-03-01

    Plans call for the high-level wastes to be retrieved from the tanks and immobilized in a stable waste form suitable for long-term isolation. Chemistry and chemical engineering operations are required to retrieve the wastes, to condition the wastes for subsequent steps, and to reduce the costs of the waste management enterprise. Pretreatment includes those processes between retrieval and immobilization, and includes preparation of suitable feed material for immobilization and separations to partition the waste into streams that yield lower life-cycle costs. Some of the technologies being developed by the Tank Focus Area (TFA) to process these wastes are described. These technologies fall roughly into three areas: (1) solid/liquid separation (SLS), (2) sludge pretreatment, and (3) supernate pretreatment.

  20. Center for Radiation Research. 1990 technical activities

    SciTech Connect

    Kuyatt, C.E.

    1991-02-01

    The report summarizes research projects, measurement method development, calibration and testing and data evaluation activities that were carried out during Fiscal Year 1990 in the NIST Center for Radiation Research. These activities fall in the areas of radiometric physics, radiation sources and instrumentation, and ionizing radiation.

  1. Planning and Conducting Research Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christiansen, Richard L.

    1983-01-01

    Some directions and influences on dental research activities in the near future are discussed. Current challenges include international competition, fellowships, and equipment. Potential research activity includes preventive medicine, epidemiology, chronic illness, the elderly, bioengineering, materials research, nutrition, soft tissue research,…

  2. Transmission research activities at NASA Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewicki, D. G.

    1990-01-01

    A joint research program, to advance the technology of rotorcraft transmissions, consists of analytical and experimental efforts to achieve the overall goals of reducing transmission weight and noise, while increasing life and reliability. Recent activities in the areas of transmission and related component research are highlighted. Current areas include specific technologies in support of military rotary wing aviation, gearing technology, transmission noise reduction studies, a recent interest in gearbox diagnostics, and advanced transmission system studies. Results of recent activities are presented along with near term research plans.

  3. Ethics in Physical Activity Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kroll, Walter; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Four conference papers on ethics in physical activity research are presented: (1) "Ethical Issues in Human Research" (W. Kroll); (2) "Ethical Issues in Animal Research" (K. Matt); (3) "Oh What a Tangled Web We Have" (M. Safrit); and (4) "Ethical Issues in Conducting and Reporting Research: A Reaction to Kroll, Matt, and Safrit" (H. Zelaznik). (SM)

  4. Active microwave remote sensing research program plan. Recommendations of the Earth Resources Synthetic Aperture Radar Task Force. [application areas: vegetation canopies, surface water, surface morphology, rocks and soils, and man-made structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1980-01-01

    A research program plan developed by the Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications to provide guidelines for a concentrated effort to improve the understanding of the measurement capabilities of active microwave imaging sensors, and to define the role of such sensors in future Earth observations programs is outlined. The focus of the planned activities is on renewable and non-renewable resources. Five general application areas are addressed: (1) vegetation canopies, (2) surface water, (3) surface morphology, (4) rocks and soils, and (5) man-made structures. Research tasks are described which, when accomplished, will clearly establish the measurement capabilities in each area, and provide the theoretical and empirical results needed to specify and justify satellite systems using imaging radar sensors for global observations.

  5. Tapping polyrhythms in music activates language areas.

    PubMed

    Vuust, Peter; Wallentin, Mikkel; Mouridsen, Kim; Ostergaard, Leif; Roepstorff, Andreas

    2011-05-01

    Music is experienced and understood on the basis of foreground/background relationships and tension created between actual music and the underlying meter. Polyrhythms create tension between a counter meter and the main meter. Previously, we have shown that Brodmann area 47 (BA47), a brain area associated with processing of language, is activated bilaterally when musicians tap the main meter in a polymetric context emphasizing a counter meter, suggesting that processing of metric elements in music relies on brain areas also involved in language processing. In that study, the tension was created entirely by changes in the stimulus while participants were tapping the main meter. Here we find left-hemispheric BA47 activation in response to a self-produced counter meter on top of a main meter provided by an ecological music excerpt. This data indicates that the activation is linked to polyrhythmic tension, regardless of whether it arises from the stimulus or the task.

  6. Clean Coal Program Research Activities

    SciTech Connect

    Larry Baxter; Eric Eddings; Thomas Fletcher; Kerry Kelly; JoAnn Lighty; Ronald Pugmire; Adel Sarofim; Geoffrey Silcox; Phillip Smith; Jeremy Thornock; Jost Wendt; Kevin Whitty

    2009-03-31

    Although remarkable progress has been made in developing technologies for the clean and efficient utilization of coal, the biggest challenge in the utilization of coal is still the protection of the environment. Specifically, electric utilities face increasingly stringent restriction on the emissions of NO{sub x} and SO{sub x}, new mercury emission standards, and mounting pressure for the mitigation of CO{sub 2} emissions, an environmental challenge that is greater than any they have previously faced. The Utah Clean Coal Program addressed issues related to innovations for existing power plants including retrofit technologies for carbon capture and sequestration (CCS) or green field plants with CCS. The Program focused on the following areas: simulation, mercury control, oxycoal combustion, gasification, sequestration, chemical looping combustion, materials investigations and student research experiences. The goal of this program was to begin to integrate the experimental and simulation activities and to partner with NETL researchers to integrate the Program's results with those at NETL, using simulation as the vehicle for integration and innovation. The investigators also committed to training students in coal utilization technology tuned to the environmental constraints that we face in the future; to this end the Program supported approximately 12 graduate students toward the completion of their graduate degree in addition to numerous undergraduate students. With the increased importance of coal for energy independence, training of graduate and undergraduate students in the development of new technologies is critical.

  7. Advances in Activity Cliff Research.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Activity cliffs, i.e. similar compounds with large potency differences, are of interest from a chemical and informatics viewpoint; as a source of structure-activity relationship information, for compound optimization, and activity prediction. Herein, recent highlights of activity cliff research are discussed including studies that have further extended our understanding of activity cliffs, yielded unprecedented insights, or paved the way for practical applications.

  8. Advances in Activity Cliff Research.

    PubMed

    Dimova, Dilyana; Bajorath, Jürgen

    2016-05-01

    Activity cliffs, i.e. similar compounds with large potency differences, are of interest from a chemical and informatics viewpoint; as a source of structure-activity relationship information, for compound optimization, and activity prediction. Herein, recent highlights of activity cliff research are discussed including studies that have further extended our understanding of activity cliffs, yielded unprecedented insights, or paved the way for practical applications. PMID:27492084

  9. Engineering Research, Development and Technology, FY95: Thrust area report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-02-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the knowledge base, process technologies, specialized equipment, tools and facilities to support current and future LLNL programs. Engineering`s efforts are guided by a strategy that results in dual benefit: first, in support of Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence; and second, in enhancing the nation`s economic competitiveness through their collaboration with US industry in pursuit of the most cost-effective engineering solutions to LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) identify key technologies relevant to LLNL programs where they can establish unique competencies, and (2) conduct high-quality research and development to enhance their capabilities and establish themselves as the world leaders in these technologies. To focus Engineering`s efforts, technology thrust areas are identified and technical leaders are selected for each area. The thrust areas are comprised of integrated engineering activities, staffed by personnel from the nine electronics and mechanical engineering divisions, and from other LLNL organizations. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes Engineering`s activities for fiscal year 1995. The report provides timely summaries of objectives methods, and key results from eight thrust areas: computational electronics and electromagnetics; computational mechanics; microtechnology; manufacturing technology; materials science and engineering; power conversion technologies; nondestructive evaluation; and information engineering.

  10. An Integrated Extravehicular Activity Research Plan

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Book is already performed annually. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of: Benchmarking; Anthropometry and Suit Fit; Sensors; Human

  11. Research and Development. Laboratory Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallaway, Ann, Ed.

    Research and Development is a laboratory-oriented course that includes the appropriate common essential elements for industrial technology education plus concepts and skills related to research and development. This guide provides teachers of the course with learning activities for secondary students. Introductory materials include an…

  12. Thrust Area Report, Engineering Research, Development and Technology

    SciTech Connect

    Langland, R. T.

    1997-02-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the knowledge base, process technologies, specialized equipment, tools and facilities to support current and future LLNL programs. Engineering`s efforts are guided by a strategy that results in dual benefit: first, in support of Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence; and second, in enhancing the nation`s economic competitiveness through our collaboration with U.S. industry in pursuit of the most cost- effective engineering solutions to LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) identify key technologies relevant to LLNL programs where we can establish unique competencies, and (2) conduct high-quality research and development to enhance our capabilities and establish ourselves as the world leaders in these technologies. To focus Engineering`s efforts technology {ital thrust areas} are identified and technical leaders are selected for each area. The thrust areas are comprised of integrated engineering activities, staffed by personnel from the nine electronics and mechanical engineering divisions, and from other LLNL organizations. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes Engineering`s activities for fiscal year 1996. The report provides timely summaries of objectives, methods, and key results from eight thrust areas: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Microtechnology; Manufacturing Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Power Conversion Technologies; Nondestructive Evaluation; and Information Engineering. Readers desiring more information are encouraged to contact the individual thrust area leaders or authors. 198 refs., 206 figs., 16 tabs.

  13. Research Areas in Distance Education: A Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf

    2009-01-01

    This study had three purposes: Firstly, to develop a categorization of research areas in distance education; secondly, to identify the most important research areas in distance education; and thirdly, to identify the most neglected research areas in distance education. Based on a literature review and a Delphi study, three broad levels or…

  14. Engineering research, development and technology. Thrust area report, FY93

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff, tools, and facilities needed to support current and future LLNL programs. The efforts are guided by a dual-benefit research and development strategy that supports Department of Energy missions, such as national security through nuclear deterrence and economic competitiveness through partnerships with U.S. industry. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes the activities for the fiscal year 1993. The report provides timely summaries of objectives, methods, and results from nine thrust areas for this fiscal year: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Diagnostics and Microelectronics; Fabrication Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Power Conversion Technologies; Nondestructive Evaluation; Remote Sensing, Imaging, and Signal Engineering; and Emerging Technologies. Separate abstracts were prepared for 47 papers in this report.

  15. [Climate chance and research activity].

    PubMed

    Manuel, Celie

    2009-10-26

    There are three main focus areas relevant to health in research related to climate change: 1) disentangling of the complex associations between climate-sensitive risk factors and health 2) guidance as to where, when and how effective health adaptation strategies may be implemented for maximum effect, and 3) health impact assessment (with a focus on health co-benefits) of climate-related policies in other sectors. Further development in each of these areas will provide important opportunities for strengthening health promotion and protection.

  16. Clinical Epidemiology Unit - overview of research areas

    Cancer.gov

    Clinical Epidemiology Unit (CEU) conducts etiologic research with potential clinical and public health applications, and leads studies evaluating population-based early detection and cancer prevention strategies

  17. 43 CFR 8223.1 - Use of research natural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... natural area except as permitted by law, other Federal regulations, or authorized under provisions of this... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Use of research natural areas. 8223.1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Research Natural Areas § 8223.1 Use...

  18. 43 CFR 8223.1 - Use of research natural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... natural area except as permitted by law, other Federal regulations, or authorized under provisions of this... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Use of research natural areas. 8223.1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Research Natural Areas § 8223.1 Use...

  19. 43 CFR 8223.1 - Use of research natural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... natural area except as permitted by law, other Federal regulations, or authorized under provisions of this... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Use of research natural areas. 8223.1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Research Natural Areas § 8223.1 Use...

  20. 43 CFR 8223.1 - Use of research natural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... natural area except as permitted by law, other Federal regulations, or authorized under provisions of this... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Use of research natural areas. 8223.1... MANAGEMENT, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR RECREATION PROGRAMS PROCEDURES Research Natural Areas § 8223.1 Use...

  1. Defence force activities in marine protected areas: environmental management of Shoalwater Bay Training Area, Queensland, Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Wen; Wang, Xiaohua; Paull, David; Kesby, Julie

    2010-05-01

    Environmental management of military activities is of growing global concern by defence forces. As one of the largest landholders in Australia, the Australian Defence Force (ADF) is increasingly concerned with sustainable environmental management. This paper focuses on how the ADF is maintaining effective environmental management, especially in environmentally sensitive marine protected areas. It uses Shoalwater Bay Training Area (SWBTA) as a research example to examine environmental management strategies conducted by the ADF. SWBTA is one of the most significant Defence training areas in Australia, with a large number of single, joint and combined military exercises conducted in the area. With its maritime component contained in the Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP), the Great Barrier Reef World Heritage Area (GBRWHA), and abutting Queensland’s State Marine Parks, it has high protection values. It is therefore vital for the ADF to adopt environmentally responsible management while they are conducting military activities. As to various tools employed to manage environmental performance, the ISO 14001 Environmental Management System (EMS) is widely used by the ADF. This paper examines military activities and marine environmental management within SWBTA, using the Talisman Saber (TS) exercise series as an example. These are extensive joint exercises conducted by the ADF and the United States defence forces. The paper outlines relevant legislative framework and environmental policies, analyses how the EMS operates in environmental management of military activities, and how military activities comply with these regulations. It discusses the implementation of the ADF EMS, including risk reduction measures, environmental awareness training, consultation and communication with stakeholders. A number of environmental management actions used in the TS exercises are presented to demonstrate the EMS application. Our investigations to this point indicate that the ADF is

  2. Integrated Extravehicular Activity Human Research Plan: 2016

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abercromby, Andrew F. J.; Ross, Amy J.; Cupples, J. Scott; Rajulu, Sudhakar; Norcross, Jason R.; Chappell, Steven P.

    2016-01-01

    Multiple organizations within NASA and outside of NASA fund and participate in research related to extravehicular activity (EVA). In October 2015, representatives of the EVA Office, the Crew and Thermal Systems Division (CTSD), and the Human Research Program (HRP) at NASA Johnson Space Center agreed on a formal framework to improve multi-year coordination and collaboration in EVA research. At the core of the framework is an Integrated EVA Human Research Plan and a process by which it will be annually reviewed and updated. The over-arching objective of the collaborative framework is to conduct multi-disciplinary cost-effective research that will enable humans to perform EVAs safely, effectively, comfortably, and efficiently, as needed to enable and enhance human space exploration missions. Research activities must be defined, prioritized, planned and executed to comprehensively address the right questions, avoid duplication, leverage other complementary activities where possible, and ultimately provide actionable evidence-based results in time to inform subsequent tests, developments and/or research activities. Representation of all appropriate stakeholders in the definition, prioritization, planning and execution of research activities is essential to accomplishing the over-arching objective. A formal review of the Integrated EVA Human Research Plan will be conducted annually. External peer review of all HRP EVA research activities including compilation and review of published literature in the EVA Evidence Report is will also continue at a frequency determined by HRP management. Coordination with stakeholders outside of the EVA Office, CTSD, and HRP is already in effect on a study-by-study basis; closer coordination on multi-year planning with other EVA stakeholders including academia is being actively pursued. Details of the current Integrated EVA Human Research Plan are presented including description of ongoing and planned research activities in the areas of

  3. Dynamics of Change in Research Work: Constructing a New Research Area in a Research Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saari, Eveliina; Miettinen, Reijo

    2001-01-01

    Studies how an aerosol technology research group constructed a research agenda for itself and how its activity was changed in the process. Analyzes the development of the production of ultrafine particles and employs the concept of mediated activity. (Contains 29 references.) (DDR)

  4. Europe's Universities in the European Research Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John H.

    2008-01-01

    Universities are placed strategically at the interplay of research and technological development, educational and regional development policies at both national and European level. Universities are also unique environments in which interdisciplinary skills are being developed to tackle the complex challenges facing human, social and economic…

  5. BNCT: a promising area of research?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahbauer, Reinhard; Gupta, N.; Blue, T.; Goodman, J.; Grecula, J.; Soloway, A. H.; Wambersie, A.

    1997-02-01

    The renewed interest in boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) is driven mainly by the disappointing progress in the treatment of brain tumors by other modalities over the last decades. Even though molecular biology newer drugs and strategies may promise better results in the future, BNCT is an attractive approach. Brain tumors kill by local growth and not be metastases. Boron can be delivered to the tumor while normal brain is protected by the blood brain barrier, which can be disrupted to the degree desired. Tumor selectivity can be obtained not only by improved drug barrier, which can be disrupted to the degree desired. Tumor selectivity can be obtained not only by improved drug delivery but also by restricting the capture reaction to the region of interest by targeted radiation. Both boron drug and thermal neutrons alone are to some extent innocuous to tumor and normal tissues in this binary form of therapy. The pattern of treatment failure from uncontrolled primary tumor, the blood brain barrier protection of normal surrounding tissue and the limited range of epithermal neutrons explain why brain tumors are the main focus of BNCT research.

  6. COLLABORATIVE HYDROLOGIC RESEARCH IN THE CLARKSBURG SPECIAL PROTECTION AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project is focused on the Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA) in Montgomery County, Maryland. The CSPA subwatersheds are on the outer edge of the urban development shockwave expanding outward from the Washington DC metropolitan area. This is an area of rapid d...

  7. [Achievement of Nongzheng Quanshu in area of herbalogical textual research].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-liang; Zhang, Rui-xian

    2015-12-01

    The achievement of Nongzheng Quanshu in area of herhalogical textual research was illustrated in this paper. Nongzheng Quanshu recorded the information of 159 kinds of cultivated plants and 473 kinds of wild plants. It also quoted many contents from lots of ancient agriculture hooks related in herbalogical literature. Many agriculture researchers were encouraged to have done much work in area of herhalogical textual research It also included the materia medica hook Jiuhuang Bencao and Yecaipu therein and promoted their delivery.

  8. An overview of the Nuclear Materials Focus Area research program

    SciTech Connect

    ROBERSON,GARY D.; POLANSKY,GARY F.; OSBORNE,KEN K.; RANDALL,VIRGINIA

    2000-02-25

    The Nuclear Material Focus Area (NMFA) is responsible for providing comprehensive needs identification, integration of technology research and development activities, and technology deployment for stabilization, packaging, and interim storage of surplus nuclear materials within the DOE complex. The NMFA was chartered in April 1999 by the Office of Science and Technology (OST), an organizational component of the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Office of Environmental Management (EM). OST manages a national program to conduct basic and applied research, and technology development, demonstration, and deployment assistance that is essential to completing a timely and cost-effective cleanup of the DOE nuclear weapons complex. DOE/EM provides environmental research results, as well as cleanup technologies and systems, to meet high-priority end-user needs, reduce EM's major cost centers and technological risks, and accelerate technology deployments. The NMFA represents the segment of EM that focuses on technological solutions for re-using, transforming, and disposing excess nuclear materials and is jointly managed by the DOE Albuquerque Operations Office and the DOE Idaho Operations Office.

  9. Nanosilver on nanostructured silica: Antibacterial activity and Ag surface area.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Georgios A; Teleki, Alexandra; Camenzind, Adrian; Krumeich, Frank; Meyer, Andreas; Panke, Sven; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2011-06-01

    Nanosilver is one of the first nanomaterials to be closely monitored by regulatory agencies worldwide motivating research to better understand the relationship between Ag characteristics and antibacterial activity. Nanosilver immobilized on nanostructured silica facilitates such investigations as the SiO2 support hinders the growth of nanosilver during its synthesis and, most importantly, its flocculation in bacterial suspensions. Here, such composite Ag/silica nanoparticles were made by flame spray pyrolysis of appropriate solutions of Ag-acetate or Ag-nitrate and hexamethyldisiloxane or tetraethylorthosilicate in ethanol, propanol, diethylene glucolmonobutyl ether, acetonitrile or ethylhexanoic acid. The effect of solution composition on nanosilver characteristics and antibacterial activity against the Gram negative Escherichia coli was investigated by monitoring their recombinantly synthesized green fluorescent protein. Suspensions with identical Ag mass concentration exhibited drastically different antibacterial activity pointing out that the nanosilver surface area concentration rather than its mass or molar or number concentration determine best its antibacterial activity. Nanosilver made from Ag-acetate showed a unimodal size distribution, while that made from inexpensive Ag-nitrate exhibited a bimodal one. Regardless of precursor composition or nanosilver size distribution, the antibacterial activity of nanosilver was correlated best with its surface area concentration in solution. PMID:23730198

  10. Nanosilver on nanostructured silica: Antibacterial activity and Ag surface area.

    PubMed

    Sotiriou, Georgios A; Teleki, Alexandra; Camenzind, Adrian; Krumeich, Frank; Meyer, Andreas; Panke, Sven; Pratsinis, Sotiris E

    2011-06-01

    Nanosilver is one of the first nanomaterials to be closely monitored by regulatory agencies worldwide motivating research to better understand the relationship between Ag characteristics and antibacterial activity. Nanosilver immobilized on nanostructured silica facilitates such investigations as the SiO2 support hinders the growth of nanosilver during its synthesis and, most importantly, its flocculation in bacterial suspensions. Here, such composite Ag/silica nanoparticles were made by flame spray pyrolysis of appropriate solutions of Ag-acetate or Ag-nitrate and hexamethyldisiloxane or tetraethylorthosilicate in ethanol, propanol, diethylene glucolmonobutyl ether, acetonitrile or ethylhexanoic acid. The effect of solution composition on nanosilver characteristics and antibacterial activity against the Gram negative Escherichia coli was investigated by monitoring their recombinantly synthesized green fluorescent protein. Suspensions with identical Ag mass concentration exhibited drastically different antibacterial activity pointing out that the nanosilver surface area concentration rather than its mass or molar or number concentration determine best its antibacterial activity. Nanosilver made from Ag-acetate showed a unimodal size distribution, while that made from inexpensive Ag-nitrate exhibited a bimodal one. Regardless of precursor composition or nanosilver size distribution, the antibacterial activity of nanosilver was correlated best with its surface area concentration in solution.

  11. Matching software practitioner needs to researcher activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.; Connelly, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an approach to matching software practitioners' needs to software researchers' activities. It uses an accepted taxonomical software classfication scheme as intermediary, in terms of which practitioners express needs, and researchers express activities.

  12. Protected Areas in Tropical Africa: Assessing Threats and Conservation Activities

    PubMed Central

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M.; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A.; Davenport, Tim R. B.; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A.; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C.; Holbech, Lars H.; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S.; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K.; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G.; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J.; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M.; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  13. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    PubMed

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration.

  14. Protected areas in tropical Africa: assessing threats and conservation activities.

    PubMed

    Tranquilli, Sandra; Abedi-Lartey, Michael; Abernethy, Katharine; Amsini, Fidèle; Asamoah, Augustus; Balangtaa, Cletus; Blake, Stephen; Bouanga, Estelle; Breuer, Thomas; Brncic, Terry M; Campbell, Geneviève; Chancellor, Rebecca; Chapman, Colin A; Davenport, Tim R B; Dunn, Andrew; Dupain, Jef; Ekobo, Atanga; Eno-Nku, Manasseh; Etoga, Gilles; Furuichi, Takeshi; Gatti, Sylvain; Ghiurghi, Andrea; Hashimoto, Chie; Hart, John A; Head, Josephine; Hega, Martin; Herbinger, Ilka; Hicks, Thurston C; Holbech, Lars H; Huijbregts, Bas; Kühl, Hjalmar S; Imong, Inaoyom; Yeno, Stephane Le-Duc; Linder, Joshua; Marshall, Phil; Lero, Peter Minasoma; Morgan, David; Mubalama, Leonard; N'Goran, Paul K; Nicholas, Aaron; Nixon, Stuart; Normand, Emmanuelle; Nziguyimpa, Leonidas; Nzooh-Dongmo, Zacharie; Ofori-Amanfo, Richard; Ogunjemite, Babafemi G; Petre, Charles-Albert; Rainey, Hugo J; Regnaut, Sebastien; Robinson, Orume; Rundus, Aaron; Sanz, Crickette M; Okon, David Tiku; Todd, Angelique; Warren, Ymke; Sommer, Volker

    2014-01-01

    Numerous protected areas (PAs) have been created in Africa to safeguard wildlife and other natural resources. However, significant threats from anthropogenic activities and decline of wildlife populations persist, while conservation efforts in most PAs are still minimal. We assessed the impact level of the most common threats to wildlife within PAs in tropical Africa and the relationship of conservation activities with threat impact level. We collated data on 98 PAs with tropical forest cover from 15 countries across West, Central and East Africa. For this, we assembled information about local threats as well as conservation activities from published and unpublished literature, and questionnaires sent to long-term field workers. We constructed general linear models to test the significance of specific conservation activities in relation to the threat impact level. Subsistence and commercial hunting were identified as the most common direct threats to wildlife and found to be most prevalent in West and Central Africa. Agriculture and logging represented the most common indirect threats, and were most prevalent in West Africa. We found that the long-term presence of conservation activities (such as law enforcement, research and tourism) was associated with lower threat impact levels. Our results highlight deficiencies in the management effectiveness of several PAs across tropical Africa, and conclude that PA management should invest more into conservation activities with long-term duration. PMID:25469888

  15. Research at Hanford's 300 Area Integrated Field Challenge Site

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zachara, J.; Rockhold, M.; Fredrickson, J.; Vermeul, V.; Ward, A.; Liu, C.; McKinley, J.; Bjornstad, B.; Freshley, M.; Haggerty, R.; Kent, D.; Lichtner, P.; Rubin, Y.; Versteeg, R.; Zheng, C.

    2008-12-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy - Environmental Remediation Sciences Division is supporting an Integrated Field Challenge (IFC) Site at Hanford's 300 Area. This site, immediately adjacent to the Columbia R., is the location of a groundwater uranium plume that resulted from past discharges of liquid effluent to unlined disposal ponds and trenches. Plume concentrations have persisted above the drinking water standard in spite of the cessation of all liquid discharges more than 15 years ago and significant efforts to excavate and remove contaminated sediments. The persistence of the uranium plume is postulated to be a result of a complex interplay between hydrological, geochemical, and microbiological processes, and rate-limited mass transfer in the highly heterogeneous sediments. An IFC research site has been established in the area of one of the former disposal ponds to provide the infrastructure for developing improved understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the uranium plume persistence, with an ultimate goal of providing a robust, scientific basis for future remediation decisions. Thirty-five wells were installed at the site in FY08 for subsurface characterization and monitoring of field experiments. Detailed characterization studies have been performed or are currently underway using a variety of hydrological, geophysical, geochemical, and microbiological methods. In addition to field experiments, a series of column and bench-scale transport experiments are being performed to measure process interactions at smaller scales under well-controlled laboratory conditions, and to parameterize mechanistically-based model representations of these processes. This presentation gives an overview of guiding hypotheses for the 300 Area IFC Site, the well layout and instrumentation, initial characterization results, and ongoing or planned experiments and modeling activities.

  16. Relating practitioner needs to research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feather, M. S.; Menzies, T.; Connelly, J. R.

    2003-01-01

    We present an approach to matching needs (practioner requirements) to solutions (researcher activities). A taxonomical classification scheme acts as intermediary between needs and activities. Expert practitioners exprss their needs in terms of this taxonomy. Researchers express their activities in the same terms. A decision support tool is used to assist in the combination and study of their expressions of needs and activities.

  17. NASA's Spaceliner 100 Investment Area Technology Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goals for the third generation launch system are to reduce cost by a factor of 100 and improve safety by a factor of 10,000 over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Spaceliner100 Investment Area, third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframes, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), launch systems, and operations and range. The ASTP program will mature these technologies through ground system testing. Flight testing where required, will be advocated on a case by case basis.

  18. NASA's Spaceliner Investment Area Technology Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueter, Uwe; Lyles, Garry M. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    NASA's has established long term goals for access-to-space. The third generation launch systems are to be fully reusable and operational around 2025. The goals for the third generation launch system are to significantly reduce cost and improve safety over current conditions. The Advanced Space Transportation Program Office (ASTP) at the NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center in Huntsville, AL has the agency lead to develop space transportation technologies. Within ASTP, under the Spaceliner Investment Area, third generation technologies are being pursued in the areas of propulsion, airframes, integrated vehicle health management (IVHM), avionics, power, operations, and range. The ASTP program will mature these technologies through both ground and flight system testing. The Spaceliner Investment Area plans to mature vehicle technologies to reduce the implementation risks for future commercially developed reusable launch vehicles (RLV). The plan is to substantially increase the design and operating margins of the third generation RLV (the Space Shuttle is the first generation) by incorporating advanced technologies in propulsion, materials, structures, thermal protection systems, avionics, and power. Advancements in design tools and better characterization of the operational environment will allow improvements in design margins. Improvements in operational efficiencies will be provided through use of advanced integrated health management, operations, and range technologies. The increase in margins will allow components to operate well below their design points resulting in improved component operating life, reliability, and safety which in turn reduces both maintenance and refurbishment costs. These technologies have the potential of enabling horizontal takeoff by reducing the takeoff weight and achieving the goal of airline-like operation. These factors in conjunction with increased flight rates from an expanding market will result in significant improvements in safety

  19. OCLC Research: 2012 Activity Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    OCLC Online Computer Library Center, Inc., 2013

    2013-01-01

    The mission of the Online Computer Library Center (OCLC) Research is to expand knowledge that advances OCLC's public purposes of furthering access to the world's information and reducing library costs. OCLC Research is dedicated to three roles: (1)To act as a community resource for shared research and development (R&D); (2) To provide advanced…

  20. 50 CFR 218.120 - Specified activity and geographical area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Activities Area (GoA TMAA) § 218.120 Specified activity and geographical area. (a) Regulations in this... Alaska Temporary Maritime Activities Area (GoA TMAA) (as depicted in Figure 1-1 in the Navy's application for GoA TMAA), which is bounded by a hexagon with the following six corners: 57°30′ N. lat., 141°30′...

  1. Steps toward validity in active living research: research design that limits accusations of physical determinism.

    PubMed

    Riggs, William

    2014-03-01

    "Active living research" has been accused of being overly "physically deterministic" and this article argues that urban planners must continue to evolve research and address biases in this area. The article first provides background on how researchers have dealt with the relationship between the built environment and health over years. This leads to a presentation of how active living research might be described as overly deterministic. The article then offers lessons for researchers planning to embark in active-living studies as to how they might increase validity and minimize criticism of physical determinism.

  2. Guide to good practices for control area activities

    SciTech Connect

    1998-12-01

    This Guide to Good Practices is written to enhance understanding of, and provide direction for, Control Area Activities, Chapter III of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5480.19, Conduct of Operations Requirements for DOE Facilities. The practices in this guide should be considered for controlling the activities in control areas. Contractors are advised to adopt procedures that meet the intent of DOE Order 5480.19. Control Area Activities is an element of an effective Conduct of Operations program. The complexity and array of activities performed in DOE facilities dictate the necessity for maintaining a formal environment in operational control areas to promote safe and efficient operations.

  3. Does cancer research focus on areas of importance to patients?

    PubMed

    Moorcraft, Sing Yu; Sangha, Amrit; Peckitt, Clare; Sanchez, Rodrigo; Lee, Martin; Pattison, Natalie; Wiseman, Theresa

    2016-01-01

    The majority of research ideas are proposed by clinicians or scientists and little is currently known about which areas of research patients feel are important. We performed a 4 week pilot patient survey at the Royal Marsden (a specialist cancer centre) to investigate patients' views on priorities for cancer research. A total of 780 patients completed the survey and the top research priorities were identified as: detection and prevention of cancer, scientific understanding, curative treatment and personalised treatment. The top research priorities were remarkably consistent across age, gender and a variety of tumour types. We believe that patients' views should be considered alongside those of clinicians and researchers when devising research proposals and strategies.

  4. Remedial activities effectiveness verification in tailing areas.

    PubMed

    Kluson, J; Thinova, L; Neznal, M; Svoboda, T

    2015-06-01

    The complex radiological study of the basin of sludge from the uranium ore mining and preprocessing was done. Air kerma rates (including its spectral analysis) at the reference height of 1 m above ground over the whole area were measured and radiation fields mapped during two measuring campaigns (years 2009 and 2014). K, U and Th concentrations in sludge and concentrations in depth profiles (including radon concentration and radon exhalation rates) in selected points were determined using gamma spectrometry for in situ as well as laboratory samples measurement. Results were used for the analysis, design evaluation and verification of the efficiency of the remediation measures. Efficiency of the sludge basin covering by the inert material was modelled using MicroShield code.

  5. Semantic Support Environment for Research Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ismail, Maizatul Akmar; Yaacob, Mashkuri; Kareem, Sameem Abdul

    2008-01-01

    Scholarly activities are a collection of academic related activities such as research, teaching and consultation work which result in research outputs such as journals, theses and articles in proceedings. The output will then be disseminated to researchers all over the world by means of the WWW. The four pillars of this scholarship i.e. discovery,…

  6. Supporting Student Research Group Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopatin, Dennis E.

    1993-01-01

    This discussion describes methods that foster a healthy Student Research Group (SRG) and permits it to fulfill its responsibility in the development of the student researcher. The model used in the discussion is that of the University of Michigan School of Dentistry SRG. (GLR)

  7. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1996 - December 31, 1996

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Rezmer, R.; Wagner, R.

    1997-12-01

    This report is divided into the following areas: (1) experimental research program; (2) theoretical research program; (3) accelerator research and development; (4) divisional computing activities; (5) publications; (6) colloquia and conference talks; (7) high energy physics community activities; and (7) High Energy Physics Division research personnel. Summaries are given for individual research programs for activities (1), (2) and (3).

  8. Compilation of historical information of 300 Area facilities and activities

    SciTech Connect

    Gerber, M.S.

    1992-12-01

    This document is a compilation of historical information of the 300 Area activities and facilities since the beginning. The 300 Area is shown as it looked in 1945, and also a more recent (1985) look at the 300 Area is provided.

  9. Review of Distance Education Research (2000 to 2008): Analysis of Research Areas, Methods, and Authorship Patterns

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zawacki-Richter, Olaf; Backer, Eva Maria; Vogt, Sebastian

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents a review of distance education literature to describe the status thereof and to identify gaps and priority areas in distance education research based on a validated classification of research areas. The articles (N = 695) published in five prominent distance education journals between 2000 and 2008 were reviewed for this study.…

  10. Geometrical modulation transfer function for different pixel active area shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yadid-Pecht, Orly

    2000-04-01

    In this work we consider the effect of the pixel active area geometrical shape on the modulation transfer function (MTF) of an image sensor. When designing a CMOS Active Pixel Sensor, or a CCD or CID sensor for this matter, the active area of the pixel would have a certain geometrical shape which might not cover the whole pixel area. To improve the device performance, it is important to understand the effect this has on the pixel sensitivity and on the resulting MTF. We perform a theoretical analysis of the MTF for the active area shape and derive explicit formulas for the transfer function for pixel arrays with a square, a rectangular and an L shaped active area (most commonly used), and generalize for any connected active area shape. Preliminary experimental results of subpixel scanning sensitivity maps and the corresponding MTFs have also bee obtained, which confirm the theoretical derivations. Both the simulation results and the MTF calculated from the point spread function measurements of the actual pixel arrays show that the active area shape contributes significantly to the behavior of the overall MTF. The results also indicate that for any potential pixel active area shape, the effect of its diversion from the square pixel could be calculated, so that tradeoff between the conflicting requirements, such as SNR and MTF, could be compared per each pixel design for better overall sensor performance.

  11. [Achievement of Qimin Yaoshu in area of herbalogical textual research].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hai-Liang; Zhang, Rui-Xian

    2015-11-01

    The achievement of Qimin Yaoshu in the area of herbalogical textual research was illustrated in this paper. Qimin Yaoshu quoted and keeped many contents from ancient agriculture books related in herbalogical literature. It also recorded the information of lots of tropical and subtropical plants. The author bringed forwarded many experiences indistinguishing plants and clarified some long last confused or wrong opinions. The studying philosophy and methods of the authors gave us much enlightenment in our herbalogical textual research. It should be taken into account when the herbalogical textual research was carried out. PMID:27071275

  12. Activation of premotor vocal areas during musical discrimination.

    PubMed

    Brown, Steven; Martinez, Michael J

    2007-02-01

    Two same/different discrimination tasks were performed by amateur-musician subjects in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study: Melody Discrimination and Harmony Discrimination. Both tasks led to activations not only in classic working memory areas--such as the cingulate gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex--but in a series of premotor areas involved in vocal-motor planning and production, namely the somatotopic mouth region of the primary and lateral premotor cortices, Broca's area, the supplementary motor area, and the anterior insula. A perceptual control task involving passive listening alone to monophonic melodies led to activations exclusively in temporal-lobe auditory areas. These results show that, compared to passive listening tasks, discrimination tasks elicit activation in vocal-motor planning areas. PMID:17027134

  13. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public... OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52 Research... research if the program director makes a determination that the recipient of the patient...

  14. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... disclosed for the purpose of conducting scientific research. (a) Information in individually identifiable... conducting scientific research if the Under Secretary for Health or designee makes a determination that the... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Research activities....

  15. Embedding Research Activities to Enhance Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Cynthia M.; Kenney, Jacqueline

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper's novel, research-oriented approach is to embed research-based activities in a core second-year course of a university business degree program to support and develop student research capabilities. Design/methodology/approach: The design draws on Boud and Prosser's work to foster participation in a…

  16. Hydrologic research at the Princeton, Minnesota management systems evaluation area

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Landon, M.K.; Anderson, J.L.; Dowdy, R.H.

    1992-01-01

    The Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) program is part of a multi-scale, inter-agency initiative to evaluate the effects of agricultural management systems on water quality. The program resulted from the integration of the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Research Plan for Water Quality and the U.S Geological Survey (USGS) Mid-Continent Herbicide Initiative and is part of the President's Water Quality Initiative. The mid-continental corn belt was selected for study because it is an area where about 60% of the Nation's pesticides and nitrogen fertilizers are used.

  17. Global thunderstorm activity research survey

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coroniti, S. C.

    1982-01-01

    The published literature on the subject of the monitoring of global thunderstorm activity by instrumented satellites was reviewed. A survey of the properties of selected physical parameters of the thunderstorm is presented. The concepts used by satellites to identify and to measure terrestrial lightning pulses are described. The experimental data acquired by satellites are discussed. The scientific achievements of the satellites are evaluated against the needs of scientists and the potential requirements of user agencies. The performances of the satellites are rated according to their scientific and operational achievements.

  18. Activation Theory and Uses and Gratifications Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tate, E. D.

    Uses and gratifications research involves a critical appraisal of conceptual and theoretical issues in mass communication and is concerned with what audience members do with the media. Activation theory understands people as active manipulators of their environment. (Activation refers to that level of psychological and physiological excitement an…

  19. Electromechanically active polymer transducers: research in Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carpi, Federico; Graz, Ingrid; Jager, Edwin; Ladegaard Skov, Anne; Vidal, Frédéric

    2013-10-01

    Muscles—ESNAM', entirely focused on EAPs and gathering the most active research institutes, as well as key industrial developers and end users. The ESNAM network has received financial support from the European COST (Cooperation in Science and Technology) programme (COST Action MP1003), leading to fruitful collaboration, of which some results are showcased in this issue. This focus issue deals with a number of relevant topics on ionic and electronic EAPs. The contents, which span highly heterogeneous and cross diverse disciplines, such as physics, chemistry, material science and engineering, embrace size scales from nano to macro, and cover different areas, such as new materials, devices and applications. This collection of papers helps elucidate, on the one hand, how heterogeneous and dynamic the EAP field is in general and, on the other hand, the state of the art of the EAP research in Europe. We hope that this focus issue might help to stimulate future work in this emerging field of research and generate new applications. Acknowledgments We would like to thank all the authors for their contributions, and the Smart Materials and Structures Editor-in-Chief, Professor Garcia, for having accepted our proposal to organize this focus issue. Special thanks also go to Natasha Leeper, from the IOP Publishing team, for her continued support and impeccable professionalism in arranging this focus issue. We also gratefully acknowledge financial support from COST (European Cooperation in Science and Technology) in the framework of 'ESNAM—European Scientific Network for Artificial Muscles' (COST Action MP1003), which made possible cooperation that led to contributions to this issue.

  20. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  1. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  2. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  3. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries FISHERY... Sea Research Area and St. Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area ER25JY08.011...

  4. 50 CFR Figure 17 to Part 679 - Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA)

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 13 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area (HCA) 17 Figure 17 to part 679 Wildlife and Fisheries... 679—Northern Bering Sea Research Area and Saint Lawrence Island Habitat Conservation Area...

  5. Antiviral Drug Research Proposal Activity

    PubMed Central

    Injaian, Lisa; Smith, Ann C.; Shipley, Jennifer German; Marbach-Ad, Gili; Fredericksen, Brenda

    2011-01-01

    The development of antiviral drugs provides an excellent example of how basic and clinical research must be used together in order to achieve the final goal of treating disease. A Research Oriented Learning Activity was designed to help students to better understand how basic and clinical research can be combined toward a common goal. Through this project students gained a better understanding of the process of scientific research and increased their information literacy in the field of virology. The students worked as teams to research the many aspects involved in the antiviral drug design process, with each student becoming an “expert” in one aspect of the project. The Antiviral Drug Research Proposal (ADRP) culminated with students presenting their proposals to their peers and local virologists in a poster session. Assessment data showed increased student awareness and knowledge of the research process and the steps involved in the development of antiviral drugs as a result of this activity. PMID:23653735

  6. Nanoinformatics: a new area of research in nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Maojo, Victor; Fritts, Martin; de la Iglesia, Diana; Cachau, Raul E; Garcia-Remesal, Miguel; Mitchell, Joyce A; Kulikowski, Casimir

    2012-01-01

    Over a decade ago, nanotechnologists began research on applications of nanomaterials for medicine. This research has revealed a wide range of different challenges, as well as many opportunities. Some of these challenges are strongly related to informatics issues, dealing, for instance, with the management and integration of heterogeneous information, defining nomenclatures, taxonomies and classifications for various types of nanomaterials, and research on new modeling and simulation techniques for nanoparticles. Nanoinformatics has recently emerged in the USA and Europe to address these issues. In this paper, we present a review of nanoinformatics, describing its origins, the problems it addresses, areas of interest, and examples of current research initiatives and informatics resources. We suggest that nanoinformatics could accelerate research and development in nanomedicine, as has occurred in the past in other fields. For instance, biomedical informatics served as a fundamental catalyst for the Human Genome Project, and other genomic and -omics projects, as well as the translational efforts that link resulting molecular-level research to clinical problems and findings.

  7. Nanoinformatics: a new area of research in nanomedicine.

    PubMed

    Maojo, Victor; Fritts, Martin; de la Iglesia, Diana; Cachau, Raul E; Garcia-Remesal, Miguel; Mitchell, Joyce A; Kulikowski, Casimir

    2012-01-01

    Over a decade ago, nanotechnologists began research on applications of nanomaterials for medicine. This research has revealed a wide range of different challenges, as well as many opportunities. Some of these challenges are strongly related to informatics issues, dealing, for instance, with the management and integration of heterogeneous information, defining nomenclatures, taxonomies and classifications for various types of nanomaterials, and research on new modeling and simulation techniques for nanoparticles. Nanoinformatics has recently emerged in the USA and Europe to address these issues. In this paper, we present a review of nanoinformatics, describing its origins, the problems it addresses, areas of interest, and examples of current research initiatives and informatics resources. We suggest that nanoinformatics could accelerate research and development in nanomedicine, as has occurred in the past in other fields. For instance, biomedical informatics served as a fundamental catalyst for the Human Genome Project, and other genomic and -omics projects, as well as the translational efforts that link resulting molecular-level research to clinical problems and findings. PMID:22866003

  8. Nanoinformatics: a new area of research in nanomedicine

    PubMed Central

    Maojo, Victor; Fritts, Martin; de la Iglesia, Diana; Cachau, Raul E; Garcia-Remesal, Miguel; Mitchell, Joyce A; Kulikowski, Casimir

    2012-01-01

    Over a decade ago, nanotechnologists began research on applications of nanomaterials for medicine. This research has revealed a wide range of different challenges, as well as many opportunities. Some of these challenges are strongly related to informatics issues, dealing, for instance, with the management and integration of heterogeneous information, defining nomenclatures, taxonomies and classifications for various types of nanomaterials, and research on new modeling and simulation techniques for nanoparticles. Nanoinformatics has recently emerged in the USA and Europe to address these issues. In this paper, we present a review of nanoinformatics, describing its origins, the problems it addresses, areas of interest, and examples of current research initiatives and informatics resources. We suggest that nanoinformatics could accelerate research and development in nanomedicine, as has occurred in the past in other fields. For instance, biomedical informatics served as a fundamental catalyst for the Human Genome Project, and other genomic and –omics projects, as well as the translational efforts that link resulting molecular-level research to clinical problems and findings. PMID:22866003

  9. The Brazilian research contribution to knowledge of the plant communities from Antarctic ice free areas.

    PubMed

    Pereira, Antonio B; Putzke, Jair

    2013-09-01

    This work aims to summarize the results of research carried out by Brazilian researchers on the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas during the last twenty five years. Since 1988 field work has been carried out in Elephant Island, King George Island, Nelson Island and Deception Island. During this period six papers were published on the chemistry of lichens, seven papers on plant taxonomy, five papers on plant biology, two studies on UVB photoprotection, three studies about the relationships between plant communities and bird colonies and eleven papers on plant communities from ice free areas. At the present, Brazilian botanists are researching the plant communities of Antarctic ice free areas in order to understand their relationships to soil microbial communities, the biodiversity, the distribution of the plants populations and their relationship with birds colonies. In addition to these activities, a group of Brazilian researchers are undertaking studies related to Antarctic plant genetic diversity, plant chemistry and their biotechnological applications.

  10. Research and Development in Vocational and Technical Education: Non-Metropolitan Areas. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Robert W.

    A strategic intelligence unit and a research activities unit were the two main components of a project to undertake inderdisciplinary discussions and studies of problems associated with vocational and technical education in nonmetropolitan areas. Reasons for an interdisciplinary attack were: (1) changes affecting town and rural residents including…

  11. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.488 Research activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584 and the following... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Research activities....

  12. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROVISIONS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 1.488 Research activities. Subject to the provisions of 38 U.S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584 and the following... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Research activities....

  13. Teaching Research Methodology through Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lundahl, Brad W.

    2008-01-01

    To complement traditional learning activities in a masters-level research methodology course, social work students worked on a formal research project which involved: designing the study, constructing measures, selecting a sampling strategy, collecting data, reducing and analyzing data, and finally interpreting and communicating the results. The…

  14. Desertification or Resilience and Sustainability Research for the Vesuvius area?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobran, F.

    2015-12-01

    Vesuvius is one the best studied and monitored volcanoes on Earth, but the populations which surround it have not benefited from the research that would produce their habitats resilient and sustainable to future eruptions. There is no official risk management strategy that would accomplish such goals and the best that the government and mass media have been able to do is to promote for the past 20 years an emergency evacuation plan of geologists. Such a plan is practically unreliable and culturally unacceptable. It requires the issuance of an evacuation order three weeks before an eruption and the relocation all over Italy of about one million people surrounding the volcano, without addressing the issues of mass exodus, resettlement of population, protection of the evacuated territory, and reentry. This strategy gives a license to territorial managers to postpone indefinitely any territorial intervention leading to resilience and sustainability and promotes desertification of the Vesuvius area. In 1995 an interdisciplinary research project called VESUVIUS 2000 (www.gvess.org) was submitted to the European Union for a support, but it was rejected on the grounds that it interferes with the evacuation plan. This project aimed at producing by 2000 a feasibility plan of territorial interventions leading to the resilience and sustainability by requiring the accomplishment of five interdisciplinary goals (VESUVIUS PENTALOGUE) that would delineate the exclusion, resilience, and sustainability areas around the volcano. According to this risk reducing strategy, there is no need to produce the destruction of Vesuvius area culture and deal with the unreliability of long-term eruption prediction. It allows the population to prepare for an eruption and aims at producing a resilient and prosperous territory. It is unfortunate for the populations surrounding Vesuvius, and for the natural hazards research in particular, that the path towards resilience and sustainability is being

  15. Research on Mobile Learning Activities Applying Tablets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurilovas, Eugenijus; Juskeviciene, Anita; Bireniene, Virginija

    2015-01-01

    The paper aims to present current research on mobile learning activities in Lithuania while implementing flagship EU-funded CCL project on application of tablet computers in education. In the paper, the quality of modern mobile learning activities based on learning personalisation, problem solving, collaboration, and flipped class methods is…

  16. [Research activities in Kobe-Indonesia Collaborative Research Centers].

    PubMed

    Utsumi, Takako; Hayashi, Yoshitake; Hotta, Hak

    2013-01-01

    Kobe-Indonesia Collaborative Research Center was established in Institute of Tropical Disease (ITD), Airlangga University, Surabaya, Indonesia in 2007 under the program of ''Founding Research Centers for Emerging and Reemerging Infectious Diseases'' supported by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan, and then it has been under the Japan Initiative for Global Research Network on Infectious Diseases (J-GRID) since 2010. Japanese researchers have been stationed at ITD, conducting joint researches on influenza, viral hepatitis, dengue and infectious diarrhea. Also, another Japanese researcher has been stationed at Faculty of Medicine, University of Indonesia, Jakarta, carrying out joint researches on'' Identification of anti-hepatitis C virus (HCV) substances and development of HCV and dengue vaccines'' in collaboration with University of Indonesia and Airlangga University through the Science and Technology Research Partnership for Sustainable Development (SATREPS) supported by the Japan Science and Technology Agency (JST) and Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA) since 2009. In this article, we briefly introduce the background history of Kobe University Research Center in Indonesia, and discuss the research themes and outcomes of J-GRID and SATREPS activities.

  17. Decreased Activation of Subcortical Brain Areas in the Motor Fatigue State: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li J; Song, Zheng; Pan, Zhu J; Cheng, Jia L; Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e., thalamus and basal ganglia areas) are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state.

  18. Decreased Activation of Subcortical Brain Areas in the Motor Fatigue State: An fMRI Study

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Li J.; Song, Zheng; Pan, Zhu J.; Cheng, Jia L.; Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e., thalamus and basal ganglia areas) are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state. PMID:27536264

  19. Decreased Activation of Subcortical Brain Areas in the Motor Fatigue State: An fMRI Study.

    PubMed

    Hou, Li J; Song, Zheng; Pan, Zhu J; Cheng, Jia L; Yu, Yong; Wang, Jun

    2016-01-01

    One aspect of motor fatigue is the exercise-induced reduction of neural activity to voluntarily drive the muscle or muscle group. Functional magnetic resonance imaging provides access to investigate the neural activation on the whole brain level and studies observed changes of activation intensity after exercise-induced motor fatigue in the sensorimotor cortex. However, in human, little evidence exists to demonstrate the role of subcortical brain regions in motor fatigue, which is contradict to abundant researches in rodent indicating that during simple movement, the activity of the basal ganglia is modulated by the state of motor fatigue. Thus, in present study, we explored the effect of motor fatigue on subcortical areas in human. A series of fMRI data were collected from 11 healthy subjects while they were executing simple motor tasks in two conditions: before and under the motor fatigue state. The results showed that in both conditions, movements evoked activation volumes in the sensorimotor areas, SMA, cerebellum, thalamus, and basal ganglia. Of primary importance are the results that the intensity and size of activation volumes in the subcortical areas (i.e., thalamus and basal ganglia areas) are significantly decreased during the motor fatigue state, implying that motor fatigue disturbs the motor control processing in a way that both sensorimotor areas and subcortical brain areas are less active. Further study is needed to clarify how subcortical areas contribute to the overall decreased activity of CNS during motor fatigue state. PMID:27536264

  20. Semantic Wavelet-Induced Frequency-Tagging (SWIFT) Periodically Activates Category Selective Areas While Steadily Activating Early Visual Areas

    PubMed Central

    Koenig-Robert, Roger; VanRullen, Rufin; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Primate visual systems process natural images in a hierarchical manner: at the early stage, neurons are tuned to local image features, while neurons in high-level areas are tuned to abstract object categories. Standard models of visual processing assume that the transition of tuning from image features to object categories emerges gradually along the visual hierarchy. Direct tests of such models remain difficult due to confounding alteration in low-level image properties when contrasting distinct object categories. When such contrast is performed in a classic functional localizer method, the desired activation in high-level visual areas is typically accompanied with activation in early visual areas. Here we used a novel image-modulation method called SWIFT (semantic wavelet-induced frequency-tagging), a variant of frequency-tagging techniques. Natural images modulated by SWIFT reveal object semantics periodically while keeping low-level properties constant. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we indeed found that faces and scenes modulated with SWIFT periodically activated the prototypical category-selective areas while they elicited sustained and constant responses in early visual areas. SWIFT and the localizer were selective and specific to a similar extent in activating category-selective areas. Only SWIFT progressively activated the visual pathway from low- to high-level areas, consistent with predictions from standard hierarchical models. We confirmed these results with criterion-free methods, generalizing the validity of our approach and show that it is possible to dissociate neural activation in early and category-selective areas. Our results provide direct evidence for the hierarchical nature of the representation of visual objects along the visual stream and open up future applications of frequency-tagging methods in fMRI. PMID:26691722

  1. Semantic Wavelet-Induced Frequency-Tagging (SWIFT) Periodically Activates Category Selective Areas While Steadily Activating Early Visual Areas.

    PubMed

    Koenig-Robert, Roger; VanRullen, Rufin; Tsuchiya, Naotsugu

    2015-01-01

    Primate visual systems process natural images in a hierarchical manner: at the early stage, neurons are tuned to local image features, while neurons in high-level areas are tuned to abstract object categories. Standard models of visual processing assume that the transition of tuning from image features to object categories emerges gradually along the visual hierarchy. Direct tests of such models remain difficult due to confounding alteration in low-level image properties when contrasting distinct object categories. When such contrast is performed in a classic functional localizer method, the desired activation in high-level visual areas is typically accompanied with activation in early visual areas. Here we used a novel image-modulation method called SWIFT (semantic wavelet-induced frequency-tagging), a variant of frequency-tagging techniques. Natural images modulated by SWIFT reveal object semantics periodically while keeping low-level properties constant. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), we indeed found that faces and scenes modulated with SWIFT periodically activated the prototypical category-selective areas while they elicited sustained and constant responses in early visual areas. SWIFT and the localizer were selective and specific to a similar extent in activating category-selective areas. Only SWIFT progressively activated the visual pathway from low- to high-level areas, consistent with predictions from standard hierarchical models. We confirmed these results with criterion-free methods, generalizing the validity of our approach and show that it is possible to dissociate neural activation in early and category-selective areas. Our results provide direct evidence for the hierarchical nature of the representation of visual objects along the visual stream and open up future applications of frequency-tagging methods in fMRI. PMID:26691722

  2. Research Activity and the Association with Mortality

    PubMed Central

    Ozdemir, Baris A.; Karthikesalingam, Alan; Sinha, Sidhartha; Poloniecki, Jan D.; Hinchliffe, Robert J.; Thompson, Matt M.; Gower, Jonathan D.; Boaz, Annette; Holt, Peter J. E.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The aims of this study were to describe the key features of acute NHS Trusts with different levels of research activity and to investigate associations between research activity and clinical outcomes. Methods National Institute for Health Research (NIHR) Comprehensive Clinical Research Network (CCRN) funding and number of patients recruited to NIHR Clinical Research Network (CRN) portfolio studies for each NHS Trusts were used as markers of research activity. Patient-level data for adult non-elective admissions were extracted from the English Hospital Episode Statistics (2005-10). Risk-adjusted mortality associations between Trust structures, research activity and, clinical outcomes were investigated. Results Low mortality Trusts received greater levels of funding and recruited more patients adjusted for size of Trust (n = 35, 2,349 £/bed [95% CI 1,855–2,843], 5.9 patients/bed [2.7–9.0]) than Trusts with expected (n = 63, 1,110 £/bed, [864–1,357] p<0.0001, 2.6 patients/bed [1.7–3.5] p<0.0169) or, high (n = 42, 930 £/bed [683–1,177] p = 0.0001, 1.8 patients/bed [1.4–2.1] p<0.0005) mortality rates. The most research active Trusts were those with more doctors, nurses, critical care beds, operating theatres and, made greater use of radiology. Multifactorial analysis demonstrated better survival in the top funding and patient recruitment tertiles (lowest vs. highest (odds ratio & 95% CI: funding 1.050 [1.033–1.068] p<0.0001, recruitment 1.069 [1.052–1.086] p<0.0001), middle vs. highest (funding 1.040 [1.024–1.055] p<0.0001, recruitment 1.085 [1.070–1.100] p<0.0001). Conclusions Research active Trusts appear to have key differences in composition than less research active Trusts. Research active Trusts had lower risk-adjusted mortality for acute admissions, which persisted after adjustment for staffing and other structural factors. PMID:25719608

  3. Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory: Active Researches of the Activity Phenomena

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harutyunian, H. A.

    2016-09-01

    Scientific research directions elaborated at the Byurakan astrophysical observatory (BAO) since its foundation are reviewed briefly. Although the wide spectrum of research at BAO we have focused attention on the activity phenomena mainly. Indisputable proof of the existence of newborn stars, as well as the activity phenomena in the galactic nuclei are mentioned as the main scientific attainments of the BAO. These two scientific breakthroughs undoubtedly had also very essential conceptual significance which is not yet estimated at its true worth. Some conceptual changes accompanying the discovery of the accelerated expansion of the Universe are considered from the cosmic objects' activity viewpoint.

  4. Methods for structuring scientific knowledge from many areas related to aging research.

    PubMed

    Zhavoronkov, Alex; Cantor, Charles R

    2011-01-01

    Aging and age-related disease represents a substantial quantity of current natural, social and behavioral science research efforts. Presently, no centralized system exists for tracking aging research projects across numerous research disciplines. The multidisciplinary nature of this research complicates the understanding of underlying project categories, the establishment of project relations, and the development of a unified project classification scheme. We have developed a highly visual database, the International Aging Research Portfolio (IARP), available at AgingPortfolio.org to address this issue. The database integrates information on research grants, peer-reviewed publications, and issued patent applications from multiple sources. Additionally, the database uses flexible project classification mechanisms and tools for analyzing project associations and trends. This system enables scientists to search the centralized project database, to classify and categorize aging projects, and to analyze the funding aspects across multiple research disciplines. The IARP is designed to provide improved allocation and prioritization of scarce research funding, to reduce project overlap and improve scientific collaboration thereby accelerating scientific and medical progress in a rapidly growing area of research. Grant applications often precede publications and some grants do not result in publications, thus, this system provides utility to investigate an earlier and broader view on research activity in many research disciplines. This project is a first attempt to provide a centralized database system for research grants and to categorize aging research projects into multiple subcategories utilizing both advanced machine algorithms and a hierarchical environment for scientific collaboration.

  5. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  6. Perspectives for food research and European collaboration in the European Research Area and the new Framework Programme.

    PubMed

    Breslin, L

    2001-08-01

    Since 1987, successive framework programmes have contributed to strengthen European food research through the establishment of networks between research institutions, universities and companies from various European countries. In the FAIR programme (1994-1998), 118 research projects comprising nearly 1,000 participants from the European Union and Associated States have been supported in the food area with a European funding of about [symbol: see text] 108 million. Within the Quality of Life and Management of Living Resources programme (1998-2002), food research is mostly supported within the key action 'food, nutrition and health' with a budget of [symbol: see text] 290 million. After the first four deadlines, 735 eligible research proposals have already been received. Further to their evaluation by a panel of independent experts, 108 proposals have been funded or selected for funding representing a total contribution of about [symbol: see text] 168 million. Among those, several clusters of projects are now running on important topics such as probiotics, coeliac diseases, mycotoxins, GMO, safety and food for the elderly. In addition, technology stimulation measures are largely benefiting SMEs to foster their innovation potential. In January 2000, the European Commission adopted a Communication entitled "Towards the European Research Area (ERA)" with the objective to contribute to developing better framework conditions for research in Europe. On 21 February 2001, the Commission adopted proposals to be submitted to the European Parliament and Council for the next framework programme for research and innovation (2002-2006). The new framework programme that is becoming one of the financial instruments of the ERA aims at catalysing the integration of European research by: strengthening of links between the Community research effort and national and regional research policies; concentrating on a limited number of priority fields or research to which activities at the

  7. Cognitive Neurostimulation: Learning to Volitionally Sustain Ventral Tegmental Area Activation.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, Jeff J; Dickerson, Kathryn C; Chen, Nan-kuei; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-03-16

    Activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and mesolimbic networks is essential to motivation, performance, and learning. Humans routinely attempt to motivate themselves, with unclear efficacy or impact on VTA networks. Using fMRI, we found untrained participants' motivational strategies failed to consistently activate VTA. After real-time VTA neurofeedback training, however, participants volitionally induced VTA activation without external aids, relative to baseline, Pre-test, and control groups. VTA self-activation was accompanied by increased mesolimbic network connectivity. Among two comparison groups (no neurofeedback, false neurofeedback) and an alternate neurofeedback group (nucleus accumbens), none sustained activation in target regions of interest nor increased VTA functional connectivity. The results comprise two novel demonstrations: learning and generalization after VTA neurofeedback training and the ability to sustain VTA activation without external reward or reward cues. These findings suggest theoretical alignment of ideas about motivation and midbrain physiology and the potential for generalizable interventions to improve performance and learning. PMID:26948894

  8. Cognitive Neurostimulation: Learning to Volitionally Sustain Ventral Tegmental Area Activation.

    PubMed

    MacInnes, Jeff J; Dickerson, Kathryn C; Chen, Nan-kuei; Adcock, R Alison

    2016-03-16

    Activation of the ventral tegmental area (VTA) and mesolimbic networks is essential to motivation, performance, and learning. Humans routinely attempt to motivate themselves, with unclear efficacy or impact on VTA networks. Using fMRI, we found untrained participants' motivational strategies failed to consistently activate VTA. After real-time VTA neurofeedback training, however, participants volitionally induced VTA activation without external aids, relative to baseline, Pre-test, and control groups. VTA self-activation was accompanied by increased mesolimbic network connectivity. Among two comparison groups (no neurofeedback, false neurofeedback) and an alternate neurofeedback group (nucleus accumbens), none sustained activation in target regions of interest nor increased VTA functional connectivity. The results comprise two novel demonstrations: learning and generalization after VTA neurofeedback training and the ability to sustain VTA activation without external reward or reward cues. These findings suggest theoretical alignment of ideas about motivation and midbrain physiology and the potential for generalizable interventions to improve performance and learning.

  9. DOE Research Set-Aside Areas of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, C.E.; Janecek, L.L.

    1997-08-31

    Designated as the first of seven National Environmental Research Parks (NERPs) by the Atomic Energy Commission (now the Department of Energy), the Savannah River Site (SRS) is an important ecological component of the Southeastern Mixed Forest Ecoregion located along the Savannah River south of Aiken, South Carolina. Integral to the Savannah River Site NERP are the DOE Research Set-Aside Areas. Scattered across the SRS, these thirty tracts of land have been set aside for ecological research and are protected from public access and most routine Site maintenance and forest management activities. Ranging in size from 8.5 acres (3.44 ha) to 7,364 acres (2,980 ha), the thirty Set-Aside Areas total 14,005 acres (5,668 ha) and comprise approximately 7% of the Site`s total area. This system of Set-Aside Areas originally was established to represent the major plant communities and habitat types indigenous to the SRS (old-fields, sandhills, upland hardwood, mixed pine/hardwood, bottomland forests, swamp forests, Carolina bays, and fresh water streams and impoundments), as well as to preserve habitats for endangered, threatened, or rare plant and animal populations. Many long-term ecological studies are conducted in the Set-Asides, which also serve as control areas in evaluations of the potential impacts of SRS operations on other regions of the Site. The purpose of this document is to give an historical account of the SRS Set-Aside Program and to provide a descriptive profile of each of the Set-Aside Areas. These descriptions include a narrative for each Area, information on the plant communities and soil types found there, lists of sensitive plants and animals documented from each Area, an account of the ecological research conducted in each Area, locator and resource composition maps, and a list of Site-Use permits and publications associated with each Set-Aside.

  10. Activation of Premotor Vocal Areas during Musical Discrimination

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Steven; Martinez, Michael J.

    2007-01-01

    Two same/different discrimination tasks were performed by amateur-musician subjects in this functional magnetic resonance imaging study: Melody Discrimination and Harmony Discrimination. Both tasks led to activations not only in classic working memory areas--such as the cingulate gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex--but in a series of…

  11. An overview of Japanese CELSS research activities.

    PubMed

    Nitta, K

    1987-01-01

    Many research activities regarding Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) have been conducted and continued all over the world since the 1960's and the concept of CELSS is now changing from Science Fiction to Scientific Reality. Development of CELSS technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into two categories, Environment Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Based on these considerations, Japanese research activities have been conducted and will be continued under the tentative guideline of CELSS research activities as shown in documents /1/, /2/. The status of the over all activities are discussed in this paper.

  12. Engineering Research and Development and Technology thrust area report FY92

    SciTech Connect

    Langland, R.T.; Minichino, C.

    1993-03-01

    The mission of the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) is to develop the technical staff and the technology needed to support current and future LLNL programs. To accomplish this mission, the Engineering Research, Development, and Technology Program has two important goals: (1) to identify key technologies and (2) to conduct high-quality work to enhance our capabilities in these key technologies. To help focus our efforts, we identify technology thrust areas and select technical leaders for each area. The thrust areas are integrated engineering activities and, rather than being based on individual disciplines, they are staffed by personnel from Electronics Engineering, Mechanical Engineering, and other LLNL organizations, as appropriate. The thrust area leaders are expected to establish strong links to LLNL program leaders and to industry; to use outside and inside experts to review the quality and direction of the work; to use university contacts to supplement and complement their efforts; and to be certain that we are not duplicating the work of others. This annual report, organized by thrust area, describes activities conducted within the Program for the fiscal year 1992. Its intent is to provide timely summaries of objectives, theories, methods, and results. The nine thrust areas for this fiscal year are: Computational Electronics and Electromagnetics; Computational Mechanics; Diagnostics and Microelectronics; Emerging Technologies; Fabrication Technology; Materials Science and Engineering; Microwave and Pulsed Power; Nondestructive Evaluation; and Remote Sensing and Imaging, and Signal Engineering.

  13. Plutonium Focus Area research and development plan. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    1996-11-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) committed to a research and development program to support the technology needs for converting and stabilizing its nuclear materials for safe storage. The R and D Plan addresses five of the six material categories from the 94-1 Implementation Plan: plutonium (Pu) solutions, plutonium metals and oxides, plutonium residues, highly enriched uranium, and special isotopes. R and D efforts related to spent nuclear fuel (SNF) stabilization were specifically excluded from this plan. This updated plan has narrowed the focus to more effectively target specific problem areas by incorporating results form trade studies. Specifically, the trade studies involved salt; ash; sand, slag, and crucible (SS and C); combustibles; and scrub alloy. The plan anticipates possible disposition paths for nuclear materials and identifies resulting research requirements. These requirements may change as disposition paths become more certain. Thus, this plan represents a snapshot of the current progress and will continue to be updated on a regular basis. The paper discusses progress in safeguards and security, plutonium stabilization, special isotopes stabilization, highly-enriched uranium stabilization--MSRE remediation project, storage technologies, engineered systems, core technology, and proposed DOE/Russian technology exchange projects.

  14. Research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Martello, N.

    1985-01-01

    Various research and technology activities at Ames Research Center's Biomedical Research Division are described. Contributions to the Space Administration's goals in the life sciences include descriptions of research in operational medicine, cardiovascular deconditioning, motion sickness, bone alterations, muscle atrophy, fluid and electrolyte changes, radiation effects and protection, behavior and performance, gravitational biology, and life sciences flight experiments.

  15. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52...

  16. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52...

  17. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52...

  18. 42 CFR 2.52 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Research activities. 2.52 Section 2.52 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL PROVISIONS CONFIDENTIALITY OF ALCOHOL AND DRUG ABUSE PATIENT RECORDS Disclosures Without Patient Consent § 2.52...

  19. 50 CFR 218.100 - Specified activity and specified geographical area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Training Range Complex (MIRC) § 218.100 Specified activity and specified geographical area. (a) Regulations...) sources for U.S. Navy anti-submarine warfare (ASW) training, maintenance, and research, development... as part of the training events indicated in this paragraph (c)(2)(ii): (i) Underwater Explosives...

  20. A Process of Environmental Education Communication through Community Cultural Activity Area

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wongpaibool, Duangporn; Rawang, Wee; Supapongpichate, Ratchanont; Pichayapibool, Pataraboon

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this research was: 1. To investigate social context, environment, way of life and community culture. 2. To gather the views and opinions regarding environmental conservation and restoration. 3. To synthesize a process of environmental education communication based on community cultural activity area. 4. To evaluate the efficacy of…

  1. Boost-phase discrimination research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, David M.; Deiwert, George S.

    1989-01-01

    Theoretical research in two areas was performed. The aerothermodynamics research focused on the hard-body and rocket plume flows. Analytical real gas models to describe finite rate chemistry were developed and incorporated into the three-dimensional flow codes. New numerical algorithms capable of treating multi-species reacting gas equations and treating flows with large gradients were also developed. The computational chemistry research focused on the determination of spectral radiative intensity factors, transport properties and reaction rates. Ab initio solutions to the Schrodinger equation provided potential energy curves transition moments (radiative probabilities and strengths) and potential energy surfaces. These surfaces were then coupled with classical particle reactive trajectories to compute reaction cross-sections and rates.

  2. Self-archiving as researchers' outreach activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Todoroki, Shin-Ichi

    Notable dissemination of two self-archived postprints is reported. Even after three years since the original publication, corresponding postprints were downloaded more than 1,500 times in the following three years. The demands would have probably arisen from the readers who do not subscribe to the journals in which my articles were published. The title of my article might have caught the eyes of researchers in different fields and YouTube viewers of my research video who followed the references I mentioned. Thus, self-archiving is one of the useful approaches for researchers' outreach activities. In order to increase voluntary registrations in their institutional repositories, positive aspects of self-archiving as discussed here should receive wide recognition among researchers and repository systems should provide registrants with quick and informative response to their articles.

  3. Guidance and control system research for improved terminal area operations. [terminal controlled vehicle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hueschen, R. M.; Creedon, J. F.; Bundick, W. T.; Young, J. C.

    1981-01-01

    Several guidance and control system research and development activities aimed at improving the operational capabilities of commercial aircraft in the terminal area are described. The guidance and control systems were designed to improve the capacity and efficiency of terminal area operations, enhance the approach and landing capability of aircraft in adverse weather conditions, and reduce the impact of aircraft noise perceived on the ground. Specific performance features include the ability to capture and track steep glideslopes, use short final approaches, perform flares with reduced longitudinal touchdown dispersion and execute high speed runway rollout and turnoff. Results obtained from simulation studies or flight tests are shown for each of the algorithms.

  4. Protected areas in the North Sea: An absolute need for future marine research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lindeboom, H. J.

    1995-03-01

    There are many signals that different human activities affect the marine ecosystem on local and sometimes regional scales. There is evidence that in the Dutch sector of the North Sea at least 25 species have decreased tremendously in numbers or have totally disappeared. But what has caused their disappearance: fisheries, pollution, eutrophication, climatic changes, or a combination of causes? On the Dutch Continental Shelf, the fisheries are now so intensive that every square metre is trawled, on an average, once to twice a year. Furthermore, it has been shown that trawling causes direct damage to the marine ecosystem. This indicates that the “natural” North Sea ecosystem we are studying is already a heavily influenced system. And what is the value of data on the diversity and production of benthic animals, if the research area has been raked by beamtrawl gear an unknown amount of times before sampling? To be able to study the natural trends in the marine ecosystem, or to answer the question which human activity has most influenced the ecosystem, there is an absolute and immediate need for protected areas to be established. The size of the protected areas must be determined by the behaviour of that species characteristic for the area. In such areas, where fisheries and local pollution would be forbidden or very limited, scientific research into the species composition and age distribution of different populations should be carried out and trends should be established.

  5. First OSIRIS observations of active areas on comet 67P

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vincent, J.-B.; Sierks, H.; Oklay, N.; Agarwal, J.; Güttler, C.; Bodewits, D.; Osiris Team

    2014-04-01

    After a successful exit from hibernation, Rosetta started observing its final target comet 67P in March 2014 with the two OSIRIS cameras WAC and NAC (Wide Angle and Narrow Angle Camera) [1]. By the time of this conference, the spacecraft will have flown from 5 million to 50 km from the nucleus surface, reaching a resolution of 1 meter/pixel in the NAC images. During that period, the comet heliocentric distance varies from 4.3 to 3.2 AU and we will observe how the early activity develops. We know that cometary surfaces are not fully active; only a small fraction of the surface emits gas and dust. However we do not yet understand why it happens in that way, and what to expect on 67P. Recent publications using data from ground-based telescopes have proposed different interpretations for the distribution of active sources, from one to three at various latitudes [2, 3]. There is some evidence for different levels of activity in the northern and southern hemispheres, but these variations can only be constrained with close range data. In August 2014, OSIRIS will map the surface of the comet at high resolution, and perform weekly monitoring of the activity, especially the faintest jets. With these images and the inversion code COSSIM [4], we will be able to link observed features in the coma or on the limb to physical spots on the surface. On other comets visited by spacecrafts the activity has sometimes been associated with smooth areas, rough terrains, or specific morphologic features (cliff, crater, rim, . . . ). We will present a first look at how activity and terrain are linked on 67P, and look at variations of composition, morphology, or both. We will compare this identification of active areas to previous publications.

  6. Kansas Energy 2000. [Inventory of Energy Related Assets. Research Area Summary

    SciTech Connect

    Legg, J.; Nellis, D.; Simons, G.

    1992-03-01

    The Inventory of Energy Related Assets: Research Area Summary is a compilation of resume-type information on energy researchers in the state of Kansas. Researchers are placed in one of four categories: Fossil Energy Research, Alternative Energy Sources, Electric Power Generation and Usage, and Other Energy Research. Each research biography includes a synopsis of recent research, sources of support, and areas of research emphasis.

  7. Foraging Activities of Coptotermes formosanus in Subtropical Areas in China.

    PubMed

    Ruan, Guanhua; Song, Xiaogang; Hu, Yin; Han, Na; Zhang, Dayu

    2015-04-01

    The foraging activities, including foraging range and seasonal fluctuation of the Formosan subterranean termite, Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki, were investigated in subtropical areas in China. Six mature C. formosanus colonies were selected for this study. Foraging distance and area were conducted in Anqing1, Hengyang, and Wuxi1 colonies, while the seasonal fluctuation was conducted in Wuxi2, Wuwei, and Anqing2 colonies. Mark-release-recapture method analysis showed that the Formosan termites foraged at least 11.5, 28.7, and 56.8 m away from the main nest and covered 98.1, 543.7, and 671.9 m2 of foraging area at Anqing1, Hengyang, and Wuxi1 site, respectively. The seasonal fluctuation in termite colony activity showed an "M shape" pattern according to the wood damages caused by termites at monitoring stations. Peak colony activity at Wuxi2, Wuwei, and Anqing2 occurred in July and October, June and September, July and October, respectively. This study provides critical information for the integrated management of C. formosanus, including baiting application in the subtropical regions of China, where it constitutes the most destructive pest for household structures. PMID:26470181

  8. Fundamentos, Orientaciones, Areas Basicas y Procedimientos para la Investigacion Educativa (Bases, Guidelines, Basic Areas, and Procedures for Educational Research).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ministerio de Educacion Nacional, Bogota (Colombia). Instituto Colombiano de Pedagogia.

    This document establishes the bases, general guidelines, basic areas, and procedures for educational research conducted in Colombia. The philosophy underlying research objectives is explained. There is special interest in social research concerning the condition of man and of the social groups that will be the targets of education, and in research…

  9. Research Activities at Fermilab for Big Data Movement

    SciTech Connect

    Mhashilkar, Parag; Wu, Wenji; Kim, Hyun W; Garzoglio, Gabriele; Dykstra, Dave; Slyz, Marko; DeMar, Phil

    2013-01-01

    Adaptation of 100GE Networking Infrastructure is the next step towards management of Big Data. Being the US Tier-1 Center for the Large Hadron Collider's (LHC) Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment and the central data center for several other large-scale research collaborations, Fermilab has to constantly deal with the scaling and wide-area distribution challenges of the big data. In this paper, we will describe some of the challenges involved in the movement of big data over 100GE infrastructure and the research activities at Fermilab to address these challenges.

  10. Active system area networks for data intensive computations. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    2002-04-01

    The goal of the Active System Area Networks (ASAN) project is to develop hardware and software technologies for the implementation of active system area networks (ASANs). The use of the term ''active'' refers to the ability of the network interfaces to perform application-specific as well as system level computations in addition to their traditional role of data transfer. This project adopts the view that the network infrastructure should be an active computational entity capable of supporting certain classes of computations that would otherwise be performed on the host CPUs. The result is a unique network-wide programming model where computations are dynamically placed within the host CPUs or the NIs depending upon the quality of service demands and network/CPU resource availability. The projects seeks to demonstrate that such an approach is a better match for data intensive network-based applications and that the advent of low-cost powerful embedded processors and configurable hardware makes such an approach economically viable and desirable.

  11. MPD thruster research issues, activities, strategies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    The following activities and plans in the MPD thruster development are summarized: (1) experimental and theoretical research (magnetic nozzles at present and high power levels, MPD thrusters with applied fields extending into the thrust chamber, and improved electrode performance); and (2) tools (MACH2 code for MPD and nozzle flow calculation, laser diagnostics and spectroscopy for non-intrusive measurements of flow conditions, and extension to higher power). National strategies are also outlined.

  12. TRIGA research reactor activities around the world

    SciTech Connect

    Chesworth, R.H.; Razvi, J.; Whittemore, W.L. )

    1991-11-01

    Recent activities at several overseas TRIGA installations are discussed in this paper, including reactor performance, research programs under way, and plans for future upgrades. The following installations are included: (1) 14,000-kW TRIGA at the Institute for Nuclear Research, Pitesti, Romania; (2) 2,000-kW TRIGA Mark II at the Institute of Nuclear Technology, Dhaka, Bangladesh; (3) 3,000-kW TRIGA conversion, Philippine Nuclear Research Institute, Quezon City, Philippines; and (4) other ongoing installations, including a 1,500-kW TRIGA Mark II at Rabat, Morocco, and a 1,000-kW conversion/upgrade at the Institute Asunto Nucleares, Bogota, Columbia.

  13. ILO activities in the area of chemical safety.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Isaac

    2003-08-21

    The ILO has been active in the area of safety in the use of chemicals at work since the year of its creation in 1919, including the development of international treaties and other technical instruments, the provision of technical assistance to its member States, and the development of chemical safety information systems. The two key ILO standards in this area are the Conventions on safety in the use of chemicals at work (No. 170, 1990), and the Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents (No. 174, 1993). The ILO Programme on occupational safety, health and environment (Safe Work) is currently responsible for ILO chemical safety activities. In the past two decades, most of ILO work in this area has been carried out within the context of inter-agency collaboration frameworks linking the ILO, WHO, UNEP, FAO, UNIDO, UNITAR, and the OECD, including the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Inter-Organisation Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), and the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS). Apart from the regular development, updating and dissemination of chemical safety information data bases such as the IPCS International Chemical Cards, the elaboration of a Globally harmonized system for the classification and labelling of Chemicals (GHS) has been the most outstanding achievement of this international collaboration on chemical safety.

  14. ILO activities in the area of chemical safety.

    PubMed

    Obadia, Isaac

    2003-08-21

    The ILO has been active in the area of safety in the use of chemicals at work since the year of its creation in 1919, including the development of international treaties and other technical instruments, the provision of technical assistance to its member States, and the development of chemical safety information systems. The two key ILO standards in this area are the Conventions on safety in the use of chemicals at work (No. 170, 1990), and the Prevention of Major Industrial Accidents (No. 174, 1993). The ILO Programme on occupational safety, health and environment (Safe Work) is currently responsible for ILO chemical safety activities. In the past two decades, most of ILO work in this area has been carried out within the context of inter-agency collaboration frameworks linking the ILO, WHO, UNEP, FAO, UNIDO, UNITAR, and the OECD, including the International Programme on Chemical Safety (IPCS), the Inter-Organisation Programme for the Sound Management of Chemicals (IOMC), and the Intergovernmental Forum on Chemical Safety (IFCS). Apart from the regular development, updating and dissemination of chemical safety information data bases such as the IPCS International Chemical Cards, the elaboration of a Globally harmonized system for the classification and labelling of Chemicals (GHS) has been the most outstanding achievement of this international collaboration on chemical safety. PMID:12909402

  15. Research in active composite materials and structures: an overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garg, Devendra P.; Anderson, Gary L.

    2000-06-01

    During the past several years, the Materials Science Division and the Mechanical and Environmental Sciences Division of the Army Research Office have been supporting projects focusing on basic resaserch in the area of smart materials and structures. The major emphasis of the ARO Structures and Dynamics Program has been on the theoretical, computational, and experimental analysis of smart structures and structural dynamics, damping, active control, and health monitoring as applied to rotor craft, electromagnetic antenna structures, missiles, land vehicles, and weapon systems. The research projects supported by the program have been primarily directed towards improving the ability to predict, control, and optimize the dynamic response of complex, multi-body deformable structures. The projects in the field of smart materials and structures have included multi-disciplinary research conducted by teams of several faculty members as well as research performed by individual investigators.

  16. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    In NUREG-1251, ``Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,`` April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC`s regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC`s Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC`s Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff`s findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC`s Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed.

  17. Summary of Chernobyl followup research activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-06-01

    In NUREG-1251, Implications of the Accident at Chernobyl for Safety Regulation of Commercial Nuclear Power Plants in the United States,'' April 1989, the NRC staff concluded that no immediate changes in NRC's regulations regarding design or operation of US commercial reactors were needed; however, it recommended that certain issues be considered further. NRC's Chernobyl followup research program consisted of the research tasks undertaken in response to the recommendations in NUREG-1251. It included 23 tasks that addressed potential lessons to be learned from the Chernobyl accident. This report presents summaries of NRC's Chernobyl followup research tasks. For each task, the Chernobyl-related issues are indicated, the work is described, and the staff's findings and conclusions are presented. More detailed reports concerning the work are referenced where applicable. This report closes out NRC's Chernobyl followup research program as such, but additional research will be conducted on some issues as needed. The report includes remarks concerning significant further activity with respect to the issues addressed.

  18. Well completion practices in active U. S. areas

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-05-01

    This work presents results of field visits and meetings with oil companies and independent operators to determine the latest in drilling and well completion practices in active US areas. Those areas and practices include S. Texas (operations to control annular gas flow during cementing); offshore Texas (rapidly changing pressure gradients require numerous casing strings); Cotton Valley (large sandstone frac jobs); Sonora Basin (smaller, low-rate fracturing); W. Texas (minor Permian basin infill drilling problems); Tuscaloosa trend (drilling operations planned around pressure transition zones); offshore Louisiana (geology and directional work complicate drilling); Overthrust Belt (abnormally low pressure zones and hydrogen sulfide problems); Williston basin (logistics problems); and California (well designs used for steam stimulated production).

  19. 36 CFR 251.23 - Experimental areas and research natural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Designation of Areas § 251.23 Experimental areas... series of areas on National Forest land to be known as experimental forests or experimental ranges... management of forest and range land in each forest region. Also, when appropriate, the Chief shall...

  20. 36 CFR 251.23 - Experimental areas and research natural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Designation of Areas § 251.23 Experimental areas... series of areas on National Forest land to be known as experimental forests or experimental ranges... management of forest and range land in each forest region. Also, when appropriate, the Chief shall...

  1. 36 CFR 251.23 - Experimental areas and research natural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Designation of Areas § 251.23 Experimental areas... series of areas on National Forest land to be known as experimental forests or experimental ranges... management of forest and range land in each forest region. Also, when appropriate, the Chief shall...

  2. 36 CFR 251.23 - Experimental areas and research natural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Designation of Areas § 251.23 Experimental areas... series of areas on National Forest land to be known as experimental forests or experimental ranges... management of forest and range land in each forest region. Also, when appropriate, the Chief shall...

  3. 36 CFR 251.23 - Experimental areas and research natural areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LAND USES Miscellaneous Land Uses Designation of Areas § 251.23 Experimental areas... series of areas on National Forest land to be known as experimental forests or experimental ranges... management of forest and range land in each forest region. Also, when appropriate, the Chief shall...

  4. Research Problems and Issues in the Area of Socialization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sowder, Barbara J.; Lazar, Joyce B.

    Research problems and issues concerning socialization are identified in an effort to aid member agencies of the Interagency Panel on Early Childhood Research and Development in establishing priorities in research. Discussed in Part I are: (1) the development of intergroup and intragroup attitudes and behaviors--stages in their development; the…

  5. Development and testing of an active area neutron dosemeter.

    PubMed

    Brushwood, J M; Gow, J P D; Beeley, P A; Spyrou, N M

    2004-01-01

    This paper describes the design, development and testing of an active area neutron dosemeter (AAND). The classic moderator and central detector is retained but in AAND this arrangement is augmented by small thermal neutron detectors positioned within the moderating body. The outputs from these detectors are combined using an appropriately weighted linear superposition to fit both the ambient dose equivalent and the radiation weighting factor. Experimental verifications of both the modelled detector energy reponses and the overall AAND response are given. In the relatively soft D2O moderated 252Cf spectra, the AAND determined both the H*(10) and mean radiation weighting factor to better than +10%.

  6. [Research progress on remote sensing of ecological and environmental changes in the Three Gorges Reservoir area, China].

    PubMed

    Teng, Ming-jun; Zeng, Li-xiong; Xiao, Wen-fa; Zhou, Zhi-xiang; Huang, Zhi-lin; Wang, Peng-cheng; Dian, Yuan-yong

    2014-12-01

    The Three Gorges Reservoir area (TGR area) , one of the most sensitive ecological zones in China, has dramatically changes in ecosystem configurations and services driven by the Three Gorges Engineering Project and its related human activities. Thus, understanding the dynamics of ecosystem configurations, ecological processes and ecosystem services is an attractive and critical issue to promote regional ecological security of the TGR area. The remote sensing of environment is a promising approach to the target and is thus increasingly applied to and ecosystem dynamics of the TGR area on mid- and macro-scales. However, current researches often showed controversial results in ecological and environmental changes in the TGR area due to the differences in remote sensing data, scale, and land-use/cover classification. Due to the complexity of ecological configurations and human activities, challenges still exist in the remote-sensing based research of ecological and environmental changes in the TGR area. The purpose of this review was to summarize the research advances in remote sensing of ecological and environmental changes in the TGR area. The status, challenges and trends of ecological and environmental remote-sensing in the TGR area were further discussed and concluded in the aspect of land-use/land-cover, vegetation dynamics, soil and water security, ecosystem services, ecosystem health and its management. The further researches on the remote sensing of ecological and environmental changes were proposed to improve the ecosystem management of the TGR area.

  7. Evaluating Teaching and Research Activities--Finding the Right Balance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal, Javier; Mora, Jose-Gines

    2003-01-01

    Analyzes on a national, regional, and institutional level the evaluation systems used to assess teaching and research activities at Spanish universities. Also examines ways in which evaluation systems orient to promote research activities to the detriment of teaching activities. (SWM)

  8. The Timing of Noise-Sensitive Activities in Residential Areas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-01-01

    Data from a nationally representative survey of time use was analyzed to provide estimates of the percentage of the population which is engaged in noise sensitive activities during each hour of the day on weekdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. Estimates are provided of the percentage engaged in aural communication activities at home, sleeping at home, or simply at home. The day can be roughly divided into four noise sensitivity periods consisting of two relatively steady state periods, night and day and the early morning and evening transition periods. Weekends differ from weekdays in that the morning transition period is one hour later and the numbers of people engaged in aural communication during the day at home are approximately one-half to three-quarters greater. The extent and timing of noise sensitive activities was found to be similiar for all parts of the United States, for different sizes of urban areas, and for the three seasons surveyed (September through May). The timing of activity periods does not differ greatly by sex or age even though women and people over 65 are much more likely to be at home during the daytime.

  9. Brainstem areas activated by intermittent apnea in awake unrestrained rats.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, C B; Schoorlemmer, G H; Rossi, M V; Takakura, A C; Barna, B F; Moreira, T S; Cravo, S L

    2015-06-25

    We investigated the role of the autonomic nervous system to cardiovascular responses to obstructive apnea in awake, unrestrained rats, and measured expression of Fos induced by apnea in the brainstem. We implanted a tracheal balloon contained in a rigid tube to allow the induction of apnea without inducing pain in the trachea. During bouts of 15s of apnea, heart rate fell from 371±8 to 161±11bpm (mean±SEM, n=15, p<0.01) and arterial pressure increased from 115±2 to 131±4mmHg (p<0.01). Bradycardia was due to parasympathetic activity because it was blocked by the muscarinic antagonist, methylatropine. The pressor response was due to vasoconstriction caused by sympathetic activation because it was blocked by the α1 antagonist, prazosin. Apnea induced Fos expression in several brainstem areas involved in cardiorespiratory control such as the nucleus of the solitary tract (NTS), ventrolateral medulla (VLM), and pons. Ligation of the carotid body artery reduced apnea-induced bradycardia, blocked heart rate responses to i.v. injection of cyanide, reduced Fos expression in the caudal NTS, and increased Fos expression in the rostral VLM. In conclusion, apnea activates neurons in regions that process signals from baroreceptors, chemoreceptors, pulmonary receptors, and regions responsible for autonomic and respiratory activity both in the presence and absence of carotid chemoreceptors.

  10. The timing of noise-sensitive activities in residential areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fields, J. M.

    1985-07-01

    Data from a nationally representative survey of time use was analyzed to provide estimates of the percentage of the population which is engaged in noise sensitive activities during each hour of the day on weekdays, Fridays, Saturdays and Sundays. Estimates are provided of the percentage engaged in aural communication activities at home, sleeping at home, or simply at home. The day can be roughly divided into four noise sensitivity periods consisting of two relatively steady state periods, night and day and the early morning and evening transition periods. Weekends differ from weekdays in that the morning transition period is one hour later and the numbers of people engaged in aural communication during the day at home are approximately one-half to three-quarters greater. The extent and timing of noise sensitive activities was found to be similiar for all parts of the United States, for different sizes of urban areas, and for the three seasons surveyed (September through May). The timing of activity periods does not differ greatly by sex or age even though women and people over 65 are much more likely to be at home during the daytime.

  11. Large area flexible SERS active substrates using engineered nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Aram J.; Huh, Yun Suk; Erickson, David

    2011-07-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an analytical sensing method that provides label-free detection, molecularly specific information, and extremely high sensitivity. The Raman enhancement that makes this method attractive is mainly attributed to the local amplification of the incident electromagnetic field that occurs when a surface plasmon mode is excited at a metallic nanostructure. Here, we present a simple, cost effective method for creating flexible, large area SERS-active substrates using a new technique we call shadow mask assisted evaporation (SMAE). The advantage of large, flexible SERS substrates such as these is they have more area for multiplexing and can be incorporated into irregular surfaces such as clothing. We demonstrate the formation of four different types of nanostructure arrays (pillar, nib, ellipsoidal cylinder, and triangular tip) by controlling the evaporation angle, substrate rotation, and deposition rate of metals onto anodized alumina nanoporous membranes as large as 27 mm. In addition, we present experimental results showing how a hybrid structure comprising of gold nanospheres embedded in a silver nano-pillar structure can be used to obtain a 50× SERS enhancement over the raw nanoparticles themselves.Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an analytical sensing method that provides label-free detection, molecularly specific information, and extremely high sensitivity. The Raman enhancement that makes this method attractive is mainly attributed to the local amplification of the incident electromagnetic field that occurs when a surface plasmon mode is excited at a metallic nanostructure. Here, we present a simple, cost effective method for creating flexible, large area SERS-active substrates using a new technique we call shadow mask assisted evaporation (SMAE). The advantage of large, flexible SERS substrates such as these is they have more area for multiplexing and can be incorporated into irregular surfaces such as

  12. Research Opportunities in the Area of Adults With Stroke.

    PubMed

    2016-01-01

    The American Occupational Therapy Association (AOTA) Evidence-Based Practice Project has developed a table summarizing the research opportunities on adults with stroke. The table provides an overview of the state of current available evidence on interventions within the scope of occupational therapy practice and is based on the systematic reviews from the AOTA Evidence-Based Practice Guidelines Series. Researchers, students, and clinicians can use this information in developing innovative research to answer important questions within the occupational therapy field.

  13. An overview of Japanese CELSS research activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nitta, Keiji

    1987-01-01

    Development of Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) technology is inevitable for future long duration stays of human beings in space, for lunar base construction and for manned Mars flight programs. CELSS functions can be divided into 2 categories, Environmental Control and Material Recycling. Temperature, humidity, total atmospheric pressure and partial pressure of oxygen and carbon dioxide, necessary for all living things, are to be controlled by the environment control function. This function can be performed by technologies already developed and used as the Environment Control Life Support System (ECLSS) of Space Shuttle and Space Station. As for material recycling, matured technologies have not yet been established for fully satisfying the specific metabolic requirements of each living thing including human beings. Therefore, research activities for establishing CELSS technology should be focused on material recycling technologies using biological systems such as plants and animals and physico-chemical systems, for example, a gas recycling system, a water purifying and recycling system and a waste management system. Japanese research activities were conducted and will be continued accordingly.

  14. The NASA Applied Science Program Disasters Area: Disaster Applications Research and Response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Murray, J. J.; Lindsay, F. E.; Stough, T.; Jones, C. E.

    2014-12-01

    The goal of the Natural Disaster Application Area is to use NASA's capabilities in spaceborne, airborne, surface observations, higher-level derived data products, and modeling and data analysis to improve natural disaster forecasting, mitigation, and response. The Natural Disaster Application Area applies its remote sensing observations, modeling and analysis capabilities to provide hazard and disaster information where and when it is needed. Our application research activities specifically contribute to 1) Understanding the natural processes that produce hazards, 2)Developing hazard mitigation technologies, and 3)Recognizing vulnerability of interdependent critical infrastructure. The Natural Disasters Application area selects research projects through a rigorous, impartial peer-review process that address a broad spectrum of disasters which afflict populations within the United States, regionally and globally. Currently there are 19 active projects in the research portfolio which address the detection, characterization, forecasting and response to a broad range of natural disasters including earthquakes, tsunamis, volcanic eruptions and ash dispersion, wildfires, hurricanes, floods, tornado damage assessment, oil spills and disaster data mining. The Disasters team works with federal agencies to aid the government in meeting the challenges associated with natural disaster response and to transfer technologies to agencies as they become operational. Internationally, the Disasters Area also supports the Committee on Earth Observations Working Group on Disasters, and the International Charter on Space and Disasters to increase, strengthen, and coordinate contributions of NASA Earth-observing satellites and applications products to disaster risk management. The CEOS group will lead pilot efforts focused on identifying key systems to support flooding, earthquake, and volcanic events.

  15. Prediction of prognosis of ALS: Importance of active denervation findings of the cervical-upper limb area and trunk area.

    PubMed

    Sato, Yoko; Nakatani, Eiji; Watanabe, Yasuhiro; Fukushima, Masanori; Nakashima, Kenji; Kannagi, Mari; Kanatani, Yasuhiro; Mizushima, Hiroshi

    2015-11-01

    Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a motor neuron disease characterized by serious muscle atrophy and weakness. The purpose of this study was to find prognostic factors in patients with mild ALS using application forms for the Specified Disease Treatment Research Program in Japan. We classified ALS as mild, moderate and severe. The subjects consisted of 363 patients with mild ALS who underwent needle electromyography at registration and were followed for more than one year. Time to progression to severe ALS and time to deterioration of activities of daily living such as speech dysfunction, upper limb dysfunction, and walking disability were used as outcomes. Cox proportional hazards model analysis was performed to identify prognostic factors. Of the patients with initially mild ALS, 38.3% (139/363) had progressed severe ALS at the last follow-up. In multivariate analysis of time to progression to severe ALS, bulbar onset (hazard ratio [95% confidence interval]: 1.68 [1.13-2.49], p = 0.010), tongue atrophy (1.69 [1.14-2.51], p = 0.009), dyspnea (1.57 [1.02-2.41], p = 0.042) and active denervation findings (ADFs) of the cervical-upper limb area (1.81 [1.25-2.63], p = 0.002) emerged as prognostic factors. Furthermore ADFs in the trunk area were prognostic factors for upper limb dysfunction and walking disability (1.72 [1.05-2.81], p = 0.031, and 1.97 [1.09-3.59], p = 0.026). In conclusion ADFs of the cervical-upper limb area and trunk area were prognostic factors in ALS patients.

  16. Positive Activities: Qualitative Research with Parents. Solutions Research. Research Report. DCSF-RR142

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department for Children, Schools and Families, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This research was commissioned by COI and DCSF to understand in depth, the barriers, motivators and messages for parents to encourage participation in positive activities for young people. Within this the research was designed to understand the level of influence of parents in whether a young person participates/what a young person might…

  17. 40 CFR 230.54 - Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites, and similar preserves. 230.54 Section 230..., wilderness areas, research sites, and similar preserves. (a) These preserves consist of areas designated... -managed. Note: Possible actions to minimize adverse impacts regarding site or material characteristics...

  18. Areas of Unsolved Problems in Caribbean Active Tectonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mann, P.

    2015-12-01

    I review some unsolved problems in Caribbean active tectonics. At the regional and plate scale: 1) confirm the existence of intraplate deformation zones of the central Caribbean plate that are within the margin of error of ongoing GPS measurements; 2) carry out field studies to evaluate block models versus models for distributed fault shear on the densely populated islands of Jamaica, Hispaniola, Puerto Rico, and the Virgin Islands; 3) carry out paleoseismological research of key plate boundary faults that may have accumulated large strains but have not been previously studied in detail; 4) determine the age of onset and far-field effects of the Cocos ridge and the Central America forearc sliver; 4) investigate the origin and earthquake-potential of obliquely-sheared rift basins along the northern coast of Venezuela; 5) determine the age of onset and regional active, tectonic effects of the Panama-South America collision including the continued activation of the Maracaibo block; and 6) validate longterm rates on active subduction zones with improving, tomographic maps of subducted slabs. At the individual fault scale: 1) determine the mode of termination of large and active strike -slip faults and application of the STEP model (Septentrional, Polochic, El Pilar, Bocono, Santa Marta-Bucaramanaga); 2) improve the understanding of the earthquake potential on the Enriquillo-Plantain Garden fault zone given "off-fault" events such as the 2010 Haiti earthquake; how widespread is this behavior?; and 3) estimate size of future tsunamis from studies of historic or prehistoric slump scars and mass transport deposits; what potential runups can be predicted from this information?; and 4) devise ways to keep rapidly growing, circum-Caribbean urban populations better informed and safer in the face of inevitable and future, large earthquakes.

  19. Physical Activity Experiences of Young People in an Area of Disadvantage: "There's Nothing There for Big Kids, Like Us"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEvoy, Eileen; MacPhail, Ann; Enright, Eimear

    2016-01-01

    Through an examination of the experiences of young people in one disadvantaged area, this paper adds to an emerging body of knowledge focused on what place physical activity occupies in the lives of young people in areas of disadvantage. A total of 40 young people (21 males, 19 females) participated in focus group interviews. The research question…

  20. Active Fault Characterization in the Urban Area of Vienna

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Decker, Kurt; Grupe, Sabine; Hintersberger, Esther

    2016-04-01

    The identification of active faults that lie beneath a city is of key importance for seismic hazard assessment. Fault mapping and characterization in built-up areas with strong anthropogenic overprint is, however, a challenging task. Our study of Quaternary faults in the city of Vienna starts from the re-assessment of a borehole database of the municipality containing several tens of thousands of shallow boreholes. Data provide tight constraints on the geometry of Quaternary deposits and highlight several locations with fault-delimited Middle to Late Pleistocene terrace sediments of the Danube River. Additional information is obtained from geological descriptions of historical outcrops which partly date back to about 1900. The latter were found to be particularly valuable by providing unprejudiced descriptions of Quaternary faults, sometimes with stunning detail. The along-strike continuations of some of the identified faults are further imaged by industrial 2D/3D seismic acquired outside the city limits. The interpretation and the assessment of faults identified within the city benefit from a very well constrained tectonic model of the active Vienna Basin fault system which derived from data obtained outside the city limits. This data suggests that the urban faults are part of a system of normal faults compensating fault-normal extension at a releasing bend of the sinistral Vienna Basin Transfer Fault. Slip rates estimated for the faults in the city are in the range of several hundredths of millimetres per year and match the slip rates of normal faults that were trenched outside the city. The lengths/areas of individual faults estimated from maps and seismic reach up to almost 700 km² suggesting that all of the identified faults are capable of producing earthquakes with magnitudes M>6, some with magnitudes up to M~6.7.

  1. Knowing but not doing: selecting priority conservation areas and the research-implementation gap.

    PubMed

    Knight, Andrew T; Cowling, Richard M; Rouget, Mathieu; Balmford, Andrew; Lombard, Amanda T; Campbell, Bruce M

    2008-06-01

    Conservation assessment is a rapidly evolving discipline whose stated goal is the design of networks of protected areas that represent and ensure the persistence of nature (i.e., species, habitats, and environmental processes) by separating priority areas from the activities that degrade or destroy them. Nevertheless, despite a burgeoning scientific literature that ever refines these techniques for allocating conservation resources, it is widely believed that conservation assessments are rarely translated into actions that actually conserve nature. We reviewed the conservation assessment literature in peer-reviewed journals and conducted survey questionnaires of the authors of these studies. Two-thirds of conservation assessments published in the peer-reviewed scientific literature do not deliver conservation action, primarily because most researchers never plan for implementation. This research-implementation gap between conservation science and real-world action is a genuine phenomenon and is a specific example of the "knowing-doing gap" that is widely recognized in management science. Given the woefully inadequate resources allocated for conservation, our findings raise questions over the utility of conservation assessment science, as currently practiced, to provide useful, pragmatic solutions to conservation planning problems. A reevaluation of the conceptual and operational basis of conservation planning research is urgently required. We recommend the following actions for beginning a process for bridging the research-implementation gap in conservation planning: (1) acknowledge the research-implementation gap is real, (2) source research questions from practitioners, (3) situate research within a broader conservation planning model, (4) expand the social dimension of conservation assessments, (5) support conservation plans with transdisciplinary social learning institutions, (6) reward academics for societal engagement and implementation, and (7) train

  2. Large area flexible SERS active substrates using engineered nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Chung, Aram J; Huh, Yun Suk; Erickson, David

    2011-07-01

    Surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is an analytical sensing method that provides label-free detection, molecularly specific information, and extremely high sensitivity. The Raman enhancement that makes this method attractive is mainly attributed to the local amplification of the incident electromagnetic field that occurs when a surface plasmon mode is excited at a metallic nanostructure. Here, we present a simple, cost effective method for creating flexible, large area SERS-active substrates using a new technique we call shadow mask assisted evaporation (SMAE). The advantage of large, flexible SERS substrates such as these is they have more area for multiplexing and can be incorporated into irregular surfaces such as clothing. We demonstrate the formation of four different types of nanostructure arrays (pillar, nib, ellipsoidal cylinder, and triangular tip) by controlling the evaporation angle, substrate rotation, and deposition rate of metals onto anodized alumina nanoporous membranes as large as 27 mm. In addition, we present experimental results showing how a hybrid structure comprising of gold nanospheres embedded in a silver nano-pillar structure can be used to obtain a 50× SERS enhancement over the raw nanoparticles themselves.

  3. High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities, January 1--June 30, 1997

    SciTech Connect

    Norem, J.; Rezmer, R.; Wagner, R.

    1997-12-01

    This report is divided into: the experimental research program; theoretical physics program; accelerator research and development; and divisional computing activities. The experimental research program covers: experiments with data; experiments in planning or construction; and detector development. Work done for this period is summarized for each area.

  4. Area XV Career Education Research & Planning. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indian Hills Community Coll., Ottumwa, IA.

    Critical issues in career education are addressed in this report of an advisory committee seeking input and making recommendations for career education implementation in Iowa. Recommendations addressing state, area, and local school district responsibilities are grouped into three main perspectives: planning, implementation, and evaluation. The…

  5. Cancer outcomes research in a rural area: a multi-institution partnership model.

    PubMed

    Goodman, Michael; Almon, Lyn; Bayakly, Rana; Butler, Susan; Crosby, Carol; DiIorio, Colleen; Ekwueme, Donatus; Fletcher, Diane; Fowler, John; Gillespie, Theresa; Glanz, Karen; Hall, Ingrid; Lee, Judith; Liff, Jonathan; Lipscomb, Joseph; Pollack, Lori A; Richardson, Lisa C; Roberts, Phillip; Steenland, Kyle; Ward, Kevin

    2009-02-01

    Whereas, most cancer research data come from high-profile academic centers, little is known about the outcomes of cancer care in rural communities. We summarize the experience of building a multi-institution partnership to develop a cancer outcomes research infrastructure in Southwest Georgia (SWGA), a primarily rural 33-county area with over 700,000 residents. The partnership includes eight institutions: the Emory University in Atlanta, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the Georgia Comprehensive Center Registry (the Registry), the Southwest Georgia Cancer Coalition (the Coalition), and the four community cancer centers located within the SWGA region. The practical application of the partnership model, its organizational structure, and lessons learned are presented using two specific examples: a study evaluating treatment decisions and quality of life among prostate cancer patients, and a study of treatment discontinuation among prostate, breast, lung, and colorectal cancer patients. Our partnership model allowed us to (1) use the Coalition as a link between Atlanta-based researchers and local community; (2) collaborate with the area cancer centers on day-to-day study activities; (3) involve the Registry personnel and resources to identify eligible cancer cases and to perform data collection; and (4) raise community awareness and sense of study ownership through media announcements organized by the Coalition. All of the above activities were performed in consultation with the funding institution (CDC) and its project directors who oversee several other studies addressing similar research questions throughout the country. Our partnership model may provide a useful framework for cancer outcomes research projects in rural communities.

  6. Research on stable, large-area, amorphous silicon based submodules

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, A.; Arya, R.R.; Bennett, M.; Fieselmann, B.; Goldstein, B.; Morris, J.; Newton, J.; O'Dowd, J.; Oswald, R.S.; Podlesny, R.; Wiedeman, S.; Yang, L. . Thin Film Div.)

    1990-07-01

    This research program encompasses materials research, non- semiconductor materials research, and submodule research. Researchers studied the materials' considerations that limit transport in the a-SiGe:H alloys, and developed alloys with improved properties. These studies indicated that the homogeneity of the alloy plays an important role in determining electronic properties. P-type a-SiC:H films were also prepared using trimethylboron as a dopant. The conductivity of the films was about an order of magnitude better than the comparable bandgap diborane-doped film. This allowed devices with improved voltage (0.943 V) to be demonstrated. Scientists also investigated the optimum device structures for the bottom, a-SiGe:H cell. This study concluded that grading the i-regions is an important element in obtaining the best performance, but the results differ significantly from those reported elsewhere. The results of this study have been incorporated in a number of tandem and triple-junction devices that have resulted in efficiencies in the range of 10--11%. A laser-scribing process for the highly reflecting ITO/Ag rear contact has enabled the cell results to be transferred to prototype modules with conversion efficiencies between 9% and 10%. 23 refs., 51 figs., 8 tabs.

  7. Current Research Activities in Drive System Technology in Support of the NASA Rotorcraft Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Handschuh, Robert F.; Zakrajsek, James J.

    2006-01-01

    Drive system technology is a key area for improving rotorcraft performance, noise/vibration reduction, and reducing operational and manufacturing costs. An overview of current research areas that support the NASA Rotorcraft Program will be provided. Work in drive system technology is mainly focused within three research areas: advanced components, thermal behavior/emergency lubrication system operation, and diagnostics/prognostics (also known as Health and Usage Monitoring Systems (HUMS)). Current research activities in each of these activities will be presented. Also, an overview of the conceptual drive system requirements and possible arrangements for the Heavy Lift Rotorcraft program will be reviewed.

  8. Advanced ASON prototyping research activities in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, WeiSheng; Jin, Yaohui; Guo, Wei; Su, Yikai; He, Hao; Sun, Weiqiang

    2005-02-01

    This paper provides an overview of prototyping research activities of automatically switched optical networks and transport networks (ASONs/ASTNs) in China. In recent years, China has recognized the importance and benefits of the emerging ASON/ASTN techniques. During the period of 2001 and 2002, the national 863 Program of China started the preliminary ASON research projects with the main objectives to build preliminary ASON testbeds, develop control plane protocols and test their performance in the testbeds. During the period of 2003 and 2004, the 863 program started ASTN prototyping equipment projects for more practical applications. Totally 12 ASTN equipments are being developed by three groups led by Chinese venders: ZTE with Beijing University of Posts and Telecommunications (BUPT), Wuhan Research Institute of Posts and Telecommunication (WRI) with Shanghai Jiao Tong University (SJTU), and Huawei Inc. Meanwhile, as the ASTN is maturing, some of the China"s carries are participating in the OIF"s World Interoperability Demonstration, carrying out ASTN test, or deploying ASTN backbone networks. Finally, several ASTN backbone networks being tested or deployed now will be operated by the carries in 2005. The 863 Program will carry out an ASTN field trail in Yangtse River Delta, and finally deploy the 3TNET. 3TNET stands for Tbps transmission, Tbps switching, and Tbps routing, as well as a network integrating the above techniques. A task force under the "863" program is responsible for ASTN equipment specifications and interoperation agreements, technical coordination among all the participants, schedule of the whole project during the project undergoing, and organization of internetworking of all the equipments in the laboratories and field trials.

  9. Cross Cultural Methods for Survey Research in Black Urban Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Word, Carl O.

    This paper summarizes the development of a new approach to survey research in black urban communities, in part by adapting standard techniques. Attention is directed at a group of salient assumptions underlying social science investigations, namely: (1) the universality of majority culture models of attitude structure; (2) sociolinguistic and…

  10. Sorrow and Solace: Neglected Areas in Bereavement Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klass, Dennis

    2013-01-01

    The author argues that in its focus on finding positive outcomes, bereavement research has neglected or denigrated central phenomena in intense and long-term grief: sorrow and solace. Sorrow has two elements: yearning for the dead person and grief's depression. Consolation comes into sorrow in human relationships and from inner resources. The…

  11. Research in Public Schools: Purpose and Problem Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayman, John L., Jr.

    This presentation clarifies the role of evaluation in public schools and discusses major problems which block the effectiveness of the role. Evaluation is used in schools to produce information that helps decision makers choose among alternative courses of action. Purpose, rather than methodology, distinguishes evaluation from research. The need…

  12. Update on U.S.EPA Cookstove Research Activities

    EPA Science Inventory

    The presentation includes background information on EPA's stove research, focuses on cookstove testing for air pollutant emissions and energy efficiency, and briefly describes current research activities. Ongoing activities are highlighted, and EPA contacts are provided.

  13. Nursing Research--Taking an Active Interest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cleverly, Dankay

    1998-01-01

    In Britain, nurses' attitudes toward research are changing. Schools of nursing must consider the following research issues: funding, contracts, support, publication, and staff recruitment and retention. (SK)

  14. Fundamental research in the area of high temperature fuel cells in Russia

    SciTech Connect

    Dyomin, A.K.

    1996-04-01

    Research in the area of molten carbonate and solid oxide fuel cells has been conducted in Russia since the late 60`s. Institute of High Temperature Electrochemistry is the lead organisation in this area. Research in the area of materials used in fuel cells has allowed us to identify compositions of electrolytes, electrodes, current paths and transmitting, sealing and structural materials appropriate for long-term fuel cell applications. Studies of electrode processes resulted in better understanding of basic patterns of electrode reactions and in the development of a foundation for electrode structure optimization. We have developed methods to increase electrode activity levels that allowed us to reach current density levels of up to 1 amper/cm{sup 2}. Development of mathematical models of processes in high temperature fuel cells has allowed us to optimize their structure. The results of fundamental studies have been tested on laboratory mockups. MCFC mockups with up to 100 W capacity and SOFC mockups with up to 1 kW capacity have been manufactured and tested at IHTE. There are three SOFC structural options: tube, plate and modular.

  15. 20 CFR 401.165 - Statistical and research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Statistical and research activities. 401.165... RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.165 Statistical and research activities. (a) General. Statistical and research activities often do not require information in a...

  16. 20 CFR 401.165 - Statistical and research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Statistical and research activities. 401.165... RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.165 Statistical and research activities. (a) General. Statistical and research activities often do not require information in a...

  17. 20 CFR 401.165 - Statistical and research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Statistical and research activities. 401.165... RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.165 Statistical and research activities. (a) General. Statistical and research activities often do not require information in a...

  18. 20 CFR 401.165 - Statistical and research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Statistical and research activities. 401.165... RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.165 Statistical and research activities. (a) General. Statistical and research activities often do not require information in a...

  19. 20 CFR 401.165 - Statistical and research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Statistical and research activities. 401.165... RECORDS AND INFORMATION Disclosure of Official Records and Information § 401.165 Statistical and research activities. (a) General. Statistical and research activities often do not require information in a...

  20. To Support Research Activities Under the NASA Experimental Program to Stimulate Competitive Research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregory, John C.

    2003-01-01

    The Alabama NASA EPSCoR Program is a collaborative venture of The Alabama Space Grant Consortium, The Alabama EPSCoR, and faculty and staff at 10 Alabama colleges and universities as well as the Alabama School of Math and Science in Mobile. There are two Research Clusters which include infrastructure-building and outreach elements embedded in their research activities. Each of the two Research Clusters is in an area of clear and demonstrable relevance to NASA's mission, to components of other Alabama EPSCoR projects, and to the State of Alabama's economic development. This Final Report summarizes and reports upon those additional activities occurring after the first report was submitted in March 2000 (included here as Appendix C). Since the nature of the activities and the manner in which they relate to one another differ by cluster, these clusters function independently and are summarized in parallel in this report. They do share a common administration by the Alabama Space Grant Consortium (ASGC) and by this means, good ideas from each group were communicated to the other, as appropriate. During the past year these research teams, involving 15 scientists, 16 graduate students, 16 undergraduates, and 7 high school students involving 10 Alabama universities had 14 peer reviewed scientific journal articles published, 21 others reviewed for publication or published in proceedings, gave 7 formal presentations and numerous informal presentations to well over 3000 people, received 3 patents and were awarded 14 research proposals for more than $213K dollars in additional research related to these investigations. Each cluster's activities are described and an Appendix summarizes these achievements.

  1. 'Syntactic Perturbation' During Production Activates the Right IFG, but not Broca's Area or the ATL.

    PubMed

    Matchin, William; Hickok, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Research on the neural organization of syntax - the core structure-building component of language - has focused on Broca's area and the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) as the chief candidates for syntactic processing. However, these proposals have received considerable challenges. In order to better understand the neural basis of syntactic processing, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment using a constrained sentence production task. We examined the BOLD response to sentence production for active and passive sentences, unstructured word lists, and syntactic perturbation. Perturbation involved cued restructuring of the planned syntax of a sentence mid utterance. Perturbation was designed to capture the effects of syntactic violations previously studied in sentence comprehension. Our experiment showed that Broca's area and the ATL did not exhibit response profiles consistent with syntactic operations - we found no increase of activation in these areas for sentences > lists or for perturbation. Syntactic perturbation activated a cortical-subcortical network including robust activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG). This network is similar to one previously shown to be involved in motor response inhibition. We hypothesize that RIFG activation in our study and in previous studies of sentence comprehension is due to an inhibition mechanism that may facilitate efficient syntactic restructuring. PMID:26941692

  2. 'Syntactic Perturbation' During Production Activates the Right IFG, but not Broca's Area or the ATL.

    PubMed

    Matchin, William; Hickok, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Research on the neural organization of syntax - the core structure-building component of language - has focused on Broca's area and the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) as the chief candidates for syntactic processing. However, these proposals have received considerable challenges. In order to better understand the neural basis of syntactic processing, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment using a constrained sentence production task. We examined the BOLD response to sentence production for active and passive sentences, unstructured word lists, and syntactic perturbation. Perturbation involved cued restructuring of the planned syntax of a sentence mid utterance. Perturbation was designed to capture the effects of syntactic violations previously studied in sentence comprehension. Our experiment showed that Broca's area and the ATL did not exhibit response profiles consistent with syntactic operations - we found no increase of activation in these areas for sentences > lists or for perturbation. Syntactic perturbation activated a cortical-subcortical network including robust activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG). This network is similar to one previously shown to be involved in motor response inhibition. We hypothesize that RIFG activation in our study and in previous studies of sentence comprehension is due to an inhibition mechanism that may facilitate efficient syntactic restructuring.

  3. Does India perform medical research in areas where it is most needed?

    PubMed

    Arunachalam, S

    1998-01-01

    This paper attempts to map medical research in India and answer an important policy question by literature analysis. I match the disease pattern on the basis of mortality and morbidity statistics with journals used by Indian medical researchers to publish their work as shown by the Science Citation Index (SCI). The former reflects the needs while the latter reflects the areas in which research is being done. The limited statistics available from both the Government of India and the World Health Organization point to diarrhoeal diseases, diseases of children, respiratory diseases, circulatory system diseases, infectious diseases, malaria and tuberculosis as the major medical problems faced by India. The journals used often by Indian medical researchers to publish their work, as seen from the SCI (1981-85), show that in terms of number of publications, they are mainly active in general medicine, pharmacology, tropical medicine, neurosciences, radiology, oncology and pathology. In terms of the share of the world's literature in different subfields, India is second only to USA in andrology, third in tropical medicine after the USA and the UK, tenth in hygiene and public health, and eleventh in general and internal medicine, and radiology and nuclear medicine. Overall, India's share in the medical journal literature is not only much less than that of many other countries, both advanced and middle level, but also much less than that of India's share of the literature in physics, chemistry, mathematics and engineering. Data on the observed citation impact of Indian research in different subfields of medicine show that the work done in India in general is not integrated well into international research. India could be much more purposive in her research priorities and probably should invest much more in medical research.

  4. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-11-30

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA) to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  5. Tanks Focus Area Alternative Salt Processing Research and Development Program Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Harmon, Harry D.

    2000-05-15

    In March 2000, DOE-Headquarters (HQ) requested the Tanks Focus Area (TFA)to assume management responsibility for the Salt Processing Project technology development program at Savannah River Site. The TFA was requested to conduct several activities, including review and revision of the technology development roadmaps, development of down-selection criteria, and preparation of a comprehensive Research and Development (R&D) Program Plan for three candidate cesium removal technologies, as well as the Alpha and strontium removal processes that must also be carried out. The three cesium removal candidate technologies are Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) Non-Elutable Ion Exchange, Caustic Side Solvent Extraction (CSSX), and Small Tank Tetraphenylborate Precipitation (STTP). This plan describes the technology development needs for each process that must be satisfied in order to reach a down-selection decision, as well as continuing technology development required to support conceptual design activities.

  6. Accelerator and fusion research division. 1992 Summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-12-01

    This report contains brief discussions on research topics in the following area: Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research; Magnetic Fusion Energy; Advanced Light Source; Center for Beam Physics; Superconducting Magnets; and Bevalac Operations.

  7. Accelerator & Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations.

  8. Accelerator Fusion Research Division 1991 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Berkner, Klaus H.

    1991-12-01

    This report discusses research projects in the following areas: Heavy-ion fusion accelerator research; magnetic fusion energy; advanced light source; center for x-ray optics; exploratory studies; superconducting magnets; and bevalac operations.

  9. Flexible and mechanical strain resistant large area SERS active substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, J. P.; Chu, Hsiaoyun; Abell, Justin; Tripp, Ralph A.; Zhao, Yiping

    2012-05-01

    We report a cost effective and facile way to synthesize flexible, uniform, and large area surface enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) substrates using an oblique angle deposition (OAD) technique. The flexible SERS substrates consist of 1 μm long, tilted silver nanocolumnar films deposited on flexible polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and polyethylene terephthalate (PET) sheets using OAD. The SERS enhancement activity of these flexible substrates was determined using 10-5 M trans-1,2-bis(4-pyridyl) ethylene (BPE) Raman probe molecules. The in situ SERS measurements on these flexible substrates under mechanical (tensile/bending) strain conditions were performed. Our results show that flexible SERS substrates can withstand a tensile strain (ε) value as high as 30% without losing SERS performance, whereas the similar bending strain decreases the SERS performance by about 13%. A cyclic tensile loading test on flexible PDMS SERS substrates at a pre-specified tensile strain (ε) value of 10% shows that the SERS intensity remains almost constant for more than 100 cycles. These disposable and flexible SERS substrates can be integrated with biological substances and offer a novel and practical method to facilitate biosensing applications.

  10. D Modelling: Crossing Traditional Boundaries Between Different Research Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opgenhaffen, L.; Sepers, M. H.

    2015-02-01

    A 3D reconstruction of complex architecture will never be complete nor constructively sound without the combination of knowledge and expertise from different scientific branches. Yet, how should all the different perspectives from these diverse disciplines, leading to different ideas and views on material, be approached, in order to convert the knowledge to a coherent model? It is the goal of this paper to contribute to the development of a common approach to diverse datasets, ideas and interpretations that are involved in the creation of 3D reconstructions. The outline of our suggested approach is demonstrated though two case-studies differing in time and region, but revolving around the same research topics, showing that the approach is universally employable. Therefore, interdisciplinarity - one of the key principles of the Seville Charter - will be the leitmotif of this paper.

  11. Research and Development of Large Area Color AC Plasma Displays

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shinoda, Tsutae

    1998-10-01

    Plasma display is essentially a gas discharge device using discharges in small cavities about 0. 1 m. The color plasma displays utilize the visible light from phosphors excited by the ultra-violet by discharge in contrast to monochrome plasma displays utilizing visible light directly from gas discharges. At the early stage of the color plasma display development, the degradation of the phosphors and unstable operating voltage prevented to realize a practical color plasma display. The introduction of the three-electrode surface-discharge technology opened the way to solve the problems. Two key technologies of a simple panel structure with a stripe rib and phosphor alignment and a full color image driving method with an address-and-display-period-separated sub-field method have realized practically available full color plasma displays. A full color plasma display has been firstly developed in 1992 with a 21-in.-diagonal PDP and then a 42-in.-diagonal PDP in 1995 Currently a 50-in.-diagonal color plasma display has been developed. The large area color plasma displays have already been put into the market and are creating new markets, such as a wall hanging TV and multimedia displays for advertisement, information, etc. This paper will show the history of the surface-discharge color plasma display technologies and current status of the color plasma display.

  12. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications.

    PubMed

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits. PMID:26070432

  13. Construction Biotechnology: a new area of biotechnological research and applications.

    PubMed

    Stabnikov, Viktor; Ivanov, Volodymyr; Chu, Jian

    2015-09-01

    A new scientific and engineering discipline, Construction Biotechnology, is developing exponentially during the last decade. The major directions of this discipline are selection of microorganisms and development of the microbially-mediated construction processes and biotechnologies for the production of construction biomaterials. The products of construction biotechnologies are low cost, sustainable, and environmentally friendly microbial biocements and biogrouts for the construction ground improvement. The microbial polysaccharides are used as admixtures for cement. Microbially produced biodegradable bioplastics can be used for the temporarily constructions. The bioagents that are used in construction biotechnologies are either pure or enrichment cultures of microorganisms or activated indigenous microorganisms of soil. The applications of microorganisms in the construction processes are bioaggregation, biocementation, bioclogging, and biodesaturation of soil. The biotechnologically produced construction materials and the microbially-mediated construction technologies have a lot of advantages in comparison with the conventional construction materials and processes. Proper practical implementations of construction biotechnologies could give significant economic and environmental benefits.

  14. Pilot Communication Research Project Utilizing the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corder, Lloyd E.; And Others

    This paper describes the evolution of a group research project undertaken by six communication graduate students, using the Human Relations Area Files (HRAF), a collection of primary source materials on over 250 predominantly pre-literate cultures representing all major areas of the world. The paper narrates the students' research processes, from…

  15. Action Research as a Professional Development Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, Chad

    2011-01-01

    Reflective teachers are always searching for ways to improve their teaching. When this reflection becomes intentional and systematic, they are engaging in teacher research. This type of research, sometimes called "action research", can help bridge the gap between theory and practice by addressing topics that are relevant to practicing teachers.…

  16. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  17. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF....763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  18. Area Reports. Advanced materials and devices research area. Silicon materials research task, and advanced silicon sheet task

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The objectives of the Silicon Materials Task and the Advanced Silicon Sheet Task are to identify the critical technical barriers to low-cost silicon purification and sheet growth that must be overcome to produce a PV cell substrate material at a price consistent with Flat-plate Solar Array (FSA) Project objectives and to overcome these barriers by performing and supporting appropriate R&D. Progress reports are given on silicon refinement using silane, a chemical vapor transport process for purifying metallurgical grade silicon, silicon particle growth research, and modeling of silane pyrolysis in fluidized-bed reactors.

  19. MEASURING HYDROLOGICAL CHANGE DURING EXURBAN DEVELOPMENT: COLLABORATIVE HYDROLOGIC RESEARCH IN THE CLARKSBURG SPECIAL PROTECTION AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project is focused on the Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA) in Montgomery County, Maryland. The CSPA subwatersheds are on the outer edge of the exurban development shockwave expanding outward from the Washington, DC, metropolitan area. The CSPA is an area o...

  20. MEASURING HYDROLOGICAL CHANGE DURING EXURBAN DEVELOPMENT: COLLABORATIVE HYDROLOGIC RESEARCH IN THE CLARKSBURG SPECIAL PROTECTION AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project is focused on the Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA) in Montgomery County, Maryland. The CSPA subwatersheds are on the outer edge of the exurban development shockwave expanding outward from the Washington DC metropolitan area. The CSPA is an area of ...

  1. COLLABORATIVE SCIENCE FOR ENVIRONMENTAL SOLUTIONS: COLLABORATIVE HYDROLOGIC RESEARCH IN THE CLARKSBURG SPECIAL PROTECTION AREA

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project is focused on the Clarksburg Special Protection Area (CSPA) in Montgomery County, Maryland. The CSPA subwatersheds are on the outer edge of the exurban development shockwave expanding outward from the Washington DC metropolitan area. The CSPA is an area of...

  2. Integrated research on subsurface environments in Asian urban areas.

    PubMed

    Taniguchi, Makoto; Burnett, William C; Ness, Gayl D

    2008-10-15

    The RIHN project "Human impacts on urban subsurface environments" aims to suggest improved development plans of urban centers for human well-being. This will be done by examining reconstructed past changes in urban environments, and by developing integrated nature-social models. Subsurface environmental indicators are developed from the points of view of: (1) human activities; (2) climate change; and (3) character of urban development and social policies. Water, heat, and material environments and transport vectors are being evaluated by a number of different approaches. Some of these include investigating changes in groundwater resources using satellite observations, reconstructing effects of climate change and urbanization using subsurface thermal regimes, and evaluating past contamination patterns from preserved subsurface records. In this overview paper, we describe the current status of urbanization in Asia, subsurface water conditions, material and contaminant transport to surface waters by groundwater, and subsurface thermal anomalies due to the heat island effect. The rapid pace of urbanization in Asia requires that we develop a better understanding of how to deal with environmental impacts, both above and below ground.

  3. Advanced subsonic long-haul transport terminal area compatibility study. Volume 2: Research and technology recommendations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The Terminal Area Compatibility (TAC) study is briefly summarized for background information. The most important research items for the areas of noise congestion, and emissions are identified. Other key research areas are also discussed. The 50 recommended research items are categorized by flight phase, technology, and compatibility benefits. The relationship of the TAC recommendations to the previous ATT recommendations is discussed. The bulk of the document contains the 50 recommended research items. For each item, the potential payoff, state of readiness, recommended action and estimated cost and schedule are given.

  4. Knowing good from bad: differential activation of human cortical areas by positive and negative outcomes.

    PubMed

    Nieuwenhuis, Sander; Slagter, Heleen A; von Geusau, Niels J Alting; Heslenfeld, Dirk J; Holroyd, Clay B

    2005-06-01

    Previous research has identified a component of the event-related brain potential (ERP), the feedback-related negativity, that is elicited by feedback stimuli associated with unfavourable outcomes. In the present research we used event-related functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings to test the common hypothesis that this component is generated in the caudal anterior cingulate cortex. The EEG results indicated that our paradigm, a time estimation task with trial-to-trial performance feedback, elicited a large feedback-related negativity (FRN). Nevertheless, the fMRI results did not reveal any area in the caudal anterior cingulate cortex that was differentially activated by positive and negative performance feedback, casting doubt on the notion that the FRN is generated in this brain region. In contrast, we found a number of brain areas outside the posterior medial frontal cortex that were activated more strongly by positive feedback than by negative feedback. These included areas in the rostral anterior cingulate cortex, posterior cingulate cortex, right superior frontal gyrus, and striatum. An anatomically constrained source model assuming equivalent dipole generators in the rostral anterior cingulate, posterior cingulate, and right superior frontal gyrus produced a simulated scalp distribution that corresponded closely to the observed scalp distribution of the FRN. These results support a new hypothesis regarding the neural generators of the FRN, and have important implications for the use of this component as an electrophysiological index of performance monitoring and reward processing. PMID:15978024

  5. 36 CFR 294.26 - Other activities in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.26 Other activities in Idaho Roadless Areas. (a... Roadless Areas. Decisions concerning the future management of existing roads or trails in Idaho Roadless... subpart shall be construed as affecting existing grazing permits in Idaho Roadless Areas. Future...

  6. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  7. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  8. 33 CFR 334.763 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. 334.763 Section 334.763 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.763 Naval Support Activity Panama City; Gulf of Mexico; restricted area. (a) The area. The area...

  9. Biology Research Activities: Teacher's Edition (with Answers).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Newman, Barbara

    This book is part of the series "Explorations in Science" which contains enrichment activities for the general science curriculum. Each book in the series contains innovative and traditional projects for both the bright and average, the self-motivated, and those who find activity motivating. Each activity is self-contained and provides everything…

  10. Fitness and Physical Activity. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Walker, Karen

    2005-01-01

    What can be done to support fitness and physical activity? Schools can guide students in developing life-long habits of participating in physical activities. According to the National Association for Sports and Physical Education, the concepts of physical fitness activities and physical education are used synonymously, however, they are not the…

  11. Creating Evidence-Based Research in Adapted Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reid, Greg; Bouffard, Marcel; MacDonald, Catherine

    2012-01-01

    Professional practice guided by the best research evidence is a usually referred to as evidence-based practice. The aim of the present paper is to describe five fundamental beliefs of adapted physical activity practices that should be considered in an 8-step research model to create evidence-based research in adapted physical activity. The five…

  12. Reliability of negative BOLD in ipsilateral sensorimotor areas during unimanual task activity.

    PubMed

    McGregor, Keith M; Sudhyadhom, Atchar; Nocera, Joe; Seff, Ari; Crosson, Bruce; Butler, Andrew J

    2015-06-01

    Research using functional magnetic resonance imaging has for numerous years now reported the existence of a negative blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) response. Based on accumulating evidence, this negative BOLD signal appears to represent an active inhibition of cortical areas in which it is found during task activity. This particularly important with respect to motor function given that it is fairly well-established that, in younger adults, the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex exhibits negative BOLD during unimanual movements in fMRI. This interhemispheric suppression of cortical activity may have useful implications for our understanding of both basic motor function and rehabilitation of injury or disease. However, to date, we are aware of no study that has tested the reliability of evoked negative BOLD in ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex in individuals across sessions. The current study employs a unimanual finger opposition task previously shown to evoke negative BOLD in ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex across three sessions. Reliability metrics across sessions indicates that both the magnitude and location of ipsilateral sensorimotor negative BOLD response is relatively stable over each of the three sessions. Moreover, the volume of negative BOLD in ipsilateral cortex was highly correlated with volume of positive BOLD activity in the contralateral primary motor cortex. These findings show that the negative BOLD signal can be reliably evoked in unimanual task paradigms, and that the signal dynamic could represent an active suppression of the ipsilateral sensorimotor cortex originating from the contralateral motor areas.

  13. Dallas area rapid transit LRT starter line assessment study design. Final research report

    SciTech Connect

    Shunk, G.A.; Turnbull, K.F.; Lindquist, N.F.

    1995-03-01

    Light rail transit (LRT) systems have recently been implemented in a number of urban areas throughout the United States and additional projects are in various stages of planning and development. Questions have been raised concerning the impact of these systems on ridership levels, transit operating costs, regional mobility, land use, economic development, energy, air quality, congestion levels, and other factors. The implementation of the Dallas Area Rapid Transit (DART) LRT starter line provides the opportunity to assess the impact of an LRT system in a Southwestern city in the United States. This research project was undertaken to assist with the development of a comprehensive study design for assessing the effects of the DART LRT starter line. To accomplish this objective, a review was conducted of before-and-after studies of recent LRT, heavy rail, and high-occupancy vehicle (HOV) projects. The goals and objectives of the DART system were also reviewed and existing transportation-related data collection activities in the Dallas area were examined. This information was used to develop a preliminary study design for assessing the effects of the DART LRT starter line. This report documents the review of recent before-and-after studies and presents the preliminary study design for assessing the effects of the DART LRT starter line.

  14. Differences and Commonalities: Farmer Stratifications in the San Luis Valley Research/Extension Project Area. ARE Research Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eckert, Jerry B.

    A research project in the San Luis Valley of Colorado sought to isolate a few unique farm types that could become target groups for the design and implementation of agricultural research and extension programs. Questionnaires were completed by 44 of 65 farmers in one watershed area of Conejos County. Analysis revealed a complex pattern of…

  15. Environmental Print Activities for Teaching Mathematics and Content Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rule, Audrey C., Ed.; McIntyre, Sandra, Ed.; Ranous, Meg, Ed.

    Twenty-three mathematics activities that use environmental print materials are presented, along with two activities that focus on music education, one that highlights history concepts, and five science activities. The environmental print materials are words and images cut from food or other product packaging and mounted on mat board cards.…

  16. SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ACTIVITIES FOR CHROMIUM IN THE 100 AREAS

    SciTech Connect

    PETERSEN SW

    2009-07-02

    {sm_bullet} Primary Objective: Protect the Columbia River - Focus is control and treatment of contamination at or near the shoreline, which is influenced by bank storage {sm_bullet} Secondary Objective: Reduce hexavalent chromium to <48 parts per billion (ppb) in aquifer (drinking water standard) - Large plumes with isolated areas of high chromium concentrations (> 40,000 ppb), - Unknown source location(s); probably originating in reactor operation areas

  17. Leisure Activity Participation and Handicapped Populations: An Assessment of Research Needs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verhoven, Peter J.; Goldstein, Judith E.

    Presented is a report of a conference on research needs in the area of leisure time activity for handicapped persons. Reviewed are the initial conference concept and its evaluation into five categories of concern (leisure concepts, attitudinal barriers, activity analysis, design/adaptation considerations, and education/counseling). Discussed are…

  18. Summary reports of activities under visiting research program, 1993

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1993-10-01

    The summary reports of activities under visiting research program in the Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, in fiscal year 1992 are included. In this report, 104 summaries of researches using the Kyoto University Reactor (KUR) and 9 summaries of the researches using the Kyoto University Critical Assembly (KUCA) are collected.

  19. 48 CFR 27.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ....408 Cosponsored research and development activities. (a) In contracts involving cosponsored research... objectives of the contract. Since the purpose of the cosponsored research and development, the legitimate... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cosponsored research...

  20. Educational Research: What Strategies for Development in the European Research Area?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Alan

    2004-01-01

    This is a report of the "European Educational Research Journal" (EERJ) Roundtable that sought to describe what national educational research programmes are doing, how they are working together, and how they might contribute to the developing European Educational Research Space. The Roundtable was an opportunity for one large consortium of national…

  1. [Activity of NTDs Drug-discovery Research Consortium].

    PubMed

    Namatame, Ichiji

    2016-01-01

    Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are an extremely important issue facing global health care. To improve "access to health" where people are unable to access adequate medical care due to poverty and weak healthcare systems, we have established two consortiums: the NTD drug discovery research consortium, and the pediatric praziquantel consortium. The NTD drug discovery research consortium, which involves six institutions from industry, government, and academia, as well as an international non-profit organization, is committed to developing anti-protozoan active compounds for three NTDs (Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and African sleeping sickness). Each participating institute will contribute their efforts to accomplish the following: selection of drug targets based on information technology, and drug discovery by three different approaches (in silico drug discovery, "fragment evolution" which is a unique drug designing method of Astellas Pharma, and phenotypic screening with Astellas' compound library). The consortium has established a brand new database (Integrated Neglected Tropical Disease Database; iNTRODB), and has selected target proteins for the in silico and fragment evolution drug discovery approaches. Thus far, we have identified a number of promising compounds that inhibit the target protein, and we are currently trying to improve the anti-protozoan activity of these compounds. The pediatric praziquantel consortium was founded in July 2012 to develop and register a new praziquantel pediatric formulation for the treatment of schistosomiasis. Astellas Pharma has been a core member in this consortium since its establishment, and has provided expertise and technology in the area of pediatric formulation development and clinical development.

  2. P-Them Response for Geologically Active and Non-Active Areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vetrov, A.

    2011-12-01

    Time Domain Electromagnetic air-borne systems are widely used in geological exploration for minerals associated with conductive rocks, underground water resources and geological underground mapping. The newly designed P-THEM system has been test-flown at the Reid Mahaffy geological test site in Northern Ontario, Canada; and then over an area near Newmarket, north of Toronto. While the flight in Reid Mahaffy was made to verify real characteristics of the system: stability and repeatability of results, the flight over the Newmarket area was made to verify correct operation of the EM system with a magnetometer and gamma-ray spectrometer. Interesting and significant response of the TDEM observations to geological, agricultural and engineering objects were observed during the test flights. These results demonstrate a possibility of TDEM method for mineral research and environmental tasks. The Reid Mahaffy Test Site is located in the Abitibi Subprovince, immediately east of the Mattagami River Fault in Ontario, Canada. The test site was created in 1999 by the Ontario Geological Survey, initially to enable various airborne geophysical systems to demonstrate their basic performance capabilities. The general geology of the site contains known overburden thickness based on almost 50 diamond drill holes, with geological logs available for these. The survey flights over Reid Mahaffy test site were performed in April 2010. The altitude and direction tests were flown on three lines over the test survey area. The response of early times represents overburden and correlates with its known thickness. The conductive body appears on later time channels and remains detectable over noise level. The electrical inversion of the results allows distinguishing a structure of several vertical conductor slices, forming the conductive body. The Newmarket area selected for tests in June 2010 is a highly developed urban zone in the Greater Toronto Area, Ontario, Canada. Geologically, the area is

  3. S-20 photocathode research activity. Part I

    SciTech Connect

    Gex, F.; Huen, T.; Kalibjian, R.

    1983-11-22

    The goal of this activity has been to develop and implement S-20 photocathode processing techniques at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in order to study the physical properties of the photocathode films. The present work is the initial phase of a planned activity in understanding cathode fabrication techniques and the optical/electrical characterization of these films.

  4. Increasing Physical Activity through Recess. Research Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beighle, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Regular physical activity promotes important health benefits, reduces risk for obesity and is linked with enhanced academic performance among students. The U.S. Surgeon General recommends that children engage in at least 60 minutes of moderate physical activity most days of the week, yet fewer than half of children ages 6 to 11 meet that…

  5. Community based needs assessment in an urban area; A participatory action research project

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Community assessment is a core function of public health. In such assessments, a commitment to community participation and empowerment is at the heart of the WHO European Healthy Cities Network, reflecting its origins in health for all and the Ottawa Charter for Health Promotion. This study employs a participation and empowerment plan in order to conduct community assessment. Methods The method of participatory action research (PAR) was used. The study was carried out in an area of high socio-economic deprivation in Ardabil, a city in the northwest of Iran, which is currently served by a branch of the Social Development Center (SDC). The steering committee of the project was formed by some university faculty members, health officials and delegates form Farhikhteh non-governmental organization and representatives from twelve blocks or districts of the community. Then, the representatives were trained and then conducted focus groups in their block. The focus group findings informed the development of the questionnaire. About six hundred households were surveyed and study questionnaires were completed either during face-to-face interviews by the research team (in case of illiteracy) or via self-completion. The primary question for the residents was: 'what is the most important health problem in your community? Each health problem identified by the community was weighted based on the frequency it was selected on the survey, and steering committee perception of the problem's seriousness, urgency, solvability, and financial load. Results The main problems of the area appeared to be the asphalt problem, lack of easy access to medical centers, addiction among relatives and unemployment of youth. High participation rates of community members in the steering committee and survey suggest that the PAR approach was greatly appreciated by the community and that problems identified through this research truly reflect community opinion. Conclusions Participatory action

  6. Using optical dating to assess the recent activity of active faults in Hsinchu Area, northwestern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanuki, T.; Chen, Y.

    2003-12-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the recent activity of active fault systems mapped in Hsinchu area, northwestern Taiwan. Since it is the largest site of industrial park and highly populated, it is essential to assess potential of earthquake hazards. As a result of previous work, two active fault systems (Hsinchu and Hsincheng) were identified as active. However, they have not been included in dangerous active faults on published map because Holocene offset has not been confirmed yet. Relationship between five river terraces and faults were discussed by mapping on geomorphic features; both of these thrust faults contain active anticlines in their hanging walls based on folded terraces that are composed of young alluvial deposits. Neither long-term nor short-term slip rate has been reported due to lack of age control on development timing of the terraces mentioned above. We collected samples from these terraces and open-pit trench on the highest terrace, where intercalated sandy layers are found within cobbles. As literatures optically stimulated luminescence (OSL) dating method can directly measure the burial ages of sedimentary deposits that underwent a short period of sunlight bleaching. Therefore, OSL dating is applied via single aliquot regeneration method on sand size quartz extract from our study terraces. OSL ages about 46ka and 68-75ka are obtained from 4 fluvial deposits at trenching site. We tentatively suggest that the terrace was abandoned by the main channel after 68ka and then upper strata were subsequently deposited by local small creeks. The vertical displacements cross these Hsinchu and Hsincheng active faults are ca. 90m and 70m, respectively since 68ka. Consequently, the derived long-term rates of vertical slip are 1.3 and 1.0 m/ka respectively for both of them. The details of the other age results and discussion on recent structural behavior will be presented.

  7. 50 CFR 218.110 - Specified activity and specified geographical area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... geographical area. 218.110 Section 218.110 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL... Training Range Complex (NWTRC) § 218.110 Specified activity and specified geographical area. (a... area outlined in paragraph (b) of this section and that occur incidental to the activities described...

  8. Bureau of Indian Affairs, Juneau Area Activities Report, 1975-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fisher, Joan E.

    Reflecting the changing role of the Bureau of Indian Affairs (BIA), this 1975-76 annual report on the BIA's Juneau Area Office and its activities focuses upon the BIA resources, services, and technical assistance afforded Alaska Natives in the Juneau area. Highlights of Juneau Area Office Activities are presented in conjunction with the office's…

  9. 36 CFR 294.25 - Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Mineral activities in Idaho... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.25 Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas. (a) Nothing in this subpart shall be construed as restricting mineral leases, contracts, permits,...

  10. 36 CFR 294.25 - Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Mineral activities in Idaho... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.25 Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas. (a) Nothing in this subpart shall be construed as restricting mineral leases, contracts, permits,...

  11. 36 CFR 294.25 - Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Mineral activities in Idaho... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.25 Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas. (a) Nothing in this subpart shall be construed as restricting mineral leases, contracts, permits,...

  12. 36 CFR 294.25 - Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Mineral activities in Idaho... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.25 Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas. (a) Nothing in this subpart shall be construed as restricting mineral leases, contracts, permits,...

  13. 36 CFR 294.25 - Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Mineral activities in Idaho... AGRICULTURE SPECIAL AREAS Idaho Roadless Area Management § 294.25 Mineral activities in Idaho Roadless Areas. (a) Nothing in this subpart shall be construed as restricting mineral leases, contracts, permits,...

  14. Describing Changes in Undergraduate Students' Preconceptions of Research Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cartrette, David P.; Melroe-Lehrman, Bethany M.

    2012-12-01

    Research has shown that students bring naïve scientific conceptions to learning situations which are often incongruous with accepted scientific explanations. These preconceptions are frequently determined to be misconceptions; consequentially instructors spend time to remedy these beliefs and bring students' understanding of scientific concepts to acceptable levels. It is reasonable to assume that students also maintain preconceptions about the processes of authentic scientific research and its associated activities. This study describes the most commonly held preconceptions of authentic research activities among students with little or no previous research experience. Seventeen undergraduate science majors who participated in a ten week research program discussed, at various times during the program, their preconceptions of research and how these ideas changed as a result of direct participation in authentic research activities. The preconceptions included the belief that authentic research is a solitary activity which most closely resembles the type of activity associated with laboratory courses in the undergraduate curriculum. Participants' views showed slight maturation over the research program; they came to understand that authentic research is a detail-oriented activity which is rarely successfully completed alone. These findings and their implications for the teaching and research communities are discussed in the article.

  15. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ....S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584 and the following... research protocol has been reviewed by an independent group of three or more individuals who found that...

  16. 38 CFR 1.488 - Research activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ....S.C. 5701, 38 CFR 1.500-1.527, the Privacy Act (5 U.S.C. 552a), 38 CFR 1.575-1.584 and the following... research protocol has been reviewed by an independent group of three or more individuals who found that...

  17. [Soil seed bank research of China mining areas: necessity and challenges].

    PubMed

    Chang, Qing; Zhang, Da-Wei; Li, Xue; Peng, Jian; Guan, Ai-Nong; Liu, Xiao-Si

    2011-05-01

    Soil seed bank consists of all living seeds existed in soil and its surface litter, especially in topsoil, and can reflect the characteristics of regional biodiversity. As the base of vegetation restoration and potential greening material, topsoil and its seed bank are the limited and non-renewable resources in mining areas. The study of soil seed bank has become one of the hotspots in the research field of vegetation restoration and land reclamation in China mining areas. Owing to the special characteristics of mining industry, the soil seed bank study of mining areas should not only concern with the seed species, quantities, and their relations with ground surface vegetation, but also make use of the research results on the soil seed bank of other fragile habitats. Besides, a breakthrough should be sought in the thinking ways and research approach. This paper analyzed the particularity of mining area's soil seek bank research, summarized the research progress in the soil seed bank of mining areas and other fragile habitats, and put forward the challenges we are facing with. It was expected that this paper could help to reinforce the soil seed bank research of China mining areas, and provide scientific guidelines for taking great advantage of the significant roles of soil seed bank in land reclamation and vegetation restoration in the future. PMID:21812315

  18. Multiple Effects of Education in Rural Areas: Action Research for Development Strategies in Croatia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Persuric, Anita Silvana Ilak; Gautier, Patrick

    2005-01-01

    The strategy of development in rural areas of Croatia includes several factors. Among them is education. The education system in Croatia has a number of institutional, infrastructural and regional characteristics that are a frame of research for this article. Rural areas confront additional factors such as population migrations, poor…

  19. Integrating the Language Arts and Content Areas: Effective Research-Based Strategies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lapp, Diane; Fisher, Douglas; Flood, James

    1999-01-01

    Teachers can confront issues of students' infrequent reading and infrequent choice of content area texts by using specific instructional strategies that are highly motivating. Five research-based language arts strategies that many teachers use to successfully teach content area information are: (1) previewing vocabulary and content; (2) developing…

  20. The Urban Ecology Institute's field studies program: utilizing urban areas for experiential learning and ecological research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Starry, O.

    2005-05-01

    The Urban Ecology Institute (UEI) promotes the stewardship of healthy urban ecosystems by improving science and civic education for middle and high school youth and by working with urban communities to protect and transform natural resources. Established in 1999, UEI's field studies program engages over 1000 youth in the greater Boston area. A substantial component of this program involves water quality monitoring. We have recently adapted protocols from published leaf breakdown studies for incorporation into the UEI water quality curriculum. A 2004 pilot study of these leaf breakdown activities, conducted at four sites, compared rates of red maple breakdown to those of Norway maple, a potentially invasive urban street tree. Preliminary data from this successful pilot study suggest that leaf litter inputs from the two different tree species have varying effects on stream ecosystem function. We present this study as an example of how urban areas can be utilized for both ecological research and inclusive experiential learning through which science and mathematic knowledge can be effectively communicated.

  1. Characterization of airborne particulates in Bangkok urban area by neutron activation analysis.

    PubMed

    Nouchpramool, S; Sumitra, T; Leenanuphunt, V

    1999-01-01

    Samples of airborne particulates were collected in a residential area and in an area near a busy highway in Bangkok during the period from January 1997 to May 1998. A stacked filter system was used for the former site and a Partisol 2000 was used for the latter site. Both 2.5 microns and 10-micron particulates were collected every week. The total suspended particulate matters were also collected at the latter site. The samples were analyzed by neutron activation analysis utilizing neutron flux from a 2-MW TRIGA MARK III research reactor. The elements most frequently detected in the airborne particulates were Al, As, Br, Ca, Ce, Cl, Co, Cr, Cs, Fe, I, K, La, Mg, Mn, Na, Rb, Sb, Sc, Sm, Th, Ti, V, and Zn. The enrichment factor and factor analysis were used to investigate trends, sources, and origin of the atmospheric aerosols. Anthropogenic elements in road dust, construction dust, motor vehicles emission, and other combustion components were identified. A comparative study of data between both sites was performed and it was found that the mass concentration in the area close to the highway was about three times higher than in the residential area. PMID:10676491

  2. Research activities of the Geodynamics Branch

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kahn, W. D. (Editor); Cohen, S. C. (Editor)

    1984-01-01

    A broad spectrum of geoscience disciplines including space geodesy, geopotential field modeling, tectonophysics, and dynamic oceanography are discussed. The NASA programs, include the Geodynamics and Ocean Programs, the Crustal Dynamics Project, the proposed Ocean Topography Experiment (TOPEX), and the Geopotential Research Mission (GRM). The papers are grouped into chapters on Crustal Movements, Global Earth Dynamics, Gravity Field Model Development, Sea Surface Topography, and Advanced Studies.

  3. Endocrinology: the active partner in PNI research.

    PubMed

    Malarkey, William B; Mills, Paul J

    2007-02-01

    For the past two decades, research appearing in the pages of Brain, Behavior, and Immunity (BBI), as well as other journals, has significantly deepened our understanding of the complexities of endocrine regulation of immunity in states of health and disease. This mini-review discusses contributions that endocrinology has made to the field of psycho-neuroimmunology (PNI), as well as discoveries that PNI researchers have made of the pervasive interactions between the endocrine and immune systems. We highlight the endocrine-immune interface, emphasizing similarities between the immune and endocrine systems as well as hormone/cytokine interactions. Differing endocrine-immune responses to acute and chronic psychosocial stress have been clarified during this time frame with the use of novel stress and endocrine sampling paradigms. Furthermore, investigations examining the role of cytokine involvement in acquired glucocorticoid resistance in illnesses like depression have expanded our understanding of the complexity of the endocrine-immune response to psychosocial stress. We have selected literature, with a focus on human studies, to illustrate these principals. We conclude with a discussion of the clinical relevance of endocrine-immune investigations and thoughts about the next decade of endocrine research in PNI.

  4. Methods to Measure Physical Activity Behaviors in Health Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fitzhugh, Eugene C.

    2015-01-01

    Regular physical activity (PA) is an important concept to measure in health education research. The health education researcher might need to measure physical activity because it is the primary measure of interest, or PA might be a confounding measure that needs to be controlled for in statistical analysis. The purpose of this commentary is to…

  5. Narratives and Activity Theory as Reflective Tools in Action Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stuart, Kaz

    2012-01-01

    Narratives and activity theory are useful as socially constructed data collection tools that allow a researcher access to the social, cultural and historical meanings that research participants place on events in their lives. This case study shows how these tools were used to promote reflection within a cultural-historical activity theoretically…

  6. 50 CFR 218.120 - Specified activity and geographical area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ...-mounted active sonar)—up to 2,890 hours over the course of 5 years (an average of 578 hours per year); (ii) AN/SQS-56 (hull-mounted active sonar)—up to 260 hours over the course of 5 years (an average of 52.... long.; 59°36′ N. lat., 148°10′ W. long.; 58°57′ N. lat., 150°04′ W. long.; 58°20′ N. lat., 151°00′...

  7. 50 CFR 218.120 - Specified activity and geographical area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ...-mounted active sonar)—up to 2,890 hours over the course of 5 years (an average of 578 hours per year); (ii) AN/SQS-56 (hull-mounted active sonar)—up to 260 hours over the course of 5 years (an average of 52.... long.; 59°36′ N. lat., 148°10′ W. long.; 58°57′ N. lat., 150°04′ W. long.; 58°20′ N. lat., 151°00′...

  8. 50 CFR 218.120 - Specified activity and geographical area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ...-mounted active sonar)—up to 2,890 hours over the course of 5 years (an average of 578 hours per year); (ii) AN/SQS-56 (hull-mounted active sonar)—up to 260 hours over the course of 5 years (an average of 52.... long.; 59°36′ N. lat., 148°10′ W. long.; 58°57′ N. lat., 150°04′ W. long.; 58°20′ N. lat., 151°00′...

  9. Stem cell research in Latin America: update, challenges and opportunities in a priority research area.

    PubMed

    Palma, Verónica; Pitossi, Fernando J; Rehen, Stevens K; Touriño, Cristina; Velasco, Iván

    2015-01-01

    Stem cell research is attracting wide attention as a promising and fast-growing field in Latin America, as it is worldwide. Many countries in the region have defined Regenerative Medicine as a research priority and a focus of investment. This field generates not only opportunities but also regulatory, technical and operative challenges. In this review, scientists from Uruguay, Mexico, Chile, Brazil and Argentina provide their view on stem cell research in each of their countries. Despite country-specific characteristics, all countries share several issues such as regulatory challenges. Key initiatives of each country to promote stem cell research are also discussed. As a conclusion, it is clear that regional integration should be more emphasized and international collaboration, promoted.

  10. Sun-Earth Connection Education and Public Outreach Activities in the Washington. DC Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carruthers, G. R.; Thomas, V. L.

    2005-05-01

    One of the primary education and public outreach activities we have been involved in over the last few years, is a project sponsored by the South East Regional Clearing House (SERCH), a NASA EPO broker-facilitator, to support EPO activities related to NASA's Office of Space Science research themes; specifically (1) The Sun-Earth Connection; (2) Exploration of the Solar System; (3) Astronomical Search for Origins; and (4) Structure and Evolution of the Universe. The grant was by way of the DC Space Grant Consortium, of which S.M.A.R.T. is an affiliate. The objectives of the grant were to provide educational materials and activities related to these themes, in DC Public Schools (and other formal, as well as informal, educational organizations, in the DC metropolitan area). We have also given presentations on these topics in informal educational venues and at universities. The objectives of our SERCH grant included production of videos, as well as CD copies of presentation documents, for use in the schools. Of particular note is that students, and their teachers, are active participants in the videos. The Sun-Earth Connection theme is the one we have focused on initially. Two DC schools, Anacostia Senior High School and Backus Middle School, were participants in the video production. In addition, students working during the summers as Science and Engineering Apprentice Program (SEAP) students at the Naval Research Laboratory participated in some of the videos and in developing and testing instruments used in the EPO activities. Also, the SEC presentations have been used in invited talks on several occasions as part of NRL's Community Outreach activities.

  11. Research Activities at Plasma Research Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sharma, S. P.; Rao, M. V. V. S.; Meyyappan, Meyya

    2000-01-01

    In order to meet NASA's requirements for the rapid development and validation of future generation electronic devices as well as associated materials and processes, enabling technologies are being developed at NASA-Ames Research Center using a multi-discipline approach. The first step is to understand the basic physics of the chemical reactions in the area of plasma reactors and processes. Low pressure glow discharges are indispensable in the fabrication of microelectronic circuits. These plasmas are used to deposit materials and also etch fine features in device fabrication. However, many plasma-based processes suffer from stability and reliability problems leading to a compromise in performance and a potentially increased cost for the semiconductor manufacturing industry. Although a great deal of laboratory-scale research has been performed on many of these processing plasmas, little is known about the gas-phase and surface chemical reactions that are critical in many etch and deposition processes, and how these reactions are influenced by the variation in operating conditions. Such a lack of understanding has hindered the development of process models that can aid in the scaling and improvement of plasma etch and deposition systems. Our present research involves the study of such plasmas. An inductively-coupled plasma (ICP) source in place of the standard upper electrode assembly of the Gaseous Electronics Conference (GEC) radio-frequency (RF) Reference Cell is used to investigate the discharge characteristics. This ICP source generates plasmas with higher electron densities and lower operating pressures than obtainable with the original parallel-plate version of the GEC Cell. This expanded operating regime is more relevant to new generations of industrial plasma systems being used by the microelectronics industry. The research goal is to develop an understanding of the physical phenomena involved in plasma processing and to measure much needed fundamental

  12. NASA Glenn Research Center Battery Activities Overview

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Manzo, Michelle A.

    2009-01-01

    This paper will provide an overview of the planned energy storage systems for the Orion Spacecraft and the Aries rockets that will be used in the return journey to the Moon and GRC's involvement in their development. Technology development goals and approaches to provide batteries and fuel cells for the Altair Lunar Lander, the new space suit under development for extravehicular activities (EVA) on the Lunar surface, and the Lunar Surface Systems operations will also be discussed.

  13. A Typology of Nursing Research Activities According to Educational Preparation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fawcett, Jacqueline

    1985-01-01

    A typology of research activities (generation of basic, applied, and clinical research; dissemination of findings; and use of findings) considered appropriate to nurses with different levels of educational preparation (ADN, BSN, MSN, DNSc/EdD, and PhD) is presented to assist potential researchers and nurse educators in undertaking realistic and…

  14. 48 CFR 927.408 - Cosponsored research and development activities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Cosponsored research and development activities. Because of the Department of Energy's statutory duties to disseminate data first produced under its contracts for research, development, and demonstration, the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cosponsored research...

  15. Human Research Program Science Management: Overview of Research and Development Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Charles, John B.

    2007-01-01

    An overview of research and development activities of NASA's Human Research Science Management Program is presented. The topics include: 1) Human Research Program Goals; 2) Elements and Projects within HRP; 3) Development and Maintenance of Priorities; 4) Acquisition and Evaluation of Research and Technology Proposals; and 5) Annual Reviews

  16. Research on an Active Seat Belt System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawashima, Takeshi

    In a car crash, permanent injury can be avoided if deformation of an occupant's rib cage is maintained within the allowable value. In order to realize this condition, the occupant's seat belt tension must be instantaneously adjusted by a feedback control system. In this study, a seat belt tension control system based on the active shock control system is proposed. The semi-active control law used is derived from the sliding mode control method. One advantage of this proposed system is that it does not require a large power actuator because the seat belt tension is controlled by a brake mechanism. The effectiveness is confirmed by numerical simulation using general parameters of a human thorax and a passenger car in a collision scenario with a wall at a velocity of 100 km/h. The feasibility is then confirmed with a control experiment using a scale model of about 1/10 scale. The relative displacement of the thorax model approaches the allowable value smoothly along the control reference and settles near this value. Thus, the proposed seat belt tension control system design is established.

  17. Relationships between Interlibrary Loan and Research Activity in Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duy, Joanna; Larivière, Vincent

    2014-01-01

    Interlibrary Loan borrowing rates in academic libraries are influenced by an array of factors. This article explores the relationship between interlibrary loan borrowing activity and research activity at 42 Canadian academic institutions. A significant positive correlation was found between interlibrary loan borrowing activity and measures of…

  18. Spot temperatures and area coverages on active dwarf stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sarr, Steven H.; Neff, James E.

    1990-01-01

    Two active K dwarfs are examined to determine the temperatures of the stars and to estimate the locations and sizes of cool spots on the stellar surfaces. Two wavelength regions with TiO absorption bands at different temperature sensitivities are modeled simultaneously using the method developed by Huenemoerder and Ramsey (1987). The spectrum of BD +26deg730 shows excess absorption in the TiO band, and the absence of the 8860 A band in HD 82558 indicates that its spots are warmer than those of BD +26deg730.

  19. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: 1984 summary of activities

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-05-01

    During fiscal 1984, major programmatic activities in AFRD continued in each of five areas: accelerator operations, highlighted by the work of nuclear science users, who produced clear evidence for the formation of compressed nuclear matter during heavy-ion collisions; high-energy physics, increasingly dominated by our participation in the design of the Superconducting Super Collider; heavy-ion fusion accelerator research, which focused on the design of a four-beam experiment as a first step toward assessing the promise of heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; and research at the Center for X-Ray Optics, which completed its first year of broadly based activities aimed at the exploitation of x-ray and ultraviolet radiation. At the same time, exploratory studies were under way, aimed at investigating major new programs for the division. During the past year, for example, we took a preliminary look at how we could use the Bevatron as an injector for a pair of colliding-beam rings that might provide the first glimpse of a hitherto unobserved state of matter called the quark-gluon plasma. Together with Livermore scientists, we also conducted pioneering high-gain free-electron laser (FEL) experiments and proposed a new FEL-based scheme (called the two-beam accelerator) for accelerating electrons to very high energies. And we began work on the design of the Coherent XUV Facility (CXF), an advanced electron storage ring for the production of intense coherent radiation from either undulators or free-electron lasers.

  20. Zoo visitors' understanding of terms denoting research activity.

    PubMed

    Carson, Lloyd

    2014-07-01

    Zoos have increasingly sought to justify their existence by reference to a scientific role particularly in the domains of animal welfare and conservation. Given recent initiatives by the UK government to foster public engagement with science, it is timely to investigate public attitudes towards primary research activity by zoos. This study reports the views of 83 visitors to Edinburgh Zoo. Within certain items in a structured interview noun terms denoting research activity were manipulated ("research" versus "studies") as was their qualification (adjective "scientific" present or absent before the noun term). "Research" was associated with a restricted and negative perception of investigatory activity. This effect was intensified when the noun term was preceded by "scientific". It is concluded that there is a continuing need to challenge public perceptions, particularly of the phrase "scientific research"; that in the meantime zoos should perhaps exercise caution when using it in relation to their activities. PMID:25414921

  1. Asphalt-derived high surface area activated porous carbons for carbon dioxide capture.

    PubMed

    Jalilov, Almaz S; Ruan, Gedeng; Hwang, Chih-Chau; Schipper, Desmond E; Tour, Josiah J; Li, Yilun; Fei, Huilong; Samuel, Errol L G; Tour, James M

    2015-01-21

    Research activity toward the development of new sorbents for carbon dioxide (CO2) capture have been increasing quickly. Despite the variety of existing materials with high surface areas and high CO2 uptake performances, the cost of the materials remains a dominant factor in slowing their industrial applications. Here we report preparation and CO2 uptake performance of microporous carbon materials synthesized from asphalt, a very inexpensive carbon source. Carbonization of asphalt with potassium hydroxide (KOH) at high temperatures (>600 °C) yields porous carbon materials (A-PC) with high surface areas of up to 2780 m(2) g(-1) and high CO2 uptake performance of 21 mmol g(-1) or 93 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C. Furthermore, nitrogen doping and reduction with hydrogen yields active N-doped materials (A-NPC and A-rNPC) containing up to 9.3% nitrogen, making them nucleophilic porous carbons with further increase in the Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) surface areas up to 2860 m(2) g(-1) for A-NPC and CO2 uptake to 26 mmol g(-1) or 114 wt % at 30 bar and 25 °C for A-rNPC. This is the highest reported CO2 uptake among the family of the activated porous carbonaceous materials. Thus, the porous carbon materials from asphalt have excellent properties for reversibly capturing CO2 at the well-head during the extraction of natural gas, a naturally occurring high pressure source of CO2. Through a pressure swing sorption process, when the asphalt-derived material is returned to 1 bar, the CO2 is released, thereby rendering a reversible capture medium that is highly efficient yet very inexpensive.

  2. Coordination of groundwater activities in the 100 N Area

    SciTech Connect

    Hartman, M.J.

    1995-09-01

    The initiation of the N Springs Expedited Response Action (ERA) in the 100 N Area will affect the groundwater monitoring networks of two Resource Conservation and Recovery Act of 1976 (RCRA) units. The 1301-N and 325-N facilities are treatment, storage, or disposal (TSD) units that have been monitored under RCRA since 1987. In September 1994, the Washington State Department of Ecology issued an action memorandum, instructing the US Department of Energy (DOE) to take the action. The planned pump-and-treat system will preclude meeting the specific objectives of interim-status RCRA groundwater monitoring representative samples and detect adverse impacts of the TSD units on. However, under RCRA final-status requirements, which will be implemented in 1999, corrective action for groundwater contamination will probably be required. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has declared parity between RCRA corrective action and Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act of 1980 remedial action decisions. The 1301-N and 1325-N facilities are still in interim-status and therefore are not in the category of ``RCRA corrective action.`` However, DOE`s position is that parity exists between RCRA and the ERA because RCRA corrective action will almost certainly be required in the future.

  3. Agriculture in an area impacted by past uranium mining activities

    SciTech Connect

    Carvalho, F. P.; Oliveira, J. M.; Neves, O.; Vicente, E. M.; Abreu, M. M.

    2007-07-01

    The shallow aquifer near the old Cunha Baixa uranium mine (Viseu, Portugal) was contaminated by acid mine drainage. Concentration of radionuclides in water from irrigation wells and in the topsoil layer of the agriculture fields nearby display enhanced concentrations of uranium, radium and polonium. Two types of agriculture land in this area were selected, one with enhanced and another with low uranium concentrations, for controlled growth of lettuce and potatoes. Plants were grown in replicate portions of land (two plots) in each soil type and were periodically irrigated with water from wells. In each soil, one plot was irrigated with water containing low concentration of dissolved uranium and the other plot with water containing enhanced concentration of dissolved uranium. At the end of the growth season, plants were harvested and analysed, along with soil and irrigation water samples. Results show the accumulation of radionuclides in edible parts of plants, specially in the field plots with higher radionuclide concentrations in soil. Radionuclides in irrigation water contributed less to the radioactivity accumulated in plants than radionuclides from soils. (authors)

  4. Review of the research activities of the Energy Research Unit in 1994

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halliday, J.

    1995-01-01

    The report contains short reviews of the Energy Research Unit's hardware facilities and of its recently completed and ongoing research activities. The Unit was established by the Science and Engineering Research Council (SERC) in the late 1970's to provide university researchers with access to facilities not available within their own institutions. In 1994 a new research council - the Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council (EPSRC), was created by the Government and took over responsibility for much of SERC's engineering remit, including the support of the facilities provided by the Energy Research Unit. The report reviews the recent research activities of the Unit, and includes all projects active at the end of December 1994 as well as mention of several which have recently been completed.

  5. Nursing research on physical activity: a feminist critique.

    PubMed

    Im, E

    2001-04-01

    Studies on physical activity have rarely included women as research participants, and have been mainly conducted among Western populations. In this paper, nursing research on women's physical activity is analyzed and critiqued using a feminist perspective that respects and values women's own experiences and their diversities. An extensive literature search was conducted using computerized data retrieval systems and 47 empirical studies published in nursing literature were selected and analyzed. The critique is presented with three main themes emerged from the analysis: (a) "without considering women's own experiences"; (b) "implicit androcentric and ethnocentric assumptions"; (c) "without meaningful interactions". Based on the analysis, future directions for nursing research on physical activity are proposed.

  6. Activation of cortical areas in music execution and imagining: a high-resolution EEG study.

    PubMed

    Kristeva, Rumyana; Chakarov, Vihren; Schulte-Mönting, Jürgen; Spreer, Joachim

    2003-11-01

    Neuroimaging studies have shown that execution of a musical sequence on an instrument activates bilateral frontal opercular regions, in addition to bilateral sensorimotor and supplementary motor areas. During imagining activation of the same areas without primary sensorimotor areas was shown. We recorded EEG from 58 scalp positions to investigate the temporal sequence and the time course of activation of these areas while violin players prepared to execute, executed, prepared to imagine, or imagined a musical sequence on a violin. During the preparation for the sequence in three of seven musicians investigated the bilateral frontal opercular regions became active earlier than the motor areas and in one of them simultaneously with the motor areas. In two of the musicians a rather variable pattern of activation was observed. The frontal opercular regions were also strongly involved throughout the period of music execution or imagining. The supplementary motor area was involved in both preparation for the sequence and during execution and imagining of the sequence. The left primary sensorimotor area was involved in the preparation and termination of the musical sequence for both execution and imagining. The right sensorimotor area was strongly involved in the preparation for and during the execution of the sequence. We conclude that the bilateral frontal opercular regions are crucial in both preparation for and during music execution and imagining. They may have "mirror neurone" properties that underlie observation or imagining of one's own performance. The motor areas are differentially activated during the preparation and execution or imagining the sequence.

  7. Preliminary study on hydrogeology in tectonically active areas.

    SciTech Connect

    Lowry, Thomas Stephen; Lappin, Allen R.; Gettemy, Glen L.; Jensen, Richard Pearson; Arnold, Bill Walter; James, Scott Carlton; Lee, Moo Yul; Meier, Diane A.

    2006-09-01

    This report represents the final product of a background literature review conducted for the Nuclear Waste Management Organization of Japan (NUMO) by Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico, USA. Internationally, research of hydrological and transport processes in the context of high level waste (HLW) repository performance, has been extensive. However, most of these studies have been conducted for sites that are within tectonically stable regions. Therefore, in support of NUMO's goal of selecting a site for a HLW repository, this literature review has been conducted to assess the applicability of the output from some of these studies to the geological environment in Japan. Specifically, this review consists of two main tasks. The first was to review the major documents of the main HLW repository programs around the world to identify the most important hydrologic and transport parameters and processes relevant in each of these programs. The review was to assess the relative importance of processes and measured parameters to site characterization by interpretation of existing sensitivity analyses and expert judgment in these documents. The second task was to convene a workshop to discuss the findings of Task 1 and to prioritize hydrologic and transport parameters in the context of the geology of Japan. This report details the results and conclusions of both of these Tasks.

  8. Laboratory Directed Research and Development Program Activities for FY 2008.

    SciTech Connect

    Looney,J.P.; Fox, K.

    2009-04-01

    with limited management filtering to encourage the creativity of individual researchers. The competition is open to all BNL staff in programmatic, scientific, engineering, and technical support areas. Researchers submit their project proposals to the Assistant Laboratory Director for Policy and Strategic Planning. A portion of the LDRD budget is held for the Strategic LDRD (S-LDRD) category. Projects in this category focus on innovative R&D activities that support the strategic agenda of the Laboratory. The Laboratory Director entertains requests or articulates the need for S-LDRD funds at any time. Strategic LDRD Proposals also undergo rigorous peer review; the approach to review is tailored to the size and scope of the proposal. These Projects are driven by special opportunities, including: (1) Research project(s) in support of Laboratory strategic initiatives as defined and articulated by the Director; (2) Research project(s) in support of a Laboratory strategic hire; (3) Evolution of Program Development activities into research and development activities; and (4) ALD proposal(s) to the Director to support unique research opportunities. The goals and objectives of BNL's LDRD Program can be inferred fronl the Program's stated purposes. These are to (1) encourage and support the development of new ideas and technology, (2) promote the early exploration and exploitation of creative and innovative concepts, and (3) develop new 'fundable' R&D projects and programs. The emphasis is clearly articulated by BNL to be on supporting exploratory research 'which could lead to new programs, projects, and directions' for the Laboratory. We explicitly indicate that research conducted under the LDRD Program should be highly innovative, and an element of high risk as to success is acceptable. To be one of the premier DOE National Laboratories, BNL must continuously foster groundbreaking scientific research. At Brookhaven National Laboratory one such method is through its LDRD Program

  9. Mountain-Plains Master Course List. Curriculum Areas: Job Titles: Learning Activity Packages: Courses: Units.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mountain-Plains Education and Economic Development Program, Inc., Glasgow AFB, MT.

    The document contains a master listing of all Mountain-Plains curriculum, compiled by job title, course, unit and LAP (Learning Activity Package), and arranged in numerical order by curriculum area. Preceding each curriculum area is a page of explanatory notes describing the curriculum area and including relevant job descriptions. Where a job…

  10. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS OF ENGINEERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE DANGER ZONE AND RESTRICTED AREA REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The...

  11. 32 CFR Appendix C to Part 552 - Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 3 2011-07-01 2009-07-01 true Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access C Appendix C to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF.... 552, App. C Appendix C to Part 552—Authorized Activities for Fort Lewis Maneuver Area Access...

  12. Southwest Research Institute assistance to NASA in biomedical areas of the technology utilization program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Culclasure, D. F.; Sigmon, J. L.; Carter, J. M.

    1973-01-01

    The activities are reported of the NASA Biomedical Applications Team at Southwest Research Institute between 25 August, 1972 and 15 November, 1973. The program background and methodology are discussed along with the technology applications, and biomedical community impacts.

  13. The impact of applied behavior analysis on diverse areas of research.

    PubMed

    Kazdin, A E

    1975-01-01

    The impact of applied behavior analysis on various disciplines and areas of research was assessed through two major analyses. First, the relationship of applied behavior analysis to the general area of "behavior modification" was evaluated by examining the citation characteristics of journal articles in JABA and three other behavior-modification journals. Second, the penetration of applied behavior analysis into diverse areas and disciplines, including behavior modification, psychiatry, clinical psychology, education, special education, retardation, speech and hearing, counselling, and law enforcement and correction was assessed. Twenty-five journals representing diverse research areas were evaluated from 1968 to 1974 to assess the extent to which operant techniques were applied for therapeutic, rehabilitative, and educative purposes and the degree to which methodological desiderata of applied behavior analysis were met. The analyses revealed diverse publication outlets for applied behavior analysis in various disciplines.

  14. Annual report for 2004 wild horse research and field activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda; Coates-Markle, Linda

    2005-01-01

    The Bureau of Land Management (BLM) and U.S. Geological Survey-Biological Resources Discipline (USGS/BRD) continued wild horse research in 2004, investigating the strategic research elements of fertility control and population estimation. Fertility control research was focused on the individual-based porcine zonae pellucid (PZP) field trials at the Pryor Mountain Wild Horse Range (WHR), Little Rock Cliffs WHR, and McCullough Peaks Wild Horse Management Area (WHMA). Aerial population estimation research was conducted on a number of western wild horse herds to test different survey techniques as applied to various habitat types and population sizes.

  15. A novel method for the activity measurement of large-area beta reference sources.

    PubMed

    Stanga, D; De Felice, P; Keightley, J; Capogni, M; Ioan, M R

    2016-03-01

    A novel method has been developed for the activity measurement of large-area beta reference sources. It makes use of two emission rate measurements and is based on the weak dependence between the source activity and the activity distribution for a given value of transmission coefficient. The method was checked experimentally by measuring the activity of two ((60)Co and (137)Cs) large-area reference sources constructed from anodized aluminum foils. Measurement results were compared with the activity values measured by gamma spectrometry. For each source, they agree within one standard uncertainty and also agree within the same limits with the certified values of the source activity. PMID:26701656

  16. Coordinating Government Funding of File System and I/O Research through the High End Computing University Research Activity

    SciTech Connect

    Grider, Gary; Nunez, James; Bent, John; Ross, Rob; Ward, Lee; Poole, Steve; Felix, Evan J.; Salmon, Ellen; Bancroft, Marti

    2009-01-01

    In 2003, the High End Computing Revitalization Task Force designated file systems and I/O as an area in need of national focus. The purpose of the High End Computing Interagency Working Group (HECIWG) is to coordinate government spending on File Systems and 1I0 (FSIO) R&D by all the government agencies that are involved in High End Computing. The HECIWG tasked a smaller advisory group to list, categorize, and prioritize HEC VO and File Systems R&D needs. In 2005, leaders in FSIO from academia, industry and government agencies collaborated to Jist and prioritize areas of research in HEC FSIO. This led to a very successful High End Computing University Research Activity (HECURA) call from NSF in 2006 and has prompted a new HECURA call from NSF in 2009. This paper serves as both a review of the 2008 HEC FSIO identified research gaps as well as a preview of this forthcoming HECURA call.

  17. Activities report of the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Research concerning fluid dynamics and acoustics; audiology and human effects; structures and machinery; and signal processing and control is summarized. Aircraft noise; underwater acoustics; silencers; biomechanics; noise measurement; hearing; structural dynamics; laser technology; automotive engineering; and active control are discussed.

  18. Aggregation and spatial analysis of walking activity in an urban area: results from the Halifax space-time activity survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neatt, K.; Millward, H.; Spinney, J.

    2016-04-01

    This study examines neighborhood characteristics affecting the incidence of walking trips in urban and suburban areas of Halifax, Canada. We employ data from the Space-Time Activity Research (STAR) survey, conducted in 2007-8. Primary respondents completed a two- day time-diary survey, and their movements were tracked using a GPS data logger. Primary respondents logged a total of 5,005 walking trips, specified by 781,205 individual GPS points. Redundant and erroneous points, such as those with zero or excessive speed, were removed. Data points were then imported into ArcGIS, converted from points to linear features, visually inspected for data quality, and cleaned appropriately. From mapped walking tracks we developed hypotheses regarding variations in walking density. To test these, walking distances were aggregated by census tracts (CTs), and expressed as walking densities (per resident, per metre of road, and per developed area). We employed multivariate regression to examine which neighborhood (CT) variables are most useful as estimators of walking densities. Contrary to much of the planning literature, built-environment measures of road connectivity and dwelling density were found to have little estimating power. Office and institutional land uses are more useful estimators, as are the income and age characteristics of the resident population.

  19. Reaction-based Transport Modeling of Iron Reduction and Uranium Immobilization at Area 2 of the NABIR Field Research Center

    SciTech Connect

    Tsyh Yeh, Gour

    2007-12-21

    This research sought to examine biogeochemical processes likely to take place in the less conductive materials above and below the gravel during the in situ ethanol biostimulation experiment conducted at Area 2 during 2005-2006. The in situ experiment in turn examined the hypothesis that injection of electron donor into this layer would induce formation of a redox barrier in the less conductive materials, resulting in decreased mass transfer of uranium out these materials and attendant declines in groundwater U(VI) concentration. Our project focuses on the development of a mechanistic understanding and quantitative models of coupled Fe(III)/U(VI) reduction in FRC Area 2 sediments. This report summarizes research activities conducted at The University of Central Florida (2004-2007), the development of biogeochemical and reactive transport models and the conduction of numerical simulations at laboratory, column, and field scales.

  20. How the Doctorate Contributes to the Formation of Active Researchers: What the Research Tells Us

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sinclair, Jennifer; Barnacle, Robyn; Cuthbert, Denise

    2014-01-01

    While much research focuses on factors contributing to doctoral completion, few studies explore the role of the doctorate in forming active researchers with the skills, know-how and appetite to pursue research post-completion. This article investigates 15 existing studies for evidence of what factors in the doctoral experience may contribute to…

  1. Bling My Research! A Mock Grant Panel Activity Illustrating the Importance of Basic Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leander, Celeste A.; Whitton, Jeannette

    2010-01-01

    First-year university students have misconceptions about the source and dynamics of publicly funded research money. We designed an activity in which students take part in a mock grant panel. The results indicated a strong tendency toward student funding of applied medical research at the expense of basic research. Exposure to a few examples of…

  2. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities in the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association received an award of Cooperative Agreement #NCC5-356 on September 29, 1998. The mission of this activity, know as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.

  3. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities In the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David

    2002-01-01

    The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members. This paper is the final report from this now completed Cooperative Agreement.

  4. Space Research, Education, and Related Activities in the Space Sciences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, David; Marshall, Frank (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The Universities Space Research Association received an award of Cooperative Agreement NCC5-356 on September 29, 1998. The mission of this activity, known as the Cooperative Program in Space Sciences (CPSS), is to conduct space science research and leading-edge instrumentation and technology development, enable research by the space sciences communities, and to expedite the effective dissemination of space science research, technology, data, and information to the educational community and the general public. To fulfill this mission, USRA recruits and maintains a staff of scientific researchers, operates a series of guest investigator facilities, organizes scientific meetings and workshops, and encourages various interactions with students and university faculty members.

  5. Usability of Mobile Phones in Physical Activity-Rrelated Research: A Systematic Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Monroe, Courtney M.; Thompson, Dixie L.; Bassett, David R., Jr.; Fitzhugh, Eugene C.; Raynor, Hollie A.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The use of mobile phones for physical activity (PA) promotion and assessment represents an attractive research area because this technology is characterized by a widespread reach and dynamic features. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to conduct a systematic review of mobile phone-based approaches for encouraging and assessing PA.…

  6. Physical Activity and Older Adults: Expert Consensus for a New Research Agenda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hughes, Susan L.; Leith, Katherine H.; Marquez, David X.; Moni, Gwen; Nguyen, Huong Q.; Desai, Pankaja; Jones, Dina L.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: This study sought to advance the state of knowledge regarding physical activity and aging by identifying areas of agreement among experts regarding topics that are well understood versus those that are in urgent need of continued research efforts. Design and methods: We used a web-based survey with snowball sampling to identify 348…

  7. Perspective: The Climate-Population-Infrastructure Modeling and Simulation Fertile Area for New Research

    SciTech Connect

    Allen, Melissa R; Fernandez, Steven J; Walker, Kimberly A; Fu, Joshua S

    2014-01-01

    Managing the risks posed by climate change and extreme weather to energy production and delivery is a challenge to communities worldwide. As climate conditions change, populations will shift, and demand will re-locate; and networked infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers, and, hopefully, minimize vulnerability to natural disaster. Climate effects such as sea level rise, increased frequency and intensity of natural disasters, force populations to move locations. Displaced population creates new demand for built infrastructure that in turn generates new economic activity that attracts new workers and associated households to the new locations. Infrastructures and their interdependencies will change in reaction to climate drivers as the networks expand into new population areas and as portions of the networks are abandoned as people leave. Thus, infrastructures will evolve to accommodate new load centers while some parts of the network are underused, and these changes will create emerging vulnerabilities. Forecasting the location of these vulnerabilities by combining climate predictions and agent based population movement models shows promise for defining these future population distributions and changes in coastal infrastructure configurations. By combining climate and weather data, engineering algorithms and social theory it has been only recently possible to examine electricity demand response to increased climactic temperatures, population relocation in response to extreme cyclonic events, consequent net population changes and new regional patterns in electricity demand. These emerging results suggest a research agenda of coupling these disparate modelling approaches to understand the implications of climate change for protecting the nation s critical infrastructure.

  8. Characteristic Distributions of O3 at Taewha Research Forest near Seoul Metropolitan Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, H.; Kim, H.; Lee, M.; Kim, S.; Kim, H. S.; Cho, G.; Park, H.

    2015-12-01

    The measurements of O3, NOx, CO, and SO2 were conducted at 6 heights (4.1, 9.5, 15, 20, 31, 39 m) of 41 m tower at Mt. Taehwa, near Seoul metropolitan area (SMA) from 2011 to 2014. In addition, VOCs were measured seasonally for a short period using a PTR-QMS (Proton Transfer Reaction - Quadruple Mass Spectrometer). In vertical distribution of O3, the mean concentration was slightly higher at 39 m (above canopy) than at 15 m (below canopy). Ozone reached the maximum and minimum concentration at 15:00 and 07:00, respectively. The monthly mean concentration of O3 was the highest in June, which was in accordance with the highest concentration of isoprene and monoterpenes and maximum PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation). NOx was transported from nearby highway mostly in the morning, which fueled O3 formation. At Taehwa Research Forest, it was well constrained the evolution of biogenic VOCs mixed with urban emission and their impact on O3.

  9. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. 334.761 Section 334.761 Navigation and Navigable Waters CORPS... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... waterline to 30°09′57.5″ N, 085°44′37″ W; then northerly to point of origin. (2) Area BA-1. The area...

  10. Top 10 research questions related to children physical activity motivation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ang

    2013-12-01

    Physical activity is critical to healthy development of children. It is well documented that helping children develop and sustain a physically active lifestyle requires children to become motivated. Many studies have been conducted in the past 2.5 decades on determinants and correlates for children and adolescents' physical activity motivation. The findings have informed researchers and practitioners about motivation sources for children and effective strategies to motivate children in given physical activity settings. Built on the extensive knowledge base and theoretical platforms formed by these research studies, the purpose of this article is to take a look at the current research landscape and provide subjective thoughts about what we still need to know about children's physical activity motivation. The product of this subjective thinking process rendered 10 potential questions for future research on children's physical activity motivation in both in-school and out-of-school settings. These topics encompass those focusing on children's physical activity motivation as a mental dispositional process, those conceptualizing the motivation as an outcome of person-environment interactions, and those attempting to dissect the motivation as an outcome of social-cultural influences and educational policies. It is hoped that the topics can serve researchers interested in children's physical activity motivation as starting blocks from which they can extend their conceptual thinking and identify research questions that are personally meaningful. It is also hoped that the list of potential questions can be helpful to researchers in accomplishing the imperative and significant mission to motivate children to be physically active in the 21st century and beyond. PMID:24592774

  11. Community participation in AIDS activities in two pilot areas, Machinga district, Malawi.

    PubMed

    Mwangalawa, A S

    1995-09-01

    Students from the Department of Fine Art and Performing Arts of Chancellor College were subcontracted to spend one month in Nyambi and one month in Gawanani to facilitate participatory research and information gathering from the villages using focus group interviews. Nyambi is an Islamic-dominated area, while Gawanani is Christian-dominated. Music and drama were used to mobilize the communities. Performances were followed by discussion of how traditional practices potentially increasing the community risk of HIV infection could be altered. A drama presentation with proposed solutions was then presented to each community. Major risk factors identified were promiscuity and commercial sex, traditional male circumcision conducted with nonsterile equipment, female initiation requiring young women's participation in sexual intercourse, the sexual cleansing of young widows, tattooing by traditional healers, and misconceptions about how HIV is transmitted. Furthermore, extramarital relationships lead to marital breakdown and the subsequent involvement of unsupervised children in exploratory sexual activities. The district AIDS coordinator facilitated meetings with community leaders to mobilize them to form local AIDS committees. The committees then identified volunteers within their areas who were trained in AIDS education and group discussion skills. 58 volunteers were trained in January 1995. Further plans include the additional training of the volunteers in counseling and home-based care skills, transformation of the volunteers groups into self-administered local nongovernmental organizations, the provision of income-generating activities skills, condom promotion, and the application of the project method in other areas in the district. The success of this project attests to how people, when given the opportunity and guidance, can respond positively to problems and tackle them in their own context.

  12. Activity and function recognition for moving and static objects in urban environments from wide-area persistent surveillance inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levchuk, Georgiy; Bobick, Aaron; Jones, Eric

    2010-04-01

    In this paper, we describe results from experimental analysis of a model designed to recognize activities and functions of moving and static objects from low-resolution wide-area video inputs. Our model is based on representing the activities and functions using three variables: (i) time; (ii) space; and (iii) structures. The activity and function recognition is achieved by imposing lexical, syntactic, and semantic constraints on the lower-level event sequences. In the reported research, we have evaluated the utility and sensitivity of several algorithms derived from natural language processing and pattern recognition domains. We achieved high recognition accuracy for a wide range of activity and function types in the experiments using Electro-Optical (EO) imagery collected by Wide Area Airborne Surveillance (WAAS) platform.

  13. Energetic materials research and development activities at Sandia National Laboratories supported under DP-10 programs

    SciTech Connect

    Ratzel, A.C. III

    1998-09-01

    This report provides summary descriptions of Energetic Materials (EM) Research and Development activities performed at Sandia National Laboratories and funded through the Department of Energy DP-10 Program Office in FY97 and FY98. The work falls under three major focus areas: EM Chemistry, EM Characterization, and EM Phenomenological Model Development. The research supports the Sandia component mission and also Sandia's overall role as safety steward for the DOE Nuclear Weapons Complex.

  14. Prospective areas in the production technology of scientific equipment for space research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Breslavets, A. V.

    1974-01-01

    The average labor of individual types of operations in the percentage ratio of the total labor consumption of manufacturing scientific instruments and apparatus for space research is presented. The prospective areas in the production technology of billet, machining, mechanical assembly, installation and assembly, adjustment and regulation and testing and control operations are noted. Basic recommendations are made with respect to further reduction of labor consumption and an increase in the productivity of labor when manufacturing scientific equipment for space research.

  15. Iaea Activities Supporting the Applications of Research Reactors in 2013

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peld, Nathan D.; Ridikas, Danas

    2014-02-01

    As the underutilization of research reactors around the world persists as a primary topic of concern among facility owners and operators, the IAEA responded in 2013 with a broad range of activities to address the planning, execution and improvement of many experimental techniques. The revision of two critical documents for planning and diversifying a facility's portfolio of applications, TECDOC 1234 “The Applications of Research Reactors” and TECDOC 1212 “Strategic Planning for Research Reactors”, is in progress in order to keep this information relevant, corresponding to the dynamism of experimental techniques and research capabilities. Related to the latter TECDOC, the IAEA convened a meeting in 2013 for the expert review of a number of strategic plans submitted by research reactor operators in developing countries. A number of activities focusing on specific applications are either continuing or beginning as well. In neutron activation analysis, a joint round of inter-comparison proficiency testing sponsored by the IAEA Technical Cooperation Department will be completed, and facility progress in measurement accuracy is described. Also, a training workshop in neutron imaging and Coordinated Research Projects in reactor benchmarks, automation of neutron activation analysis and neutron beam techniques for material testing intend to advance these activities as more beneficial services to researchers and other users.

  16. Measuring benefits of protected area management: trends across realms and research gaps for freshwater systems.

    PubMed

    Adams, Vanessa M; Setterfield, Samantha A; Douglas, Michael M; Kennard, Mark J; Ferdinands, Keith

    2015-11-01

    Protected areas remain a cornerstone for global conservation. However, their effectiveness at halting biodiversity decline is not fully understood. Studies of protected area benefits have largely focused on measuring their impact on halting deforestation and have neglected to measure the impacts of protected areas on other threats. Evaluations that measure the impact of protected area management require more complex evaluation designs and datasets. This is the case across realms (terrestrial, freshwater, marine), but measuring the impact of protected area management in freshwater systems may be even more difficult owing to the high level of connectivity and potential for threat propagation within systems (e.g. downstream flow of pollution). We review the potential barriers to conducting impact evaluation for protected area management in freshwater systems. We contrast the barriers identified for freshwater systems to terrestrial systems and discuss potential measurable outcomes and confounders associated with protected area management across the two realms. We identify key research gaps in conducting impact evaluation in freshwater systems that relate to three of their major characteristics: variability, connectivity and time lags in outcomes. Lastly, we use Kakadu National Park world heritage area, the largest national park in Australia, as a case study to illustrate the challenges of measuring impacts of protected area management programmes for environmental outcomes in freshwater systems.

  17. RESEARCH ACTIVITIES AT THE US EPA'S GULF ECOLOGY DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of this talk was to present an overview of research activities at the US EPA's Office of Research and Development, Gulf Ecology Division located on Pensacola Beach, Florida. The talk was organized into three major sections. The first section covered my educational b...

  18. Health and Physical Activity Research as Represented in RQES

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ainsworth, Barbara E.; Tudor-Locke, Catrine

    2005-01-01

    In the past 75 years, articles in Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport (RQES) have contributed to the understanding of the role physical activity plays in the health of individuals and populations. Articles have described laboratory and community research studies in humans and animals, presented reviews of topics and conference proceedings,…

  19. Research activities of Forestry Canada, 1990-91. Annual publication

    SciTech Connect

    Plexman, C.A.

    1991-01-01

    This document is an overview of current research and development activity in each of the regional establishments and national institutes. It provides a concise tabular summary of projects listed within key activity groups, together with the budget and person years assigned to each.

  20. Design of Activities on Numerical Representations Based on Cognitive Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalifatidou, Eleftheria R.

    2008-01-01

    The results of the cognitive research on numbers' representations can provide a sound theoretical framework to develop educational activities on representing numbers. A program of such activities for a nursery school was designed in order to enable the children to externalize and strengthen their internal representations about numerosity and link…

  1. THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S CONSOLIDATED HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has combined data from 12 U.S. studies related to human activities into one comprehensive data system that can be accessed via the Internet. The data system is called the Consolidated Human Activity Database (CHAD), and it is ...

  2. THE NATIONAL EXPOSURE RESEARCH LABORATORY'S COMPREHENSIVE HUMAN ACTIVITY DATABASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    EPA's National Exposure Research Laboratory (NERL) has combined data from nine U.S. studies related to human activities into one comprehensive data system that can be accessed via the world-wide web. The data system is called CHAD-Consolidated Human Activity Database-and it is ...

  3. Functional Specificity of the Visual Word Form Area: General Activation for Words and Symbols but Specific Network Activation for Words

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinke, Karen; Fernandes, Myra; Schwindt, Graeme; O'Craven, Kathleen; Grady, Cheryl L.

    2008-01-01

    The functional specificity of the brain region known as the Visual Word Form Area (VWFA) was examined using fMRI. We explored whether this area serves a general role in processing symbolic stimuli, rather than being selective for the processing of words. Brain activity was measured during a visual 1-back task to English words, meaningful symbols…

  4. Individual Human Brain Areas Can Be Identified from Their Characteristic Spectral Activation Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Keitel, Anne; Gross, Joachim

    2016-01-01

    The human brain can be parcellated into diverse anatomical areas. We investigated whether rhythmic brain activity in these areas is characteristic and can be used for automatic classification. To this end, resting-state MEG data of 22 healthy adults was analysed. Power spectra of 1-s long data segments for atlas-defined brain areas were clustered into spectral profiles (“fingerprints”), using k-means and Gaussian mixture (GM) modelling. We demonstrate that individual areas can be identified from these spectral profiles with high accuracy. Our results suggest that each brain area engages in different spectral modes that are characteristic for individual areas. Clustering of brain areas according to similarity of spectral profiles reveals well-known brain networks. Furthermore, we demonstrate task-specific modulations of auditory spectral profiles during auditory processing. These findings have important implications for the classification of regional spectral activity and allow for novel approaches in neuroimaging and neurostimulation in health and disease. PMID:27355236

  5. Individual Human Brain Areas Can Be Identified from Their Characteristic Spectral Activation Fingerprints.

    PubMed

    Keitel, Anne; Gross, Joachim

    2016-06-01

    The human brain can be parcellated into diverse anatomical areas. We investigated whether rhythmic brain activity in these areas is characteristic and can be used for automatic classification. To this end, resting-state MEG data of 22 healthy adults was analysed. Power spectra of 1-s long data segments for atlas-defined brain areas were clustered into spectral profiles ("fingerprints"), using k-means and Gaussian mixture (GM) modelling. We demonstrate that individual areas can be identified from these spectral profiles with high accuracy. Our results suggest that each brain area engages in different spectral modes that are characteristic for individual areas. Clustering of brain areas according to similarity of spectral profiles reveals well-known brain networks. Furthermore, we demonstrate task-specific modulations of auditory spectral profiles during auditory processing. These findings have important implications for the classification of regional spectral activity and allow for novel approaches in neuroimaging and neurostimulation in health and disease. PMID:27355236

  6. GLOBAL CHANGE RESEARCH NEWS #36: PUBLICATION OF WORKSHOP REPORT ON CORAL BLEACHING AND MARINE PROTECTED AREAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Nature Conservancy (TNC) and the World Wildlife Fund (WWF) have launched a joint initiative to mitigate the impacts of coral bleaching through the design of marine protected areas (MPAs). EPA's Global Change Research Program is contributing to this effort through the work of ...

  7. 40 CFR 230.54 - Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2012-07-01 2011-07-01 true Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites, and similar preserves. 230.54 Section 230... Human Use Characteristics § 230.54 Parks, national and historical monuments, national...

  8. 40 CFR 230.54 - Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 25 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites, and similar preserves. 230.54 Section 230... Human Use Characteristics § 230.54 Parks, national and historical monuments, national...

  9. 40 CFR 230.54 - Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 26 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites, and similar preserves. 230.54 Section 230... Human Use Characteristics § 230.54 Parks, national and historical monuments, national...

  10. 40 CFR 230.54 - Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 24 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Parks, national and historical monuments, national seashores, wilderness areas, research sites, and similar preserves. 230.54 Section 230... Human Use Characteristics § 230.54 Parks, national and historical monuments, national...

  11. Research on the Value of AACSB Business Accreditation in Selected Areas: A Review and Synthesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hunt, Steven C.

    2015-01-01

    The AACSB claims that its accreditation provides evidence of business school quality in a variety of areas. This paper reviews and synthesizes existing research on the value of AACSB accreditation on four key topics of importance to schools, prospective students, and employers: effect on obtaining quality students, students' job placement, faculty…

  12. Man-Computer Symbiosis Through Interactive Graphics: A Survey and Identification of Critical Research Areas.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knoop, Patricia A.

    The purpose of this report was to determine the research areas that appear most critical to achieving man-computer symbiosis. An operational definition of man-computer symbiosis was developed by: (1) reviewing and summarizing what others have said about it, and (2) attempting to distinguish it from other types of man-computer relationships. From…

  13. Nuclear science and engineering and health physics fellowships: 1984 description. Research areas for the practicum

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-01-01

    This booklet describes available research areas at participating centers where a practicum may be held under the Nuclear Science and Engineering and Health Physics Fellowship program. After a year of graduate study each fellow is expected to arrange for a practicum period at one of the participating centers.

  14. Current research activities at the NASA-sponsored Illinois Computing Laboratory of Aerospace Systems and Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Kathryn A.

    1994-01-01

    The Illinois Computing Laboratory of Aerospace Systems and Software (ICLASS) was established to: (1) pursue research in the areas of aerospace computing systems, software and applications of critical importance to NASA, and (2) to develop and maintain close contacts between researchers at ICLASS and at various NASA centers to stimulate interaction and cooperation, and facilitate technology transfer. Current ICLASS activities are in the areas of parallel architectures and algorithms, reliable and fault tolerant computing, real time systems, distributed systems, software engineering and artificial intelligence.

  15. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... in this section shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama...

  16. 33 CFR 334.761 - Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Naval Support Activity Panama... REGULATIONS § 334.761 Naval Support Activity Panama City; St. Andrews Bay; restricted areas. (a) The areas—(1... in this section shall be enforced by the Commanding Officer, Naval Support Activity, Panama...

  17. Previewing Pictures: A Means of Activating Prior Knowledge in Content Area Reading.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchholz, Tom

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the importance prior knowledge plays in learning in the content areas. Discusses previewing pictures as a prereading activity and presents a picture analysis activity which can be used to activate prior knowledge to use as a foundation for good bridge building. (MG)

  18. Research on earth observing satellite segmenting and scheduling problem for area targets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Renjie; Ruan, Qiming

    2005-10-01

    The mission of an Earth Observing Satellite (EOS) is to acquire images of specified areas on the Earth surface, in response to observation requests from customers for strategic, environmental, commercial, agricultural, and civil analysis and research. A target imaged can have one out of two shapes: a spot and a large polygonal area. A spot can be covered by a single scene of satellite sensor, while a polygonal area may require cutting-up into several contiguous strips to be completely imaged. Because of the orbit restriction, satellite can only view target during specific windows of opportunity when flying over the target. Furthermore, the satellite can only be tasked during such access time windows. Hence a scheduling method of satellite observing tasks has to be taken into account for utilizing satellite sensor efficiently. This paper intends to solve a specific segmenting and scheduling problem for area targets, which concerned with an optical observing satellite equipped with line array CCD sensor. In the paper, based on the analysis of characters of satellite sensor and observed area target, a new method of segmenting area target is given. And on the basis of segmenting results of area target, a scheduling model for multi area targets is proposed. In the paper end, experimental results and analysis are also presented.

  19. Improving global fire carbon emissions estimates by combining moderate resolution burned area and active fire observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Randerson, J. T.; Chen, Y.; Giglio, L.; Rogers, B. M.; van der Werf, G.

    2011-12-01

    In several important biomes, including croplands and tropical forests, many small fires exist that have sizes that are well below the detection limit for the current generation of burned area products derived from moderate resolution spectroradiometers. These fires likely have important effects on greenhouse gas and aerosol emissions and regional air quality. Here we developed an approach for combining 1km thermal anomalies (active fires; MOD14A2) and 500m burned area observations (MCD64A1) to estimate the prevalence of these fires and their likely contribution to burned area and carbon emissions. We first estimated active fires within and outside of 500m burn scars in 0.5 degree grid cells during 2001-2010 for which MCD64A1 burned area observations were available. For these two sets of active fires we then examined mean fire radiative power (FRP) and changes in enhanced vegetation index (EVI) derived from 16-day intervals immediately before and after each active fire observation. To estimate the burned area associated with sub-500m fires, we first applied burned area to active fire ratios derived solely from within burned area perimeters to active fires outside of burn perimeters. In a second step, we further modified our sub-500m burned area estimates using EVI changes from active fires outside and within of burned areas (after subtracting EVI changes derived from control regions). We found that in northern and southern Africa savanna regions and in Central and South America dry forest regions, the number of active fires outside of MCD64A1 burned areas increased considerably towards the end of the fire season. EVI changes for active fires outside of burn perimeters were, on average, considerably smaller than EVI changes associated with active fires inside burn scars, providing evidence for burn scars that were substantially smaller than the 25 ha area of a single 500m pixel. FRP estimates also were lower for active fires outside of burn perimeters. In our

  20. Moving through Life-Space Areas and Objectively Measured Physical Activity of Older People

    PubMed Central

    Portegijs, Erja; Tsai, Li-Tang; Rantanen, Taina; Rantakokko, Merja

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Physical activity–an important determinant of health and function in old age–may vary according to the life-space area reached. Our aim was to study how moving through greater life-space areas is associated with greater physical activity of community-dwelling older people. The association between objectively measured physical activity and life-space area reached on different days by the same individual was studied using one-week longitudinal data, to provide insight in causal relationships. Methods One-week surveillance of objectively assessed physical activity of community-dwelling 70–90-year-old people in central Finland from the “Life-space mobility in old age” cohort substudy (N = 174). In spring 2012, participants wore an accelerometer for 7 days and completed a daily diary including the largest life-space area reached (inside home, outside home, neighborhood, town, and beyond town). The daily step count, and the time in moderate (incl. walking) and low activity and sedentary behavior were assessed. Differences in physical activity between days on which different life-space areas were reached were tested using Generalized Estimation Equation models (within-group comparison). Results Participants’ mean age was 80.4±4.2 years and 63.5% were female. Participants had higher average step counts (p < .001) and greater moderate and low activity time (p < .001) on days when greater life-space areas were reached, from the home to the town area. Only low activity time continued to increase when moving beyond the town. Conclusion Community-dwelling older people were more physically active on days when they moved through greater life-space areas. While it is unknown whether physical activity was a motivator to leave the home, intervention studies are needed to determine whether facilitation of daily outdoor mobility, regardless of the purpose, may be beneficial in terms of promoting physical activity. PMID:26252537

  1. Effect of Activating Agent on the Preparation of Bamboo-Based High Surface Area Activated Carbon by Microwave Heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Hongying; Wu, Jian; Srinivasakannan, Chandrasekar; Peng, Jinhui; Zhang, Libo

    2016-06-01

    The present work attempts to convert bamboo into a high surface area activated carbon via microwave heating. Different chemical activating agents such as KOH, NaOH, K2CO3 and Na2CO3 were utilized to identify a most suitable activating agent. Among the activating agents tested KOH was found to generate carbon with the highest porosity and surface area. The effect of KOH/C ratio on the porous nature of the activated carbon has been assessed. An optimal KOH/C ratio of 4 was identified, beyond which the surface area as well as the pore volume were found to decrease. At the optimized KOH/C ratio the surface area and the pore volume were estimated to be 3,441 m2/g and 2.093 ml/g, respectively, with the significant proportion of which being microporous (62.3%). Activated carbon prepared under the optimum conditions was further characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). Activated carbons with so high surface area and pore volume are very rarely reported, which could be owed to the nature of the precursor and the optimal conditions of mixture ratio adopted in the present work.

  2. Cultural relevance of physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations

    PubMed Central

    Conn, Vicki S.; Chan, Keith; Banks, JoAnne; Ruppar, Todd M.; Scharff, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper describes cultural relevance in physical activity intervention research with underrepresented populations. Seventy-one extant studies which tested interventions to increase physical activity among underrepresented adults were included. Verbatim descriptions of efforts to enhance cultural relevance of study designs and interventions were extracted and then content analyzed. We found strategies to enhance cultural relevance of interventions as soliciting input from population members, linking intervention content with values, addressing language and literacy challenges, incorporating population media figures, using culturally relevant forms of physical activity, and addressing specific population linked barriers to activity. Methodological approaches included specialized recruitment and study locations, culturally relevant measures, underrepresented personnel, and cost-awareness study procedures to prevent fiscal barriers to participation. Most reported activities were surface matching. Existing research neither compared the effectiveness of cultural relevance approaches to standardized interventions nor addressed economic, education, geographic, or cultural heterogeneity among groups. PMID:25228486

  3. Top 10 research questions to promote physical activity research in people with binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Vancampfort, Davy; Rosenbaum, Simon; Probst, Michel; Connaughton, Joanne; Du Plessis, Christy; Yamamoto, Taisei; Diedens, Jolien; Stubbs, Brendon

    2016-01-01

    Despite emerging evidence illustrating the benefits of physical activity for people with binge eating disorder, engaging this population in physical activity is challenging. The International Organization of Physical Therapists in Mental Health (IOPTMH) set out to summarize, appraise, and strengthen the direction of physical activity endeavors. This process led to the identification of 10 important research questions which are discussed. Addressing these 10 research questions is critical for developing evidence-based approaches for promoting and sustaining an active lifestyle in people with binge eating disorder. PMID:26694684

  4. Research activities on submarine landslides in gentle continental slope

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, S.; Goto, S.; Miyata, Y.; Nakamura, Y.; Kitahara, Y.; Yamada, Y.

    2013-12-01

    In the north Sanrikuoki Basin off Shimokita Peninsula, NE Japan, a great number of buried large slump deposits have been identified in the Pliocene and younger formations. The basin has formed in a very gentle continental slope of less than one degree in gradient and is composed of well-stratified formations which basically parallel to the present seafloor. This indicates that the slumping have also occurred in such very gentle slope angle. The slump units and their slip surfaces have very simple and clear characteristics, such as layer-parallel slip on the gentle slope, regularly imbricated internal structure, block-supported with little matrix structure, widespread dewatering structure, and low-amplitude slip surface layer. We recognize that the large slump deposits group of layer-parallel slip in this area is an appropriate target to determine 'mechanism of submarine landslides', that is one of the subjects on the new IODP science plan for 2013 and beyond. So, we started some research activities to examine the feasibility of the future scientific drilling. The slump deposits were recognized basically by 3D seismic analysis. Further detailed seismic analysis using 2D seismic data in wider area of the basin is being performed for better understanding of geologic structure of the sedimentary basin and the slump deposits. This will be good source to extract suitable locations for drill sites. Typical seismic features and some other previous studies imply that the formation fluid in this study area is strongly related to natural gas, of which condition is strongly affected by temperature. So, detailed heat flow measurements was performed in the study area in 2013. For that purpose, a long-term water temperature monitoring system was deployed on the seafloor in October, 2012. The collected water temperature variation is applied to precise correction of heat flow values. Vitrinite reflectance analysis is also being carried out using sediments samples recovered by IODP

  5. Optimal area of retinal photocoagulation necessary for suppressing active iris neovascularisation associated with diabetic retinopathy.

    PubMed

    Shiraya, Tomoyasu; Kato, Satoshi; Shigeeda, Takashi

    2014-10-01

    To determine the optimal area of retinal photocoagulation required for suppressing active neovascularisation (NVI) associated with diabetic retinopathy. We studied 1 eye each of 4 patients in whom active NVI was ophthalmoscopically shown to have been suppressed by additional photocoagulation. These patients initially underwent pan-retinal photocoagulation for diabetic retinopathy at another hospital, but NVI developed subsequently. We compared the areas of photocoagulation before and after additional photocoagulation and compared the area of retinal photocoagulation. The photocoagulated areas before and after additional photocoagulation in the four eyes were 20.7 and 45.2, 36.6 and 56.3, 30.4 and 67.4, and 11.7 and 53.4 %, respectively. The area of retinal photocoagulation required to suppress active NVI is calculated to be ~50 %.

  6. Research engagement of health sciences librarians: a survey of research-related activities and attitudes

    PubMed Central

    Lessick, Susan; Perryman, Carol; Billman, Brooke L.; Alpi, Kristine M.; De Groote, Sandra L.; Babin, Ted D.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The extent to which health sciences librarians are engaged in research is a little-studied question. This study assesses the research activities and attitudes of Medical Library Association (MLA) members, including the influence of work affiliation. Methods An online survey was designed using a combination of multiple-choice and open-ended questions and distributed to MLA members. Responses were analyzed using descriptive statistics, content analysis, and significance testing. The authors used statistical tools and categorized open-ended question topics by the constant comparative method, also applying the broad subject categories used in a prior study. Pearson's chi-square analysis was performed on responses to determine significant differences among respondents employed in three different institutional environments. Results Analysis showed that 79% of respondents read research articles at least once a month; 58% applied published research studies to practice; 44% had conducted research; 62% reported acting on research had enhanced their libraries; 38% had presented findings; and 34% had authored research articles. Hospital librarians were significantly less likely than academic librarians to have participated in research activities. Highly ranked research benefits, barriers, and competencies of health sciences librarians are described. Conclusions Findings indicate that health sciences librarians are actively engaged in research activities. Practice implications for practitioners, publishers, and stakeholders are discussed. Results suggest that practitioners can use published research results and results from their own research to affect practice decisions and improve services. Future studies are needed to confirm and extend these findings, including the need for intervention studies to increase research and writing productivity. PMID:27076808

  7. TFT-Based Active Pixel Sensors for Large Area Thermal Neutron Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kunnen, George

    Due to diminishing availability of 3He, which is the critical component of neutron detecting proportional counters, large area flexible arrays are being considered as a potential replacement for neutron detection. A large area flexible array, utilizing semiconductors for both charged particle detection and pixel readout, ensures a large detection surface area in a light weight rugged form. Such a neutron detector could be suitable for deployment at ports of entry. The specific approach used in this research, uses a neutron converter layer which captures incident thermal neutrons, and then emits ionizing charged particles. These ionizing particles cause electron-hole pair generation within a single pixel's integrated sensing diode. The resulting charge is then amplified via a low-noise amplifier. This document begins by discussing the current state of the art in neutron detection and the associated challenges. Then, for the purpose of resolving some of these issues, recent design and modeling efforts towards developing an improved neutron detection system are described. Also presented is a low-noise active pixel sensor (APS) design capable of being implemented in low temperature indium gallium zinc oxide (InGaZnO) or amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin film transistor process compatible with plastic substrates. The low gain and limited scalability of this design are improved upon by implementing a new multi-stage self-resetting APS. For each APS design, successful radiation measurements are also presented using PiN diodes for charged particle detection. Next, detection array readout methodologies are modeled and analyzed, and use of a matched filter readout circuit is described as well. Finally, this document discusses detection diode integration with the designed TFT-based APSs.

  8. Research Station "Ice Base "Cape Baranov"- overview of activities in 2013 - 2015 years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Makshtas, Alexander; Sokolov, Vladimir; Bogorodskii, Peter; Kustov, Vasily; Movchan, Vadim; Laurila, Tuomas; Asmi, Eija; Popovicheva, Olga; Eleftheriadis, Kostas

    2016-04-01

    Research Station "Ice base "Cape Baranov" of Arctic and Antarctic Research Institute (AARI) had been opened in the fall 2013 on the Bolshevik Island, Archipelago Severnaya Zemlia. Now it is going as the integrated observatory, conducting comprehensive studies in practically all areas of Earth Sciences: from free atmosphere to sea ice and sea water structure in the Shokalsky Strait, from glaciers to permafrost, from paleogeography to ornithology. Overview of activities together with some preliminary results of field works at the station performing in 2014 - 2015 years by international multidisciplinary team in frame of free atmosphere, atmospheric surface layer, greenhouse gases and aerosol studies is presented together with model estimations of active soil layer.

  9. 78 FR 35612 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Targeted Teacher Shortage Areas...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-13

    ... collection of information from Chief State School Officers to support and document the request for teacher... Agency Information Collection Activities; Comment Request; Targeted Teacher Shortage Areas Nationwide... to this notice will be considered public records. Title of Collection: Targeted Teacher...

  10. 50 CFR 218.10 - Specified activity and specified geographical area and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Training in the Jacksonville Range Complex (JAX Range Complex) § 218.10 Specified activity and specified... the Navy is only authorized if it occurs within the JAX Range Complex Operation Areas (OPAREAs),...

  11. Technological forecasting and research inputs in the area of birth control technology.

    PubMed

    Rohatgi, K; Bowonder, B; Rohatgi, P K

    1974-12-01

    Technological forecasting, defined as quantified probabilistic prediction of timings and degree of change in the technological parameters, capabilities desirability or needs at different times in the future, is applied to birth control technology (BCT) as a means of revealing the paths of most promising research through identifying the necessary points for breakthroughs. The present status of BCT in the areas of pills and the IUD, male contraceptives, immumological approaches, post-coital pills, abortion, sterilization, luteolytic agents, laser technologies, and control of the sex of the child, are each summarized and evaluated in turn. Fine mapping is done to identify the most potentially promising areas of BCT. These include efforts to make oral contraception easier, improvement of the design of the IUD, clinical evaluation of the male contraceptive danazol, the effecting of biochemical changes in the seminal fluid, and researching of immunological approaches and the effects of other new drugs such as prostaglandins. The areas that require immediate and large research inputs are oral contraception and the IUD. On the basis of population and technological forecasts, it is deduced that research efforts could most effectively aid countries like India through the immediate production of an oral contraceptive pill or IUD with long-lasting effects. Development of a pill for males or an immunization against pre gnancy would also have a significant impact. However, the major impediment to birth control programs to date is attitudes, which must be changed through education.

  12. Priority research areas to accelerate the development of practical ultraconductive copper conductors

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Dominic F.; Burwell, Malcolm; Stillman, H.

    2015-09-01

    This report documents the findings at an Ultraconductive Copper Strategy Meeting held on March 11, 2015 in Washington DC. The aim of this meeting was to bring together researchers of ultraconductive copper in the U.S. to identify and prioritize critical non-proprietary research activities that will enhance the understanding in the material and accelerate its development into practical conductors. Every effort has been made to ensure that the discussion and findings are accurately reported in this document.

  13. Diagnostic significance of the pancreatic displacement with extrapancreatic oval-shaped low activity area on scintigram.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, K; Nakayama, C; Kamoi, I; Matsuura, K

    1977-01-01

    To aid in the differential diagnosis of upper abdominal tumors, pancreatic scintigraphy was performed in 62 cases. The findings were rather characteristic for pancreatic cysts; namely, pancreatic displacement and, adjacently, an oval-shaped activity area whose count was lower than background. Pancreatic displacement was observed with comparatively large retroperitoneal masses. Low activity areas were observed in cystic lesions. Both findings were noted in 7 (54%) of 13 pancreatic cyst cases. Among the 12 cases with these findings, 7 (58%) had pancreatic cysts.

  14. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 552 - Unauthorized Activities in Fort Lewis Maneuver Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Areas D Appendix D to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Pt. 552, App. D Appendix D to Part 552—Unauthorized Activities in Fort Lewis Maneuver Areas Civilian...

  15. 32 CFR Appendix D to Part 552 - Unauthorized Activities in Fort Lewis Maneuver Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Areas D Appendix D to Part 552 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY MILITARY RESERVATIONS AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES REGULATIONS AFFECTING MILITARY RESERVATIONS Pt. 552, App. D Appendix D to Part 552—Unauthorized Activities in Fort Lewis Maneuver Areas Civilian...

  16. The CELSS research program - A brief review of recent activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Macelroy, R. D.; Tremor, J.; Bubenheim, D. L.; Gale, J.

    1989-01-01

    The history of the Controlled Ecological Life Support System program, initiated by NASA in the late 1970s to explore the use of bioregenerative methods of life support, is reviewed. The project focused on examining the process involved in converting inorganic minerals and gases into life support materials using sunlight as the primary energy source. The research, planning, and technological development required by the CELSS program and conducted at NASA field centers, at various universities, and by commercial organizations are reviewed. Research activities at universities have focused upon exploring methods of reducing the size of the system, reducing system power requirements, understanding issues that are associated with its long-term stability, and identifying new technologies that might be useful in improving its efficiency. Research activities at Ames research center have focused on the use of common duckweed as a high biomass-producing plant, which is high in protein and on waste processing.

  17. Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study Area: An annotated bibliography of research conducted 1968-1990

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Burgess, Leah M.; Schoenecker, Kathryn A.

    2004-01-01

    This annotated bibliography provides an overview of research projects conducted on the Stratton Sagebrush Hydrology Study Area (Stratton) since its designation as such in 1967. Sources include the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station records storage room, Laramie, Wyoming, the USGS and USFS online reference libraries, and scientific journal databases at the University of Wyoming and Colorado State University. This annotated bibliography summarizes publications from research conducted at Stratton during the prime of its tenure as a research lab from 1968 to 1990. In addition, an appendix is included that catalogues all data on file at the Rocky Mountain Forest and Range Experiment Station in Laramie, Wyoming. Each file folder was searched and its contents recorded here for the researcher seeking original data sets, charts, photographs and records.

  18. An informatics research agenda to support precision medicine: seven key areas.

    PubMed

    Tenenbaum, Jessica D; Avillach, Paul; Benham-Hutchins, Marge; Breitenstein, Matthew K; Crowgey, Erin L; Hoffman, Mark A; Jiang, Xia; Madhavan, Subha; Mattison, John E; Nagarajan, Radhakrishnan; Ray, Bisakha; Shin, Dmitriy; Visweswaran, Shyam; Zhao, Zhongming; Freimuth, Robert R

    2016-07-01

    The recent announcement of the Precision Medicine Initiative by President Obama has brought precision medicine (PM) to the forefront for healthcare providers, researchers, regulators, innovators, and funders alike. As technologies continue to evolve and datasets grow in magnitude, a strong computational infrastructure will be essential to realize PM's vision of improved healthcare derived from personal data. In addition, informatics research and innovation affords a tremendous opportunity to drive the science underlying PM. The informatics community must lead the development of technologies and methodologies that will increase the discovery and application of biomedical knowledge through close collaboration between researchers, clinicians, and patients. This perspective highlights seven key areas that are in need of further informatics research and innovation to support the realization of PM. PMID:27107452

  19. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: Summary of activities, 1986

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-04-15

    This report contains a summary of activities at the Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory's Accelerator and Fusion Research Division for the year 1986. Topics and facilities investigated in individual papers are: 1-2 GeV Synchrotron Radiation Source, the Center for X-Ray Optics, Accelerator Operations, High-Energy Physics Technology, Heavy-Ion Fusion Accelerator Research and Magnetic Fusion Energy. Six individual papers have been indexed separately. (LSP)

  20. Activities of the Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oliger, Joseph

    1994-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) was established by the Universities Space Research Association (USRA) at the NASA Ames Research Center (ARC) on June 6, 1983. RIACS is privately operated by USRA, a consortium of universities with research programs in the aerospace sciences, under contract with NASA. The primary mission of RIACS is to provide research and expertise in computer science and scientific computing to support the scientific missions of NASA ARC. The research carried out at RIACS must change its emphasis from year to year in response to NASA ARC's changing needs and technological opportunities. Research at RIACS is currently being done in the following areas: (1) parallel computing; (2) advanced methods for scientific computing; (3) high performance networks; and (4) learning systems. RIACS technical reports are usually preprints of manuscripts that have been submitted to research journals or conference proceedings. A list of these reports for the period January 1, 1994 through December 31, 1994 is in the Reports and Abstracts section of this report.

  1. Implementation of research results to prevent land degradation in viticultural areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marqués Pérez, Maria Jose; Bienes, Ramon; de Benito, Alejandro; Velasco, Ana

    2013-04-01

    This study shows the lack of interest of land users to establish contact with scientific institutions and their reluctance to change their traditional way to manage their soils. It is conducted in Madrid and Castilla La Mancha, Spain, where the production of wine is an important source of income. The basic research was dealing with sustainable land management in sloping vineyards to prevent soil degradation. The usual reduced tillage practice in the area is compared with different cover grasses in the inter-rows of vines. The results demonstrate that these managements are able to increase soil organic matter, improve infiltration, reduce runoff and soil loss and increase soil aggregate stability. Nevertheless a decrease in production is noticed in some permanent cover treatments. A survey to know the feasibility of implementation of this sustainable land management was conducted. Less than 5% of vine growers coming to cellars and cooperatives were willing to be interviewed. Finally 64 vine growers answered a questionnaire regarding different aspects of their environmental concerns, age, land management practices and economic situation. The majority of respondents (82%) are worried about erosion problems in their sloping vineyards. They were informed about the results of the abovementioned project but only 32% of them would change the cultivation by grasses in the inter-rows. The respondents were not old (72% below 50 years old), and the agriculture was not their first activity (69% had other different sources of income). It is remarkable that they have some misunderstandings and lack of knowledge in questions regarding soil conservation. Only 3% of them receive some kind of economic aid from the institutions to avoid land degradation. This could be related to the small or medium size of their lands as 87% of them have plots smaller than 50 ha. The extension services and policy makers have to face this situation to achieve the proper implementation of scientific

  2. Africa's neglected area of human resources for health research - the way forward.

    PubMed

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Marais, D L; Becerra-Posada, F; Ghannem, H

    2012-03-07

    Building the skills for doing, managing and delivering health research is essential for every country's development. Yet, human resources for health research (HRHR) are seldom considered in Africa and elsewhere. Africa's health research capacity has grown considerably, with potential to increase this growth. However, a systemic way of defining, co-ordinating and growing the HRHR needed to support health systems development is missing. Reviewing the status of HRHR in Africa, we assert that it consists of uncoordinated, small-scale activities, primarily driven from outside Africa. We present examples of ongoing HRHR capacity building initiatives in Africa. There is no overarching framework, strategy or body for African countries to optimise research support and capacity in HRHR. A simple model is presented to help countries plan and strategise for a comprehensive approach to research capacity strengthening. Everyone engaged with global, regional and national research for health enterprises must proactively address human resource planning for health research in Africa. Unless this is made explicit in global and national agendas, Africa will remain only an interested spectator in the decisions, prioritisation, funding allocations, conduct and interpretation, and in the institutional, economic and social benefits of health research, rather than owning and driving its own health research agendas.

  3. Snapshot of Active Flow Control Research at NASA Langley

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, A. E.; Gorton, S. Althoff; Anders, S. G.

    2002-01-01

    NASA Langley is aggressively investigating the potential advantages of active flow control as opposed to more traditional aerodynamic techniques. Many of these techniques will be blended with advanced materials and structures to further enhance payoff. Therefore a multi-disciplinary approach to technology development is being attempted that includes researchers from the more historical disciplines of fluid mechanics. acoustics, material science, structural mechanics, and control theory. The overall goals of the topics presented are focused on advancing the state of knowledge and understanding of controllable fundamental mechanisms in fluids rather than on specific engineering problems. An organizational view of current research activities at NASA Langley in active flow control as supported by several programs such as the Morphing Project under Breakthrough Vehicle Technologies Program (BVT). the Ultra-Efficient Engine Technology Program (UEET), and the 21st Century Aircraft Technology Program (TCAT) is presented. On-center research as well as NASA Langley funded contracts and grants are discussed at a relatively high level. The products of this research, as part of the fundamental NASA R and D (research and development) program. will be demonstrated as either bench-top experiments, wind-tunnel investigations, or in flight tests. Later they will be transferred to more applied research programs within NASA, DOD (Department of Defense), and U.S. industry.

  4. Researching Contradictions: Cultural Historical Activity Theory Research (CHAT) in the English Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thompson, Ian

    2015-01-01

    This article argues that Cultural Historical Activity Theory (CHAT) is an appropriate theoretical and methodological framework for researchers in English interested in the social contexts of culture and its relationship with the formation of mind and activity in the English classroom. Two key concepts in Vygotsky's thought central to understanding…

  5. Langley Research Center contributions in advancing active control technology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Abel, I.; Newsom, J. R.

    1981-01-01

    The application of active control technology to reduce aeroelastic response of aircraft structures offers a potential for significant payoffs in terms of aerodynamic efficiency and weight savings. Some of the contributions of the Langley Research Center in advancing active control technology are described. Contributions are categorized into the development of appropriate analysis tools, control law synthesis methodology, and experimental investigations aimed at verifying both analysis and synthesis methodology.

  6. Environmental Behavior and Gender: An Emerging Area of Concern for Environmental Education Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sakellari, Maria; Skanavis, Constantina

    2013-01-01

    Ecofeminism suggests that women are more active than men regarding environmental issues for a variety of social, cultural, and biological reasons. In support to these arguments, women predominate within the overall grassroots of the Environmental Justice movement. However, claims have been made that environmental education theory and research are…

  7. Characterizing urban areas with good sound quality: development of a research protocol.

    PubMed

    van Kempen, Elise; Devilee, Jeroen; Swart, Wim; van Kamp, Irene

    2014-01-01

    Due to rapid urbanization, the spatial variation between wanted and unwanted sounds will decrease or even disappear. Consequently, the characteristics of (urban) areas where people can temporarily withdraw themselves from urban stressors such as noise may change or become increasingly scarce. Hardly any research has been carried out into the positive health effects of spending time in areas with a good sound quality. One of the problems is that an overview of what aspects determines good sound quality in urban areas and how these are interrelated is lacking. This paper reviews the literature pertaining to the sound quality of urban areas. Aim is to summarize what is known about the influence of social, spatial, and physical aspects other than sounds, on peoples' perception of urban sound qualities. Literature from both conventional sound research and from the so-called soundscape field, published between 2000 and the beginning of 2013 in English or Dutch, was evaluated. Although a general set of validated indicators that can be directly applied, is not available yet, a set of indicators was derived from the literature. These form the basis of a study protocol that will be applied in "Towards a Sustainable acoustic Environment", a project that aims to describe sound qualities at a low-scale level. Key-elements of this study protocol, including a questionnaire and the systematic audit of neighborhoods, were presented in this paper.

  8. Black-footed ferret areas of activity during late summer and fall at Meeteetse, Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Fagerstone, K.A.; Biggins, D.E.

    2011-01-01

    Radiotelemetry was used during 1983 and 1984 to collect information on short-term areas of activity for black-footed ferrets (Mustela nigripes) near Meeteetse, Wyoming. This population ultimately provided ferrets for the captive-breeding program that bred and released offspring into the wild since 1991. We fitted 5 adult ferrets and 13 juveniles with radiotransmitters and followed their movements during late summer and fall. Adult males had 7-day areas of activity that were >6 times as large as those of adult females. Activity areas of adult males varied little in coverage or location on a weekly basis, but females sequentially shifted their areas. Unlike juvenile females, juvenile males tended to leave their natal colonies. ?? 2011 American Society of Mammalogists.

  9. Natural Environments, Obesity, and Physical Activity in Nonmetropolitan Areas of the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Michimi, Akihiko; Wimberly, Michael C.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To assess the associations of the natural environment with obesity and physical activity in nonmetropolitan areas of the United States among representative samples by using 2 indices of outdoor activity potential (OAP) at the county level. Methods: We used the data from 457,820 and 473,296 noninstitutionalized adults aged over 18 years…

  10. ‘Syntactic Perturbation’ During Production Activates the Right IFG, but not Broca’s Area or the ATL

    PubMed Central

    Matchin, William; Hickok, Gregory

    2016-01-01

    Research on the neural organization of syntax – the core structure-building component of language – has focused on Broca’s area and the anterior temporal lobe (ATL) as the chief candidates for syntactic processing. However, these proposals have received considerable challenges. In order to better understand the neural basis of syntactic processing, we performed a functional magnetic resonance imaging experiment using a constrained sentence production task. We examined the BOLD response to sentence production for active and passive sentences, unstructured word lists, and syntactic perturbation. Perturbation involved cued restructuring of the planned syntax of a sentence mid utterance. Perturbation was designed to capture the effects of syntactic violations previously studied in sentence comprehension. Our experiment showed that Broca’s area and the ATL did not exhibit response profiles consistent with syntactic operations – we found no increase of activation in these areas for sentences > lists or for perturbation. Syntactic perturbation activated a cortical-subcortical network including robust activation of the right inferior frontal gyrus (RIFG). This network is similar to one previously shown to be involved in motor response inhibition. We hypothesize that RIFG activation in our study and in previous studies of sentence comprehension is due to an inhibition mechanism that may facilitate efficient syntactic restructuring. PMID:26941692

  11. Hazard analysis in active landslide areas in the State of Veracruz, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilde, Martina; Morales Barrera, Wendy V.; Rodriguez Elizarrarás, Sergio R.; Solleiro Rebolledo, Elizabeth; Sedov, Sergey; Terhorst, Birgit

    2016-04-01

    mass movements are analyzed in order to reconstruct complex interrelations of the causes and effects of landslide events. One of the major objectives of this research is to evaluate the potential hazard of active landslide areas. Detailed field analyzes were performed to investigate the situations and dynamics of the slope movements. Therefore, geomorphological mapping, sediment characterization as well as geophysical methods are applied. On the one hand, a detailed sediment characterization aims to identify the type of material (e.g. geotechnical attributes), on the other sediments can provide information on different activity phases, respectively movement processes in slide masses. Furthermore, the focus is placed on the determination of landslide relevant parameters and thresholds. Digital elevation models, which were generated before the onset of slope movements, are integrated in the geomorphological analysis. The poster presents the specific study sites in Veracruz and the situation of endangered slopes before and after the landslide events. It is planned to use this knowledge to model susceptibility maps for the region in the future. Moreover, field data will be used as basic information for further monitoring plans. Resulting susceptibility maps will be provided to the responsible authorities in order to support sustainable planning of settlements and infrastructure in hazardous regions.

  12. Research activities report of the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    A list of research areas in acoustics is furnished including: fluid dynamics and acoustics; automotive engineering; audiology and human effects; and structures and machinery. A compendium of computer programs with details of use, language, etc., is appended. Current projects on noise reduction and noise effects are ennumerated.

  13. Embedding a Recovery Orientation into Neuroscience Research: Involving People with a Lived Experience in Research Activity.

    PubMed

    Stratford, Anthony; Brophy, Lisa; Castle, David; Harvey, Carol; Robertson, Joanne; Corlett, Philip; Davidson, Larry; Everall, Ian

    2016-03-01

    This paper highlights the importance and value of involving people with a lived experience of mental ill health and recovery in neuroscience research activity. In this era of recovery oriented service delivery, involving people with the lived experience of mental illness in neuroscience research extends beyond their participation as "subjects". The recovery paradigm reconceptualises people with the lived experience of mental ill health as experts by experience. To support this contribution, local policies and procedures, recovery-oriented training for neuroscience researchers, and dialogue about the practical applications of neuroscience research, are required.

  14. Recent NRC research activities addressing valve and pump issues

    SciTech Connect

    Morrison, D.L.

    1996-12-01

    The mission of the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) is to ensure the safe design, construction, and operation of commercial nuclear power plants and other facilities in the U.S.A. One of the main roles that the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research (RES) plays in achieving the NRC mission is to plan, recommend, and implement research programs that address safety and technical issues deemed important by the NRC. The results of the research activities provide the bases for developing NRC positions or decisions on these issues. Also, RES performs confirmatory research for developing the basis to evaluate industry responses and positions on various regulatory requirements. This presentation summarizes some recent RES supported research activities that have addressed safety and technical issues related to valves and pumps. These activities include the efforts on determining valve and motor-operator responses under dynamic loads and pressure locking events, evaluation of monitoring equipment, and methods for detecting and trending aging of check valves and pumps. The role that RES is expected to play in future years to fulfill the NRC mission is also discussed.

  15. Advanced aerodynamics and active controls. Selected NASA research

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1981-01-01

    Aerodynamic and active control concepts for application to commercial transport aircraft are discussed. Selected topics include in flight direct strike lightning research, triply redundant digital fly by wire control systems, tail configurations, winglets, and the drones for aerodynamic and structural testing (DAST) program.

  16. Activities report of the Institute of Sound and Vibration Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Research in fluid dynamics and acoustics (noise and vibration control); audiology and human effects (audiotory communication and hearing conservation); structures and machinery (automotive design); and shock analysis is summarized. Underwater acoustics; active noise control; aircraft noise; wind turbine noise; laminar flow fans; helmet design; and the acoustics of flow ducts were studied.

  17. Annual Report for 2003 Wild Horse Research and Field Activities

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ransom, Jason; Singer, Francis J.; Zeigenfuss, Linda C.

    2004-01-01

    This report is meant to highlight the activities of the 2003 field season, as well as to provide a general overview of the data collected. More in-depth data analysis will be conducted following the conclusion of each I phase of the research project, and in many cases will not be possible until several seasons of data are collected.

  18. Fathers' Activities with Their Kids. Child Trends Research Brief.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Brett V.; Michelsen, Erik A.; Halle, Tamara G.; Moore, Kristin A.

    One of the critical elements of children's healthy development is the participation of parents in important activities in their children's lives. This research brief reports on the involvement of fathers in their children's lives. The brief focuses on the involvement of fathers who live with their children, including single fathers raising their…

  19. Outline of Zetetics. A Study of Research and Artistic Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tykociner, Joseph T.

    The focus of this document is upon zetetics, the science of research and artistic activity, and its role: to study the origin, growth, and transitions of human knowledge as a whole. The choice and allocation of subject matter within the curriculum is one of the central domains of expertise required of the general curriculum specialist. No matter…

  20. Activation of extrastriate and frontal cortical areas by visual words and word-like stimuli

    SciTech Connect

    Petersen, S.E.; Fox, P.T.; Snyder, A.Z.; Raichle, M.E. )

    1990-08-31

    Visual presentation of words activates extrastriate regions of the occipital lobes of the brain. When analyzed by positron emission tomography (PET), certain areas in the left, medial extrastriate visual cortex were activated by visually presented pseudowords that obey English spelling rules, as well as by actual words. These areas were not activated by nonsense strings of letters or letter-like forms. Thus visual word form computations are based on learned distinctions between words and nonwords. In addition, during passive presentation of words, but not pseudowords, activation occurred in a left frontal area that is related to semantic processing. These findings support distinctions made in cognitive psychology and computational modeling between high-level visual and semantic computations on single words and describe the anatomy that may underlie these distinctions.

  1. Brain areas activated by uncertain reward-based decision-making in healthy volunteers.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zongjun; Chen, Juan; Liu, Shien; Li, Yuhuan; Sun, Bo; Gao, Zhenbo

    2013-12-15

    Reward-based decision-making has been found to activate several brain areas, including the ventrolateral prefrontal lobe, orbitofrontal cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, ventral striatum, and mesolimbic dopaminergic system. In this study, we observed brain areas activated under three degrees of uncertainty in a reward-based decision-making task (certain, risky, and ambiguous). The tasks were presented using a brain function audiovisual stimulation system. We conducted brain scans of 15 healthy volunteers using a 3.0T magnetic resonance scanner. We used SPM8 to analyze the location and intensity of activation during the reward-based decision-making task, with respect to the three conditions. We found that the orbitofrontal cortex was activated in the certain reward condition, while the prefrontal cortex, precentral gyrus, occipital visual cortex, inferior parietal lobe, cerebellar posterior lobe, middle temporal gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, limbic lobe, and midbrain were activated during the 'risk' condition. The prefrontal cortex, temporal pole, inferior temporal gyrus, occipital visual cortex, and cerebellar posterior lobe were activated during ambiguous decision-making. The ventrolateral prefrontal lobe, frontal pole of the prefrontal lobe, orbitofrontal cortex, precentral gyrus, inferior temporal gyrus, fusiform gyrus, supramarginal gyrus, inferior parietal lobule, and cerebellar posterior lobe exhibited greater activation in the 'risk' than in the 'certain' condition (P < 0.05). The frontal pole and dorsolateral region of the prefrontal lobe, as well as the cerebellar posterior lobe, showed significantly greater activation in the 'ambiguous' condition compared to the 'risk' condition (P < 0.05). The prefrontal lobe, occipital lobe, parietal lobe, temporal lobe, limbic lobe, midbrain, and posterior lobe of the cerebellum were activated during decision-making about uncertain rewards. Thus, we observed different levels and regions of activation for different

  2. Paralympic sport: an emerging area for research and consultancy in sports biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Keogh, Justin W L

    2011-09-01

    The Paralympic Games are the pinnacle of sport for many athletes with a disability. The overall purpose of this paper is to highlight the role that the field of sports biomechanics specifically (and sports science in general) may play in improving performance in various summer Paralympic sports through research and consultancy. To achieve this broad aim, this review provides some history and background on the Summer Paralympic Games, discusses the eligibility and classification rules, describes the potential for the constraints-led approach of dynamical systems theory to inform practice and research in this area, and reviews selected studies examining the biomechanics of the primary forms of Paralympic locomotion. Some recommendations on how sports biomechanics can help facilitate improvements in Paralympic athletic performance through applied research and consultancy are provided, along with commentary on what may be some of the most important issues addressing Paralympic sport.

  3. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Rajan; Schürer, Stephan C; Muskal, Steven M

    2016-01-01

    Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR) data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB), WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note. PMID:27429748

  4. High quality, small molecule-activity datasets for kinase research

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajan; Schürer, Stephan C.; Muskal, Steven M.

    2016-01-01

    Kinases regulate cell growth, movement, and death. Deregulated kinase activity is a frequent cause of disease. The therapeutic potential of kinase inhibitors has led to large amounts of published structure activity relationship (SAR) data. Bioactivity databases such as the Kinase Knowledgebase (KKB), WOMBAT, GOSTAR, and ChEMBL provide researchers with quantitative data characterizing the activity of compounds across many biological assays. The KKB, for example, contains over 1.8M kinase structure-activity data points reported in peer-reviewed journals and patents. In the spirit of fostering methods development and validation worldwide, we have extracted and have made available from the KKB 258K structure activity data points and 76K associated unique chemical structures across eight kinase targets. These data are freely available for download within this data note. PMID:27429748

  5. Areas of activity in biofilms through the biospeckle and the spectral domain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marques, J. K.; Braga, R. A.; Pereira, J.

    2010-09-01

    The dynamic laser speckle or biospeckle laser has been used to analyze the activity of biological and non-biological material by means of various statistical techniques and image processing. However, a challenge to adopt this technique is the ability to identify, in the same material, an area of low activity immersed in an environment of a higher activity. This work was carried out to evaluate the spectral approach associated to biospeckle laser technique as an alternative to identify distinct activities areas in the same material. Biofilm samples, which present well known protocols to be prepared, and a simpler structure than vegetal and animal tissues, were prepared with potato starch and corn starch with areas of different levels of moisture and were analyzed using the biospeckle laser associated with the wavelets transform in order to evaluate the data in the spectral domain. The effect of a black or white background below the samples was also tested. The image analysis was conducted using Generalized Difference and Fujii techniques before and after the implementation of the wavelets transform producing the filtration of the data. The results allowed the visualization of different activities areas in different frequency bands. The areas of activity were presented clearer than the traditional procedures without filtering. A new way to present the results of the biospeckle and the frequency domain information was proposed to enhance the visualization of a whole picture. It was also noted that the greatest contrast between areas of different activity were promoted by materials of different compositions. In some experimental configurations there were possible to tag the relationship between the frequency and depth of the active or inactive material. The influence of the color, black or white, of the background was also noticed in the results, but with white background better in some configurations and with the black better in others.

  6. Recent research efforts in the area of biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Poster session papers

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A.A.; Grohmann, K.

    1992-09-01

    This report presents research presented at the poster session of the Symposium covering a wide spectrum of current biotechnological research activities. Research focused mostly on ethanol production and methane generation from biomass material via microbial processing, as well as on enhanced hydrogen yield from algae. Several of the posters dealt with the pretreatment of cellulosic materials, and enzyme production/characterization, while a good number of papers displayed research efforts on bioremediation, photosynthesis, production of various useful chemicals from biomass by bioprocessing, and on other miscellaneous subjects. One of the papers treated a very interesting topic of cellulose-cellulase complexes. Many of the poster papers are included in this volume, and a synopsis of all the poster/papers presented is the subject of this article.

  7. Recent research efforts in the area of biotechnology for fuels and chemicals: Poster session papers

    SciTech Connect

    Antonopoulos, A.A. ); Grohmann, K. )

    1992-01-01

    This report presents research presented at the poster session of the Symposium covering a wide spectrum of current biotechnological research activities. Research focused mostly on ethanol production and methane generation from biomass material via microbial processing, as well as on enhanced hydrogen yield from algae. Several of the posters dealt with the pretreatment of cellulosic materials, and enzyme production/characterization, while a good number of papers displayed research efforts on bioremediation, photosynthesis, production of various useful chemicals from biomass by bioprocessing, and on other miscellaneous subjects. One of the papers treated a very interesting topic of cellulose-cellulase complexes. Many of the poster papers are included in this volume, and a synopsis of all the poster/papers presented is the subject of this article.

  8. Review of Occupational Therapy Research in the Practice Area of Children and Youth

    PubMed Central

    Bendixen, Roxanna M.; Kreider, Consuelo M.

    2011-01-01

    A systematic review was conducted focusing on articles in the Occupational Therapy (OT) practice category of Childhood and Youth (C&Y) published in the American Journal of Occupational Therapy (AJOT) over the two-year period of 2009–2010. The frameworks of the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF) and Positive Youth Development (PYD) were used to explore OT research progress toward the goals of the Centennial Vision (CV). Forty-six research articles were organized by research type and were classified within these two frameworks. The majority of reviewed published research investigated variables representing constructs falling within the ICF domains of Body Functioning and Activity. The effect of OT interventions on PYD resided primarily in building competence. In order to meet the tenets of the CV, OTs must document changes in children’s engagement in everyday life situations and build the evidence of OT’s efficacy in facilitating participation. PMID:21675342

  9. Vegetation burned areas derived from multiple satellite-based active fires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyang; Kondragunta, Shobha

    2008-08-01

    Biomass burning releases a significant amount of trace gases and aerosol emissions into the atmosphere. If unaccounted for in the modeling of climate, carbon cycle, and air quality, it leads to large uncertainties. The amount of biomass burning emissions depends significantly on burned areas. This study estimates near-real time burned areas from multiple satellite-based active fires in Hazard Mapping System (HMS) developed in NOAA, which capitalizes automated fire detections from Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) Imager, Advanced Very High Resolution Radiometer (AVHRR), Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The HMS fire counts are compared with a set of Landsat ETM+ burn scars for various ecosystems to investigate the rate of burned area in a fire count. The fire size and fire duration derived from multiple satellites are then used to calculate burned area every half hour. The estimated burned areas are evaluated using national inventory of burned area across the United States for 2005.

  10. Odours stimulate neuronal activity in the dorsolateral area of the hippocampal formation during path integration.

    PubMed

    Jorge, P E; Phillips, J B; Gonçalves, A; Marques, P A M; Nĕmec, P

    2014-05-22

    The dorsolateral area of the hippocampal formation of birds is commonly assumed to play a central role in processing information needed for geographical positioning and homing. Previous work has interpreted odour-induced activity in this region as evidence for an 'olfactory map'. Here, we show, using c-Fos expression as a marker, that neuronal activation in the dorsolateral area of the hippocampal formation of pigeons is primarily a response to odour novelty, not to the spatial distribution of odour sources that would be necessary for an olfactory map. Pigeons exposed to odours had significantly more neurons activated in this area of the brain than pigeons exposed to filtered air with odours removed. This increased activity was observed only in response to unfamiliar odours. No change in activity was observed when pigeons were exposed to home odours. These findings are consistent with non-home odours activating non-olfactory components of the pigeon's navigation system. The pattern of neuronal activation in the triangular and dorsomedial areas of the hippocampal formation was, by contrast, consistent with the possibility that odours play a role in providing spatial information. PMID:24671977

  11. Odours stimulate neuronal activity in the dorsolateral area of the hippocampal formation during path integration

    PubMed Central

    Jorge, P. E.; Phillips, J. B.; Gonçalves, A.; Marques, P. A. M.; Nĕmec, P.

    2014-01-01

    The dorsolateral area of the hippocampal formation of birds is commonly assumed to play a central role in processing information needed for geographical positioning and homing. Previous work has interpreted odour-induced activity in this region as evidence for an ‘olfactory map’. Here, we show, using c-Fos expression as a marker, that neuronal activation in the dorsolateral area of the hippocampal formation of pigeons is primarily a response to odour novelty, not to the spatial distribution of odour sources that would be necessary for an olfactory map. Pigeons exposed to odours had significantly more neurons activated in this area of the brain than pigeons exposed to filtered air with odours removed. This increased activity was observed only in response to unfamiliar odours. No change in activity was observed when pigeons were exposed to home odours. These findings are consistent with non-home odours activating non-olfactory components of the pigeon's navigation system. The pattern of neuronal activation in the triangular and dorsomedial areas of the hippocampal formation was, by contrast, consistent with the possibility that odours play a role in providing spatial information. PMID:24671977

  12. ECUT: Energy Conversion and Utilization Technologies program - Biocatalysis research activity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilcox, R.

    1984-01-01

    The activities of the Biocatalysis Research Activity are organized into the Biocatalysis and Molecular Modeling work elements and a supporting planning and analysis function. In the Biocatalysis work element, progress is made in developing a method for stabilizing genetically engineered traits in microorganisms, refining a technique for monitoring cells that are genetically engineered, and identifying strains of fungi for highly efficient preprocessing of biomass for optimizing the efficiency of bioreactors. In the Molecular Modeling work element, a preliminary model of the behavior of enzymes is developed. A preliminary investigation of the potential for synthesizing enzymes for use in electrochemical processes is completed. Contact with industry and universities is made to define key biocatalysis technical issues and to broaden the range of potential participants in the activity. Analyses are conducted to identify and evaluate potential concepts for future research funding.

  13. Tobacco Control: Visualisation of Research Activity Using Density-Equalizing Mapping and Scientometric Benchmarking Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Kusma, Bianca; Scutaru, Cristian; Quarcoo, David; Welte, Tobias; Fischer, Tanja C.; Groneberg-Kloft, Beatrix

    2009-01-01

    Background: Tobacco smoking continues to be a major preventable cause of death and disease and therefore tobacco control research is extremely important. However, research in this area is often hampered by a lack in funding and there is a need for scientometric techniques to display research efforts. Methods: The present study combines classical bibliometric tools with novel scientometric and visualizing techniques in order to analyse and categorise research in the field of tobacco control. Results: All studies related to tobacco control and listed in the ISI database since 1900 were identified by the use of defined search terms. Using bibliometric approaches, a continuous increase in qualitative markers such as collaboration numbers or citations were found for tobacco control research. The combination with density equalizing mapping revealed a distinct global pattern of research productivity and citation activity. Radar chart techniques were used to visualize bi- and multilateral research cooperation and institutional cooperation. Conclusions: The present study supplies a first scientometric approach that visualises research activity in the field of tobacco control. It provides data that can be used for funding policy and the identification of research clusters. PMID:19578464

  14. Decoding Target Distance and Saccade Amplitude from Population Activity in the Macaque Lateral Intraparietal Area (LIP)

    PubMed Central

    Bremmer, Frank; Kaminiarz, Andre; Klingenhoefer, Steffen; Churan, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades toward moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction toward either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a,b). Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface.

  15. Decoding Target Distance and Saccade Amplitude from Population Activity in the Macaque Lateral Intraparietal Area (LIP)

    PubMed Central

    Bremmer, Frank; Kaminiarz, Andre; Klingenhoefer, Steffen; Churan, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades toward moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction toward either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a,b). Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface. PMID:27630547

  16. Decoding Target Distance and Saccade Amplitude from Population Activity in the Macaque Lateral Intraparietal Area (LIP).

    PubMed

    Bremmer, Frank; Kaminiarz, Andre; Klingenhoefer, Steffen; Churan, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Primates perform saccadic eye movements in order to bring the image of an interesting target onto the fovea. Compared to stationary targets, saccades toward moving targets are computationally more demanding since the oculomotor system must use speed and direction information about the target as well as knowledge about its own processing latency to program an adequate, predictive saccade vector. In monkeys, different brain regions have been implicated in the control of voluntary saccades, among them the lateral intraparietal area (LIP). Here we asked, if activity in area LIP reflects the distance between fovea and saccade target, or the amplitude of an upcoming saccade, or both. We recorded single unit activity in area LIP of two macaque monkeys. First, we determined for each neuron its preferred saccade direction. Then, monkeys performed visually guided saccades along the preferred direction toward either stationary or moving targets in pseudo-randomized order. LIP population activity allowed to decode both, the distance between fovea and saccade target as well as the size of an upcoming saccade. Previous work has shown comparable results for saccade direction (Graf and Andersen, 2014a,b). Hence, LIP population activity allows to predict any two-dimensional saccade vector. Functional equivalents of macaque area LIP have been identified in humans. Accordingly, our results provide further support for the concept of activity from area LIP as neural basis for the control of an oculomotor brain-machine interface. PMID:27630547

  17. Large space antenna communications systems: Integrated Langley Research Center/Jet Propulsion Laboratory development activities. 2: Langley Research Center activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cambell, T. G.; Bailey, M. C.; Cockrell, C. R.; Beck, F. B.

    1983-01-01

    The electromagnetic analysis activities at the Langley Research Center are resulting in efficient and accurate analytical methods for predicting both far- and near-field radiation characteristics of large offset multiple-beam multiple-aperture mesh reflector antennas. The utilization of aperture integration augmented with Geometrical Theory of Diffraction in analyzing the large reflector antenna system is emphasized.

  18. The 300 Area Integrated Field Research Challenge Quality Assurance Project Plan

    SciTech Connect

    Fix, N. J.

    2009-04-29

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and a group of expert collaborators are using the U.S. Department of Energy Hanford Site 300 Area uranium plume within the footprint of the 300-FF-5 groundwater operable unit as a site for an Integrated Field-Scale Subsurface Research Challenge (IFRC). The IFRC is entitled Multi-Scale Mass Transfer Processes Controlling Natural Attenuation and Engineered Remediation: An IFRC Focused on the Hanford Site 300 Area Uranium Plume Project. The theme is investigation of multi-scale mass transfer processes. A series of forefront science questions on mass transfer are posed for research that relate to the effect of spatial heterogeneities; the importance of scale; coupled interactions between biogeochemical, hydrologic, and mass transfer processes; and measurements/approaches needed to characterize and model a mass transfer-dominated system. This Quality Assurance Project Plan provides the quality assurance requirements and processes that will be followed by the 300 Area IFRC Project. This plan is designed to be used exclusively by project staff.

  19. [Activities of Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, Anthony R. (Technical Monitor); Leiner, Barry M.

    2001-01-01

    The Research Institute for Advanced Computer Science (RIACS) carries out basic research and technology development in computer science, in support of the National Aeronautics and Space Administrations missions. RIACS is located at the NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California. RIACS research focuses on the three cornerstones of IT research necessary to meet the future challenges of NASA missions: 1. Automated Reasoning for Autonomous Systems Techniques are being developed enabling spacecraft that will be self-guiding and self-correcting to the extent that they will require little or no human intervention. Such craft will be equipped to independently solve problems as they arise, and fulfill their missions with minimum direction from Earth. 2. Human-Centered Computing Many NASA missions require synergy between humans and computers, with sophisticated computational aids amplifying human cognitive and perceptual abilities. 3. High Performance Computing and Networking Advances in the performance of computing and networking continue to have major impact on a variety of NASA endeavors, ranging from modeling and simulation to analysis of large scientific datasets to collaborative engineering, planning and execution. In addition, RIACS collaborates with NASA scientists to apply IT research to a variety of NASA application domains. RIACS also engages in other activities, such as workshops, seminars, visiting scientist programs and student summer programs, designed to encourage and facilitate collaboration between the university and NASA IT research communities.

  20. Science and Technology Librarians: User Engagement and Outreach Activities in the Area of Scholarly Communication

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Salisbury, Lutishoor; Speer, Julie

    2016-01-01

    This paper highlights the findings of a survey completed by ACRL/STS [Association of College and Research Libraries/Science and Technology Section] members on scholarly communication issues. In particular it identifies the percentage of their daily activities that are spent in support of scholarly communication activities; extent of change of job…

  1. Task B: Research on stable high-efficiency, large area, amorphous silicon-based solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Catalano, A.W.; Ayra, R.R.; Bennett, M.S.; Dickson, C.R.; Fieselmann, B.; Goldstein, B.; Morris, J.; Newton, J.L.; O'Dowd, J.G.; Oswald, R.S.; Twesme, E.; Wiedeman, S.; Yang, L. . Thin Film Div.)

    1989-10-01

    This document describes photovoltaic research conducted in four areas: semiconductor materials, high-efficiency cells, nonsemiconductor materials, and submodules. The major focus of semiconductor materials research was on improving the quality of wide-band-gap a-SiC:H alloys and narrow-band-gap a-SiGe:H alloys. Raman spectroscopy suggested that the alloys are inhomogeneous, showing a higher concentration of Ge-Ge bonds than expected from a random mixing model. In high-efficiency device research, silicon-carbon single-junction cells resulted in open-circuit voltages as high as 0.96 V with a higher than 0.6 fill factor. Silicon-germanium cells show far better performance using a p/i-graded interface, an i(a-Si)/i(a-SiGe)-graded interface, and an inverse-graded interface at the i/n junction along with an a-Si n-layer compared with an a-SiGe:H n-layer. In the nonsemiconductor materials research, modeling optical enhancement of long-wavelength light in single-junction cells suggested that several parasitic losses are present in the device structure. In most cases, absorption in the rear contact is the major loss mechanism. In submodule research, the focus was on developing high-efficiency a-Si:H single-junction modules, stable a-Si:H stacked-junction modules, high-efficiency alloy-stacked modules, and advanced laser scribing processes. 74 figs., 13 tabs.

  2. Burned area, active fires and biomass burning - approaches to account for emissions from fires in Tanzania

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruecker, Gernot; Hoffmann, Anja; Leimbach, David; Tiemann, Joachim; Ng'atigwa, Charles

    2013-04-01

    Eleven years of data from the globally available MODIS burned area and the MODS Active Fire Product have been analysed for Tanzania in conjunction with GIS data on land use and cover to provide a baseline for fire activity in this East African country. The total radiated energy (FRE) emitted by fires that were picked up by the burned area and active fire product is estimated based on a spatio-temporal clustering algorithm over the burned areas, and integration of the fire radiative power from the MODIS Active Fires product over the time of burning and the area of each burned area cluster. Resulting biomass combusted by unit area based on Woosteŕs scaling factor for FRE to biomass combusted is compared to values found in the literature, and to values found in the Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED). Pyrogenic emissions are then estimated using emission factors. According to our analysis, an average of 11 million ha burn annually (ranging between 8.5 and 12.9 million ha) in Tanzania corresponding to between 10 and 14 % of Tanzaniás land area. Most burned area is recorded in the months from May to October. The land cover types most affected are woodland and shrubland cover types: they comprise almost 70 % of Tanzania's average annual burned area or 6.8 million ha. Most burning occurs in gazetted land, with an annual average of 3.7 million ha in forest reserves, 3.3 million ha in game reserves and 1.46 million ha in national parks, totalling close to 8.5 million ha or 77 % of the annual average burned area of Tanzania. Annual variability of burned area is moderate for most of the analysed classes, and in most cases there is no clear trend to be detected in burned area, except for the Lindi region were annual burned area appears to be increasing. Preliminary results regarding emissions from fires show that for larger fires that burn over a longer time, biomass burned derived through the FRP method compares well to literature values, while the integration over

  3. Earth Science Big Data Activities at Research Data Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuo, Kwo-Sen; Baumann, Peter; Evans, Ben; Riedel, Morris

    2016-04-01

    In this presentation we introduce Earth science related activities of the Big Data Interest Group (BDIG) in Research Data Alliance (RDA). "RDA is an international organization focused on the development of infrastructure and community activities that reduce barriers to data sharing and exchange, and the acceleration of data driven innovation worldwide." The participation of researchers in RDA is voluntary. As the name implies, an Interest Group is a collection of participants sharing the same interest. The BDIG seeks to address community needs on all things having to do with Big Data. The ultimate goal of RDA Big Data Interest Group is to produce a set of recommendation documents to advise diverse research communities with respect to: • How to select an appropriate Big Data solution for a particular science application to realize optimal value? and • What are the best practices in dealing with various data and computing issues associated with such a solution? The primary means to reaching such recommendations is through the establishment and work of Working Groups, each of which focuses on a specific issue. Although BDIG is not specific to Earth science, its recent activities revolve mostly around it. We introduce some of these activities that are designed to advance our knowledge and to characterize Big Data in Earth science.

  4. Decision-making theories: linking the disparate research areas of individual and collective cognition.

    PubMed

    Pelé, Marie; Sueur, Cédric

    2013-07-01

    In order to maximize their fitness, animals have to deal with different environmental and social factors that affect their everyday life. Although the way an animal behaves might enhance its fitness or survival in regard to one factor, it could compromise them regarding another. In the domain of decision sciences, research concerning decision making focuses on performances at the individual level but also at the collective one. However, between individual and collective decision making, different terms are used resulting in little or no connection between both research areas. In this paper, we reviewed how different branches of decision sciences study the same concept, mainly called speed-accuracy trade-off, and how the different results are on the same track in terms of showing the optimality of decisions. Whatever the level, individual or collective, each decision might be defined with three parameters: time or delay to decide, risk and accuracy. We strongly believe that more progress would be possible in this domain of research if these different branches were better linked, with an exchange of their results and theories. A growing amount of literature describes economics in humans and eco-ethology in birds making compromises between starvation, predation and reproduction. Numerous studies have been carried out on social cognition in primates but also birds and carnivores, and other publications describe market or reciprocal exchanges of commodities. We therefore hope that this paper will lead these different areas to a common decision science.

  5. Research progress in volcanology in the Neapolitan area, southern Italy: a review and some alternative views

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Vivo, Benedetto; Petrosino, Paola; Lima, Annamaria; Rolandi, Giuseppe; Belkin, Harvey E.

    2010-05-01

    Comprehensive reviews are given for the major volcanic systems that occur in the greater metropolitan area of Naples, southern Italy; Mt. Somma-Vesuvius to the east and the Campi Flegrei volcanic system to the west. Also included in the review is a detailed discussion of the large, highly explosive Campania Volcanic Zone (CVZ) ignimbrite events. These volcanic areas have been studied for more than 100 years, yet significant differences of opinion exist related to fundamental issues of origin and distribution. We present some alternative views related to petrogenesis on some issues based on more than 25 years of research. The relationship between risk assessment and management that impacts the threatened society or culture and the past and ongoing fundamental volcanological research is an essential part of the science. Countries with limited resources may be forced to accept an increased risk but even highly industrialized societies may not be able to completely eliminate deaths from volcanic eruptions. Scientific studies of the hazardous regions should be comprehensive and include reasonable alternative interpretations as this information reveals the level of confidence that must be conveyed to the public officials. The authors review the state of the art of risk assessment and management of the volcanic hazards in the Neapolitan region in light of the review of research.

  6. Voltage-sensitive dye imaging of primary motor cortex activity produced by ventral tegmental area stimulation.

    PubMed

    Kunori, Nobuo; Kajiwara, Riichi; Takashima, Ichiro

    2014-06-25

    The primary motor cortex (M1) receives dopaminergic projections from the ventral tegmental area (VTA) through the mesocortical dopamine pathway. However, few studies have focused on changes in M1 neuronal activity caused by VTA activation. To address this issue, we used voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSD) to reveal the spatiotemporal dynamics of M1 activity induced by single-pulse stimulation of VTA in anesthetized rats. VSD imaging showed that brief electrical stimulation of unilateral VTA elicited a short-latency excitatory-inhibitory sequence of neuronal activity not only in the ipsilateral but also in the contralateral M1. The contralateral M1 response was not affected by pharmacological blockade of ipsilateral M1 activity, but it was completely abolished by corpus callosum transection. Although the VTA-evoked neuronal activity extended throughout the entire M1, we found the most prominent activity in the forelimb area of M1. The 6-OHDA-lesioned VTA failed to evoke M1 activity. Furthermore, both excitatory and inhibitory intact VTA-induced activity was entirely extinguished by blocking glutamate receptors in the target M1. When intracortical microstimulation of M1 was paired with VTA stimulation, the evoked forelimb muscle activity was facilitated or inhibited, depending on the interval between the two stimuli. These findings suggest that VTA neurons directly modulate the excitability of M1 neurons via fast glutamate signaling and, consequently, may control the last cortical stage of motor command processing. PMID:24966388

  7. Computer Science Research Institute 2005 annual report of activities.

    SciTech Connect

    Watts, Bernadette M.; Collis, Samuel Scott; Ceballos, Deanna Rose; Womble, David Eugene

    2008-04-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Computer Science Research Institute (CSRI) at Sandia National Laboratories during the period January 1, 2005 to December 31, 2005. During this period, the CSRI hosted 182 visitors representing 83 universities, companies and laboratories. Of these, 60 were summer students or faculty. The CSRI partially sponsored 2 workshops and also organized and was the primary host for 3 workshops. These 3 CSRI sponsored workshops had 105 participants, 78 from universities, companies and laboratories, and 27 from Sandia. Finally, the CSRI sponsored 12 long-term collaborative research projects and 3 Sabbaticals.

  8. Computer Science Research Institute 2003 annual report of activities.

    SciTech Connect

    DeLap, Barbara J.; Womble, David Eugene; Ceballos, Deanna Rose

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Computer Science Research Institute (CSRI) at Sandia National Laboratories during the period January 1, 2003 to December 31, 2003. During this period the CSRI hosted 164 visitors representing 78 universities, companies and laboratories. Of these 78 were summer students or faculty members. The CSRI partially sponsored 5 workshops and also organized and was the primary host for 3 workshops. These 3 CSRI sponsored workshops had 178 participants--137 from universities, companies and laboratories, and 41 from Sandia. Finally, the CSRI sponsored 18 long-term collaborative research projects and 5 Sabbaticals.

  9. Computer Science Research Institute 2004 annual report of activities.

    SciTech Connect

    DeLap, Barbara J.; Womble, David Eugene; Ceballos, Deanna Rose

    2006-03-01

    This report summarizes the activities of the Computer Science Research Institute (CSRI) at Sandia National Laboratories during the period January 1, 2004 to December 31, 2004. During this period the CSRI hosted 166 visitors representing 81 universities, companies and laboratories. Of these 65 were summer students or faculty. The CSRI partially sponsored 2 workshops and also organized and was the primary host for 4 workshops. These 4 CSRI sponsored workshops had 140 participants--74 from universities, companies and laboratories, and 66 from Sandia. Finally, the CSRI sponsored 14 long-term collaborative research projects and 5 Sabbaticals.

  10. Accelerator and Fusion Research Division: summary of activities, 1983

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-08-01

    The activities described in this summary of the Accelerator and Fusion Research Division are diverse, yet united by a common theme: it is our purpose to explore technologically advanced techniques for the production, acceleration, or transport of high-energy beams. These beams may be the heavy ions of interest in nuclear science, medical research, and heavy-ion inertial-confinement fusion; they may be beams of deuterium and hydrogen atoms, used to heat and confine plasmas in magnetic fusion experiments; they may be ultrahigh-energy protons for the next high-energy hadron collider; or they may be high-brilliance, highly coherent, picosecond pulses of synchrotron radiation.

  11. Active Control Technology at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antcliff, Richard R.; McGowan, Anna-Marie R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Langley has a long history of attacking important technical opportunities from a broad base of supporting disciplines. The research and development at Langley in this subject area range from the test tube to the test flight. The information covered here will range from the development of innovative new materials, sensors and actuators, to the incorporation of smart sensors and actuators in practical devices, to the optimization of the location of these devices, to, finally, a wide variety of applications of these devices utilizing Langley's facilities and expertise. Advanced materials are being developed for sensors and actuators, as well as polymers for integrating smart devices into composite structures. Contributions reside in three key areas: computational materials; advanced piezoelectric materials; and integrated composite structures. The computational materials effort is focused on developing predictive tools for the efficient design of new materials with the appropriate combination of properties for next generation smart airframe systems. Research in the area of advanced piezoelectrics includes optimizing the efficiency, force output, use temperature, and energy transfer between the structure and device for both ceramic and polymeric materials. For structural health monitoring, advanced non-destructive techniques including fiber optics are being developed for detection of delaminations, cracks and environmental deterioration in aircraft structures. The computational materials effort is focused on developing predictive tools for the efficient design of new materials with the appropriate combination of properties for next generation smart airframe system. Innovative fabrication techniques processing structural composites with sensor and actuator integration are being developed.

  12. 75 FR 1723 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chiniak Gully Research Area for Vessels...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-13

    ... Economic Zone Off Alaska; Chiniak Gully Research Area for Vessels Using Trawl Gear AGENCY: National Marine Fisheries Service (NMFS), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), Commerce. ACTION: Temporary rule. SUMMARY: NMFS is rescinding the trawl closure in the Chiniak Gully Research Area....

  13. The Research Board of EDTNA/ERCA: research activities and deliverables.

    PubMed

    Harrington, M; Elseviers, M; De Vos, J Y; Zampieron, A; Ormandy, P; Kafkia, T

    2006-01-01

    The Research Board (RB) of EDTNA/ERCA was formed ten years ago to provide opportunities for our members to participate in collaborative research projects at a European level. It provides educational support in research methodology via workshops at conference and in articles published in the Journal. The group has completed a total of seven collaborative research projects in diverse areas of renal care and has recently developed an ambitious new project, the European Practice Database (EPD). The EPD project aims to capture the current practice of renal care professionals in European centres on a three-year repeating cycle. The results of projects are presented at conference and at international scientific meetings by invitation and abstract submission. Recommendations, guidelines or educational material are produced collaboratively with the renal multi-disciplinary community.

  14. Active faulting and neotectonics in the Baelo Claudia area, Campo de Gibraltar (southern Spain)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grützner, Christoph; Reicherter, Klaus; Hübscher, Christian; Silva, Pablo G.

    2012-07-01

    The Strait of Gibraltar area is part of the western Eurasian-African convergence zone characterized by a complex pattern of deformation, including thrusting and folding and active normal faulting. Generally, the area is of low-seismicity; only some minor earthquakes have been recorded in the last hundred years. Archaeoseismological data evidences earthquake destruction occurring twice during Roman times. A better neotectonic framework and knowledge on the paleostress evolution of the Strait of Gibraltar area is necessary to find the local sources for those events and to establish an understanding of the recent deformation. Paleoseismic evidence for one moderate earthquake event around 6000-5000 BP along the normal Carrizales Fault is described in this paper. Off-shore high-resolution seismic investigations, structural and paleostress data, high-resolution GPR and geoelectrical resistivity measurements, outcrop investigations and trenching studies are discussed. The data reveal that active faulting takes place along N-S trending normal faults. Hence, N-S directed normal faults in the area are claimed as local candidates for moderate earthquake activity. Return periods of moderate earthquakes in the order of at least 2000-2500 years in the study area may have to be taken into account. Structural data, such a paleostress data and joints are presented and a deformation history for the Strait of Gibraltar area in southern Spain is developed in this study.

  15. Research on the Placement of the Ecological Shelter Zone in the Three Gorges Reservoir Area, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shan, N.; Ruan, X.

    2011-12-01

    The Three Gorges Dam is built on the middle reaches of Yangtze River (Changjiang) in south-central China, which is the world's third longest river. The Three Gorges Reservoir Region (TGRR), including the entire inundated area and 19 administrative units (counties and cities) on both sides of the river, is regarded as an environmentally sensitive area. The total area of the TGRR is approximately 58000 km2. As the Three Gorges Dam fully operated, for the flood control, the water level should be kept in the range between 145 m and 175 m and the reservoir surface water area(over 1080 km2)at a water level of 175 m, with a length of 600 km. Many of cities, villages and farms have been submerged. Moreover, as a result of reservoir operation, the water-level alternation of the reservoir is opposite to the nature, which is low water level (145m) in summer and high water level (175m) in winter. The Hydro-Fluctuation Belt, with a height of 30m, will become a new pollution source due to the riparian being flooded and the submerged areas may still contain trace amounts of toxic or radioactive materials. The environmental impacts associated with large scale reservoir area often have significant negative impacts on the environment. It affects forest cover, species in the area, some endangered, water quality, increase the likelihood of earthquakes and mudslides in the area. To solve these problems, it is necessarily to construct the Ecological Shelter Zone (ESZ) along with the edge of the reservoir area. The function of the ESZ is similar to the riparian zone in reducing flood damage, improving water quality, decreasing the levels of the nonpoint source pollution load and soil erosion and rebuilding the migration routes of plant and wildlife. However, the research of the ESZ is mainly focused on rivers at field scale by now, lack of research method on reservoir at the watershed scale. As the special nature of the Three Gorges Reservoir, the construction of the ESZ in the TGRA is

  16. Signal intensity, clinical activity and cross-sectional areas on MRI scans in thyroid eye disease.

    PubMed

    Mayer, E J; Fox, D L; Herdman, G; Hsuan, J; Kabala, J; Goddard, P; Potts, M J; Lee, R W J

    2005-10-01

    The signal intensity from inflamed extra-ocular muscles on short tau inversion recovery (STIR)-sequence magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is known to correlate with clinical scores of thyroid eye disease (TED) severity. Twenty-one patients who had undergone repeated MRI scanning for TED were studied retrospectively. Signal intensity of extra-ocular muscles (from STIR-sequence MRI) and cross-sectional area (from STIR and T1 MRI) were correlated with Mourits' clinical activity score (CAS). The area of highest signal intensity within the most inflamed extra-ocular muscle, and the average cross-sectional signal intensity of the most inflamed extra-ocular muscle reliably correlated with CAS, and this was maintained as disease activity changed over time. In contrast, isolated measures of muscle cross-sectional area did not correlate with CAS. The extra-ocular muscle cross-sectional area calculated from STIR-sequence MR images was greater than that measured on T1 images. This suggests that muscle area from STIR-sequence MRI may also detect peri-muscular inflammation. We conclude that the peak signal intensity from the most inflamed extra-ocular muscle remains the most reliable correlate of clinical disease activity obtained from these images. STIR-sequence MRI scans provide a number of useful measures of disease activity in TED.

  17. Poor supplementary motor area activation differentiates auditory verbal hallucination from imagining the hallucination☆

    PubMed Central

    Raij, Tuukka T.; Riekki, Tapani J.J.

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal underpinnings of auditory verbal hallucination remain poorly understood. One suggested mechanism is brain activation that is similar to verbal imagery but occurs without the proper activation of the neuronal systems that are required to tag the origins of verbal imagery in one's mind. Such neuronal systems involve the supplementary motor area. The supplementary motor area has been associated with awareness of intention to make a hand movement, but whether this region is related to the sense of ownership of one's verbal thought remains poorly known. We hypothesized that the supplementary motor area is related to the distinction between one's own mental processing (auditory verbal imagery) and similar processing that is attributed to non-self author (auditory verbal hallucination). To test this hypothesis, we asked patients to signal the onset and offset of their auditory verbal hallucinations during functional magnetic resonance imaging. During non-hallucination periods, we asked the same patients to imagine the hallucination they had previously experienced. In addition, healthy control subjects signaled the onset and offset of self-paced imagery of similar voices. Both hallucinations and the imagery of hallucinations were associated with similar activation strengths of the fronto-temporal language-related circuitries, but the supplementary motor area was activated more strongly during the imagery than during hallucination. These findings suggest that auditory verbal hallucination resembles verbal imagery in language processing, but without the involvement of the supplementary motor area, which may subserve the sense of ownership of one's own verbal imagery. PMID:24179739

  18. Poor supplementary motor area activation differentiates auditory verbal hallucination from imagining the hallucination.

    PubMed

    Raij, Tuukka T; Riekki, Tapani J J

    2012-01-01

    Neuronal underpinnings of auditory verbal hallucination remain poorly understood. One suggested mechanism is brain activation that is similar to verbal imagery but occurs without the proper activation of the neuronal systems that are required to tag the origins of verbal imagery in one's mind. Such neuronal systems involve the supplementary motor area. The supplementary motor area has been associated with awareness of intention to make a hand movement, but whether this region is related to the sense of ownership of one's verbal thought remains poorly known. We hypothesized that the supplementary motor area is related to the distinction between one's own mental processing (auditory verbal imagery) and similar processing that is attributed to non-self author (auditory verbal hallucination). To test this hypothesis, we asked patients to signal the onset and offset of their auditory verbal hallucinations during functional magnetic resonance imaging. During non-hallucination periods, we asked the same patients to imagine the hallucination they had previously experienced. In addition, healthy control subjects signaled the onset and offset of self-paced imagery of similar voices. Both hallucinations and the imagery of hallucinations were associated with similar activation strengths of the fronto-temporal language-related circuitries, but the supplementary motor area was activated more strongly during the imagery than during hallucination. These findings suggest that auditory verbal hallucination resembles verbal imagery in language processing, but without the involvement of the supplementary motor area, which may subserve the sense of ownership of one's own verbal imagery. PMID:24179739

  19. Sustained activity in topographic areas of human posterior parietal cortex during memory-guided saccades

    PubMed Central

    Schluppeck, Denis; Curtis, Clayton E.; Glimcher, Paul W.; Heeger, David J.

    2006-01-01

    In a previous study we identified three cortical areas in human posterior parietal cortex that exhibited topographic responses during memory-guided saccades (V7, IPS1, and IPS2), which are candidate homologues of macaque parietal areas such as the lateral intraparietal area (LIP) and parietal reach region (PRR). Here, we show that these areas exhibit sustained delay-period activity, a critical physiological signature of areas in macaque parietal areas. By varying delay duration we disambiguated delay-period activity from sensory and motor responses. Mean time-courses in the parietal areas were well-fit by a linear model comprising 3 components representing responses to: (1) the visual target, (2) the delay period, and (3) the eye movement interval. We estimated the contributions of each component: the response amplitude during the delay period was substantially smaller (<30%) than that elicited by the transient visual target. All 3 parietal regions showed comparable delay period response amplitudes, with a trend towards larger responses from V7, to IPS1, and IPS2. Responses to the cue and during the delay period showed clear lateralization with larger responses to trials in which the target was placed in the contralateral visual field, suggesting that both these components contributed to the topography we measured. PMID:16687501

  20. Research on upgrading structures for host and risk area shelters. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tansley, R.S.; Cuzner, G.J.; Wilton, C.

    1982-09-01

    This report presents a summary of the work conducted during the first year of a five-year program. This research effort provides the engineering basis and guidance for the development of upgrading for host and risk area shelters. This investigation is in support of current Civil Defense planning based on a policy of crisis relocation, and includes investigative efforts related to glulam timber beams, concrete connections, punching strength of reinforced concrete slabs, and static/dynamic testing of prestressed concrete slabs. The results of this study are being used in the development of a prediction methodology for comparative selection of shelter spaces.

  1. Seasonal Variability in Boreal Wildfire Activity Associated with Landscape Patterns of Burned Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, K. M.; Kasischke, E. S.

    2012-12-01

    Wildfire is the most prominent disturbance in the boreal forest, effecting changes in stand age and vegetation composition often over thousands of square kilometers. The effect of wildfire on ecosystem structure and function depends heavily on the seasonality of the burn, and periods of seasonally high fire activity are highly sporadic. The majority of area in Alaska that burns in a fire season does so during relatively short periods of high fire activity. These periods, which can be determined from active fire detections or fire management agency data records, are caused by elevated air temperatures and low precipitation which decrease fuel moisture and encourage the spread of fire. While fire fronts dominate during periods of low fire activity, more active periods have a higher proportion of residual burning which remains after a front has passed through. Residual burning is likely responsible for the extensive combustion of surface organic materials in the boreal forest, which can lead to post-fire changes in dominant vegetation type. Seasonal variations in fire activity are therefore an important factor in the mosaic of severity conditions across large burned areas and shifts in land cover over successional time scales. The purpose of this study is to characterize the temporal and spatial variability in periods of seasonal high fire activity that influence patterns of burned area. In large burns, unburned areas within a fire scar may serve as an important seed stock during post-fire recruitment. These areas may also feedback to future fire regimes through the preservation of more fire-resistant vegetation in unburned "islands".

  2. UAS Related Activities at NASA's Dryden Flight Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauer, Jeffrey E.

    2009-01-01

    NASA s Dryden Flight Research Center is completing its refurbishment and initial flights of one the pre-production Global Hawk aircraft it received from the U.S. Air Force. NASA Dryden has an agreement with the Global Hawk s manufacturer, Northrop Grumman, to partner in the refurbishment and flight operations of the vehicles. The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) has also partnered on the project and is assisting NASA with project management and pilot responsibilities for the aircraft. NASA and NOAA will be using the Global Hawks to conduct earth science research. The earth science community is increasing utilizing UAS of all sizes and capabilities to collect important data on a variety of issues including important global climate change issues. To pursue the data collection needs of the science community there is a growing demand for international collaboration with respect to operating UAS in global airspace. Operations of NASA s Ikhana aircraft continued this past year. The Ikhana is a modified Predator B UAS. A UAS dedicated to research at NASA Dryden is the X-48B blended wing body research aircraft. Flight tests with the 500- pound, remotely piloted test vehicle are now in a block 4 phase involving parameter identification and maneuvers to research the limits of the engine in stall situations. NASA s participation in the blended wing body research effort is focused on fundamental, advanced flight dynamics and structural design concepts within the Subsonic Fixed Wing project, part of the Fundamental Aeronautics program managed through NASA s Aeronautics Research Mission Directorate. Potential benefits of the aircraft include increased volume for carrying capacity, efficient aerodynamics for reduced fuel burn and possibly significant reductions in noise due to propulsion integration options. NASA Dryden continues to support the UAS industry by facilitating access to three specially designated test areas on Edwards Air Force Base for the

  3. Institute for the Study of Sparsely Populated Areas. A Centre for Interdisciplinary Research into Sparsely Populated and Peripheral Regions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sadler, Peter G.

    The Institute for the Study of Sparsely Populated Areas is a multidisciplinary research unit which acts to coordinate, further, and initiate studies of the economic and social conditions of sparsely populated areas. Short summaries of the eight studies completed in the session of 1977-78 indicate work in such areas as the study of political life…

  4. Current research and case work activities of criminalistics in Japan.

    PubMed

    Seta, S

    1996-06-28

    The current research and case work activities of criminalistics in Japan are described. The selected forensic science disciplines are forensic osteology including specialized technology of skull identification, forensic serology, forensic DNA analysis of poisonous materials, forensic hair and fiber analysis, trace evidence analysis, document analysis, forensic psychology mainly concerned with the so-called lie-detector, forensic image analysis, voice print analysis, fire and explosion analysis, forensic engineering, firearm and toolmark analysis. The current activity of the Training Institute of Forensic Science at the National Research Institute of Police Science is also briefly described with special regard to the education and training course of forensic DNA typing analysis. Instruments for analytical and methodological use are listed according to the availability in evidence sample analyses.

  5. The activities and prospect of planetary protection research in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Ming

    2016-07-01

    Planetary protection is an important activities and responsibilities for space exploration. In Chinese manned missions, micro-organism research and protection has been developed in Shenzhou-9, Shenzhou-10 and Tiangong-2 missions. In the experiment facility of Lunar Palace-1, the micro-organism pollution and protection/control technology has been studied. In the lunar sample recovery mission and China Mars mission, the planetary protection has become an important issue. This paper introduced the research about planetary protection in China. The planetary protection activities, strategy and procedures have been suggested for future space exploration program to meet the requirement for planetary protection, such as cabin pollution isolation, pollutant detection, and so on.

  6. [Effects of Different Reclaimed Scenarios on Soil Microbe and Enzyme Activities in Mining Areas].

    PubMed

    Li, Jun-jian; Liu, Feng; Zhou, Xiao-mei

    2015-05-01

    Abstract: Ecological degradation in the mining areas is greatly aggravated in recent several decades, and ecological restoration has become the primary measure for the sustainable development. Soil microbe and enzyme activity are sensitive indices to evaluate soil quality. Ecological reconstruction was initiated in Antaibao mining area, and we tested soil physicochemical properties, microbial populations of azotobacteria, nitrifying-bacteria and denitrifying-bacteria, and enzyme activities (including sucrose, polyphenol oxidase, dehydrogenase and urease) under different regeneration scenarios. Regeneration scenarios had significant effects on soil physicochemical properties, microbial population and enzyme activities. Total nitrogen was strongly correlated with azotobacteria and nitrifying-bacteria, however, total nitrogen was not correlated with denitrifying-bacteria. Phenol oxidase activity was negatively correlated with soil organic carbon and total nitrogen, but other enzyme activities were positively correlated with soil organic carbon and total nitrogen. Principal Component Analysis ( PCA) was applied to analyze the integrated fertility index (IFI). The highest and lowest IFIs were in Robinia pseudoacacia-Pinus tabuliformis mixed forests and un-reclaimed area, respectively. R. pseudoacacia-P. tabuliformis mixed forests were feasible for reclaimed mining areas in semi-arid region Northwest Shanxi.

  7. Analysis of Research Activity in Gastroenterology: Pancreatitis Is in Real Danger

    PubMed Central

    Szentesi, Andrea; Tóth, Emese; Bálint, Emese; Fanczal, Júlia; Madácsy, Tamara; Laczkó, Dorottya; Ignáth, Imre; Balázs, Anita; Pallagi, Petra; Maléth, József; Rakonczay, Zoltán; Kui, Balázs; Illés, Dóra; Márta, Katalin; Blaskó, Ágnes; Demcsák, Alexandra; Párniczky, Andrea; Pár, Gabriella; Gódi, Szilárd; Mosztbacher, Dóra; Szücs, Ákos; Halász, Adrienn; Izbéki, Ferenc; Farkas, Nelli; Hegyi, Péter

    2016-01-01

    Objective Biomedical investment trends in 2015 show a huge decrease of investment in gastroenterology. Since academic research usually provides the basis for industrial research and development (R&D), our aim was to understand research trends in the field of gastroenterology over the last 50 years and identify the most endangered areas. Methods We searched for PubMed hits for gastrointestinal (GI) diseases for the 1965–2015 period. Overall, 1,554,325 articles were analyzed. Since pancreatology was identified as the most endangered field of research within gastroenterology, we carried out a detailed evaluation of research activity in pancreatology. Results In 1965, among the major benign GI disorders, 51.9% of the research was performed on hepatitis, 25.7% on pancreatitis, 21.7% on upper GI diseases and only 0.7% on the lower GI disorders. Half a century later, in 2015, research on hepatitis and upper GI diseases had not changed significantly; however, studies on pancreatitis had dropped to 10.7%, while work on the lower GI disorders had risen to 23.4%. With regard to the malignant disorders (including liver, gastric, colon, pancreatic and oesophageal cancer), no such large-scale changes were observed in the last 50 years. Detailed analyses revealed that besides the drop in research activity in pancreatitis, there are serious problems with the quality of the studies as well. Only 6.8% of clinical trials on pancreatitis were registered and only 5.5% of these registered trials were multicentre and multinational (more than five centres and nations), i.e., the kind that provides the highest level of impact and evidence level. Conclusions There has been a clear drop in research activity in pancreatitis. New international networks and far more academic R&D activities should be established in order to find the first therapy specifically for acute pancreatitis. PMID:27776171

  8. Active Control Technology at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Antcliff, Richard R.; McGowan, Anna-Marie R.

    2000-01-01

    NASA Langley has a long history of attacking important technical Opportunities from a broad base of supporting disciplines. The research and development at Langley in this subject area range from the test tube to the test flight, The information covered here will range from the development of innovative new materials, sensors and actuators, to the incorporation of smart sensors and actuators in practical devices, to the optimization of the location of these devices, to, finally, a wide variety of applications of these devices utilizing Langley's facilities and expertise. Advanced materials are being developed for sensors and actuators, as well as polymers for integrating smart devices into composite structures. Contributions reside in three key areas: computational materials; advanced piezoelectric materials; and integrated composite structures.

  9. Use of Ground Penetrating Radar and Gradiometry in Identifying Domestic Activity Areas Within the Kolomoki Mounds Archaeological Site, Georgia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serman, N.

    2005-05-01

    The Kolomoki Mounds archaeological site (9ER1) in southwest Georgia appears to be one of the most important Woodland Period (ca. 1000 B.C. - A.D. 900) centers in southeastern United States. The site originally had at least eight mounds, exquisite ceramics and, seemingly, a year-round occupation. Due to an early archaeological misinterpretation, Kolomoki was, until recently, all but ignored in archaeological research. Consequently, the site and its occupation are not well understood. Today, the site is included in the National Register of Historic Places, and is not available for standard archaeological investigation, that is, extensive excavation. Therefore, non-destructive geophysical exploration provides an ideal means for investigating protected sites, such as Kolomoki, to obtain archaeologically relevant information. I will present the results of the first two geophysical surveys I conducted within the Kolomoki Mounds archaeological site in 2001. These surveys are part of my ongoing geophysical research with the purpose of better understanding intra-site settlement patterns at the Kolomoki Mounds archaeological site. The results of the ground-penetrating radar and gradiometry surveys indicate different activity areas at the site. There is a pronounced difference in appearance and density of anomalies between at least two areas, with one of these areas being a part of the habitation area.

  10. Research Data Management and Libraries: Relationships, Activities, Drivers and Influences

    PubMed Central

    Pinfield, Stephen; Cox, Andrew M.; Smith, Jen

    2014-01-01

    The management of research data is now a major challenge for research organisations. Vast quantities of born-digital data are being produced in a wide variety of forms at a rapid rate in universities. This paper analyses the contribution of academic libraries to research data management (RDM) in the wider institutional context. In particular it: examines the roles and relationships involved in RDM, identifies the main components of an RDM programme, evaluates the major drivers for RDM activities, and analyses the key factors influencing the shape of RDM developments. The study is written from the perspective of library professionals, analysing data from 26 semi-structured interviews of library staff from different UK institutions. This is an early qualitative contribution to the topic complementing existing quantitative and case study approaches. Results show that although libraries are playing a significant role in RDM, there is uncertainty and variation in the relationship with other stakeholders such as IT services and research support offices. Current emphases in RDM programmes are on developments of policies and guidelines, with some early work on technology infrastructures and support services. Drivers for developments include storage, security, quality, compliance, preservation, and sharing with libraries associated most closely with the last three. The paper also highlights a ‘jurisdictional’ driver in which libraries are claiming a role in this space. A wide range of factors, including governance, resourcing and skills, are identified as influencing ongoing developments. From the analysis, a model is constructed designed to capture the main aspects of an institutional RDM programme. This model helps to clarify the different issues involved in RDM, identifying layers of activity, multiple stakeholders and drivers, and a large number of factors influencing the implementation of any initiative. Institutions may usefully benchmark their activities against

  11. Research data management and libraries: relationships, activities, drivers and influences.

    PubMed

    Pinfield, Stephen; Cox, Andrew M; Smith, Jen

    2014-01-01

    The management of research data is now a major challenge for research organisations. Vast quantities of born-digital data are being produced in a wide variety of forms at a rapid rate in universities. This paper analyses the contribution of academic libraries to research data management (RDM) in the wider institutional context. In particular it: examines the roles and relationships involved in RDM, identifies the main components of an RDM programme, evaluates the major drivers for RDM activities, and analyses the key factors influencing the shape of RDM developments. The study is written from the perspective of library professionals, analysing data from 26 semi-structured interviews of library staff from different UK institutions. This is an early qualitative contribution to the topic complementing existing quantitative and case study approaches. Results show that although libraries are playing a significant role in RDM, there is uncertainty and variation in the relationship with other stakeholders such as IT services and research support offices. Current emphases in RDM programmes are on developments of policies and guidelines, with some early work on technology infrastructures and support services. Drivers for developments include storage, security, quality, compliance, preservation, and sharing with libraries associated most closely with the last three. The paper also highlights a 'jurisdictional' driver in which libraries are claiming a role in this space. A wide range of factors, including governance, resourcing and skills, are identified as influencing ongoing developments. From the analysis, a model is constructed designed to capture the main aspects of an institutional RDM programme. This model helps to clarify the different issues involved in RDM, identifying layers of activity, multiple stakeholders and drivers, and a large number of factors influencing the implementation of any initiative. Institutions may usefully benchmark their activities against the

  12. Research data management and libraries: relationships, activities, drivers and influences.

    PubMed

    Pinfield, Stephen; Cox, Andrew M; Smith, Jen

    2014-01-01

    The management of research data is now a major challenge for research organisations. Vast quantities of born-digital data are being produced in a wide variety of forms at a rapid rate in universities. This paper analyses the contribution of academic libraries to research data management (RDM) in the wider institutional context. In particular it: examines the roles and relationships involved in RDM, identifies the main components of an RDM programme, evaluates the major drivers for RDM activities, and analyses the key factors influencing the shape of RDM developments. The study is written from the perspective of library professionals, analysing data from 26 semi-structured interviews of library staff from different UK institutions. This is an early qualitative contribution to the topic complementing existing quantitative and case study approaches. Results show that although libraries are playing a significant role in RDM, there is uncertainty and variation in the relationship with other stakeholders such as IT services and research support offices. Current emphases in RDM programmes are on developments of policies and guidelines, with some early work on technology infrastructures and support services. Drivers for developments include storage, security, quality, compliance, preservation, and sharing with libraries associated most closely with the last three. The paper also highlights a 'jurisdictional' driver in which libraries are claiming a role in this space. A wide range of factors, including governance, resourcing and skills, are identified as influencing ongoing developments. From the analysis, a model is constructed designed to capture the main aspects of an institutional RDM programme. This model helps to clarify the different issues involved in RDM, identifying layers of activity, multiple stakeholders and drivers, and a large number of factors influencing the implementation of any initiative. Institutions may usefully benchmark their activities against the

  13. HIV and Aging: State of Knowledge and Areas of Critical Need for Research

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    HIV risk behaviors, susceptibility to HIV acquisition, progression of disease after infection, and response to anti-retroviral therapy all vary by age. In those living with HIV, current effective treatment has increased the median life expectancy to > 70 years of age. Biologic, medical, individual social and societal issues change as one ages with HIV infection, but there has been only a small amount of research in this field. Therefore, the Office of AIDS Research of the National Institutes of Health commissioned a working group to develop an outline of the current state of knowledge and areas of critical need for research in HIV and Aging; the working groups’ findings and recommendations are summarized in this report. Key overarching themes identified by the group included: multi-morbidity, poly-pharmacy and the need to emphasize maintenance of function; the complexity of assessing HIV vs. treatment effects vs. aging vs. concurrent disease; the inter-related mechanisms of immune senescence, inflammation and hypercoagulability; the utility of multi-variable indices for predicting outcomes; a need to emphasize human studies to account for complexity; and a required focus on issues of community support, caregivers and systems infrastructure. Critical resources are needed to enact this research agenda and include expanded review panel expertise in aging, functional measures and multi-morbidity, as well as facilitated use and continued funding to allow long-term follow-up of cohorts aging with HIV. PMID:22688010

  14. Managing farming systems for nitrate control: a research review from management systems evaluation areas.

    PubMed

    Power, J F; Wiese, R; Flowerday, D

    2001-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Agriculture funded the Management Systems Evaluation Area (MSEA) research project in 1990 to evaluate effectiveness of present farming systems in controlling nitrate N in water resources and to develop improved technologies for farming systems. This paper summarizes published research results of a five-year effort. Most research is focused on evaluating the effectiveness of farming system components (fertilizer, tillage, water control, cropping systems, and soil and weather variability). The research results show that current soil nitrate tests reliably predict fertilizer N needed to control environmental and economic risks for crop production. A corn (Zea mays L.)-soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] rotation usually controls risk better than continuous corn, but both may result in unacceptable nitrate leaching. Reduced tillage, especially ridge-till, is better than clean tillage in reducing risk. Tile drainage controls nitrate in ground water, but discharge may increase nitrate in surface waters. Sprinkler irrigation systems provide better water control than furrow irrigation because quantity and spatial variability of applied water is reduced. Present farming systems have two major deficiencies: (i) entire fields are managed uniformly, ignoring inherent soil variability within a field; and (ii) N fertilizer rates and many field practices are selected assuming normal weather for the coming season. Both deficiencies can contribute to nitrate leaching in parts of most fields. PMID:11789991

  15. Evolution of accelerometer methods for physical activity research.

    PubMed

    Troiano, Richard P; McClain, James J; Brychta, Robert J; Chen, Kong Y

    2014-07-01

    The technology and application of current accelerometer-based devices in physical activity (PA) research allow the capture and storage or transmission of large volumes of raw acceleration signal data. These rich data not only provide opportunities to improve PA characterisation, but also bring logistical and analytic challenges. We discuss how researchers and developers from multiple disciplines are responding to the analytic challenges and how advances in data storage, transmission and big data computing will minimise logistical challenges. These new approaches also bring the need for several paradigm shifts for PA researchers, including a shift from count-based approaches and regression calibrations for PA energy expenditure (PAEE) estimation to activity characterisation and EE estimation based on features extracted from raw acceleration signals. Furthermore, a collaborative approach towards analytic methods is proposed to facilitate PA research, which requires a shift away from multiple independent calibration studies. Finally, we make the case for a distinction between PA represented by accelerometer-based devices and PA assessed by self-report.

  16. [Core research areas on addiction in Spain through the Web of Science bibliographic coupling analysis (2000-2013)].

    PubMed

    G, González-Alcaide; A, Calafat; E, Becoña

    2014-01-01

    The present study identifies the main Spanish core research areas in the area of addictions through the bibliographic coupling analysis of the publications at the Web of Science under the substance abuse heading. The bibliographic coupling methodology is the analytical procedure that determines the thematic-intellectual proximity of the documents under consideration through the identification of the shared or simultaneously cited bibliography by those documents. A factor analysis and network analysis have been carried out to cluster documents, graphically represent the existing core research areas, and analyse the interrelations between them. We have identified 30 core research areas. Alcohol is the topic of attention of 17 areas and cocaine has a strong presence in 6. Heroin and opiates are only present as prominent substances in 4 areas and cannabis and tobacco in other two for each substance. It has been found that there is a significant degree of fragmentation in the area, with the existence of numerous research foci but with few connections with each other and few documents showing shared common knowledge. Also noteworthy is the large number of emerging research areas, reflecting an incipient stage in many of the research topics. Consideration must be placed in promoting scientific consensus and cohesion of the discipline as well as to encouraging the consolidation of main lines that respond to the social problems and research challenges.

  17. Public Parks in Hong Kong: Characteristics of Physical Activity Areas and Their Users

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Bik C.; McKenzie, Thomas L.; Sit, Cindy H. P.

    2016-01-01

    Public parks, salient locations for engaging populations in health promoting physical activity, are especially important in high-density cities. We used the System for Observing Physical Activity in Communities (SOPARC) to conduct the first-ever surveillance study of nine public parks in Hong Kong (288 observation sessions during 36 weekdays and 36 weekend days) and observed 28,585 visitors in 262 diverse areas/facilities. Parks were widely used throughout the day on weekdays and weekend days and across summer and autumn; visitor rates were among the highest seen in 24 SOPARC studies. In contrast to other studies where teens and children dominated park use, most visitors (71%) were adults and seniors. More males (61%) than females used the parks, and they dominated areas designed for sports. Over 60% of visitors were observed engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, a rate higher than other SOPARC studies. Facilities with user fees were less accessible than non-fee areas, but they provided relatively more supervised and organized activities. Assessing parks by age, gender, and physical activity can provide useful information relative to population health. This study not only provides information useful to local administrators for planning and programming park facilities relative to physical activity, but it also provides a baseline for comparison by other high-density cities. PMID:27367709

  18. Public Parks in Hong Kong: Characteristics of Physical Activity Areas and Their Users.

    PubMed

    Chow, Bik C; McKenzie, Thomas L; Sit, Cindy H P

    2016-01-01

    Public parks, salient locations for engaging populations in health promoting physical activity, are especially important in high-density cities. We used the System for Observing Physical Activity in Communities (SOPARC) to conduct the first-ever surveillance study of nine public parks in Hong Kong (288 observation sessions during 36 weekdays and 36 weekend days) and observed 28,585 visitors in 262 diverse areas/facilities. Parks were widely used throughout the day on weekdays and weekend days and across summer and autumn; visitor rates were among the highest seen in 24 SOPARC studies. In contrast to other studies where teens and children dominated park use, most visitors (71%) were adults and seniors. More males (61%) than females used the parks, and they dominated areas designed for sports. Over 60% of visitors were observed engaging in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, a rate higher than other SOPARC studies. Facilities with user fees were less accessible than non-fee areas, but they provided relatively more supervised and organized activities. Assessing parks by age, gender, and physical activity can provide useful information relative to population health. This study not only provides information useful to local administrators for planning and programming park facilities relative to physical activity, but it also provides a baseline for comparison by other high-density cities.

  19. USGS ecosystem research for the next decade: advancing discovery and application in parks and protected areas through collaboration

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Riper, Charles; Nichols, James D.; Wingard, G. Lynn; Kershner, Jeffrey L.; Cloern, James E.; Jacobson, Robert B.; White, Robin P.; McGuire, Anthony David; Williams, Byron K.; Gelfenbaum, Guy; Shapiro, Carl D.

    2014-01-01

    Ecosystems within parks and protected areas in the United States and throughout the world are being transformed at an unprecedented rate. Changes associated with natural hazards, greenhouse gas emissions, and increasing demands for water, food, land, energy and mineral resources are placing urgency on sound decision making that will help sustain our Nation’s economic and environmental well-being (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005). In recognition of the importance of science in making these decisions, the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in 2007 identified ecosystem science as one of six science directions included in a comprehensive decadal strategy (USGS 2007). The Ecosystems Mission Area was identified as essential for integrating activity within the USGS and as a key to enhanced integration with other Federal and private sector research and management organizations (Myers at al., 2007). This paper focuses on benefits to parks and protected areas from the USGS Ecosystems Mission Area plan that expanded the scope of the original 2007 science strategy, to identify the Bureau’s work in ecosystem science over the next decade (Williams et al., 2013). The plan describes a framework that encompasses both basic and applied science and allows the USGS to continue to contribute meaningfully to conservation and management issues related to the Nation’s parks and ecological resources. This framework relies on maintaining long-standing, collaborative relationships with partners in both conducting science and applying scientific results. Here we summarize the major components of the USGS Ecosystems Science Strategy, articulating the vision, goals and strategic approaches, then outlining some of the proposed actions that will ultimately prove useful to those managing parks and protected areas. We end with a discussion on the future of ecosystem science for the USGS and how it can be used to evaluate ecosystem change and the associated consequences to management of our

  20. Measuring emotion in advertising research: prefrontal brain activity.

    PubMed

    Silberstein, Richard B; Nield, Geoffrey E

    2012-01-01

    With the current interest in the role of emotion in advertising and advertising research, there has been an increasing interest in the use of various brain activity measures to access nonverbal emotional responses. One such approach relies on measuring the difference between left and right hemisphere prefrontal cortical activity to assess like and dislike. This approach is based on electroencephalography (EEG) and neuroimaging work, suggesting that the approach/withdrawal (frequently but not always associated with like/dislike) dimension of emotion is indicated by the balance of activity between the left and right prefrontal cortex. Much of this work was initiated by Richard Davidson in the early 1990s. An early study by Davidson et al. measured brain electrical activity to assess patterns of activation during the experience of happiness and disgust. The authors reported that disgust was found to be associated with increased right-sided activation in the frontal and anterior temporal regions compared with happiness. In contrast, happiness was found to be accompanied by left-sided activation in the anterior temporal region compared with disgust. Early reports suggested that frontal laterality indexes motivational valence with positive emotions (happy, like) associated with left greater than the right frontal activity and vice versa. Although these findings appear to be consistent with personality traits (e.g., optimism pessimism), state changes in frontal laterality appears to index approach withdraw rather than emotional valence. Interestingly, the behavioral and motivational correlates of prefrontal asymmetric activity are not restricted to humans or even primates but have been observed in numerous species such as birds and fish (see [4]). Henceforth, we use the term motivational valence (MV) rather than the more cumbersome term approach withdraw. PMID:22678836

  1. Dynamics of brain activity in motor and frontal cortical areas during music listening: a magnetoencephalographic study.

    PubMed

    Popescu, Mihai; Otsuka, Asuka; Ioannides, Andreas A

    2004-04-01

    There are formidable problems in studying how 'real' music engages the brain over wide ranges of temporal scales extending from milliseconds to a lifetime. In this work, we recorded the magnetoencephalographic signal while subjects listened to music as it unfolded over long periods of time (seconds), and we developed and applied methods to correlate the time course of the regional brain activations with the dynamic aspects of the musical sound. We showed that frontal areas generally respond with slow time constants to the music, reflecting their more integrative mode; motor-related areas showed transient-mode responses to fine temporal scale structures of the sound. The study combined novel analysis techniques designed to capture and quantify fine temporal sequencing from the authentic musical piece (characterized by a clearly defined rhythm and melodic structure) with the extraction of relevant features from the dynamics of the regional brain activations. The results demonstrated that activity in motor-related structures, specifically in lateral premotor areas, supplementary motor areas, and somatomotor areas, correlated with measures of rhythmicity derived from the music. These correlations showed distinct laterality depending on how the musical performance deviated from the strict tempo of the music score, that is, depending on the musical expression.

  2. Optics At The Arctic Circle, An Example Of Application-Oriented Research Generating New Industrial Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lammasniemi, Jorma; Myllyla, Risto; Hannula, Tapio

    1989-04-01

    This paper discusses research/industry interaction in application-oriented research groups specializing in the development of optoelectronic instruments and measurement methods. The research groups are working in Oulu, a city in Northern Finland, in an industrial environment consisting originally of pulp and paper industries together with metalworking and engineering industries. These established industrial areas are active in adopting new technologies for automation and process renewal. Furthermore, new emerging businesses are being generated through pilot installations and new product ideas created by research groups. The technologies considered are optical and infrared process analyzers, semiconductor laser-based dimension measurements and optoelectronic hybrid module fabrication. Examples of new products and enterprises employing these technologies are given. Additional skills and education especially in miniature optics and related constructions, are considered important for the future.

  3. Radiomic Texture Analysis Mapping Predicts Areas of True Functional MRI Activity.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Islam; Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bakhtiari, Ali Shojaee; Thomas, Ginu A; Weinberg, Jeffrey S; Kumar, Ashok J; Sawaya, Raymond; Luedi, Markus M; Zinn, Pascal O; Colen, Rivka R

    2016-01-01

    Individual analysis of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans requires user-adjustment of the statistical threshold in order to maximize true functional activity and eliminate false positives. In this study, we propose a novel technique that uses radiomic texture analysis (TA) features associated with heterogeneity to predict areas of true functional activity. Scans of 15 right-handed healthy volunteers were analyzed using SPM8. The resulting functional maps were thresholded to optimize visualization of language areas, resulting in 116 regions of interests (ROIs). A board-certified neuroradiologist classified different ROIs into Expected (E) and Non-Expected (NE) based on their anatomical locations. TA was performed using the mean Echo-Planner Imaging (EPI) volume, and 20 rotation-invariant texture features were obtained for each ROI. Using forward stepwise logistic regression, we built a predictive model that discriminated between E and NE areas of functional activity, with a cross-validation AUC and success rate of 79.84% and 80.19% respectively (specificity/sensitivity of 78.34%/82.61%). This study found that radiomic TA of fMRI scans may allow for determination of areas of true functional activity, and thus eliminate clinician bias. PMID:27151623

  4. Radiomic Texture Analysis Mapping Predicts Areas of True Functional MRI Activity

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Islam; Kotrotsou, Aikaterini; Bakhtiari, Ali Shojaee; Thomas, Ginu A.; Weinberg, Jeffrey S.; Kumar, Ashok J.; Sawaya, Raymond; Luedi, Markus M.; Zinn, Pascal O.; Colen, Rivka R.

    2016-01-01

    Individual analysis of functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) scans requires user-adjustment of the statistical threshold in order to maximize true functional activity and eliminate false positives. In this study, we propose a novel technique that uses radiomic texture analysis (TA) features associated with heterogeneity to predict areas of true functional activity. Scans of 15 right-handed healthy volunteers were analyzed using SPM8. The resulting functional maps were thresholded to optimize visualization of language areas, resulting in 116 regions of interests (ROIs). A board-certified neuroradiologist classified different ROIs into Expected (E) and Non-Expected (NE) based on their anatomical locations. TA was performed using the mean Echo-Planner Imaging (EPI) volume, and 20 rotation-invariant texture features were obtained for each ROI. Using forward stepwise logistic regression, we built a predictive model that discriminated between E and NE areas of functional activity, with a cross-validation AUC and success rate of 79.84% and 80.19% respectively (specificity/sensitivity of 78.34%/82.61%). This study found that radiomic TA of fMRI scans may allow for determination of areas of true functional activity, and thus eliminate clinician bias. PMID:27151623

  5. 50 CFR 218.1 - Specified activity, specified geographical area and effective dates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... in the Virginia Capes Range Complex (VACAPES Range Complex) § 218.1 Specified activity, specified... the Navy is only authorized if it occurs within the VACAPES Range Complex Operation Area (OPAREA... Delaware, Maryland, Virginia, and North Carolina. The northernmost boundary of the VACAPES Range...

  6. Sakharov and the Grey Zone: Difficult Areas of Human Rights Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Orlov, Yuri

    2006-04-01

    Drawing on my experience in human rights work and my discussions with A. D. Sakharov, I will explore some difficult areas of human rights activity in which human rights defenders cannot reach a consensus on how to proceed, and even on how to define the problem.

  7. Activities of the Structures Division, Lewis Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The purpose of the NASA Lewis Research Center, Structures Division's 1990 Annual Report is to give a brief, but comprehensive, review of the technical accomplishments of the Division during the past calendar year. The report is organized topically to match the Center's Strategic Plan. Over the years, the Structures Division has developed the technology base necessary for improving the future of aeronautical and space propulsion systems. In the future, propulsion systems will need to be lighter, to operate at higher temperatures and to be more reliable in order to achieve higher performance. Achieving these goals is complex and challenging. Our approach has been to work cooperatively with both industry and universities to develop the technology necessary for state-of-the-art advancement in aeronautical and space propulsion systems. The Structures Division consists of four branches: Structural Mechanics, Fatigue and Fracture, Structural Dynamics, and Structural Integrity. This publication describes the work of the four branches by three topic areas of Research: (1) Basic Discipline; (2) Aeropropulsion; and (3) Space Propulsion. Each topic area is further divided into the following: (1) Materials; (2) Structural Mechanics; (3) Life Prediction; (4) Instruments, Controls, and Testing Techniques; and (5) Mechanisms. The publication covers 78 separate topics with a bibliography containing 159 citations. We hope you will find the publication interesting as well as useful.

  8. Plans and Activities for NASA's Global Water Cycle Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlosser, C. A.

    2002-05-01

    Strictly speaking, the water (or hydrologic) cycle is by definition a global phenomenon. To observe, analyze, characterize, understand, and predict its structure and variations requires a coordinated, global effort of observations as well as global prediction systems which can assimilate and predict key fluxes and quantities. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has the unique capability of space-based experimental and research measurements that observe the Earth's system as well as core modelling activities to exploit these space-based observations for assimilation in diagnostic studies and initialization in weather and climate predictions. A summary of NASA's current water-cycle activities and implementation plans will be presented. Currently, NASA's Global Water and Energy Cycle and Terrestrial Hydrology (formally known as the Land Surface Hydrology) Programs are the key funding sources which support relevant scientific research. These programs not only fund individual scientists, but also support large-scale field missions (for example the Cold Land Processes Experiment, CLPX, and the Soil Moisture Experiment, SMEx) which are critical for calibration/validation of space instruments and retrievals as well as gaining fundamental understanding of local-scale processes which comprise the global system. In addition, a new initiative for Water and Energy cycle Research (WatER) is being formulated which responds to the recent charge of USGCRP and NRC scientific panels calling for focused and prioritized research plans that serve to make significant strides in our understanding and prediction of the global water cycle. Following NASA's unique vocation, the WatER initative sets priorities for science/research support for key observable quantities of the water cycle (precipitation and surface wetness) whose instrument technology is tactable and scientfic end-returns not only benefit water-cycle predictions, but also serve to benefit other critical

  9. Interspecies activity correlations reveal functional correspondence between monkey and human brain areas.

    PubMed

    Mantini, Dante; Hasson, Uri; Betti, Viviana; Perrucci, Mauro G; Romani, Gian Luca; Corbetta, Maurizio; Orban, Guy A; Vanduffel, Wim

    2012-02-05

    Evolution-driven functional changes in the primate brain are typically assessed by aligning monkey and human activation maps using cortical surface expansion models. These models use putative homologous areas as registration landmarks, assuming they are functionally correspondent. For cases in which functional changes have occurred in an area, this assumption prohibits to reveal whether other areas may have assumed lost functions. Here we describe a method to examine functional correspondences across species. Without making spatial assumptions, we assessed similarities in sensory-driven functional magnetic resonance imaging responses between monkey (Macaca mulatta) and human brain areas by temporal correlation. Using natural vision data, we revealed regions for which functional processing has shifted to topologically divergent locations during evolution. We conclude that substantial evolution-driven functional reorganizations have occurred, not always consistent with cortical expansion processes. This framework for evaluating changes in functional architecture is crucial to building more accurate evolutionary models.

  10. Research on physical activity and health among people with disabilities: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    Cooper, R A; Quatrano, L A; Axelson, P W; Harlan, W; Stineman, M; Franklin, B; Krause, J S; Bach, J; Chambers, H; Chao, E Y; Alexander, M; Painter, P

    1999-04-01

    Research is required to advance the understanding of issues related to the effect of physical activity on health and disease prevention among people with disabilities. This report is the result of a consensus process using selected experts in health and exercise. The purpose of the consensus conference was to identify research priorities for physical activity and health among people with disabilities. Priorities were established by 30 participants, who were selected by the principal investigators to achieve balance in the areas of engineering, epidemiology, medicine, nutrition, exercise physiology, and psychology. Experts summarized relevant data from their research and from comprehensive review of the scientific literature on the topic areas chosen for the conference. Public commentary was provided by participants in the 1996 Paralympic Congress. Panel members discussed openly all material presented to them in executive session. Commentary from open discussion periods were recorded and transcribed. Selected panelists prepared first drafts of the consensus statements for each research priority question. All of these drafts were distributed to the panelists and pertinent experts. The documents were edited by the drafting committee to obtain consensus. This research priority setting process revealed that greater emphasis must be placed on determining the risks and benefits of exercise among people with disabilities. Exercise must be studied from the perspective of disease prevention while mitigating risk for injury. Five areas were identified as focal points for future work: epidemiological studies; effects of nutrition on health and ability to exercise; cardiovascular and pulmonary health; children with disabilities; and accessibility and safety of exercise programs. As people with disabilities live longer, the need for addressing long-term health issues and risk for secondary disability must receive greater attention. As a consequence of the consensus process

  11. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas

    PubMed Central

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T.; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is

  12. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas.

    PubMed

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is

  13. The Importance of Landscape Elements for Bat Activity and Species Richness in Agricultural Areas.

    PubMed

    Heim, Olga; Treitler, Julia T; Tschapka, Marco; Knörnschild, Mirjam; Jung, Kirsten

    2015-01-01

    Landscape heterogeneity is regarded as a key factor for maintaining biodiversity and ecosystem function in production landscapes. We investigated whether grassland sites at close vicinity to forested areas are more frequently used by bats. Considering that bats are important consumers of herbivorous insects, including agricultural pest, this is important for sustainable land management. Bat activity and species richness were assessed using repeated monitoring from May to September in 2010 with acoustic monitoring surveys on 50 grassland sites in the Biosphere Reserve Schorfheide-Chorin (North-East Germany). Using spatial analysis (GIS), we measured the closest distance of each grassland site to potentially connecting landscape elements (e.g., trees, linear vegetation, groves, running and standing water). In addition, we assessed the distance to and the percent land cover of forest remnants and urban areas in a 200 m buffer around the recording sites to address differences in the local landscape setting. Species richness and bat activity increased significantly with higher forest land cover in the 200 m buffer and at smaller distance to forested areas. Moreover, species richness increased in proximity to tree groves. Larger amount of forest land cover and smaller distance to forest also resulted in a higher activity of bats on grassland sites in the beginning of the year during May, June and July. Landscape elements near grassland sites also influenced species composition of bats and species richness of functional groups (open, edge and narrow space foragers). Our results highlight the importance of forested areas, and suggest that agricultural grasslands that are closer to forest remnants might be better buffered against outbreaks of agricultural pest insects due to higher species richness and higher bat activity. Furthermore, our data reveals that even for highly mobile species such as bats, a very dense network of connecting elements within the landscape is

  14. Measurement systems in the area of land remediation and soil segregation activities

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, Gerold G.; Sokcic-Kostic, Marina; Auler, Ingolf; Eickelpasch, Ludger; Betts, Jonathan

    2007-07-01

    Available in abstract form only. Full text of publication follows: The remediation of radioactively contaminated land is a small but growing sector in the area of decommissioning of nuclear facilities. This also includes the material from buildings after demolition. Contamination comprises in general alpha and beta activities and emission of alpha, beta and gamma radiation. The measurement is in practice restricted to the measurement of gamma emission, because of the high penetration of material by gamma rays. All isotopes, which do not emit gammas are estimated on the basis of given relation between alpha and beta emitters without gamma radiation and emitters with gamma radiation. This method is called 'key nuclide method'. Whilst many studies have been completed, others still continue in the processing of large volumes of concrete, steel and soil. An important conclusion from these and similar research programs is that a significant proportion of the waste contains only low concentrations of radioactive nuclides. Therefore, much of the material from the remediation can be considered for 'free release'. It was often not possible to attain adequate specific information on these materials, so a measurement system is needed for their classification and characterization. NUKEM Technologies has practical experience in characterising and remediating of nuclear sites. Recently, it has pioneered the use of innovative in-situ and ex-situ characterisation and waste segregation technologies, which enhance the efficiency of remedial actions and provide assurance to customers, regulators and the public that all significant contamination has been removed and sites can be used for new purposes. (authors)

  15. Cerebellar theta burst stimulation modulates the neural activity of interconnected parietal and motor areas

    PubMed Central

    Casula, Elias Paolo; Pellicciari, Maria Concetta; Ponzo, Viviana; Stampanoni Bassi, Mario; Veniero, Domenica; Caltagirone, Carlo; Koch, Giacomo

    2016-01-01

    Voluntary movement control and execution are regulated by the influence of the cerebellar output over different interconnected cortical areas, through dentato-thalamo connections. In the present study we applied transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and electroencephalography (EEG) to directly assess the effects of cerebellar theta-burst stimulation (TBS) over the controlateral primary motor cortex (M1) and posterior parietal cortex (PPC) in a group of healthy volunteers. We found a TBS-dependent bidirectional modulation over TMS-evoked activity; specifically, cTBS increased whereas iTBS decreased activity between 100 and 200 ms after TMS, in a similar manner over both M1 and PPC areas. On the oscillatory domain, TBS induced specific changes over M1 natural frequencies of oscillation: TMS-evoked alpha activity was decreased by cTBS whereas beta activity was enhanced by iTBS. No effects were observed after sham stimulation. Our data provide novel evidence showing that the cerebellum exerts its control on the cortex likely by impinging on specific set of interneurons dependent on GABA-ergic activity. We show that cerebellar TBS modulates cortical excitability of distant interconnected cortical areas by acting through common temporal, spatial and frequency domains. PMID:27796359

  16. On the abundance and activity pattern of zoobenthos inhabiting a tropical reef area, Cebu, Philippines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faubel, A.

    1984-12-01

    A benthic faunal study was carried out in the tidal area of Mactan Island (Cebu, Philippines). The area was subdivided along a transect from the beach to the reef according to benthic assemblages. The sediments are largely composed of calcareous skeletal remains of the indigenous biota and surrounding calcareous rocks. The content of protein and carbohydrates of the sediment was estimated, providing an approximation of organic matter in terms of feeding efficiency. Total number of zoobenthos, both as regards the sediment samples and as to the epifaunal communities associated with seaweeds, is rather uniformly distributed justifying the 95% confidence level ( P>0.05). Distinct differences are apparent in abundance values of individual taxa. Although the study area showed the expected distribution pattern, with dominance of Nematoda (39%) living in sediment and Harpacticoida (36 66%) dwelling on Thalassia and algae, Polychaeta reveal a dominant attraction to both these habitats. The reasons for this phenomenon are discussed in relation to the absolute lack of macrofaunal predators The zoobenthos adjust their distribution and activity to fluctuating conditions of the environment. Light is mainly suggested as stimulating diel migration activities of the benthic fauna, moving upwards from the sediment to the algae and Thalassia during daytime. In a field experiment the zoobenthos was investigated for digestion activity over a diurnal cycle. The results reveal that feeding activity of zoobenthos follows a diel cycle showing maximum activity during the morning and evening obviously influenced by changes of light.

  17. Optimizing the use of breed types in developing country livestock production systems: a neglected research area.

    PubMed

    Marshall, K

    2014-10-01

    Developing country livestock production systems are diverse and dynamic, and include those where existing indigenous breeds are currently optimal and likely to remain so, those where non-indigenous breed types are already in common use, and systems that are changing, such as by intensification, where the introduction of new breed types represents significant opportunities. These include opportunities to improve the livelihood of the world's poor, increase food and nutrition security and enhance environmental sustainability. At present, very little research has focused on this issue, such that significant knowledge gaps in relation to breed-change interventions remain. The purpose of this study is to raise awareness of this issue and suggests strategic research areas to begin filling these knowledge gaps. Such strategic research would include (i) assessing the impact of differing breed types in developing country livestock productions systems, from a range of viewpoints including intrahousehold livelihood benefit, food and nutrition security at different scales, and environmental sustainability; (ii) identification of specific livestock production systems within developing countries, and the type of livestock keepers within these system, that are most likely to benefit from new breed types; and (iii) identification of new breed types as candidates for in-situ testing within these systems, such as through the use of spatial analysis to identify similar production environments combined with community acceptance studies. Results of these studies would primarily assist stakeholders in agriculture, including both policy makers and livestock keepers, to make informed decisions on the potential use of new breed types. PMID:24467512

  18. Optimizing the use of breed types in developing country livestock production systems: a neglected research area.

    PubMed

    Marshall, K

    2014-10-01

    Developing country livestock production systems are diverse and dynamic, and include those where existing indigenous breeds are currently optimal and likely to remain so, those where non-indigenous breed types are already in common use, and systems that are changing, such as by intensification, where the introduction of new breed types represents significant opportunities. These include opportunities to improve the livelihood of the world's poor, increase food and nutrition security and enhance environmental sustainability. At present, very little research has focused on this issue, such that significant knowledge gaps in relation to breed-change interventions remain. The purpose of this study is to raise awareness of this issue and suggests strategic research areas to begin filling these knowledge gaps. Such strategic research would include (i) assessing the impact of differing breed types in developing country livestock productions systems, from a range of viewpoints including intrahousehold livelihood benefit, food and nutrition security at different scales, and environmental sustainability; (ii) identification of specific livestock production systems within developing countries, and the type of livestock keepers within these system, that are most likely to benefit from new breed types; and (iii) identification of new breed types as candidates for in-situ testing within these systems, such as through the use of spatial analysis to identify similar production environments combined with community acceptance studies. Results of these studies would primarily assist stakeholders in agriculture, including both policy makers and livestock keepers, to make informed decisions on the potential use of new breed types.

  19. Brain stimulation used as biofeedback in neuronal activation of the temporal lobe area in autistic children.

    PubMed

    Silva, Vernon Furtado da; Calomeni, Mauricio Rocha; Nunes, Rodolfo Alkmim Moreira; Pimentel, Carlos Elias; Martins, Gabriela Paes; Oliveira, Patrícia da Cruz Araruna; Silva, Patrícia Bagno; Silva, Alair Pedro Ribeiro de Souza E

    2016-08-01

    This study focused upon the functional capacity of mirror neurons in autistic children. 30 individuals, 10 carriers of the autistic syndrome (GCA), 10 with intellectual impairments (GDI), and 10 non-autistics (GCN) had registered eletroencephalogram from the brain area theoretically related to mirror neurons. Data collection procedure occurred prior to brain stimulation and after the stimulation session. During the second session, participants had to alternately process figures evoking neutral, happy, and/or sorrowful feelings. Results proved that, for all groups, the stimulation process in fact produced additional activation in the neural area under study. The level of activation was related to the format of emotional stimuli and the likelihood of boosting such stimuli. Since the increase of activation occurred in a model similar to the one observed for the control group, we may suggest that the difficulty people with autism have at expressing emotions is not due to nonexistence of mirror neurons. PMID:27556374

  20. The U.S. National Amphibian Research and Monitoring Initiative and the role of protected areas

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hall, Russell James; Langtimm, Catherine A.

    2001-01-01

    In response to concerns about the worldwide status of amphibians (Alford and Richards 1999; Bury 1999; Daszak et al. 1999; Houlahan et al. 2000), Congress in Fiscal Year 2000 provided initial support to agencies of the U.S. Department of the Interior for research and monitoring of amphibians. Most funds came to the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), but additional funds for the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service and the National Park Service (NPS) were provided for activities that directly or indirectly support the amphibian research and monitoring effort. The goal of the program is to provide timely and reliable information on the status of U.S. amphibians so that causes of declines can be understood and appropriate management responses initiated.

  1. An Active Area Model of Rapid Infiltration Response at Substantial Depth in the Unsaturated Zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mitchell, L.; Nimmo, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    In a porous medium subject to preferential flow, response to surface water infiltration can occur rapidly even at substantial depth in the unsaturated zone. In a ponding experiment at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) the profile of undisturbed natural soil, seasonally dry at the start, was observed to approach field saturation throughout a 2 meter depth within 6 hours (Nimmo and Perkins, 2007). Traditional use of Richards' equation would require an unrealistically large unsaturated hydraulic conductivity of 40 m/day to capture the observed non-classic wetting behavior. Here we present a model for rapid flow using an active area concept similar to the active fracture model (Liu and others, 1998, WRR 34:2633-2646). The active area concept is incorporated within the preferential flow domain (which allows rapid downward movement) of a dual-domain model that also contains a diffuse-flow domain in which flow can be described by Richards' equation. Development of the active area model is motivated by observation of rapid wetting at substantial depth, as well as a phenomenon in which deep flow is observed before shallow flow. In this model water movement in the preferential domain can be physically conceptualized as laminar flow in free-surface films of constant average thickness. For a given medium, the preferential domain is characterized by an effective areal density (area per unit bulk volume) that describes the free-surface film capacity of the domain as a function of depth. The active area is defined as a portion of the effective areal density that dictates the depth and temporal distribution of domain-exchange and new infiltration within the preferential domain. With the addition of the active area concept, the model is capable of simulating non-diffusive vertical transport patterns. Advantages of the model include simulating rapid response for a variety of infiltration types, including ponding and rain events, as well as modeling relatively rapid aquifer

  2. The Research and Training Activities for the Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian

    1996-01-01

    This proposal requests continued support for the program of activities to be undertaken by the Ames-Stanford Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics during the one-year period October 1, 1996 to September 30, 1997. The emphasis in this program is on training and research in experimental and computational methods with application to aerodynamics, acoustics and the important interactions between them. The program comprises activities in active flow control, Large Eddy Simulation of jet noise, flap aerodynamics and acoustics, high lift modeling studies and luminescent paint applications. During the proposed period there will be a continued emphasis on the interaction between NASA Ames, Stanford University and Industry, particularly in connection with the noise and high lift activities. The program will be conducted within the general framework of the Memorandum of Understanding (1976) establishing the Institute, as updated in 1993. As outlined in the agreement, the purposes of the institute include the following: To conduct basic and applied research. To promote joint endeavors between Center scientists and those in the academic community To provide training to graduate students in specialized areas of aeronautics and acoustics through participation in the research programs of the Institute. To provide opportunities for Post-Doctoral Fellows to collaborate in research programs of the Institute. To disseminate information about important aeronautical topics and to enable scientists and engineers of the Center to stay abreast of new advances through symposia, seminars and publications.

  3. The Research and Training Activities for the Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cantwell, Brian

    1997-01-01

    This proposal requests continued support for the program of activities to be undertaken by the Ames-Stanford Joint Institute for Aeronautics and Acoustics during the one-year period October 1, 1997 to September 30, 1998. The emphasis in this program is on training and research in experimental and computational methods with application to aerodynamics, acoustics and the important interactions between them. The program comprises activities in active flow control, Large Eddy Simulation of jet noise, flap aerodynamics and acoustics, high lift modeling studies and luminescent paint applications. During the proposed period there will be a continued emphasis on the interaction between NASA Ames, Stanford University and Industry, particularly in connection with the noise and high lift activities. The program will be conducted within the general framework of the Memorandum of Understanding (1976) establishing the Institute, as updated in 1993. As outlined in the agreement, the purposes of the Institute include the following: (1) To conduct basic and applied research; (2) to promote joint endeavors between Center scientists and those in the academic community; (3) to provide training to graduate students in specialized areas of aeronautics and acoustics through participation in the research programs of the Institute; (4) to provide opportunities for Post-Doctoral Fellows to collaborate in research programs of the Institute; and (5) to disseminate information about important aeronautical topics and to enable scientists and engineers of the Center to stay abreast of new advances through symposia, seminars and publications.

  4. Research of Earthquake Potential from Active Fault Observation in Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chien-Liang, C.; Hu, J. C.; Liu, C. C.; En, C. K.; Cheng, T. C. T.

    2015-12-01

    We utilize GAMIT/GLOBK software to estimate the precise coordinates for continuous GPS (CGPS) data of Central Geological Survey (CGS, MOEA) in Taiwan. To promote the software estimation efficiency, 250 stations are divided by 8 subnets which have been considered by station numbers, network geometry and fault distributions. Each of subnets include around 50 CGPS and 10 international GNSS service (IGS) stations. After long period of data collection and estimation, a time series variation can be build up to study the effect of earthquakes and estimate the velocity of stations. After comparing the coordinates from campaign-mode GPS sites and precise leveling benchmarks with the time series from continuous GPS stations, the velocity field is consistent with previous measurement which show the reliability of observation. We evaluate the slip rate and slip deficit rate of active faults in Taiwan by 3D block model DEFNODE. First, to get the surface fault traces and the subsurface fault geometry parameters, and then establish the block boundary model of study area. By employing the DEFNODE technique, we invert the GPS velocities for the best-fit block rotate rates, long term slip rates and slip deficit rates. Finally, the probability analysis of active faults is to establish the flow chart of 33 active faults in Taiwan. In the past two years, 16 active faults in central and northern Taiwan have been assessed to get the recurrence interval and the probabilities for the characteristic earthquake occurred in 30, 50 and 100 years.

  5. Delivering patient decision aids on the Internet: definitions, theories, current evidence, and emerging research areas

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background In 2005, the International Patient Decision Aids Standards Collaboration identified twelve quality dimensions to guide assessment of patient decision aids. One dimension—the delivery of patient decision aids on the Internet—is relevant when the Internet is used to provide some or all components of a patient decision aid. Building on the original background chapter, this paper provides an updated definition for this dimension, outlines a theoretical rationale, describes current evidence, and discusses emerging research areas. Methods An international, multidisciplinary panel of authors examined the relevant theoretical literature and empirical evidence through 2012. Results The updated definition distinguishes Internet-delivery of patient decision aids from online health information and clinical practice guidelines. Theories in cognitive psychology, decision psychology, communication, and education support the value of Internet features for providing interactive information and deliberative support. Dissemination and implementation theories support Internet-delivery for providing the right information (rapidly updated), to the right person (tailored), at the right time (the appropriate point in the decision making process). Additional efforts are needed to integrate the theoretical rationale and empirical evidence from health technology perspectives, such as consumer health informatics, user experience design, and human-computer interaction. Despite Internet usage ranging from 74% to 85% in developed countries and 80% of users searching for health information, it is unknown how many individuals specifically seek patient decision aids on the Internet. Among the 86 randomized controlled trials in the 2011 Cochrane Collaboration’s review of patient decision aids, only four studies focused on Internet-delivery. Given the limited number of published studies, this paper particularly focused on identifying gaps in the empirical evidence base and

  6. Civil aircraft vortex wake. TsAGI's research activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshev, S. L.; Gaifullin, A. M.; Sviridenko, Yu. N.

    2014-11-01

    This paper provides a review of research conducted in TsAGI (Central AeroHydrodynamic Institute) concerning a vortex wake behind an airliner. The research into this area of theoretical and practical importance have been done both in Russia and in other countries, for which these studies became a vital necessity at the end of the 20th century. The paper describes the main methods and ratios on which software systems used to calculate the evolution of a vortex wake in a turbulent atmosphere are based. Verification of calculation results proved their acceptable consistency with the known experimental data. The mechanism of circulation loss in a vortex wake which is based on the analytical solution for the problem of two vortices diffusing in a viscous fluid is also described. The paper also describes the model of behavior of an aircraft which has deliberately or unintentionally entered a vortex wake behind another aircraft. Approximated results of calculations performed according to this model by means of artificial neural networks enabled the researchers to model the dynamics of an aircraft in a vortex wake on flight simulators on-line.

  7. Conceptualizing and Comparing Neighborhood and Activity Space Measures for Food Environment Research

    PubMed Central

    Crawford, Thomas W.; Pitts, Stephanie B. Jilcott; McGuirt, Jared T.; Keyserling, Thomas C.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    Greater accessibility to geospatial technologies has led to a surge of spatialized public health research, much of which has focused on food environments. The purpose of this study was to analyze differing spatial measures of exposure to supermarkets and farmers’ markets among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina. Exposure measures were derived using participant-defined neighborhoods, investigator-defined road network neighborhoods, and activity spaces incorporating participants’ time space behaviors. Results showed that mean area for participant-defined neighborhoods (0.04 sq. miles) was much smaller than 2.0 mile road network neighborhoods (3.11 sq. miles) and activity spaces (26.36 sq. miles), and that activity spaces provided the greatest market exposure. The traditional residential neighborhood concept may not be particularly relevant for all places. Time-space approaches capturing activity space may be more relevant, particularly if integrated with mixed methods strategies. PMID:25306420

  8. Conceptualizing and comparing neighborhood and activity space measures for food environment research.

    PubMed

    Crawford, Thomas W; Jilcott Pitts, Stephanie B; McGuirt, Jared T; Keyserling, Thomas C; Ammerman, Alice S

    2014-11-01

    Greater accessibility to geospatial technologies has led to a surge of spatialized public health research, much of which has focused on food environments. The purpose of this study was to analyze differing spatial measures of exposure to supermarkets and farmers׳ markets among women of reproductive age in eastern North Carolina. Exposure measures were derived using participant-defined neighborhoods, investigator-defined road network neighborhoods, and activity spaces incorporating participants׳ time space behaviors. Results showed that mean area for participant-defined neighborhoods (0.04 sq. miles) was much smaller than 2.0 mile road network neighborhoods (3.11 sq. miles) and activity spaces (26.36 sq. miles), and that activity spaces provided the greatest market exposure. The traditional residential neighborhood concept may not be particularly relevant for all places. Time-space approaches capturing activity space may be more relevant, particularly if integrated with mixed methods strategies.

  9. 78 FR 13712 - U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Planned Monitoring Activities for F-Area Tank Farm at the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... COMMISSION U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission Planned Monitoring Activities for F-Area Tank Farm at the... Savannah River Site F-Area Tank Farm Facility in Accordance with the National Defense Authorization Act for... DOE's waste disposal activities at the F-Area Tank Farm at the Savannah River Site, in accordance...

  10. Silent play in a loud theatre - soil development in a geomorphically active proglacial area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harlaar, Piet; Temme, Arnaud; Heckmann, Tobias

    2015-04-01

    Proglacial areas are scientifically famous for two sets of processes: first, the tumultuous geomorphic response to glacial retreat including enhanced fluvial activity and mass movements such as debris flows, rock fall and landslides. Second, the slow and somewhat regular development of soil and vegetation. These two sets of processes have usually been studied in isolation: soil development is best observed in wide, flat proglacial areas where not much geomorphic work is done. This has left questions unanswered that relate to the effect of geomorphic disturbance on high mountain soil formation, and vice versa. We attempted to characterize these interactions in the geomorphically active proglacial area of the Gepatsch Ferner in the Kaunertal in Austria. Geomorphic activity in this area is intensively studied in the PROSA project. In our study, several dozen soils were sampled in order to describe soil properties. Sampling locations were selected with Latin Hypercube sampling to best cover the variation in soil-forming factors. Results clearly showed that soil properties were not only a function of age, but also of erosion-deposition amounts and geomorphic regime. In contrast to what is reported in literature, soil pH in very young soils rose before it dropped as soils became older. The early pH rise probably reflects the leaching of pyrite in the parent material.

  11. Body-selective areas in the visual cortex are less active in children than in adults

    PubMed Central

    Ross, Paddy D.; de Gelder, Beatrice; Crabbe, Frances; Grosbras, Marie-Hélène

    2014-01-01

    Our ability to read other people’s non-verbal signals gets refined throughout childhood and adolescence. How this is paralleled by brain development has been investigated mainly with regards to face perception, showing a protracted functional development of the face-selective visual cortical areas. In view of the importance of whole-body expressions in interpersonal communication it is important to understand the development of brain areas sensitive to these social signals. Here we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to compare brain activity in a group of 24 children (age 6–11) and 26 adults while they passively watched short videos of body or object movements. We observed activity in similar regions in both groups; namely the extra-striate body area (EBA), fusiform body area (FBA), posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS), amygdala and premotor regions. Adults showed additional activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). Within the main body-selective regions (EBA, FBA and pSTS), the strength and spatial extent of fMRI signal change was larger in adults than in children. Multivariate Bayesian (MVB) analysis showed that the spatial pattern of neural representation within those regions did not change over age. Our results indicate, for the first time, that body perception, like face perception, is still maturing through the second decade of life. PMID:25484863

  12. Dialyzer membranes: effect of surface area and chemical modification of cellulose on complement and platelet activation.

    PubMed

    Mahiout, A; Meinhold, H; Kessel, M; Schulze, H; Baurmeister, U

    1987-04-01

    Using an ex vivo model, the effects of membrane composition and surface area on both the complement system (as reflected by plasma C3a levels) and platelets [as indicated by plasma concentrations of thromboxane B2 (TXB2) and platelet factor 4 (PF4)] were studied. In this model, polyacrylonitrile (PAN) was associated with less complement activation than cuprammonium cellulose (CC). A new "modified cellulose" (MC) membrane, in which a small number of the free hydroxyl groups on cellulose are substituted with a tertiary amino compound, was also associated with a low degree of complement activation, similar to that with PAN. However, the extent of hydroxyl group substitution in four MC membrane subtypes did not correlate with the reduction in complement activation. In studies using CC, the amount of generated C3a correlated with the membrane surface area, although the relationship was curvilinear. Plasma concentrations at the "dialyzer" outlet of TXB2 and PF4 were similar with CC, PAN, and MC. In studies with the MC subtypes, increasing the extent of hydroxyl group substitution paradoxically increased, albeit slightly, the amount of TXB2 generation. In studies with CC, a linear relationship between membrane surface area and TXB2 generation was found. The results suggest a dissociation between platelet and complement effects among different dialyzer membranes, and underline the importance of membrane surface area.

  13. On the area expansion of magnetic flux tubes in solar active regions

    SciTech Connect

    Dudík, Jaroslav; Dzifčáková, Elena; Cirtain, Jonathan W. E-mail: elena@asu.cas.cz

    2014-11-20

    We calculated the three-dimensional (3D) distribution of the area expansion factors in a potential magnetic field, extrapolated from the high-resolution Hinode/SOT magnetogram of the quiescent active region NOAA 11482. Retaining only closed loops within the computational box, we show that the distribution of area expansion factors show significant structure. Loop-like structures characterized by locally lower values of the expansion factor are embedded in a smooth background. These loop-like flux tubes have squashed cross-sections and expand with height. The distribution of the expansion factors show an overall increase with height, allowing an active region core characterized by low values of the expansion factor to be distinguished. The area expansion factors obtained from extrapolation of the Solar Optical Telescope magnetogram are compared to those obtained from an approximation of the observed magnetogram by a series of 134 submerged charges. This approximation retains the general flux distribution in the observed magnetogram, but removes the small-scale structure in both the approximated magnetogram and the 3D distribution of the area expansion factors. We argue that the structuring of the expansion factor can be a significant ingredient in producing the observed structuring of the solar corona. However, due to the potential approximation used, these results may not be applicable to loops exhibiting twist or to active regions producing significant flares.

  14. The Role of Entrepreneurial Activities in Academic Pharmaceutical Science Research

    PubMed Central

    Stinchcomb, Audra L.

    2010-01-01

    Academic pharmaceutical science research is expanding further and further from the University setting to encompass the for-profit private company setting. This parallels the National Institutes of Health momentum to include multiple funding opportunities for University and private company collaboration. It has been recognized that the non-profit and for-profit combination research model can accelerate the commercialization of pharmaceutical products, and therefore more efficiently improve human health. Entrepreneurial activities require unique considerations in the University environment, but can be modeled after the commercialization expansion of the academic healthcare enterprise. Challenges and barriers exist to starting a company as an entrepreneurial faculty member, but the rewards to one's personal and professional lives are incomparable. PMID:20017206

  15. The role of entrepreneurial activities in academic pharmaceutical science research.

    PubMed

    Stinchcomb, Audra L

    2010-06-01

    Academic pharmaceutical science research is expanding further and further from the University setting to encompass the for-profit private company setting. This parallels the National Institutes of Health momentum to include multiple funding opportunities for University and private company collaboration. It has been recognized that the nonprofit and for-profit combination research model can accelerate the commercialization of pharmaceutical products, and therefore more efficiently improve human health. Entrepreneurial activities require unique considerations in the University environment, but can be modeled after the commercialization expansion of the academic healthcare enterprise. Challenges and barriers exist to starting a company as an entrepreneurial faculty member, but the rewards to one's personal and professional lives are incomparable. PMID:20017206

  16. Influence of Traffic Activity on Heavy Metal Concentrations of Roadside Farmland Soil in Mountainous Areas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Fan; Yan, Xuedong; Zeng, Chen; Zhang, Man; Shrestha, Suraj; Devkota, Lochan Prasad; Yao, Tandong

    2012-01-01

    Emission of heavy metals from traffic activities is an important pollution source to roadside farmland ecosystems. However, little previous research has been conducted to investigate heavy metal concentrations of roadside farmland soil in mountainous areas. Owing to more complex roadside environments and more intense driving conditions on mountainous highways, heavy metal accumulation and distribution patterns in farmland soil due to traffic activity could be different from those on plain highways. In this study, design factors including altitude, roadside distance, terrain, and tree protection were considered to analyze their influences on Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations in farmland soils along a mountain highway around Kathmandu, Nepal. On average, the concentrations of Cu, Zn, Cd, and Pb at the sampling sites are lower than the tolerable levels. Correspondingly, pollution index analysis does not show serious roadside pollution owing to traffic emissions either. However, some maximum Zn, Cd, and Pb concentrations are close to or higher than the tolerable level, indicating that although average accumulations of heavy metals pose no hazard in the region, some spots with peak concentrations may be severely polluted. The correlation analysis indicates that either Cu or Cd content is found to be significantly correlated with Zn and Pb content while there is no significant correlation between Cu and Cd. The pattern can be reasonably explained by the vehicular heavy metal emission mechanisms, which proves the heavy metals’ homology of the traffic pollution source. Furthermore, the independent factors show complex interaction effects on heavy metal concentrations in the mountainous roadside soil, which indicate quite a different distribution pattern from previous studies focusing on urban roadside environments. It is found that the Pb concentration in the downgrade roadside soil is significantly lower than that in the upgrade soil while the Zn concentration in the

  17. Site-specific characterization of Castromil Brownfield area related to gold mining activities.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Serrano Pinto, Luís; Patinha, Carla; Cardoso Fonseca, Edmundo

    2004-03-01

    Castromil is one of the gold mining areas in Portugal that has been abandoned since 1940. This area, which was first mined in Roman times, is located within a Hercynian granite body near the contact with Silurian metasediments. Gold is essentially disseminated along veins in the silicified granite, running NW-SE, related with a shear zone and frequently associated with sulphides (arsenopyrite and basically pyrite). In paragenetic terms, three stages of mineralization are considered: ferro-arseniferous (quartz + arsenopyrite I + pyrite I + pyrrhotite + bismuth), zinciferous (sphalerite + chalcopyrite), and remobilization (arsenopyrite II + galena + gold). Due to the lack of laws and environmental education, Castromil is today a gold mining heritage site where we can detect the consequences of an incautious exploration (tailings, wells and adits located in the old explored zone) and where a residential area is located. In order to characterize the actual state of the old mining area the trace metal contamination of soils and waters by mining activities was investigated. In the studied area 106 soil samples, 15 waters and 20 plants were sampled and analysed. The soil samples were analysed for 32 elements by ICP-AES. Waters were analysed by ionic chromatography and ICP-MS for major and trace elements. Plants were analysed for As, Fe and Pb by AAS. The results are discussed taking into account the risk-based standards for soils and groundwater's (target and intervention values) proposed by Swartjes (1999). The results show elevated concentration of As and Pb which were found in soils collected from agricultural areas. Foodstuff plants species collected in the Castromil agricultural area show high concentrations of As in the leaves (cabbage and lettuce) and in the tubers (potatoes). Groundwaters in the mining area contain high concentrations of As that exceeds the intervention values. The area must to be subject to a remediation process, considering the actual risks to

  18. Site-specific characterization of Castromil Brownfield area related to gold mining activities.

    PubMed

    Ferreira da Silva, Eduardo; Serrano Pinto, Luís; Patinha, Carla; Cardoso Fonseca, Edmundo

    2004-03-01

    Castromil is one of the gold mining areas in Portugal that has been abandoned since 1940. This area, which was first mined in Roman times, is located within a Hercynian granite body near the contact with Silurian metasediments. Gold is essentially disseminated along veins in the silicified granite, running NW-SE, related with a shear zone and frequently associated with sulphides (arsenopyrite and basically pyrite). In paragenetic terms, three stages of mineralization are considered: ferro-arseniferous (quartz + arsenopyrite I + pyrite I + pyrrhotite + bismuth), zinciferous (sphalerite + chalcopyrite), and remobilization (arsenopyrite II + galena + gold). Due to the lack of laws and environmental education, Castromil is today a gold mining heritage site where we can detect the consequences of an incautious exploration (tailings, wells and adits located in the old explored zone) and where a residential area is located. In order to characterize the actual state of the old mining area the trace metal contamination of soils and waters by mining activities was investigated. In the studied area 106 soil samples, 15 waters and 20 plants were sampled and analysed. The soil samples were analysed for 32 elements by ICP-AES. Waters were analysed by ionic chromatography and ICP-MS for major and trace elements. Plants were analysed for As, Fe and Pb by AAS. The results are discussed taking into account the risk-based standards for soils and groundwater's (target and intervention values) proposed by Swartjes (1999). The results show elevated concentration of As and Pb which were found in soils collected from agricultural areas. Foodstuff plants species collected in the Castromil agricultural area show high concentrations of As in the leaves (cabbage and lettuce) and in the tubers (potatoes). Groundwaters in the mining area contain high concentrations of As that exceeds the intervention values. The area must to be subject to a remediation process, considering the actual risks to

  19. EarthCube Activities: Community Engagement Advancing Geoscience Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinkade, D.

    2015-12-01

    Our ability to advance scientific research in order to better understand complex Earth systems, address emerging geoscience problems, and meet societal challenges is increasingly dependent upon the concept of Open Science and Data. Although these terms are relatively new to the world of research, Open Science and Data in this context may be described as transparency in the scientific process. This includes the discoverability, public accessibility and reusability of scientific data, as well as accessibility and transparency of scientific communication (www.openscience.org). Scientists and the US government alike are realizing the critical need for easy discovery and access to multidisciplinary data to advance research in the geosciences. The NSF-supported EarthCube project was created to meet this need. EarthCube is developing a community-driven common cyberinfrastructure for the purpose of accessing, integrating, analyzing, sharing and visualizing all forms of data and related resources through advanced technological and computational capabilities. Engaging the geoscience community in EarthCube's development is crucial to its success, and EarthCube is providing several opportunities for geoscience involvement. This presentation will provide an overview of the activities EarthCube is employing to entrain the community in the development process, from governance development and strategic planning, to technical needs gathering. Particular focus will be given to the collection of science-driven use cases as a means of capturing scientific and technical requirements. Such activities inform the development of key technical and computational components that collectively will form a cyberinfrastructure to meet the research needs of the geoscience community.

  20. Risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution through agricultural activity on the catchment area of the Shelek River

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zubairov, Bulat; Dautova, Assel

    2015-04-01

    Agricultural activity in rural areas of Kazakhstan can create a potential risk of surface and groundwater pollution. In our contribution, we will focus on the risk assessment of surface water and groundwater pollution in the catchment area of the Shelek River basin in southeast Kazakhstan. Since soviet time, in the research area an intensive cultivation of tobacco was performed which means to use a big amount of pesticides during the growing-process. Therefore, this research was conducted in order to receive reliable data for management decisions justification and for practical testing of approach which is recommended by WHO for drinking water supply based on risks mapping. For our study, the soil and water samples from tobacco fields, artesian spring, and surface water source were taken for analysis on pesticides content. The samples were investigated in laboratory of Centre of Sanitary and Epidemiological Expertise of Almaty city (CSEE) according to approved methods from the national standards which are accepted in Kazakhstan. For the first time, in artesian spring small amount of nitrate pollution was found whose groundwater is one of the drinking water supplies of the region.

  1. MELANOPHORE BANDS AND AREAS DUE TO NERVE CUTTING, IN RELATION TO THE PROTRACTED ACTIVITY OF NERVES

    PubMed Central

    Parker, G. H.

    1941-01-01

    1. When appropriate chromatic nerves are cut caudal bands, cephalic areas, and the pelvic fins of the catfish Ameiurus darken. In pale fishes all these areas will sooner or later blanch. By recutting their nerves all such blanched areas will darken again. 2. These observations show that the darkening of caudal bands, areas, and fins on cutting their nerves is not due to paralysis (Brücke), to the obstruction of central influences such as inhibition (Zoond and Eyre), nor to vasomotor disturbances (Hogben), but to activities emanating from the cut itself. 3. The chief agents concerned with the color changes in Ameiurus are three: intermedin from the pituitary gland, acetylcholine from the dispersing nerves (cholinergic fibers), and adrenalin from the concentrating nerves (adrenergic fibers). The first two darken the fish; the third blanches it. In darkening the dispersing nerves appear to initiate the process and to be followed and substantially supplemented by intermedin. 4. Caudal bands blanch by lateral invasion, cephalic areas by lateral invasion and internal disintegration, and pelvic fins by a uniform process of general loss of tint equivalent to internal disintegration. 5. Adrenalin may be carried in such an oil as olive oil and may therefore act as a lipohumor; it is soluble in water and hence may act as a hydrohumor. In lateral invasion (caudal bands, cephalic areas) it probably acts as a lipohumor and in internal disintegration (cephalic areas, pelvic fins) it probably plays the part of a hydrohumor. 6. The duration of the activity of dispersing nerves after they had been cut was tested by means of the oscillograph, by anesthetizing blocks, and by cold-blocks. The nerves of Ameiurus proved to be unsatisfactory for oscillograph tests. An anesthetizing block, magnesium sulfate, is only partly satisfactory. A cold-block, 0°C., is successful to a limited degree. 7. By means of a cold-block it can be shown that dispersing autonomic nerve fibers in Ameiurus can

  2. Progress in the research and demonstration of Everglades periphyton-based stormwater treatment areas.

    PubMed

    Bays, J S; Knight, R L; Wenkert, L; Clarke, R; Gong, S

    2001-01-01

    The South Florida Water Management District (District) is conducting research focused on potential advanced treatment technologies to support reduction of phosphorus (P) loads in surface water entering the remaining Everglades. Periphyton-based stormwater treatment areas (PSTA) are one of the advanced treatment technologies being researched by the District. This detailed research and demonstration project is being conducted in two phases. Basic research in field-based mesocosm experiments was conducted during the first phase within the District's Everglades Nutrient Removal Project (ENR). Studies were conducted in 24 portable PSTA mesocosms and three of the south ENR test cells. Phase 1 studies addressed the effects of system substrate (shellrock, organic peat, or sand), water depth, hydraulic loading rate, vegetation presence, depth:width ratio, and inhibition of algal growth on total phosphorus removal performance of the PSTA mesocosms. A second phase of research is currently under way, during which PSTA feasibility will be evaluated further in four field-scale constructed mesocosms totaling about 2 ha, and follow up studies within the ENR test cells and portable mesocosms will be conducted to further investigate the effects of other inorganic substrates, shallow water depth, and velocity on treatment performance. Phase 1 monitoring has determined that periphyton-dominated communities can be established in constructed wetlands within 5 months. The algal component of these periphyton plant communities is characteristic of natural Everglades periphyton. High macrophyte densities resulted from use of peat soils in PSTA mesocosms, while shellrock and sand soils promoted more desirable sparse macrophyte stands. P removal rates under the conditions of this research were relatively high considering the low influent total P concentrations tested (average 23 microg/L). PSTA mesocosms on shellrock soils were able to attain long-term average outflow total P concentrations

  3. Research on upgrading structures for host and risk area shelters, phase II. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Tansley, R.S.; Bernard, R.D.; Cuzner, G.J.; Wilton, C.

    1983-05-01

    This report presents a summary of the work conducted during the second year of a five-year program. This research effort provides the engineering basis and guidance for the development of upgrading for host and risk area shelters. This investigation is in support of current Civil Defense planning based on a policy of crisis relocation, and includes investigative efforts related to structural wood connections, wood roof trusses and panelized systems, manufactured floor and roof joists, radiation protection for walls, the analysis of basement walls under dynamic loading, and a prediction method for the punching of concrete slabs. The results of this study are being used in the development of a prediction methodology for comparative selection of shelter spaces.

  4. Late Miocene hominin teeth from the Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project area, Afar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Scott W; Kleinsasser, Lynnette; Quade, Jay; Levin, Naomi E; McIntosh, William C; Dunbar, Nelia; Semaw, Sileshi; Rogers, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Since 2000, significant collections of Latest Miocene hominin fossils have been recovered from Chad, Kenya, and Ethiopia. These fossils have provided a better understanding of earliest hominin biology and context. Here, we describe five hominin teeth from two periods (ca. 5.4 Million-years-ago and ca. 6.3 Ma) that were recovered from the Adu-Asa Formation in the Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project area in the Afar, Ethiopia that we assign to either Hominina, gen. et sp. indet. or Ardipithecus kadabba. These specimens are compared with extant African ape and other Latest Miocene and Early Pliocene hominin teeth. The derived morphology of the large, non-sectorial maxillary canine and mandibular third premolar links them with later hominins and they are phenetically distinguishable and thus phyletically distinct from extant apes. PMID:25795338

  5. Late Miocene hominin teeth from the Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project area, Afar, Ethiopia.

    PubMed

    Simpson, Scott W; Kleinsasser, Lynnette; Quade, Jay; Levin, Naomi E; McIntosh, William C; Dunbar, Nelia; Semaw, Sileshi; Rogers, Michael J

    2015-04-01

    Since 2000, significant collections of Latest Miocene hominin fossils have been recovered from Chad, Kenya, and Ethiopia. These fossils have provided a better understanding of earliest hominin biology and context. Here, we describe five hominin teeth from two periods (ca. 5.4 Million-years-ago and ca. 6.3 Ma) that were recovered from the Adu-Asa Formation in the Gona Paleoanthropological Research Project area in the Afar, Ethiopia that we assign to either Hominina, gen. et sp. indet. or Ardipithecus kadabba. These specimens are compared with extant African ape and other Latest Miocene and Early Pliocene hominin teeth. The derived morphology of the large, non-sectorial maxillary canine and mandibular third premolar links them with later hominins and they are phenetically distinguishable and thus phyletically distinct from extant apes.

  6. High Energy Physics Division: Semiannual report of research activities, July 1, 1988--December 31, 1988

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-01-01

    This paper briefly discusses progress at Argonne National Laboratory in the following areas: Experimental Program; Theory Program; Experimental Facilities Research; Accelerator Research and Development; and SSC Detector Research and Development.

  7. Perceived Barriers to Faculty Achievement in the Area of Scholarly Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woehrle, Mary Beth; Gross, Sanford M.

    1999-01-01

    A survey of 35 Illinois College of Optometry faculty investigated perceived barriers to scholarly activity, including time management, communication skills, knowledge of research design and statistics, computer literacy, institutional support, use of human or material resources, and library resource skills. A majority felt their skills were…

  8. Learning in Activity: Exploring the Methodological Potential of Action Research in Activity Theorising of Social Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Darwin, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Cultural-historical activity theory (CHAT), founded on the seminal work of Vygotsky and evolving in the subsequent work of Leont'ev and Engestrom, continues to emerge as a robust and increasingly widely used conceptual framework for the research and analysis of the complex social mediation of human learning and development. Yet there remains…

  9. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Director may designate a Science and Research Director, or the Assistant Regional Administrator for... permit; or (F) The activity proposed under the EFP could create a significant enforcement problem. (iv... enforcement purposes will be governed by 15 CFR part 904, subpart D. (c) Reports. (1) NMFS requests...

  10. 50 CFR 600.745 - Scientific research activity, exempted fishing, and exempted educational activity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Director may designate a Science and Research Director, or the Assistant Regional Administrator for.... A NMFS Regional Administrator or Director may authorize, for limited testing, public display, data... conducted under an EFP if the activity would otherwise be prohibited by applicable regulations....

  11. Relationship between the objectively-assessed neighborhood area and activity behavior in Swiss youth

    PubMed Central

    Bringolf-Isler, Bettina; Kriemler, Susi; Mäder, Urs; Dössegger, Alain; Hofmann, Heidi; Puder, Jardena J.; Braun-Fahrländer, Charlotte

    2014-01-01

    Background Neighborhood attributes are modifiable determinants of physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). We tested whether the objectively-assessed built and social environment was associated with PA and SB in Swiss youth and whether sex, age and the socioeconomic position (Swiss-SEP) modified such associations. Methods We combined data of 1742 youth (ages 4 to 17) from seven studies conducted within Switzerland between 2005–2010. All youth provided accelerometer data and a home address, which was linked to objective environmental data and the Swiss-SEP-index. Associations between neighborhood attributes and PA were analyzed by multivariable multilevel regression analyses. Results The extent of green areas and building density was positively associated with PA in the total sample (p < 0.05). Factors representing centrally located areas, and more schoolchildren living nearby tended to increase PA in secondary schoolchildren, boys and those from lower-ranked socioeconomic areas. In primary schoolchildren, the extent of green areas was positively associated with PA (p = 0.05). Associations between neighborhood attributes and PA were more pronounced in youth from low socioeconomic areas. Conclusions The results indicate that some associations between neighborhood attributes and PA differ by age, sex and socioeconomic area. This should be taken into account when planning interventions to increase childhood PA. PMID:26844034

  12. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area.

    PubMed

    Rispo, A; Williams, I D; Shaw, P J

    2015-10-01

    A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste's weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of "don't know" were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no "quick and easy fix", regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are "hard-to-reach" in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional efforts and additional resources are usually required to improve performance. PMID:26233881

  13. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area.

    PubMed

    Rispo, A; Williams, I D; Shaw, P J

    2015-10-01

    A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste's weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of "don't know" were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no "quick and easy fix", regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are "hard-to-reach" in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional efforts and additional resources are usually required to improve performance.

  14. A targeted review of the neurobiology and genetics of behavioural addictions: an emerging area of research.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-05-01

    This review summarizes neurobiological and genetic findings in behavioural addictions, draws parallels with findings pertaining to substance use disorders, and offers suggestions for future research. Articles concerning brain function, neurotransmitter activity, and family history and (or) genetic findings for behavioural addictions involving gambling, Internet use, video game playing, shopping, kleptomania, and sexual activity were reviewed. Behavioural addictions involve dysfunction in several brain regions, particularly the frontal cortex and striatum. Findings from imaging studies incorporating cognitive tasks have arguably been more consistent than cue-induction studies. Early results suggest white and grey matter differences. Neurochemical findings suggest roles for dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, but results from clinical trials seem more equivocal. While limited, family history and genetic data support heritability for pathological gambling and that people with behavioural addictions are more likely to have a close family member with some form of psychopathology. Parallels exist between neurobiological and genetic and family history findings in substance and nonsubstance addictions, suggesting that compulsive engagement in these behaviours may constitute addictions. To date, findings are limited, particularly for shopping, kleptomania, and sexual behaviour. Genetic understandings are at an early stage. Future research directions are offered. PMID:23756286

  15. A Targeted Review of the Neurobiology and Genetics of Behavioral Addictions: An Emerging Area of Research

    PubMed Central

    Leeman, Robert F.; Potenza, Marc N.

    2013-01-01

    This review summarizes neurobiological and genetic findings in behavioral addictions, draws parallels with findings pertaining to substance use disorders and offers suggestions for future research. Articles concerning brain function, neurotransmitter activity and family history/genetics findings for behavioral addictions involving gambling, internet use, video game playing, shopping, kleptomania and sexual activity were reviewed. Behavioral addictions involve dysfunction in several brain regions, particularly the frontal cortex and striatum. Findings from imaging studies incorporating cognitive tasks have arguably been more consistent than cue-induction studies. Early results suggest white and gray matter differences. Neurochemical findings suggest roles for dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, but results from clinical trials seem more equivocal. While limited, family history/genetic data support heritability for pathological gambling and that those with behavioral addictions are more likely to have a close family member with some form of psychopathology. Parallels exist between neurobiological and genetic/family history findings in substance and non-substance addictions, suggesting that compulsive engagement in these behaviors may constitute addictions. Findings to date are limited, particularly for shopping, kleptomania and sexual behavior. Genetic understandings are at an early stage. Future research directions are offered. PMID:23756286

  16. A targeted review of the neurobiology and genetics of behavioural addictions: an emerging area of research.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Robert F; Potenza, Marc N

    2013-05-01

    This review summarizes neurobiological and genetic findings in behavioural addictions, draws parallels with findings pertaining to substance use disorders, and offers suggestions for future research. Articles concerning brain function, neurotransmitter activity, and family history and (or) genetic findings for behavioural addictions involving gambling, Internet use, video game playing, shopping, kleptomania, and sexual activity were reviewed. Behavioural addictions involve dysfunction in several brain regions, particularly the frontal cortex and striatum. Findings from imaging studies incorporating cognitive tasks have arguably been more consistent than cue-induction studies. Early results suggest white and grey matter differences. Neurochemical findings suggest roles for dopaminergic and serotonergic systems, but results from clinical trials seem more equivocal. While limited, family history and genetic data support heritability for pathological gambling and that people with behavioural addictions are more likely to have a close family member with some form of psychopathology. Parallels exist between neurobiological and genetic and family history findings in substance and nonsubstance addictions, suggesting that compulsive engagement in these behaviours may constitute addictions. To date, findings are limited, particularly for shopping, kleptomania, and sexual behaviour. Genetic understandings are at an early stage. Future research directions are offered.

  17. Development and research on the GIS-based landslide prediction system of the Three Gorges area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Qiao; Tang, Zhongshi; Wang, Haiwei

    2008-10-01

    In this paper we discussed the development and research of the GIS-based landslide prediction system of the Three Gorges area. First of all, we systematically revisited the basic issues of the landslide prediction, including the principles of landslide prediction, the division of sliding-time and sliding-deformation stages, prediction parameters selection and monitoring sites selection. In addition to reviewing the landslide prediction models, this paper detailed discussed an improved model which makes an integration of the results of multiple prediction models. On the basis of those landslide prediction models, we developed a GIS-based landslide prediction system by using Visual C#.NET and ESRI ArcObjects components. Finally, this paper selected two typical landslide cases in the Three Gorges area: the Xintan landslide and the Lianzi Cliff dangerous rock body, and used the system to calculate and analyze. It validated the applicability and accuracy of the prediction models, made a test of the practicality of the system, and achieved good results.

  18. 75 FR 48921 - Administrative Guidance for Multistate Extension Activities and Integrated Research and Extension...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-12

    ...: ``Cooperative State Research, Education, and Extension Service's Implementation of the Agricultural Research... amount of agricultural extension formula funds be expended on multistate extension activities. Section... agricultural research and extension formula funds be expended on integrated research and extension...

  19. Source segregation and food waste prevention activities in high-density households in a deprived urban area

    SciTech Connect

    Rispo, A.; Williams, I.D. Shaw, P.J.

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Study of waste management in economically and socially deprived high-density housing. • Food waste segregation, prevention and recycling activities investigated. • Study involved a waste audit and household survey of 1034 households. • Populations in such areas are “hard-to-reach”. • Exceptional efforts and additional resources are required to improve performance. - Abstract: A waste audit and a household questionnaire survey were conducted in high-density housing estates in one of the most economically and socially deprived areas of England (Haringey, London). Such areas are under-represented in published research. The study examined source segregation, potential participation in a food waste segregation scheme, and food waste prevention activities in five estates (1034 households). The results showed that: contamination of recyclables containers was low; ca. 28% of the mixed residual waste’s weight was recyclable; food waste comprised a small proportion of the waste from these residents, probably because of their relatively disadvantaged economic circumstances; and the recycling profile reflected an intermittent pattern of behaviour. Although the majority of respondents reported that they would participate in a food waste separation scheme, the response rate was low and many responses of “don’t know” were recorded. Municipalities committed to foster improved diversion from landfill need to recognise that there is no “quick and easy fix”, regardless of local or national aspirations. Lasting and sustained behaviour change requires time and the quality of service provision and associated infrastructure play a fundamental role in facilitating residents to participate effectively in waste management activities that maximise capture of source-segregated materials. Populations in deprived areas that reside in high-rise, high-density dwellings are “hard-to-reach” in terms of participation in recycling schemes and exceptional

  20. CAPriCORN: Chicago Area Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Kho, Abel N; Hynes, Denise M; Goel, Satyender; Solomonides, Anthony E; Price, Ron; Hota, Bala; Sims, Shannon A; Bahroos, Neil; Angulo, Francisco; Trick, William E; Tarlov, Elizabeth; Rachman, Fred D; Hamilton, Andrew; Kaleba, Erin O; Badlani, Sameer; Volchenboum, Samuel L; Silverstein, Jonathan C; Tobin, Jonathan N; Schwartz, Michael A; Levine, David; Wong, John B; Kennedy, Richard H; Krishnan, Jerry A; Meltzer, David O; Collins, John M; Mazany, Terry

    2014-01-01

    The Chicago Area Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Network (CAPriCORN) represents an unprecedented collaboration across diverse healthcare institutions including private, county, and state hospitals and health systems, a consortium of Federally Qualified Health Centers, and two Department of Veterans Affairs hospitals. CAPriCORN builds on the strengths of our institutions to develop a cross-cutting infrastructure for sustainable and patient-centered comparative effectiveness research in Chicago. Unique aspects include collaboration with the University HealthSystem Consortium to aggregate data across sites, a centralized communication center to integrate patient recruitment with the data infrastructure, and a centralized institutional review board to ensure a strong and efficient human subject protection program. With coordination by the Chicago Community Trust and the Illinois Medical District Commission, CAPriCORN will model how healthcare institutions can overcome barriers of data integration, marketplace competition, and care fragmentation to develop, test, and implement strategies to improve care for diverse populations and reduce health disparities. PMID:24821736

  1. Alphavirus antiviral drug development: scientific gap analysis and prospective research areas.

    PubMed

    Reichert, Erin; Clase, Amanda; Bacetty, Ada; Larsen, Joseph

    2009-12-01

    The New World alphaviruses Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus (VEEV), eastern equine encephalitis virus (EEEV), and western equine encephalitis virus (WEEV) pose a significant threat to human health as the etiological agents of serious viral encephalitis through natural infection as well as through their potential use as a biological weapon. At present, there is no FDA-approved medical treatment for infection with these viruses. The Defense Threat Reduction Agency, Joint Science and Technology Office for Chemical and Biological Defense (DTRA/JSTO), is currently funding research aimed at developing antiviral drugs and vaccines against VEEV, EEEV, and WEEV. A review of antiviral drug discovery efforts for these viruses revealed significant gaps in the data, assays, and models required for successful drug development. This review provides a description of these gaps and highlights specific critical research areas for the development of a target-based drug discovery program for the VEEV, EEEV, and WEEV nonstructural proteins. These efforts will increase the probability of the successful development of a pharmaceutical intervention against these viral threat agents. PMID:20028250

  2. Research-based active-learning instruction in physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meltzer, David E.; Thornton, Ronald K.

    2013-04-01

    The development of research-based active-learning instructional methods in physics has significantly altered the landscape of U.S. physics education during the past 20 years. Based on a recent review [D.E. Meltzer and R.K. Thornton, Am. J. Phys. 80, 478 (2012)], we define these methods as those (1) explicitly based on research in the learning and teaching of physics, (2) that incorporate classroom and/or laboratory activities that require students to express their thinking through speaking, writing, or other actions that go beyond listening and the copying of notes, or execution of prescribed procedures, and (3) that have been tested repeatedly in actual classroom settings and have yielded objective evidence of improved student learning. We describe some key features common to methods in current use. These features focus on (a) recognizing and addressing students' physics ideas, and (b) guiding students to solve problems in realistic physical settings, in novel and diverse contexts, and to justify or explain the reasoning they have used.

  3. Overview of Active Flow Control at NASA Langley Research Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pack, L. G.; Joslin, R. D.

    1998-01-01

    The paper summarizes Active Flow Control projects currently underway at the NASA Langley Research Center. Technology development is being pursued within a multidisciplinary, cooperative approach, involving the classical disciplines of fluid mechanics, structural mechanics, material science, acoustics, and stability and control theory. Complementing the companion papers in this session, the present paper will focus on projects that have the goal of extending the state-of-the-art in the measurement, prediction, and control of unsteady, nonlinear aerodynamics. Toward this goal, innovative actuators, micro and macro sensors, and control strategies are considered for high payoff flow control applications. The target payoffs are outlined within each section below. Validation of the approaches range from bench-top experiments to wind-tunnel experiments to flight tests. Obtaining correlations for future actuator and sensor designs are implicit in the discussion. The products of the demonstration projects and design tool development from the fundamental NASA R&D level technology will then be transferred to the Applied Research components within NASA, DOD, and US Industry. Keywords: active flow control, separation control, MEMS, review

  4. The analysis of interseismic GPS observation and its implication to seismic activity in Taiwan area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, M. C.; Yu, S. B.; Shin, T. C.

    2015-12-01

    Taiwan is an active tectonic area with about 80 mm/yr plate convergence rate. To understand the crustal deformation and seismic potential in Taiwan area. We derived 2009-2014 interseismic GPS velocity field and strain rate, implicate to seismic activity of 2005-2014. Data collected by 281 sites of Taiwan Continuous GPS (cGPS) Array and processed with GAMIT/GLOBK software. Stacking of power spectral densities from cGPS data in Taiwan, we found the errors type can be described as a combination of white noise and flicker noise. The common errors are removed by stacking 50 cGPS sites with data period larger than 5 years. By removing the common errors, the precision of GPS data has been further improved to 2.3 mm, 1.9 mm, and 6.9 mm in the E, N, U components, respectively. After strictly data quality control, time series analysis and noise analysis, we derive an interseismic ITRF2008 velocity field from 2009 to 2014 in the Taiwan area. The general pattern is quite similar with previous studies, but the station density is much larger and spatial coverage better. Based on this interseismic velocity field, we estimate the crustal strain rate in Taiwan area. Approximately half of plate convergence strain rate is accommodated on the fold and thrust belt of western Taiwan and another half is taken up in the Longitudinal Valley and the Coastal Range in eastern Taiwan. The maximum dilatation rates is about -0.75~-0.9 μstrain/yr in WNW-ESE direction. The velocities in western Taiwan generally show a fan-shaped pattern, consistent with the direction of maximum compression tectonic stress. Extension in the E-W direction is observed at the Central Range area, the focal mechanism results also indicate the earthquake type here most are normal faults. In northern Taiwan, the velocity vectors reveal clockwise rotation, indicating the on-going extensional deformation related to the back-arc extension of the Okinawa Trough. In southern Taiwan, the horizontal velocity increases from

  5. Determination of the required surface area of a final clarifier for an activated-sludge system.

    PubMed

    Yuen, Weng Ah

    2004-01-01

    A generic methodology for determining the required surface area of a final clarifier is presented. Clarification and thickening requirements are integrated to form a unified procedure for final clarifier design. The new method is based on results obtained by Yuen (2002) on the solids flux theory for a secondary clarifier; it does not require the specification of recycle rate, which is computed as an output of the method. The author shows that there is a minimum required surface area (A(m)) for a final clarifier under the thickening requirement when the designed recycle rate is set at the maximum allowable value (FR)m (at the critical state). The designed surface area and the return activated sludge pumping capacity can be determined by applying a safety factor to A(m) and (FR)m, respectively. The method is shown to conform to conventional design criteria under typical design conditions.

  6. Social safety, self-rated general health and physical activity: changes in area crime, area safety feelings and the role of social cohesion.

    PubMed

    Ruijsbroek, Annemarie; Droomers, Mariël; Groenewegen, Peter P; Hardyns, Wim; Stronks, Karien

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether changes over time in reported area crime and perceived area safety were related to self-rated general health and physical activity (PA), in order to provide support for a causal relationship between social safety and health. Additionally, we investigated whether social cohesion protects the residents against the negative impact of unsafe areas on health and PA. Multilevel logistic regression analyses were performed on Dutch survey data, including 47,926 respondents living in 2974 areas. An increase in area level unsafety feelings between 2009 and 2011 was associated with more people reporting poor general health in 2012 in that area, but was not related to PA. Changes in reported area crime were not related to either poor general health or PA. The social cohesion in the area did not modify the effect of changes in social safety on health and PA. The results suggest that tackling feelings of unsafety in an area might contribute to the better general health of the residents. Because changes in area social safety were not associated with PA, we found no leads that such health benefits were achieved through an increase in physical activity.

  7. [Experience of DMAT rescue activity by doctor-helicopter in Tohoku Area after the earthquake].

    PubMed

    Otsuka, Naomi; Yamashita, Ako; Kimura, Yoshinobu; Aimono, Mako; Kobayashi, Iwao; Nanba, Hitoshi; Watanabe, Akihiko; Sumita, Shinzou

    2012-07-01

    We operated rescue activities in Tohoku area after the earthquake of March 11th, 2011. From our hospital, a doctor-helicopter flew to the staging care unit at Hanamaki airport with two members of the disaster medical assistance team (DMAT), one of whom was an anesthesiologist. The helicopter carried ten patients by nine flight missions, who were the victims of tsunami after the earthquake. There were seven doctor-helicopters from all over Japan and did the missions based at Hanamaki airport. The missions was quite different from our usual job as an anesthesiologist, but we could transfer the patients safely by using some knowledge of stabilizing the unstable patients as flight doctors. We report the details of our activities by our doctor-helicopters in Tohoku area.

  8. Preliminary results of systematic sampling of gas manifestations in geodynamically active areas of Greece

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daskalopoulou, Kyriaki; D'Alessandro, Walter; Calabrese, Sergio; Kyriakopoulos, Konstantinos

    2016-04-01

    Greece is located on a convergent plate boundary comprising the subduction of the African Plate beneath the Eurasian, while the Arabian plate approaches the Eurasian in a northwestward motion. It is considered to be one of the most tectonically active regions of Earth with a complex geodynamic setting, deriving from a long and complicated geological history. Due to this specific geological background, conditions for the formation of many thermal springs are favoured. In the past years, almost all the already known sites of degassing (fumaroles, soil gases, mofettes, gas bubbling in cold and thermal waters) located in the Hellenic area were sampled at least one time. Collected samples were analysed for their chemical (He, Ne, Ar, O2, N2, H2, H2S, CO, CH4 and CO2) and isotopic composition (He, C and N). Some of these sites have been selected for systematic sampling. Four of them have records longer than 10 years with tens of samplings also considering some literature data. Two of the sites are located in active volcanic areas (Santorini and Nisyros) while the other two are close to actively spreading graben structures with intense seismic activity (Gulf of Korinth and Sperchios basin). Results allowed to define long term background values and also some interesting variation related to seismic or volcanic activity.

  9. Nondirective meditation activates default mode network and areas associated with memory retrieval and emotional processing.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jian; Vik, Alexandra; Groote, Inge R; Lagopoulos, Jim; Holen, Are; Ellingsen, Oyvind; Håberg, Asta K; Davanger, Svend

    2014-01-01

    Nondirective meditation techniques are practiced with a relaxed focus of attention that permits spontaneously occurring thoughts, images, sensations, memories, and emotions to emerge and pass freely, without any expectation that mind wandering should abate. These techniques are thought to facilitate mental processing of emotional experiences, thereby contributing to wellness and stress management. The present study assessed brain activity by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in 14 experienced practitioners of Acem meditation in two experimental conditions. In the first, nondirective meditation was compared to rest. Significantly increased activity was detected in areas associated with attention, mind wandering, retrieval of episodic memories, and emotional processing. In the second condition, participants carried out concentrative practicing of the same meditation technique, actively trying to avoid mind wandering. The contrast nondirective meditation > concentrative practicing was characterized by higher activity in the right medial temporal lobe (parahippocampal gyrus and amygdala). In conclusion, the present results support the notion that nondirective meditation, which permits mind wandering, involves more extensive activation of brain areas associated with episodic memories and emotional processing, than during concentrative practicing or regular rest.

  10. Surveillance and maintenance activities of waste area groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.; Jones, R.G.

    1991-12-01

    Surveillance and maintenance (S M) of 75 sites were conductd by the Remedial Action Section for the Environmental Restoration Program for surplus facilities and sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals. S M activities on these sites were conducted from the end of their operating life until final facility disposal or site stabilization. The objectives of the Waste Area Grouping S M Program are met by maintaining a program of routine S M as well as by implementing interim corrective maintenance when deemed necessary as a result of site surveillance. This report briefly presents this program's activities and includes tables indicating tank levels and dry well data for FY 1991.

  11. Turning soil survey data into digital soil maps in the Energy Region Eger Research Model Area

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pásztor, László; Dobos, Anna; Kürti, Lívia; Takács, Katalin; Laborczi, Annamária

    2015-04-01

    Agria-Innoregion Knowledge Centre of the Eszterházy Károly College has carried out targeted basic researches in the field of renewable energy sources and climate change in the framework of TÁMOP-4.2.2.A-11/1/KONV project. The project has covered certain issues, which require the specific knowledge of the soil cover; for example: (i) investigation of quantitative and qualitative characteristics of natural and landscape resources; (ii) determination of local amount and characteristics of renewable energy sources; (iii) natural/environmental risk analysis by surveying the risk factors. The Energy Region Eger Research Model Area consists of 23 villages and is located in North-Hungary, at the Western part of Bükkalja. Bükkalja is a pediment surface with erosional valleys and dense river network. The diverse morphology of this area results diversity in soil types and soil properties as well. There was large-scale (1:10,000 and 1:25,000 scale) soil mappings in this area in the 1960's and 1970's which provided soil maps, but with reduced spatial coverage and not with fully functional thematics. To achive the recent tasks (like planning suitable/optimal land-use system, estimating biomass production and development of agricultural and ecomonic systems in terms of sustainable regional development) new survey was planned and carried out by the staff of the College. To map the soils in the study area 10 to 22 soil profiles were uncovered per settlement in 2013 and 2014. Field work was carried out according to the FAO Guidelines for Soil Description and WRB soil classification system was used for naming soils. According to the general goal of soil mapping the survey data had to be spatially extended to regionalize the collected thematic local knowledge related to soil cover. Firstly three thematic maps were compiled by digital soil mapping methods: thickness of topsoil, genetic soil type and rate of surface erosion. High resolution digital elevation model, Earth

  12. Network activity evoked by neocortical stimulation in area 36 of the guinea pig perirhinal cortex.

    PubMed

    Biella, G; Uva, L; de Curtis, M

    2001-07-01

    The perirhinal cortex is a key structure involved in memory consolidation and retrieval. In spite of the extensive anatomical studies that describe the intrinsic and extrinsic associative connections of the perirhinal cortex, the activity generated within such a network has been poorly investigated. We describe here the pattern of synaptic interactions that subtend the responses evoked in area 36 of the perirhinal cortex by neocortical and local stimulation. The experiments were carried out in the in vitro isolated guinea pig brain. The synaptic perirhinal circuit was reconstructed by integrating results obtained during intracellular recordings from layer II-III neurons with simultaneous current source density analysis of laminar profiles performed with 16-channel silicon probes. Both neocortical and local stimulation of area 36 determined a brief monosynaptic excitatory potential in layer II-III neurons, followed by a biphasic synaptic inhibitory potential possibly mediated by a feed-forward inhibitory circuit at sites close to the stimulation electrode and a late excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP) that propagated at distance within area 36 along the rhinal sulcus. During a paired-pulse stimulation test, the inhibitory postsynaptic potential (IPSP) and the late EPSP were abolished in the second conditioned response, suggesting that they are generated by poli-synaptic circuits. Current source density analysis of the field responses demonstrated that 1) the monosynaptic activity was generated in layers II-III and 2) the sink associated to the disynaptic responses was localized within the superficial layer of area 36. We conclude that the neocortical input induces a brief monosynaptic excitation in area 36 of the perirhinal cortex, that is curtailed by a prominent inhibition and generates a recurrent excitatory associative response that travels at distance within area 36 itself. The results suggest that the perirhinal cortex network has the potentials to

  13. Why combine diet and physical activity in the same international research society?

    PubMed Central

    Baranowski, Tom

    2004-01-01

    Research in diet and physical activity in the U.S. started in very different traditions, with behavioral science input being uneven in their development. Investigators and policy makers in Europe have recognized the complementarity of diet and physical activity and incorporated them both under the label Public Health Nutrition. Joining these disciplines internationally offers the opportunity to benefit all, since the problems addressed are human, not specific to any one country. In regard to why combine diet and physical activity, at the biological level, there is reason to believe that diet and physical activity working in concert can remodel physiological structures and processes toward healthful ends. The diet and physical activity behaviors themselves vary in characteristics and are similar in others. The behavioral science components of these two disciplines face similar problems, and can learn from the advances made by the other, in the areas of measurement, correlates and intervention. By working together, knowledge will be enhanced from uncovering complementary and interactive relationships between diet and physical activity, and in relation to disease risks, that may result in designing more effective and efficient interventions and policies. Since the behavioral sciences are at a disadvantage in comparison to the biological sciences in terms of scientific advances and thereby capturing the popular imagination for solutions to health problems, we must redouble our efforts to enhance funding for behavioral research in regard to diet and physical activity and to make the research advances necessary to prevent the medicalizing of essentially social and behavioral problems. Nutrition and physical activity should most effectively do this together. PMID:15171787

  14. Distinguishing between gaming and gambling activities in addiction research

    PubMed Central

    King, Daniel L.; Gainsbury, Sally M.; Delfabbro, Paul H.; Hing, Nerilee; Abarbanel, Brett

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims Gambling and gaming activities have become increasingly recognised as sharing many common features at a structural and aesthetic level. Both have also been implicated as contributing to harm through excessive involvement. Despite this, relatively little attention has been given to the fundamental characteristics that differentiate these two classes of activity, especially in situations where the boundaries between them may be particularly hard to distinguish. This is evident, for example, in digital games that incorporate free and paid virtual currencies or items, as well as the capacity for wagering. Such overlaps create problems for regulatory classifications, screening, diagnosis and treatment. Is the problem related to the gambling or gaming content? Methods In this paper, we review the principal sources of overlap between the activity classes in terms of several dimensions: interactivity, monetisation, betting and wagering, types of outcomes, structural fidelity, context and centrality of content, and advertising. Results We argue that gaming is principally defined by its interactivity, skill-based play, and contextual indicators of progression and success. In contrast, gambling is defined by betting and wagering mechanics, predominantly chance-determined outcomes, and monetisation features that involve risk and payout to the player. A checklist measure is provided, with practical examples, to examine activities according to features of design and function, which may inform guidelines for policy makers, researchers and treatment providers. Discussion and conclusions We suggest that, in some instances, using category-based nomenclature (e.g., “gambling-like game”) may be too vague or cumbersome to adequately organise our understanding of new gaming/gambling hybrid activities. PMID:26690615

  15. Integration of permanent and periodic GPS/GNSS measurements for local and regional geodynamic research in the area of the Polish-Czech Network SUDETEN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kontny, Bernard; Kaplon, Jan; Schenk, Vladimir; Schenkova, Zdenka; Badura, Janusz

    2014-05-01

    Since 1997 all current local geodynamic studies in the area of the Polish and Czech parts of the Sudeten and the Sudetic Foreland have been associated with annual periodic GPS campaigns, epoch measurements. The most epochs consisted of more than twelve observation hours and some of them kept on two or three 24-hour observations. Experience collected by international research teams carrying out geodynamic researches with the GPS technique in seismically active areas (USA, Japan) proved that more information can give permanent measurements. However, the Sudeten area, regarded as an area of the weak tectonic activity, can be hardly covered with the dense network of GNSS stations from economic reasons. Hence rational using of existing permanent GPS stations located in studied area and in its vicinity detects the coordinate changes that cannot be appointed from periodic campaign data and that, on the other hand, have rather regional than local character. Creating the spatial models of irregularities of the continuous signals should improve results of the epoch measurements. From this viewpoint, in this project authors used measurement data of chosen permanent GPS stations located in the area: the EPN stations, ASG-EUPOS stations, GEONAS stations and all epoch observations. These data were gained as part of research projects carried out within 1997-2009 period, as well as during new supplementing campaigns realized in the frame of the project N526278940 in the 2011 and 2012 years. Reprocessing of all the permanent and epoch data performed by the latest version of Bernese GNSS Software (V5.2) was performed using EPN guidelines for the processing, reference frame realization and the usage of physical models (atmosphere, Earth rotation, etc.). Standardized results of processing the aggregated GPS network, including permanent stations and all local networks on the area of research, serve for conducting new geodynamic interpretation. Further parameters that estimate the

  16. Areas activated during naturalistic reading comprehension overlap topological visual, auditory, and somatotomotor maps.

    PubMed

    Sood, Mariam R; Sereno, Martin I

    2016-08-01

    Cortical mapping techniques using fMRI have been instrumental in identifying the boundaries of topological (neighbor-preserving) maps in early sensory areas. The presence of topological maps beyond early sensory areas raises the possibility that they might play a significant role in other cognitive systems, and that topological mapping might help to delineate areas involved in higher cognitive processes. In this study, we combine surface-based visual, auditory, and somatomotor mapping methods with a naturalistic reading comprehension task in the same group of subjects to provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the cortical overlap between sensory-motor maps in all major sensory modalities, and reading processing regions. Our results suggest that cortical activation during naturalistic reading comprehension overlaps more extensively with topological sensory-motor maps than has been heretofore appreciated. Reading activation in regions adjacent to occipital lobe and inferior parietal lobe almost completely overlaps visual maps, whereas a significant portion of frontal activation for reading in dorsolateral and ventral prefrontal cortex overlaps both visual and auditory maps. Even classical language regions in superior temporal cortex are partially overlapped by topological visual and auditory maps. By contrast, the main overlap with somatomotor maps is restricted to a small region on the anterior bank of the central sulcus near the border between the face and hand representations of M-I. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2784-2810, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Areas activated during naturalistic reading comprehension overlap topological visual, auditory, and somatotomotor maps.

    PubMed

    Sood, Mariam R; Sereno, Martin I

    2016-08-01

    Cortical mapping techniques using fMRI have been instrumental in identifying the boundaries of topological (neighbor-preserving) maps in early sensory areas. The presence of topological maps beyond early sensory areas raises the possibility that they might play a significant role in other cognitive systems, and that topological mapping might help to delineate areas involved in higher cognitive processes. In this study, we combine surface-based visual, auditory, and somatomotor mapping methods with a naturalistic reading comprehension task in the same group of subjects to provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the cortical overlap between sensory-motor maps in all major sensory modalities, and reading processing regions. Our results suggest that cortical activation during naturalistic reading comprehension overlaps more extensively with topological sensory-motor maps than has been heretofore appreciated. Reading activation in regions adjacent to occipital lobe and inferior parietal lobe almost completely overlaps visual maps, whereas a significant portion of frontal activation for reading in dorsolateral and ventral prefrontal cortex overlaps both visual and auditory maps. Even classical language regions in superior temporal cortex are partially overlapped by topological visual and auditory maps. By contrast, the main overlap with somatomotor maps is restricted to a small region on the anterior bank of the central sulcus near the border between the face and hand representations of M-I. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2784-2810, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061771

  18. Local field potential activity associated with temporal expectations in the macaque lateral intraparietal area.

    PubMed

    Premereur, Elsie; Vanduffel, Wim; Janssen, Peter

    2012-06-01

    Oscillatory brain activity is attracting increasing interest in cognitive neuroscience. Numerous EEG (magnetoencephalography) and local field potential (LFP) measurements have related cognitive functions to different types of brain oscillations, but the functional significance of these rhythms remains poorly understood. Despite its proven value, LFP activity has not been extensively tested in the macaque lateral intraparietal area (LIP), which has been implicated in a wide variety of cognitive control processes. We recorded action potentials and LFPs in area LIP during delayed eye movement tasks and during a passive fixation task, in which the time schedule was fixed so that temporal expectations about task-relevant cues could be formed. LFP responses in the gamma band discriminated reliably between saccade targets and distractors inside the receptive field (RF). Alpha and beta responses were much less strongly affected by the presence of a saccade target, however, but rose sharply in the waiting period before the go signal. Surprisingly, conditions without visual stimulation of the LIP-RF-evoked robust LFP responses in every frequency band--most prominently in those below 50 Hz--precisely time-locked to the expected time of stimulus onset in the RF. These results indicate that in area LIP, oscillations in the LFP, which reflect synaptic input and local network activity, are tightly coupled to the temporal expectation of task-relevant cues. PMID:22390466

  19. Areas activated during naturalistic reading comprehension overlap topological visual, auditory, and somatotomotor maps

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Cortical mapping techniques using fMRI have been instrumental in identifying the boundaries of topological (neighbor‐preserving) maps in early sensory areas. The presence of topological maps beyond early sensory areas raises the possibility that they might play a significant role in other cognitive systems, and that topological mapping might help to delineate areas involved in higher cognitive processes. In this study, we combine surface‐based visual, auditory, and somatomotor mapping methods with a naturalistic reading comprehension task in the same group of subjects to provide a qualitative and quantitative assessment of the cortical overlap between sensory‐motor maps in all major sensory modalities, and reading processing regions. Our results suggest that cortical activation during naturalistic reading comprehension overlaps more extensively with topological sensory‐motor maps than has been heretofore appreciated. Reading activation in regions adjacent to occipital lobe and inferior parietal lobe almost completely overlaps visual maps, whereas a significant portion of frontal activation for reading in dorsolateral and ventral prefrontal cortex overlaps both visual and auditory maps. Even classical language regions in superior temporal cortex are partially overlapped by topological visual and auditory maps. By contrast, the main overlap with somatomotor maps is restricted to a small region on the anterior bank of the central sulcus near the border between the face and hand representations of M‐I. Hum Brain Mapp 37:2784–2810, 2016. © 2016 The Authors Human Brain Mapping Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27061771

  20. The activity of superoxide dismutase in animal liver and erythrocyte at Sea Area nearby Dayawan Nuclear Power Station

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, Ge; Cai, Yana; Chen, Huizhen

    1995-11-01

    Many tests, the effect of ionizing radiation on SOD in vivo and vitro, had proved that the irradiation can cause the SOD activity to decrease with the increase of irradiation dose, change some physicochemical properties and structure. This artical was to study the activity of SOD in Fish (Thearpon jorbua) and Toad(Bufo melanostictus) liver erythrocyte at sea area nearby Dayawan Nuclear Power Station (Nps). We found that the SOD activity in fish liver, after NPS revolved one year, was higher than that of before revoling (7.30 {plus_minus} 1.35U/mg protein, 5.49 {plus_minus}1.56 U/mg protein respectively). The SOD activity in the toad liver at NPS revolving one year after was decreased (4.54 {plus_minus} 0.75 U/mg protein 5.68{plus_minus} 1.49U/mg protein P < 0.001) but in erythrocyte increased (2.32 {plus_minus} 0.75 U/mg Hb, 0.70 {plus_minus} 0.33 U/mg Hb P < 0.001). These results indicated that the SOD activity was changed in different with the animal variety. The effect of irradiation on fish at present was absent, on toad need to research in the future.