Science.gov

Sample records for active rtms group

  1. rTMS Induced Tinnitus Relief Is Related to an Increase in Auditory Cortical Alpha Activity

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Nadia; Lorenz, Isabel; Langguth, Berthold; Weisz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus, the continuous perception of a phantom sound, is a highly prevalent audiological symptom. A promising approach for the treatment of tinnitus is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as this directly affects tinnitus-related brain activity. Several studies indeed show tinnitus relief after rTMS, however effects are moderate and vary strongly across patients. This may be due to a lack of knowledge regarding how rTMS affects oscillatory activity in tinnitus sufferers and which modulations are associated with tinnitus relief. In the present study we examined the effects of five different stimulation protocols (including sham) by measuring tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related brain activity with Magnetoencephalography before and after rTMS. Changes in oscillatory activity were analysed for the stimulated auditory cortex as well as for the entire brain regarding certain frequency bands of interest (delta, theta, alpha, gamma). In line with the literature the effects of rTMS on tinnitus loudness varied strongly across patients. This variability was also reflected in the rTMS effects on oscillatory activity. Importantly, strong reductions in tinnitus loudness were associated with increases in alpha power in the stimulated auditory cortex, while an unspecific decrease in gamma and alpha power, particularly in left frontal regions, was linked to an increase in tinnitus loudness. The identification of alpha power increase as main correlate for tinnitus reduction sheds further light on the pathophysiology of tinnitus. This will hopefully stimulate the development of more effective therapy approaches. PMID:23390539

  2. Using a combination of fMRI and anterior temporal lobe rTMS to measure intrinsic and induced activation changes across the semantic cognition network

    PubMed Central

    Binney, Richard J.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    By developing and applying a method which combines fMRI and rTMS to explore semantic cognition, we identified both intrinsic (related to automatic changes in task/stimulus-related processing) and induced (i.e., associated with the effect of TMS) activation changes in the core, functionally-coupled network elements. Low-frequency rTMS applied to the human anterior temporal lobe (ATL) induced: (a) a local suppression at the site of stimulation; (b) remote suppression in three other ipsilateral semantic regions; and (c) a compensatory up-regulation in the contralateral ATL. Further examination of activity over time revealed that the compensatory changes appear to be a modulation of intrinsic variations that occur within the unperturbed network. As well as providing insights into the dynamic collaboration between core regions, the ability to observe intrinsic and induced changes in vivo may provide an important opportunity to understand the key mechanisms that underpin recovery of function in neurological patient groups. PMID:25448851

  3. The efficacy of cerebellar vermal deep high frequency (theta range) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in schizophrenia: A randomized rater blind-sham controlled study.

    PubMed

    Garg, Shobit; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Tikka, Sai Krishna; Mishra, Preeti; Goyal, Nishant

    2016-09-30

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising therapeutic for schizophrenia. Treatment effects of rTMS have been variable across different symptom clusters, with negative symptoms showing better response, followed by auditory hallucinations. Cerebellum, especially vermis and its abnormalities (both structural and functional) have been implicated in cognitive, affective and positive symptoms of schizophrenia. rTMS to this alternate site has been suggested as a novel target for treating patients with this disorder. Hypothesizing cerebellar vermal magnetic stimulation as an adjunct to treat schizophrenia psychopathology, we conducted a double blind randomized sham controlled rTMS study. In this study, forty patients were randomly allocated (using block randomization method) to active high frequency (theta patterned) rTMS (n=20) and sham (n=20) groups. They received 10 sessions over 2 weeks. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) scores were assessed at baseline, after last session and at 4 weeks (2 weeks post-rTMS). We found a significantly greater improvement in the group receiving active rTMS sessions, compared to the sham group on negative symptoms, and depressive symptoms. We conclude that cerebellar stimulation can be used as an effective adjunct to treat negative and affective symptoms. PMID:27450744

  4. Cognitive Effects of High-Frequency rTMS in Schizophrenia Patients With Predominant Negative Symptoms: Results From a Multicenter Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Guse, Birgit; Cordes, Joachim; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Winterer, Georg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Langguth, Berthold; Landgrebe, Michael; Eichhammer, Peter; Frank, Elmar; Hajak, Göran; Ohmann, Christian; Verde, Pablo E; Rietschel, Marcella; Ahmed, Raees; Honer, William G; Malchow, Berend; Karch, Susanne; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive impairments are one of the main contributors to disability and poor long-term outcome in schizophrenia. Proof-of-concept trials indicate that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has the potential to improve cognitive functioning. We analyzed the effects of 10-Hz rTMS to the left DLPFC on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia in a large-scale and multicenter, sham-controlled study. A total of 156 schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms were randomly assigned to a 3-week intervention (10-Hz rTMS, 15 sessions, 1000 stimuli per session) with either active or sham rTMS. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test A and B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Digit Span Test, and the Regensburg Word Fluency Test were administered before intervention and at day 21, 45, and 105 follow-up. From the test results, a neuropsychological composite score was computed. Both groups showed no differences in any of the outcome variables before and after intervention. Both groups improved markedly over time, but effect sizes indicate a numeric, but nonsignificant superiority of active rTMS in certain cognitive tests. Active 10-Hz rTMS applied to the left DLPFC for 3 weeks was not superior to sham rTMS in the improvement of various cognitive domains in schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms. This is in contrast to previous preliminary proof-of-concept trials, but highlights the need for more multicenter randomized controlled trials in the field of noninvasive brain stimulation. PMID:26433217

  5. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Modulates Event-Related Potential (ERP) Indices of Attention in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Manuel F.; Baruth, Joshua M.; El-Baz, Ayman; Tasman, Allan; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Estate

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have previously been shown to have significantly augmented and prolonged event-related potentials (ERP) to irrelevant visual stimuli compared to controls at both early and later stages (e.g., N200, P300) of visual processing and evidence of an overall lack of stimulus discrimination. Abnormally large and indiscriminative cortical responses to sensory stimuli may reflect cortical inhibitory deficits and a disruption in the excitation/inhibition ratio. Low-frequency (≤1HZ) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to increase inhibition of stimulated cortex by the activation of inhibitory circuits. It was our prediction that after 12 sessions of low-frequency rTMS applied bilaterally to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices in individuals with ASD there would be a significant improvement in ERP indices of selective attention evoked at later (i.e., 200–600 ms) stages of attentional processing as well as an improvement in motor response error rate. We assessed 25 participants with ASD in a task of selective attention using illusory figures before and after 12 sessions of rTMS in a controlled design where a waiting-list group of 20 children with ASD performed the same task twice. We found a significant improvement in both N200 and P300 components as a result of rTMS as well as a significant reduction in response errors. We also found significant reductions in both repetitive behavior and irritability according to clinical behavioral questionnaires as a result of rTMS. We propose that rTMS has the potential to become an important therapeutic tool in ASD research and treatment. PMID:24683490

  6. The Characteristic and Changes of the Event-Related Potentials (ERP) and Brain Topographic Maps before and after Treatment with rTMS in Subjective Tinnitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changming; Zheng, Yiqing; Zhang, Xueyuan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the event-related potentials (ERPs) and brain topographic maps characteristic and change in normal controls and subjective tinnitus patients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment. Methods and Participants The ERPs and brain topographic maps elicited by target stimulus were compared before and after 1-week treatment with rTMS in 20 subjective tinnitus patients and 16 healthy controls. Results Before rTMS, target stimulus elicited a larger N1 component than the standard stimuli (repeating sounds)in control group but not in tinnitus patients. Instead, the tinnitus group pre-treatment exhibited larger amplitude of N1 in response to standard stimuli than to deviant stimuli. Furthermore tinnitus patients had smaller mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN)component at Fz compared with the control group. After rTMS treatment, tinnitus patients showed increased N1 response to deviant stimuli and larger MMN and LDN compared with pre-treatment. The topographic maps for the tinnitus group before rTMS -treatment demonstrated global asymmetry between the left and right cerebral hemispheres with more negative activities in left side and more positive activities in right side. In contrast, the brain topographic maps for patients after rTMS-treatment and controls seem roughly symmetrical. The ERP amplitudes and brain topographic maps in post-treatment patient group showed no significant difference with those in controls. Conclusions The characterical changes in ERP and brain topographic maps in tinnitus patients maybe related with the electrophysiological mechanism of tinnitus induction and development. It can be used as an objective biomarker for the evaluation of auditory central in subjective tinnitus patients. These findings support the notion that rTMS treatment in tinnitus patients may exert a beneficial effect. PMID:23951019

  7. Does rTMS Alter Neurocognitive Functioning in Patients with Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia? An fNIRS-Based Investigation of Prefrontal Activation during a Cognitive Task and Its Modulation via Sham-Controlled rTMS

    PubMed Central

    Sickinger, Stephanie; Haeussinger, Florian B.; Laeger, Inga; Arolt, Volker; Zwanzger, Peter; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Neurobiologically, panic disorder (PD) is supposed to be characterised by cerebral hypofrontality. Via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we investigated whether prefrontal hypoactivity during cognitive tasks in PD-patients compared to healthy controls (HC) could be replicated. As intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) modulates cortical activity, we furthermore investigated its ability to normalise prefrontal activation. Methods. Forty-four PD-patients, randomised to sham or verum group, received 15 iTBS-sessions above the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in addition to psychoeducation. Before first and after last iTBS-treatment, cortical activity during a verbal fluency task was assessed via fNIRS and compared to the results of 23 HC. Results. At baseline, PD-patients showed hypofrontality including the DLPFC, which differed significantly from activation patterns of HC. However, verum iTBS did not augment prefrontal fNIRS activation. Solely after sham iTBS, a significant increase of measured fNIRS activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during the phonological task was found. Conclusion. Our results support findings that PD is characterised by prefrontal hypoactivation during cognitive performance. However, verum iTBS as an “add-on” to psychoeducation did not augment prefrontal activity. Instead we only found increased fNIRS activation in the left IFG after sham iTBS application. Possible reasons including task-related psychophysiological arousal are discussed. PMID:24757668

  8. rTMS neuromodulation improves electrocortical functional measures of information processing and behavioral responses in autism

    PubMed Central

    Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Sears, Lonnie L.; Opris, Ioan; Casanova, Manuel F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Reports in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) of a minicolumnopathy with consequent deficits of lateral inhibition help explain observed behavioral and executive dysfunctions. We propose that neuromodulation based on low frequency repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) will enhance lateral inhibition through activation of inhibitory double bouquet interneurons and will be accompanied by improvements in the prefrontal executive functions. In addition we proposed that rTMS will improve cortical excitation/inhibition ratio and result in changes manifested in event-related potential (ERP) recorded during cognitive tests. Materials and Methods: Along with traditional clinical behavioral evaluations the current study used ERPs in a visual oddball task with illusory figures. We compared clinical, behavioral and electrocortical outcomes in two groups of children with autism (TMS, wait-list group). We predicted that 18 session long course in autistic patients will have better behavioral and ERP outcomes as compared to age- and IQ-matched WTL group. We used 18 sessions of 1 Hz rTMS applied over the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex in 27 individuals with ASD diagnosis. The WTL group was comprised of 27 age-matched subjects with ASD tested twice. Both TMS and WTL groups were assessed at the baseline and after completion of 18 weekly sessions of rTMS (or wait period) using clinical behavioral questionnaires and during performance on visual oddball task with Kanizsa illusory figures. Results: Post-TMS evaluations showed decreased irritability and hyperactivity on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and decreased stereotypic behaviors on the Repetitive Behavior Scale (RBS-R). Following rTMS course we found decreased amplitude and prolonged latency in the frontal and fronto-central N100, N200 and P300 (P3a) ERPs to non-targets in active TMS treatment group. TMS resulted in increase of P2d (P2a to targets minus P2a to non-targets) amplitude. These ERP

  9. Emotional processing and rTMS: does inhibitory theta burst stimulation affect the human startle reflex?

    PubMed

    Vennewald, Nadja; Winter, Bernward; Limburg, Karina; Diemer, Julia; Notzon, Swantje; Fohrbeck, Inga; Arolt, Volker; Domschke, Katharina; Pauli, Paul; Zwanzger, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) enables the local and non-invasive modulation of cortical activity and has proved to achieve antidepressant effects. To a lesser extent, rTMS is investigated as a treatment option for anxiety disorders. As the prefrontal cortex and the amygdala represent key components of human emotion regulation, we investigated how prefrontally applied rTMS affects the responsiveness of the subcortical amygdala during a fear-relevant study paradigm to examine potential cortico-limbic effects. Sham-controlled, randomised inhibitory rTMS (continuous theta burst stimulation, TBS) was applied to 102 healthy subjects (female = 54) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Subsequently, the emotion-potentiated (unpleasant, neutral, and pleasant International Affective Picture System pictures) acoustic startle response was investigated. Subjective anxiety ratings (anxiety sensitivity, trait and state anxiety) were considered. Picture category affected the startle magnitude as expected for both TBS intervention groups (highest startle response for unpleasant, lowest for pleasant pictures). However, no modulatory effects of TBS on startle potentiation were discerned. No significant interaction effects of TBS intervention, subjective anxiety ratings, and gender were identified. Interestingly, startle habituation was influenced by TBS intervention on a trend-level, with verum TBS leading to an accelerated habituation. We found no evidence for the hypothesis that prefrontal inhibitory TBS affects the responsiveness of the amygdala during the presentation of emotionally relevant stimuli in healthy subjects. Instead, we found accelerated habituation under verum TBS on a statistical trend-level. Hence, some preliminary hints for modulatory effects of inhibitory TBS on basic learning mechanisms could be found.

  10. Comparison of the Effects of 1 Hz and 20 Hz rTMS on Motor Recovery in Subacute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul; Choi, Hee Eun; Lee, Byeong-Ju; Lee, Ki Hoon; Lim, Young-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the low frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with high frequency (20 Hz) rTMS on motor functional improvement of the affected upper extremity in subacute stroke patients. Methods Forty patients with subacute ischemic stroke participated in this study. The first group received 10 sessions of 20 Hz rTMS at ipsilesional M1 area and the other group received 10 sessions of 1 Hz rTMS at contralesional M1 area. Motor training of the hemiparetic hand was conducted after each rTMS train. All the patients received conventional occupational therapy immediately after each rTMS session. Manual function test (MFT), Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FMS), Modified Barthel Index (MBI), Brunnstrom recovery stage, and grip strength were used to assess motor function before, at the end of, and one month after the last session of rTMS. Results No adverse side effects were reported during the course of the experiment using rTMS. No significant difference in motor function of the affected upper extremity was observed between the two groups before rTMS. Significant improvements in MFT, FMS, MBI, and Brunnstrom stage were observed in the both groups at the end of the last rTMS session and one month later (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between the two groups (p>0.05). Conclusion There was no significant difference in motor function of the affected upper extremity between 1 Hz and 20 Hz rTMS during the subacute period of ischemic stroke. Thus, we cannot conclude which has a greater effect. PMID:25379487

  11. Mixed effectiveness of rTMS and retraining in the treatment of focal hand dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Kimberley, Teresa J.; Schmidt, Rebekah L. S.; Chen, Mo; Dykstra, Dennis D.; Buetefisch, Cathrin M.

    2015-01-01

    Though the pathophysiology of dystonia remains uncertain, two primary factors implicated in the development of dystonic symptoms are excessive cortical excitability and impaired sensorimotor processing. The aim of this study was to determine the functional efficacy of an intervention combining repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and sensorimotor retraining. A randomized, single-subject, multiple baseline design with crossover was used to examine participants with focal hand dystonia (FHD) (n = 9). Intervention: 5 days rTMS + sensorimotor retraining (SMR) vs. Five days rTMS + control therapy (CTL) (which included stretching and massage). The rTMS was applied to the premotor cortex at 1 Hz at 80% resting motor threshold for 1200 pulses. For sensorimotor retraining, a subset of the Learning-based Sensorimotor Training program was followed. Each session in both groups consisted of rTMS followed immediately by 30 min of the therapy intervention (SMR or CTL). Contrary to our hypothesis, group analyses revealed no additional benefit from the SMR training vs. CTL. When analyzed across group however, there was significant improvement from the first baseline assessment in several measures, including tests of sensory ability and self-rated changes. The patient rated improvements were accompanied by a moderate effect size suggesting clinical meaningfulness. These results provide encouragement for further investigation of rTMS in FHD with a need to optimize a secondary intervention and determine likely responders vs. non-responders. PMID:26217209

  12. Can Temporal Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation be Enhanced by Targeting Affective Components of Tinnitus with Frontal rTMS? A Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Peter Michael; Landgrebe, Michael; Schecklmann, Martin; Poeppl, Timm B.; Vielsmeier, Veronika; Hajak, Goeran; Kleinjung, Tobias; Langguth, Berthold

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the temporal cortex has been investigated as a new treatment tool for chronic tinnitus during the last years and has shown moderate efficacy. However, there is growing evidence that tinnitus is not a pathology of a specific brain region, but rather the result of network dysfunction involving both auditory and non-auditory brain regions. In functional imaging studies the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex has been identified as an important hub in tinnitus related networks and has been shown to particularly reflect the affective components of tinnitus. Based on these findings we aimed to investigate whether the effects of left low-frequency rTMS can be enhanced by antecedent right prefrontal low-frequency rTMS. Study Design: Fifty-six patients were randomized to receive either low-frequency left temporal rTMS or a combination of low-frequency right prefrontal followed by low-frequency left temporal rTMS. The change of the tinnitus questionnaire (TQ) score was the primary outcome, secondary outcome parameters included the Tinnitus Handicap Inventory, numeric rating scales, and the Beck Depression Inventory. The study is registered in clinicaltrials.gov (NCT01261949). Results: Directly after therapy there was a significant improvement of the TQ-score in both groups. Comparison of both groups revealed a trend toward more pronounced effects for the combined group (effect size: Cohen’s d = 0.176), but this effect did not reach significance. A persistent trend toward better efficacy was also observed in all other outcome criteria. Conclusion: Additional stimulation of the right prefrontal cortex seems to be a promising strategy for enhancing TMS effects over the temporal cortex. These results further support the involvement of the right DLPFC in the pathophysiology of tinnitus. The small effect size might be due to the study design comparing the protocol to an active control condition

  13. Impact of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Brain Functional Marker of Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Maïza, Olivier; Hervé, Pierre-Yve; Etard, Olivier; Razafimandimby, Annick; Montagne-Larmurier, Aurélie; Dollfus, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Several cross-sectional functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies reported a negative correlation between auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) severity and amplitude of the activations during language tasks. The present study assessed the time course of this correlation and its possible structural underpinnings by combining structural, functional MRI and repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS). Methods: Nine schizophrenia patients with AVH (evaluated with the Auditory Hallucination Rating scale; AHRS) and nine healthy participants underwent two sessions of an fMRI speech listening paradigm. Meanwhile, patients received high frequency (20 Hz) rTMS. Results: Before rTMS, activations were negatively correlated with AHRS in a left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) cluster, considered henceforward as a functional region of interest (fROI). After rTMS, activations in this fROI no longer correlated with AHRS. This decoupling was explained by a significant decrease of AHRS scores after rTMS that contrasted with a relative stability of cerebral activations. A voxel-based-morphometry analysis evidenced a cluster of the left pSTS where grey matter volume negatively correlated with AHRS before rTMS and positively correlated with activations in the fROI at both sessions. Conclusion: rTMS decreases the severity of AVH leading to modify the functional correlate of AVH underlain by grey matter abnormalities. PMID:24961421

  14. Motor cortex rTMS improves dexterity in relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Elzamarany, Eman; Afifi, Lamia; El-Fayoumy, Neveen M; Salah, Husam; Nada, Mona

    2016-06-01

    The motor cortex (MC) receives an excitatory input from the cerebellum which is reduced in patients with cerebellar lesions. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) induces cortical facilitation which can counteract the reduced cerebellar drive to the MC. Our study included 24 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients with dysmetria. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A received two sessions of real MC rTMS and Group B received one session of real rTMS and one session of sham rTMS. Ten healthy volunteers formed group C. Evaluation was carried out using the nine-hole pegboard task and the cerebellar functional system score (FSS) of the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Group A patients showed a significant improvement in the time required to finish the pegboard task (P = 0.002) and in their cerebellar FSS (P = 0.000) directly after the second session and 1 month later. The RRMS patients showed more improvement than the SPMS patients. Group B patients did not show any improvement in the pegboard task or the cerebellar FSS. These results indicate that MC rTMS can be a promising option in treating both RRMS or SPMS patients with cerebellar impairment and that its effect can be long-lasting.

  15. A systematic review of non-motor rTMS induced motor cortex plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Nordmann, Grégory; Azorina, Valeriya; Langguth, Berthold; Schecklmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Motor cortex excitability can be measured by single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can induce neuroplastic effects in stimulated and in functionally connected cortical regions. Due to its ability to non-invasively modulate cortical activity, rTMS has been investigated for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, such studies revealed a high variability of both clinical and neuronal effects induced by rTMS. In order to better elucidate this meta-plasticity, rTMS-induced changes in motor cortex excitability have been monitored in various studies in a pre-post stimulation design. Here, we give a literature review of studies investigating motor cortex excitability changes as a neuronal marker for rTMS effects over non-motor cortical areas. A systematic literature review in April 2014 resulted in 29 articles in which motor cortex excitability was assessed before and after rTMS over non-motor areas. The majority of the studies focused on the stimulation of one of three separate cortical areas: the prefrontal area (17 studies), the cerebellum (8 studies), or the temporal cortex (3 studies). One study assessed the effects of multi-site rTMS. Most studies investigated healthy controls but some also stimulated patients with neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., affective disorders, tinnitus). Methods and findings of the identified studies were highly variable showing no clear systematic pattern of interaction of non-motor rTMS with measures of motor cortex excitability. Based on the available literature, the measurement of motor cortex excitability changes before and after non-motor rTMS has only limited value in the investigation of rTMS related meta-plasticity as a neuronal state or as a trait marker for neuropsychiatric diseases. Our results do not suggest that there are systematic alterations of cortical excitability changes during rTMS treatment, which calls

  16. Conditions for enhancing the encoding of an elementary motor memory by rTMS

    PubMed Central

    Buetefisch, C. M.; Howard, C.; Korb, C.; Haut, M.W.; Shuster, L.; Pergami, P.; Smith, C.; Hobbs, G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Motor learning results in changes of movement representation in primary motor cortex (M1) a process involving long-term potentiation (LTP). Pairing motor training with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of M1 enhances the formation of a motor memory. Here we determined the effect of pairing M1 stimulation and the execution of training movements at different times and frequencies on the formation of a motor memory. Methods Formation of a motor memory was defined as increases in motor evoked potentials (MEP) of the training agonist (extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, ECU) and increases in peak acceleration of the trained movements that last more than 60 min. Training consisted of auditory-paced ballistic wrist extension movements (30 min, 0.5 Hz) paired with 0.1, 0.25 or 0.5 Hz subthreshold rTMS. The rTMS pulse was applied at either the onset, 100ms prior to or 300ms after the onset of training movement related increases in electromyographic (EMG) activity of ECU. This was compared to a sham condition. Results Only 0.1 Hz rTMS applied at the onset of the training related increase in ECU-EMG activity resulted in increases in MEP amplitudes and peak acceleration when compared to the sham. Conclusions The formation of motor memory is enhanced above the naïve level by co-administration of low frequency rTMS at the time of execution of training movements. Significance These results indicate the importance of time and frequency of rTMS in these settings and should be considered in the design of rehabilitation treatment strategies using rTMS. PMID:25113275

  17. A Randomised Controlled Trial of Neuronavigated Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Jessica; Kekic, Maria; Bozhilova, Natali; Nestler, Steffen; Dew, Tracy; Van den Eynde, Frederique; David, Anthony S.; Rubia, Katya; Campbell, Iain C.; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with morbid fear of fatness, extreme food restriction and altered self-regulation. Neuroimaging data implicate fronto-striatal circuitry, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Methods In this double-blind parallel group study, we investigated the effects of one session of sham-controlled high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left DLPFC (l-DLPFC) in 60 individuals with AN. A food exposure task was administered before and after the procedure to elicit AN-related symptoms. Outcomes The primary outcome measure was ‘core AN symptoms’, a variable which combined several subjective AN-related experiences. The effects of rTMS on other measures of psychopathology (e.g. mood), temporal discounting (TD; intertemporal choice behaviour) and on salivary cortisol concentrations were also investigated. Safety, tolerability and acceptability were assessed. Results Fourty-nine participants completed the study. Whilst there were no interaction effects of rTMS on core AN symptoms, there was a trend for group differences (p = 0.056): after controlling for pre-rTMS scores, individuals who received real rTMS had reduced symptoms post-rTMS and at 24-hour follow-up, relative to those who received sham stimulation. Other psychopathology was not altered differentially following real/sham rTMS. In relation to TD, there was an interaction trend (p = 0.060): real versus sham rTMS resulted in reduced rates of TD (more reflective choice behaviour). Salivary cortisol concentrations were unchanged by stimulation. rTMS was safe, well–tolerated and was considered an acceptable intervention. Conclusions This study provides modest evidence that rTMS to the l-DLPFC transiently reduces core symptoms of AN and encourages prudent decision making. Importantly, individuals with AN considered rTMS to be a viable treatment option. These findings require replication in multiple-session studies to evaluate

  18. Neuromodulation integrating rTMS and neurofeedback for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Tasman, Allan; Sears, Lonnie L.; Wang, Yao; Lamina, Eva V.; Casanova, Manuel F.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, language, stereotyped behaviors, and restricted range of interests. In previous studies low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used, with positive behavioral and electrophysiological results, for the experimental treatment in ASD. In this study we combined prefrontal rTMS sessions with electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback (NFB) to prolong and reinforce TMS-induced EEG changes. The pilot trial recruited 42 children with ASD (~14.5 yrs). Outcome measures included behavioral evaluations and reaction time test with event-related potential (ERP) recording. For the main goal of this exploratory study we used rTMS-neurofeedback combination (TMS-NFB, N=20) and waitlist (WTL, N=22) groups to examine effects of 18 sessions of integrated rTMS-NFB treatment or wait period) on behavioral responses, stimulus and response-locked ERPs, and other functional and clinical outcomes. The underlying hypothesis was that combined TMS-NFB will improve executive functions in autistic patients as compared to the waitlist group. Behavioral and ERP outcomes were collected in pre- and post-treatment tests in both groups. Results of the study supported our hypothesis by demonstration of positive effects of combined TMS-NFB neurotherapy in active treatment group as compared to control waitlist group, as the TMS-NFB group showed significant improvements in behavioral and functional outcomes as compared to the waitlist group. PMID:25267414

  19. Neuromodulation integrating rTMS and neurofeedback for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Sokhadze, Estate M; El-Baz, Ayman S; Tasman, Allan; Sears, Lonnie L; Wang, Yao; Lamina, Eva V; Casanova, Manuel F

    2014-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, language, stereotyped behaviors, and restricted range of interests. In previous studies low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used, with positive behavioral and electrophysiological results, for the experimental treatment in ASD. In this study we combined prefrontal rTMS sessions with electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback (NFB) to prolong and reinforce TMS-induced EEG changes. The pilot trial recruited 42 children with ASD (~14.5 years). Outcome measures included behavioral evaluations and reaction time test with event-related potential (ERP) recording. For the main goal of this exploratory study we used rTMS-neurofeedback combination (TMS-NFB, N = 20) and waitlist (WTL, N = 22) groups to examine effects of 18 sessions of integrated rTMS-NFB treatment or wait period) on behavioral responses, stimulus and response-locked ERPs, and other functional and clinical outcomes. The underlying hypothesis was that combined TMS-NFB will improve executive functions in autistic patients as compared to the WTL group. Behavioral and ERP outcomes were collected in pre- and post-treatment tests in both groups. Results of the study supported our hypothesis by demonstration of positive effects of combined TMS-NFB neurotherapy in active treatment group as compared to control WTL group, as the TMS-NFB group showed significant improvements in behavioral and functional outcomes as compared to the WTL group.

  20. Neural Network Based Response Prediction of rTMS in Major Depressive Disorder Using QEEG Cordance

    PubMed Central

    Ozekes, Serhat; Gultekin, Selahattin; Tarhan, Nevzat; Hizli Sayar, Gokben; Bayram, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective The combination of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-pharmacological form of therapy for treating major depressive disorder (MDD), and electroencephalogram (EEG) is a valuable tool for investigating the functional connectivity in the brain. This study aims to explore whether pre-treating frontal quantitative EEG (QEEG) cordance is associated with response to rTMS treatment among MDD patients by using an artificial intelligence approach, artificial neural network (ANN). Methods The artificial neural network using pre-treatment cordance of frontal QEEG classification was carried out to identify responder or non-responder to rTMS treatment among 55 MDD subjects. The classification performance was evaluated using k-fold cross-validation. Results The ANN classification identified responders to rTMS treatment with a sensitivity of 93.33%, and its overall accuracy reached to 89.09%. Area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) value for responder detection using 6, 8 and 10 fold cross validation were 0.917, 0.823 and 0.894 respectively. Conclusion Potential utility of ANN approach method can be used as a clinical tool in administering rTMS therapy to a targeted group of subjects suffering from MDD. This methodology is more potentially useful to the clinician as prediction is possible using EEG data collected before this treatment process is initiated. It is worth using feature selection algorithms to raise the sensitivity and accuracy values. PMID:25670947

  1. Familiarity for famous faces and names is not equally subtended by the right and left temporal poles. Evidence from an rTMS study.

    PubMed

    Ranieri, F; Ferraccioli, M; Stampanoni Bassi, M; Musumeci, G; Di Lazzaro, V; Gainotti, G; Marra, C

    2015-11-01

    The aims of the present experiment was to investigate: (a) if transient disruption of neural activity in the right (RTP) or left temporal pole (LTP) can interfere with the development of a familiarity feeling to the presentation of faces/written names of famous/unknown people; and (b) if this interference specifically affects the familiarity for faces after inhibition of the RTP and for names after inhibition of the LTP. Twenty healthy volunteers took part in the study. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was administered online; it disrupted the neural activity of the right or left TP in concomitance with the presentation of each face and name whose familiarity had to be assessed. Furthermore, in a control group, each participant was submitted to a single experimental session in which rTMS was delivered to the vertex in association with the presentation of faces and written names. Since previous rTMS studies have shown that the temporary inactivation of the right and left TP influences the response latencies, but not the number of correct responses, in this study we took into account both the number of correct responses obtained in different experimental conditions and the corresponding response latencies. A three-way factorial ANOVA carried out on the Response Scores showed only a general effect of the Type of Stimuli, due to better performances on names than on faces. This greater familiarity of names is consistent with previous data reported in the literature. In the three-way factorial ANOVA carried out on the Latency Scores, post-hoc analyses showed an increased latency of responses to faces after right stimulation in Latency Total, Latency on Correct responses and Latency on Unfamiliar faces. None of these results were obtained in the control group. These data suggest that rTMS at the level of the RTP preferentially affects the development of familiarity feelings to the presentation of faces of famous people. PMID:26211873

  2. Triple-site rTMS for the treatment of chronic tinnitus: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, Astrid; Schecklmann, Martin; Greenlee, Mark W.; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that tinnitus is related to alterations of neural networks including temporal, parietal, and prefrontal brain regions. The current study examines a rTMS protocol which targets three central nodes of these networks in a two-arm randomized parallel group trial. Overall, 49 patients with chronic tinnitus were randomized to receive either triple-site stimulation (left dorsolateral prefrontal stimulation, 1000 pulses, 20 Hz plus left and right temporoparietal stimulation, 1000 pulses each, 1 Hz) or single-site stimulation (left temporoparietal stimulation, 3000 pulses, 1 Hz). Both groups were treated in ten sessions. Tinnitus severity as measured by the tinnitus questionnaire was assessed before rTMS (day1), after rTMS (day12) and at two follow-up visits (day 90 and day 180). The triple-site protocol was well tolerated. There was a significant reduction in tinnitus severity for both treatment groups. The triple-site group tended to show a more pronounced treatment effect at day 90. However, the measurement time point x group interaction effect was not significant. The current results confirm former studies that indicated a significant reduction of tinnitus severity after rTMS treatment. No significant superiority of the multisite protocol was observed. Future approaches for the enhancement of treatment effects are discussed. PMID:26927363

  3. The compensatory dynamic of inter-hemispheric interactions in visuospatial attention revealed using rTMS and fMRI.

    PubMed

    Plow, Ela B; Cattaneo, Zaira; Carlson, Thomas A; Alvarez, George A; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Battelli, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    A balance of mutual tonic inhibition between bi-hemispheric posterior parietal cortices is believed to play an important role in bilateral visual attention. However, experimental support for this notion has been mainly drawn from clinical models of unilateral damage. We have previously shown that low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) over the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) generates a contralateral attentional deficit in bilateral visual tracking. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study whether rTMS temporarily disrupts the inter-hemispheric balance between bilateral IPS in visual attention. Following application of 1 Hz rTMS over the left IPS, subjects performed a bilateral visual tracking task while their brain activity was recorded using fMRI. Behaviorally, tracking accuracy was reduced immediately following rTMS. Areas ventro-lateral to left IPS, including inferior parietal lobule (IPL), lateral IPS (LIPS), and middle occipital gyrus (MoG), showed decreased activity following rTMS, while dorsomedial areas, such as Superior Parietal Lobule (SPL), Superior occipital gyrus (SoG), and lingual gyrus, as well as middle temporal areas (MT+), showed higher activity. The brain activity of the homologues of these regions in the un-stimulated, right hemisphere was reversed. Interestingly, the evolution of network-wide activation related to attentional behavior following rTMS showed that activation of most occipital synergists adaptively compensated for contralateral and ipsilateral decrement after rTMS, while activation of parietal synergists, and SoG remained competing. This pattern of ipsilateral and contralateral activations empirically supports the hypothesized loss of inter-hemispheric balance that underlies clinical manifestation of visual attentional extinction.

  4. The compensatory dynamic of inter-hemispheric interactions in visuospatial attention revealed using rTMS and fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Plow, Ela B.; Cattaneo, Zaira; Carlson, Thomas A.; Alvarez, George A.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Battelli, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    A balance of mutual tonic inhibition between bi-hemispheric posterior parietal cortices is believed to play an important role in bilateral visual attention. However, experimental support for this notion has been mainly drawn from clinical models of unilateral damage. We have previously shown that low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) over the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) generates a contralateral attentional deficit in bilateral visual tracking. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study whether rTMS temporarily disrupts the inter-hemispheric balance between bilateral IPS in visual attention. Following application of 1 Hz rTMS over the left IPS, subjects performed a bilateral visual tracking task while their brain activity was recorded using fMRI. Behaviorally, tracking accuracy was reduced immediately following rTMS. Areas ventro-lateral to left IPS, including inferior parietal lobule (IPL), lateral IPS (LIPS), and middle occipital gyrus (MoG), showed decreased activity following rTMS, while dorsomedial areas, such as Superior Parietal Lobule (SPL), Superior occipital gyrus (SoG), and lingual gyrus, as well as middle temporal areas (MT+), showed higher activity. The brain activity of the homologues of these regions in the un-stimulated, right hemisphere was reversed. Interestingly, the evolution of network-wide activation related to attentional behavior following rTMS showed that activation of most occipital synergists adaptively compensated for contralateral and ipsilateral decrement after rTMS, while activation of parietal synergists, and SoG remained competing. This pattern of ipsilateral and contralateral activations empirically supports the hypothesized loss of inter-hemispheric balance that underlies clinical manifestation of visual attentional extinction. PMID:24860462

  5. Imaging effects related to language improvements by rTMS.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2016-04-11

    The functional deficit after a focal brain lesion is determined by the localization and the extent of the tissue damage. Since destroyed tissue usually cannot be replaced in the adult human brain, improvement or recovery of neurological deficits can be achieved only by reactivation of functionally disturbed but morphologically preserved areas or by recruitment of alternative pathways within the functional network. The visualization of disturbed interaction in functional networks and of their reorganization in the recovery after focal brain damage is the domain of functional imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET). Longitudinal assessments at rest and during activation tasks during the early and later periods following a stroke can demonstrate recruitment and compensatory mechanisms in the functional network responsible for complete or partial recovery of disturbed functions. Imaging studies have shown that improvements after focal cortical injury are represented over larger cortical territories. It has also been shown that the unaffected hemisphere in some instances actually inhibits the recovery of ipsilateral functional networks and this effect of transcallosal inhibition can be reduced by non-invasive brain stimutation. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) can modulate the excitability and activity of targeted cortical regions and thereby alter the interaction within pathologically affected functional networks; this kind of intervention might promote the adaptive cortical reorganization of functional networks after stroke. In poststroke aphasia several studies attempted to restore perilesional neuronal activity in the injured left inferior frontal gyrus by applying excitatory high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) or anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), but most NIBS studies in poststroke aphasia employed inhibitory low frequency rTMS for

  6. Imaging effects related to language improvements by rTMS.

    PubMed

    Heiss, Wolf-Dieter

    2016-04-11

    The functional deficit after a focal brain lesion is determined by the localization and the extent of the tissue damage. Since destroyed tissue usually cannot be replaced in the adult human brain, improvement or recovery of neurological deficits can be achieved only by reactivation of functionally disturbed but morphologically preserved areas or by recruitment of alternative pathways within the functional network. The visualization of disturbed interaction in functional networks and of their reorganization in the recovery after focal brain damage is the domain of functional imaging modalities such as positron emission tomography (PET). Longitudinal assessments at rest and during activation tasks during the early and later periods following a stroke can demonstrate recruitment and compensatory mechanisms in the functional network responsible for complete or partial recovery of disturbed functions. Imaging studies have shown that improvements after focal cortical injury are represented over larger cortical territories. It has also been shown that the unaffected hemisphere in some instances actually inhibits the recovery of ipsilateral functional networks and this effect of transcallosal inhibition can be reduced by non-invasive brain stimutation. Non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) can modulate the excitability and activity of targeted cortical regions and thereby alter the interaction within pathologically affected functional networks; this kind of intervention might promote the adaptive cortical reorganization of functional networks after stroke. In poststroke aphasia several studies attempted to restore perilesional neuronal activity in the injured left inferior frontal gyrus by applying excitatory high frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) or anodal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), but most NIBS studies in poststroke aphasia employed inhibitory low frequency rTMS for

  7. Group Activities for Math Enthusiasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdener, J.; Milnikel, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present three group activities designed for math students: a balloon-twisting workshop, a group proof of the irrationality of p, and a game of Math Bingo. These activities have been particularly successful in building enthusiasm for mathematics and camaraderie among math faculty and students at Kenyon College.

  8. Treatment of dysphasia with rTMS and language therapy after childhood stroke: Multimodal imaging of plastic change.

    PubMed

    Carlson, Helen L; Jadavji, Zeanna; Mineyko, Aleksandra; Damji, Omar; Hodge, Jacquie; Saunders, Jenny; Hererro, Mia; Nowak, Michele; Patzelt, Rebecca; Mazur-Mosiewicz, Anya; MacMaster, Frank P; Kirton, Adam

    2016-08-01

    Expressive dysphasia accompanies left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG/Broca) injury. Recovery may relate to interhemispheric balance with homologous, contralesional IFG but is unexplored in children. We evaluated effects of inhibitory rTMS to contralesional IFG combined with intensive speech therapy (SLT). A 15year-old, right-handed male incurred a left middle cerebral artery stroke. After 30months, severe non-fluent dysphasia impacted quality of life. Language networks, neuronal metabolism and white matter pathways were explored using MRI. Language function was measured longitudinally. An intensive SLT program was combined with contralesional inhibitory rTMS of right pars triangularis. Procedures were well tolerated. Language function improved persisting to four months. Post-treatment fMRI demonstrated increased left perilesional IFG activations and connectivity at rest. Bilateral changes in inositol and glutamate metabolism were observed. Contralesional, inhibitory rTMS appears safe in childhood stroke-induced dysphasia. We observed clinically significant improvements after SLT coupled with rTMS. Advanced neuroimaging can evaluate intervention-induced plasticity. PMID:27262774

  9. Combining functional neuroimaging with off-line brain stimulation: modulation of task-related activity in language areas.

    PubMed

    Andoh, Jamila; Paus, Tomás

    2011-02-01

    Repetitive TMS (rTMS) provides a noninvasive tool for modulating neural activity in the human brain. In healthy participants, rTMS applied over the language-related areas in the left hemisphere, including the left posterior temporal area of Wernicke (LTMP) and inferior frontal area of Broca, have been shown to affect performance on word recognition tasks. To investigate the neural substrate of these behavioral effects, off-line rTMS was combined with fMRI acquired during the performance of a word recognition task. Twenty right-handed healthy men underwent fMRI scans before and after a session of 10-Hz rTMS applied outside the magnetic resonance scanner. Functional magnetic resonance images were acquired during the performance of a word recognition task that used English or foreign-language words. rTMS was applied over the LTMP in one group of 10 participants (LTMP group), whereas the homologue region in the right hemisphere was stimulated in another group of 10 participants (RTMP group). Changes in task-related fMRI response (English minus foreign languages) and task performances (response time and accuracy) were measured in both groups and compared between pre-rTMS and post-rTMS. Our results showed that rTMS increased task-related fMRI response in the homologue areas contralateral to the stimulated sites. We also found an effect of rTMS on response time for the LTMP group only. These findings provide insights into changes in neural activity in cortical regions connected to the stimulated site and are consistent with a hypothesis raised in a previous review about the role of the homologue areas in the contralateral hemisphere for preserving behavior after neural interference.

  10. rTMS over the intraparietal sulcus disrupts numerosity processing

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    It has been widely argued that the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) is involved in tasks that evoke representations of numerical magnitude, among other cognitive functions. However, the causal role of this parietal region in processing symbolic and non-symbolic numerosity has not been established. The current study used repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to the left and right IPS to investigate the effects of temporary deactivations of these regions on the capacity to represent symbolic (Arabic numbers) and non-symbolic (arrays of dots) numerosities. We found that comparisons of both symbolic and non-symbolic numerosities were impaired after rTMS to the left IPS but enhanced by rTMS to the right IPS. A signature effect of numerical distance was also found: greater impairment (or lesser facilitation) when comparing numerosities of similar magnitude. The reverse pattern of impairment and enhancement was found in a control task that required judging an analogue stimulus property (ellipse orientation) but no numerosity judgements. No rTMS effects for the numerosity tasks were found when stimulating an area adjacent but distinct from the IPS, the left and right angular gyrus. These data suggest that left IPS is critical for processing symbolic and non-symbolic numerosity; this processing may thus depend on common neural mechanisms, which are distinct from mechanisms supporting the processing of analogue stimulus properties. PMID:17216413

  11. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) influences spatial cognition and modulates hippocampal structural synaptic plasticity in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Zhang, Zhanchi; Kang, Lin; Geng, Dandan; Wang, Yanyong; Wang, Mingwei; Cui, Huixian

    2014-10-01

    Normal aging is characteristic with the gradual decline in cognitive function associated with the progressive reduction of structural and functional plasticity in the hippocampus. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has developed into a novel neurological and psychiatric tool that can be used to investigate the neurobiology of cognitive function. Recent studies have demonstrated that low-frequency rTMS (≤1Hz) affects synaptic plasticity in rats with vascular dementia (VaD), and it ameliorates the spatial cognitive ability in mice with Aβ1-42-mediated memory deficits, but there are little concerns about the effects of rTMS on normal aging related cognition and synaptic plasticity changes. Thus, the current study investigated the effects of rTMS on spatial memory behavior, neuron and synapse morphology in the hippocampus, and synaptic protein markers and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) in normal aging mice, to illustrate the mechanisms of rTMS in regulating cognitive capacity. Relative to adult animals, aging caused hippocampal-dependent cognitive impairment, simultaneously inhibited the activation of the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway, reduced the transcription and expression of synaptic protein markers: synaptophysin (SYN), growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) and post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), as well as decreased synapse density and PSD (post-synaptic density) thickness. Interestingly, rTMS with low intensity (110% average resting motor threshold intensity, 1Hz, LIMS) triggered the activation of BDNF and TrkB, upregulated the level of synaptic protein markers, and increased synapse density and thickened PSD, and further reversed the spatial cognition dysfunction in aging mice. Conversely, high-intensity magnetic stimulation (150% average resting motor threshold intensity, 1Hz, HIMS) appeared to be detrimental, inducing thinning of PSDs, disordered synaptic structure, and a large number of

  12. Dexterity with numbers: rTMS over left angular gyrus disrupts finger gnosis and number processing.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, Elena; Walsh, Vincent; Butterworth, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Since the original description of Gerstmann's syndrome with its four cardinal symptoms, among which are finger agnosia and acalculia, the neuro-cognitive relationship between fingers and calculation has been debated. We asked our participants to perform four different tasks, two of which involved fingers and the other two involving numbers, during repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the posterior parietal lobe of either hemisphere. In the finger tasks, they were required to transform a tactile stimulus randomly delivered on one of their fingers into a speeded key-press response either with the same or with the homologous finger on the opposite hand. In the numerical tasks, they were asked to perform a magnitude or a parity matching on pairs of single digits, in the context of arithmetically related or unrelated numerical primes. In accordance with the original anatomical hypothesis put forward by Gerstmann [Gerstmann, J. (1924). Fingeragnosie: eine umschriebene Stoerung der Orienterung am eigenen Koerper. Wiener clinische Wochenschrift, 37, 1010-12], we found that rTMS over the left angular gyrus disrupted tasks requiring access to the finger schema and number magnitude processing in the same group of participants. In addition to the numerous studies which have employed special populations such as neurological patients and children, our data confirm the presence of a relationship between numbers and body knowledge in skilled adults who no longer use their fingers for solving simple arithmetical tasks. PMID:16009243

  13. Effects of weekly low-frequency rTMS on autonomic measures in children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Manuel Fernando; Hensley, Marie K.; Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Wang, Yao; Li, Xiaoli; Sears, Lonnie

    2014-01-01

    The term autism spectrum disorder (ASD) describes a range of conditions characterized by impairments in social interactions, communication, and by restricted and repetitive behaviors. Autism spectrum disorder may also present with symptoms suggestive of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 18 sessions of low frequency (LF) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on autonomic function in children with ASD by recording electrocardiogram (ECG) and electrodermal activity (EDA) pre- post- and during each rTMS session. The autonomic measures of interest in this study were R-R cardiointervals in EKG (R-R), time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) and skin conductance level (SCL). Heart rate variability measures such as R-R intervals, standard deviation of cardiac intervals, pNN50 (percentage of cardiointervals >50 ms different from preceding interval), power of high frequency (HF) and LF components of HRV spectrum, LF/HF ratio, were then derived from the recorded EKG. We expected that the course of 18 weekly inhibitory LF rTMS applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) would enhance autonomic balance by facilitating frontal inhibition of limbic activity thus resulting in decreased overall heart rate (HR), increased HRV (in a form of increased HF power), decreased LF power (resulting in decreased LF/HF ratio), and decreased SCL. Behavioral evaluations post-18 TMS showed decreased irritability, hyperactivity, stereotype behavior and compulsive behavior ratings while autonomic measures indicated a significant increase in cardiac interval variability and a decrease of tonic SCL. The results suggest that 18 sessions of LF rTMS in ASD results in increased cardiac vagal control and reduced sympathetic arousal. PMID:25374530

  14. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Affects Event-Related Potential Measures of Novelty Processing in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Baruth, Joshua; Tasman, Allan; Mansoor, Mehreen; Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Sears, Lonnie; Mathai, Grace; El-Baz, Ayman; Casanova, Manuel F.

    2009-01-01

    In our previous study on individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Sokhadze et al., Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 34:37–51, 2009a) we reported abnormalities in the attention-orienting frontal event-related potentials (ERP) and the sustained-attention centro-parietal ERPs in a visual oddball experiment. These results suggest that individuals with autism over-process information needed for the successful differentiation of target and novel stimuli. In the present study we examine the effects of low-frequency, repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on novelty processing as well as behavior and social functioning in 13 individuals with ASD. Our hypothesis was that low-frequency rTMS application to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLFPC) would result in an alteration of the cortical excitatory/inhibitory balance through the activation of inhibitory GABAergic double bouquet interneurons. We expected to find post-TMS differences in amplitude and latency of early and late ERP components. The results of our current study validate the use of low-frequency rTMS as a modulatory tool that altered the disrupted ratio of cortical excitation to inhibition in autism. After rTMS the parieto-occipital P50 amplitude decreased to novel distracters but not to targets; also the amplitude and latency to targets increased for the frontal P50 while decreasing to non-target stimuli. Low-frequency rTMS minimized early cortical responses to irrelevant stimuli and increased responses to relevant stimuli. Improved selectivity in early cortical responses lead to better stimulus differentiation at later-stage responses as was made evident by our P3b and P3a component findings. These results indicate a significant change in early, middle-latency and late ERP components at the frontal, centro-parietal, and parieto-occipital regions of interest in response to target and distracter stimuli as a result of rTMS treatment. Overall, our preliminary results show that rTMS may prove to

  15. Effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on spontaneously hypertensive rats, an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungyun; Park, Heamen; Yu, Seong-Lan; Jee, Sungju; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Song, Dong Ho; Kim, Seung Jun; Im, Woo-Young; Kang, Jaeku

    2016-10-01

    The current treatment of choice for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is pharmacotherapy. A search for new treatment options is underway, however, as the wide application of drugs to the general population of patients with ADHD is limited by side effects and the variance of pharmacokinetic effects of the drugs in each patient. In the present study, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive treatment used in a number of other psychiatric disorders, to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an animal model of ADHD, in order to assess the efficacy of the treatment in modifying behavioural symptoms as well as levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). A total of fifteen sessions of high-frequency rTMS treatment were administered. Behavioural symptoms were observed using open field, Y-maze, and elevated plus-maze tests. Upon completion of the experiments, rats were sacrificed, and the neurochemical changes in brain tissue were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography and Western blotting. The SHRs treated with rTMS tended to exhibit less locomotor activity in the open field test over the course of treatment, but there was no improvement in inattention as measured by the Y-maze test. Furthermore, BDNF concentration increased and noradrenaline concentration decreased in the prefrontal cortex of SHRs treated with rTMS. The results of the present preclinical study indicate that rTMS may constitute a new modality of treatment for patients with ADHD, through further evaluation of specific treatment parameters as well as safety and efficacy in humans are required. PMID:27469434

  16. Effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on spontaneously hypertensive rats, an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungyun; Park, Heamen; Yu, Seong-Lan; Jee, Sungju; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Song, Dong Ho; Kim, Seung Jun; Im, Woo-Young; Kang, Jaeku

    2016-10-01

    The current treatment of choice for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is pharmacotherapy. A search for new treatment options is underway, however, as the wide application of drugs to the general population of patients with ADHD is limited by side effects and the variance of pharmacokinetic effects of the drugs in each patient. In the present study, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive treatment used in a number of other psychiatric disorders, to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an animal model of ADHD, in order to assess the efficacy of the treatment in modifying behavioural symptoms as well as levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). A total of fifteen sessions of high-frequency rTMS treatment were administered. Behavioural symptoms were observed using open field, Y-maze, and elevated plus-maze tests. Upon completion of the experiments, rats were sacrificed, and the neurochemical changes in brain tissue were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography and Western blotting. The SHRs treated with rTMS tended to exhibit less locomotor activity in the open field test over the course of treatment, but there was no improvement in inattention as measured by the Y-maze test. Furthermore, BDNF concentration increased and noradrenaline concentration decreased in the prefrontal cortex of SHRs treated with rTMS. The results of the present preclinical study indicate that rTMS may constitute a new modality of treatment for patients with ADHD, through further evaluation of specific treatment parameters as well as safety and efficacy in humans are required.

  17. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Modulates Evoked-Gamma Frequency Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    PubMed Central

    Baruth, Joshua M.; Casanova, Manuel F.; El-Baz, Ayman; Horrell, Tim; Mathai, Grace; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Estate

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been reported that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have abnormal reactions to the sensory environment and visuo-perceptual abnormalities. Electrophysiological research has provided evidence that gamma band activity (30-80 Hz) is a physiological indicator of the co-activation of cortical cells engaged in processing visual stimuli and integrating different features of a stimulus. A number of studies have found augmented and indiscriminative gamma band power at early stages of visual processing in ASD; this may be related to decreased inhibitory processing and an increase in the ratio of cortical excitation to inhibition. Low frequency or ‘slow’ (≤1HZ) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to increase inhibition of stimulated cortex by the activation of inhibitory circuits. Methods We wanted to test the hypothesis of gamma band abnormalities at early stages of visual processing in ASD by investigating relative evoked (i.e. ~ 100 ms) gamma power in 25 subjects with ASD and 20 age-matched controls using Kanizsa illusory figures. Additionally, we wanted to assess the effects of 12 sessions of bilateral ‘slow’ rTMS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on evoked gamma activity using a randomized controlled design. Results In individuals with ASD evoked gamma activity was not discriminative of stimulus type, whereas in controls early gamma power differences between target and non-target stimuli were highly significant. Following rTMS individuals with ASD showed significant improvement in discriminatory gamma activity between relevant and irrelevant visual stimuli. We also found significant improvement in the responses on behavioral questionnaires (i.e., irritability, repetitive behavior) as a result of rTMS. Conclusion We proposed that ‘slow’ rTMS may have increased cortical inhibitory tone which improved discriminatory gamma activity at early stages of visual processing. rTMS has the

  18. Supporting Student Research Group Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lopatin, Dennis E.

    1993-01-01

    This discussion describes methods that foster a healthy Student Research Group (SRG) and permits it to fulfill its responsibility in the development of the student researcher. The model used in the discussion is that of the University of Michigan School of Dentistry SRG. (GLR)

  19. Effect of r-TMS over standard therapy in decreasing muscle tone of spastic cerebral palsy patients.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Meena; Lal Rajak, Bablu; Bhatia, Dinesh; Mukherjee, Arun

    2016-01-01

    Spastic cerebral palsy (CP) is the one of most common neurological disorders occurring due to damage to the immature brain or any other brain lesion at the time of birth. To aid in making the life of the CP patient meaningful, several interventions such as medical, surgical and rehabilitation have been employed to date. Besides these, recently repetitive Transcranial magnetic stimulation (r-TMS) is a new found approach which is being employed for treating various neurological and psychological conditions. The aim of this study was to observe the effects of r-TMS on muscle spasticity in CP patients by stimulating the motor cortex area of the brain, which is responsible for muscle movements. In this study, 20 subjects diagnosed with CP were recruited and 10 each were placed in two groups, namely the research group (RG) (mean age, height and weight were 7.99 (SD = 4.66) years, 116.7 (SD = 23.57) cm and 21.40 (SD = 10.95) kg, respectively) and the control group (CG) (mean age, height and weight were 8.41 (SD = 4.32) years, 107.9 (SD = 26.33) cm, 21.40 (SD = 12.63) kg, respectively). r-TMS frequencies of 5 Hz and 10 Hz were administered for 15 min daily to patients in RG followed by standard therapy (ST) of 1 h duration daily for 20 days. Moreover, the patients in the control group (CG) were given only standard therapy (ST) of 1 h duration for 20 days. Modified Ashworth Scale (MAS) was used as an outcome measure to determine the level of muscle spasticity. A pre- assessment of MAS score was performed on both RG and CG to determine the level of spasticity prior to starting therapy; and similarly post-assessment after 20 days was done to observe the changes post-therapy. Statistical analysis of pre vs post MAS scores showed that few muscles showed reduction in muscle tightness after administering only ST in the CG. On the contrary, the RG that underwent r-TMS therapy combined with ST showed a significant decrease (p < 0.05) in muscle tightness for all the

  20. rTMS of the occipital cortex abolishes Braille reading and repetition priming in blind subjects.

    PubMed

    Kupers, R; Pappens, M; de Noordhout, A Maertens; Schoenen, J; Ptito, M; Fumal, A

    2007-02-27

    To study the functional involvement of the visual cortex in Braille reading, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over midoccipital (MOC) and primary somatosensory (SI) cortex in blind subjects. After rTMS of MOC, but not SI, subjects made significantly more errors and showed an abolishment of the improvement in reading speed following repetitive presentation of the same word list, suggesting a role of the visual cortex in repetition priming in the blind.

  1. Long-lasting effects of chronic rTMS to treat chronic rodent model of depression.

    PubMed

    Feng, Shu-fang; Shi, Tian-yao; Fan-Yang; Wang, Wua-ning; Chen, Yun-chun; Tan, Qing-rong

    2012-06-15

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been demonstrated in the pre-clinical and clinical settings to have an antidepressant effect. However, studies on the long-lasting effect of rTMS, especially when the effect is measured after treatment has ceased for a few weeks is lacking. We examined this question in a chronic unpredicted mild stress (CUMS) rat model of depression. We gave 3 weeks of high frequency (15 Hz) rTMS, venlafaxine, or these two treatments combined to a modified CUMS paradigm, and then investigated the prolonged effect of treatments. Behavioral testing (sucrose preference test, open field test, forced swimming test, novelty suppressed feeding test), plasma hormone level, hippocampal BrdU labeling, and amount of related neurotropic factors were used to assess the effects of stress and treatments. Long-term chronic rTMS significantly reversed andehonic-like behavior, increased hippocampus cell proliferation, BDNF protein level, phosphorylation of ERK1/2 compared with CUMS rats two weeks after the cessation of rTMS treatment. However, the changes in plasma hormone level were not sustained for that amount of time. Venlafaxine had no interaction with the physical stimulation. Our results suggest that high frequency rTMS has long-lasting effects, which may have some relationship with neuroplasticity.

  2. Basic principles of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and repetitive TMS (rTMS).

    PubMed

    Klomjai, Wanalee; Katz, Rose; Lackmy-Vallée, Alexandra

    2015-09-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and repetitive TMS (rTMS) are indirect and non-invasive methods used to induce excitability changes in the motor cortex via a wire coil generating a magnetic field that passes through the scalp. Today, TMS has become a key method to investigate brain functioning in humans. Moreover, because rTMS can lead to long-lasting after-effects in the brain, it is thought to be able to induce plasticity. This tool appears to be a potential therapy for neurological and psychiatric diseases. However, the physiological mechanisms underlying the effects induced by TMS and rTMS have not yet been clearly identified. The purpose of the present review is to summarize the main knowledge available for TMS and rTMS to allow for understanding their mode of action and to specify the different parameters that influence their effects. This review takes an inventory of the most-used rTMS paradigms in clinical research and exhibits the hypotheses commonly assumed to explain rTMS after-effects.

  3. Citalopram for continuation therapy following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in vascular depression

    PubMed Central

    Tenev, Veselin; Robinson, Robert G.; Jorge, Ricardo E.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives We previously reported that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) produced a response rate of 39.4% among 62 patients with treatment resistant vascular depression. The current study was undertaken to assess the outcome of continuation therapy to prevent relapse among these patients during 9 weeks after completion of rTMS. Design Patients were randomly assigned to 18,000 pulses of rTMS given over 3 weeks or sham treatment using double blind methods. Following rTMS, all patients were given 20 mg per day of citalopram for 9 weeks and reevaluated at 3, 6 and 9 weeks. Setting Outpatient continuation treatment trial. Participants Patients with vascular depression (n=62), as determined by MRI hyperintensities and/or 3 or more clinical risk factors for vascular disease without other major medical illness, were recruited. They had onset of major depression after age 50 and failed at least one trial of antidepressants. Intervention Following rTMS or sham treatment, all treatment responders were given citalopram for 9 weeks. Results Among the 33 patients given rTMS, 13 responded (i.e. >50% decline in Hamilton Depression Scale score). Of these 13, all completed the 9 weeks of continuation treatment. There were 9 patients who continued to be responders and 4 who had a relapse of depression. Conclusion More effective methods are needed to treat elderly patients with treatment resistant vascular depression and to prevent relapse among treatment responders. PMID:19625785

  4. [The Problems with Domestic Introduction of rTMS from the Three Viewpoints of Scientific Evidence, Specialty and Social Responsibility].

    PubMed

    Shinosaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The domestic introduction of rTMS is expected as a new treatment option for treatment-resistant depression. I discussed some problems with the introduction from three viewpoints : scientific evidence, specialty, and social responsibility. I surveyed scientific evidence for rTMS regarding the action mechanism, effectiveness, side effects, and its positioning in the treatment guidelines. To secure the quality of rTMS treatment, I proposed rTMS guidelines, nurturing of the specialists, and a center hospital plan, and pointed out some medium-term problems after its introduction and the consistency of rTMS treatment and standard depression treatment. From the viewpoint of social responsibility, rTMS treatment should be a medical service covered by health insurance to avoid its misuse. We should prepare to overcome the public suspicion of brain stimulation treatment for mental disease.

  5. Revisiting the therapeutic effect of rTMS on negative symptoms in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chuan; Yu, Xin; Cheung, Eric F.C.; Shum, David H.K.; Chan, Raymond C.K.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to determine the moderators in the treatment effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on negative symptoms in schizophrenia. We performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies on the therapeutic application of rTMS in schizophrenia assessing the effects of both low-frequency and high-frequency rTMS on negative symptoms. Results indicate that rTMS is effective in alleviating negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The effect size was moderate (0.63 and 0.53, respectively). The effect size of rTMS on negative symptoms in sham-controlled trials was 0.80 as measured by the SANS and 0.41 as measured by the PANSS. A longer duration of illness was associated with poorer efficacy of rTMS on negative symptoms. A 10 Hz setting, at least 3 consecutive weeks of treatment, treatment site at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and a 110% motor threshold (MT) were found to be the best rTMS parameters for the treatment of negative symptoms. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that rTMS is an effective treatment option for negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The moderators of rTMS on negative symptoms included duration of illness, stimulus frequency, duration of illness, position and intensity of treatment as well as the type of outcome measures used. PMID:24411074

  6. Advanced Extravehicular Activity Breakout Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Perka, Alan; Walz, Carl; Cobb, Sharon; Hanford, Anthony; Eppler, Dean

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph document summarizes the workings of the Advanced Extravehicular Activity (AEVA) Breakout group in a Martian environment. The group was tasked with: identifying potential contaminants and pathways for AEVA systems with respect to forward and backward contamination; identifying plausible mitigation alternatives and obstacles for pertinent missions; identifying topics that require further research and technology development and discuss development strategies with uncertain Planetary Protection (PP) requirements; Identifying PP requirements that impose the greatest mission/development costs; Identifying PP requirements/topics that require further definition;

  7. Anterior temporal lobes mediate semantic representation: Mimicking semantic dementia by using rTMS in normal participants

    PubMed Central

    Pobric, Gorana; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon

    2007-01-01

    Studies of semantic dementia and PET neuroimaging investigations suggest that the anterior temporal lobes (ATL) are a critical substrate for semantic representation. In stark contrast, classical neurological models of comprehension do not include ATL, and likewise functional MRI studies often fail to show activations in the ATL, reinforcing the classical view. Using a novel application of low-frequency, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the ATL, we demonstrate that the behavioral pattern of semantic dementia can be mirrored in neurologically intact participants: Specifically, we show that temporary disruption to neural processing in the ATL produces a selective semantic impairment leading to significant slowing in both picture naming and word comprehension but not to other equally demanding, nonsemantic cognitive tasks. PMID:18056637

  8. Construction and Evaluation of Rodent-Specific rTMS Coils.

    PubMed

    Tang, Alexander D; Lowe, Andrea S; Garrett, Andrew R; Woodward, Robert; Bennett, William; Canty, Alison J; Garry, Michael I; Hinder, Mark R; Summers, Jeffery J; Gersner, Roman; Rotenberg, Alexander; Thickbroom, Gary; Walton, Joseph; Rodger, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Rodent models of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) play a crucial role in aiding the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying TMS induced plasticity. Rodent-specific TMS have previously been used to deliver focal stimulation at the cost of stimulus intensity (12 mT). Here we describe two novel TMS coils designed to deliver repetitive TMS (rTMS) at greater stimulation intensities whilst maintaining spatial resolution. Two circular coils (8 mm outer diameter) were constructed with either an air or pure iron-core. Peak magnetic field strength for the air and iron-cores were 90 and 120 mT, respectively, with the iron-core coil exhibiting less focality. Coil temperature and magnetic field stability for the two coils undergoing rTMS, were similar at 1 Hz but varied at 10 Hz. Finite element modeling of 10 Hz rTMS with the iron-core in a simplified rat brain model suggests a peak electric field of 85 and 12.7 V/m, within the skull and the brain, respectively. Delivering 10 Hz rTMS to the motor cortex of anaesthetized rats with the iron-core coil significantly increased motor evoked potential amplitudes immediately after stimulation (n = 4). Our results suggest these novel coils generate modest magnetic and electric fields, capable of altering cortical excitability and provide an alternative method to investigate the mechanisms underlying rTMS-induced plasticity in an experimental setting. PMID:27445702

  9. rTMS in the treatment of drug addiction: an update about human studies.

    PubMed

    Bellamoli, Elisa; Manganotti, Paolo; Schwartz, Robert P; Rimondo, Claudia; Gomma, Maurizio; Serpelloni, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction can be a devastating and chronic relapsing disorder with social, psychological, and physical consequences, and more effective treatment options are needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been assessed in a growing number of studies for its therapeutic potential in treating addiction. This review paper offers an overview on the current state of clinical research in treating drug addiction with rTMS. Because of the limited research in this area, all studies (including case reports) that evaluated the therapeutic use of rTMS in nicotine, alcohol, or illicit drug addiction were included in this review. Papers published prior to December 2012 were found through an NCBI PubMed search. A total of eleven studies were identified that met review criteria. There is nascent evidence that rTMS could be effective in reducing cocaine craving and nicotine and alcohol craving and consumption and might represent a potential therapeutic tool for treating addiction. Further studies are needed to identify the optimal parameters of stimulation for the most effective treatment of drug addiction, to improve our comprehension of the treatment neurophysiological effects, and to conduct rigorous, controlled efficacy studies with adequate power.

  10. rTMS in the treatment of drug addiction: an update about human studies.

    PubMed

    Bellamoli, Elisa; Manganotti, Paolo; Schwartz, Robert P; Rimondo, Claudia; Gomma, Maurizio; Serpelloni, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction can be a devastating and chronic relapsing disorder with social, psychological, and physical consequences, and more effective treatment options are needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been assessed in a growing number of studies for its therapeutic potential in treating addiction. This review paper offers an overview on the current state of clinical research in treating drug addiction with rTMS. Because of the limited research in this area, all studies (including case reports) that evaluated the therapeutic use of rTMS in nicotine, alcohol, or illicit drug addiction were included in this review. Papers published prior to December 2012 were found through an NCBI PubMed search. A total of eleven studies were identified that met review criteria. There is nascent evidence that rTMS could be effective in reducing cocaine craving and nicotine and alcohol craving and consumption and might represent a potential therapeutic tool for treating addiction. Further studies are needed to identify the optimal parameters of stimulation for the most effective treatment of drug addiction, to improve our comprehension of the treatment neurophysiological effects, and to conduct rigorous, controlled efficacy studies with adequate power. PMID:24803733

  11. Construction and Evaluation of Rodent-Specific rTMS Coils

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Alexander D.; Lowe, Andrea S.; Garrett, Andrew R.; Woodward, Robert; Bennett, William; Canty, Alison J.; Garry, Michael I.; Hinder, Mark R.; Summers, Jeffery J.; Gersner, Roman; Rotenberg, Alexander; Thickbroom, Gary; Walton, Joseph; Rodger, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Rodent models of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) play a crucial role in aiding the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying TMS induced plasticity. Rodent-specific TMS have previously been used to deliver focal stimulation at the cost of stimulus intensity (12 mT). Here we describe two novel TMS coils designed to deliver repetitive TMS (rTMS) at greater stimulation intensities whilst maintaining spatial resolution. Two circular coils (8 mm outer diameter) were constructed with either an air or pure iron-core. Peak magnetic field strength for the air and iron-cores were 90 and 120 mT, respectively, with the iron-core coil exhibiting less focality. Coil temperature and magnetic field stability for the two coils undergoing rTMS, were similar at 1 Hz but varied at 10 Hz. Finite element modeling of 10 Hz rTMS with the iron-core in a simplified rat brain model suggests a peak electric field of 85 and 12.7 V/m, within the skull and the brain, respectively. Delivering 10 Hz rTMS to the motor cortex of anaesthetized rats with the iron-core coil significantly increased motor evoked potential amplitudes immediately after stimulation (n = 4). Our results suggest these novel coils generate modest magnetic and electric fields, capable of altering cortical excitability and provide an alternative method to investigate the mechanisms underlying rTMS-induced plasticity in an experimental setting. PMID:27445702

  12. Low-frequency rTMS inhibitory effects in the primary motor cortex: Insights from TMS-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Casula, Elias P; Tarantino, Vincenza; Basso, Demis; Arcara, Giorgio; Marino, Giuliana; Toffolo, Gianna Maria; Rothwell, John C; Bisiacchi, Patrizia S

    2014-09-01

    The neuromodulatory effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have been mostly investigated by peripheral motor-evoked potentials (MEPs). New TMS-compatible EEG systems allow a direct investigation of the stimulation effects through the analysis of TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs). We investigated the effects of 1-Hz rTMS over the primary motor cortex (M1) of 15 healthy volunteers on TEP evoked by single pulse TMS over the same area. A second experiment in which rTMS was delivered over the primary visual cortex (V1) of 15 healthy volunteers was conducted to examine the spatial specificity of the effects. Single-pulse TMS evoked four main components: P30, N45, P60 and N100. M1-rTMS resulted in a significant decrease of MEP amplitude and in a significant increase of P60 and N100 amplitude. There was no effect after V1-rTMS. 1-Hz rTMS appears to increase the amount of inhibition following a TMS pulse, as demonstrated by the higher N100 and P60, which are thought to originate from GABAb-mediated inhibitory post-synaptic potentials. Our results confirm the reliability of the TMS-evoked N100 as a marker of cortical inhibition and provide insight into the neuromodulatory effects of 1-Hz rTMS. The present finding could be of relevance for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.

  13. The Neuroprotective Mechanism of Low-Frequency rTMS on Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons of Parkinson's Disease Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiaoyun; Wang, Yanyong; Gu, Ping; Shao, Rusheng; Zhao, Li; Liu, Xiqi; Wang, Zhanqiang; Wang, Mingwei

    2015-01-01

    Background. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease in elder people, pathophysiologic basis of which is the severe deficiency of dopamine in the striatum. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of low-frequency rTMS on Parkinson's disease in model mice. Methods. The effects of low-frequency rTMS on the motor function, cortex excitability, neurochemistry, and neurohistopathology of MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease mice were investigated through behavioral detection, electrophysiologic technique, high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. Results. Low-frequency rTMS could improve the motor coordination impairment of Parkinson's disease mice: the resting motor threshold significantly decreased in the Parkinson's disease mice; the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neuron and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase were significantly improved by low-frequency rTMS; moreover, the expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor were also improved by low-frequency rTMS. Conclusions. Low-frequency rTMS had a neuroprotective effect on the nigral dopaminergic neuron which might be due to the improved expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The present study provided a theoretical basis for the application of low-frequency rTMS in the clinical treatment and recovery of Parkinson's disease.

  14. The effects of 1 Hz rTMS preconditioned by tDCS on gait kinematics in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    von Papen, Mitra; Fisse, Mirabell; Sarfeld, Anna-Sophia; Fink, Gereon R; Nowak, Dennis A

    2014-07-01

    Hypokinetic gait is a common and very disabling symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the motor cortex has been used with variable effectiveness to treat hypokinesia in PD. Preconditioning rTMS by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may enhance its effectiveness to treat hypokinetic gait in PD. Three-dimensional kinematic gait analysis was performed (1) prior to, (2) immediately after and (3) 30 min after low-frequency rTMS (1 Hz, 900 pulses, 80% of resting motor threshold) over M1 contralateral to the more affected body side preconditioned by (1) cathodal, (2) anodal or (3) sham tDCS (amperage: 1 mA, duration: 10 min) in ten subjects with PD (7 females, mean age 63 ± 9 years) and ten healthy subjects (four females, mean age 50 ± 11 years). The effects of tDCS-preconditioned rTMS on gait kinematics were assessed by the following parameters: number of steps, step length, stride length, double support time, cadence, swing and stance phases. Our data suggest a bilateral improvement of hypokinetic gait in PD after 1 Hz rTMS over M1 of the more affected body side preceded by anodal tDCS. In contrast, 1 Hz rTMS alone (preceded by sham tDCS) and 1 Hz rTMS preceded by cathodal tDCS were ineffective to improve gait kinematics in PD. In healthy subjects, gait kinematics was unaffected by either intervention. Preconditioning motor cortex rTMS by tDCS is a promising approach to treat hypokinetic gait in PD.

  15. Recruitment and Retention of Smokers Versus Nonsmokers in an rTMS Study

    PubMed Central

    Sheffer, Christine E; Brackman, Sharon; Mennemeier, Mark; Brown, Ginger; Landes, Reid D; Dornhoffer, John; Kimbrell, Timothy; Bickel, Warren K

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a new frontier in the examination of addictive behaviors and perhaps the development of new interventions. This study examined differences in recruitment, eligibility, and retention among smokers and nonsmokers in an rTMS study. We modeled participant eligibility and study completion among eligible participants accounting for demographic differences between smokers and nonsmokers. Nonsmokers were more likely than smokers to remain eligible for the study after the in-person screen (84.2% versus 57.4%; OR 4.0 CI: 1.0, 15.4, p=0.05) and to complete the study (87.5% versus 59.3%; OR=43.9 CI: 2.8, 687.2, p=0.007). The preliminary findings suggest that careful screening for drugs of abuse and brain abnormalities among smokers prior to administering rTMS is warranted. More research is needed concerning the prevalence of brain abnormalities in smokers. Smokers might need to be informed about a higher risk of incidental MRI findings. PMID:26436136

  16. The ethics of neuromodulation for anorexia nervosa: a focus on rTMS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Recently there has been emerging clinical and research interest in the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN). To our knowledge, few studies have discussed ethical aspects associated with the increased use of neuromodulation in AN, some of which are quite specific to AN, despite the rapid development and dissemination of these new technologies. Method We provide a brief overview of three published rTMS studies for AN and discuss ethical issues involved in the use of neuromodulation for AN. Results In contrast to neurosurgery or DBS, rTMS is a less invasive technique, with less associated risk, and thus has greater potential to become a more widespread augmentation or add-on therapy for AN. New therapeutic procedures are promising, yet they raise ethical questions regarding informed consent and patient selection. Illness-specific issues surrounding authenticity and autonomy are important to consider, ensuring an ethical approach to treatment for patients with AN. Discussion We argue that ethical investigations for neuromodulation techniques are timely and important, and discussions should go beyond the immediate goals of patient safety, consent, and risk and benefit, to consider broader ethical concepts such as authenticity and autonomy. PMID:24690315

  17. Case report of a 24-year-old man with resolution of treatment-resistant major depressive disorder and comorbid PTSD using rTMS.

    PubMed

    Nakama, Helenna; Garcia, Alissa; O'Brien, Kendra; Ellis, Nathan

    2014-03-01

    Although there is a large amount of literature indicating the effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for treatment-resistant major depressive disorder (trMDD), the authors did not find any literature supporting rTMS for MDD with the comorbid condition of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Here, we report an original case of a patient whose trMDD and PTSD remitted using rTMS at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex.

  18. Neuronavigation Increases the Physiologic and Behavioral Effects of Low-Frequency rTMS of Primary Motor Cortex in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, S.; Edwards, D.

    2013-01-01

    Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can exert local and inter-hemispheric neuromodulatory effects on cortical excitability. These physiologic effects can translate into changes in motor behavior, and may offer valuable therapeutic interventions in recovery from stroke. Neuronavigated TMS can maximize accurate and consistent targeting of a given cortical region, but is a lot more involved that conventional TMS. We aimed to assess whether neuronavigation enhances the physiologic and behavioral effects of low-frequency rTMS. Ten healthy subjects underwent two experimental sessions during which they received 1600 pulses of either navigated or non-navigated 1 Hz rTMS at 90% of the resting motor threshold (RMT) intensity over the motor cortical representation for left first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. We compared the effects of navigated and non-navigated rTMS on motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to single-pulse TMS, intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) by paired-pulse TMS, and performance in various behavioral tasks (index finger tapping, simple reaction time and grip strength tasks). Following navigated rTMS, the amplitude of MEPs elicited from the contralateral (unstimulated) motor cortex was significantly increased, and was associated with an increase in ICF and a trend to decrease in ICI. In contrast, non-navigated rTMS elicited nonsignificant changes, most prominently ipsilateral to rTMS. Behaviorally, navigated rTMS significantly improved reaction time RT and pinch force with the hand ipsilateral to stimulation. Non-navigated rTMS lead to similar behavioral trends, although the effects did not reach significance. In summary, navigated rTMS leads to more robust modulation of the contralateral (unstimulated) hemisphere resulting in physiologic and behavioral effects. Our findings highlight the spatial specificity of inter-hemispheric TMS effects, illustrate the superiority of navigated rTMS for certain

  19. Non-invasive brain stimulation (rTMS and tDCS) in patients with aphasia: mode of action at the cellular level.

    PubMed

    Málly, Judit

    2013-09-01

    A high proportion of patients who have suffered a stroke also suffer from aphasia. Approximately half of those affected will remain in this state despite intensive language therapy. Non-invasive brain stimulation allows us to directly and focally stimulate areas of the brain. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS), methods used in the treatment of aphasia, are based on an imbalance of mutual interhemispheric inhibition. In open and sham-controlled studies, a low-frequency, 1Hz stimulation of the non-lesioned hemisphere (the homologue of Broca's area) for a week or more significantly improved spontaneous speech and anomia in patients with non-fluent aphasia. These positive outcomes from rTMS stimulation developed slowly, often over months following treatment, and persisted. Effects of intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) developed faster than the low-frequency stimulation, and high-activity enhancement was detected in the left hemisphere after the stimulation of Broca's region. Both types of tDCS stimulation resulted in improved comprehension and reduced anomia, their primary modes of action are distinct, however, both share a common site of action with regard to the balance that occurs between inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmitters (synaptic and non-synaptic). Both types of non-invasive stimulation prepare the lesioned brain for better outcome. PMID:23872450

  20. The "simulation" of the facial expression of emotions in case of short and long stimulus duration. The effect of pre-motor cortex inhibition by rTMS.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Bortolotti, Adriana

    2013-10-01

    Embodied cognition model states that the "simulation process" is necessary to the recognition of emotional significance of face. The present research explored the contribution of frontal motor brain components (i.e. mainly premotor area) to embodied cognition by using rTMS stimulation, to produce a temporary disruption of this specific cortical site. Secondly, short and long stimulus duration conditions were included to verify the contribution of the "simulation process" in response to overt and covert emotional stimulus comprehension. Nineteen subjects were asked to detect emotion/no emotion (anger, fear, happiness, neutral) in these two experimental conditions, by using a backward masking procedure. Five-second rTMS (1Hz) was delivered before the stimulus onset. False alarms (Fa) and RTs increased and Hits decreased when frontal premotor brain activity was disrupted, specifically in response to anger and fear, for both long and shortduration condition. Thus, the present results highlight the main role of the frontal motor system for emotion facial expression processing.

  1. Group Work vs. Whole Class Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanveer, Asma

    2008-01-01

    Group work has only been recently introduced in the education system of Pakistan but many primary teachers, especially in the public schools, are still not aware of how different kinds of strategies that is group work and whole class teaching facilitate learning among students. This paper aims to provide an overview of teaching strategies to…

  2. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which demonstrates standing waves in air generated by a loudspeaker driven by an audio oscillator. The waves are detected by cool spots on a glowing nichrome wire contained in an inexpensive piece of equipment. Also describes activities involving analysis of kinematics through data taking and graphing. (JM)

  3. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Glenn; Insley, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Explains two activities: (1) a "rotator demonstration" (a turntable, pendulum, chalk, and other materials), which can be used in many activities to demonstrate rotational concepts; and (2) an "Eskimo yo-yo," consisting of two balls (plus long strings and a glass tube) which rotate in opposite directions to show centripetal force. (JN)

  4. Mountain Biking with Groups: A "Safe" Activity?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allen, Terry

    2001-01-01

    A survey mailed to 200 British mountain bike leaders found that rates of cycling accidents and injuries were greater in forests and woodlands than on terrain where a license is required to lead groups of young cyclists. Excessive speed was mentioned in most accidents, coupled with poor use of breaks in many cases. (SV)

  5. Group Learning as Relational Economic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke; Atencio, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss group learning in line with economic perspectives of embeddedness and integration emanating from the work of Karl Polanyi. Polanyi's work defines economy as a necessary interaction among human beings for survival; the economy is considered inextricably linked from broader society and social relations…

  6. Doing Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Materials needed and procedures for conducting two activities are provided. The first investigates drops of a liquid which float on water in a watchglass resting on top of a loudspeaker. The second investigates electromagnetic phenomena. (JN)

  7. Active microwave users working group program planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Bare, J.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Childs, L. F.; Dellwig, L. F.; Heighway, J. E.; Joosten, R.; Lewis, A. J.; Linlor, W.; Lundien, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed programmatic and technical development plan for active microwave technology was examined in each of four user activities: (1) vegetation; (2) water resources and geologic applications, and (4) oceanographic applications. Major application areas were identified, and the impact of each application area in terms of social and economic gains were evaluated. The present state of knowledge of the applicability of active microwave remote sensing to each application area was summarized and its role relative to other remote sensing devices was examined. The analysis and data acquisition techniques needed to resolve the effects of interference factors were reviewed to establish an operational capability in each application area. Flow charts of accomplished and required activities in each application area that lead to operational capability were structured.

  8. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations/activities that involve forces: (1) a canoe-like boat made from copper window screen; (2) magnetic forces with a paper clip and ceramic magnetic; and (3) an "icemobile" machine that cuts ice cubes without an obvious source of energy. (DH)

  9. Preliminary Evidence of the Effects of High-frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Swallowing Functions in Post-Stroke Individuals with Chronic Dysphagia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ivy K. Y.; Chan, Karen M. K.; Wong, C. S.; Cheung, Raymond T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of potential benefits of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the rehabilitation of dysphagia. However, the site and frequency of stimulation for optimal effects are not clear. Aims: The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the short-term effects of high-frequency 5 Hz rTMS applied to…

  10. Individual and group dynamics in purchasing activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Guo, Jin-Li; Fan, Chao; Liu, Xue-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    As a major part of the daily operation in an enterprise, purchasing frequency is in constant change. Recent approaches on the human dynamics can provide some new insights into the economic behavior of companies in the supply chain. This paper captures the attributes of creation times of purchase orders to an individual vendor, as well as to all vendors, and further investigates whether they have some kind of dynamics by applying logarithmic binning to the construction of distribution plots. It’s found that the former displays a power-law distribution with approximate exponent 2.0, while the latter is fitted by a mixture distribution with both power-law and exponential characteristics. Obviously, two distinctive characteristics are presented for the interval time distribution from the perspective of individual dynamics and group dynamics. Actually, this mixing feature can be attributed to the fitting deviations as they are negligible for individual dynamics, but those of different vendors are cumulated and then lead to an exponential factor for group dynamics. To better describe the mechanism generating the heterogeneity of the purchase order assignment process from the objective company to all its vendors, a model driven by product life cycle is introduced, and then the analytical distribution and the simulation result are obtained, which are in good agreement with the empirical data.

  11. Activities of the Boom and Chassis Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dell, Jason Scott; Meeks, Thomas Bayne; Merkel, Kelly; Nelson, Brent; Winchell, Tom

    1992-01-01

    Group One of the NASA Lunar Enabler Project has designed the primary chassis and boom structures for the lunar vehicle. Both components also feature V-clamps that were adapted to interface connections within the structure. The chassis features a front end, rear end section, middle cross-section, and face plate. The rear section contains an extra compartment for the engine, hydraulic pump, fuel bottles, and oil reservoir necessary for the wheel drives. Each section consists of tubular aluminum 6061-T6. The boom features four degrees of freedom system, where the minimum factor of safety of any part is 1.5 (but, normally much higher). It consists of a tapered upper boom, lower boom, and three elbows that complement the articulation joints. Each section of the boom has been constructed from aluminum 6061-T6. There are four joints and eight V-clamps in the boom assembly. The V-clamps feature support rings that prevent axial rotation. They provide easy adaptability and assembly.

  12. Activities of the Boom and Chassis Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    dell, Jason Scott; Meeks, Thomas Bayne; Merkel, Kelly; Nelson, Brent; Winchell, Tom

    Group One of the NASA Lunar Enabler Project has designed the primary chassis and boom structures for the lunar vehicle. Both components also feature V-clamps that were adapted to interface connections within the structure. The chassis features a front end, rear end section, middle cross-section, and face plate. The rear section contains an extra compartment for the engine, hydraulic pump, fuel bottles, and oil reservoir necessary for the wheel drives. Each section consists of tubular aluminum 6061-T6. The boom features four degrees of freedom system, where the minimum factor of safety of any part is 1.5 (but, normally much higher). It consists of a tapered upper boom, lower boom, and three elbows that complement the articulation joints. Each section of the boom has been constructed from aluminum 6061-T6. There are four joints and eight V-clamps in the boom assembly. The V-clamps feature support rings that prevent axial rotation. They provide easy adaptability and assembly.

  13. Combining Functional Neuroimaging with Off-Line Brain Stimulation: Modulation of Task-Related Activity in Language Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andoh, Jamila; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive TMS (rTMS) provides a noninvasive tool for modulating neural activity in the human brain. In healthy participants, rTMS applied over the language-related areas in the left hemisphere, including the left posterior temporal area of Wernicke (LTMP) and inferior frontal area of Broca, have been shown to affect performance on word…

  14. Modulation of N400 in Chronic Non-Fluent Aphasia Using Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwood, Caroline H. S.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Lloyd, David; Riek, Stephan; O'Sullivan, John D.; Coulthard, Alan; Wong, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Low frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has previously been applied to language homologues in non-fluent populations of persons with aphasia yielding significant improvements in behavioral language function up to 43 months post stimulation. The present study aimed to investigate the electrophysiological correlates…

  15. Supporting "Learning by Design" Activities Using Group Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessakis, Georgios; Tatsis, Konstantinos; Dimitracopoulou, Angelique

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a case study of the educational exploitation of group blogging for the implementation of a "learning by design" activity. More specifically, a group of students used a blog as a communication and information management tool in the University course of ICT-enhanced Geometry learning activities. The analysis of the designed…

  16. Teacher Educators' Design and Implementation of Group Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Hei, Miranda S. A.; Sjoer, Ellen; Admiraal, Wilfried; Strijbos, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe how teacher educators design and implement group learning activities (GLAs). We used the Group Learning Activities Instructional Design (GLAID) framework to analyse their descriptions. The GLAID framework includes eight components: (1) interaction, (2) learning objectives and outcomes, (3) assessment, (4) task…

  17. Lasting EEG/MEG Aftereffects of Rhythmic Transcranial Brain Stimulation: Level of Control Over Oscillatory Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Veniero, Domenica; Vossen, Alexandra; Gross, Joachim; Thut, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    A number of rhythmic protocols have emerged for non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) in humans, including transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation (otDCS), and repetitive (also called rhythmic) transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). With these techniques, it is possible to match the frequency of the externally applied electromagnetic fields to the intrinsic frequency of oscillatory neural population activity (“frequency-tuning”). Mounting evidence suggests that by this means tACS, otDCS, and rTMS can entrain brain oscillations and promote associated functions in a frequency-specific manner, in particular during (i.e., online to) stimulation. Here, we focus instead on the changes in oscillatory brain activity that persist after the end of stimulation. Understanding such aftereffects in healthy participants is an important step for developing these techniques into potentially useful clinical tools for the treatment of specific patient groups. Reviewing the electrophysiological evidence in healthy participants, we find aftereffects on brain oscillations to be a common outcome following tACS/otDCS and rTMS. However, we did not find a consistent, predictable pattern of aftereffects across studies, which is in contrast to the relative homogeneity of reported online effects. This indicates that aftereffects are partially dissociated from online, frequency-specific (entrainment) effects during tACS/otDCS and rTMS. We outline possible accounts and future directions for a better understanding of the link between online entrainment and offline aftereffects, which will be key for developing more targeted interventions into oscillatory brain activity. PMID:26696834

  18. Lasting EEG/MEG Aftereffects of Rhythmic Transcranial Brain Stimulation: Level of Control Over Oscillatory Network Activity.

    PubMed

    Veniero, Domenica; Vossen, Alexandra; Gross, Joachim; Thut, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    A number of rhythmic protocols have emerged for non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) in humans, including transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation (otDCS), and repetitive (also called rhythmic) transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). With these techniques, it is possible to match the frequency of the externally applied electromagnetic fields to the intrinsic frequency of oscillatory neural population activity ("frequency-tuning"). Mounting evidence suggests that by this means tACS, otDCS, and rTMS can entrain brain oscillations and promote associated functions in a frequency-specific manner, in particular during (i.e., online to) stimulation. Here, we focus instead on the changes in oscillatory brain activity that persist after the end of stimulation. Understanding such aftereffects in healthy participants is an important step for developing these techniques into potentially useful clinical tools for the treatment of specific patient groups. Reviewing the electrophysiological evidence in healthy participants, we find aftereffects on brain oscillations to be a common outcome following tACS/otDCS and rTMS. However, we did not find a consistent, predictable pattern of aftereffects across studies, which is in contrast to the relative homogeneity of reported online effects. This indicates that aftereffects are partially dissociated from online, frequency-specific (entrainment) effects during tACS/otDCS and rTMS. We outline possible accounts and future directions for a better understanding of the link between online entrainment and offline aftereffects, which will be key for developing more targeted interventions into oscillatory brain activity. PMID:26696834

  19. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph report presents an overview of activities and accomplishments of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group. Expertise in this group focuses on high-fidelity fluids design and analysis with application to space shuttle propulsion and next generation launch technologies. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics research and goals, turbomachinery research and activities, nozzle research and activities, combustion devices, engine systems, MDA development and CFD process improvements.

  20. Group-wise FMRI Activation Detection on DICCCOL Landmarks

    PubMed Central

    Lv, Jinglei; Guo, Lei; Zhu, Dajiang; Zhang, Tuo; Hu, Xintao; Han, Junwei; Liu, Tianming

    2014-01-01

    Group-wise activation detection in task-based fMRI has been widely used because of its robustness to noises and its capacity to deal with variability of individual brains. However, current group-wise fMRI activation detection methods typically rely on the co-registration of individual brains’ fMRI images, which has difficulty in dealing with the remarkable anatomic variation of different brains. As a consequence, the resulted misalignments could significantly degrade the required inter-subject correspondences, thus substantially reducing the sensitivity and specificity of group-wise fMRI activation detection. To deal with these challenges, this paper presents a novel approach to detecting group-wise fMRI activation on our recently developed and validated Dense Individualized and Common Connectivity-based Cortical Landmarks (DICCCOL). The basic idea here is that the first-level general linear model (GLM) analysis is first performed on the fMRI signal of each corresponding DICCCOL landmark in individual brain’s own space, and then the estimated effect sizes of the same landmark from a group of subjects are statistically assessed with the mixed-effect model at the group level. Finally, the consistently activated DICCCOL landmarks are determined and declared in a group-wise fashion in response to external block-based stimuli. Our experimental results have demonstrated that the proposed approach can detect meaningful activations. PMID:24777386

  1. Activity Group Therapy for Emotionally Disturbed Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plenk, Agnes M.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses the comprehensive services offered emotionally disturbed preschool children by a voluntary social agency (the Childrens Center in Salt Lake City, Utah), focusing on activity group therapy, the major therapeutic tool used there. (Author/DLS)

  2. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Wang, Tee-See; Griffin, Lisa; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This document is a presentation graphic which reviews the activities of the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center (i.e., Code TD64). The work of this group focused on supporting the space transportation programs. The work of the group is in Computational Fluid Dynamic tool development. This development is driven by hardware design needs. The major applications for the design and analysis tools are: turbines, pumps, propulsion-to-airframe integration, and combustion devices.

  3. Effects of Collaborative Activities on Group Identity in Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyungsung; Seo, Sumin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of collaborative activities on group identity in a virtual world such as "Second Life." To achieve this purpose, this study adopted events that promoted participants' interactions using tools inherent in "Second Life." The interactive tools given to the control group in…

  4. Implementing Small-Group Activities in Large Lecture Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yazedjian, Ani; Kolkhorst, Brittany Boyle

    2007-01-01

    This study examines student perceptions regarding the effectiveness of small-group work in a large lecture class. The article considers and illustrates from students' perspectives the ways in which small-group activities could enhance comprehension of course material, reduce anonymity associated with large lecture classes, and promote student…

  5. Successful treatment of major depression with electroconvulsive therapy in a pregnant patient with previous non-response to prefrontal rTMS.

    PubMed

    Gahr, M; Blacha, C; Connemann, B J; Freudenmann, R W; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, C

    2012-03-01

    The treatment of psychiatric disorders during pregnancy poses a challenge particularly regarding limited pharmacological possibilities. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) have been described to be successful in single cases, however, guidelines are lacking. In order to contribute to the pool of empirical data that is necessary to create evidenced-based recommendations we present a case of successful treatment of major depression with ECT in a pregnant patient with previous non-response to rTMS.

  6. Overview af MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities. The topics include: 1) Status of programs at MSFC; 2) Fluid Mechanics at MSFC; 3) Relevant Fluid Dynamics Activities at MSFC; and 4) Shuttle Return to Flight.

  7. Active Classroom Participation in a Group Scribbles Primary Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wenli; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2011-01-01

    A key stimulus of learning efficacy for students in the classroom is active participation and engagement in the learning process. This study examines the nature of teacher-student and student-student discourse when leveraged by an interactive technology--Group Scribbles (GS) in a Primary 5 Science classroom in Singapore which supports rapid…

  8. Forestry Activities. A Guide for Youth Group Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Twenty-six activities related to forestry, conservation, and outdoor education comprise the content of this leader's guide. Designed for use with youth groups, ideas and techniques range from forest conservation mobiles, locating forest fires, and Christmas tree uses to litterbug campaigns, watershed experiments, and crossword puzzles. Activities…

  9. Evolution and flare activity of a group in July 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Sattarov, I.

    1983-03-01

    The evolution of a sunspot group with a delta configuration which passed over the solar disk on July 8--21, 1978, is studied on the basis of original materials consisting of photoheliograms, H..cap alpha.. filtergrams, and wide-band photographs obtained in Tashkent. More than 160 H..cap alpha.. flares, including 22 flares of importance 1 and 10 flares of importance 2, were observed in the active region (AR) containing this group according to Solar-Geophysical Data. As a result of a comparison of the evolutionary changes of the group with the flare activity of the AR it was found that the flare activity is connected with the formation of a new sunspot group within an old one, with its maximum falling at the time of formation of the first nuclei, and new nuclei are formed along the zero line of the longitudinal field of the old group; the nodes of the majority of flares are located near new nuclei, symmetrical relative to the zero line; the area of the new nuclei increases impulsively; the total area of the entire group varies, fluctuating about its average value, and flares happen during the slowing and cessation of the increase in area; some nuclei show proper motion at a velocity of approx.0.5 km/sec while others show intermittent motion, like pulsation, directed outside the old group; as a result of the development of new nuclei near old ones the small nuclei break up, while the boundary of the large nucleus is deformed on the side of the new nuclei and bright points shine within it.

  10. In-Group and Out-Group Membership Mediates Anterior Cingulate Activation to Social Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Krill, Austen; Platek, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed to examine sensitivity to social exclusion in three conditions: same-race, other-race, and self-resembling faces. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), specifically the dorsal ACC, has been targeted as a key substrate in the physical and social pain matrix and was hypothesized to regulate activation response to various facial conditions. We show that participants demonstrated greatest ACC activation when being excluded by self-resembling and same-race faces, relative to other-race faces. Additionally, participants expressed greater distress and showed increased ACC activation as a result of exclusion in the same-race condition relative to the other-race condition. A positive correlation between implicit racial bias and activation in the amygdala was also evident. Implicit attitude about other-race faces partly explains levels of concern about exclusion by out-group individuals. These findings suggest that individuals are more distressed and their brain (i.e. neural alarm system) responds with greater activation when being excluded by individuals whom they are more likely to share group membership with. PMID:19597546

  11. Modulation of Group I Ribozyme Activity by Cationic Porphyrins

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Shigeyoshi; Ito, Tatsunobu; Tanaka, Takahiro; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Ikawa, Yoshiya

    2015-01-01

    The effects of cationic porphyrins on the catalytic activities of four group I ribozymes were investigated. A cationic porphyrin possessing four pyridinium moieties (pPyP) inhibited two group IC3 ribozymes (Syn Rz and Azo Rz) and a group IC1 ribozyme (Tet Rz). In the case of a group IA2 ribozyme (Td Rz), however, pPyP served not only as an inhibitor but also as an activator, and the effects of pPyP were dependent on its concentration. To analyze the structural and electronic factors determining the effects of pPyP on group I ribozymes, three cationic porphyrins (pPyNCP, pPyF4P, and TMPyP) were also examined. As interactions between small organic molecules and nucleic acids are attractive and important issues in biochemistry and biotechnology, this study contributes to the development of porphyrin-based molecules that can modulate functions of structured RNA molecules. PMID:25811638

  12. Group I fibers: pressor reflex and cardiac activity.

    PubMed

    Decandia, G F; Decandia, M; Orani, G P

    1991-09-01

    Experiments were performed on cats to see whether stimulation of group I afferent fibers from gastrocnemius-soleus muscles induced changes in cardiac activity, in addition to the increase in systemic arterial pressure already established. The results show that the increase in arterial pressure is accompanied by an increase in systolic left ventricular pressure, without any significant changes in cardiac inotropism and chronotropism. It is concluded that the cardiac innervation is not an important efferent pathway of the pressor reflex evoked by stimulating group I afferent fibers, and that the reflex increase in arterial pressure depends mainly on an increase in peripheral vascular resistance. PMID:1742468

  13. Fission Activities of the Nuclear Reactions Group in Uppsala

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Adili, A.; Alhassan, E.; Gustavsson, C.; Helgesson, P.; Jansson, K.; Koning, A.; Lantz, M.; Mattera, A.; Prokofiev, A. V.; Rakopoulos, V.; Sjöstrand, H.; Solders, A.; Tarrío, D.; Österlund, M.; Pomp, S.

    This paper highlights some of the main activities related to fission of the nuclear reactions group at Uppsala University. The group is involved for instance in fission yield experiments at the IGISOL facility, cross-section measurements at the NFS facility, as well as fission dynamics studies at the IRMM JRC-EC. Moreover, work is ongoing on the Total Monte Carlo (TMC) methodology and on including the GEF fission code into the TALYS nuclear reaction code. Selected results from these projects are discussed.

  14. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

    1998-12-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

  15. Dynamic regulation of Polycomb group activity during plant development.

    PubMed

    Bemer, Marian; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-11-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) complexes play important roles in phase transitions and cell fate determination in plants and animals, by epigenetically repressing sets of genes that promote either proliferation or differentiation. The continuous differentiation of new organs in plants, such as leaves or flowers, requires a highly dynamic PcG function, which can be induced, modulated, or repressed when necessary. In this review, we discuss the recent advance in understanding PcG function in plants and focus on the diverse molecular mechanisms that have been described to regulate and counteract PcG activity in Arabidopsis.

  16. Dynamic regulation of Polycomb group activity during plant development.

    PubMed

    Bemer, Marian; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-11-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) complexes play important roles in phase transitions and cell fate determination in plants and animals, by epigenetically repressing sets of genes that promote either proliferation or differentiation. The continuous differentiation of new organs in plants, such as leaves or flowers, requires a highly dynamic PcG function, which can be induced, modulated, or repressed when necessary. In this review, we discuss the recent advance in understanding PcG function in plants and focus on the diverse molecular mechanisms that have been described to regulate and counteract PcG activity in Arabidopsis. PMID:22999383

  17. Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

  18. The Effects of Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Protocols on Cortical Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ljubisavljevic, Milos R.; Javid, Asma; Oommen, Joji; Parekh, Khatija; Nagelkerke, Nico; Shehab, Safa; Adrian, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Although repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in treatment of stroke in humans has been explored over the past decade the data remain controversial in terms of optimal stimulation parameters and the mechanisms of rTMS long-term effects. This study aimed to explore the potential of different rTMS protocols to induce changes in gene expression in rat cortices after acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury. The stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with subsequent reperfusion. Changes in the expression of 96 genes were examined using low-density expression arrays after MCAO alone and after MCAO combined with 1Hz, 5Hz, continuous (cTBS) and intermittent (iTBS) theta-burst rTMS. rTMS over the lesioned hemisphere was given for two weeks (with a 2-day pause) in a single daily session and a total of 2400 pulses. MCAO alone induced significant upregulation in the expression of 44 genes and downregulation in 10. Two weeks of iTBS induced significant increase in the expression of 52 genes. There were no downregulated genes. 1Hz and 5Hz had no significant effects on gene expression, while cTBS effects were negligible. Upregulated genes included those involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, injury response and cellular repair, structural remodeling, neuroprotection, neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity. The results show that long-term rTMS in acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury induces complex changes in gene expression that span multiple pathways, which generally promote the recovery. They also demonstrate that induced changes primarily depend on the rTMS frequency (1Hz and 5Hz vs. iTBS) and pattern (cTBS vs. iTBS). The results further underlines the premise that one of the benefits of rTMS application in stroke may be to prime the brain, enhancing its potential to cope with the injury and to rewire. This could further augment its potential to favorably respond to rehabilitation, and to restore some of the loss functions. PMID

  19. Environmental distribution, abundance and activity of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, K. G.; Biddle, J.; Teske, A.

    2011-12-01

    Many marine sedimentary microbes have only been identified by 16S rRNA sequences. Consequently, little is known about the types of metabolism, activity levels, or relative abundance of these groups in marine sediments. We found that one of these uncultured groups, called the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG), dominated clone libraries made from reverse transcribed 16S rRNA, and 454 pyrosequenced 16S rRNA genes, in the White Oak River estuary. Primers suitable for quantitative PCR were developed for MCG and used to show that 16S rRNA DNA copy numbers from MCG account for nearly all the archaeal 16S rRNA genes present. RT-qPCR shows much less MCG rRNA than total archaeal rRNA, but comparisons of different primers for each group suggest bias in the RNA-based work relative to the DNA-based work. There is no evidence of a population shift with depth below the sulfate-methane transition zone, suggesting that the metabolism of MCG may not be tied to sulfur or methane cycles. We classified 2,771 new sequences within the SSU Silva 106 database that, along with the classified sequences in the Silva database was used to make an MCG database of 4,646 sequences that allowed us to increase the named subgroups of MCG from 7 to 19. Percent terrestrial sequences in each subgroup is positively correlated with percent of the marine sequences that are nearshore, suggesting that membership in the different subgroups is not random, but dictated by environmental selective pressures. Given their high phylogenetic diversity, ubiquitous distribution in anoxic environments, and high DNA copy number relative to total archaea, members of MCG are most likely anaerobic heterotrophs who are integral to the post-depositional marine carbon cycle.

  20. Gender differences in the neural network of facial mimicry of smiles--An rTMS study.

    PubMed

    Korb, Sebastian; Malsert, Jennifer; Rochas, Vincent; Rihs, Tonia A; Rieger, Sebastian W; Schwab, Samir; Niedenthal, Paula M; Grandjean, Didier

    2015-09-01

    Under theories of embodied emotion, exposure to a facial expression triggers facial mimicry. Facial feedback is then used to recognize and judge the perceived expression. However, the neural bases of facial mimicry and of the use of facial feedback remain poorly understood. Furthermore, gender differences in facial mimicry and emotion recognition suggest that different neural substrates might accompany the production of facial mimicry, and the processing of facial feedback, in men and women. Here, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was applied to the right primary motor cortex (M1), the right primary somatosensory cortex (S1), or, in a control condition, the vertex (VTX). Facial mimicry of smiles and emotion judgments were recorded in response to video clips depicting changes from neutral or angry to happy facial expressions. While in females rTMS over M1 and S1 compared to VTX led to reduced mimicry and, in the case of M1, delayed detection of smiles, there was no effect of TMS condition for males. We conclude that in female participants M1 and S1 play a role in the mimicry and in the use of facial feedback for accurate processing of smiles. PMID:26211433

  1. Design and construction of a low cost dsPIC controller based repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulator (rTMS).

    PubMed

    Burunkaya, Mustafa

    2010-02-01

    In this work, a digital signal peripheral interface controller (dsPIC) based repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulator (rTMS) was designed and tested under low voltages. In addition, some limited knowledge of TMS, especially design parameters and notions concerned with it, also were investigated. The reason employing the dsPIC in the design is that design parameters can effectively be controlled. Pulse width modulation and switching output of the control unit, which is necessary to control the rTMS device, were controlled in a more effective way. The other novelty is that developed system can be used for therapeutic or diagnostic purposes in future work provided by digital signal processing performance of dsPIC. Bounded-cylindrical in shape head model made from nonmagnetic material, was used during the tests of the system. Spectrum analyses of clicking sounds were performed with FFT by using MATLAB. The effectiveness of the designed system have been proved by its' measurement results compared with previous works.

  2. Evaluating the roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule in deductive reasoning: an rTMS study.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Takeo; Sakatani, Kaoru; Masuda, Sayako; Akiyama, Takekazu; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2011-09-15

    This study used off-line repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to examine the roles of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in a deductive reasoning task. Subjects performed a categorical syllogistic reasoning task involving congruent, incongruent, and abstract trials. Twenty four subjects received magnetic stimulation to the SPL region prior to the task. In the other 24 subjects, TMS was administered to the IFG region before the task. Stimulation lasted for 10min, with an inter-pulse frequency of 1Hz. We found that bilateral SPL (Brodmann area (BA) 7) stimulation disrupted performance on abstract and incongruent reasoning. Left IFG (BA 45) stimulation impaired congruent reasoning performance while paradoxically facilitating incongruent reasoning performance. This resulted in the elimination of the belief-bias. In contrast, right IFG stimulation only impaired incongruent reasoning performance, thus enhancing the belief-bias effect. These findings are largely consistent with the dual-process theory of reasoning, which proposes the existence of two different human reasoning systems: a belief-based heuristic system; and a logic-based analytic system. The present findings suggest that the left language-related IFG (BA 45) may correspond to the heuristic system, while bilateral SPL may underlie the analytic system. The right IFG may play a role in blocking the belief-based heuristic system for solving incongruent reasoning trials. This study could offer an insight about functional roles of distributed brain systems in human deductive reasoning by utilizing the rTMS approach.

  3. Gender differences in the neural network of facial mimicry of smiles--An rTMS study.

    PubMed

    Korb, Sebastian; Malsert, Jennifer; Rochas, Vincent; Rihs, Tonia A; Rieger, Sebastian W; Schwab, Samir; Niedenthal, Paula M; Grandjean, Didier

    2015-09-01

    Under theories of embodied emotion, exposure to a facial expression triggers facial mimicry. Facial feedback is then used to recognize and judge the perceived expression. However, the neural bases of facial mimicry and of the use of facial feedback remain poorly understood. Furthermore, gender differences in facial mimicry and emotion recognition suggest that different neural substrates might accompany the production of facial mimicry, and the processing of facial feedback, in men and women. Here, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was applied to the right primary motor cortex (M1), the right primary somatosensory cortex (S1), or, in a control condition, the vertex (VTX). Facial mimicry of smiles and emotion judgments were recorded in response to video clips depicting changes from neutral or angry to happy facial expressions. While in females rTMS over M1 and S1 compared to VTX led to reduced mimicry and, in the case of M1, delayed detection of smiles, there was no effect of TMS condition for males. We conclude that in female participants M1 and S1 play a role in the mimicry and in the use of facial feedback for accurate processing of smiles.

  4. Activities of the IERS Working Group on prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wooden, W.

    2008-04-01

    The International Earth Rotation and Reference Systems Service (IERS) established a Working Group on Prediction (WGP) to investigate what IERS prediction products are useful to the user community in addition to making a detailed examination of the fundamental properties of the different input data sets and algorithms. The major goals and objectives of the WGP are to determine the desired Earth orientation prediction products, the importance of observational accuracy, which types of input data provide an optimal prediction, the strengths and weaknesses of various prediction algorithms, and the interactions between series and algorithms that are beneficial or harmful. To focus the research efforts of the WGP, the user community was polled to ascertain what prediction products are needed and at what level of accuracy. The current status of WGP activities and the anticipated future directions are presented.

  5. Photovoltaic Reliability Group activities in USA and Brazil (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Cruz, Leila R. O.

    2015-09-01

    Recently prices of photovoltaic (PV) systems have been reduced considerably and may continue to be reduced making them attractive. If these systems provide electricity over the stipulated warranty period, it would be possible attain socket parity within the next few years. Current photovoltaic module qualifications tests help in minimizing infant mortality but do not guarantee useful lifetime over the warranty period. The PV Module Quality Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) is trying to formulate accelerated tests that will be useful towards achieving the ultimate goal of assuring useful lifetime over the warranty period as well as to assure manufacturing quality. Unfortunately, assuring the manufacturing quality may require 24/7 presence. Alternatively, collecting data on the performance of fielded systems would assist in assuring manufacturing quality. Here PV systems installed by home-owners and small businesses can constitute as an important untapped source of data. The volunteer group, PV - Reliable, Safe and Sustainable Quality! (PVRessQ!) is providing valuable service to small PV system owners. Photovoltaic Reliability Group (PVRG) is initiating activities in USA and Brazil to assist home owners and small businesses in monitoring photovoltaic (PV) module performance and enforcing warranty. It will work in collaboration with small PV system owners, consumer protection agencies. Brazil is endowed with excellent solar irradiance making it attractive for installation of PV systems. Participating owners of small PV systems would instruct inverter manufacturers to copy the daily e-mails to PVRG and as necessary, will authorize the PVRG to carry out review of PV systems. The presentation will consist of overall activities of PVRG in USA and Brazil.

  6. Role of Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS & rTMS) in investigation and possible treatment of Impulsivity in neuropsychiatric disorders with ADHD and BPD as examples.

    PubMed

    Zaman, Rashid

    2014-11-01

    Pathological Impulsivity is a crucial component of several neuropsychiatric disorders and is cause of significant observed distress and morbidity. Here I will take ADHD and Borderline Personality Disorder (BPD) as examples neuropsychiatric disorders with pathological impulsivity as an important component to describe the usefulness of TMS and repetitive TMS (rTMS) as an investigative tool as well as a potential therapeutic tool.

  7. Lateralized Contribution of Prefrontal Cortex in Controlling Task-Irrelevant Information during Verbal and Spatial Working Memory Tasks: rTMS Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sandrini, Marco; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Miniussi, Carlo

    2008-01-01

    The functional organization of working memory (WM) in the human prefrontal cortex remains unclear. The present study used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to clarify the role of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) both in the types of information (verbal vs. spatial), and the types of processes (maintenance vs.…

  8. Activities of the EMRAS Tritium/C14 Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, P.A.; Balonov, M.; Venter, A

    2005-07-15

    A new model evaluation program, Environmental Modeling for Radiation Safety (EMRAS), was initiated by the International Atomic Energy Agency in September 2003. EMRAS includes a working group (WG) on modeling tritium and C-14 transfer through the environment to biota and man. The main objective of this WG is to develop and test models of the uptake, formation and translocation of organically bound tritium (OBT) in food crops, animals and aquatic systems. To the extent possible, the WG is carrying out its work by comparing model predictions with experimental data to identify the modeling approaches and assumptions that lead to the best agreement between predictions and observations. Results for scenarios involving a chronically contaminated aquatic ecosystem and short-term exposure of soybeans are presently being analyzed. In addition, calculations for scenarios involving chronically contaminated terrestrial food chains and hypothetical short-term releases are currently underway, and a pinetree scenario is being developed. The preparation of datasets on tritium dynamics in large animals and fish is being encouraged, since these are the areas of greatest uncertainty in OBT modeling. These activities will be discussed in this paper.

  9. Update on Activities of CEOS Disaster Management Support Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, H. M.; Lauritson, L.

    The Committee on Earth Observation Satellites (CEOS) Disaster Management Support Group (DMSG) has supported natural and technological disaster management on a worldwide basis by fostering improved utilization of existing and planned Earth Observation (EO) satellite data. The DMSG has focused on developing and refining recommendations for the application of satellite data to selected hazard areas--drought, earthquake, fire, flood, ice, landslide, oil spill, and volcanic hazards. Particular emphasis was placed on working closely with space agencies, international and regional organizations, and commercial organizations on the implementation of these recommendations. The DMSG is in its last year with its primary focus on documenting its work and migrating on going activities to other fora. With over 300 participants from more than 140 organizations, the DMSG has found strong support among CEOS space agencies and the Integrated Global Observing Strategy (IGOS), as well as an enthusiastic reception from numerous international, regional, and national emergency managers, and distinct interest from the commercial sector. In addition, the group has worked to give full support to the work of the United Nations Committee on the Peaceful Uses of Outer Space (COPUOS) in pursuit of decisions taken at UNISPACE III and the United Nations International Strategy on Disaster Reduction (ISDR). In conjunction with the IGOS, several of the DMSG hazards teams (earthquake, landslide, and solid Earth dimensions of volcanoes) are joining in the effort to develop an IGOS Geohazards theme team. Cooperation efforts with organizations such as IGOS, COPUOS, and ISDR will hopefully lead to the pick up of much of the on going DMSG activities. Since the inception of this ad hoc working group and its predecessor project, the DMSG has developed and refined recommendations for the application of satellite data by bringing together experts from eight hazard areas to identify user needs, as well as

  10. Incorporating More Individual Accountability in Group Activities in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Charles T., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A modified model of cooperative learning known as the GIG model (for group-individual-group) designed and implemented in a large enrollment freshman chemistry course. The goal of the model is to establish a cooperative environment while emphasizing greater individual accountability using both group and individual assignments. The assignments were…

  11. Some Factors Relevant to Group Activities in Language Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mugglestone, Patricia

    1975-01-01

    Discusses the handling of groups. The teacher should be aware of variables: size of group, composition (by ability, needs, etc.), seating arrangement, group structure, etc. Cooperative, competitive or individual work should be used, depending on the learning goal. The teacher must be perceptive, flexible, and must have good organizing ability.…

  12. Quantity, Quality, and Variety of Pupil Responses during an Open-Communication Structured Group Directed Reading-Thinking Activity and a Closed Communication Structured Group Directed Reading Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petre, Richard M.

    The quality, quantity, and variety of pupil responses while using two different group directed reading activities, the Directed Reading Activity (DRA), and the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA) were investigated in this study. The subjects, all fourth graders in two nearby communities, were grouped into above-grade-level, at-grade-level,…

  13. Reductions in Cortico-Striatal Hyperconnectivity Accompany Successful Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder with Dorsomedial Prefrontal rTMS.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Katharine; Woodside, Blake; Olmsted, Marion; Colton, Patricia; Giacobbe, Peter; Downar, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling illness with high rates of nonresponse to conventional treatments. OCD pathophysiology is believed to involve abnormalities in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuits through regions such as dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and ventral striatum. These regions may constitute therapeutic targets for neuromodulation treatments, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). However, the neurobiological predictors and correlates of successful rTMS treatment for OCD are unclear. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural predictors and correlates of response to 20-30 sessions of bilateral 10 Hz dmPFC-rTMS in 20 treatment-resistant OCD patients, with 40 healthy controls as baseline comparators. A region of interest in the dmPFC was used to generate whole-brain functional connectivity maps pre-treatment and post treatment. Ten of 20 patients met the response criteria (⩾50% improvement on Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, YBOCS); response to dmPFC-rTMS was sharply bimodal. dmPFC-rTMS responders had higher dmPFC-ventral striatal connectivity at baseline. The degree of reduction in this connectivity, from pre- to post-treatment, correlated to the degree of YBOCS symptomatic improvement. Baseline clinical and psychometric data did not predict treatment response. In summary, reductions in fronto-striatal hyperconnectivity were associated with treatment response to dmPFC-rTMS in OCD. This finding is consistent with previous fMRI studies of deep brain stimulation in OCD, but opposite to previous reports on mechanisms of dmPFC-rTMS in major depression. fMRI could prove useful in predicting the response to dmPFC-rTMS in OCD. PMID:26440813

  14. Reductions in Cortico-Striatal Hyperconnectivity Accompany Successful Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder with Dorsomedial Prefrontal rTMS

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Katharine; Woodside, Blake; Olmsted, Marion; Colton, Patricia; Giacobbe, Peter; Downar, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling illness with high rates of nonresponse to conventional treatments. OCD pathophysiology is believed to involve abnormalities in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuits through regions such as dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and ventral striatum. These regions may constitute therapeutic targets for neuromodulation treatments, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). However, the neurobiological predictors and correlates of successful rTMS treatment for OCD are unclear. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural predictors and correlates of response to 20–30 sessions of bilateral 10 Hz dmPFC-rTMS in 20 treatment-resistant OCD patients, with 40 healthy controls as baseline comparators. A region of interest in the dmPFC was used to generate whole-brain functional connectivity maps pre-treatment and post treatment. Ten of 20 patients met the response criteria (⩾50% improvement on Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, YBOCS); response to dmPFC-rTMS was sharply bimodal. dmPFC-rTMS responders had higher dmPFC-ventral striatal connectivity at baseline. The degree of reduction in this connectivity, from pre- to post-treatment, correlated to the degree of YBOCS symptomatic improvement. Baseline clinical and psychometric data did not predict treatment response. In summary, reductions in fronto-striatal hyperconnectivity were associated with treatment response to dmPFC-rTMS in OCD. This finding is consistent with previous fMRI studies of deep brain stimulation in OCD, but opposite to previous reports on mechanisms of dmPFC-rTMS in major depression. fMRI could prove useful in predicting the response to dmPFC-rTMS in OCD. PMID:26440813

  15. Space Weather Activities of IONOLAB Group: IONOLAB-TEC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arikan, F.; Sezen, U.; Arikan, O.; Ugurlu, O.; Nayir, H.

    2009-04-01

    Space Weather (SW) is the concept of changing environmental conditions in outer space and affect Earth and its technological systems. SW is a consequence of the solar activities and the coupling of solar energy on Earth's atmosphere due to the Earth's magnetic field. The monitoring and prediction of SW has utmost importance for HF communication, Satellite communication, navigation and guidance systems, Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite systems, Space Craft exit and entry into the atmosphere. Ionosphere is the plasma layer of the atmosphere that is ionized by solar radiation and it is a key player of SW. Ionosphere is a temporally and spatially varying, dispersive, anisotropic and inhomogeneous medium that is characterized primarily by its electron density distribution. IONOLAB is a group of researchers of various disciplines, getting together to handle challenges of the Earth's ionosphere. The team has researchers from Hacettepe University and Bilkent University, Department of Electrical and Electronics Engineering and General Command of Mapping of Turkish Army. One of the most important contributions of IONOLAB group is the automated web-based computation service for Total Electron Content (TEC). TEC corresponds to the line integral of electron density distribution on a given path. TEC can also be expressed as the amount of free electrons within 1 m2 cross-sectional area of the cylinder on the ray path. Global Position System (GPS) provides a cost-effective medium for monitoring of ionosphere using the signals recorded by stationary GPS receivers in estimating TEC. IONOLAB group has developed IONOLAB-TEC for reliable and robust estimates for all latitudes and both calm and disturbed days by using RINEX, IONEX and satellite ephemeris data provided from the IGS centers. IONOLAB-TEC consists of a regularized signal estimation algorithm which combines signals from all GPS satellites for a given instant and a given receiver, for a desired time period or for 24 hours

  16. The Use of a Group Blog to Actively Support Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of blogs in higher education, there remains a lack of knowledge and consensus about the use and value of blogging in higher education, particularly when used for long periods. This article investigates the use of a group blog to assist traditional teaching activities and foster collaborative learning through the…

  17. Skills for Living: Group Counseling Activities for Elementary Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morganett, Rosemarie Smead

    This book can help counselors in the school or mental health setting create meaningful group experiences for children who, for whatever reason, are behind in social and life skill development. The group agendas have been developed with children from grades 2-5 in mind. Although each topic stands alone, children can benefit from more than one…

  18. The Fantastic Facilitator: Engaging Activities for Leading Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duttweiler, Patricia Cloud

    This document is designed to help facilitators with the formation and development of effective teams of people who have no previous history as a team and no training in group processes. Part 1 provides a narrative explanation of the stages of group development (investing in membership, forming attachments to subgroups, confronting/debating issues,…

  19. An Activity Group Experience for Disengaged Elderly Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, John Ewing; Bodden, Jack L.

    1978-01-01

    Tested the activity theory (which proposes that elderly persons remain in active contact with their environment) and disengagement theory (which suggests adjustment comes through reduction of activity and social contact). Disengaged elderly were identified. Subjects demonstrated significant improvement over the untreated control subjects. Results…

  20. Group Problem Solving as a Zone of Proximal Development activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewe, Eric

    2006-12-01

    Vygotsky described learning as a process, intertwined with development, which is strongly influenced by social interactions with others that are at differing developmental stages.i These interactions create a Zone of Proximal Development for each member of the interaction. Vygotsky’s notion of social constructivism is not only a theory of learning, but also of development. While teaching introductory physics in an interactive format, I have found manifestations of Vygotsky’s theory in my classroom. The source of evidence is a paired problem solution. A standard mechanics problem was solved by students in two classes as a homework assignment. Students handed in the homework and then solved the same problem in small groups. The solutions to both the group and individual problem were assessed by multiple reviewers. In many cases the group score was the same as the highest individual score in the group, but in some cases, the group score was higher than any individual score. For this poster, I will analyze the individual and group scores and focus on three groups solutions and video that provide evidence of learning through membership in a Zone of Proximal Development. Endnotes i L. Vygotsky -Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (1978).

  1. Formation of nanostructured Group IIA metal activated sensors: The transformation of Group IIA metal compound sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tune, Travis C.; Baker, Caitlin; Hardy, Neil; Lin, Arthur; Widing, Timothy J.; Gole, James L.

    2015-05-01

    Trends in the Group IIA metal oxides and hydroxides of magnesium, calcium, and barium are unique in the periodic table. In this study we find that they display novel trends as decorating nanostructures for extrinsic semiconductor interfaces. The Group IIA metal ions are strong Lewis acids. We form these M2+ ions in aqueous solution and bring these solutions in contact with a porous silicon interface to form interfaces for conductometric measurements. Observed responses are consistent with the formation of MgO whereas the heavier elements display behaviors which suggest the effect of their more basic nature. Mg(OH)2, when formed, represents a weak base whereas the heavier metal hydroxides of Ca, Sr, and Ba are strong bases. However, the hydroxides tend to give up hydrogen and act as Brönsted acids. For the latter elements, the reversible interaction response of nanostructures deposited to the porous silicon (PS) interface is modified, as the formation of more basic sites appears to compete with M2+ Lewis acidity and hydroxide Brönsted acidity. Mg2+ forms an interface whose response to the analytes NH3 and NO is consistent with MgO and well explained by the recently developing Inverse Hard/Soft Acid/Base model. The behavior of the Ca2+ and Ba2+ decorated interfaces as they interact with the hard base NH3 follows a reversal of the model, indicating a decrease in acidic character as the observed conductometric response suggests the interaction with hydroxyl groups. A change from oxide-like to hydroxide-like constituents is supported by XPS studies. The changes in conductometric response is easily monitored in contrast to changes associated with the Group IIA oxides and hydroxides observed in XPS, EDAX, IR, and NMR measurements.

  2. Parents' Networking Strategies: Participation of Formal and Informal Parent Groups in School Activities and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanat, Carolyn L.

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined parent groups' involvement in school activities and their participation in decision making. Research questions included the following: (1) What is the nature of parent groups in schools? (2) What activities and issues gain parent groups' attention and participation? (3) How do parent groups communicate concerns about…

  3. Scaffolding of Small Groups' Metacognitive Activities with an Avatar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molenaar, Inge; Chiu, Ming Ming; Sleegers, Peter; van Boxtel, Carla

    2011-01-01

    Metacognitive scaffolding in a computer-supported learning environment can influence students' metacognitive activities, metacognitive knowledge and domain knowledge. In this study we analyze how metacognitive activities mediate the relationships between different avatar scaffolds on students' learning. Multivariate, multilevel analysis of the…

  4. Supporting Mobile Collaborative Activities through Scaffolded Flexible Grouping

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boticki, Ivica; Looi, Chee-Kit; Wong, Lung-Hsiang

    2011-01-01

    Within the field of Mobile Computer-Supported Collaborative Learning (mCSCL), we are interested in exploring the space of collaborative activities that enable students to practice communication, negotiation and decision-making skills. Collaboration is via learning activities that circumvent the constraints of fixed seating or locations of…

  5. Classroom-Based Interdependent Group Contingencies Increase Children's Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuhl, Sarah; Rudrud, Eric H.; Witts, Benjamin N.; Schulze, Kimberly A.

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of 2 interdependent group contingencies (individual vs. cumulative classroom goal setting) on the number of pedometer-recorded steps taken per day. Thirty third-grade students in 2 classrooms participated. An ABACX design was conducted in which the X phase referred to a replication of the most successful phase…

  6. The role of areas MT+/V5 and SPOC in spatial and temporal control of manual interception: an rTMS study

    PubMed Central

    Dessing, Joost C.; Vesia, Michael; Crawford, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Manual interception, such as catching or hitting an approaching ball, requires the hand to contact a moving object at the right location and at the right time. Many studies have examined the neural mechanisms underlying the spatial aspects of goal-directed reaching, but the neural basis of the spatial and temporal aspects of manual interception are largely unknown. Here, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to investigate the role of the human middle temporal visual motion area (MT+/V5) and superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC) in the spatial and temporal control of manual interception. Participants were required to reach-to-intercept a downward moving visual target that followed an unpredictably curved trajectory, presented on a screen in the vertical plane. We found that rTMS to MT+/V5 influenced interceptive timing and positioning, whereas rTMS to SPOC only tended to increase the spatial variance in reach end points for selected target trajectories. These findings are consistent with theories arguing that distinct neural mechanisms contribute to spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal control of manual interception. PMID:23468002

  7. Conversation Strategies: Pair and Group Activities for Developing Communicative Competence.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kehe, David; Kehe, Peggy Dustin

    The guide is designed for use in English-as-a-Second-Language instruction at the intermediate level. The activities are designed to be enjoyable and encourage students to interact, but also to be non-threatening to even the most reserved students. The exercises develop strategic conversation skills. Each has three parts: a teacher's introduction;…

  8. Novel, high-activity hydroprocessing catalysts: Iron group phosphides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xianqin

    A series of iron, cobalt and nickel transition metal phosphides was synthesized by means of temperature-programmed reduction (TPR) of the corresponding phosphates. The same materials, Fe2P, CoP and NO, were also prepared on a silica (SiO2) support. The phase purity of these catalysts was established by x-ray diffraction (XRD), and the surface properties were determined by N2 BET specific surface area (Sg) measurements and CO chemisorption. The activities of the silica-supported catalysts were tested in a three-phase trickle bed reactor for the simultaneous hydrodenitrogenation (HDN) of quinoline and hydrodesulfurization (HDS) of dibenzothiophene using a model liquid feed at realistic conditions (30 atm, 370°C). The reactivity studies showed that the nickel phosphide (Ni2P/SiO2) was the most active of the catalysts. Compared with a commercial Ni-Mo-S/gamma-Al 2O3 catalyst at the same conditions, Ni2P/silica had a substantially higher HDS activity (100% vs. 76%) and HDN activity (82% vs. 38%). Because of their good hydrotreating activity, an extensive study of the preparation of silica supported nickel phosphides, Ni2P/SiO 2, was carried out. The parameters investigated were the phosphorus content and the weight loading of the active phase. The most active composition was found to have a starting synthesis Ni/P ratio close to 1/2, and the best loading of this sample on silica was observed to be 18 wt.%. Extended x-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and x-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES) measurements were employed to determine the structures of the supported samples. The main phase before and after reaction was found to be Ni2P, but some sulfur was found to be retained after reaction. A comprehensive scrutiny of the HDN reaction mechanism was also made over the Ni2P/SiO2 sample (Ni/P = 1/2) by comparing the HDN activity of a series of piperidine derivatives of different structure. It was found that piperidine adsorption involved an alpha-H activation

  9. Working Group 5: Measurements technology and active experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E.; Barfield, J. N.; Faelthammar, C.-G.; Feynman, J.; Quinn, J. N.; Roberts, W.; Stone, N.; Taylor, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Technology issues identified by working groups 5 are listed. (1) New instruments are needed to upgrade the ability to measure plasma properties in space. (2) Facilities should be developed for conducting a broad range of plasma experiments in space. (3) The ability to predict plasma weather within magnetospheres should be improved and a capability to modify plasma weather developed. (4) Methods of control of plasma spacecraft and spacecraft plasma interference should be upgraded. (5) The space station laboratory facilities should be designed with attention to problems of flexibility to allow for future growth. These issues are discussed.

  10. Characterization of inhibitory mechanism and antifungal activity between group-1 and group-2 phytocystatins from taro (Colocasia esculenta).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Ming; Kumar, Senthil; Cheng, Yi-Sheng; Venkatagiri, Shripathi; Yang, Ai-Hwa; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2008-10-01

    Tarocystatin from Colocasia esculenta, a group-2 phytocystatin, is a defense protein against phytopathogenic nematodes and fungi. It is composed of a highly conserved N-terminal region, which is homological to group-1 cystatin, and a repetitive peptide at the C-terminus. The purified recombinant proteins of tarocystatin, such as full-length (FL), N-terminus (Nt) and C-terminus (Ct) peptides, were produced and their inhibitory activities against papain as well as their antifungal effects were investigated. Kinetic analysis revealed that FL peptide exhibited mixed type inhibition (K(ia) = 0.098 microM and K(ib) = 0.252 microM) and Nt peptide showed competitive inhibition (K(i) = 0.057 microM), whereas Ct peptide possessed weak papain activation properties. A shift in the inhibitory pattern from competitive inhibition of Nt peptide alone to mixed type inhibition of FL peptide implied that the Ct peptide has an regulatory effect on the function of FL peptide. Based on the inhibitory kinetics of FL (group-2) and Nt (group-1) peptides on papain activity, an inhibitory mechanism of group-2 phytocystatins and a regulatory mechanism of extended Ct peptide have each been proposed. By contrast, the antifungal activity of Nt peptide appeared to be greater than that of FL peptide, and the Ct peptide showed no effect on antifungal activity, indicating that the antifungal effect is not related to proteinase inhibitory activity. The results are valid for most phytocystatins with respect to the inhibitory mechanism against cysteine proteinase.

  11. Characterization of inhibitory mechanism and antifungal activity between group-1 and group-2 phytocystatins from taro (Colocasia esculenta).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Ming; Kumar, Senthil; Cheng, Yi-Sheng; Venkatagiri, Shripathi; Yang, Ai-Hwa; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2008-10-01

    Tarocystatin from Colocasia esculenta, a group-2 phytocystatin, is a defense protein against phytopathogenic nematodes and fungi. It is composed of a highly conserved N-terminal region, which is homological to group-1 cystatin, and a repetitive peptide at the C-terminus. The purified recombinant proteins of tarocystatin, such as full-length (FL), N-terminus (Nt) and C-terminus (Ct) peptides, were produced and their inhibitory activities against papain as well as their antifungal effects were investigated. Kinetic analysis revealed that FL peptide exhibited mixed type inhibition (K(ia) = 0.098 microM and K(ib) = 0.252 microM) and Nt peptide showed competitive inhibition (K(i) = 0.057 microM), whereas Ct peptide possessed weak papain activation properties. A shift in the inhibitory pattern from competitive inhibition of Nt peptide alone to mixed type inhibition of FL peptide implied that the Ct peptide has an regulatory effect on the function of FL peptide. Based on the inhibitory kinetics of FL (group-2) and Nt (group-1) peptides on papain activity, an inhibitory mechanism of group-2 phytocystatins and a regulatory mechanism of extended Ct peptide have each been proposed. By contrast, the antifungal activity of Nt peptide appeared to be greater than that of FL peptide, and the Ct peptide showed no effect on antifungal activity, indicating that the antifungal effect is not related to proteinase inhibitory activity. The results are valid for most phytocystatins with respect to the inhibitory mechanism against cysteine proteinase. PMID:18785929

  12. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM.

  13. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM. PMID:26018644

  14. Meta-Analysis of Group Learning Activities: Empirically Based Teaching Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomcho, Thomas J.; Foels, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Teaching researchers commonly employ group-based collaborative learning approaches in Teaching of Psychology teaching activities. However, the authors know relatively little about the effectiveness of group-based activities in relation to known psychological processes associated with group dynamics. Therefore, the authors conducted a meta-analytic…

  15. Engager and Avoider Behaviour in Types of Activities Performed by Out-of-Class Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Louisa; Kember, David

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the out-of-class learning activities undertaken, at the students' volition, by groups of students. Data were gathered through 57 individual and 15 focus group interviews with university students in Hong Kong. Group activities reported included: copying, sharing material, consulting peers, consulting teachers, studying and…

  16. Current activities of the Atmospheric Composition Sub-Group of the CEOS Working Group on Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojkov, Bojan

    The Atmospheric Sub-Group of the CEOS Calibration and Validation Working Group (CEOS WGCV/ASCG) was established in November 2001 with mission to ensure accurate and traceable calibration of remotely-sensed atmospheric chemistry radiance data and validation of higher level products, for application to atmospheric chemistry and climate research. This working-group, consisting of 15 members from space agencies and other relevant agencies and organizations with broad experience in calibration, modeling, algorithm development and validation, meet on an annual basis to promote international collaboration and technical exchanges, encourage interactions between mission scientists and data users, recommend network validation sites, develop comprehensive validation methodologies involving ground-based and space-borne assets, and specify comprehensive and consistent multi-mission validation datasets. Recent activities of the ACSG, including the recent ground-based intercomparisons, the ongoing NASA-ESA-NDACC validation data sharing activities, and the planned multi-agency CO2 validation efforts, will be presented.

  17. Group average difference: a termination criterion for active contour.

    PubMed

    Chuah, Tong Kuan; Lim, Jun Hong; Poh, Chueh Loo

    2012-04-01

    This paper presents a termination criterion for active contour that does not involve alteration of the energy functional. The criterion is based on the area difference of the contour during evolution. In this criterion, the evolution of the contour terminates when the area difference fluctuates around a constant. The termination criterion is tested using parametric gradient vector flow active contour with contour resampling and normal force selection. The usefulness of the criterion is shown through its trend, speed, accuracy, shape insensitivity, and insensitivity to contour resampling. The metric used in the proposed criterion demonstrated a steadily decreasing trend. For automatic implementation in which different shapes need to be segmented, the proposed criterion demonstrated almost 50% and 60% total time reduction while achieving similar accuracy as compared with the pixel movement-based method in the segmentation of synthetic and real medical images, respectively. Our results also show that the proposed termination criterion is insensitive to shape variation and contour resampling. The criterion also possesses potential to be used for other kinds of snakes.

  18. Superfluid phase transition with activated velocity fluctuations: Renormalization group approach.

    PubMed

    Dančo, Michal; Hnatič, Michal; Komarova, Marina V; Lučivjanský, Tomáš; Nalimov, Mikhail Yu

    2016-01-01

    A quantum field model that incorporates Bose-condensed systems near their phase transition into a superfluid phase and velocity fluctuations is proposed. The stochastic Navier-Stokes equation is used for a generation of the velocity fluctuations. As such this model generalizes model F of critical dynamics. The field-theoretic action is derived using the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism and path integral approach. The regime of equilibrium fluctuations is analyzed within the perturbative renormalization group method. The double (ε,δ)-expansion scheme is employed, where ε is a deviation from space dimension 4 and δ describes scaling of velocity fluctuations. The renormalization procedure is performed to the leading order. The main corollary gained from the analysis of the thermal equilibrium regime suggests that one-loop calculations of the presented models are not sufficient to make a definite conclusion about the stability of fixed points. We also show that critical exponents are drastically changed as a result of the turbulent background and critical fluctuations are in fact destroyed by the developed turbulence fluctuations. The scaling exponent of effective viscosity is calculated and agrees with expected value 4/3.

  19. Superfluid phase transition with activated velocity fluctuations: Renormalization group approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dančo, Michal; Hnatič, Michal; Komarova, Marina V.; Lučivjanský, Tomáš; Nalimov, Mikhail Yu.

    2016-01-01

    A quantum field model that incorporates Bose-condensed systems near their phase transition into a superfluid phase and velocity fluctuations is proposed. The stochastic Navier-Stokes equation is used for a generation of the velocity fluctuations. As such this model generalizes model F of critical dynamics. The field-theoretic action is derived using the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism and path integral approach. The regime of equilibrium fluctuations is analyzed within the perturbative renormalization group method. The double (ɛ ,δ ) -expansion scheme is employed, where ɛ is a deviation from space dimension 4 and δ describes scaling of velocity fluctuations. The renormalization procedure is performed to the leading order. The main corollary gained from the analysis of the thermal equilibrium regime suggests that one-loop calculations of the presented models are not sufficient to make a definite conclusion about the stability of fixed points. We also show that critical exponents are drastically changed as a result of the turbulent background and critical fluctuations are in fact destroyed by the developed turbulence fluctuations. The scaling exponent of effective viscosity is calculated and agrees with expected value 4 /3 .

  20. Superfluid phase transition with activated velocity fluctuations: Renormalization group approach.

    PubMed

    Dančo, Michal; Hnatič, Michal; Komarova, Marina V; Lučivjanský, Tomáš; Nalimov, Mikhail Yu

    2016-01-01

    A quantum field model that incorporates Bose-condensed systems near their phase transition into a superfluid phase and velocity fluctuations is proposed. The stochastic Navier-Stokes equation is used for a generation of the velocity fluctuations. As such this model generalizes model F of critical dynamics. The field-theoretic action is derived using the Martin-Siggia-Rose formalism and path integral approach. The regime of equilibrium fluctuations is analyzed within the perturbative renormalization group method. The double (ε,δ)-expansion scheme is employed, where ε is a deviation from space dimension 4 and δ describes scaling of velocity fluctuations. The renormalization procedure is performed to the leading order. The main corollary gained from the analysis of the thermal equilibrium regime suggests that one-loop calculations of the presented models are not sufficient to make a definite conclusion about the stability of fixed points. We also show that critical exponents are drastically changed as a result of the turbulent background and critical fluctuations are in fact destroyed by the developed turbulence fluctuations. The scaling exponent of effective viscosity is calculated and agrees with expected value 4/3. PMID:26871026

  1. Group B Streptococcal Infection and Activation of Human Astrocytes

    PubMed Central

    Stoner, Terri D.; Weston, Thomas A.; Trejo, JoAnn; Doran, Kelly S.

    2015-01-01

    Background Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) is the leading cause of life-threatening meningitis in human newborns in industrialized countries. Meningitis results from neonatal infection that occurs when GBS leaves the bloodstream (bacteremia), crosses the blood-brain barrier (BBB), and enters the central nervous system (CNS), where the bacteria contact the meninges. Although GBS is known to invade the BBB, subsequent interaction with astrocytes that physically associate with brain endothelium has not been well studied. Methodology/Principal Findings We hypothesize that human astrocytes play a unique role in GBS infection and contribute to the development of meningitis. To address this, we used a well- characterized human fetal astrocyte cell line, SVG-A, and examined GBS infection in vitro. We observed that all GBS strains of representative clinically dominant serotypes (Ia, Ib, III, and V) were able to adhere to and invade astrocytes. Cellular invasion was dependent on host actin cytoskeleton rearrangements, and was specific to GBS as Streptococcus gordonii failed to enter astrocytes. Analysis of isogenic mutant GBS strains deficient in various cell surface organelles showed that anchored LTA, serine-rich repeat protein (Srr1) and fibronectin binding (SfbA) proteins all contribute to host cell internalization. Wild-type GBS also displayed an ability to persist and survive within an intracellular compartment for at least 12 h following invasion. Moreover, GBS infection resulted in increased astrocyte transcription of interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6 and VEGF. Conclusions/Significance This study has further characterized the interaction of GBS with human astrocytes, and has identified the importance of specific virulence factors in these interactions. Understanding the role of astrocytes during GBS infection will provide important information regarding BBB disruption and the development of neonatal meningitis. PMID:26030618

  2. BRAIN REWARD ACTIVITY TO MASKED IN-GROUP SMILING FACES PREDICTS FRIENDSHIP DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pin-Hao A.; Whalen, Paul J.; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Taylor, James M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether neural responses in the ventral striatum (VS) to in-group facial expressions—presented without explicit awareness—could predict friendship patterns in newly arrived individuals from China six months later. Individuals who initially showed greater VS activity in response to in-group happy expressions during functional neuroimaging later made considerably more in-group friends, suggesting that VS activity might reflect reward processes that drive in-group approach behaviors. PMID:26185595

  3. The role of peer groups in male and female adolescents' task values and physical activity.

    PubMed

    Yli-Piipari, Sami; Jaakkola, Timo; Liukkonen, Jarmo; Kiuru, Noona; Watt, Anthony

    2011-02-01

    The purpose of this longitudinal study was to examine the role of peer groups and sex in adolescents' task values and physical activity. The participants were 330 Finnish Grade 6 students (173 girls, 157 boys), who responded to questionnaires that assessed physical education task values during the spring semester (Time 1). Students' physical activity was assessed one year later (Time 2). The results indicated that adolescent peer groups were moderately homogeneous in terms of task values toward physical education and physical activity. Girls' peer groups were more homogeneous than those of boys in regards to utility and attainment values. Furthermore, the results for both girls and boys showed that particularly intrinsic task value typical for the peer group predicted group members' physical activity. The findings highlight the important role of peer group membership as a determinant of future physical activity. PMID:21526593

  4. Independent and Small Group Activities for Social Studies in the Primary Grades.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ball, Barbara; And Others

    A teachers' guide for social studies, this manual stresses geography curriculum and activities for the primary grades. It is suggested that a teacher work with one group while the other children work individually. Children first work independently for a team, and then progress to less structured small group activities. Positive reinforcement by…

  5. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  6. Similar barriers and facilitators to physical activity across different clinical groups experiencing lower limb spasticity.

    PubMed

    Hundza, Sandra; Quartly, Caroline; Kim, Jasmine M; Dunnett, James; Dobrinsky, Jill; Loots, Iris; Choy, Kim; Chow, Brayley; Hampshire, Alexis; Temple, Viviene A

    2016-07-01

    Purpose Given the importance of physical activity in maintaining health and wellness, an improved understanding of physical activity patterns across different clinical populations is required. This study examines the facilitators for, and barriers to, participation in physical activity across multiple contexts for three clinical groups with chronic lower limb spasticity (individuals with stroke, multiple sclerosis and incomplete spinal cord injury). Method This cross-sectional study employed quantitative measures for spasticity, ankle range of motion, pain, falls, cognition, mobility, and physical activity as well as qualitative semi-structured interviews. Results There were similar impairments in body functions and structures and limitations in activities across the clinical groups. These impairments and limitations negatively impacted participation in physical activity, which was low. Environmental and personal factors exacerbated or mitigated the limiting effects of body functions and structures and activities on physical activity in many areas of life. Conclusions In this population, participation in physical activity includes activities such as housework which are different than what is typically considered as physical activity. Further, the presence of similar barriers and facilitators across the groups suggests that support and services to promote valued forms of physical activity could be organised and delivered based on limitations in mobility and functioning rather than clinical diagnosis. Implications for rehabilitation Physical activity is of utmost importance in maintaining health and wellness in clinical populations. This research highlights the desired and actual physical activity for these populations can look different than what may traditionally be considered as physical activity (e.g. housework is not typically considered participation physical activity). Therefore, rehabilitation interventions need to be directly designed to enhance clients

  7. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6–8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p < 0.001), with no difference between interventions. No amelioration of psychiatric symptoms was observed. The dropout rate was lower with cognitive behavioural therapy than with recreational activity, and participants in cognitive behavioural therapy rated themselves as more generally improved, as well as more improved regarding expression of needs and understanding of difficulties. Both interventions appear to be promising treatment options for adults with autism spectrum disorder. The interventions’ similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout. PMID:24089423

  8. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-08-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6-8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p < 0.001), with no difference between interventions. No amelioration of psychiatric symptoms was observed. The dropout rate was lower with cognitive behavioural therapy than with recreational activity, and participants in cognitive behavioural therapy rated themselves as more generally improved, as well as more improved regarding expression of needs and understanding of difficulties. Both interventions appear to be promising treatment options for adults with autism spectrum disorder. The interventions' similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout.

  9. Group II p21-activated kinases as therapeutic targets in gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yang-Guang; Ning, Ke; Li, Feng

    2016-01-01

    P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are central players in various oncogenic signaling pathways. The six PAK family members are classified into group I (PAK1-3) and group II (PAK4-6). Focus is currently shifting from group I PAKs to group II PAKs. Group II PAKs play important roles in many fundamental cellular processes, some of which have particular significance in the development and progression of cancer. Because of their important functions, group II PAKs have become popular potential drug target candidates. However, few group II PAKs inhibitors have been reported, and most do not exhibit satisfactory kinase selectivity and “drug-like” properties. Isoform- and kinase-selective PAK inhibitors remain to be developed. This review describes the biological activities of group II PAKs, the importance of group II PAKs in the development and progression of gastrointestinal cancer, and small-molecule inhibitors of group II PAKs for the treatment of cancer. PMID:26811660

  10. Motor imagery-based skill acquisition disrupted following rTMS of the inferior parietal lobule.

    PubMed

    Kraeutner, Sarah N; Keeler, Laura T; Boe, Shaun G

    2016-02-01

    Motor imagery (MI), the mental rehearsal of motor tasks, has promise as a therapy in post-stroke rehabilitation. The potential effectiveness of MI is attributed to the facilitation of plasticity in numerous brain regions akin to those recruited for physical practice. It is suggested, however, that MI relies more heavily on regions commonly affected post-stroke, including left hemisphere parietal regions involved in visuospatial processes. However, the impact of parietal damage on MI-based skill acquisition that underlies rehabilitation remains unclear. Here, we examine the contribution of the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) to MI using inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and an MI-based implicit sequence learning (ISL) paradigm. Participants (N = 27) completed the MI-based ISL paradigm after receiving continuous theta burst stimulation to the left IPL (TMS), or with the coil angled away from the scalp (sham). Reaction time differences (dRT) and effect sizes between implicit and random sequences assessed success of MI-based learning. Mean dRT for the sham group was 36.1 ± 28.2 ms (d = 0.71). Mean dRT in the TMS group was 7.7 ± 38.5 ms (d = 0.11). These results indicate that inhibition of the left IPL impaired MI-based learning. We conclude that the IPL and likely the visuospatial processes it mediates are critical for MI performance and thus MI-based skill acquisition or learning. Ultimately, these findings have implications for the use of MI in post-stroke rehabilitation.

  11. The physical activity profiles of South Asian ethnic groups in England

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Prachi; Townsend, Nick; Shaw, Alison; Foster, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Background To identify what types of activity contribute to overall physical activity in South Asian ethnic groups and how these vary according to sex and age. We used the White British ethnic group as a comparison. Methods Self-reported physical activity was measured in the Health Survey for England 1999 and 2004, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey that boosted ethnic minority samples in these years. We merged the two survey years and analysed data from 19 476 adults. The proportions of total physical activity achieved through walking, housework, sports and DIY activity were calculated. We stratified by sex and age group and used analysis of variances to examine differences between ethnic groups, adjusted for the socioeconomic status. Results There was a significant difference between ethnic groups for the contributions of all physical activity domains for those aged below 55 years, with the exception of walking. In women aged 16–34 years, there was no significant difference in the contribution of walking to total physical activity (p=0.38). In the 35–54 age group, Bangladeshi males have the highest proportion of total activity from walking (30%). In those aged over 55 years, the proportion of activity from sports was the lowest in all South Asian ethnic groups for both sexes. Conclusions UK South Asians are more active in some ways that differ, by age and sex, from White British, but are similarly active in other ways. These results can be used to develop targeted population level interventions for increasing physical activity levels in adult UK South Asian populations. PMID:26677257

  12. Chemical modification and structure-activity relationships of pyripyropenes. 1. Modification at the four hydroxyl groups.

    PubMed

    Obata, R; Sunazuka, T; Li, Z; Tian, Z; Harigaya, Y; Tabata, N; Tomoda, H; Omura, S

    1996-11-01

    Four hydroxyl groups of pyripyropenes have been modified and evaluated for their ability to inhibit microsomal acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) activity in vitro and to lower cholesterol absorption in vivo in a cholesterol-fed hamster. 7-O-n-Valeryl derivative (8c) improved the in vitro ACAT inhibitory activity (IC50 = 13 nM) about 7 times better than pyripyropene A. Introduction of methanesulfonyl group at 11-hydroxyl group (17a) increased both in vitro activity (IC50 = 19 nM) and in vivo efficacy (ED50 = 10 mg/kg). PMID:8982343

  13. Measuring enjoyment of physical activity in older adults: invariance of the physical activity enjoyment scale (paces) across groups and time

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to validate the Physical Activity Enjoyment Scale (PACES) in a sample of older adults. Participants within two different exercise groups were assessed at two time points, 6 months apart. Group and longitudinal invariance was established for a novel, 8-item version of the PACES. The shortened, psychometrically sound measure provides researchers and practitioners an expedited and reliable instrument for assessing the enjoyment of physical activity. PMID:21951520

  14. Role of the phenolic hydroxyl group in the biological activities of simplified analogue of aplysiatoxin with antiproliferative activity.

    PubMed

    Yanagita, Ryo C; Kamachi, Hiroaki; Tanaka, Keisuke; Murakami, Akira; Nakagawa, Yu; Tokuda, Harukuni; Nagai, Hiroshi; Irie, Kazuhiro

    2010-10-15

    The 18-deoxy derivative (3) of a simplified analogue (1) of aplysiatoxin with antiproliferative activity was synthesized to examine the role of the phenolic hydroxyl group at position 18 in the biological activities of 1. Compound 3 as well as 1 showed significant affinity for protein kinase Cδ (PKCδ), and the antiproliferative activity of 3 was slightly higher than that of 1. However, the anti-tumor-promoting activity of 3 was less than that of 1 in vitro, suggesting that the phenolic hydroxyl group of 1 is necessary for the anti-tumor-promoting activity but not for the binding of PKCδ and antiproliferative activity. Moreover, PKC isozyme selectivity of 3 was similar to that of 1, suggesting non-PKC receptors for these compounds to play some roles in the anti-tumor-promoting activity of 1.

  15. Comparison of Hemagglutination and Hemolytic Activity of Various Bacterial Clinical Isolates Against Different Human Blood Groups

    PubMed Central

    HRV, Rajkumar; Devaki, Ramakrishna

    2016-01-01

    Among the various pathogenic determinants shown by microorganisms hemagglutination and hemolysin production assume greater significance in terms of laboratory identification. This study evaluated the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of various bacterial isolates against different blood groups. One hundred and fifty bacterial strains, isolated from clinical specimens like urine, pus, blood, and other body fluids were tested for their hemagglutinating and hemolytic activity against human A, B, AB, and O group red blood cells. Among the 150 isolates 81 were Escherichia coli, 18 were Klebsiella pneumoniae, 19 were Pseudomonas aeruginosa, 10 were Pseudomonas spp, six were Proteus mirabilis, and the rest 16 were Staphylococcus aureus. Nearly 85% of the isolates agglutinated A group cells followed by B and AB group (59.3% and 60.6% respectively). Least number of isolates agglutinated O group cells (38.0%). When the hemolytic activity was tested, out of these 150 isolates 79 (52.6%) hemolyzed A group cells, 61 (40.6%) hemolyzed AB group cells, 46 (30.6%) hemolyzed B group cells, and 57 (38.6%) isolates hemolyzed O group cells. Forty-six percent of the isolates exhibited both hemagglutinating and hemolytic property against A group cells, followed by B and AB group cells (28.6% and 21.3% respectively). Least number of isolates i.e., 32 (21.3%) showed both the properties against O group cells. The isolates showed wide variation in their hemagglutination and hemolytic properties against different combinations of human blood group cells. The study highlights the importance of selection of the type of cells especially when human RBCs are used for studying the hemagglutination and hemolytic activity of bacterial isolates because these two properties are considered as characteristic of pathogenic strains. PMID:27014523

  16. Therapeutic administration of atomoxetine combined with rTMS and occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke: a case series study of three patients.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Shoji; Kakuda, Wataru; Yamada, Naoki; Momosaki, Ryo; Okuma, Ryo; Watanabe, Shu; Abo, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Atomoxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, has been reported to enhance brain plasticity, but has not yet been used in stroke patients. We reported the feasibility and clinical benefits on motor functional recovery of the combination of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive occupational therapy (OT) in stroke patients. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the additive effects of oral atomoxetine to rTMS/OT in post-stroke hemiparetic patients. The study included three post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. Treatment with 40 mg/day atomoxetine commenced 2 weeks before admission. After confirming tolerance, the dose was increased to 120 mg/day. Low-frequency rTMS/OT was provided daily for 15 days during continued atomoxetine therapy. Motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function test. All patients completed the protocol and showed motor improvement up to 4 weeks after the treatment. No atomoxetine-related side effects were noted. Our protocol of triple therapy of atomoxetine, low-frequency rTMS, and OT is safe and feasible intervention for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke.

  17. Active Learning in the Classroom: The Use of Group Role Plays.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kitzerow, Phyllis

    1990-01-01

    Describes group role-playing activities that have been used to teach about education, criminology, and sex roles. Suggests that role play helps students to absorb and retain many of the insights about the issues involved. (DB)

  18. Carboxylate groups play a major role in antitumor activity of Ganoderma applanatum polysaccharide.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaobo; Zhao, Chen; Pan, Wei; Wang, Jinping; Wang, Weijun

    2015-06-01

    In this paper, the structure difference between the polysaccharides isolated from fruit bodies (FGAP) and submerged fermentation system (SGAP) of Ganoderma applanatum was investigated by means of GPC, HPLC and IR, respectively. And their antitumor activities were evaluated against Sarcoma 180 in vivo. The results showed that FGAP and SGAP were typical polysaccharides with different molecular weights, monosaccharide components, and functional groups. Closely related to the distinct structures, FGAP exhibited a better antitumor activity than SGAP. Moreover, since FGAP contained carboxylate groups rather than SGAP, such groups were chemically introduced into SGAP (CSGAP) by carboxymethylation in order to identify their contribution to antitumor activity. The results demonstrated that the inhibition of CSGAP against Sarcoma 180 in vivo was significantly enhanced by comparison to the native SGAP and even higher than that of FGAP, suggesting that the carboxylate groups played a major role in antitumor activity of G. applanatum polysaccharide.

  19. High frequency rTMS over the left parietal lobule increases non-word reading accuracy.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Floriana; Menghini, Deny; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Vicari, Stefano

    2012-09-01

    Increasing evidence in the literature supports the usefulness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in studying reading processes. Two brain regions are primarily involved in phonological decoding: the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which is associated with the auditory representation of spoken words, and the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL), which operates in phonological computation. This study aimed to clarify the specific contribution of IPL and STG to reading aloud and to evaluate the possibility of modulating healthy participants' task performance using high frequency repetitive TMS (hf-rTMS). The main finding is that hf-rTMS over the left IPL improves non-word reading accuracy (fewer errors), whereas hf-rTMS over the right STG selectively decreases text-reading accuracy (more errors). These results confirm the prevalent role of the left IPL in grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. The non-word reading improvement after Left-IPL stimulation provide a direct link between left IPL activation and advantages in sublexical procedures, mainly involved in non-word reading. Results indicate also the specific involvement of STG in reading morphologically complex words and in processing the representation of the text. The text reading impairment after stimulation of the right STG can be interpreted in light of an inhibitory influence on the homologous area. In sum, data document that hf-rTMS is effective in modulating the reading accuracy of expert readers and that the modulation is task related and site specific. These findings suggest new perspectives for the treatment of reading disorders.

  20. The Relationship between Students' Small Group Activities, Time Spent on Self-Study, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp, Rachelle J. A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; van Berkel, Henk J. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the contributions students make to the problem-based tutorial group process as observed by their peers, self-study time and achievement. To that end, the Maastricht Peer Activity Rating Scale was administered to students participating in Problem-Based Learning tutorial groups.…

  1. DHPG Activation of Group 1 mGluRs in BLA Enhances Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Jerry W.; Matus-Amat, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors are known to play an important role in both synaptic plasticity and memory. We show that activating these receptors prior to fear conditioning by infusing the group 1 mGluR agonist, (R.S.)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), into the basolateral region of the amygdala (BLA) of adult Sprague-Dawley rats…

  2. Need for Cognition and Active Information Search in Small Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curseu, Petru Lucian

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 213 students organized in 44 groups this study tests the impact of need for cognition on active information search by using a multilevel analysis. The results show that group members with high need for cognition seek more advice in task related issues than those with low need for cognition and this pattern of information exchange is…

  3. 76 FR 72997 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... for additional language. The NPRM was published on January 12, 2011 (76 FR 2200), and the final rule... announcement of working group activities and status reports of December 7, 2010 (75 FR 76070). The 44th full..., 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October 23, 2006. The working group agreed...

  4. Group cohesion and between session homework activities predict self-reported cognitive-behavioral skill use amongst participants of SMART Recovery groups.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P; Baker, Amanda L

    2015-04-01

    SMART Recovery groups are cognitive-behaviorally oriented mutual support groups for individuals with addictions. The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which the quality of group facilitation, group cohesion and the use of between session homework activities contribute to self-rated use of cognitive-behavioral skills amongst group participants. Participants attending SMART Recovery groups in Australia completed a cross sectional survey (N=124). The survey included measures of cognitive and behavioral skill utilization, group cohesion, quality of group facilitation and a rating of how frequently participants leave group meetings with an achievable between session homework plan. On average, participants had been attending SMART Recovery meetings for 9 months. Participants were most likely to attend SMART Recovery for problematic alcohol use. Regression analyses indicated that group cohesion significantly predicted use of cognitive restructuring, but that only provision of homework at the end of each group session predicted self-reported behavioral activation. Both group cohesion and leaving a group with an achievable homework plan predicted participant use of cognitive behavioral skills. The concrete actions associated with homework activities may facilitate behavioral activation. There is a need for longitudinal research to examine the relationship between the utilization of cognitive and behavioral skills and participant outcomes (e.g. substance use, mental health) for people attending SMART Recovery groups. PMID:25535099

  5. Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (Ramp): Training Persons with Dementia to Serve as Group Activity Leaders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Camp, Cameron J.; Skrajner, Michael J.

    2004-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of an activity implemented by means of Resident-Assisted Montessori Programming (RAMP). Design and Methods: Four persons with early-stage dementia were trained to serve as leaders for a small-group activity played by nine persons with more advanced dementia. Assessments of leaders'…

  6. Upper Elementary Boys' Participation during Group Singing Activities in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzy, Zadda M.

    2010-01-01

    As boys in the upper elementary grades become increasingly influenced by peer pressure, many are less likely to participate in singing activities because singing is considered a "feminine" activity. The purpose of this research was to explore if there was an effect on upper elementary boys' level of participation during group singing activities…

  7. Taking It to the Classroom: Number Board Games as a Small Group Learning Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ramani, Geetha B.; Siegler, Robert S.; Hitti, Aline

    2012-01-01

    We examined whether a theoretically based number board game could be translated into a practical classroom activity that improves Head Start children's numerical knowledge. Playing the number board game as a small group learning activity promoted low-income children's number line estimation, magnitude comparison, numeral identification, and…

  8. What Do We Want Small Group Activities For? Voices from EFL Teachers in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental issue of why small group activities are utilized in the language learning classroom. Although these activities have gained popularity in the field of Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL), supported by a sound theoretical base, few studies have so far examined the reasons why language teachers are…

  9. 75 FR 49913 - Active Duty Service Determinations For Civilian or Contractual Groups

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Department of the Air Force Active Duty Service Determinations For Civilian or Contractual Groups SUMMARY: On... at Then `American Camp,' Now Named `Burma Camp,' Ghana' '' shall not be considered ``active...

  10. IMPORTANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON'S OXYGEN SURFACE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS ON ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of varying physical and chemical properties of activated carbons on adsorption of elemental mercury [Hg(0)] was studied by treating two activated carbons to modify their surface functional groups and pore structures. Heat treatment (1200 K) in nitrogen (N2), air oxidat...

  11. ACTIVITY IN GALACTIC NUCLEI OF COMPACT GROUP GALAXIES IN THE LOCAL UNIVERSE

    SciTech Connect

    Sohn, Jubee; Lee, Myung Gyoon; Lee, Gwang-Ho; Hwang, Ho Seong; Lee, Jong Chul E-mail: mglee@astro.snu.ac.kr E-mail: hhwang@cfa.harvard.edu

    2013-07-10

    We study the nuclear activity of galaxies in local compact groups. We use a spectroscopic sample of 238 galaxies in 58 compact groups from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey data release 7 to estimate the fraction of active galactic nucleus (AGN) host galaxies in compact groups, and to compare it with those in cluster and field regions. We use emission-line ratio diagrams to identify AGN host galaxies and find that the AGN fraction of compact group galaxies is 17%-42% depending on the AGN classification method. The AGN fraction in compact groups is not the highest among the galaxy environments. This trend remains even if we use several subsamples segregated by galaxy morphology and optical luminosity. The AGN fraction for early-type galaxies decreases with increasing galaxy number density, but the fraction for late-type galaxies changes little. We find no mid-infrared detected AGN host galaxies in our sample of compact groups using Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer data. These results suggest that the nuclear activity of compact group galaxies (mostly early types) is not strong because of lack of gas supply even though they may experience frequent galaxy-galaxy interactions and mergers that could trigger nuclear activity.

  12. The influence of sensor orientation on activity-based rate responsive pacing. Sensor Orientation Study Group.

    PubMed

    Theres, H; Philippon, F; Melzer, C; Combs, W; Prest-Berg, K

    1998-11-01

    Piezoelectric activity-based rate responsive pacemakers are commonly implanted with the sensor facing inward. This study was conducted to assess the safe and effective rate response of an activity-based rate responsive pacemaker implanted with the sensor facing outward. A comparison were made to a previously studied patient group with sensor facing inward. Patient and pacemaker data was collected at predischarge and 2-month follow-up. Two-minute hall walks in conjunction with programmer-assisted rate response assessment were utilized to standardize initial rate response parameter settings for both patient groups. At 2-month follow-up, sensor rate response to a stage 3 limited CAEP protocol was recorded. Adequate sensor rate response was achieved for both patient groups. No difference was noted in reported patient complications for both groups. A statistically significant difference in programmed rate response curve setting and activity threshold for the two groups was noted at 2-month follow-up. Adequate sensor rate response was achieved for a patient population implanted with an activity-based rate responsive pacemaker with sensor facing outward. In this orientation, one higher rate response curve setting and an activity threshold one value more sensitive were required on average when compared to the normal sensor orientation group. PMID:9826862

  13. [Cellulase and xylanase activities of Fusarium Lk:Fr. genus fungi of different trophic groups].

    PubMed

    Kurchenko, I M; Sokolova, O V; Zhdanova, N M; Iarynchyn, A M; Iovenko, O M

    2008-01-01

    A comparative analysis of cellulase and xylanase activities of 26 fungal strains of phytopathogenic, saprophytic and endophytic Fusarium species has been realized using the qualitative reactions. The rare of their linear growth on the media with carboxymethyl cellulose or xylane has been studied. It was shown that the fungi of genus Fusarium belonging to different trophic groups possessed low activities of investigated enzymes as a whole, but in endophytic strains their levels were lower than in phytopathogenic ones. At the same time the distinct strain dependence of cellulase and xylanase activities was fixed in the fungi of different trophic groups. As far as the cellulase and xylanase activities in phytopathogenic isolates varied from complete absence to high levels, and since the activity maximum for each of the investigated strains was observed in different growth terms the conclusion was made that the cellulase and xylanase activities could not be considered as possible markers of the fungal isolate pathogenicity on the strain level.

  14. The Impact of Accelerated Right Prefrontal High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Cue-Reactivity: An fMRI Study on Craving in Recently Detoxified Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Herremans, Sarah C.; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; De Raedt, Rudi; Matthys, Frieda; Buyl, Ronald; De Mey, Johan; Baeken, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In alcohol-dependent patients craving is a difficult-to-treat phenomenon. It has been suggested that high-frequency (HF) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may have beneficial effects. However, exactly how this application exerts its effect on the underlying craving neurocircuit is currently unclear. In an effort to induce alcohol craving and to maximize detection of HF-rTMS effects to cue-induced alcohol craving, patients were exposed to a block and event-related alcohol cue-reactivity paradigm while being scanned with fMRI. Hence, we assessed the effect of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) stimulation on cue-induced and general alcohol craving, and the related craving neurocircuit. Twenty-six recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were included. First, we evaluated the impact of one sham-controlled stimulation session. Second, we examined the effect of accelerated right DLPFC HF-rTMS treatment: here patients received 15 sessions in an open label accelerated design, spread over 4 consecutive days. General craving significantly decreased after 15 active HF-rTMS sessions. However, cue-induced alcohol craving was not altered. Our brain imaging results did not show that the cue-exposure affected the underlying craving neurocircuit after both one and fifteen active HF-rTMS sessions. Yet, brain activation changes after one and 15 HF-rTMS sessions, respectively, were observed in regions associated with the extended reward system and the default mode network, but only during the presentation of the event-related paradigm. Our findings indicate that accelerated HF-rTMS applied to the right DLPFC does not manifestly affect the craving neurocircuit during an alcohol-related cue-exposure, but instead it may influence the attentional network. PMID:26295336

  15. Mutualistic Benefits Generate an Unequal Distribution of Risky Activities Among Unrelated Group Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukuk, Penelope F.; Ward, Seamus A.; Jozwiak, Amy

    Recent studies provide a new challenge to the adequacy of theories concerning the evolution of cooperation among nonrelatives: some individuals perform high-risk activities while others do not. We examined a communal hymenopteran species, Lasioglossum(Chilalictus)hemichalceum, to determine why group members engaged in demonstrably risky activities (foraging) tolerate the selfish behavior (remaining in the nest) of unrelated nestmates. Experimental removal of adult females indicated that their presence is required for the protection of brood from ant predators. Nonforagers ensure the continued presence of adults in the nest if the risk-taking foragers die, thereby safeguarding the survival of forager offspring. This results in an unequal distribution of risky activities within social groups in which avoidance of risky activities by some group members is ultimately beneficial to risk takers.

  16. Predicted group II intron lineages E and F comprise catalytically active ribozymes.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Vivien; Pirakitikulr, Nathan; Zhou, Katherine Ismei; Chillón, Isabel; Luo, Jerome; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2013-09-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing, retrotransposable ribozymes that contribute to gene expression and evolution in most organisms. The ongoing identification of new group II introns and recent bioinformatic analyses have suggested that there are novel lineages, which include the group IIE and IIF introns. Because the function and biochemical activity of group IIE and IIF introns have never been experimentally tested and because these introns appear to have features that distinguish them from other introns, we set out to determine if they were indeed self-splicing, catalytically active RNA molecules. To this end, we transcribed and studied a set of diverse group IIE and IIF introns, quantitatively characterizing their in vitro self-splicing reactivity, ionic requirements, and reaction products. In addition, we used mutational analysis to determine the relative role of the EBS-IBS 1 and 2 recognition elements during splicing by these introns. We show that group IIE and IIF introns are indeed distinct active intron families, with different reactivities and structures. We show that the group IIE introns self-splice exclusively through the hydrolytic pathway, while group IIF introns can also catalyze transesterifications. Intriguingly, we observe one group IIF intron that forms circular intron. Finally, despite an apparent EBS2-IBS2 duplex in the sequences of these introns, we find that this interaction plays no role during self-splicing in vitro. It is now clear that the group IIE and IIF introns are functional ribozymes, with distinctive properties that may be useful for biotechnological applications, and which may contribute to the biology of host organisms.

  17. Effect of cardiopulmonary C fibre activation on the firing activity of ventral respiratory group neurones in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Wilson, C G; Bonham, A C

    1997-01-01

    1. Cardiopulmonary C fibre receptor stimulation elicits apnoea and rapid shallow breathing, but the effects on the firing activity of central respiratory neurones are not well understood. This study examined the responses of ventral respiratory group neurones: decrementing expiratory (Edec), augmenting expiratory (Eaug), and inspiratory (I) neurones during cardiopulmonary C fibre receptor-evoked apnoea and rapid shallow breathing. 2. Extracellular neuronal activity, phrenic nerve activity and arterial pressure were recorded in urethane-anaesthetized rats. Cardiopulmonary C fibre receptors were stimulated by right atrial injections of phenylbiguanide. Neurones were tested for antidromic activation from the contra- and ipsilateral ventral respiratory group (VRG), spinal cord and cervical vagus nerve. 3. Edec neurones discharged tonically during cardiopulmonary C fibre-evoked apnoea and rapid shallow breathing, displaying increased burst durations, number of impulses per burst, and mean impulse frequencies. Edec neurones recovered either with the phrenic nerve activity (25 s) or much later (3 min). 4. By contrast, the firing activity of Eaug and most I neurones was decreased, featuring decreased burst durations and number of impulses per burst and increased interburst intervals. Eaug activity recovered in approximately 3 min and inspiratory activity in approximately 1 min. 5. The results indicate that cardiopulmonary C fibre receptor stimulation causes tonic firing of Edec neurones and decreases in Eaug and I neuronal activity coincident with apnoea or rapid shallow breathing. PMID:9365917

  18. Physical Activity and Depressive Symptoms in Four Ethnic Groups of Midlife Women

    PubMed Central

    Im, Eun-Ok; Ham, Ok Kyung; Chee, Eunice; Chee, Wonshik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the associations between physical activity and depression and the multiple contextual factors influencing these associations in four major ethnic-groups of midlife women in the U.S. This was a secondary analysis of the data from 542 midlife women. The instruments included questions on background characteristics and health and menopausal status; the Depression Index for Midlife Women; and the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey. The data were analyzed using chi-square tests, the ANOVA, twoway ANOVA, correlation analyses, and hierarchical multiple regression analyses. The women's depressive symptoms were negatively correlated with active living and sports/exercise physical activities whereas they were positively correlated with occupational physical activities (p < .01). Family income was the strongest predictor of their depressive symptoms. Increasing physical activity may improve midlife women's depressive symptoms, but the types of physical activity and multiple contextual factors need to be considered in intervention development. PMID:24879749

  19. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  20. Short latency activation of pyramidal tract cells by Group I afferent volleys in the cat

    PubMed Central

    Swett, John E.; Bourassa, Charles M.

    1967-01-01

    1. The contralateral bulbar pyramids were explored with low impedance micro-electrodes in cats anaesthetized with chloralose to reveal the effect of Group I afferent volleys (deep radial nerve of the forelimb) on pyramidal tract (Pt) cells. 2. Low rate (0·5/sec) stimulation of Group I afferents produced small responses (5-30 μV) in the bulbar pyramid which could be detected only with response averaging methods. The responses appeared with an initial latency of 7·0-11·2 msec and reached peak amplitude in 15·7 msec (mean latency). The pyramidal tract origin of the potential was demonstrated by its depression at stimulus rates above 1-2 sec and its disappearance at rates above 4/sec. 3. Recordings of neurones in the Group I cortical projection zone of the posterior sigmoid gyrus revealed that several types of cells, including Pt cells, were activated by Group I afferent volleys. 4. Pt cells responding to Group I afferent volleys frequently received convergent actions from low threshold cutaneous nerve volleys. 5. Averaged response recordings from electrodes positioned in the medial portions of the lateral funiculus of the spinal cord at the level of C2, revealed a response to Group I afferent volleys as early as 7·4 msec which possessed the same characteristics as the relayed response to Group I in the bulbar pyramids. Some Pt cells, activated by Group I volleys orthodromically, could also be antidromically activated by stimulation of the recording site in C2. 6. It was concluded that group I afferent volleys can influence, after short latencies, Pt and non-Pt cells and that some of these Pt cells gave rise to axons incorporated in the corticospinal tract. PMID:16992239

  1. Hyperbranched Aliphatic Polyester Modified Activated Carbon Particles with Homogenized Surface Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Peng; Zhang, Liuxue

    The hyperbranched aliphatic polyester grafted activated carbon (HAPE-AC), was successfully prepared by the simple "one-pot" method. The surface functional groups of commercial activated carbon particles were homogenized to hydroxyl groups by being oxidized with nitric acid and then reduced with lithium tetrahydroaluminate (LiAlH4) at first. Secondly, the surface hydroxyl groups were used as the active sites for the solution polycondensation of the AB2 monomer, 2, 2-bis(hydroxymethyl)propionic acid (bis-MPA), with the catalysis of p-toluenesulfonic acid (p-TSA). The homogenization of the surface groups of the activated carbon particles and the graft polymerization of the hyperbranched aliphatic polyester were investigated by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) technique. The products were also characterized with Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The competitive adsorption properties of the products toward the heavy metal ions (Cu(II), Hg(II), Zn(II), and Cd(II)) also proved the translations of the surface groups.

  2. The 4'-hydroxyl group of resveratrol is functionally important for direct activation of PPARα.

    PubMed

    Takizawa, Yoshie; Nakata, Rieko; Fukuhara, Kiyoshi; Yamashita, Hiroshi; Kubodera, Hideo; Inoue, Hiroyasu

    2015-01-01

    Long-term moderate consumption of red wine is associated with a reduced risk of developing lifestyle-related diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Therefore, resveratrol, a constituent of grapes and various other plants, has attracted substantial interest. This study focused on one molecular target of resveratrol, the peroxisome proliferator activated receptor α (PPARα). Our previous study in mice showed that resveratrol-mediated protection of the brain against stroke requires activation of PPARα; however, the molecular mechanisms involved in this process remain unknown. Here, we evaluated the chemical basis of the resveratrol-mediated activation of PPARα by performing a docking mode simulation and examining the structure-activity relationships of various polyphenols. The results of experiments using the crystal structure of the PPARα ligand-binding domain and an analysis of the activation of PPARα by a resveratrol analog 4-phenylazophenol (4-PAP) in vivo indicate that the 4'-hydroxyl group of resveratrol is critical for the direct activation of PPARα. Activation of PPARα by 5 μM resveratrol was enhanced by rolipram, an inhibitor of phosphodiesterase (PDE) and forskolin, an activator of adenylate cyclase. We also found that resveratrol has a higher PDE inhibitory activity (IC50 = 19 μM) than resveratrol analogs trans-4-hydroxystilbene and 4-PAP (IC50 = 27-28 μM), both of which has only 4'-hydroxyl group, indicating that this 4'-hydroxyl group of resveratrol is not sufficient for the inhibition of PDE. This result is consistent with that 10 μM resveratrol has a higher agonistic activity of PPARα than these analogs, suggesting that there is a feedforward activation loop of PPARα by resveratrol, which may be involved in the long-term effects of resveratrol in vivo. PMID:25798826

  3. Using activity-based costing to track resource use in group practices.

    PubMed

    Zeller, T L; Siegel, G; Kaciuba, G; Lau, A H

    1999-09-01

    Research shows that understanding how resources are consumed can help group practices control costs. An American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons study used an activity-based costing (ABC) system to measure how resources are consumed in providing medical services. Teams of accounting professors observed 18 diverse orthopedic surgery practices. The researchers identified 17 resource-consuming business processes performed by nonphysician office staff. They measured resource consumption by assigning costs to each process according to how much time is spent on related work activities. When group practices understand how their resources are being consumed, they can reduce costs and optimize revenues by making adjustments in how administrative and clinical staff work. PMID:11066706

  4. Magnetic Tilts and Polarity Separations in Sunspot Groups and Active Regions the Cycle 23

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkov, S. I.; Zharkova, V. V.

    2006-08-01

    We present the analysis of magnetic tilts in active regions and sunspot groups for 1996-2005 that are automatically extracted from the Solar Feature Catalogues (http://solar.inf.brad.ac.uk ). We investigate the statistical variations of magnetic field tilt in sunspot groups and whole active regions, their longitudinal and latitudinal distributions, drifts and daily polarity separation during different phases of the solar cycle 23. The classification results are compared with the similar research for the previous cycles and the specifics on the cycle 23 is discussed in conjunction to the solar dynamo theory.

  5. Using activity-based costing to track resource use in group practices.

    PubMed

    Zeller, T L; Siegel, G; Kaciuba, G; Lau, A H

    1999-09-01

    Research shows that understanding how resources are consumed can help group practices control costs. An American Academy of Orthopaedic Surgeons study used an activity-based costing (ABC) system to measure how resources are consumed in providing medical services. Teams of accounting professors observed 18 diverse orthopedic surgery practices. The researchers identified 17 resource-consuming business processes performed by nonphysician office staff. They measured resource consumption by assigning costs to each process according to how much time is spent on related work activities. When group practices understand how their resources are being consumed, they can reduce costs and optimize revenues by making adjustments in how administrative and clinical staff work.

  6. Enhancing memory performance with rTMS in healthy subjects and individuals with Mild Cognitive Impairment: the role of the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex

    PubMed Central

    Turriziani, Patrizia; Smirni, Daniela; Zappalà, Giuseppe; Mangano, Giuseppa R.; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Cipolotti, Lisa

    2012-01-01

    A debated question in the literature is the degree of anatomical and functional lateralization of the executive control processes sub-served by the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) during recognition memory retrieval. We investigated if transient inhibition and excitation of the left and right DLPFC at retrieval by means of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulate recognition memory performance in 100 healthy controls (HCs) and in eight patients with Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI). Recognition memory tasks of faces, buildings, and words were used in different experiments. rTMS-inhibition of the right DLPFC enhanced recognition memory in both HCs and MCIs. rTMS-excitation of the same region in HCs deteriorated memory performance. Inhibition of the right DLPFC could modulate the excitability of a network of brain regions, in the ipsilateral as well as in the contralateral hemisphere, enhancing function in HCs or restoring an adaptive equilibrium in MCI. PMID:22514525

  7. Circadian activity rhythm in pre-pubertal and pubertal marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in family groups.

    PubMed

    Melo, Paula R; Gonçalves, Bruno S B; Menezes, Alexandre A L; Azevedo, Carolina V M

    2016-03-01

    In marmosets, a phase advance was observed in activity onset in pubertal animals living in captivity under semi-natural conditions which had stronger correlation with the times of sunrise over the course of the year than the age of the animal. In order to evaluate the effect of puberty on the circadian activity rhythm in male and female marmosets living in family groups in controlled lighting conditions, the activity of 5 dyads of twins (4 ♀/♂ and 1 ♂/♂) and their respective parents was continuously monitored by actiwatches between the 4th and 12th months of age. The families were kept under LD 12:12 h with constant humidity and temperature. The onset of puberty was identified by monitoring fecal steroids. Juveniles showed higher totals of daily activity and differences in the daily distribution of activity in relation to parents, in which the bimodal profile was characterized by higher levels in evening activity in relation to morning activity. Regarding the phase, the activity onset and offset, occurred later in relation to parents. After entering puberty, the activity onset and offset occurred later and there was an increase in total daily activity. On the other hand, when assessing the effect of sex, only females showed a delay in the activity offset and an increase in total daily activity. Therefore, the circadian activity rhythm in marmosets has peculiar characteristics in the juvenile stage in relation to the total of daily activity, the onset and offset of the active phase, and the distribution of activity during this phase. Besides, the entering puberty was associated with a phase delay and increase on total daily activity, with differences between sexes, possibly due to hormonal influences and/or social modulation on rhythm. PMID:26724713

  8. Circadian activity rhythm in pre-pubertal and pubertal marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in family groups.

    PubMed

    Melo, Paula R; Gonçalves, Bruno S B; Menezes, Alexandre A L; Azevedo, Carolina V M

    2016-03-01

    In marmosets, a phase advance was observed in activity onset in pubertal animals living in captivity under semi-natural conditions which had stronger correlation with the times of sunrise over the course of the year than the age of the animal. In order to evaluate the effect of puberty on the circadian activity rhythm in male and female marmosets living in family groups in controlled lighting conditions, the activity of 5 dyads of twins (4 ♀/♂ and 1 ♂/♂) and their respective parents was continuously monitored by actiwatches between the 4th and 12th months of age. The families were kept under LD 12:12 h with constant humidity and temperature. The onset of puberty was identified by monitoring fecal steroids. Juveniles showed higher totals of daily activity and differences in the daily distribution of activity in relation to parents, in which the bimodal profile was characterized by higher levels in evening activity in relation to morning activity. Regarding the phase, the activity onset and offset, occurred later in relation to parents. After entering puberty, the activity onset and offset occurred later and there was an increase in total daily activity. On the other hand, when assessing the effect of sex, only females showed a delay in the activity offset and an increase in total daily activity. Therefore, the circadian activity rhythm in marmosets has peculiar characteristics in the juvenile stage in relation to the total of daily activity, the onset and offset of the active phase, and the distribution of activity during this phase. Besides, the entering puberty was associated with a phase delay and increase on total daily activity, with differences between sexes, possibly due to hormonal influences and/or social modulation on rhythm.

  9. Barriers for recess physical activity: a gender specific qualitative focus group exploration

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Many children, in particular girls, do not reach the recommended amount of daily physical activity. School recess provides an opportunity for both boys and girls to be physically active, but barriers to recess physical activity are not well understood. This study explores gender differences in children’s perceptions of barriers to recess physical activity. Based on the socio-ecological model four types of environmental barriers were distinguished: natural, social, physical and organizational environment. Methods Data were collected through 17 focus groups (at 17 different schools) with in total 111 children (53 boys) from fourth grade, with a mean age of 10.4 years. The focus groups included an open group discussion, go-along group interviews, and a gender segregated post-it note activity. A content analysis of the post-it notes was used to rank the children’s perceived barriers. This was verified by a thematic analysis of transcripts from the open discussions and go-along interviews. Results The most frequently identified barriers for both boys and girls were weather, conflicts, lack of space, lack of play facilities and a newly-found barrier, use of electronic devices. While boys and girls identified the same barriers, there were both inter- and intra-gender differences in the perception of these barriers. Weather was a barrier for all children, apart from the most active boys. Conflicts were perceived as a barrier particularly by those boys who played ballgames. Girls said they would like to have more secluded areas added to the school playground, even in large schoolyards where lack of space was not a barrier. This aligned with girls’ requests for more “hanging-out” facilities, whereas boys primarily wanted activity promoting facilities. Conclusion Based on the results from this study, we recommend promoting recess physical activity through a combination of actions, addressing barriers within the natural, social, physical and

  10. Involving postgraduate's students in undergraduate small group teaching promotes active learning in both

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Ruchi; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Vyas, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lecture is a common traditional method for teaching, but it may not stimulate higher order thinking and students may also be hesitant to express and interact. The postgraduate (PG) students are less involved with undergraduate (UG) teaching. Team based small group active learning method can contribute to better learning experience. Aim: To-promote active learning skills among the UG students using small group teaching methods involving PG students as facilitators to impart hands-on supervised training in teaching and managerial skills. Methodology: After Institutional approval under faculty supervision 92 UGs and 8 PGs participated in 6 small group sessions utilizing the jigsaw technique. Feedback was collected from both. Observations: Undergraduate Feedback (Percentage of Students Agreed): Learning in small groups was a good experience as it helped in better understanding of the subject (72%), students explored multiple reading resources (79%), they were actively involved in self-learning (88%), students reported initial apprehension of performance (71%), identified their learning gaps (86%), team enhanced their learning process (71%), informal learning in place of lecture was a welcome change (86%), it improved their communication skills (82%), small group learning can be useful for future self-learning (75%). Postgraduate Feedback: Majority performed facilitation for first time, perceived their performance as good (75%), it was helpful in self-learning (100%), felt confident of managing students in small groups (100%), as facilitator they improved their teaching skills, found it more useful and better identified own learning gaps (87.5%). Conclusions: Learning in small groups adopting team based approach involving both UGs and PGs promoted active learning in both and enhanced the teaching skills of the PGs. PMID:26380201

  11. Novel method for the preparation of polymethacrylates with nonlinear optically active side groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohriegl, Peter; Mueller, Harry; Nuyken, Oskar

    1993-01-01

    Because of their excellent optical properties, a variety of polymethacrylates with pendant NLO-chromophores has been prepared and investigated by different research groups. The method normally used for the synthesis of these polymers is the free radical polymerization of the corresponding methacrylates with NLO-active side groups. However, the NLO- chromophores, usually large conjugated molecules with an electron donor and an electron acceptor substituent, often contain a number of functional groups, e.g., nitro- or azo groups. These may act as retarders or inhibitors in a free radical polymerization. So in many cases the yields are not quantitative and the molecular weights are quite low. We present an alternative method for the preparation of polymethacrylates with pendant NLO-chromophores, the polymeranalogous esterification of poly(methacryloyl chloride). In a first step, reactive prepolymers are prepared by the free radical polymerization of methacryloyl chloride (MAC1) or by copolymerization of MAC1 with methyl methacrylate (MMA). These prepolymers are esterified using NLO-active side groups with a hydroxy-terminated spacer. Well defined, high molecular weight polymethacrylates with high dye contents can be prepared by this method. A copolymer with 19 mole% of azochromophores exhibits an electro-optical coefficient of 9 pm/V at 1300 mm after poling, whereas 19 pm/V (1500 nm) were measured for a polymer with 90 mole% of NLO active azobenzene side groups. In addition, the novel method provides easy access to some novel copolymers with both NLO-active azobenzene units and photocrosslinkable cinnamoyl groups.

  12. A method to quantify movement activity of groups of animals using automated image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianyu; Yu, Haizhen; Liu, Ying

    2009-07-01

    Most physiological and environmental changes are capable of inducing variations in animal behavior. The behavioral parameters have the possibility to be measured continuously in-situ by a non-invasive and non-contact approach, and have the potential to be used in the actual productions to predict stress conditions. Most vertebrates tend to live in groups, herds, flocks, shoals, bands, packs of conspecific individuals. Under culture conditions, the livestock or fish are in groups and interact on each other, so the aggregate behavior of the group should be studied rather than that of individuals. This paper presents a method to calculate the movement speed of a group of animal in a enclosure or a tank denoted by body length speed that correspond to group activity using computer vision technique. Frame sequences captured at special time interval were subtracted in pairs after image segmentation and identification. By labeling components caused by object movement in difference frame, the projected area caused by the movement of every object in the capture interval was calculated; this projected area was divided by the projected area of every object in the later frame to get body length moving distance of each object, and further could obtain the relative body length speed. The average speed of all object can well respond to the activity of the group. The group activity of a tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) school to high (2.65 mg/L) levels of unionized ammonia (UIA) concentration were quantified based on these methods. High UIA level condition elicited a marked increase in school activity at the first hour (P<0.05) exhibiting an avoidance reaction (trying to flee from high UIA condition), and then decreased gradually.

  13. [Preparation, characterization and adsorption performance of mesoporous activated carbon with acidic groups].

    PubMed

    Li, Kun-Quan; Li, Ye; Zheng, Zheng; Zhang, Yu-Xuan

    2013-06-01

    Mesoporous activated carbons containing acidic groups were prepared with cotton stalk based fiber as raw materials and H3PO4 as activating agent by one step carbonization method. Effects of impregnation ratio, carbonization temperature and heat preservation time on the yield, elemental composition, oxygen-containing acid functional groups and adsorptive capacity of activated carbon were studied. The adsorption capacity of the prepared activated carbon AC-01 for p-nitroaniline and Pb(II) was studied, and the adsorption mechanism was also suggested according to the equilibrium experimental results. The maximum yield of activated carbons prepared from cotton stalk fiber reached 35.5% when the maximum mesoporous volume and BET surface area were 1.39 cm3 x g(-1) and 1 731 m2 x g(-1), respectively. The activated carbon AC-01 prepared under a H3 PO4/precursor ratio of 3:2 and activated at 900 degrees C for 90 min had a total pore volume of 1.02 cm3 x g(-1), a micoporous ratio of 31%, and a mesoporous ratio of 65%. The pore diameter of the mesoporous activated carbon was mainly distributed in the range of 2-5 nm. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of Pb(II) and p-nitroaniline on cotton stalk fiber activated carbon were 123 mg x g(-1) and 427 mg x g(-1), respectively, which were both higher than those for commercial activated carbon fiber ACF-CK. The equilibrium adsorption experimental data showed that mesopore and oxygen-containing acid functional groups played an important role in the adsorption. PMID:23947073

  14. Menopausal symptoms and physical activity in multiethnic groups of midlife women: A secondary analysis

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Sun Ju; Chee, Wonshik; Im, Eun-Ok

    2013-01-01

    Aims To explore the effect of diverse types of women’s physical activity on menopausal symptoms among multiethnic groups of midlife women in the USA. Background Although physical activity is one of the most widely used non-pharmacological methods for managing menopausal symptoms, there is a paucity of clinical guidelines for women and healthcare providers because the relationship between physical activity and menopausal symptoms has been found inconsistent in previous studies. Design A secondary analysis of the data from a lager Internet survey study conducted in 2008 – 2010. Methods A total of 481 midlife women among four ethnic groups were selected from the original study. The data were collected using the Kaiser Physical Activity Survey and the Midlife Women’s Symptom Index. Bivariate correlation analyses and hierarchical multiple regression analyses were used to analyze the data. Results/Findings The household/caregiving activity index was positively associated with the prevalence scores of the psychological symptoms in both Non-Hispanic Asians and Non-Hispanic African Americans. The increased sports/exercise activity index was negatively associated with the severity scores of the physical symptoms in both Hispanics and Non-Hispanic Whites. The occupational activity index and the active living activity index significantly predicted the severity scores of the psychosomatic symptoms in Hispanics and Non-Hispanic African Americans, respectively. Conclusion Nurses who take care of multiethnic groups of midlife women who experience menopausal symptoms should be aware of diverse types of women’s physical activities within the cultural context. PMID:23171423

  15. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    DOE PAGES

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-19

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Köhler theory to predict themore » effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid–liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.« less

  16. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Köhler theory to predict the effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid-liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.

  17. Structure-activity relationships in aminosterol antibiotics: the effect of stereochemistry at the 7-OH group.

    PubMed

    Tessema, Tsemre-Dingel; Gassler, Frank; Shu, Youheng; Jones, Stephen; Selinsky, Barry S

    2013-06-01

    Squalamine and three aminosterol analogs have been shown to inhibit bacterial cell growth and induce lysis of large unilamellar phospholipid vesicles. The analogs differ in the identity of the polyamine attached at C3 of the sterol, and the stereochemistry of a hydroxyl substituent at C7. Analogs with a tetraammonium spermine polyamine are somewhat more active than analogs with a shorter trisammonium spermidine polyamine, and analogs with an axial (α) hydroxyl substituent at C7 are more active than analogs with the corresponding equatorial (β) hydroxyl group. There is some variability noted; the 7β-OH spermine analog is the most active compound against Escherichia coli, but the least effective against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Lytic activity correlates well with antimicrobial activity of the compounds, but the lytic activity varies with the phospholipid composition of the vesicles. PMID:23618624

  18. Enhancement of lactase activity in milk by reactive sulfhydryl groups induced by heat treatment.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Guzmán, J; Cruz-Guerrero, A E; Rodríguez-Serrano, G; López-Munguía, A; Gómez-Ruiz, L; García-Garibay, M

    2002-10-01

    The effects of heat treatments of milk and whey prior to lactose hydrolysis with Kluyveromyces lactis beta-galactosidase were studied. It was observed that heat treatment of milk significantly increases lactase activity, with a maximum activity increase found when milk was heated at 55 degrees C. In whey from 55 up to 75 degrees C, beta-galactosidase activity decreased slightly. Nevertheless, heating whey at 85 degrees C for 30 min raised the rate of hydrolysis significantly. Electrophoretic patterns and UV spectra proved that the activity change correlated with milk protein denaturation, particularly that of beta-lactoglobulin. Heating whey permeate did not increase the enzyme activity as heating whole whey; but heating whey prior to ultrafiltration also resulted in enzyme activation. Measurement of free sulfhydryl (SH) groups in both whey and heated whey permeate showed that the liberation of free SH is highly correlated to the change of the activity. Furthermore, this activation can be reversed by oxidizing the reactive sulfhydryl groups, proving that the observed effect may be related to the release of free SH to the medium, rather than to the denaturation of a thermolabile protein inhibitor.

  19. Physical activity and beverage consumption in preschoolers: focus groups with parents and teachers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is a method in which new ideas and strategies can be discovered. This qualitative study aimed to investigate parents’ and teachers’ opinions on physical activity and beverage consumption of preschool children. Through separate, independent focus groups, they expressed their perceptions on children’s current physical activity and beverage consumption levels, factors that influence and enhance these behaviours, and anticipated barriers to making changes. Methods Multi-cultural and multi-geographical focus groups were carried out in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain). In total, twenty-four focus groups with 122 parents and eighteen focus groups with 87 teachers were conducted between October 2010 and January 2011. Based on a semi-structured interview guide, questions on preschoolers’ physical activity (opinions on preschoolers’ physical activity, how to increase physical activity, facilitators and barriers of physical activity) and beverage consumption (rules and policies, factors influencing promotion of healthy drinking, recommendations for future intervention development) were asked. The information was analyzed using qualitative data analysis software (NVivo8). Results The focus group results indicated misperceptions of caregivers on preschoolers’ physical activity and beverage consumption levels. Caregivers perceived preschoolers as sufficiently active; they argue that children need to learn to sit still in preparation for primary school. At most preschools, children can drink only water. In some preschools sugar-sweetened beverages like chocolate milk or fruit juices, are also allowed. It was mentioned that sugar-sweetened beverages can be healthy due to mineral and vitamin content, although according to parents their daily intake is limited. These opinions resulted in low perceived needs to change behaviours. Conclusions Although previous research shows need of change in

  20. Effects of Active Versus Passive Group Music Therapy on Preadolescents with Emotional, Learning, and Behavioral Disorders.

    PubMed

    Montello; Coons

    1999-01-01

    This study attempted to compare the behavioral effects of active, rhythm-based group music therapy vs. those of passive, listening-based group music therapy on preadolescents with emotional, learning, and behavioral disorders. It was hypothesized that preadolescents who participated in active music therapy would more significantly improve target behaviors than those involved in passive music therapy. Achenbach's Teacher Report Form (TRF) was used to confirm changes among subjects in attention, motivation, and hostility as rated by homeroom teachers. Twelve music therapy sessions were conducted over a 4-month period with three different groups of subjects (n = 16), with two groups participating in active music therapy and the other receiving passive music therapy. Results indicate that subjects improved significantly after receiving both music therapy interventions. The most significant change in subjects was found on the aggression/hostility scale. These results suggest that group music therapy can facilitate the process of serf-expression in emotionally disturbed/learning disabled adolescents and provide a channel for transforming frustration, anger, and aggression into the experience of creativity and self-mastery. Discussion of results also includes recommendations for chousing one music therapy approach over another based on personality types and/or clinical diagnoses of subjects.

  1. Lactate dehydrogenase activity in Bacteroides fragilis group strains with induced resistance to metronidazole.

    PubMed

    Presečki Stanko, Aleksandra; Sóki, Jozsef; Varda Brkić, Dijana; Plečko, Vanda

    2016-06-01

    The aims of this study were to induce in vitro metronidazole resistance in nim-negative Bacteroides fragilis group strains and to determine the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity of the induced strains. A collection of B. fragilis group strains were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS). Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) for metronidazole were determined by the agar dilution technique. The presence of nim genes was screened by PCR. A sample of 52 nim-negative metronidazole-susceptible strains were selected at random and were exposed to metronidazole in the resistance induction experiment. LDH activity was measured by spectrophotometry. Of the 52 selected strains, 12 (23.1%) acquired resistance to metronidazole. MICs ranged from 8mg/L to 96mg/L. Eight of the twelve induced strains displayed decreased LDH activity, whilst only one expressed a significant increase in LDH activity with LDH values of 49.1U/mg and 222.0U/mg, respectively. In conclusion, in vitro induction of metronidazole resistance could be selected in nim-negative B. fragilis group strains. A statistically significant decrease in LDH activity was in contrast to previous findings in which, underlying higher metronidazole MICs, an increase in LDH activity compensated for the decreased activity of pyruvate-ferredoxin oxidoreductase (PFOR). These findings could be explained if the induction caused only physiological and not genetic changes. We believe that genetic mutations in the B. fragilis strain that demonstrated an emergent increase in LDH activity were responsible for the increased activity. PMID:27436459

  2. Use of a Wiki-Based Software to Manage Research Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting; Vezenov, Dmitri V.; Simboli, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses use of the wiki software Confluence to organize research group activities and lab resources. Confluence can serve as an electronic lab notebook (ELN), as well as an information management and collaboration tool. The article provides a case study in how researchers can use wiki software in "home-grown" fashion to…

  3. When Talking Won't Work: Implementing Experiential Group Activities with Addicted Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Hirshhorn, Meredith A.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional talk therapy, particularly cognitive behavioral techniques, are often ineffective when working with addicted clients for many reasons. By tapping into the power of the group modality, experiential activities can serve as a powerful facilitator of insight and behavior change. The authors provide a brief review of the literature followed…

  4. Collaborative Activities Enabled by GroupScribbles (GS): An Exploratory Study of Learning Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Looi, Chee-Kit; Chen, Wenli; Ng, Foo-Keong

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the findings of an exploratory cycle of a design-based research project and examines the learning effectiveness of collaborative activities that are supported by the GroupScribbles (GS) software technology in two Singapore primary science classrooms. The students had ten weeks of GS-based lessons in science, which were…

  5. Peer Interactions among Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijs, Sara; Penne, Anneleen; Vlaskamp, Carla; Maes, Bea

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or schools. This study explores the peer-directed behaviours of children with PIMD, the peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers and the children's positioning. Method: Group activities for…

  6. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multifamily Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore multiple family members' perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthful eating and physical activity in the home. Design: Ten multifamily focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting and Participants: Community setting with primarily black and white families. Family members (n = 103) were aged 8 to 61…

  7. Children's Preferences for Group Musical Activities in Child Care Centres: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a cross-cultural research study of children's preferences for group musical activities in child care centres. A total of 228 young children aged 4-5 years in seven child care centres in Hong Kong and in the Adelaide City of South Australia participated in the study. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected via a…

  8. An Initial Description and Pilot of Group Behavioral Activation Therapy for Anxious and Depressed Youth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chu, Brian C.; Colognori, Daniela; Weissman, Adam S.; Bannon, Katie

    2009-01-01

    Transdiagnostic approaches for treating multiple problems within a single protocol are novel but gaining support. This report describes initial efforts to adapt reconceptualized behavioral activation (e.g., Jacobson, Martell, & Dimidjian, 2001) to a group format suitable for young adolescents, plus add a powerful exposure component to accommodate…

  9. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  10. 75 FR 51525 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... announcement of working group activities and status reports of January 29, 2010 (75 FR 4904). The 41st full... October 11, 2005. The Notice of Proposed Rulemaking (NPRM) was published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275... published on February 1, 2008 (73 FR 6370). The Task Force met on October 17-18, 2007, and reached...

  11. Peer Groups and Substance Use: Examining the Direct and Interactive Effect of Leisure Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships among adolescent leisure activities, peer behavior, and substance use. We suggest that peer group interaction can have a differential effect on adolescent deviant behavior depending on the type of leisure pattern adolescents engage in. We analyze data from a representative national sample of Icelandic…

  12. Information Activities and Appropriation in Teacher Trainees' Digital, Group-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanell, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports results from an ethnographic study of teacher trainees' information activities in digital, group-based learning and their relation to the interplay between use and appropriation of digital tools and the learning environment. Method: The participants in the present study are 249 pre-school teacher trainees in…

  13. 77 FR 24257 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... announcement of working group activities and status reports of November 28, 2011 (76 FR 72997). The 45th full... Rulemaking (NPRM) was published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October 23... emergency communication, emergency egress, and rescue access, was published on February 1, 2008 (73 FR...

  14. 77 FR 58608 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... announcement of working group activities and status reports of April 23, 2012 (77 FR 24257). The 46th full RSAC... published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October 23, 2006. The working... communication, emergency egress, and rescue access, was published on February 1, 2008 (73 FR 6370). The...

  15. 75 FR 76070 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... announcement of working group activities and status reports of August 20, 2010 (75 FR 51525). The 42nd full... Rulemaking (NPRM) was published on August 24, 2006 (71 FR 50275), and was open for comment until October 23... emergency communication, emergency egress, and rescue access, was published on February 1, 2008 (73 FR...

  16. Bill Gates' Great-Great-Granddaughter's Honeymoon: An Astronomy Activity for Several Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    When students finish a unit or course on the planets these days, they are often overwhelmed with facts, comparisons, and images. A good culminating activity, to help them organize their thinking (and review), is to have them divide into small groups (travel agencies) and come up with their top ten solar system "tourist sights" for future space…

  17. Interrogating Surface Functional Group Heterogeneity of Activated Thermoplastics Using Super-Resolution Fluorescence Microscopy.

    PubMed

    ONeil, Colleen E; Jackson, Joshua M; Shim, Sang-Hee; Soper, Steven A

    2016-04-01

    We present a novel approach for characterizing surfaces utilizing super-resolution fluorescence microscopy with subdiffraction limit spatial resolution. Thermoplastic surfaces were activated by UV/O3 or O2 plasma treatment under various conditions to generate pendant surface-confined carboxylic acids (-COOH). These surface functional groups were then labeled with a photoswitchable dye and interrogated using single-molecule, localization-based, super-resolution fluorescence microscopy to elucidate the surface heterogeneity of these functional groups across the activated surface. Data indicated nonuniform distributions of these functional groups for both COC and PMMA thermoplastics with the degree of heterogeneity being dose dependent. In addition, COC demonstrated relative higher surface density of functional groups compared to PMMA for both UV/O3 and O2 plasma treatment. The spatial distribution of -COOH groups secured from super-resolution imaging were used to simulate nonuniform patterns of electroosmotic flow in thermoplastic nanochannels. Simulations were compared to single-particle tracking of fluorescent nanoparticles within thermoplastic nanoslits to demonstrate the effects of surface functional group heterogeneity on the electrokinetic transport process.

  18. Activities of the US-Japan Safety Monitor Joint Working Group

    SciTech Connect

    Richard L. Savercool; Lee C. Cadwallader

    2004-09-01

    This paper documents the activities of the US-Japan exchange in the area of personnel safety at magnetic and laser fusion experiments. A near-miss event with a visiting scientist to the US in 1992 was the impetus for forming the Joint Working Group on Fusion Safety. This exchnge has been under way for over ten years and has provided many safety insights for both US and Japanese facility personnel at national institutes and at universities. The background and activities of the Joint Working Group are described, including the facilities that have been visited for safety walkthroughs, the participants from both countries, and the main safety issues examined during visits. Based on these visits, some operational safety ideas to enhance experiment safety are given. The near-term future plans of the Safety Monitor Joint Working group are also discussed.

  19. Group intervention changes brain activity in bilingual language-impaired children.

    PubMed

    Pihko, Elina; Mickos, Annika; Kujala, Teija; Pihlgren, Annika; Westman, Martin; Alku, Paavo; Byring, Roger; Korkman, Marit

    2007-04-01

    This investigation assessed the effectiveness of a phonological intervention program on the brain functioning of bilingual Finnish 6- to 7-year-old preschool children diagnosed with specific language impairment (SLI). The intervention program was implemented by preschool teachers to small groups of children including children with SLI. A matched group of other bilingual children with SLI received a physical exercise program and served as a control group. Auditory evoked magnetic fields were measured before and after the intervention with an oddball paradigm. The brain activity recordings were followed by a behavioral discrimination test. Our results show that, in children with SLI, the positive intervention effect is reflected in plastic changes in the brain activity of the left and right auditory cortices.

  20. Communication: Active space decomposition with multiple sites: Density matrix renormalization group algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Shane M.; Shiozaki, Toru

    2014-12-07

    We extend the active space decomposition method, recently developed by us, to more than two active sites using the density matrix renormalization group algorithm. The fragment wave functions are described by complete or restricted active-space wave functions. Numerical results are shown on a benzene pentamer and a perylene diimide trimer. It is found that the truncation errors in our method decrease almost exponentially with respect to the number of renormalization states M, allowing for numerically exact calculations (to a few μE{sub h} or less) with M = 128 in both cases. This rapid convergence is because the renormalization steps are used only for the interfragment electron correlation.

  1. Chloroplast Sulfhydryl Groups and the Light Activation of Fructose-1,6-Bisphosphatase 1

    PubMed Central

    Slovacek, Rudolf E.; Vaughn, Sharon

    1982-01-01

    Studies of isolated intact spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.) chloroplasts reveal that most of the available sulfhydryl groups are associated with stromal protein as opposed to a thylakoid membrane fraction under non-denaturing conditions. Increases in sulfhydryl content of approximately 50% occurred with illumination and could be correlated kinetically with a reductive activation of fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase during CO2-assimilation. Inhibition of linear electron flow with 3-(3,4-dichlorophenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea prevented light driven increases in both fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase activity and the relative sulfhydryl number. These results provide evidence for the operation of a reductive enzyme activating system in vivo. PMID:16662654

  2. Synthesis and hypoglycemic activity of 9-O-(lipophilic group substituted) berberine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shanshan; Wang, Xiaohong; Yin, Weicheng; Liu, Zhenbao; Zhou, Mi; Xiao, Daipeng; Liu, Yanfei; Peng, Dongming

    2016-10-01

    A series of 9-O-(lipophilic group substituted) berberine derivatives were synthesized and evaluated for their cytotoxicity and hypoglycemic activity against HepG2 cells. All the results indicated that most of the synthesized compounds exhibited lower cytotoxicity and a certain degree of hypoglycemic activity. Especially the compounds 5g and 5h displayed dramatically increased hypoglycemic activity compared with berberine, and the cytotoxicity maintained or even lower than berberine, indicating that they are potential candidates for new anti-type 2 diabetes mellitus drugs. PMID:27561717

  3. “Convivência” Groups: Building Active and Healthy Communities of Older Adults in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Tânia R. Bertoldo; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    2012-01-01

    In old age, social groups can be a crucial component for health and well-being. In 2009-2010, a follow-up survey was carried out in Florianópolis, Brazil to understand the impact of a variety of programs established since 2002 that were designed to enhance social activities among the older adult population. This study employed two surveys within the population of older adults in Florianópolis. The first survey interviewed a total of 875 older adults in 2002, and the second survey involved 1,705 older adults between 2009 and 2010. By 2010, many new programs were offered in the community and the enrollment of older adults in social programs followed similar trends. “Convivência” groups stood out as extremely popular social groups among this population. This paper discusses some of the potential outcomes associated with participation in “convivência” groups. PMID:22830022

  4. Townes Group Activities from 1983-2000: Personal Recollections of William Danchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.

    2015-01-01

    I arrived in Berkeley in October 1983 as a post-doc, and my appointment was at the Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). During that time the group was very large, with multiple activities led by Charlie himself and also by Senior Fellows such as John Lacy, Dan Jaffe, and Al Betz at the top of the hill at Space Sciences. Another significant contingent of the Townes group was housed in Birge Hall on campus, led by Reinhard Genzel when he was an Assistant Professor in the Physics Department. Although the group encompassed two separate locations, it functioned as one large group. Either we rode with Charlie up and down the hill, or (if we were concerned about our safety!) we took the bus.

  5. Activities of the OECD/NEA Expert Group on Assay Data for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, Ian C; Rugama, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    Management of spent nuclear fuel is a key issue for many NEA member countries. In nuclear criticality safety, the decision of many countries to advance burnup credit as part of their licensing strategy has heightened recent interest in experimental data needed to validate computer codes used in burnup credit calculations. This paper discusses recent activities of an Expert Group on assay data, formed under the OECD/NEA/NSC/WPNCS (Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety) to help coordinate isotopic assay data activities and facilitate international collaboration between NEA member countries developing or implementing burnup credit methodologies. Recent activities of the Expert Group are described, focusing on the planned expansion of the Spent Fuel Isotopic Composition Database (SFCOMPO), and preparation of a state-of-the-art report on assay data that includes sections on recommended radiochemical analysis methods, techniques, and lessons learned from previous experiments.

  6. Enhanced Surfactant Adsorption on Activated Carbon through Manipulation of Surface Oxygen Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, John; Qu, Deyang; Foster, Michelle

    2012-02-01

    Passive energy storage is a necessary component for balancing the lifecycle budget with new forms of green energy. The work presented describes how surface oxygen groups (SOG) on granulated activated carbon have been manipulated using Nitric Acid in a controlled, stepwise fashion. The structure and surface functionality of the activated carbon samples were characterized using DRIFTS, Raman Spectroscopy and Porosimetry. Total surface area was found to increase proportionally with the removal of heteroatom material, exposing previously insulated active sites responsible for SOG attachment. Broad oxide peaks were deconvoluted and analyzed, allowing for absolute identification of evolving functionality at each oxidation stage. SOGs were maximized on the third oxidation cycle with the presence of conjugated aromatic, phenol, lactone, and carboxylic acid groups. FSN Zonyl nonionic was applied to all oxidized samples at various concentrations. Total adsorbed surfactant was quantified for each concentration / oxidation scheme using attenuated total reflection. The relative quantity and polarity of chemisorbed surfactant were qualitatively assessed for each equilibrium concentration.

  7. Antibacterials. Synthesis and structure-activity studies of 3-aryl-2-oxooxazolidines. 1. The "B" group.

    PubMed

    Gregory, W A; Brittelli, D R; Wang, C L; Wuonola, M A; McRipley, R J; Eustice, D C; Eberly, V S; Bartholomew, P T; Slee, A M; Forbes, M

    1989-08-01

    The synthesis and structure/activity studies of the effect of varying the "B" group in a series of oxazolidinone antibacterials (I) are described. Two synthetic routes were used: (1) alkylation of aniline with glycidol followed by dialkyl carbonate heterocyclization to afford I (A = H, B = OH), whose arene ring was further elaborated by using electrophilic aromatic substitution methodology; (2) cycloaddition of substituted aryl isocyanates with epoxides to give A and B with a variety of values. I with B = OH or Br were converted to other "B" functionalities by using SN2 methodology. Antibacterial evaluation of compounds I with A = acetyl, isopropyl, methylthio, methylsulfinyl, methylsulfonyl, and sulfonamido and a variety of different "B" groups against Staphylococcus aureus and Enterococcus faecalis concluded that the compounds with B = aminoacyl, and particularly acetamido, were the most active of those examined in each A series, possessing MICs in the range of 0.5-4 micrograms/mL for the most active compounds described.

  8. Effect of group activities on health promotion for the community-dwelling elderly

    PubMed Central

    Fukasawa, Masako; Yamaguchi, Haruyasu

    2016-01-01

    Objective: In Japan, the Integrated Community Care System aims to support residents to live as independently as possible at home. Koreisya-Kyoshitsu and Fureaiikiiki salons are two types of group activities for community-dwelling elderly. We investigated effective ways of conducting such activities. Methods: We analyzed 96 subjects from 8 salons and 354 subjects from 10 Koreisya-Kyoshitsu. Self-completed questionnaires included the following: attributes, the Motor Fitness Scale (MFS), revised Philadelphia Geriatric Center Morale Scale (PGCMS), Measurement of Psychological Independence (MPI), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), and self-rated health status (SRH). Follow-up assessment was conducted 6 months later. Representatives from 8 salons and staff members from 10 Koreisya-Kyoshitsu answered an additional questionnaire on management. Results: In Koreisya-Kyoshitsu, physical performance (MFS) (p = 0.007) and subjective well-being (PGCMS) (p = 0.001) improved significantly, whereas psychological independence (MPI) deteriorated significantly (p = 0.015). The MFS scores significantly improved in the sub-group with a high number of sessions (7 or more) (p = 0.043), as well as in the non-volunteer sub-group (p = 0.004). The PGCMS scores significantly improved in the sub-group with a high number of sessions (p < 0.001). The MPI scores significantly deteriorated in the sub-group with a low frequency of sessions (6 or less) and in the non-volunteer sub-group (p = 0.013 and p = 0.010, respectively). In salons, the frequency of going out decreased significantly (p = 0.049). Functional status (IADL) significantly improved in the “twice or more a month” sub-group (p = 0.046), whereas it significantly deteriorated in the “once a month” sub-group (p = 0.004). The proportion of volunteers/organizers in Koreisya-Kyoshitsu (23.4%) was significantly lower than that in salons (39.6%). Conclusion: The frequency (number) of sessions, but not the volunteer

  9. Adult total wellness: group differences based on sitting time and physical activity level

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence associates a high level of sitting time with poor health outcomes. The benefits of moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activities to various aspects of health are now well documented; however, individuals may engage in moderate-intensity physical activity for at least 30 minutes on five or more days of the week and still exhibit a high level of sitting time. This purpose of this study was to examine differences in total wellness among adults relative to high/low levels of sitting time combined with insufficient/sufficient physical activity (PA). The construct of total wellness incorporates a holistic approach to the body, mind and spirit components of life, an approach which may be more encompassing than some definitions of health. Methods Data were obtained from 226 adult respondents (27 ± 6 years), including 116 (51%) males and 110 (49%) females. Total PA and total sitting time were assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) (short-version). The Wellness Evaluation of Lifestyle Inventory was used to assess total wellness. An analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) was utilised to assess the effects of the sitting time/physical activity group on total wellness. A covariate was included to partial out the effects of age, sex and work status (student or employed). Cross-tabulations were used to show associations between the IPAQ derived high/low levels of sitting time with insufficient/sufficient PA and the three total wellness groups (i.e. high level of wellness, moderate wellness and wellness development needed). Results The majority of the participants were located in the high total sitting time and sufficient PA group. There were statistical differences among the IPAQ groups for total wellness [F (2,220) = 32.5 (p <0.001)]. A Chi-square test revealed a significant difference in the distribution of the IPAQ categories within the classification of wellness [χ2 (N = 226) = 54.5, p < .001

  10. Detection of enzyme activities and their relation to serotypes of bovine and human group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Ekin, Ismail Hakki; Gurturk, Kemal; Ilhan, Ziya; Arabaci, Cigdem; Gulaydin, Ozgul

    2015-09-01

    Enzymatic properties of group B streptococci (GBS) serotypes from bovine milk and human routine vaginal specimens were investigated. Out of the 56 human and 66 bovine GBS, 35 and 30 could be classified serologically by a co-agglutination test with type-specific antisera, respectively. Hyaluronidase (HYAL), streptokinase (SK) and protease activities were detected using culture media. HYAL activity was observed mostly in typable human GBS, and serotypes Ia, Ic and II comprised 77.3% of the typable strains producing HYAL. Bovine GBS serotypes II, III and VII comprised 87.5% of typable bovine strains exhibiting HYAL activity. SK activity was detected only in three human GBS. Human GBS serotypes Ia, Ic, II, III, VII and almost all typable bovine GBS strains showed protease activity. β-D-glucosidase activity was frequently observed in human GBS, whereas N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase activity was mostly detected in non-typable GBS from humans. These results indicate that different GBS serotypes could vary in their virulence properties, and bovine and human GBS isolates could not be differentiated by their enzyme activities. Use of the culture media appeared to be a simple-to-apply and useful method for the detection of extracellular enzyme activity such as HYAL, protease and SK. PMID:26297151

  11. A group II-activated ascending tract of lumbosacral origin in the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, P J; Riddell, J S

    1990-01-01

    1. Electrophysiological investigations have revealed a population of ascending tract neurones originating in the lumbosacral enlargement, with input from group II muscle afferents of the cat hindlimb. 2. Single-unit microelectrode recordings were made in the lateral funiculus at L6, from the axons of thirty-four ascending tract neurones. All of the axons were antidromically activated by stimulation of the ipsilateral lateral funiculus at Th13 and, whenever tested (eight units), at C1. 3. Conduction velocities of the axons, between the L6 and Th13 segment, ranged from 33 to 92 m s-1 (mean 61 m s-1). 4. All of the ascending tract neurones were discharged following electrical stimulation of muscle nerves at group II strength, but not by weaker stimuli in the group I range. Most of the investigated neurones were excited by group II afferents of more than one muscle nerve. In addition, a proportion of the units tested could also be discharged by cutaneous and by joint afferents. 5. Responses to natural stimuli were investigated in eighteen ascending tract neurones discharged by electrical stimulation of group II afferents in the gastrocnemius-soleus (GS) and plantaris (P1) nerves which were dissected free in continuity with their muscles. Seven units were spontaneously active. Eight units responded to isometric contraction of the GS/P1 muscles with a discharge occurring mainly on the falling phase of muscle tension. Nine units increased their discharge frequency in response to stretching of the muscles and five units responded to mechanically probing the muscles with a blunt instrument. 6. The final termination sites of this group of ascending tract neurones has yet to be determined. Initial attempts (three units) to antidromically activate the neurones from the cerebellum have been unsuccessful. Other likely areas of termination in the brain stem are considered. PMID:2213583

  12. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology

    PubMed Central

    Siegford, Janice M.; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K.; Daigle, Courtney L.; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Hernandez, Carlos E.; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Tracking of individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. We describe several tracking systems that are currently in use for laying hens and review each, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suited, and relevant issues to fit the best technology for the intended purpose. Abstract Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns

  13. Development, Evaluation and Implementation of Chief Complaint Groupings to Activate Data Collection

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, L.; Hoffman, J.; Alessandrini, E.; Ballard, D. W.; Norris, R.; Tzimenatos, L.; Swietlik, M.; Tham, E.; Grundmeier, R. W.; Kuppermann, N.; Dayan, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Overuse of cranial computed tomography scans in children with blunt head trauma unnecessarily exposes them to radiation. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) blunt head trauma prediction rules identify children who do not require a computed tomography scan. Electronic health record (EHR) based clinical decision support (CDS) may effectively implement these rules but must only be provided for appropriate patients in order to minimize excessive alerts. Objectives To develop, implement and evaluate site-specific groupings of chief complaints (CC) that accurately identify children with head trauma, in order to activate data collection in an EHR. Methods As part of a 13 site clinical trial comparing cranial computed tomography use before and after implementation of CDS, four PECARN sites centrally developed and locally implemented CC groupings to trigger a clinical trial alert (CTA) to facilitate the completion of an emergency department head trauma data collection template. We tested and chose CC groupings to attain high sensitivity while maintaining at least moderate specificity. Results Due to variability in CCs available, identical groupings across sites were not possible. We noted substantial variability in the sensitivity and specificity of seemingly similar CC groupings between sites. The implemented CC groupings had sensitivities greater than 90% with specificities between 75–89%. During the trial, formal testing and provider feedback led to tailoring of the CC groupings at some sites. Conclusions CC groupings can be successfully developed and implemented across multiple sites to accurately identify patients who should have a CTA triggered to facilitate EHR data collection. However, CC groupings will necessarily vary in order to attain high sensitivity and moderate-to-high specificity. In future trials, the balance between sensitivity and specificity should be considered based on the nature of the clinical condition

  14. Rh D blood group conversion using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyun O; Baek, Eun J; Kurita, Ryo; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Nakamura, Yukio; Kim, Hyongbum

    2015-06-16

    Group O D-negative blood cells are universal donors in transfusion medicine and methods for converting other blood groups into this universal donor group have been researched. However, conversion of D-positive cells into D-negative is yet to be achieved, although conversion of group A or B cells into O cells has been reported. The Rh D blood group is determined by the RHD gene, which encodes a 12-transmembrane domain protein. Here we convert Rh D-positive erythroid progenitor cells into D-negative cells using RHD-targeting transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). After transfection of TALEN-encoding plasmids, RHD-knockout clones are obtained. Erythroid-lineage cells differentiated from these knockout erythroid progenitor cells do not agglutinate in the presence of anti-D reagents and do not express D antigen, as assessed using flow cytometry. Our programmable nuclease-induced blood group conversion opens new avenues for compatible donor cell generation in transfusion medicine.

  15. Towards a common framework for assessing the activity and associations of groups who sexually abuse children

    PubMed Central

    Cockbain, Ella; Brayley, Helen; Sullivan, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Extensive social psychological research emphasises the importance of groups in shaping individuals’ thoughts and actions. Within the child sexual abuse (CSA) literature criminal organisation has been largely overlooked, with some key exceptions. This research was a novel collaboration between academia and the UK's Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre (CEOP). Starting from the premise that the group is, in itself, a form of social situation affecting abuse, it offers the first systematic situational analysis of CSA groups. In-depth behavioural data from a small sample of convicted CSA group-offenders (n = 3) were analysed qualitatively to identify factors and processes underpinning CSA groups’ activities and associations: group formation, evolution, identity and resources. The results emphasise CSA groups’ variability, fluidity and dynamism. The foundations of a general framework are proposed for researching and assessing CSA groups and designing effective interventions. It is hoped that this work will stimulate discussion and development in this long-neglected area of CSA, helping to build a coherent knowledge-base. PMID:26494978

  16. The epidemiology of walking for exercise: implications for promoting activity among sedentary groups.

    PubMed Central

    Siegel, P Z; Brackbill, R M; Heath, G W

    1995-01-01

    The relative contribution of walking to overall leisure-time physical activity participation rates was studied among respondents from the 45 states that participated in the 1990 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (n = 81,557). The percentages of low income, unemployed, and obese persons who engaged in leisure-time physical activity (range = 51.1% to 57.7%) were substantially lower than the percentage among the total adult population (70.3%). In contrast, the prevalence of walking for exercise among these sedentary groups (range = 32.5% to 35.9%) was similar to that among the total population (35.6%). Walking appears to be an acceptable, accessible exercise activity, especially among population subgroups with a low prevalence of leisure-time physical activity. PMID:7733433

  17. Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in an Ethnically Diverse Group of South African School Children

    PubMed Central

    McVeigh, Joanne; Meiring, Rebecca

    2014-01-01

    Few studies have examined physical activity and inactivity levels in an urban South African setting across 12 years of formal schooling. This information is important for implementing strategies to curb increasing trends of physical inactivity and related negative consequences, especially in low to middle income countries facing multiple challenges on overburdened health care systems. We examined levels of physical activity and sedentary behaviour cross-sectionally over 12 school years from childhood to adolescence in Black, White and Indian boys and girls. The aim of our study was to describe gender and race related patterns of physical and sedentary activity levels in a sample of South African children and to determine whether there were associations between these variables and body mass status. Physical activity questionnaires, previously validated in a South African setting, were used to gather information about activity and sedentary behaviours among 767 Black, White and Indian children (5-18 years of age) across the 12 grades of formal schooling. Body mass and height were also measured. Time spent in moderate-vigorous physical activity declined over the school years for all race groups and was consistently lower for girls than boys (p = 0.03), while time spent in sedentary activity increased with increasing grade (p < 0.001) for boys and girls and across all race groups. Associations between physical activity and body mass were observed for White children (r = -0.22, p < 0.001), but not for Black and Indian children (p > 0.05) whereas time spent in sedentary activities was significantly and positively correlated with body mass across all race groups: Indian (r = 0.25, p < 0.001), White (r = 0.22, p < 0.001) and Black (r = 0.37, p = 0.001). The strength of the associations was similar for boys and girls. Black and Indian children were less physically active than their white peers (p < 0.05), and Black children also spent more time in sedentary activity (p < 0

  18. Antimalarial and Antileishmanial Activities of Histone Deacetylase Inhibitors with Triazole-Linked Cap Group

    PubMed Central

    Patil, Vishal; Guerrant, William; Chen, Po C.; Gryder, Berkley; Benicewicz, Derek B.; Khan, Shabana I.; Tekwani, Babu L.; Oyelere, Adegboyega K.

    2009-01-01

    Histone deacetylase inhibitors (HDACi) are endowed with plethora of biological functions including anti-proliferative, anti-inflammatory, anti-parasitic, and cognition-enhancing activities. Parsing the structure–activity relationship (SAR) for each disease condition is vital for long-term therapeutic applications of HDACi. We report in the present study specific cap group substitution patterns and spacer-group chain lengths that enhance the antimalarial and antileishmanial activity of aryltriazolylhydroxamates-based HDACi. We identified many compounds that are several folds selectively cytotoxic to the plasmodium parasites compared to standard HDACi. Also, a few of these compounds have antileishmanial activity that rivals that of miltefosine, the only currently available oral agent against visceral leishmaniasis. The anti-parasite properties of several of these compounds tracked well with their anti-HDAC activities. The results presented here provide further evidence on the suitability of HDAC inhibition as a viable therapeutic option to curb infections caused by apicomplexan protozoans and trypanosomatids. PMID:19914074

  19. Design, synthesis, and antifungal activities of novel triazole derivatives containing the benzyl group

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kehan; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Yanwei; Bai, Guojing; Wu, Qiuye; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Shichong; Jiang, Yuanying

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies undertaken by our group, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-substituted-2-propanols (1a–r), which were analogs of fluconazole, was designed and synthesized by click chemistry. In the study reported here, the in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 1a, 1q, and 1r showed the more antifungal activity than the others. PMID:25792806

  20. Surveillance and maintenance activities of waste area groupings at Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Ford, M.K.; Holder, L. Jr.; Jones, R.G.

    1991-12-01

    Surveillance and maintenance (S M) of 75 sites were conductd by the Remedial Action Section for the Environmental Restoration Program for surplus facilities and sites contaminated with radioactive materials and/or hazardous chemicals. S M activities on these sites were conducted from the end of their operating life until final facility disposal or site stabilization. The objectives of the Waste Area Grouping S M Program are met by maintaining a program of routine S M as well as by implementing interim corrective maintenance when deemed necessary as a result of site surveillance. This report briefly presents this program's activities and includes tables indicating tank levels and dry well data for FY 1991.

  1. Bis(ferrocenyl)polymethine cations. A prototype molecular wire with redox-active end groups

    SciTech Connect

    Tolbert, L.M.; Zhao, X.; Ding, Y.; Bottomley, L.A.

    1995-12-27

    We have previously provided evidence for solitonic behavior in polymethines using {alpha}{omega}-diphenylpolyenyl anions (DPN{sup -}, X = Ph) and {alpha}{omega}-dipyridocyanines (DPyN{sup +}, X = py-CH{sub 3}). We now extend this approach to molecular wires involving polymethines with redox-active end groups. In this communication, we report the synthesis and characterization of {alpha}{omega}-bis(ferrocenyl)polymethine cations (acronym DFcN{sup +}, X = C{sub 5}H{sub 5}) as part of our systematic investigation of solitonic behavior in molecules (`solitons in a box`). Ferrocene end groups provide stable, low-potential redox-active termini and allow strong coupling of the redox centers with the polyene chain. The first two members of this series (DFcL{sup +}, DFc3{sup +}) were generated according to literature methods. The remaining members were synthesized through conventional Wittig methodology. 20 refs., 3 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Organocatalytic chemo- and regioselective oxyarylation of styrenes via a cascade reaction: remote activation of hydroxyl groups.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Chen; Jiang, Fei; Wang, Shu-Liang; Shi, Feng; Tu, Shu-Jiang

    2014-07-01

    The first organocatalytic oxyarylation of styrenes has been established through a cascade of vinylogous Michael addition/alkoxyl transfer reactions of o- or p-hydroxylstyrenes with quinone imine ketals. The process leads to a highly chemo- and regioselective oxyarylation of styrenes and provides access to m-alkylated anilines in generally high yields and excellent diastereoselectivity (up to 99% yield, >95:5 dr). An investigation of the reaction pathway revealed that the existence and position of the hydroxyl group of styrene played crucial roles in the cascade reaction, suggesting that the two reactants were simultaneously activated by binaphthyl-derived phosphoric acid via hydrogen bonding interactions and long-distance conjugative effects. In addition, the activating group of the hydroxyl functionality in the products can be easily removed or transformed, demonstrating the applicability and utility of this strategy in styrene oxyarylation and in the synthesis of styrene-based compounds.

  3. Syntheses and Characterization of Chiral Arm Liquid Crystals--Containing Active Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ying; Zhang, Fang-Di; He, Xiao-Zhi

    2016-05-01

    A new series of chiral two-arm dopant containg active group were first synthesized. Four precursors of C1~C4 were obtained at first and then were esterized separately with isosorbide and got four two-arm liquid crystals (MC1~MC4). The chemical structures and LC properties of the liquid crystalline molecule were measured by spectrum and thermal analysis techniques. XRD curves of MC1~MC4 samples only showed broad peaks at wide-angle, no sharp peak was seen for all the samples. The results showed that MC1~MC4 appeared cholesteric phase with oily streak texture or lined texture and finger print texture. Cholesteric phase was successfully induced by isosorbide. The different active group of two arm liquid crystal and chiral core had effects on their liquid crystalline properties.

  4. Chlorosulfonation of polystyrene substrates for bioanalytical assays: distribution of activated groups at the surface.

    PubMed

    del Prado, Anselmo; Briz, Nerea; Navarro, Rodrigo; Pérez, Mónica; Gallardo, Alberto; Reinecke, Helmut

    2012-12-01

    In this work the activation of transparent PS substrates by chlorosulfonation is described and their distribution in the subsurface region is analyzed. For this purpose XPS, FTIR-ATR and colorimetry have been used. It is shown that the electrophilic aromatic substitution of polystyrene in pure chlorosulfonic acid is extremely quick with complete surface coverage by chlorosulfonic groups achieved after only a 10 minute reaction time at -10 °C. It is further demonstrated that the reaction is very surface selective and that even after reaction times as long as 3 hours, the modification is limited to a layer with a thickness of less than one micron. The activated PS substrates can be further functionalized in a second step with carboxylic groups. Due to the excellent optical transparency that the samples maintain upon modification, the modified systems were successfully probed for use in ELISA assays.

  5. Default-Mode Network Activity Identified by Group Independent Component Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Conghui; Zhuang, Jie; Peng, Danling; Yu, Guoliang; Yang, Yanhui

    Default-mode network activity refers to some regional increase in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal during baseline than cognitive tasks. Recent functional imaging studies have found co-activation in a distributed network of cortical regions, including ventral anterior cingulate cortex (vACC) and posterior cingulate cortex (PPC) that characterize the default mode of human brain. In this study, general linear model and group independent component analysis (ICA) were utilized to analyze the fMRI data obtained from two language tasks. Both methods yielded similar, but not identical results and detected a resting deactivation network at some midline regions including anterior and posterior cingulate cortex and precuneus. Particularly, the group ICA method segregated functional elements into two separate maps and identified ventral cingulate component and fronto-parietal component. These results suggest that these two components might be linked to different mental function during "resting" baseline.

  6. Control of Surface Functional Groups on Pertechntate Sorption on Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Wang; H. Gao; R. Yeredla; H. Xu; M. Abrecht; G.D. Stasio

    2006-07-05

    {sup 99}Tc is highly soluble and poorly adsorbed by natural materials under oxidizing conditions, thus being of particular concern for radioactive waste disposal. Activated carbon can potentially be used as an adsorbent for removing Tc from aqueous solutions. We have tested six commercial activated carbon materials for their capabilities for sorption of pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The tested materials can be grouped into two distinct types: Type I materials have high sorption capabilities with the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) varying from 9.5 x 10{sup 5} to 3.2 x 10{sup 3} mL/g as the pH changes from 4.5 to 9.5, whereas type II materials have relatively low sorption capabilities with K{sub d} remaining more or less constant (1.1 x 10{sup 3} - 1.8 x 10{sup 3} mL/g) over a similar pH range. The difference in sorption behavior between the two types of materials is attributed to the distribution of surface functional groups. The predominant surface groups are identified to be carboxylic and phenolic groups. The carboxylic group can be further divided into three subgroups A, B, and C in the order of increasing acidity. The high sorption capabilities of type I materials are found to be caused by the presence of a large fraction of carboxylic subgroups A and B, while the low sorption capabilities of type II materials are due to the exclusive presence of phenolic and carboxylic subgroup C. Therefore, the performance of activated carbon for removing TcO{sub 4}{sup -} can be improved by enhancing the formation of carboxylic subgroups A and B during material processing.

  7. Transatlantic Consensus Group on active surveillance and focal therapy for prostate cancer

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Hashim U.; Akin, Oguz; Coleman, Jonathan A.; Crane, Sarah; Emberton, Mark; Goldenberg, Larry; Hricak, Hedvig; Kattan, Mike W.; Kurhanewicz, John; Moore, Caroline M.; Parker, Chris; Polascik, Thomas J.; Scardino, Peter; van As, Nicholas; Villers, Arnauld

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To reach consensus on key issues for clinical practice and future research in active surveillance and focal therapy in managing localized prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS A group of expert urologists, oncologists, radiologists, pathologists and computer scientists from North America and Europe met to discuss issues in patient population, interventions, comparators and outcome measures to use in both tissue-preserving strategies of active surveillance and focal therapy. Break-out sessions were formed to provide agreement or highlight areas of disagreement on individual topics which were then collated by a writing group into statements that formed the basis of this report and agreed upon by the whole Transatlantic Consensus Group. RESULTS The Transatlantic group propose that emerging diagnostic tools such as precision imaging and transperineal prostate mapping biopsy can improve prostate cancer care. These tools should be integrated into prostate cancer management and research so that better risk stratification and more effective treatment allocation can be applied. The group envisaged a process of care in which active surveillance, focal therapy, and radical treatments lie on a continuum of complementary therapies for men with a range of disease grades and burdens, rather than being applied in the mutually exclusive and competitive way they are now. CONCLUSION The changing landscape of prostate cancer epidemiology requires the medical community to re-evaluate the entire prostate cancer diagnostic and treatment pathway in order to minimize harms resulting from over-diagnosis and over-treatment. Precise risk stratification at every point in this pathway is required alongside paradigm shifts in our thinking about what constitutes cancer in the prostate. PMID:22077593

  8. Control of pertechnetate sorption on activated carbon by surface functional groups.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yifeng; Gao, Huizhen; Yeredla, Rakesh; Xu, Huifang; Abrecht, Mike

    2007-01-15

    The isotope 99Tc is highly soluble and poorly adsorbed by natural materials under oxidizing conditions, thus being of particular concern for radioactive waste disposal. Activated carbon can potentially be used as an adsorbent for removing Tc from aqueous solutions. We have tested six commercial activated carbon materials for their capabilities for sorption of pertechnetate (TcO4-). The tested materials can be grouped into two distinct types: Type I materials have high sorption capabilities with the distribution coefficients (Kd) varying from 9.5 x 10(5) to 3.2 x 10(3) ml/g as the pH changes from 4.5 to 9.5, whereas type II materials have relatively low sorption capabilities with Kd remaining more or less constant (1.1 x 10(3)-1.8 x 10(3) ml/g) over a similar pH range. The difference in sorption behavior between the two types of materials is attributed to the distribution of surface functional groups. The predominant surface groups are identified as carboxylic and phenolic groups. The carboxylic group can be further divided into three subgroups, A, B, and C, in the order of increasing acidity. The high sorption capabilities of type I materials are found to be caused by the presence of a large fraction of carboxylic subgroups A and B, while the low sorption capabilities of type II materials are due to the exclusive presence of phenolic and carboxylic subgroup C. Therefore, the performance of activated carbon for removing TcO4- can be improved by enhancing the formation of carboxylic subgroups A and B during materials processing.

  9. The functional importance of blood group-active molecules in human red blood cells.

    PubMed

    Anstee, D J

    2011-01-01

    Antigens of 23 of the 30 human blood group systems are defined by the amino acid sequence of red cell membrane proteins. The antigens of DI, RH, RHAG, MNS, GE and CO systems are carried on blood group-active proteins (Band 3, D and CE polypeptides, RhAG, Glycophorins A and B, Glycophorins C and D and Aquaporin 1, respectively) which are expressed at high levels (>200,000 copies/red cell). These major proteins contribute to essential red cell functions either directly as membrane transporters and by providing linkage to the underlying red cell skeleton or by facilitating the membrane assembly of the protein complexes involved in these processes. The proteins expressing antigens of the remaining 17 blood group systems are much less abundant (<20,000 copies/red cell) and their functional importance for the circulating red cell is largely unknown. Human gene knock-outs (null phenotypes) have been described for many of these minor blood group-active proteins, but only absence of Kx glycoprotein has been clearly linked with pathology directly related to the function of circulating red cells. Recent evidence suggesting the normal quality control system for glycoprotein synthesis is altered during the latter stages of red cell production raises the possibility that many of these low abundance blood group-active proteins are vestigial. In sickle cell disease and polycythaemia vera, elevated Lutheran glycoprotein expression may contribute to pathology. Dyserythropoiesis with reduced antigen expression can result from mutations in the erythroid transcription factors GATA-1 and EKLF.

  10. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  11. Inhibition of mammillary body neurons by direct activation of Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Charles C.

    2016-01-01

    The mammillary body is an important neural component of limbic circuitry implicated in learning and memory. Excitatory and inhibitory inputs, primarily mediated by glutamate and gamma-amino butyric acid (GABA), respectively, converge and integrate in this region, before sending information to the thalamus. One potentially overlooked mechanism for inhibition of mammillary body neurons is through direct activation of Group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). Here, whole-cell patch clamp recordings of in vitro slice preparations containing the mammillary body nuclei of the mouse were employed to record responses to bath application of pharmacological agents to isolate the direct effect of activating Group II mGluRs. Application of the Group II mGluR specific agonist, APDC, resulted in a hyperpolarization of the membrane potential in mammillary body neurons, likely resulting from the opening of a potassium conductance. These data suggest that glutamatergic inputs to the mammillary body may be attenuated via Group II mGluRs and implicates a functional role for these receptors in memory-related circuits and broadly throughout the central nervous system. PMID:27390777

  12. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology.

    PubMed

    Siegford, Janice M; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K; Daigle, Courtney L; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Hernandez, Carlos E; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J

    2016-02-02

    Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns with selecting focal birds.

  13. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology.

    PubMed

    Siegford, Janice M; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K; Daigle, Courtney L; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Hernandez, Carlos E; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J

    2016-01-01

    Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns with selecting focal birds. PMID:26848693

  14. Lysis of typhus-group rickettsia-infected targets by lymphokine activated killers

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, M.; Dasch, G.A.

    1986-03-01

    The authors recently described a subset of OKT8, OKT3-positive lymphocytes from typhus-group rickettsia immune individuals which were capable of lysing autologous PHA-blasts or Epstein-Barr virus transformed B cells (LCL) infected with typhus-group rickettsiae. In order to determine if killing by these effectors was HLA-restricted, they stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from typhus-group rickettsia immune individuals in vitro with typhus-group rickettsia-derived antigen for one week and then measured lysis of autologous LCL or HLA-mismatched LCL in a 4-6 hour Cr/sup 51/-release assay. There was significant lysis of both the autologous and the HLA-mismatched infected targets as compared to the corresponding uninfected targets. Since this suggested that the effectors were lymphokine activated killers (LAK) rather than cytotoxic T lymphocytes, they then tested this hypothesis by stimulating PBMC from both immune and non-immune individuals in vitro for one week with purified interleukin 2 and measuring lysis of infected, autologous LCL. PBMC thus treated, from both immune and non-immune individuals, were capable of significantly lysing autologous, infected LCL as compared to the non-infected control. They therefore conclude that targets infected with typhus-group rickettsiae are susceptible to lysis to LAK.

  15. Functional co-activation within the prefrontal cortex supports the maintenance of behavioural performance in fear-relevant situations before an iTBS modulated virtual reality challenge in participants with spider phobia.

    PubMed

    Deppermann, S; Notzon, S; Kroczek, A; Rosenbaum, D; Haeussinger, F B; Diemer, J; Domschke, K; Fallgatter, A J; Ehlis, A-C; Zwanzger, P

    2016-07-01

    A number of studies/meta-analyses reported moderate antidepressant effects of activating repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Regarding the treatment of anxiety, study outcomes are inconsistent, probably because of the heterogenity of anxiety disorders/study designs. To specifically evaluate the impact of rTMS on emotion regulation in fear-relevant situations we applied a sham-controlled activating protocol (intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation/iTBS) over the left PFC (F3) succeeded by a virtual reality (VR) challenge in n=41 participants with spider phobia and n=42 controls. Prior to/after iTBS and following VR prefrontal activation was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy during an emotional Stroop paradigm. Performance (reaction times/error rates) was evaluated. Stimuli were rated regarding valence/arousal at both measurements. We found diminished activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of participants with spider phobia compared to controls, particularly elicited by emotionally-irrelevant words. Simultaneously, a functional connectivity analysis showed increased co-activation between the left IFG and the contra-lateral hemisphere. Behavioural performance was unimpaired. After iTBS/VR no significant differences in cortical activation between the phobic and control group remained. However, verum-iTBS did not cause an additional augmentation. We interpreted our results in terms of a prefrontal network which gets activated by emotionally-relevant stimuli and supports the maintenance of adequate behavioural reactions. The missing add-on effects of iTBS might be due to a ceiling effect of VR, thereby supporting its potential during exposure therapy. Concurrently, it implies that the efficient application of iTBS in the context of emotion regulation still needs to be studied further.

  16. Functional co-activation within the prefrontal cortex supports the maintenance of behavioural performance in fear-relevant situations before an iTBS modulated virtual reality challenge in participants with spider phobia.

    PubMed

    Deppermann, S; Notzon, S; Kroczek, A; Rosenbaum, D; Haeussinger, F B; Diemer, J; Domschke, K; Fallgatter, A J; Ehlis, A-C; Zwanzger, P

    2016-07-01

    A number of studies/meta-analyses reported moderate antidepressant effects of activating repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Regarding the treatment of anxiety, study outcomes are inconsistent, probably because of the heterogenity of anxiety disorders/study designs. To specifically evaluate the impact of rTMS on emotion regulation in fear-relevant situations we applied a sham-controlled activating protocol (intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation/iTBS) over the left PFC (F3) succeeded by a virtual reality (VR) challenge in n=41 participants with spider phobia and n=42 controls. Prior to/after iTBS and following VR prefrontal activation was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy during an emotional Stroop paradigm. Performance (reaction times/error rates) was evaluated. Stimuli were rated regarding valence/arousal at both measurements. We found diminished activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of participants with spider phobia compared to controls, particularly elicited by emotionally-irrelevant words. Simultaneously, a functional connectivity analysis showed increased co-activation between the left IFG and the contra-lateral hemisphere. Behavioural performance was unimpaired. After iTBS/VR no significant differences in cortical activation between the phobic and control group remained. However, verum-iTBS did not cause an additional augmentation. We interpreted our results in terms of a prefrontal network which gets activated by emotionally-relevant stimuli and supports the maintenance of adequate behavioural reactions. The missing add-on effects of iTBS might be due to a ceiling effect of VR, thereby supporting its potential during exposure therapy. Concurrently, it implies that the efficient application of iTBS in the context of emotion regulation still needs to be studied further. PMID:26996315

  17. Synthesis, algal inhibition activities and QSAR studies of novel gramine compounds containing ester functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Xia; Yu, Liangmin; Jiang, Xiaohui; Xia, Shuwei; Zhao, Haizhou

    2009-05-01

    2,5,6-Tribromo-1-methylgramine (TBG), isolated from bryozoan Zoobotryon pellucidum was shown to be very efficient in preventing recruitment of larval settlement. In order to improve the compatibility of TBG and its analogues with other ingredients in antifouling paints, structural modification of TBG was focused mainly on halogen substitution and N-substitution. Two halogen-substitute gramines and their derivatives which contain ester functional groups at N-position of gramines were synthesized. Algal inhibition activities of the synthesized compounds against algae Nitzschia closterium were evaluated and the Median Effective Concentration (EC50) range was 1.06-6.74 μg ml-1. Compounds that had a long chain ester group exhibited extremely high antifouling activity. Quantitive Structure Activity Relationship (QSAR) studies with multiple linear regression analysis were applied to find correlation between different calculated molecular descriptors and biological activity of the synthesized compounds. The results show that the toxicity (log (1/EC50)) is correlated well with the partition coefficient log P. Thus, these products have potential function as antifouling agents.

  18. Stimulation of endocannabinoid formation in brain slice cultures through activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Jung, Kwang-Mook; Mangieri, Regina; Stapleton, Christopher; Kim, Janet; Fegley, Darren; Wallace, Matthew; Mackie, Ken; Piomelli, Daniele

    2005-11-01

    Activation of group I metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors drives the endocannabinoid system to cause both short- and long-term changes of synaptic strength in the striatum, hippocampus, and other brain areas. Although there is strong electrophysiological evidence for a role of endocannabinoid release in mGlu receptor-dependent plasticity, the identity of the endocannabinoid transmitter mediating this phenomenon remains undefined. In this study, we show that activation of group I mGlu receptors triggers the biosynthesis of the endocannabinoid 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), but not anandamide, in primary cultures of corticostriatal and hippocampal slices prepared from early postnatal rat brain. Pharmacological studies suggest that 2-AG biosynthesis is initiated by activation of mGlu5 receptors, is catalyzed by phospholipase C (PLC) and 1,2-diacylglycerol lipase (DGL) activities, and is dependent on intracellular Ca2+ ions. Realtime polymerase chain reaction and immunostaining analyses indicate that DGL-beta is the predominant DGL isoform expressed in corticostriatal and hippocampal slices and that this enzyme is highly expressed in striatal neurons, where it is colocalized with PLC-beta1. The results suggest that 2-AG is a primary endocannabinoid mediator of mGlu receptor-dependent neuronal plasticity.

  19. Recognition of human-vehicle interactions in group activities via multi-attributed semantic message generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2015-05-01

    Improved Situational awareness is a vital ongoing research effort for the U.S. Homeland Security for the past recent years. Many outdoor anomalous activities involve vehicles as their primary source of transportation to and from the scene where a plot is executed. Analysis of dynamics of Human-Vehicle Interaction (HVI) helps to identify correlated patterns of activities representing potential threats. The objective of this paper is bi-folded. Primarily, we discuss a method for temporal HVI events detection and verification for generation of HVI hypotheses. To effectively recognize HVI events, a Multi-attribute Vehicle Detection and Identification technique (MVDI) for detection and classification of stationary vehicles is presented. Secondly, we describe a method for identification of pertinent anomalous behaviors through analysis of state transitions between two successively detected events. Finally, we present a technique for generation of HVI semantic messages and present our experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of semantic messages for discovery of HVI in group activities.

  20. Tobacco Assessment in Actively Accruing National Cancer Institute Cooperative Group Program Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Peters, Erica N.; Torres, Essie; Toll, Benjamin A.; Cummings, K. Michael; Gritz, Ellen R.; Hyland, Andrew; Herbst, Roy S.; Marshall, James R.; Warren, Graham W.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Substantial evidence suggests that tobacco use has adverse effects on cancer treatment outcomes; however, routine assessment of tobacco use has not been fully incorporated into standard clinical oncology practice. The purpose of this study was to evaluate tobacco use assessment in patients enrolled onto actively accruing cancer clinical trials. Methods Protocols and forms for 155 actively accruing trials in the National Cancer Institute's (NCI's) Clinical Trials Cooperative Group Program were evaluated for tobacco use assessment at enrollment and follow-up by using a structured coding instrument. Results Of the 155 clinical trials reviewed, 45 (29%) assessed any form of tobacco use at enrollment, but only 34 (21.9%) assessed current cigarette use. Only seven trials (4.5%) assessed any form of tobacco use during follow-up. Secondhand smoke exposure was captured in 2.6% of trials at enrollment and 0.6% during follow-up. None of the trials assessed nicotine dependence or interest in quitting at any point during enrollment or treatment. Tobacco status assessment was higher in lung/head and neck trials as well as phase III trials, but there was no difference according to year of starting accrual or cooperative group. Conclusion Most actively accruing cooperative group clinical trials do not assess tobacco use, and there is no observable trend in improvement over the past 8 years. Failure to incorporate standardized tobacco assessments into NCI-funded Cooperative Group Clinical Trials will limit the ability to provide evidence-based cessation support and will limit the ability to accurately understand the precise effect of tobacco use on cancer treatment outcomes. PMID:22689794

  1. A New Calibrated Sunspot Group Series Since 1749: Statistics of Active Day Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Lockwood, M.; Mursula, K.; Owens, M.; Solanki, S. K.

    2016-01-01

    Although sunspot-number series have existed since the mid-nineteenth century, they are still the subject of intense debate, with the largest uncertainty being related to the "calibration" of the visual acuity of individual observers in the past. A daisy-chain regression method is usually applied to inter-calibrate the observers, which may lead to significant bias and error accumulation. Here we present a novel method for calibrating the visual acuity of the key observers to the reference data set of Royal Greenwich Observatory sunspot groups for the period 1900 - 1976, using the statistics of the active-day fraction. For each observer we independently evaluate their observational thresholds [ SS] defined such that the observer is assumed to miss all of the groups with an area smaller than SS and report all the groups larger than SS. Next, using a Monte-Carlo method, we construct a correction matrix for each observer from the reference data set. The correction matrices are significantly non-linear and cannot be approximated by a linear regression or proportionality. We emphasize that corrections based on a linear proportionality between annually averaged data lead to serious biases and distortions of the data. The correction matrices are applied to the original sunspot-group records reported by the observers for each day, and finally the composite corrected series is produced for the period since 1748. The corrected series is provided as supplementary material in electronic form and displays secular minima around 1800 (Dalton Minimum) and 1900 (Gleissberg Minimum), as well as the Modern Grand Maximum of activity in the second half of the twentieth century. The uniqueness of the grand maximum is confirmed for the last 250 years. We show that the adoption of a linear relationship between the data of Wolf and Wolfer results in grossly inflated group numbers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in some reconstructions.

  2. Osteoporosis knowledge, calcium intake, and weight-bearing physical activity in three age groups of women.

    PubMed

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W

    2002-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women and compare knowledge to calcium intake and weight-bearing physical activity (WBPA). In this cross-sectional study, knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA were assessed using probe interviews, a food frequency and an activity questionnaire, respectively. Seventy-five white women were separated into three groups: young (25-35 years), middle aged (36-46 years) and postmenopausal (50+ years). Concept maps were used to assess knowledge (concepts, integration and misconceptions). Calcium intakes from diet, supplements and fortified orange juice were estimated as were minutes of daily WBPA. Analysis of covariance was used to compare knowledge, calcium intake and WBPA by age group. Covariates included education, family history, physical problems making exercise difficult, and lactose intolerance. Chi square analysis was used to determine differences in these covariates across age groups. Correlations and regression analysis were used to determine relationships between knowledge and behaviors. Knowledge scores averaged 32-44 points (183 possible). Average calcium intake in all groups exceeded the Dietary Reference Intake's recommended Adequate Intake but 20-24% consumed less than 60% of the AI. Housework, walking at work, and standing at home and work accounted for 90% of WBPA. Knowledge about osteoporosis was limited and not associated with age, WBPA or calcium intake. Calcium intake and WBPA were not associated with age. Practitioners need to provide explicit information on osteoporosis and risk reducing behaviors to women of all ages. PMID:12238730

  3. [Functional groups in the alpha-galactosidase active site in Cladosporium cladosporioides].

    PubMed

    Malanchuk, V M; Buglova, T T; Varbanets, L D; Zakharova, I Ia

    2000-01-01

    The activity of alpha-galactosidase isolated from culture fluid of micromycete Cladosporium cladosporioides (Fres.) de Vries 16,038 has been studied as affected by cations, anions and specific chemical reagents (p-chlormercurybenzoate (p-ChMB), iodacetamide, N-ethylmaleimide, L-cysteine, dithiotreitol, beta-mercaptoethanol, EDTA, o-phenanthroline, sodium azide). It has been established that Ag+ ions inhibited competitively alpha-galactosidase at pH 4.0 and 6.0, the inhibition constants (Ki) made 3.6 x 10(-5) M and 4.3 x 10(-6) M, respectively. Galactose in concentration of 1 mM to 5 mM preserved the enzyme from the negative effect of Ag+ ions, while L-cysteine did not manifest the protective effect. Ions of Hg2+ p-ChMB inhibited noncompetitively the activity of alpha-galactosidase, Ki for Hg2+ and p-ChMB made 5.7 x 10(-7) M and 4.7 x 10(-6) M, respectively. Preincubation with galactose does not preserve alpha-galactosidase from the inhibiting effect of Ag+ and p-ChMB, but th[not readable: see text] compounds (L-cysteine, dithiotreitol, beta-mercaptoethanol) restore the enzyme activity. Participation of histidine imidazole group in the catalytic action is supposed on the basis of the inhibitory and kinetic analysis. Sulphydryl groups do not take part in the catalysis but play an important role in supporting the active conformation of the protein molecule. The groups containing the atoms of metals are absent in the alpha-galactosidase molecule.

  4. Role of allyl group in the hydroxyl and peroxyl radical scavenging activity of S-allylcysteine.

    PubMed

    Maldonado, Perla D; Alvarez-Idaboy, J Raúl; Aguilar-González, Adriana; Lira-Rocha, Alfonso; Jung-Cook, Helgi; Medina-Campos, Omar Noel; Pedraza-Chaverrí, José; Galano, Annia

    2011-11-17

    S-Allylcysteine (SAC) is the most abundant compound in aged garlic extracts, and its antioxidant properties have been demonstrated. It is known that SAC is able to scavenge different reactive species including hydroxyl radical (•OH), although its potential ability to scavenge peroxyl radical (ROO•) has not been explored. In this work the ability of SAC to scavenge ROO• was evaluated, as well as the role of the allyl group (-S-CH(2)-CH═CH(2)) in its free radical scavenging activity. Two derived compounds of SAC were prepared: S-benzylcysteine (SBC) and S-propylcysteine (SPC). Their abilities to scavenge •OH and ROO• were measured. A computational analysis was performed to elucidate the mechanism by which these compounds scavenge •OH and ROO•. SAC was able to scavenge •OH and ROO•, in a concentration-dependent way. Such activity was significantly ameliorated when the allyl group was replaced by benzyl or propyl groups. It was shown for the first time that SAC is able to scavenge ROO•.

  5. Group planarian sudden mortality: Is the threshold around global geomagnetic activity ≥K6?

    PubMed Central

    Murugan, Nirosha J; Karbowski, Lukasz M; Mekers, William Ft; Persinger, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Sudden deaths in groups of animals have been observed by field and laboratory biologists. We have measured mortalities in large group-housed planarian during the infrequent periods of very intense geomagnetic activity. In 13 separate episodes over the last 5 y we have observed the sudden death in our laboratory of hundreds of planarian if their density was about 1 worm per cc and the global geomagnetic activity was K≥6 the day before or the day of the observation of the mortality. Such mortality never occurred in other conditions or days. Both estimates of the "magnetic moment" of a planarian in magnetic fields above this threshold of sustained magnetic flux density as well as the magnetic energy within the planarian volume predict values that could affect phenomenon associated with the total numbers of pH-dependent charges within each worm. These conditions could affect the Levin-Burr bioelectrical signals and networks that affect patterning information and sustainability in whole living systems. The establishment of a central reservoir for the report of these transient events might allow Life Scientists to more fully appreciate the impact of these pervasive global stimuli upon dense groups of animals. PMID:27066174

  6. Youth Group Engagement in Noncompliant Communities During Supplemental Immunization Activities in Kaduna, Nigeria, in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Musa, Audu; Mkanda, Pascal; Manneh, Fadinding; Korir, Charles; Warigon, Charity; Gali, Emmanuel; Banda, Richard; Umeh, Gregory; Nsubuga, Peter; Chevez, Ana; Vaz, Rui G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. One of the major challenges being faced in the Global Polio Eradication Initiative program is persistent refusal of oral polio vaccine (OPV) and harassment of vaccination team members by youths. The objective of the study was to describe the strategy of collaborating with recognized youth groups to reduce team harassment during vaccination campaigns and improve vaccination coverage in noncompliant communities. Methods. We assessed data from polio vaccination activities in OPV-refusing communities in the Igabi and Zaria local government areas (LGAs) of Kaduna State in Nigeria. We evaluated the following factors to determine trends: enhanced independent monitoring data on the proportion of children missed by vaccination activities (hereafter, “missed children”), lot quality assurance surveys, and vaccination team harassment. Results. The proportion of missed children decreased in both LGAs after the intervention. In Igabi LGA and Zaria LGA, the lowest proportions of missed children before and after the intervention decreased from 7% to 2% and from 5% to 1%, respectively. Lot quality assurance survey trends showed an improvement in immunization coverage 1 year after youth groups' engagement in both LGAs. Conclusions. Systematic engagement of youth groups has a great future in polio interruption as we approach the endgame strategy for polio eradication. It promises to be a veritable innovation in reaching chronically missed children in OPV-refusing communities. PMID:26609003

  7. Cycles of activity, group composition, and diet of Lemur mongoz mongoz Linnaeus 1766 in Madagascar.

    PubMed

    Sussman, R W; Tattersall, I

    1976-01-01

    A preliminary study of the ecology and behavior of Lemur mongoz mongoz was carried out in the northwest of Madagascar. The animals were observed for approximately 250 h in July till August, 1973, and for 50 h in June, 1974. L.m.mongoz has been reported to be diurnal and to live in groups of 6-8 individuals. However, we found the animals to be nocturnal and that groups contained an adult male, an adult female and their offspring (groups numbering from 2 to 4 individuals). L.m.mongoz is thus the only species of the genus Lemur studied to date that is active exclusively at night and that lives in family groups. L.m.mongoz was also found to have a very specialized diet. During our study, it was observed to feed on only five species of plant and mainly on the nectar-producing parts (flowers and nectaries) of four of these species. It spent most of its feeding time licking nectar from the flowers of the kapok tree, Ceiba pentandra, and is probably a major pollinator of this tree in Madagascar. In Africa and South and Central America, the kapok tree is usually bat-pollinated. A dietary preference for nectar, although common among bats, has not previously been observed in primates.

  8. Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on mood in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Moulier, Virginie; Gaudeau-Bosma, Christian; Isaac, Clémence; Allard, Anne-Camille; Bouaziz, Noomane; Sidhoumi, Djedia; Braha-Zeitoun, Sonia; Benadhira, René; Thomas, Fanny; Januel, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Background High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has shown significant efficiency in the treatment of resistant depression. However in healthy subjects, the effects of rTMS remain unclear. Objective Our aim was to determine the impact of 10 sessions of rTMS applied to the DLPFC on mood and emotion recognition in healthy subjects. Design In a randomised double-blind study, 20 subjects received 10 daily sessions of active (10 Hz frequency) or sham rTMS. The TMS coil was positioned on the left DLPFC through neuronavigation. Several dimensions of mood and emotion processing were assessed at baseline and after rTMS with clinical scales, visual analogue scales (VASs), and the Ekman 60 faces test. Results The 10 rTMS sessions targeting the DLPFC were well tolerated. No significant difference was found between the active group and the control group for clinical scales and the Ekman 60 faces test. Compared to the control group, the active rTMS group presented a significant improvement in their adaptation to daily life, which was assessed through VAS. Conclusion This study did not show any deleterious effect on mood and emotion recognition of 10 sessions of rTMS applied on the DLPFC in healthy subjects. This study also suggested a positive effect of rTMS on quality of life. PMID:26993786

  9. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of ordered macroporous silicas functionalized with organosulfur groups

    SciTech Connect

    Wu Quanzhou Liao Jufang; Yin Qiang; Li Yuguang

    2008-05-06

    Hybrid three-dimensionally ordered macroporous (3DOM) SiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 3}H materials with different S/Si ratio have been prepared by colloidal crystal templating method. The process involved preparation of 3DOM SiO{sub 2}-SH materials by co-condensation of (3-mercaptopropyl)triethoxysilane and tetraethoxysilane via sol-gel transformation, and following oxidation of -SH group to -SO{sub 3}H group by H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. Materials were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infra-red spectrometer (FTIR), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and nitrogen adsorption measurement. SEM observation shows that the macropores are highly ordered with a typical 'surface-templated' structure. The surface area of 3DOM SiO{sub 2}-SH material is 25.1 m{sup 2}/g and SiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 3}H material is 18.6 m{sup 2}/g. Catalytic activity test shows that 3DOM SiO{sub 2}-SO{sub 3}H materials possess a high activity for the esterification of acetic acid and n-butanol, and the activity is increased with the amount of sulfur in the materials. This study provided significant results for developing new application of 3DOM materials.

  10. Amination of activated carbon for enhancing phenol adsorption: Effect of nitrogen-containing functional groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Guo; Chen, Honglin; Qin, Hangdao; Feng, Yujun

    2014-02-01

    To study the contribution of different nitrogen-containing functional groups to enhancement of phenol adsorption, the aminated activated carbons (AC) were characterized by N2 adsorption/desorption, XPS, Boehm titration, and pH drift method and tested for adsorption behaviors of phenol. Adsorption isotherm fitting revealed that the Langmuir model was preferred for the aminated ACs. The adsorption capacity per unit surface area (qm/SSABET) was linearly correlated with the amount of pyridinic and pyrrolic N, which suggested that these two functional groups played a critical role in phenol adsorption. The enhancement of adsorption capacity was attributed to the strengthened π-π dispersion between phenol and basal plane of AC by pyridinic, pyrrolic N. The adsorption kinetics was found to follow the pseudo-second-order kinetic model, and intraparticle diffusion was one of the rate-controlling steps in the adsorption process.

  11. Catalytic Ester–Amide Exchange Using Group (IV) Metal Alkoxide–Activator Complexes

    PubMed Central

    Han, Chong; Lee, Jonathan P.; Lobkovsky, Emil; Porco, John A.

    2005-01-01

    A process for preparation of amides from unactivated esters and amines has been developed using a catalytic system comprised of group (IV) metal alkoxides in conjunction with additives including 1-hydroxy-7-azabenzotriazole (HOAt). In general, ester–amide exchange proceeds using a variety of structurally diverse esters and amines without azeotropic reflux to remove the alcohol byproduct. Initial mechanistic studies on the Zr(Ot-Bu)4–HOAt system revealed that the active catalyst is a novel, dimeric zirconium complex as determined by X-ray crystallography. PMID:16011366

  12. Income, health and nutrition activities: examples from women's groups in Kenya.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, G

    1987-01-01

    The accomplishments of 4 Kenyan women's groups, sponsored by seed grants of $2000-5000 from Center for Development and Population Activities (CEDPA) since 1982, are summarized. CEDPA provides professional management training and coordinates alumni groups, as well as grants for community projects in family planning, health and community development. Forty women from Ngamani started a project to sell floormats, raised vegetables, received a grant to raise poultry, and opened a nutrition clinic. In Kibuyuni women use profits from chickens, goats and vegetables, and milling grain to build a primary school, a health dispensary and a general store. With CEDPA funds, they stocked the store and furnished the clinic. Proceeds pay a health worker's salary. They have sponsored another women's group, which is building a bakery and managing dairy cows. The Makiwo women's group, with money from their craft business, built a multi-purpose community center for health, family planning services and reading classes. A CEDPA grant funded a charcoal business and a profitable water system built by the women, providing a salaried health educator. A women's group in Chonyi began raising cattle. A CEDPA graduate helped them to set a goal to reduce infant mortality. They started a training class for young mothers in techniques of nutrition, home economics, family planning and hygiene, such as growing vegetables an building latrines. Evaluation has shown that successful projects are based on previous work, strong links with other organizations, and entail a long-term process. Women's organizations can deliver results with some training, supervision and technical assistance, but minimal cost.

  13. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of acid-base bifunctional materials through protection of amino groups

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yanqiu; Liu, Heng; Yu, Xiaofang; Guan, Jingqi; Kan, Qiubin

    2012-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acid-base bifunctional material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized through protection of amino groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} catalyst containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties. -- Abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, transmission electron micrographs (TEM), back titration, {sup 13}C magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR and {sup 29}Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR were employed to characterize the synthesized materials. The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. Compared with monofunctional catalysts of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15 and SBA-15-NH{sub 2}, the bifunctional sample of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties, which make it possess high activity for the aldol condensation.

  14. Soft Skills: An Important Asset Acquired from Organizing Regional Student Group Activities

    PubMed Central

    de Ridder, Jeroen; Meysman, Pieter; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Abeel, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Contributing to a student organization, such as the International Society for Computational Biology Student Council (ISCB-SC) and its Regional Student Group (RSG) program, takes time and energy. Both are scarce commodities, especially when you are trying to find your place in the world of computational biology as a graduate student. It comes as no surprise that organizing ISCB-SC-related activities sometimes interferes with day-to-day research and shakes up your priority list. However, we unanimously agree that the rewards, both in the short as well as the long term, make the time spent on these extracurricular activities more than worth it. In this article, we will explain what makes this so worthwhile: soft skills. PMID:24992198

  15. Soft skills: an important asset acquired from organizing regional student group activities.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, Jeroen; Meysman, Pieter; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Abeel, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Contributing to a student organization, such as the International Society for Computational Biology Student Council (ISCB-SC) and its Regional Student Group (RSG) program, takes time and energy. Both are scarce commodities, especially when you are trying to find your place in the world of computational biology as a graduate student. It comes as no surprise that organizing ISCB-SC-related activities sometimes interferes with day-to-day research and shakes up your priority list. However, we unanimously agree that the rewards, both in the short as well as the long term, make the time spent on these extracurricular activities more than worth it. In this article, we will explain what makes this so worthwhile: soft skills. PMID:24992198

  16. Soft skills: an important asset acquired from organizing regional student group activities.

    PubMed

    de Ridder, Jeroen; Meysman, Pieter; Oluwagbemi, Olugbenga; Abeel, Thomas

    2014-07-01

    Contributing to a student organization, such as the International Society for Computational Biology Student Council (ISCB-SC) and its Regional Student Group (RSG) program, takes time and energy. Both are scarce commodities, especially when you are trying to find your place in the world of computational biology as a graduate student. It comes as no surprise that organizing ISCB-SC-related activities sometimes interferes with day-to-day research and shakes up your priority list. However, we unanimously agree that the rewards, both in the short as well as the long term, make the time spent on these extracurricular activities more than worth it. In this article, we will explain what makes this so worthwhile: soft skills.

  17. Cytotoxic Activity of Pyrovalerone Derivatives, an Emerging Group of Psychostimulant Designer Cathinones.

    PubMed

    Wojcieszak, Jakub; Andrzejczak, Dariusz; Woldan-Tambor, Agata; Zawilska, Jolanta B

    2016-08-01

    The growing popularity of novel psychoactive substances (NPS) has aroused the concerns of public health specialists. The pyrovalerone derivatives are a branch of synthetic cathinones, a very popular group of psychostimulant NPS. Despite numerous case reports of fatal intoxications, little is known about the cytotoxicity of these substances. Therefore, this study was aimed to evaluate the toxic properties of pyrovalerone, its highly prevalent derivative 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (3,4-MDPV) with its two major metabolites (catechol-MDPV and methylcatechol-MDPV) and the structural isomer 2,3-MDPV, together with newer members of the group, i.e., α-pyrrolidinovalerothiophenone (α-PVT) and α-pyrrolidinooctanophenone (PV9), using model human cell lines for neurons (SH-SY5Y), hepatocytes (Hep G2), and upper airway epithelium (RPMI 2650). We found that the first generation pyrovalerones (pyrovalerone, 3,4-MDPV, and 2,3-MDPV) produced a modest decrease of mitochondrial activity in the three examined cell lines, but were active in lower concentrations than methamphetamine used as a reference psychostimulant compound. Since catechol-MDPV displayed greater toxic potential than the parent compound, we suggest that the toxicity of 3,4-MDPV could be attributed to activity of this metabolite. Strikingly, the two new generation pyrovalerones, α-PVT and PV9, seem to be the most potent cytotoxic compounds: both induced highly pronounced mitochondrial dysfunction; the latter also demonstrated significant damage to cell membranes. The reported in vitro toxic activity of pyrovalerone cathinones against different cell types reinforces existing concerns regarding the health risks associated with the intake of these drugs. PMID:27295059

  18. Density-matrix renormalization group algorithm with multi-level active space.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yingjin; Wen, Jing; Ma, Haibo

    2015-07-21

    The density-matrix renormalization group (DMRG) method, which can deal with a large active space composed of tens of orbitals, is nowadays widely used as an efficient addition to traditional complete active space (CAS)-based approaches. In this paper, we present the DMRG algorithm with a multi-level (ML) control of the active space based on chemical intuition-based hierarchical orbital ordering, which is called as ML-DMRG with its self-consistent field (SCF) variant ML-DMRG-SCF. Ground and excited state calculations of H2O, N2, indole, and Cr2 with comparisons to DMRG references using fixed number of kept states (M) illustrate that ML-type DMRG calculations can obtain noticeable efficiency gains. It is also shown that the orbital re-ordering based on hierarchical multiple active subspaces may be beneficial for reducing computational time for not only ML-DMRG calculations but also DMRG ones with fixed M values. PMID:26203012

  19. Self-harm and suicidal acts: a suitable case for treatment of impulsivity-driven behaviour with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS)

    PubMed Central

    Shergill, Sukhwinder S.; David, Anthony S.; Fonagy, Peter; Zaman, Rashid; Downar, Jonathan; Eliott, Emma; Bhui, Kamaldeep

    2015-01-01

    Summary Suicidal thinking, self-harm and suicidal acts are common, although determining their precise prevalence is complex. Epidemiological work has identified a number of associated demographic and clinical factors, though, with the exception of past acts of self-harm, these are non-specific and weak future predictors. There is a critical need shift focus from managing ‘suicidality-by-proxy’ through general mental health treatments, to better understand the neuropsychology and neurophysiology of such behaviour to guide targeted interventions. The model of the cognitive control of emotion (MCCE) offers such a paradigm, with an underlying pan-diagnostic pathophysiology of a hypoactive prefrontal cortex failing to suitably inhibit an overactive threat-responding limbic system. The result is a phenotype – from any number of causative gene–environment interactions – primed to impulsively self-harm. We argue that such neural dysconnectivity is open to potential therapeutic modification from repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). The current evidence base for this is undoubtedly extremely limited, but the societal and clinical burden self-harm and suicide pose warrants such investigation. Declaration of interest K.B. is the Editor of BJPsych Open, but had no editorial involvement in the review or decision process regarding this paper. Copyright and usage © The Royal College of Psychiatrists 2015. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Non-Commercial, No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND) licence. PMID:27703728

  20. The role of beaded activated carbon's surface oxygen groups on irreversible adsorption of organic vapors.

    PubMed

    Jahandar Lashaki, Masoud; Atkinson, John D; Hashisho, Zaher; Phillips, John H; Anderson, James E; Nichols, Mark

    2016-11-01

    The objective of this study is to determine the contribution of surface oxygen groups to irreversible adsorption (aka heel formation) during cyclic adsorption/regeneration of organic vapors commonly found in industrial systems, including vehicle-painting operations. For this purpose, three chemically modified activated carbon samples, including two oxygen-deficient (hydrogen-treated and heat-treated) and one oxygen-rich sample (nitric acid-treated) were prepared. The samples were tested for 5 adsorption/regeneration cycles using a mixture of nine organic compounds. For the different samples, mass balance cumulative heel was 14 and 20% higher for oxygen functionalized and hydrogen-treated samples, respectively, relative to heat-treated sample. Thermal analysis results showed heel formation due to physisorption for the oxygen-deficient samples, and weakened physisorption combined with chemisorption for the oxygen-rich sample. Chemisorption was attributed to consumption of surface oxygen groups by adsorbed species, resulting in formation of high boiling point oxidation byproducts or bonding between the adsorbates and the surface groups. Pore size distributions indicated that different pore sizes contributed to heel formation - narrow micropores (<7Å) in the oxygen-deficient samples and midsize micropores (7-12Å) in the oxygen-rich sample. The results from this study help explain the heel formation mechanism and how it relates to chemically tailored adsorbent materials. PMID:27295065

  1. A pilot study of ambulatory masticatory muscle activities in TMJD diagnostic groups

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, LR; Gonzalez, YM; Liu, H; Marx, DB; Gallo, LM; Nickel, JC

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine differences in masticatory muscle usage between TMJD diagnostic groups. Setting and Sample Population Seventy-one informed and consented subjects (27 men; 44 women) participated at the University at Buffalo. Material and Methods Research Diagnostic Criteria and imaging data were used to categorize subjects according to presence/absence (+/−) of TMJ disc placement (DD) and chronic pain (P) (+DD+P, n=18; +DD-P, n =14; −DD-P, n=39). EMG/bite-force calibrations determined subject-specific masseter and temporalis muscle activities per 20 N bite-force (T20N, μV). Over 3 days and nights subjects collected EMG recordings. Duty factors (DFs, % of recording time) were determined based on threshold intervals (5–9, 10–24, 25–49, 50–79, ≥80%T20N). ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer post-hoc tests identified (i) diagnostic group differences in T20N, and (ii) effects of diagnostic group, gender, time, and interval, and on muscle DFs. Results Mean (±standard error) temporalis T20N in +DD+P subjects was significantly higher (71.4±8.8 μV) than masseter T20N in these subjects (19.6±8.8 μV; P=0.001) and in −DD-P subjects (25.3±6.0 μV, P=0.0007). Masseter DFs at 5–9%T20N were significantly higher in +DD-P women (3.48%) than +DD-P men (0.85%) and women and men in both other diagnostic groups (all P<0.03); and in +DD+P women (2.00%) compared to −DD-P men (0.83%; P=0.029). Night-time DFs at 5–9%T20N in +DD-P women (1.97%) were significantly higher than in −DD-P men (0.47%) and women (0.24%; all P<0.01). Conclusions Between-group differences were found in masticatory muscle activities in both laboratory and natural environmental settings. PMID:25865543

  2. Number of accelerometer monitoring days needed for stable group-level estimates of activity.

    PubMed

    Wolff-Hughes, Dana L; McClain, James J; Dodd, Kevin W; Berrigan, David; Troiano, Richard P

    2016-09-01

    To determine the number and distribution of days required to produce stable group-level estimates of a 7 d mean for common accelerometer-derived activity measures. Data from the 2003-2006 NHANES were used in this analysis. The sample included 986 youth (6-19 year) and 2532 adults (⩾20 year) with 7 d of  ⩾10 h of wear. Accelerometer measures included minutes of inactive, light physical activity, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA); and total activity counts/d. Twenty-five alternative protocols were bootstrapped with 50 000 samples drawn for each protocol. Alternative protocols included: 1-6 random days, Saturday plus 1-5 random weekdays (WD), Sunday plus 1-5 random WD, 1 random weekend day (WE) plus 1-5 WD, and both WE plus 1-4 random WD. Relative difference was calculated between the 7 d mean and alternative protocol mean (((alternative protocol mean - 7 d mean)/7 d mean) (*) 100). Adult MVPA is used as an example; however, similar trends were observed across age groups and variables except adult inactive time, which was stable across protocols. The 7 d mean for adult MVPA was 44.1(0.9) min d(-1). The mean bias for any 1-6 random days ranged from  -0.0(0.3) to 0.0(0.2) min d(-1) with a relative difference of  -0.1 to 0.0%. For protocols with non-random components, bias ranged from  -1.4(0.2) to 0.6(0.1) min d(-1) with relative difference ranging from  -7.2 to 3.1%. Simulation data suggest that stable estimates of group-level means can be obtained from as few as one randomly selected monitoring day from a sampled week. On the other hand, estimates using non-random selection of weekend days may be significantly biased. Purposeful sampling that disproportionally forces inclusion of weekend data in analyses should be discouraged. PMID:27510765

  3. A Relaxed Active Site After Exon Ligation by the Group I Intron

    SciTech Connect

    Lipchock,S.; Strobel, S.

    2008-01-01

    During RNA maturation, the group I intron promotes two sequential phosphorotransfer reactions resulting in exon ligation and intron release. Here, we report the crystal structure of the intron in complex with spliced exons and two additional structures that examine the role of active-site metal ions during the second step of RNA splicing. These structures reveal a relaxed active site, in which direct metal coordination by the exons is lost after ligation, while other tertiary interactions are retained between the exon and the intron. Consistent with these structural observations, kinetic and thermodynamic measurements show that the scissile phosphate makes direct contact with metals in the ground state before exon ligation and in the transition state, but not after exon ligation. Despite no direct exonic interactions and even in the absence of the scissile phosphate, two metal ions remain bound within the active site. Together, these data suggest that release of the ligated exons from the intron is preceded by a change in substrate-metal coordination before tertiary hydrogen bonding contacts to the exons are broken.

  4. Highly active oxygen reduction non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst without direct metal-nitrogen coordination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strickland, Kara; Miner, Elise; Jia, Qingying; Tylus, Urszula; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Liang, Wentao; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jaouen, Frédéric; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-06-01

    Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon-nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation.

  5. Highly active oxygen reduction non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst without direct metal-nitrogen coordination.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Kara; Miner, Elise; Jia, Qingying; Tylus, Urszula; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Liang, Wentao; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jaouen, Frédéric; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-06-10

    Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon-nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation.

  6. Activation of band 3 mediates group A Streptococcus streptolysin S-based beta-haemolysis.

    PubMed

    Higashi, Dustin L; Biais, Nicolas; Donahue, Deborah L; Mayfield, Jeffrey A; Tessier, Charles R; Rodriguez, Kevin; Ashfeld, Brandon L; Luchetti, Jeffrey; Ploplis, Victoria A; Castellino, Francis J; Lee, Shaun W

    2016-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes, or group A Streptococcus (GAS), is a human bacterial pathogen that can manifest as a range of diseases from pharyngitis and impetigo to severe outcomes such as necrotizing fasciitis and toxic shock syndrome. GAS disease remains a global health burden with cases estimated at over 700 million annually and over half a million deaths due to severe infections(1). For over 100 years, a clinical hallmark of diagnosis has been the appearance of complete (beta) haemolysis when grown in the presence of blood. This activity is due to the production of a small peptide toxin by GAS known as streptolysin S. Although it has been widely held that streptolysin S exerts its lytic activity through membrane disruption, its exact mode of action has remained unknown. Here, we show, using high-resolution live cell imaging, that streptolysin S induces a dramatic osmotic change in red blood cells, leading to cell lysis. This osmotic change was characterized by the rapid influx of Cl(-) ions into the red blood cells through SLS-mediated disruption of the major erythrocyte anion exchange protein, band 3. Chemical inhibition of band 3 function significantly reduced the haemolytic activity of streptolysin S, and dramatically reduced the pathology in an in vivo skin model of GAS infection. These results provide key insights into the mechanism of streptolysin S-mediated haemolysis and have implications for the development of treatments against GAS. PMID:27571972

  7. Cockayne syndrome group B protein has novel strand annealing and exchange activities.

    PubMed

    Muftuoglu, Meltem; Sharma, Sudha; Thorslund, Tina; Stevnsner, Tinna; Soerensen, Martin M; Brosh, Robert M; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2006-01-01

    Cockayne syndrome (CS) is a rare inherited human genetic disorder characterized by UV sensitivity, severe neurological abnormalities and prageroid symptoms. The CS complementation group B (CSB) protein is involved in UV-induced transcription coupled repair (TCR), base excision repair and general transcription. CSB also has a DNA-dependent ATPase activity that may play a role in remodeling chromatin in vivo. This study reports the novel finding that CSB catalyzes the annealing of complementary single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) molecules with high efficiency, and has strand exchange activity. The rate of CSB-catalyzed annealing of complementary ssDNA is 25-fold faster than the rate of spontaneous ssDNA annealing under identical in vitro conditions and the reaction occurs with a high specificity in the presence of excess non-homologous ssDNA. The specificity and intrinsic nature of the reaction is also confirmed by the observation that it is stimulated by dephosphorylation of CSB, which occurs after UV-induced DNA damage, and is inhibited in the presence of ATPgammaS. Potential roles of CSB in cooperation with strand annealing and exchange activities for TCR and homologous recombination are discussed. PMID:16410611

  8. Highly active oxygen reduction non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst without direct metal-nitrogen coordination.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Kara; Miner, Elise; Jia, Qingying; Tylus, Urszula; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Liang, Wentao; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jaouen, Frédéric; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon-nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation. PMID:26059552

  9. Highly active oxygen reduction non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst without direct metal–nitrogen coordination

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Kara; Miner, Elise; Jia, Qingying; Tylus, Urszula; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Liang, Wentao; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jaouen, Frédéric; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon–nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation. PMID:26059552

  10. Structure-activity relationship of lipid core peptide-based Group A Streptococcus vaccine candidates.

    PubMed

    Chan, Amy; Hussein, Waleed M; Ghaffar, Khairunnisa Abdul; Marasini, Nirmal; Mostafa, Ahmed; Eskandari, Sharareh; Batzloff, Michael R; Good, Michael F; Skwarczynski, Mariusz; Toth, Istvan

    2016-07-15

    Infection with Group A Streptococcus (GAS) can result in a range of different illnesses, some of which are fatal. Currently, our efforts to develop a vaccine against GAS focuses on the lipid core peptide (LCP) system, a subunit vaccine containing a lipoamino acid (LAA) moiety which allows the stimulation of systemic antibody activity. In the present study, a peptide (J14) representing the B-cell epitope from the GAS M protein was incorporated alongside a universal T-helper epitope (P25) in four LCP constructs of different spatial orientation or LAA lengths. Through structure-activity studies, it was discovered that while the alteration of the LCP orientation had a weaker effect on immunostimulation, increasing the LAA side chain length within the construct increased antibody responses in murine models. Furthermore, the mice immunised with the lead LCP construct were also able to maintain antibody activity throughout the course of five months. These findings highlight the importance of LAA moieties in the development of intranasal peptide vaccines and confirmed that its side chain length has an effect on the immunogenicity of the structure. PMID:27246859

  11. Behavioural Activation for Depression; An Update of Meta-Analysis of Effectiveness and Sub Group Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ekers, David; Webster, Lisa; Van Straten, Annemieke; Cuijpers, Pim; Richards, David; Gilbody, Simon

    2014-01-01

    Background Depression is a common, disabling condition for which psychological treatments are recommended. Behavioural activation has attracted increased interest in recent years. It has been over 5 years since our meta-analyses summarised the evidence supporting and this systematic review updates those findings and examines moderators of treatment effect. Method Randomised trials of behavioural activation for depression versus controls or anti-depressant medication were identified using electronic database searches, previous reviews and reference lists. Data on symptom level and study level moderators were extracted and analysed using meta-analysis, sub-group analysis and meta-regression respectively. Results Twenty six randomised controlled trials including 1524 subjects were included in this meta-analysis. A random effects meta-analysis of symptom level post treatment showed behavioural activation to be superior to controls (SMD −0.74 CI −0.91 to −0.56, k = 25, N = 1088) and medication (SMD −0.42 CI −0.83 to-0.00, k = 4, N = 283). Study quality was low in the majority of studies and follow- up time periods short. There was no indication of publication bias and subgroup analysis showed limited association between moderators and effect size. Conclusions The results in this meta-analysis support and strengthen the evidence base indicating Behavioural Activation is an effective treatment for depression. Further high quality research with longer term follow-up is needed to strengthen the evidence base. PMID:24936656

  12. Preferential Acquisition and Activation of Plasminogen Glycoform II by PAM Positive Group A Streptococcal Isolates.

    PubMed

    De Oliveira, David M P; Law, Ruby H P; Ly, Diane; Cook, Simon M; Quek, Adam J; McArthur, Jason D; Whisstock, James C; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L

    2015-06-30

    Plasminogen (Plg) circulates in the host as two predominant glycoforms. Glycoform I Plg (GI-Plg) contains glycosylation sites at Asn289 and Thr346, whereas glycoform II Plg (GII-Plg) is exclusively glycosylated at Thr346. Surface plasmon resonance experiments demonstrated that Plg binding group A streptococcal M protein (PAM) exhibits comparative equal affinity for GI- and GII-Plg in the "closed" conformation (for GII-Plg, KD = 27.4 nM; for GI-Plg, KD = 37.0 nM). When Plg was in the "open" conformation, PAM exhibited an 11-fold increase in affinity for GII-Plg (KD = 2.8 nM) compared with that for GI-Plg (KD = 33.2 nM). The interaction of PAM with Plg is believed to be mediated by lysine binding sites within kringle (KR) 2 of Plg. PAM-GI-Plg interactions were fully inhibited with 100 mM lysine analogue ε-aminocaproic acid (εACA), whereas PAM-GII-Plg interactions were shown to be weakened but not inhibited in the presence of 400 mM εACA. In contrast, binding to the KR1-3 domains of GII-Plg (angiostatin) by PAM was completely inhibited in the presence 5 mM εACA. Along with PAM, emm pattern D GAS isolates express a phenotypically distinct SK variant (type 2b SK) that requires Plg ligands such as PAM to activate Plg. Type 2b SK was able to generate an active site and activate GII-Plg at a rate significantly higher than that of GI-Plg when bound to PAM. Taken together, these data suggest that GAS selectively recruits and activates GII-Plg. Furthermore, we propose that the interaction between PAM and Plg may be partially mediated by a secondary binding site outside of KR2, affected by glycosylation at Asn289. PMID:26029848

  13. covR Mediated Antibiofilm Activity of 3-Furancarboxaldehyde Increases the Virulence of Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Ashwinkumar Subramenium, Ganapathy; Viszwapriya, Dharmaprakash; Iyer, Prasanth Mani; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

    2015-01-01

    Background Group A streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes), a multi-virulent, exclusive human pathogen responsible for various invasive and non-invasive diseases possesses biofilm forming phenomenon as one of its pathogenic armaments. Recently, antibiofilm agents have gained prime importance, since inhibiting the biofilm formation is expected to reduce development of antibiotic resistance and increase their susceptibility to the host immune cells. Principal Findings The current study demonstrates the antibiofilm activity of 3Furancarboxaldehyde (3FCA), a floral honey derived compound, against GAS biofilm, which was divulged using crystal violet assay, light microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The report is extended to study its effect on various aspects of GAS (morphology, virulence, aggregation) at its minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (132μg/ml). 3FCA was found to alter the growth pattern of GAS in solid and liquid medium and increased the rate of auto-aggregation. Electron microscopy unveiled the increase in extra polymeric substances around cell. Gene expression studies showed down-regulation of covR gene, which is speculated to be the prime target for the antibiofilm activity. Increased hyaluronic acid production and down regulation of srtB gene is attributed to the enhanced rate of auto-aggregation. The virulence genes (srv, mga, luxS and hasA) were also found to be over expressed, which was manifested with the increased susceptibility of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to 3FCA treated GAS. The toxicity of 3FCA was ruled out with no adverse effect on C. elegans. Significance Though 3FCA possess antibiofilm activity against GAS, it was also found to increase the virulence of GAS. This study demonstrates that, covR mediated antibiofilm activity may increase the virulence of GAS. This also emphasizes the importance to analyse the acclimatization response and virulence of the pathogen in the presence of antibiofilm compounds

  14. Teaching high-school Geoscience through a group-based activity: the Geotrivia experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakopoulou, Athanasia

    2015-04-01

    Geotrivia is an educational game which aims at the enhancement of geoscience teaching in secondary education, through an interactive group-based activity. As behavioural teaching methods no longer excite students in a multitask society, new approaches should be implemented to keep up with novel learning methodologies and team-based techniques. Thus, the main aim of the experiment was to come up with an alternative learning process on geology and geography in order to upgrade and attract more students to Geosciences. Geotrivia is based on the techniques of motivation (competition to be the winner) and enjoyable educational time (it is funny to play a game) in terms of team-based student collaboration. Pedagogical aims of Geotrivia consist of team-based work, independency, autonomy and initiative, active participation, student self-evaluation and metacognition. Geotrivia is a card game, consisting of about 150 playing cards, a whistle and an hourglass. Each playing card contains a geology- or geography-related question and the answer to the question is given in the lower part of the card. Class students are divided in about 4 groups of about 5 students each. The aim of each group is to collect as many cards as possible. The hourglass is flipped and a member of the team takes the pack of cards and uses it to ask questions to his team; the other members have to answer as many questions. The team wins a card when they give a correct answer. The game is played at the end of each curriculum unit; a comprehensive version of the game is held at end of the school year. Most -but not all- questions are based on the course syllabus, which deals with the geology and geography of Europe at junior high school level (e.g. what is the cause of high seismicity in Greece?). Accordingly, Geotrivia questions can be adjusted to each country school book of geology - geography at any grade. To evaluate the results of Geotrivia, we used the methodology of pretest and posttest, an

  15. Polyhydrides of Platinum Group Metals: Nonclassical Interactions and σ-Bond Activation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Esteruelas, Miguel A; López, Ana M; Oliván, Montserrat

    2016-08-10

    The preparation, structure, dynamic behavior in solution, and reactivity of polyhydride complexes of platinum group metals, described during the last three decades, are contextualized from both organometallic and coordination chemistry points of view. These compounds, which contain dihydrogen, elongated dihydrogen, compressed dihydride, and classical dihydride ligands promote the activation of B-H, C-H, Si-H, N-H, O-H, C-C, C-N, and C-F, among other σ-bonds. In this review, it is shown that, unlike other more mature areas, the chemistry of polyhydrides offers new exciting conceptual challenges and at the same time the possibility of interacting with other fields including the conversion and storage of regenerative energy, organic synthetic chemistry, drug design, and material science. This wide range of possible interactions foresees promising advances in the near future.

  16. Polyhydrides of Platinum Group Metals: Nonclassical Interactions and σ-Bond Activation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Esteruelas, Miguel A; López, Ana M; Oliván, Montserrat

    2016-08-10

    The preparation, structure, dynamic behavior in solution, and reactivity of polyhydride complexes of platinum group metals, described during the last three decades, are contextualized from both organometallic and coordination chemistry points of view. These compounds, which contain dihydrogen, elongated dihydrogen, compressed dihydride, and classical dihydride ligands promote the activation of B-H, C-H, Si-H, N-H, O-H, C-C, C-N, and C-F, among other σ-bonds. In this review, it is shown that, unlike other more mature areas, the chemistry of polyhydrides offers new exciting conceptual challenges and at the same time the possibility of interacting with other fields including the conversion and storage of regenerative energy, organic synthetic chemistry, drug design, and material science. This wide range of possible interactions foresees promising advances in the near future. PMID:27268136

  17. STS-107 crew poses for a group portrait during TCDT M113 training activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- -- The STS-107 crew poses for a group portrait with their instructor beside an M113 armored personnel carrier. The crew is participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a standard part of launch preparations. In the front, from left, are Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon (the first Israeli astronaut), Instructor George Hoggard, Mission Specialist Laurel Clark, Commander Rick Husband, Mission Specialist David Brown, and Payload Commander Michael Anderson. In the back, from left, are Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla and Pilot William 'Willie' McCool. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia.

  18. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2016-01-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells. PMID:26932808

  19. Density-matrix renormalization-group study of current and activity fluctuations near nonequilibrium phase transitions.

    PubMed

    Gorissen, Mieke; Hooyberghs, Jef; Vanderzande, Carlo

    2009-02-01

    Cumulants of a fluctuating current can be obtained from a free-energy-like generating function, which for Markov processes equals the largest eigenvalue of a generalized generator. We determine this eigenvalue with the density-matrix renormalization group for stochastic systems. We calculate the variance of the current in the different phases, and at the phase transitions, of the totally asymmetric exclusion process. Our results can be described in the terms of a scaling ansatz that involves the dynamical exponent z . We also calculate the generating function of the dynamical activity (total number of configuration changes) near the absorbing-state transition of the contact process. Its scaling properties can be expressed in terms of known critical exponents. PMID:19391693

  20. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells.

    PubMed

    Martins, Murillo L; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J; Bordallo, Heloisa N

    2016-01-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells. PMID:26932808

  1. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2016-03-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells.

  2. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    DOE PAGES

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2016-03-02

    Here, the most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigatemore » the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. In conclusion, from these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells.« less

  3. The cyano group as a traceless activation group for the intermolecular [3+2] cycloaddition of azomethine ylides: a five-step synthesis of (±)-isoretronecanol.

    PubMed

    Li, Jundong; Zhao, Huaibo; Jiang, Xunjin; Wang, Xiance; Hu, Haiming; Yu, Lei; Zhang, Yandong

    2015-05-18

    The cyano group was used as a traceless activation group for the [3+2] cycloaddition of azomethine ylides in a two-step process, thereby providing a highly effective approach to 5-unsubstituted pyrrolidines. The transformation includes the silver acetate catalyzed intermolecular 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of α-iminonitriles and an unprecedented sodium borohydride induced reductive decyanation reaction. A diverse array of substrates is amenable to this transformation. The methodology was further extended to a five-step total synthesis of the pyrrolizidine natural product isoretronecanol. PMID:25820905

  4. Group Intensive Cognitive Activation in Patients with Major or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Musso, Sabrina; Catania, Valentina; Ruggeri, Federica; Raggi, Alberto; Muratore, Stefano; Prestianni, Giuseppina; Bonforte, Cinzia; Ferri, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Background: No standard protocols are available for cognitive rehabilitation (CR) in conditions like Major or Mild Neurocognitive disorder (M-NCD or m-NCD, respectively); however, preliminary data seem to indicate that such interventions might have cost-effective beneficial effects and are free from side effect or adverse events. Three basic approaches are known: cognitive stimulation (CS), cognitive training (CT), and CR. Objective: Aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a protocol of group intensive cognitive activation (g-ICA) in patients with both M-NCD and m-NCD; the protocol was specifically arranged in our Research Institute, based on the principles of the central role of the patient and the mediation pedagogy. Subjects and Methods: Sixteen patients with M-NCD and fifteen patients with m-NCD were enrolled, as well as eleven patients with M-NCD who were used as a control group (CG). The intervention was carried-out by a clinical neuropsychologist with daily group sessions over a period of 2 months. Neuropsychological assessment was performed at baseline and after the completion of the rehabilitative intervention. Results: General cognitive functioning, attention, ideomotor praxis and visual memory scores were found to be significantly increased in all patients. Beneficial and significant effects were also found for constructive praxis in M-NCD and for executive functioning in m-NCD. All areas of the language function were significantly ameliorated in m-NCD, while this happened only for verbal repetition and syntax-grammar comprehension in M-NCD. No changes were detected for long- and short-term verbal memory, which were found to be worsened in controls without activation. Conclusion: Our findings seem to indicate that g-ICA might be effective in inducing beneficial changes on the general cognitive functioning and other specific functions in patients with both m-NCD and M-NCD. Moreover, the specific protocol proposed, even if susceptible of important

  5. Electric utility/advocacy group interaction: A case history report on the key outcomes of DSM/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities

    SciTech Connect

    Schweitzer, M. ); English, M.; Schexnayder, S. . Energy, Environment and Resources Center); Altman, J.

    1995-01-01

    This article presents the findings derived from ten case studies of activities undertaken by energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) to influence the use of cost-effective Demand-Side Management (DSM) by electric utilities and to promote Integrated Resource Planning (IRP). Nine of these ten cases included some form of interactive effort involving utilities and, in almost all cases, other nonutility parties (NUPs) as well. All ten cases also included other EEAG activities. Key findings of the study include the following: interactive efforts had substantially greater effects on utility DSM usage and on relations among the involved parties than on regulatory policy; other EEAG activities had the great effect on regulatory policy and the least direct effect on utility DSM usage; and the discernible overall effects of interactive efforts were somewhat greater than those of the EEAGs' other activities, which often had less tangible and immediate effects.

  6. Epigenome changes in active and inactive Polycomb-group-controlled regions

    PubMed Central

    Breiling, Achim; O'Neill, Laura P; D'Eliseo, Donatella; Turner, Bryan M; Orlando, Valerio

    2004-01-01

    The Polycomb group (PcG) of proteins conveys epigenetic inheritance of repressed transcriptional states. In Drosophila, the Polycomb repressive complex 1 (PRC1) maintains the silent state by inhibiting the transcription machinery and chromatin remodelling at core promoters. Using immunoprecipitation of in vivo formaldehyde-fixed chromatin in phenotypically diverse cultured cell lines, we have mapped PRC1 components, the histone methyl transferase (HMT) Enhancer of zeste (E(z)) and histone H3 modifications in active and inactive PcG-controlled regions. We show that PRC1 components are present in both cases, but at different levels. In particular, active target promoters are nearly devoid of E(z) and Polycomb. Moreover, repressed regions are trimethylated at lysines 9 and 27, suggesting that these histone modifications represent a mark for inactive PcG-controlled regions. These PcG-specific repressive marks are maintained by the action of the E(z) HMT, an enzyme that has an important role not only in establishing but also in maintaining PcG repression. PMID:15448640

  7. Specialization of the DNA-Cleaving Activity of a Group I Ribozyme Through In Vitro Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, Joyce; Joyce, Gerald F.

    1996-01-01

    In an earlier study, an in vitro evolution procedure was applied to a large population of variants of the Tetrahymena group 1 ribozyme to obtain individuals with a 10(exp 5)-fold improved ability to cleave a target single-stranded DNA substrate under simulated physiological conditions. The evolved ribozymes also showed a twofold improvement, compared to the wild-type, in their ability to cleave a single-stranded RNA substrate. Here, we report continuation of the in vitro evolution process using a new selection strategy to achieve both enhanced DNA and diminished RNA-cleavage activity. Our strategy combines a positive selection for DNA cleavage with a negative selection against RNA binding. After 36 "generations" of in vitro evolution, the evolved population showed an approx. 100-fold increase in the ratio of DNA to RNA-cleavage activity. Site-directed mutagenesis experiment confirmed the selective advantage of two covarying mutations within the catalytic core of ribozyme that are largely responsible for this modified behavior. The population of ribozymes has now undergone a total of 63 successive generations of evolution, resulting in an average 28 mutations relative to the wild-type that are responsible for the altered phenotype.

  8. Anatomically-adapted graph wavelets for improved group-level fMRI activation mapping.

    PubMed

    Behjat, Hamid; Leonardi, Nora; Sörnmo, Leif; Van De Ville, Dimitri

    2015-12-01

    A graph based framework for fMRI brain activation mapping is presented. The approach exploits the spectral graph wavelet transform (SGWT) for the purpose of defining an advanced multi-resolutional spatial transformation for fMRI data. The framework extends wavelet based SPM (WSPM), which is an alternative to the conventional approach of statistical parametric mapping (SPM), and is developed specifically for group-level analysis. We present a novel procedure for constructing brain graphs, with subgraphs that separately encode the structural connectivity of the cerebral and cerebellar gray matter (GM), and address the inter-subject GM variability by the use of template GM representations. Graph wavelets tailored to the convoluted boundaries of GM are then constructed as a means to implement a GM-based spatial transformation on fMRI data. The proposed approach is evaluated using real as well as semi-synthetic multi-subject data. Compared to SPM and WSPM using classical wavelets, the proposed approach shows superior type-I error control. The results on real data suggest a higher detection sensitivity as well as the capability to capture subtle, connected patterns of brain activity.

  9. Parents' and children's perceptions of active video games: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jull, Andrew; Meagher-Lundberg, Patricia; Widdowson, Deborah

    2010-06-01

    Energy expenditure studies have shown that playing Active Video Games (AVGs) is positively associated with increases in heart rate and oxygen consumption. It is proposed that playing AVGs may be a useful means of addressing inactivity and obesity in children. This study explored children's and parents' perceptions of AVGs and the likely facilitators and barriers to sustained use of AVGs. Data were gathered using focus group interviews: seven with children, four with adults. Both children and parents reported that AVGs offered a way to increase activity and improve fitness. Barriers to sustained engagement, according to parents, were the cost of AVGs and lack of space in the home to play the games. According to children, the likelihood of long-term engagement with AVGs depended on game content and child age, with AVGs being seen as more appropriate for younger children than teenagers. It would appear that there is potential for AVGs to reduce inactivity in young people. However, barriers to widespread, sustainable adoption would need to be addressed if this potential is to be realized.

  10. Working Group 1: Current plans of various organisations for lunar activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsiger, H.; Pilcher, C.

    1994-01-01

    Summaries of presentations by representatives of several space agencies and the International Academy of Astronautics concerning lunar activities are presented. Participating space agencies reported two different types of lunar planning, long term planning and scenarios and lunar missions competing within regular programs. The long term plans of the various agencies look remarkably similar. They all involve a phased approach (coincidentally all incorporating four phases) and all address three prime scientific elements: science of, on, and from the Moon. The missions under consideration by the second group of agencies could readily fit as elements in the longer term program. There is great interest in lunar astronomy. There is a great deal of potential infrastructure and lunar transport capability already available. There is also a wide range of interesting technological developments that could form part of a lunar program. A well concerted and coordinated international effort could lead to an affordable program. Recommendations are: an international conference on lunar exploration should be held every other year; an electronic network should be established for the daily exchange of information; and a mechanism should be established for regular working level coordination of activities.

  11. Leaving Group Ability Observably Affects Transition State Structure in a Single Enzyme Active Site.

    PubMed

    Roston, Daniel; Demapan, Darren; Cui, Qiang

    2016-06-15

    A reaction's transition state (TS) structure plays a critical role in determining reactivity and has important implications for the design of catalysts, drugs, and other applications. Here, we explore TS structure in the enzyme alkaline phosphatase using hybrid Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics simulations. We find that minor perturbations to the substrate have major effects on TS structure and the way the enzyme stabilizes the TS. Substrates with good leaving groups (LGs) have little cleavage of the phosphorus-LG bond at the TS, while substrates with poor LGs have substantial cleavage of that bond. The results predict nonlinear free energy relationships for a single rate-determining step, and substantial differences in kinetic isotope effects for different substrates; both trends were observed in previous experimental studies, although the original interpretations differed from the present model. Moreover, due to different degrees of phosphorus-LG bond cleavage at the TS for different substrates, the LG is stabilized by different interactions at the TS: while a poor LG is directly stabilized by an active site zinc ion, a good LG is mainly stabilized by active site water molecules. Our results demonstrate the considerable plasticity of TS structure and stabilization in enzymes. Furthermore, perturbations to reactivity that probe TS structure experimentally (i.e., substituent effects) may substantially perturb the TS they aim to probe, and thus classical experimental approaches such as free energy relations should be interpreted with care. PMID:27186960

  12. Active syphilis in HIV infection: a multicentre retrospective survey. The German AIDS Study Group (GASG).

    PubMed Central

    Schöfer, H; Imhof, M; Thoma-Greber, E; Brockmeyer, N H; Hartmann, M; Gerken, G; Pees, H W; Rasokat, H; Hartmann, H; Sadri, I; Emminger, C; Stellbrink, H J; Baumgarten, R; Plettenberg, A

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To study syphilis in HIV infection focusing on immunocompromised patients with an atypical or aggressive clinical course of syphilis, inappropriate serological reactions or an unreliable response to therapy. STUDY DESIGN: A multicentre retrospective chart review using a standardised questionnaire for all patients with active syphilis. SETTINGS: Thirteen dermatological and medical centres throughout Germany, all members of the German AIDS Study Group (GASG). PATIENTS: Clinical data of 11,368 HIV infected patients have been analysed for cases of active syphilis requiring treatment. Asymptotic patients with reactive serological parameters indicating latent syphilis without a need for treatment were excluded. RESULTS: Active syphilis was reported in 151 of 11,368 HIV infected patients (1.33%, range per centre 0.3%-5.1%). Most of the 151 syphilis patients were male (93%) and belonged to the homosexual or bisexual exposure category for HIV infection (79%); another 6% were iv drug users. Among the 151 syphilis patients primary syphilis was diagnosed in 17.2%, maculopapular secondary syphilis in 29.1%, ulcerating secondary syphilis in 7.3%, neurosyphilis in 16.6% and latent seropositive syphilis without clinical symptoms but serological abnormalities indicating active syphilis in 25.2%. A history of prior treatments for syphilis was reported in 50%. At the time of syphilis diagnosis 26.5% of the patients were in CDC stage II, 33.8% in stage III and 24.5% in stage IV of HIV disease (CDC classification 1987). CD4 cell count was lowest in those with ulcerating secondary syphilis (mean 307, SD 140/microliters) and neurosyphilis (351, SD 235/ microliters). The highest CD4 count was found in patients with early primary and early secondary syphilis (444, SD 163/microliters and 470, SD 355/microliters). Inappropriate serological response to syphilis infection was found in 81 of 151 patients (54%). Remarkable findings were false negative VDRL titres (11 patients with non

  13. Aspirin's Active Metabolite Salicylic Acid Targets High Mobility Group Box 1 to Modulate Inflammatory Responses.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Tian, Miaoying; Song, Fei; Venereau, Emilie; Preti, Alessandro; Park, Sang-Wook; Hamilton, Keith; Swapna, G V T; Manohar, Murli; Moreau, Magali; Agresti, Alessandra; Gorzanelli, Andrea; De Marchis, Francesco; Wang, Huang; Antonyak, Marc; Micikas, Robert J; Gentile, Daniel R; Cerione, Richard A; Schroeder, Frank C; Montelione, Gaetano T; Bianchi, Marco E; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-01-01

    Salicylic acid (SA) and its derivatives have been used for millennia to reduce pain, fever and inflammation. In addition, prophylactic use of acetylsalicylic acid, commonly known as aspirin, reduces the risk of heart attack, stroke and certain cancers. Because aspirin is rapidly de-acetylated by esterases in human plasma, much of aspirin's bioactivity can be attributed to its primary metabolite, SA. Here we demonstrate that human high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a novel SA-binding protein. SA-binding sites on HMGB1 were identified in the HMG-box domains by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies and confirmed by mutational analysis. Extracellular HMGB1 is a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP), with multiple redox states. SA suppresses both the chemoattractant activity of fully reduced HMGB1 and the increased expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) induced by disulfide HMGB1. Natural and synthetic SA derivatives with greater potency for inhibition of HMGB1 were identified, providing proof-of-concept that new molecules with high efficacy against sterile inflammation are attainable. An HMGB1 protein mutated in one of the SA-binding sites identified by NMR chemical shift perturbation studies retained chemoattractant activity, but lost binding of and inhibition by SA and its derivatives, thereby firmly establishing that SA binding to HMGB1 directly suppresses its proinflammatory activities. Identification of HMGB1 as a pharmacological target of SA/aspirin provides new insights into the mechanisms of action of one of the world's longest and most used natural and synthetic drugs. It may also provide an explanation for the protective effects of low-dose aspirin usage. PMID:26101955

  14. Aspirin's Active Metabolite Salicylic Acid Targets High Mobility Group Box 1 to Modulate Inflammatory Responses.

    PubMed

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Tian, Miaoying; Song, Fei; Venereau, Emilie; Preti, Alessandro; Park, Sang-Wook; Hamilton, Keith; Swapna, G V T; Manohar, Murli; Moreau, Magali; Agresti, Alessandra; Gorzanelli, Andrea; De Marchis, Francesco; Wang, Huang; Antonyak, Marc; Micikas, Robert J; Gentile, Daniel R; Cerione, Richard A; Schroeder, Frank C; Montelione, Gaetano T; Bianchi, Marco E; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-06-18

    Salicylic acid (SA) and its derivatives have been used for millennia to reduce pain, fever and inflammation. In addition, prophylactic use of acetylsalicylic acid, commonly known as aspirin, reduces the risk of heart attack, stroke and certain cancers. Because aspirin is rapidly de-acetylated by esterases in human plasma, much of aspirin's bioactivity can be attributed to its primary metabolite, SA. Here we demonstrate that human high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a novel SA-binding protein. SA-binding sites on HMGB1 were identified in the HMG-box domains by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopic studies and confirmed by mutational analysis. Extracellular HMGB1 is a damage-associated molecular pattern molecule (DAMP), with multiple redox states. SA suppresses both the chemoattractant activity of fully reduced HMGB1 and the increased expression of proinflammatory cytokine genes and cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2) induced by disulfide HMGB1. Natural and synthetic SA derivatives with greater potency for inhibition of HMGB1 were identified, providing proof-of-concept that new molecules with high efficacy against sterile inflammation are attainable. An HMGB1 protein mutated in one of the SA-binding sites identified by NMR chemical shift perturbation studies retained chemoattractant activity, but lost binding of and inhibition by SA and its derivatives, thereby firmly establishing that SA binding to HMGB1 directly suppresses its proinflammatory activities. Identification of HMGB1 as a pharmacological target of SA/aspirin provides new insights into the mechanisms of action of one of the world's longest and most used natural and synthetic drugs. It may also provide an explanation for the protective effects of low-dose aspirin usage.

  15. Estimating municipal solid waste generation by different activities and various resident groups: a case study of Beijing.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhen-shan; Fu, Hui-zhen; Qu, Xiao-yan

    2011-09-15

    Reliable and accurate determinations of the quantities and composition of wastes is required for the planning of municipal solid waste (MSW) management systems. A model, based on the interrelationships of expenditure on consumer goods, time distribution, daily activities, residents groups, and waste generation, was developed and employed to estimate MSW generation by different activities and resident groups in Beijing. The principle is that MSW is produced by consumption of consumer goods by residents in their daily activities: 'Maintenance' (meeting the basic needs of food, housing and personal care), 'Subsistence' (providing the financial requirements) and 'Leisure' (social and recreational pursuits) activities. Three series of important parameters - waste generation per unit of consumer expenditure, consumer expenditure distribution to activities in unit time, and time assignment to activities by different resident groups - were determined using a statistical analysis, a sampling survey and the Analytic Hierarchy Process, respectively. Data for analysis were obtained from the Beijing Statistical Yearbook (2004-2008) and questionnaire survey. The results reveal that 'Maintenance' activity produced the most MSW, distantly followed by 'Leisure' and 'Subsistence' activities. In 2008, in descending order of MSW generation the different resident groups were floating population, non-civil servants, retired people, civil servants, college students (including both undergraduates and graduates), primary and secondary students, and preschoolers. The new estimation model, which was successful in fitting waste generation by different activities and resident groups over the investigated years, was amenable to MSW prediction.

  16. Natural variation in 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in the urine of Finnish population groups.

    PubMed

    Muikku, Maarit; Heikkinen, Tarja; Solatie, Dina; Vesterbacka, Pia

    2011-11-01

    A study to determine activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the urine of certain Finnish population groups was conducted, to investigate the variation in natural background level of urinary excretion. The study participants were divided into three groups mainly based on their diet. The first group comprised recreational fishermen and the second group represented people consuming more reindeer meat than an average Finn, while people using drinking water with very high activity concentrations of (210)Po were selected for the third group. The fourth group was a control group. The mean urinary excretion of (210)Po in groups 1 and 2 was 73 and 100 mBq d(-1), respectively. These values were higher than the value of the control group (20 mBq d(-1)) and the mean values reported in the literature. The mean daily urinary excretion of (210)Pb in groups 1 and 2, 70 and 52 mBq d(-1), was also slightly higher than that in the control group (32 mBq d(-1)). In contrast, the excretion rates of both (210)Po and (210)Pb for the members of group 3 were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. This was clearly due to the elevated levels of natural radionuclides in their drinking water. The present study demonstrates the importance of possessing good knowledge of the background levels, in order to allow the determination of the additional exposure due, for example, to the malevolent use of radiation.

  17. Dose-Dependent Effects of Theta Burst rTMS on Cortical Excitability and Resting-State Connectivity of the Human Motor System

    PubMed Central

    Nettekoven, Charlotte; Volz, Lukas J.; Kutscha, Martha; Pool, Eva-Maria; Rehme, Anne K.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Fink, Gereon R.

    2014-01-01

    Theta burst stimulation (TBS), a specific protocol of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), induces changes in cortical excitability that last beyond stimulation. TBS-induced aftereffects, however, vary between subjects, and the mechanisms underlying these aftereffects to date remain poorly understood. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate whether increasing the number of pulses of intermittent TBS (iTBS) (1) increases cortical excitability as measured by motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) and (2) alters functional connectivity measured using resting-state fMRI, in a dose-dependent manner. Sixteen healthy, human subjects received three serially applied iTBS blocks of 600 pulses over the primary motor cortex (M1 stimulation) and the parieto-occipital vertex (sham stimulation) to test for dose-dependent iTBS effects on cortical excitability and functional connectivity (four sessions in total). iTBS over M1 increased MEP amplitudes compared with sham stimulation after each stimulation block. Although the increase in MEP amplitudes did not differ between the first and second block of M1 stimulation, we observed a significant increase after three blocks (1800 pulses). Furthermore, iTBS enhanced resting-state functional connectivity between the stimulated M1 and premotor regions in both hemispheres. Functional connectivity between M1 and ipsilateral dorsal premotor cortex further increased dose-dependently after 1800 pulses of iTBS over M1. However, no correlation between changes in MEP amplitudes and functional connectivity was detected. In summary, our data show that increasing the number of iTBS stimulation blocks results in dose-dependent effects at the local level (cortical excitability) as well as at a systems level (functional connectivity) with a dose-dependent enhancement of dorsal premotor cortex-M1 connectivity. PMID:24828639

  18. Group 4 metal complexes with new chiral pincer NHC-ligands: synthesis, structure and catalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Ning; Hou, Guohua; Deng, Xuebin; Zi, Guofu; Walter, Marc D

    2014-06-14

    Chiral group 4 NHC-metal complexes were prepared in good yields by amine elimination from M(NR2)4 (M = Ti, Zr, Hf; R = Me, Et) and chiral pincer NHC-ligands, L4(L4a and L4b), L5 and L6, which are derived from (S,S)-diphenyl-1,2-ethanediamine. Treatment of M(NR2)4 with 1 equiv. of L4 in THF gives, after recrystallization from a benzene solution, the chiral titanium amides (L4)Ti(NMe2)(Br)(THF) (7) and (L4)Ti(NMe2)(Cl)(THF) (11), zirconium amides (L4)Zr(NMe2)(Br)(THF) (8), (L4)Zr(NEt2)(Br)(THF) (10), (L4)Zr(NMe2)(Cl)(THF) (12) and (L4)Zr(NEt2)(Cl)(THF) (14), and hafnium amides (L4)Hf(NMe2)(Br)(THF) (9) and (L4)Hf(NMe2)(Cl)(THF) (13), respectively. Similarly, the reactions of L5 or L6 with 1 equiv. of M(NR2)4 yield the titanium amide (L6)Ti(NMe2)(Cl)(THF) (16), the zirconium amides (L5)Zr(NMe2)(Cl)(THF) (15), (L6)Zr(NMe2)(Cl)(THF) (17) and (L6)Zr(NEt2)(Cl)(THF) (19), and the hafnium amide (L6)Hf(NMe2)(Cl)(THF) (18), respectively. Complexes 7 - 19 were characterized by various spectroscopic techniques and elemental analyses. The molecular structures of 10 and 14 - 19 were also established by X-ray diffraction analyses, which represent the first example of the structurally characterized group 4 chiral NHC-metal complex. Furthermore, 7 - 19 are active catalysts for the polymerization of rac-lactide in the presence of isopropanol, leading to the heterotactic-rich polylactides.

  19. Apheresis activity in Spain: a survey of the Spanish Apheresis Group.

    PubMed

    Lozano, Miguel; Cid, Joan; Areal, Carlos; Romon, Iñigo; Muncunill, Josep

    2013-12-01

    The Spanish Apheresis Group is a scientific association of physicians and nurses representing most of the medical centers in the country that are involved in apheresis. The group developed a survey in order to get information about the types and number of apheresis procedures performed in Spain. We received responses from 66 centers and we were able to collect data from at least one center of each autonomous region. There were 7 centers (11%) that did not perform any kind of apheresis procedures, 26 (39%) centers performed therapeutic apheresis procedures only, 18 (27%) centers performed apheresis donations only, and 15 (23%) centers performed both types of apheresis procedures. Regarding therapeutic apheresis in adult patients, plasma exchange (34%) and stem cell collections (30%) were the two therapeutic procedures most frequently reported, followed by erythrocytapheresis (13%) and extracorporeal photochemotherapy (11%). Regarding apheresis donation, our survey showed that the most frequent was multicomponent donation (45%) followed by plasmapheresis (28%) and single plateletapheresis (21%). When analyzing the current instrumentation for performing apheresis procedures, centers used the Spectra, Optia, and Trima devices (TerumoBCT) as the most frequent ones, followed by the MCS+(Haemonetics), Amicus (Fenwal), and Fresenius devices. In conclusion, we report here the first nationwide survey performed in Spain in order to get information about apheresis activities in our country. The survey is representative of Spain because we were able to collect data from at least one center from each of the different 17 autonomous regions, and we found a wide variety of therapeutic and donation procedures, as well as instrumentation used.

  20. Activation of Group II and Group III metabotropic glutamate receptors by endogenous ligand(s) and the modulation of synaptic transmission in the superficial superior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Thompson, H; Neale, S A; Salt, T E

    2004-11-01

    Previous work from this laboratory indicates that Group II/III metabotropic glutamate (mGlu) receptors modulate responses of SC neurones to visual stimuli in vivo. It is thought that tonic levels of glutamate may be sufficient to activate some mGlu receptors. We wished to investigate if these receptors are activated under ambient conditions in SC. Field excitatory postsynaptic potentials (fEPSPs) evoked by optic tract stimulation were recorded from 300 microm slices of the adult pigmented rat superior colliculus at 34 degrees C. The Group II receptor selective agonist LY354740 (100-300 nM) had no significant effect on the peak amplitude of the fEPSP, although it did enhance the late phase of the fEPSP. In order to test for activation of Group II receptors by endogenous ligand, the selective antagonists LY341495 (50 nM) or EGLU (200 microM) were applied: these either enhanced or reduced the fEPSP amplitude. In similar experiments carried out at 22 degrees C, no effect was seen. The fEPSP enhancements, but not the fEPSP reductions, could be occluded by GABA antagonists. Application of higher concentrations of LY341495 (300, 600 nM-known to also affect Group III receptors, particularly mGlu8), or co-application of 50 nM LY341495 and the Group III-selective antagonist CPPG (100 microM) produced enhancements of responses, or counteracted response reductions over those seen with 50 nM LY341495 alone. The predominant Group II receptor in SC is mGlu3. It is known that this can be located presynaptically on GABAergic and glutamatergic terminals, postsynaptically, and on glia. Our results indicate that such receptors are tonically activated by endogenous transmitter, have distinct effects, and influence retino-collicular transmission. Furthermore, there is a segregation of effects where receptors exert some of their effects via modulation of GABAergic circuitry. PMID:15527816

  1. Rh(III)-catalyzed synthesis of sultones through C-H activation directed by a sulfonic acid group.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zisong; Wang, Mei; Li, Xingwei

    2014-09-01

    A new rhodium-catalyzed synthesis of sultones via the oxidative coupling of sulfonic acids with internal alkynes is described. The reaction proceeds via aryl C-H activation assisted by a sulfonic acid group.

  2. [The legal frameworks and organizational forms of the work of a forensic medical expert participating in group investigation activities].

    PubMed

    Kachina, N N

    2013-01-01

    The problems pertaining to the modern organization of group investigation activities and the role of a forensic medical expert involved in them are discussed. It is shown that the variety of such groups formed in accordance with departmental and interdepartmental guidelines and regulations can be reduced to two major types, viz. investigation teams (brigades) and alert operational investigations groups. Either type can and some must include a forensic medical expert although neither legal nor institutional frameworks has been formulated for his participation.

  3. An E3 ligase complex regulates SET-domain polycomb group protein activity in Arabidopsis thaliana

    PubMed Central

    Jeong, Cheol Woong; Roh, Hyungmin; Dang, Tuong Vi; Choi, Yang Do; Fischer, Robert L.; Lee, Jong Seob; Choi, Yeonhee

    2011-01-01

    Transcriptional repression via methylation of histone H3 lysine 27 (H3K27) by the polycomb repressive complex 2 (PRC2) is conserved in higher eukaryotes. The Arabidopsis PRC2 controls homeotic gene expression, flowering time, and gene imprinting. Although downstream target genes and the regulatory mechanism of PRC2 are well understood, much less is known about the significance of posttranslational regulation of PRC2 protein activity. Here, we show the posttranslational regulation of CURLY LEAF (CLF) SET-domain polycomb group (PcG) protein by the F-box protein, UPWARD CURLY LEAF1 (UCL1). Overexpression of UCL1 generates mutant phenotypes similar to those observed in plants with a loss-of-function mutation in the CLF gene. Leaf curling and early flowering phenotypes of UCL1 overexpression mutants, like clf mutants, are rescued by mutations in the AGAMOUS and FLOWERING LOCUS T genes, which is consistent with UCL1 and CLF functioning in the same genetic pathway. Overexpression of UCL1 reduces the level of CLF protein and alters expression and H3K27 methylation of CLF-target genes in transgenic plants, suggesting that UCL1 negatively regulates CLF. Interaction of UCL1 with CLF was detected in plant nuclei and in the yeast two-hybrid system. The UCL1 F-box binds in vivo to components of the E3 ligase complex, which ubiquitylate proteins that are subsequently degraded via the ubiquitin-26S proteasome pathway. Taken together, these results demonstrate the posttranslational regulation of the CLF SET-domain PcG activity by the UCL1 F-box protein in the E3 ligase complex. PMID:21518870

  4. Sport and Physical Activity in the Lives of Looked-After Children: A "Hidden Group" in Research, Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Looked-after children are arguably one of the most disadvantaged groups in society and constitute a "hidden group" in relation to sport and physical activity research, policy and practice. Research on looked-after children has explored the views of caregivers, practitioners and policy-makers who have often been asked to speak for…

  5. Exploring the Self/Group Initiated and On-the-Job Learning Activities of Low Income Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Butterwick, Shauna

    The self- and group-initiated and on-the-job learning activities of low-income women were explored in a study of a small group of low-income mothers living in the greater Vancouver area of British Columbia, Canada. During the study, the low-income women attended meetings during which a participating researcher documented the women's experiences.…

  6. Supporting Active Learning in an Undergraduate Geotechnical Engineering Course Using Group-Based Audience Response Systems Quizzes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The use of audience response systems (ARSs) or "clickers" in higher education has increased over the recent years, predominantly owing to their ability to actively engage students, for promoting individual and group learning, and for providing instantaneous feedback to students and teachers. This paper describes how group-based ARS…

  7. Group Dynamics in the Language Classroom: Embodied Participation as Active Reception in the Collective Zone of Proximal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Compernolle, Rémi A.; Williams, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the notion of "active reception" during small-group collaborative interaction in the foreign language classroom, focusing on the embodied participation of a secondary (nonspeaking) interactant, Diane. Drawing on Vygotskian sociocultural theory, we argue that within small-group work, a Zone of Proximal Development…

  8. Collaborative Learning in an Online Course: A Comparison of Communication Patterns in Small and Whole Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahng, Namsook; Nielsen, Wendy S.; Chan, Eric K. H.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the investigation of collaborative learning processes in an online course that examined students' communication during whole-group discussions and small-group activities. Content analysis and social network analysis methods were employed to code and categorize text messages to uncover students' communication behaviour. The…

  9. Ionization behavior, stoichiometry of association, and accessibility of functional groups in the active layers of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Coronell, Orlando; González, Mari I; Mariñas, Benito J; Cahill, David G

    2010-09-01

    We characterized the fully aromatic polyamide (PA) active layers of six commercial reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes and found that in contrast to their similar elemental composition, total concentration of functional groups, and degree of polymerization, the ionization behavior and spatial distribution of carboxylic (R-COOH) groups within the active layers can be significantly different. We also studied the steric effects experienced by barium ion (Ba2+) in the active layers by determining the fraction of carboxylate (R-COO-) groups accessible to Ba2+; such fraction, referred to as the accessibility ratio (AR), was found to vary within the range AR=0.40-0.81, and to be generally independent of external solution pH. Additionally, we studied an NF membrane with a sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) active layer, and found that the concentration of sulfonate (R-SO3-) groups in the active layer was 1.67 M, independent of external solution pH and approximately three times higher than the maximum concentration (approximately 0.45+/-0.25 M) of R-COO- groups in PA active layers. The R-SO3- groups were found to be highly accessible to Ba2+ (AR=0.95+/-0.01).

  10. Modulation of a Fronto-Parietal Network in Event-Based Prospective Memory: An rTMS Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bisiacchi, P. S.; Cona, G.; Schiff, S.; Basso, D.

    2011-01-01

    Event-based prospective memory (PM) is a multi-component process that requires remembering the delayed execution of an intended action in response to a pre-specified PM cue, while being actively engaged in an ongoing task. Some neuroimaging studies have suggested that both prefrontal and parietal areas are involved in the maintenance and…

  11. Current activities and results of the Long Duration Exposure Facility Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Leago, Kimberly S.; Warren, Jack L.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    Fiscal Year 1994 will bring to a close the initial investigative activities associated with the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). LDEF was a 14-faced spacecraft (i.e., 12-sided cylinder and two ends) which housed 54 different experimental packages in low-Earth orbit (LEO) from Apr. 1984 to Jan. 1990 (i.e., for approx. 5.75 years). Since LDEF's return, the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) has been examining various LDEF components in order to better understand and define the LEO particulate environment. Members of the M&D SIG at JSC in Houston, TX have been contributing to these studies by carefully examining and documenting all impact events found on LDEF's 6061-T6 aluminum Intercostals (i.e., one of the spacecraft's structural frame components). Unlike all other hardware on LDEF, the frame exposed significantly large surface areas of a single homogeneous material in all (i.e., 26) possible LDEF pointing directions. To date, 28 of the 68 Intercostals in the possession of the M&D SIG have been documented. This data, as well as similar information from various LDEF investigators, can be accessed through the M&D SIG Database which is maintained at JSC.

  12. High-mobility group box-1 induces vascular remodelling processes via c-Jun activation

    PubMed Central

    Zabini, Diana; Crnkovic, Slaven; Xu, Hui; Tscherner, Maria; Ghanim, Bahil; Klepetko, Walter; Olschewski, Andrea; Kwapiszewska, Grazyna; Marsh, Leigh M

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular high-mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) acts as a signalling molecule during inflammation, cell differentiation and angiogenesis. Increased abundance of HMGB1 is associated with several pathological disorders such as cancer, asthma and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). In this study, we investigated the relevance of HMGB1 in the pathological remodelling present in patients with idiopathic pulmonary arterial hypertension (IPAH) and pulmonary hypertension (PH) associated with COPD. Remodelled vessels present in COPD with PH and IPAH lung samples were often surrounded by HMGB1-positive cells. Increased HMGB1 serum levels were detected in both patient populations compared to control samples. The effects of physiological HMGB1 concentrations were then examined on cellular responses in vitro. HMGB1 enhanced proliferation of pulmonary arterial smooth muscle cells (PASMC) and primary human arterial endothelial cells (PAEC). HMGB1 stimulated p38, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) phosphorylation. Furthermore, activation of the downstream AP-1 complex proteins c-Fos and c-Jun was observed. Silencing of c-Jun ablated the HMGB1-induced proliferation in PASMC. Thus, an inflammatory component such as HMGB1 can contribute to PASMC and PAEC proliferation and therefore potentially to vascular remodelling and PH pathogenesis. PMID:25726846

  13. Synthesis, characterization, investigation of biological activity and theoretical studies of hydrazone compounds containing choloroacetyl group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cukurovali, Alaaddin; Yilmaz, Engin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, three new hydrazide-hydrazone derivative compounds which contain choloroacetyl group have been synthesized and characterized. In the characterization, spectral techniques such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques were used. Antibacterial effects of the synthesized compounds were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In the theoretical calculations Gaussian 09 software was used with the DFT/6-311+(d,p) basis set. Experimental X-ray analysis of compounds has not been studied. Theoretical bond lengths of synthesized compounds were compared with experimental bond lengths of a similar compound. Theoretical and experimental bond lengths are in good agreement with R2: 0.896, 0.899 and 0.900 for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For antibacterial activity, the most effective one was found to be N‧-(4-bromobenzylidene)-2-chloro-N-(4-(3-methyl-3-phenylcyclobutyl)-thiazol-2-yl) acetohydrazide against P.aeroginaosa ATTC 27853, among the studied compounds.

  14. LDEF meteoroid and debris special investigation group investigations and activities at the Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Warren, Jack L.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Sapp, Clyde A.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Dardano, Claire B.

    1995-01-01

    Since the return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in January, 1990, members of the Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas have been examining LDEF hardware in an effort to expand the knowledge base regarding the low-Earth orbit (LEO) particulate environment. In addition to the various investigative activities, JSC is also the location of the general Meteoroid & Debris database. This publicly accessible database contains information obtained from the various M&D SIG investigations, as well as limited data obtained by individual LDEF Principal Investigators. LDEF exposed approximately 130 m(exp 2) of surface area to the LEO particulate environment, approximately 15.4 m(exp 2) of which was occupied by structural frame components (i.e., longerons and intercoastals) of the spacecraft. The data reported here was obtained as a result of detailed scans of LDEF intercoastals, 68 of which reside at JSC. The limited amount of data presently available on the A0178 thermal control blankets was reported last year and will not be reiterated here. The data presented here are limited to measurements of crater diameters and their frequency of occurrence (i.e., flux).

  15. Double group transfer reactions: role of activation strain and aromaticity in reaction barriers.

    PubMed

    Fernández, Israel; Bickelhaupt, F Matthias; Cossío, Fernando P

    2009-12-01

    Double group transfer (DGT) reactions, such as the bimolecular automerization of ethane plus ethene, are known to have high reaction barriers despite the fact that their cyclic transition states have a pronounced in-plane aromatic character, as indicated by NMR spectroscopic parameters. To arrive at a way of understanding this somewhat paradoxical and incompletely understood phenomenon of high-energy aromatic transition states, we have explored six archetypal DGT reactions using density functional theory (DFT) at the OLYP/TZ2P level. The main trends in reactivity are rationalized using the activation strain model of chemical reactivity. In this model, the shape of the reaction profile DeltaE(zeta) and the height of the overall reaction barrier DeltaE( not equal)=DeltaE(zeta=zeta(TS)) is interpreted in terms of the strain energy DeltaE(strain)(zeta) associated with deforming the reactants along the reaction coordinate zeta plus the interaction energy DeltaE(int)(zeta) between these deformed reactants: DeltaE(zeta)=DeltaE(strain)(zeta)+DeltaE(int)(zeta). We also use an alternative fragmentation and a valence bond model for analyzing the character of the transition states. PMID:19852009

  16. Increased cytotoxicity and streptolysin O activity in group G streptococcal strains causing invasive tissue infections

    PubMed Central

    Siemens, Nikolai; Kittang, Bård R.; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Oppegaard, Oddvar; Johansson, Linda; Bruun, Trond; Mylvaganam, Haima; Arnell, Per; Hyldegaard, Ole; Nekludov, Michael; Karlsson, Ylva; Svensson, Mattias; Skrede, Steiner; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has emerged as an important cause of severe skin and soft tissue infections, but little is known of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying tissue pathology. Patient samples and a collection of invasive and non-invasive group G SDSE strains (n = 69) were analyzed with respect to virulence factor expression and cytotoxic or inflammatory effects on human cells and 3D skin tissue models. SDSE strains efficiently infected the 3D-skin model and severe tissue pathology, inflammatory responses and altered production of host structural framework proteins associated with epithelial barrier integrity were evident already at 8 hours post-infection. Invasive strains were significantly more cytotoxic towards keratinocytes and expressed higher Streptokinase and Streptolysin O (SLO) activities, as compared to non-invasive strains. The opposite was true for Streptolysin S (SLS). Fractionation and proteomic analysis of the cytotoxic fractions implicated SLO as a factor likely contributing to the keratinocyte cytotoxicity and tissue pathology. Analyses of patient tissue biopsies revealed massive bacterial load, high expression of slo, as well as immune cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory markers. Our findings suggest the contribution of SLO to epithelial cytotoxicity and tissue pathology in SDSE tissue infections. PMID:26601609

  17. The origin of word-related motor activity.

    PubMed

    Papeo, Liuba; Lingnau, Angelika; Agosta, Sara; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Battelli, Lorella; Caramazza, Alfonso

    2015-06-01

    Conceptual processing of verbs consistently recruits the left posterior middle temporal gyrus (lpMTG). The left precentral motor cortex also responds to verbs, with higher activity for action than nonaction verbs. The early timing of this effect has suggested that motor features of words' meaning are accessed directly, bypassing access to conceptual representations in lpMTG. An alternative hypothesis is that the retrieval of conceptual representations in lpMTG is necessary to drive more specific, motor-related representations in the precentral gyrus. To test these hypotheses, we first showed that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the verb-preferring lpMTG site selectively impoverished the semantic processing of verbs. In a second experiment, rTMS perturbation of lpMTG, relative to no stimulation (no-rTMS), eliminated the action-nonaction verb distinction in motor activity, as indexed by motor-evoked potentials induced in peripheral muscles with single-pulse TMS over the left primary motor cortex. rTMS pertubation of an occipital control site, relative to no-rTMS, did not affect the action-nonaction verb distinction in motor activity, but the verb contrast did not differ reliably from the lpMTG effect. The results show that lpMTG carries core semantic information necessary to drive the activation of specific (motor) features in the precentral gyrus.

  18. Skills for Living: Group Counseling Activities for Young Adolescents, Volume Two.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smead, Rosemarie

    Group counseling offers a content-plus-process approach to counseling of youth. Counselors in schools or mental health settings can use this book to learn how to create meaningful group experiences for adolescents. The group agendas are aimed at middle school youth and offer them the opportunity to experience positive growth and change in the…

  19. Invented Spelling Activities in Small Groups and Early Spelling and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Margarida Alves; Salvador, Liliana; Albuquerque, Ana; Silva, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the impact of an invented spelling programme conducted in small groups on children's written language acquisition in Portuguese. We expected the experimental group to have better post-test results than the control group in spelling and reading. Participants were 160 preschool-age children who were randomly divided into an…

  20. An Evaluation of a Group Project Designed to Reduce Free-Riding and Promote Active Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swaray, Raymond

    2012-01-01

    Group projects are recognised as effective means of engaging students with work-related skills and promoting cooperative learning. This paper reports findings of a small survey--a group project designed to reduce problems associated with the process of production of group goods and services: free-riding and monitoring participation level. The…

  1. Synthesis and Characterization of Cell-Permeable Oligonucleotides Bearing Reduction-Activated Protecting Groups on the Internucleotide Linkages.

    PubMed

    Saneyoshi, Hisao; Iketani, Koichi; Kondo, Kazuhiko; Saneyoshi, Takeo; Okamoto, Itaru; Ono, Akira

    2016-09-21

    Cell-permeable oligodeoxyribonucleotides (ODNs) bearing reduction-activated protecting groups were synthesized as oligonucleotide pro-drugs. Although these oligonucleotides were amenable to solid-phase DNA synthesis and purification, the protecting group on their phosphodiester moiety could be readily cleaved by nitroreductase and NADH. Moreover, these compounds exhibited good nuclease resistance against 3'-exonuclease and endonuclease and good stability in human serum. Fluorescein-labeled ODNs modified with reduction-activated protecting groups showed better cellular uptake compared with that of naked ODNs. PMID:27598574

  2. Activity budget, diet, and use of space by two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2013-07-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) are widely distributed in the Amazon basin. This study describes the ecological and behavioral patterns of two social groups of S. sciureus in forests adjacent to the Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir in eastern Amazonia, including range size, activity budgets, and composition of the diet. The groups were monitored at Base 4 (group B4) and Germoplasma Island (group GI). Quantitative behavioral data were collected using instantaneous scan sampling to record behavior, substrate use, and height. Home ranges were delimited using a GPS to determine group position after each 50 m of movement. Home ranges were 75.0 ha for group B4 (39 members) and 77.5 ha for group GI (32 members). The use of vertical strata was well defined, with a marked preference for the middle and lower levels of the canopy. The activity budgets of both groups were typical of those of other squirrel monkeys and were dominated by foraging (B4 = 48.7 %; GI = 49.6 %), moving (both groups 28.9 %), and feeding (B4 = 14.6 %; GI = 12.4 %). Resting was rare (B4 = 3.5 %; GI = 2.6 %) and less common than social behavior (B4 = 4.3 %; GI = 6.4 %). The diet of both groups was dominated by plant material (B4 = 70.7 % of feeding records; GI = 71.4 %), which is in contrast with the more insectivorous diets recorded for Saimiri at other sites. Group GI spent more time foraging during the dry season, whereas group B4 spent more time in the rainy season when the consumption of fruit increased (significantly, in the case of group GI). The less insectivorous diet of these groups may be due to a number of factors, including the unique habitat configuration at the site and reduced hydrological stress due to the proximity of the reservoir. PMID:23546826

  3. The Role of Praise and Worship Activities in Spiritual Well-Being: Perceptions of a Pentecostal Youth Ministry Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tshabalala, Bhekani G.; Patel, Cynthia J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the role of "praise and worship" activities in the spiritual well-being of a select group of Pentecostal youth. Forty youth members completed an adapted version of the Spiritual Well-being Scale (SWBS) and a questionnaire. In addition to ranking "praise and worship" activities, they were asked about the roles that…

  4. The Pervasive Problem With Placebos in Psychology: Why Active Control Groups Are Not Sufficient to Rule Out Placebo Effects.

    PubMed

    Boot, Walter R; Simons, Daniel J; Stothart, Cary; Stutts, Cassie

    2013-07-01

    To draw causal conclusions about the efficacy of a psychological intervention, researchers must compare the treatment condition with a control group that accounts for improvements caused by factors other than the treatment. Using an active control helps to control for the possibility that improvement by the experimental group resulted from a placebo effect. Although active control groups are superior to "no-contact" controls, only when the active control group has the same expectation of improvement as the experimental group can we attribute differential improvements to the potency of the treatment. Despite the need to match expectations between treatment and control groups, almost no psychological interventions do so. This failure to control for expectations is not a minor omission-it is a fundamental design flaw that potentially undermines any causal inference. We illustrate these principles with a detailed example from the video-game-training literature showing how the use of an active control group does not eliminate expectation differences. The problem permeates other interventions as well, including those targeting mental health, cognition, and educational achievement. Fortunately, measuring expectations and adopting alternative experimental designs makes it possible to control for placebo effects, thereby increasing confidence in the causal efficacy of psychological interventions.

  5. Making a difference: Ten case studies of DSM/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities

    SciTech Connect

    English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J.; Schweitzer, M.

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses the activities of organizations that seek to promote integrated resource planning and aggressive, cost-effective demand-side management by utilities. The activities of such groups -- here called energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) -- are examined in ten detailed am studies. Nine of the cases involve some form of interactive effort between investor-owned electric utilities and non-utility to develop policies, plans, or programs cooperatively. Many but not all of the interactive efforts examined are formal collaboratives. In addition, all ten cases include discussion of other EEAG activities, such as coalition-building, research, participation in statewide energy planning, and intervention in regulatory proceedings.

  6. The benefits of in-group contact through physical activity involvement for health and well-being among Korean immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Heo, Jinmoo; Kim, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study is designed to examine the benefits of physical activity involvement with members of the same ethnic group. For this study, Korean immigrants who were members of Korean physical activity clubs such as badminton and tennis were selected as participants. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, three themes were identified as benefits of physical activity involvement: (1) the experience of psychological well-being, (2) the creation of a unique cultural world, and (3) the facilitation of physical activity involvement. The findings of this study suggest that Korean immigrant participants gained various social, cultural, and psychological benefits by engaging in activities with other Korean immigrants. PMID:24875239

  7. Supporting active learning in an undergraduate geotechnical engineering course using group-based audience response systems quizzes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The use of audience response systems (ARSs) or 'clickers' in higher education has increased over the recent years, predominantly owing to their ability to actively engage students, for promoting individual and group learning, and for providing instantaneous feedback to students and teachers. This paper describes how group-based ARS quizzes have been integrated into an undergraduate civil engineering course on foundation design. Overall, the ARS summary quizzes were very well received by the students. Feedback obtained from the students indicates that the majority believed the group-based quizzes were useful activities, which helped to improve their understanding of course materials, encouraged self-assessment, and assisted preparation for their summative examination. Providing students with clickers does not, however, necessarily guarantee the class will be engaged with the activity. If an ARS activity is to be successful, careful planning and design must be carried out and modifications adopted where necessary, which should be informed by the literature and relevant student feedback.

  8. Anaerobic Activation of p-Cymene in Denitrifying Betaproteobacteria: Methyl Group Hydroxylation versus Addition to Fumarate

    PubMed Central

    Strijkstra, Annemieke; Trautwein, Kathleen; Jarling, René; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Dörries, Marvin; Reinhardt, Richard; Drozdowska, Marta; Golding, Bernard T.; Wilkes, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The betaproteobacteria “Aromatoleum aromaticum” pCyN1 and “Thauera” sp. strain pCyN2 anaerobically degrade the plant-derived aromatic hydrocarbon p-cymene (4-isopropyltoluene) under nitrate-reducing conditions. Metabolite analysis of p-cymene-adapted “A. aromaticum” pCyN1 cells demonstrated the specific formation of 4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol and 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde, whereas with “Thauera” sp. pCyN2, exclusively 4-isopropylbenzylsuccinate and tentatively identified (4-isopropylphenyl)itaconate were observed. 4-Isopropylbenzoate in contrast was detected with both strains. Proteogenomic investigation of p-cymene- versus succinate-adapted cells of the two strains revealed distinct protein profiles agreeing with the different metabolites formed from p-cymene. “A. aromaticum” pCyN1 specifically produced (i) a putative p-cymene dehydrogenase (CmdABC) expected to hydroxylate the benzylic methyl group of p-cymene, (ii) two dehydrogenases putatively oxidizing 4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol (Iod) and 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde (Iad), and (iii) the putative 4-isopropylbenzoate-coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (Ibl). The p-cymene-specific protein profile of “Thauera” sp. pCyN2, on the other hand, encompassed proteins homologous to subunits of toluene-activating benzylsuccinate synthase (termed [4-isopropylbenzyl]succinate synthase IbsABCDEF; identified subunits, IbsAE) and protein homologs of the benzylsuccinate β-oxidation (Bbs) pathway (termed BisABCDEFGH; all identified except for BisEF). This study reveals that two related denitrifying bacteria employ fundamentally different peripheral degradation routes for one and the same substrate, p-cymene, with the two pathways apparently converging at the level of 4-isopropylbenzoyl-CoA. PMID:25261521

  9. Testing the Efficacy of OurSpace, a Brief, Group Dynamics-Based Physical Activity Intervention: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Chalin, Patrice; Thompson, Nicholas

    2016-01-01

    Background Emerging technologies (ie, mobile phones, Internet) may be effective tools for promoting physical activity (PA). However, few interventions have provided effective means to enhance social support through these platforms. Face-to-face programs that use group dynamics-based principles of behavior change have been shown to be highly effective in enhancing social support through promoting group cohesion and PA, but to date, no studies have examined their effects in Web-based programs. Objective The aim was to explore proof of concept and test the efficacy of a brief, online group dynamics-based intervention on PA in a controlled experiment. We expected that the impact of the intervention on PA would be moderated by perceptions of cohesion and the partner’s degree of presence in the online media. Methods Participants (n=135) were randomized into same-sex dyads and randomly assigned to one of four experimental conditions: standard social support (standard), group dynamics-based–high presence, group dynamics-based–low presence, or individual control. Participants performed two sets of planking exercises (pre-post). Between sets, participants in partnered conditions interacted with a virtual partner using either a standard social support app or a group dynamics-based app (group dynamics-based–low presence and group dynamics-based–high presence), the latter of which they participated in a series of online team-building exercises. Individual participants were given an equivalent rest period between sets. To increase presence during the second set, participants in the group dynamics-based–high presence group saw a live video stream of their partner exercising. Perceptions of cohesion were measured using a modified PA Group Environment Questionnaire. Physical activity was calculated as the time persisted during set 2 after controlling for persistence in set 1. Results Perceptions of cohesion were higher in the group dynamics-based–low presence (overall

  10. 78 FR 38993 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Focus Groups...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-28

    ...' attitudes, beliefs, motivations, and feelings than do quantitative studies. Focus groups serve the narrowly... quantitative studies, To better understand people's attitudes and emotions in response to topics and...

  11. Using A Facebook Group As An Adjunct To A Pilot mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    PubMed

    Pumper, Megan A; Mendoza, Jason A; Arseniev-Koehler, Alina; Holm, Matthew; Waite, Alan; Moreno, Megan A

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, most adolescents do not obtain the recommended amounts of physical activity for optimal health. Around 80% of adolescents own a mobile device, and social media is frequently used by adolescents on mobile devices. Few studies have examined the use of social media as part of an intervention to promote physical activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a Facebook group as part of a mHealth physical activity intervention trial. Adolescents, ages 14-18 years, were recruited for a four week physical activity intervention using the FitBit Flex. Participants were also given the option to join a private Facebook group where they could interact and were given badges for fitness accomplishments. The research assistant moderator posted on the Facebook group an average of 25.3 times (SD=7.2). Post-intervention, participants completed a phone interview about their experience. Of 30 intervention participants (avg age 16.0 (SD=1.1), 60.0% female), 17 opted to join the Facebook group (avg age 16.3 (SD=1.2), 47.0% female) of which 10 completed a qualitative interview. Participants averaged 4.9 interactions (SD=8.7) on the Facebook group wall throughout the intervention. From the interview responses, major themes included enjoying the badge feature of the Facebook group and wanting more content and interaction. In conclusion, participants used and enjoyed having the Facebook group, particularly the badge feature of the group, as an adjunct to the physical activity intervention.

  12. The Design and Organization of Self-Determining Activity-Oriented, Outreach Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mayer, Charlotte Y.; Wynn, Richard E.

    This discussion is concerned with the rationale and method of the Woodard Outreach Group Model. Included is a description of some of the theoretical and strategic matters involved with this method of working with small groups. Examples are presented illustrating ways in which the model has been modified and used with success in a variety of…

  13. 77 FR 28894 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Collection of Qualitative Feedback Through Focus Groups

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Register on February 8, 2012, at 77 FR 6573, allowing for a 60-day public comment period. USCIS/did not... Qualitative Feedback Through Focus Groups ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection for Office of... sure to add ``1615-NEW, Collection of Qualitative Feedback through Focus Groups'' in the subject...

  14. Immunochemical studies on blood groups LXII. Fractionation of hog and human A, H, and AH blood group active substance on insoluble immunoadsorbents of Dolichos and Lotus lectins.

    PubMed

    Pereira, M E; Kabat, E A

    1976-02-01

    The purified lectins from Lotus tetragonolobus and Dolichos biflorus were coupled to Sepharose 2B to make insoluble adsorbents for purification and fractionation of blood group A and H active glycoproteins. With both adsorbents, hog gastric mucin A + H blood substance (HGM), purified by phenol-ethanol precipitation, yielded fractions showing only A, only H, or AH activities. The AH fraction was obtained when the adsorbent column was overloaded with HGM and its A and H specificities seem to be carried on the same molecules since they were not separable by chromatography on either column. However A and H specificities of blood group substance from the stomach of a presumably heterozygous individual hog were both on the same molecules as they too could not be fractionated on either column. Analytical properties of the isolated fractions were generally similar to those of the unfractionated material, the purfied A substances had a higher galactosamine/fucose ratio than did the H substances. Although the original A + H showed very little specific optical rotation, the separated A and H substances rotated positively and negatively, respectively. The lectin-Sepharose adsorbents have also proven useful in isolating A or H substances directly from the crude commercial hog gastric mucin. Blood group A2 substance from a human ovarian cyst yielded two fractions on the Lotus-Sepharose column; the effluent did not interact with the Lotus lectin but precipitated the Ulex and Dolichos lectins and anti-A, and appears to contain type 1 H determinants. The other fraction reacted with Lotus and Ulex lectin as well as with Dolichos and anti-A.

  15. Final Report: Main Group Element Chemistry in Service of Hydrogen Storage and Activation

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Dixon; Anthony J. Arduengo, III

    2010-09-30

    goal was met in terms of reducing the number of costly experiments and helping to focus the experimental effort on the potentially optimal targets. We have used computational chemistry approaches to predict the thermodynamic properties of a wide range of compounds containing boron, nitrogen, hydrogen, and other elements as appropriate including carbon. These calculations were done in most cases with high level molecular orbital theory methods that have small error bars on the order of ± 1 to 2 kcal/mol. The results were used to benchmark more approximate methods such as density functional theory for larger systems and for database development. We predicted reliable thermodynamics for thousands of compounds for release and regeneration schemes to aid/guide materials design and process design and simulation. These are the first reliable computed values for these compounds and for many represent the only available values. Overall, the computational results have provided us with new insights into the chemistry of main group and organic-base chemical hydrogen systems from the release of hydrogen to the regeneration of spent fuel. A number of experimental accomplishments were also made in this project. The experimental work on hydrogen storage materials centered on activated polarized σ- or π-bonded frameworks that hold the potential for ready dihydrogen activation, uptake, and eventually release. To this end, a large number of non-traditional valence systems including carbenes, cyanocarbons, and C-B and and B-N systems were synthesized and examined. During the course of these studies an important lead arose from the novel valency of a class of stable organic singlet bi-radical systems. A synthetic strategy to an “endless” hydrogen storage polymer has been developed based on our cyanocarbon chemistry. A key issue with the synthetic efforts was being able to link the kinetics of release with the size of the substituents as it was difficult to develop a low molecular

  16. Research and Teaching: Instructor Use of Group Active Learning in an Introductory Biology Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Active learning (or learner-centered) pedagogies have been shown to enhance student learning in introductory biology courses. Student collaboration has also been shown to enhance student learning and may be a critical part of effective active learning practices. This study focused on documenting the use of individual active learning and group…

  17. Effects of using nursing home residents to serve as group activity leaders: lessons learned from the RAP project.

    PubMed

    Skrajner, Michael J; Haberman, Jessica L; Camp, Cameron J; Tusick, Melanie; Frentiu, Cristina; Gorzelle, Gregg

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that persons with early to moderate stage dementia are capable of leading small group activities for persons with more advanced dementia. In this study, we built upon this previous work by training residents in long-term care facilities to fill the role of group activity leaders using a Resident-Assisted Programming (RAP) training regimen. There were two stages to the program. In the first stage, RAP training was provided by researchers. In the second stage, RAP training was provided to residents by activities staff members of long-term care facilities who had been trained by researchers. We examine the effects of RAP implemented by researchers and by activities staff member on long-term care resident with dementia who took part in these RAP activities. We also examined effects produced by two types of small group activities: two Montessori-based activities and an activity which focuses on persons with more advanced dementia, based on the work of Jitka Zgola. Results demonstrate that levels of positive engagement seen in players during RAP (resident-led activities) were typically higher than those observed during standard activities programming led by site staff. In general, Montessori-Based Dementia Programming® produced more constructive engagement than Zgola-based programming (ZBP), though ZBP did increase a positive form of engagement involving observing activities with interest. In addition, RAP implemented by activities staff members produced effects that were, on the whole, similar to those produced when RAP was implemented by researchers. Implications of these findings for providing meaningful social roles for persons with dementia residing in long-term care, and suggestions for further research in this area, are discussed.

  18. Planetology group s complex educational activity at Eötvös University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hargitai, H.; Kereszturi, A.; Sik, A.; Varga, T.; Berczi, S.

    We describe the educational activities and the new educational materials made by the Planetology Group at the Eötvös University. Our specialization is in planetary surface geomorphology and cartography. We worked out and distributed various educational units, including Online hypermedia package, Atlas of Planetary Bodies in the Little Atlas Series of the Solar System [1], and On - and offline lecture note series educational video on Petrologic Studies of Solar System Materials. Hypermedia: We have prepared an online hypermedia environment for the distant education of planetology in Hungary. Our educational outreach project on our website includes a daily cosmic calendar, a monthly star map, and planetary topographic or photomosaic maps with nomenclature. Seminar: We organized an autumn semester course in 2001 named General Planetology at the Eötvös Loránd University of Sciences . In this course we kept lectures from a general point of view dealing with certain processes and spheres of planetary bodies. The Atlas of Planetary Bodies: In this - free - printed educational material we collected the most important and typical features of our planetary neighbours - one feature for every body. Bodies of the Solar System - Slide Series: Like an assistant or a teaching material we compiled a series of photo slides. Video Education Online: A newly created video series have been made available online for download. The content of the film is related to our textbook (fig. 1., left) on Meteorites and Lunar Samples, where students can make their own drawings and colorings of the textures of thin sections. Under support of the Commission on Planetary Cartography of the International Cartographic Association we have prepared a multilingual map of Mars [3] for use in Central European universities, in Coatian, Czech, Hungarian and Polish languages. References: [1] Bérczi Sz. Hargitai H., Kereszturi Á., Sik A. (2001): Little Atlas of the Solar System Series (3): Atlas of

  19. Increased Pain Communication following Multiple Group Memberships Salience Leads to a Relative Reduction in Pain-Related Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jetten, Jolanda; Molenberghs, Pascal; Bastian, Brock; Karnadewi, Fika

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a fundamental human experience that triggers a range of social and psychological responses. In this study, we present behavioral and fMRI data to examine the effect of multiple group memberships salience on reported and neural indices of pain. We found that participants expressed higher levels of pain when more social group memberships were salient. This is consistent with the notion that pain itself motivates people to communicate their pain, and more so when multiple psychological resources are salient. In addition, fMRI results reveal an interesting twist: when participants increased their pain reporting as group memberships increased (from one group to four), there was a corresponding relative reduction in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula activation. These results provide evidence for an adaptive response to pain: the more people make use of the social resources at their disposal when experiencing pain, the less pain areas are activated. PMID:27657917

  20. Age-Related Alterations of Plasma Lipid Peroxidation and Erythrocyte Superoxide Dismutase Activity in Different Ethnic Groups of Gorgan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marjani, Abdoljalal; Mansourian, Azad Reza; Veghari, Gholam Reza; Rabiee, Mohammad Reza

    Free radicals have been proposed as important causative agents of ageing. The free radical theory of ageing postulates that ageing is caused by free radical reactions. These highly reactive species can cause oxidative damage in the cell. The purposive of this study was to investigate the alteration in plasma lipid peroxidation and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen healthy people. We measured plasma lipid peroxidation levels (lipid peroxidation expressed as malondialdehyde) and erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity. Study include 350 (175 Fars and 175 Turkmen male) apparently healthy individuals. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activities were determined in 2 different ethnic groups of Fars and Turkmen consisting of healthy individuals between 26-60 years of age {26-30 (n = 30), 3-35 (n = 30), 36-40 (n = 30), 41-45 (n = 30), 46-50 (n = 25), 51-55 (n = 15) and 56-60 (n = 15)}, respectively. The data was analyzed by Student` t-test. Erythrocyte superoxide dismutase and plasma lipid peroxidation levels in Fars and Turkmen people with 41-45 ages (group 4) and 36-40 ages (group 3) were significantly lower and higher than in the other age groups (Fars groups 1, 2 and 3, Turkmen groups 1, 2), respectively (p< 0.05). There were no significant relation between the age group 4 (Fars people) and the age groups 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). There were no significant relation between the age groups 3 (Turkmen people) and the age groups 4, 5, 6 and 7 (p>0.05). We found age-related differences in erythrocyte superoxide dismutase activity and plasma lipid peroxidation levels. The results indicate that the balance between antioxidant and prooxidant factors in free radical metabolism shifts towards increased lipid peroxidation with advancing age in 2 ethnic groups. This situation maybe begin in Turkmen people earlier than Fars people. The ethnic origin, diet, heavy working and life style factors of the two populations may explain

  1. Effect of phosphate activating group on oligonucleotide formation on montmorillonite: the regioselective formation of 3',5'-linked oligoadenylates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabahar, K. J.; Cole, T. D.; Ferris, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of amine structure on the montmorillonite-catalyzed oligomerization of the 5'-phosphoramidates of adenosine are investigated. 4-Aminopyridine derivatives yielded oligoadenylates as long as dodecamers with a regioselectivity for 3',5'-phosphodiester bond formation averaging 88%. Linear and cyclic oligomers are obtained and no A5'ppA-containing products are detected. Oligomers as long as the hexanucleotide are obtained using 2-aminobenzimidazole as the activating group. A predominance of pA2'pA is detected in the dimer fraction along with cyclic 3',5'-trimer; no A5'ppA-containing oligomers were detected. Little or no oligomer formation was observed when morpholine, piperidine, pyrazole, 1,2,4-triazole, and 2-pyridone are used as phosphate-activating groups. The effects of the structure of the phosphate activating group on the oligomer structure and chain lengths are discussed.

  2. Investigating Children's Musical Interactions within the Activities Systems of Group Composing and Arranging: An Application of Engestrom's Activity Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burnard, Pamela; Younker, Betty Anne

    2008-01-01

    This article applies Engestrom's Activity Theory (AT) as an analytical lens to identify defining characteristics of the collaborative creative music making activities of composing and arranging. Attention is paid to the complex interrelationships among the various elements of interaction in children's collaborative creative music making as…

  3. The brown algae Pl.LSU/2 group II intron-encoded protein has functional reverse transcriptase and maturase activities.

    PubMed

    Zerbato, Madeleine; Holic, Nathalie; Moniot-Frin, Sophie; Ingrao, Dina; Galy, Anne; Perea, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing mobile elements found in prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles. These introns propagate by homing into precise genomic locations, following assembly of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the intron-encoded protein (IEP) and the spliced intron RNA. Engineered group II introns are now commonly used tools for targeted genomic modifications in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. We speculate that the catalytic activation of currently known group II introns is limited in eukaryotic cells. The brown algae Pylaiella littoralis Pl.LSU/2 group II intron is uniquely capable of in vitro ribozyme activity at physiological level of magnesium but this intron remains poorly characterized. We purified and characterized recombinant Pl.LSU/2 IEP. Unlike most IEPs, Pl.LSU/2 IEP displayed a reverse transcriptase activity without intronic RNA. The Pl.LSU/2 intron could be engineered to splice accurately in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and splicing efficiency was increased by the maturase activity of the IEP. However, spliced transcripts were not expressed. Furthermore, intron splicing was not detected in human cells. While further tool development is needed, these data provide the first functional characterization of the PI.LSU/2 IEP and the first evidence that the Pl.LSU/2 group II intron splicing occurs in vivo in eukaryotes in an IEP-dependent manner.

  4. Raised serum activity of phospholipase A2 immunochemically related to group II enzyme in inflammatory bowel disease: its correlation with disease activity of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Minami, T; Tojo, H; Shinomura, Y; Tarui, S; Okamoto, M

    1992-01-01

    Calcium dependent phospholipase A2 activity in the mixed micelles of 1-palmitoyl-2-oleoyl-phosphatidylglycerol and cholate was measured in sera of 39 patients with Crohn's disease, 40 patients with ulcerative colitis, and 40 healthy controls. The phospholipase A2 activity was significantly raised in those sera of the patients with active Crohn's disease and those with moderate and severe ulcerative colitis. The major phospholipase A2 activity derived from the sera was separated into two peaks by reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography. The phospholipase A2 active fractions were immunochemically characterised using specific antibody directed against human group II phospholipase A2 purified from rheumatoid synovial fluid. The results suggest that raised serum phospholipase A2 activity in patients with Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis was mainly attributed to the two forms of phospholipase A2 immunochemically related to group II enzyme. In patients with Crohn's disease, serum phospholipase A2 activity decreased in parallel with clinical improvement, and correlated with serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate. The results suggest that serum phospholipase A2 activity may serve as an additional indicator of disease activity. Serum phospholipase A2 activity in patients with ulcerative colitis tends to increase in relation with endoscopic severity, and may be a more sensitive laboratory index than serum C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate to evaluate disease activity. Images Figure 3 PMID:1644331

  5. Magnetic Tilts in Sunspot Groups and Active regions in the Cycle 23 obtained from the Solar Feature Catalogues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zharkov, S. I.; Zharkova, V. V.; Bianda, M.; Cartesi, S.

    We compare a few methods for calculation of magnetic tilts in active regions using using the automated sunspot group classification from the Solar Feature Catalogues http solar inf brad ac uk for 1996-2005 The best performing methods were applied to investigate the statistical variations of magnetic field tilt in sunspot groups and their relation to the total magnetic field contained in sunspots during different phases of the solar cycle 23 The classification results are compared with the similar research for the cycle 22 and the specifics on the cycle 23 is discussed The results are also tested against the existing solar dynamo models and their applicability for the solar activity forecast

  6. Seeking Shared Practice: A Juxtaposition of the Attributes and Activities of Organized Fossil Groups with Those of Professional Paleontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippen, Kent J.; Ellis, Shari; Dunckel, Betty A.; Hendy, Austin J. W.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to define the attributes and practices of organized fossil groups (e.g., clubs, paleontological societies) as amateur paleontologists, as well as those of professional paleontologists, and explore the potential for these two groups to work collaboratively as a formalized community. Such an investigation is necessary to develop design principles for an online environment that supports this community and encourages communication and shared practice among individuals with different backgrounds in paleontology and who are geographically isolated. A national survey of fossil group representatives and professional paleontologists was used to address the research questions. The results provide a rich description of the attributes and activities of both groups and are discussed in terms of three design principles for supporting the two groups in a form of collaboration and fellowship via a coherent shared practice within an online learning community.

  7. Seeking Shared Practice: A Juxtaposition of the Attributes and Activities of Organized Fossil Groups with Those of Professional Paleontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippen, Kent J.; Ellis, Shari; Dunckel, Betty A.; Hendy, Austin J. W.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-05-01

    This study sought to define the attributes and practices of organized fossil groups (e.g., clubs, paleontological societies) as amateur paleontologists, as well as those of professional paleontologists, and explore the potential for these two groups to work collaboratively as a formalized community. Such an investigation is necessary to develop design principles for an online environment that supports this community and encourages communication and shared practice among individuals with different backgrounds in paleontology and who are geographically isolated. A national survey of fossil group representatives and professional paleontologists was used to address the research questions. The results provide a rich description of the attributes and activities of both groups and are discussed in terms of three design principles for supporting the two groups in a form of collaboration and fellowship via a coherent shared practice within an online learning community.

  8. Extended Functional Groups (EFG): An Efficient Set for Chemical Characterization and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Chemical Compounds.

    PubMed

    Salmina, Elena S; Haider, Norbert; Tetko, Igor V

    2015-01-01

    The article describes a classification system termed "extended functional groups" (EFG), which are an extension of a set previously used by the CheckMol software, that covers in addition heterocyclic compound classes and periodic table groups. The functional groups are defined as SMARTS patterns and are available as part of the ToxAlerts tool (http://ochem.eu/alerts) of the On-line CHEmical database and Modeling (OCHEM) environment platform. The article describes the motivation and the main ideas behind this extension and demonstrates that EFG can be efficiently used to develop and interpret structure-activity relationship models. PMID:26703557

  9. Facile fabrication of novel cyclomatrix-type polyphosphazene nanotubes with active hydroxyl groups via an in situ template approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Jianwei; Huang, Xiaobin; Zhu, Yan; Huang, Yawen; Tang, Xiaozhen

    2009-02-01

    Novel polyphosphazene nanotubes with active hydroxyl groups were fabricated via an in situ template approach under ultrasonic irradiation. SEM and TEM results indicated that the nanotubes were uniform with length of several micrometers, inner diameter of ca. 20 nm and outer diameter of 60-80 nm. FTIR spectra revealed that the content of the hydroxyl groups on the nanotube surface was dependent on the feed ratio of hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP) to 4,4'-sulfonyldiphenol. The successful esterification of polymer nanotubes with benzoxy chloride demonstrated the high reactivity of the hydroxyl groups. The method employed here might provide a simple and effective way to prepare functional nanotubes used for biological applications.

  10. Serum γ-Glutamyltransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity in Healthy Blood Donor of Different Ethnic Groups in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpouya, Masoumeh; Pourhashem, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Measure of liver enzymes may help to increase safety of blood donation for both blood donor and recipient. Determination of liver enzymes may prepare valuable clinical information. Aim To assess serum γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activities in healthy blood donors in different ethnic groups in Gorgan. Materials and Methods This study was performed in 450 healthy male blood donors, in three ethnic groups (Fars, Sistanee and Turkman) who attended Gorgan blood transfusion center. Liver enzymes (GGT, ALT and AST) were determined. Results Serum AST and ALT in three ethnic groups were significant except for serum GGT levels. There was significant correlation between family histories of liver disease and systolic blood pressure and AST in Fars, and GGT in Sistanee ethnic groups. Conclusion Several factors, such as age, family history of diabetes mellitus, family history of liver disease and smoking habit had no effect on some liver enzymes in different ethnic groups in this area. Variation of AST, ALT, and GGT enzyme activities in healthy subjects was associated with some subjects in our study groups. According to our study, it suggests that screening of AST and GGT enzymes in subjects with family history of liver disease is necessary in different ethnic groups. PMID:27630834

  11. Recruiting a Diverse Group of Middle School Girls into the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Elder, John P.; Shuler, LaVerne; Moe, Stacey G.; Grieser, Mira; Pratt, Charlotte; Cameron, Sandra; Hingle, Melanie; Pickrel, Julie L.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Schachter, Kenneth; Greer, Susan; Bothwell, Elizabeth K. Guth

    2008-01-01

    Background: School-based study recruitment efforts are both time consuming and challenging. This paper highlights the recruitment strategies employed by the national, multisite Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a study designed to measure the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce the decline of physical activity levels among…

  12. A Potpourri of Activities--For Use in Heterogeneously Grouped Secondary School English Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schullstrom, Faith Z.

    This pamphlet includes a variety of suggestions and activities to stimulate language and thereby increase students' control over their environment and their lives. Although many of these activities can be used with elementary students, the emphasis in this collection is on language stimulation among secondary school children. The first section…

  13. Group Member or Outsider: Perceptions of Undergraduates with Disabilities on Leisure Time Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    College provides students with many opportunities to achieve academic success and enrich other aspects of their lives. Participating in campus activities can reduce stress, create social connections, promote healthy active living, and broaden civic engagement (Lindsey & Sessoms, 2006; Watson, Ayers, Zizzi, & Naoi, 2006). Studies noting…

  14. Exploring Preferences of Mentoring Activities among Generational Groups of Registered Nurses in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey-Goodwin, Patricia Ann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore differences in perceptions of mentoring activities from four generations of registered nurses in Florida, using the Alleman Mentoring Activities Questionnaire ® (AMAQ ®). Statistical procedures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed to explore differences among 65 registered nurses in Florida from…

  15. Control of abdominal and expiratory intercostal muscle activity during vomiting - Role of ventral respiratory group expiratory neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Alan D.; Tan, L. K.; Suzuki, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The role of ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons in the control of abdominal and internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting was investigated in cats. Two series of experiments were performed: in one, the activity of VRG E neurons was recorded during fictive vomiting in cats that were decerebrated, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated; in the second, the abdominal muscle activity during vomiting was compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons in decerebrate spontaneously breathing cats. The results show that about two-thirds of VRG E neurons that project at least as far caudally as the lower thoracic cord contribute to internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting. The remaining VRG E neurons contribute to abdominal muscle activation. As shown by severing the axons of the VRG E neurons, other, as yet unidenified, inputs (either descending from the brain stem or arising from spinal reflexes) can also produce abdominal muscle activation.

  16. Identification and biological activity of antifungal saponins from shallot ( Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Teshima, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Imada, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Kazunori; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Ito, Shin-Ichi

    2013-08-01

    The n-butanol extract of shallot basal plates and roots showed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi. The purified compounds from the extract were examined for antifungal activity to determine the predominant antifungal compounds in the extract. Two major antifungal compounds purified were determined to be alliospiroside A (ALA) and alliospiroside B. ALA had prominent antifungal activity against a wide range of fungi. The products of acid hydrolysis of ALA showed a reduced antifungal activity, suggesting that the compound's sugar chain is essential for its antifungal activity. Fungal cells treated with ALA showed rapid production of reactive oxygen species. The fungicidal action of ALA was partially inhibited by a superoxide scavenger, Tiron, suggesting that superoxide anion generation in the fungal cells may be related to the compound's action. Inoculation experiments showed that ALA protected strawberry plants against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , indicating that ALA has the potential to control anthracnose of the plant.

  17. Identification and biological activity of antifungal saponins from shallot ( Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Teshima, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Imada, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Kazunori; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Ito, Shin-Ichi

    2013-08-01

    The n-butanol extract of shallot basal plates and roots showed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi. The purified compounds from the extract were examined for antifungal activity to determine the predominant antifungal compounds in the extract. Two major antifungal compounds purified were determined to be alliospiroside A (ALA) and alliospiroside B. ALA had prominent antifungal activity against a wide range of fungi. The products of acid hydrolysis of ALA showed a reduced antifungal activity, suggesting that the compound's sugar chain is essential for its antifungal activity. Fungal cells treated with ALA showed rapid production of reactive oxygen species. The fungicidal action of ALA was partially inhibited by a superoxide scavenger, Tiron, suggesting that superoxide anion generation in the fungal cells may be related to the compound's action. Inoculation experiments showed that ALA protected strawberry plants against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , indicating that ALA has the potential to control anthracnose of the plant. PMID:24138065

  18. GRHL3/GET1 and Trithorax Group Members Collaborate to Activate the Epidermal Progenitor Differentiation Program

    PubMed Central

    Hopkin, Amelia Soto; Gordon, William; Klein, Rachel Herndon; Espitia, Francisco; Daily, Kenneth; Zeller, Michael; Baldi, Pierre; Andersen, Bogi

    2012-01-01

    The antagonistic actions of Polycomb and Trithorax are responsible for proper cell fate determination in mammalian tissues. In the epidermis, a self-renewing epithelium, previous work has shown that release from Polycomb repression only partially explains differentiation gene activation. We now show that Trithorax is also a key regulator of epidermal differentiation, not only through activation of genes repressed by Polycomb in progenitor cells, but also through activation of genes independent of regulation by Polycomb. The differentiation associated transcription factor GRHL3/GET1 recruits the ubiquitously expressed Trithorax complex to a subset of differentiation genes. PMID:22829784

  19. A Group Contingency plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study.…

  20. Effectiveness of Group Activity Play Therapy on Internalizing and Externalizing Behavior Problems of Preadolescent Orphans in Uganda

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ojiambo, Deborah

    2011-01-01

    This pilot study investigated the impact of group activity play therapy (GAPT) on displaced orphans aged 10 to 12 years living in a large children's village in Uganda. Teachers and housemothers identified 60 preadolescents exhibiting clinical levels of internalizing and externalizing behavior problems. The participants' ethnicity was…

  1. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Individuals and groups... dietetic and physical therapy personnel. (1) Army and Navy nurses (female) on active service under order of... jurisdiction of War or Navy Departments by Executive order under the Act of August 29, 1916. Effective July...

  2. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Individuals and groups... dietetic and physical therapy personnel. (1) Army and Navy nurses (female) on active service under order of... jurisdiction of War or Navy Departments by Executive order under the Act of August 29, 1916. Effective July...

  3. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Individuals and groups... dietetic and physical therapy personnel. (1) Army and Navy nurses (female) on active service under order of... jurisdiction of War or Navy Departments by Executive order under the Act of August 29, 1916. Effective July...

  4. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Individuals and groups... dietetic and physical therapy personnel. (1) Army and Navy nurses (female) on active service under order of... jurisdiction of War or Navy Departments by Executive order under the Act of August 29, 1916. Effective July...

  5. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Individuals and groups... dietetic and physical therapy personnel. (1) Army and Navy nurses (female) on active service under order of... jurisdiction of War or Navy Departments by Executive order under the Act of August 29, 1916. Effective July...

  6. Activation of group IVC phospholipase A(2) by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induces apoptosis of human coronary artery endothelial cells.

    PubMed

    Tithof, Patricia K; Richards, Sean M; Elgayyar, Mona A; Menn, Fu-Minn; Vulava, Vijay M; McKay, Larry; Sanseverino, John; Sayler, Gary; Tucker, Dawn E; Leslie, Christina C; Lu, Kim P; Ramos, Kenneth S

    2011-06-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in coal tar mixtures and tobacco sources, is considered a significant risk factor for the development of heart disease in humans. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of PAHs present at a Superfund site on human coronary artery endothelial cell (HCAEC) phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2)) activity and apoptosis. Extremely high levels of 12 out of 15 EPA high-priority PAHs were present in both the streambed and floodplain sediments at a site where an urban creek and its adjacent floodplain were extensively contaminated by PAHs and other coal tar compounds. Nine of the 12 compounds and a coal tar mixture (SRM 1597A) activated group IVC PLA(2) in HCAECs, and activation of this enzyme was associated with histone fragmentation and poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Genetic silencing of group IVC PLA(2) inhibited both (3)H-fatty acid release and histone fragmentation by PAHs and SRM 1597A, indicating that individual PAHs and a coal tar mixture induce apoptosis of HCAECs via a mechanism that involves group IVC PLA(2). Western blot analysis of aortas isolated from feral mice (Peromyscus leucopus) inhabiting the Superfund site showed increased PARP and caspase-3 cleavage when compared to reference mice. These data suggest that PAHs induce apoptosis of HCAECs via activation of group IVC PLA(2). PMID:21132278

  7. Understanding EFL Students' Participation in Group Peer Feedback of L2 Writing: A Case Study from an Activity Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Shulin; Lee, Icy

    2015-01-01

    While the last three decades have witnessed a growing body of research on peer feedback in first language (L1) and second language (L2) writing, research about students' motives for participating in group peer feedback has remained underexplored. In order to fill this important gap, this case study, guided by the constructs of activity and motive…

  8. Perspective: Crowd-based breath analysis: assessing behavior, activity, exposures, and emotional response of people in groups

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new concept for exhaled breath analysis has emerged wherein groups, or even crowds of people are simultaneously sampled in enclosed environments to detect overall trends in their activities and recent exposures. The basic idea is to correlate the temporal profile of known breat...

  9. Activation of Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Induces Depotentiation in Amygdala Slices and Reduces Fear-Potentiated Startle in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chia-Ho; Lee, Chia-Ching; Huang, Ya-Chun; Wang, Su-Jane; Gean, Po-Wu

    2005-01-01

    There is a close correlation between long-term potentiation (LTP) in the synapses of lateral amygdala (LA) and fear conditioning in animals. We predict that reversal of LTP (depotentiation) in this area of the brain may ameliorate conditioned fear. Activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR II) with DCG-IV induces…

  10. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  11. Estimating municipal solid waste generation by different activities and various resident groups in five provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hui-zhen; Li, Zhen-shan; Wang, Rong-hua

    2015-07-01

    The quantities and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important factors in the planning and management of MSW. Daily human activities were classified into three groups: maintenance activities (meeting the basic needs of food, housing and personal care, MA); subsistence activities (providing the financial support requirements, SA); and leisure activities (social and recreational pursuits, LA). A model, based on the interrelationships of expenditure on consumer goods, time distribution, daily activities, residents groups, and waste generation, was employed to estimate MSW generation by different activities and resident groups in five provinces (Zhejiang, Guangdong, Hebei, Henan and Sichuan) of China. These five provinces were chosen for this study and the distribution patterns of MSW generated by different activities and resident groups were revealed. The results show that waste generation in SA and LA fluctuated slightly from 2003 to 2008. For general waste generation in the five provinces, MA accounts for more than 70% of total MSW, SA approximately 10%, and LA between 10% and 16% by urban residents in 2008. Females produced more daily MSW than males in MA. Males produced more daily MSW than females in SA and LA. The wastes produced at weekends in MA and LA were far greater than on weekdays, but less than on weekdays for SA wastes. Furthermore, one of the model parameters (the waste generation per unit of consumer expenditure) is inversely proportional to per-capita disposable income of urban residents. A significant correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and waste generation by SA was observed with a high coefficient of determination. PMID:25861710

  12. Estimating municipal solid waste generation by different activities and various resident groups in five provinces of China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Hui-zhen; Li, Zhen-shan; Wang, Rong-hua

    2015-07-01

    The quantities and composition of municipal solid waste (MSW) are important factors in the planning and management of MSW. Daily human activities were classified into three groups: maintenance activities (meeting the basic needs of food, housing and personal care, MA); subsistence activities (providing the financial support requirements, SA); and leisure activities (social and recreational pursuits, LA). A model, based on the interrelationships of expenditure on consumer goods, time distribution, daily activities, residents groups, and waste generation, was employed to estimate MSW generation by different activities and resident groups in five provinces (Zhejiang, Guangdong, Hebei, Henan and Sichuan) of China. These five provinces were chosen for this study and the distribution patterns of MSW generated by different activities and resident groups were revealed. The results show that waste generation in SA and LA fluctuated slightly from 2003 to 2008. For general waste generation in the five provinces, MA accounts for more than 70% of total MSW, SA approximately 10%, and LA between 10% and 16% by urban residents in 2008. Females produced more daily MSW than males in MA. Males produced more daily MSW than females in SA and LA. The wastes produced at weekends in MA and LA were far greater than on weekdays, but less than on weekdays for SA wastes. Furthermore, one of the model parameters (the waste generation per unit of consumer expenditure) is inversely proportional to per-capita disposable income of urban residents. A significant correlation between gross domestic product (GDP) and waste generation by SA was observed with a high coefficient of determination.

  13. Accessibility and ion exchange stoichiometry of ionized carboxylic groups in the active layer of FT30 reverse osmosis membrane.

    PubMed

    Coronell, Orlando; Mariñas, Benito I; Cahill, David G

    2009-07-01

    We have experimentally determined the concentration of Ba2+ that associates with the accessible ionized R-COO- groups in the polyamide active layer of the FT30 reverse osmosis membrane in the pH range 3.42-10.30. Ba2+ concentrations in the active layer ([Ba2+]) were measured using the ion-probing/Rutherford backscattering spectrometry procedure reported in our previous work. We found that at all but the lowest experimental pH 3.42, [Ba2+] was lower than the corresponding total concentrations of R-COO- groups; their difference was consistent with steric and charge effects determining the accessibility and association, respectively, of Ba2+ to R-COO- groups. Accordingly, we propose two descriptors, the accessibility ratio (AR) and the neutralization number (NN), to account for the observed difference. AR, the fraction of R-COO- groups accessible to Ba2+ ions, and NN, the average number of R-COO- groups neutralized per Ba2+ ion, were determined experimentally performing Ag(+)-Ba2+ ion-exchange tests. The resulting AR = 0.40 indicated that on average only 40% of ionizable carboxylic groups were accessible to Ba2+. [Ba2+] values calculated using R-COO- concentrations and the AR and NN concepts were in agreement with experimental [Ba2+] results.

  14. Surface attachment of well-defined redox-active polymers and block polymers via terminal functional groups

    SciTech Connect

    Albagli, D.; Bazan, G.C.; Schrock, R.R.; Wrighton, M.S. )

    1993-08-11

    Redox-active polymers and block polymers containing terminal groups for covalent attachment to surfaces have been prepared and characterized. Ferrocene- and phenothiazine-based redox-active polymers were prepared by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP) using Mo initiators of the type Mo(CHR)(NAr)(O-t-Bu)[sub 2] (R = tert-butyl or ferrocenyl, Ar = 2,6-diisopropylphenyl). The functional end groups introduced for surface attachment chemistry were Si(OEt)[sub 3], pyridyl, bromobenzyl, and pyrenyl derivatives. Polymers containing Si(OEt)[sub 3] were successfully used to derivatize Pt, In[sub 2](Sn)O[sub 3], and n-Si electrodes, whereas analogues of those same polymers lacking Si(OEt)[sub 3] groups do not bind to these surfaces. Polymers terminated with pyridyl or bromobenzyl groups, introduced in the capping reaction using the appropriate aldehydes, react with electrodes pretreated with benzyl chloride or pyridine groups, respectively, to give polymer-derivatized surfaces. Pyrene-capped polymers were made in an attempt to bind the polymers to carbon electrodes via selective pyrene adsorption. However, the polymer itself strongly adsorbs, precluding a specific role for the pyrene group. 37 refs., 8 figs.

  15. Group Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  16. Effects of a cognitive-enhancement group training program on daily living activities, cognition, and depression in the demented elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cho, MiLim; Kim, DeokJu; Chung, JaeYeop; Park, JuHyung; You, HeeCheon; Yang, YeongAe

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The effects of a cognitive enhancement group training program on daily living activities, cognition, and depression in the demented elderly population of a local Korean community were investigated. [Subjects and Methods] The study included 22 elderly subjects who were 65 years of age or older, had been diagnosed with dementia, and were attending a daily care center in K City, Republic of Korea. Eleven subjects participated in the program, which was conducted twice a week for 8 weeks for a total of 16 sessions. Eleven subjects in a non-training group did not receive any interventions. [Results] The MMSE-K, MBI and KDS scores of all of the eleven subjects who participated in the program improved, and the improvements were statistically significant. [Conclusion] Cognitive enhancement group training programs may have positive effects on daily living activities, cognition, and depression. PMID:25931707

  17. "We Are in This Together": Common Group Identity Predicts Majority Members' Active Acculturation Efforts to Integrate Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kunst, Jonas R; Thomsen, Lotte; Sam, David L; Berry, John W

    2015-10-01

    Although integration involves a process of mutual accommodation, the role of majority groups is often downplayed to passive tolerance, leaving immigrants with the sole responsibility for active integration. However, we show that common group identity can actively involve majority members in this process across five studies. Study 1 showed that common identity positively predicted support of integration efforts; Studies 2 and 3 extended these findings, showing that it also predicted real behavior such as monetary donations and volunteering. A decrease in modern racism mediated the relations across these studies, and Studies 4 and 5 further demonstrated that it indeed mediated these effects over and above acculturation expectations and color-blindness, which somewhat compromised integration efforts. Moreover, the last two studies also demonstrated that common, but not dual, groups motivated integration efforts. Common identity appears crucial for securing majorities' altruistic efforts to integrate immigrants and, thus, for achieving functional multiculturalism.

  18. Haemolytic activity of aromatic heptaenes. A group of polyene macrolide antifungal antibiotics.

    PubMed

    Cybulska, B; Mazerski, J; Borowski, E; Gary-Bobo, C M

    1984-01-01

    The aromatic heptaene vacidin A induces ion selective channels in human red blood cells. The ion flux induced leads to a secondary effect--colloid osmotic haemolysis. Molecular variations at ionizable polar groups of the antibiotic modify the properties of the permeability pathway concerning intercationic selectivity and the symmetry of ion flux. PMID:6704143

  19. 75 FR 74061 - Agency Information Collection Activities; Proposed Collection; Comment Request; Focus Groups as...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-30

    ... and Drug Administration (FDA) is announcing an opportunity for public comment on the proposed... understanding of consumers' attitudes, beliefs, motivations, and feelings than do quantitative studies. Focus... burden for unplanned focus groups so as not to restrict the Agency's ability to gather information...

  20. Effects of Prior Knowledge Activation through Small-Group Discussion on the Processing of Science Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Henk G.; Patel, Vimla L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which problem analysis facilitated the subsequent processing of expository text, both for novices and a comparison group. A text on osmosis consisted of six-pages and was used as reading material. The ninth-grade students were considered novices because they were unfamiliar with the…

  1. Group Project Work and Student-centered Active Learning: Two Different Experiences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Livingstone, David; Lynch, Kenneth

    2000-01-01

    Compared experiences with group-based student projects in a Geographical Information Systems degree taught by one faculty member and in geography degree modules taught by another. Concludes that care must be taken in the design and execution of these projects to avoid problems that might reinforce myths about negative effects of team-based…

  2. Revealing of Biological Activity in Crude Extracts, Seperated Fractions, Groups of Chemical Substance and Individual Compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crude extracts, separated fractions, groups of chemical substances, and individual compounds from natural sources are all evaluated stepwise while performing purifications in in-house bioassays. In a stepwise fashion proceeding from crude extracts to fractions and on to pure compounds, decisions ar...

  3. Effects of Applying STR for Group Learning Activities on Learning Performance in a Synchronous Cyber Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Tony C. T.; Shadiev, Rustam; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to apply Speech to Text Recognition (STR) for individual oral presentations and group discussions of students in a synchronous cyber classroom. An experiment was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of applying STR on learning performance. Students' perceptions and behavioral intentions toward using STR were also investigated.…

  4. U.S.-GERMAN BILATERAL WORKING GROUP PHASE 3 ACTIVITIES-AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group originated in 1990 in order to share and transfer information, ideas, tools and techniques regarding environmental research. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) de...

  5. Group Time Experiences: Belonging, Being and Becoming through Active Participation within Early Childhood Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Nicole; Ford, Margot

    2016-01-01

    The National Quality Standards (NQS) as part of the Australian National Quality Framework were developed in 2011 and included several references to the organisation of small and large groups within early childhood settings (ACECQA 2013). The NQS act in tandem with the Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) (DEEWR 2009) and are the basis by which…

  6. Promoting Active Engagement in Small Group Learning Experiences for Students with Autism and Significant Learning Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, Christi; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Bailey, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Students with disabilities have greater success when teachers have high expectations, use evidence-based practices, and design engaging learning experiences. Educators and other professionals often disagree about how to create such environments for students with autism, especially during small group academic instruction. This study evaluated the…

  7. A Simple Method for Encouraging Active Participation in Small-Group Discussion Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Adrian

    1977-01-01

    A format for a small-group teaching session is described that could be modified for any subject in a medical curriculum. The technique discussed uses subgroups and a simple recording chart that have been successful in teaching microbiology to medical students. (LBH)

  8. Web-Support for Activating Use of Theory in Group-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Veen, Jan; van Riemsdijk, Maarten; Laagland, Eelco; Gommer, Lisa; Jones, Val

    This paper describes a series of experiments conducted within the context of a course on organizational theory that is taught at the Department of Management Sciences at the University of Twente (Netherlands). In 1997, a group-based learning approach was adopted, but after the first year it was apparent that acquisition and application of theory…

  9. Group Tasks, Activities, Dynamics, and Interactions in Collaborative Robotics Projects with Elementary and Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Timothy T.; Boecking, Melanie; Stone, Jennifer; Tiger, Erin Price; Gomez, Alvaro; Guillen, Adrienne; Arreguin, Analisa

    2014-01-01

    Robotics provide the opportunity for students to bring their individual interests, perspectives and areas of expertise together in order to work collaboratively on real-world science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) problems. This paper examines the nature of collaboration that manifests in groups of elementary and middle school…

  10. Why an Active Comparison Group Makes a Difference and What to Do about It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Lois-ellin

    2007-01-01

    The Randomized Control Trials (RCT) design and its quasi-experimental kissing cousin, the Comparison Group Trials (CGT), are golden to some and not even silver to others. At the center of the affection, at the vortex of the discomfort, are beliefs about what it takes to establish causality. These designs are considered primarily when the purpose…

  11. Report on the activities of the PSN/NASA Task Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Loria, Alberto; Harrison, James K.

    1988-01-01

    Since July '86 the PSN/NASA Task Group for Tether Flight Demonstrations has been working to find applications of tethers in space, the development of which might be of mutual interest to the two agencies. Seven projects have so far been identified and some more will probably be added. A technical evaluation and a managerial plan have been outlined for each.

  12. Prevalence of complex activity limitations among racial/ethnic groups and Hispanic subgroups of adults: United States, 2003-2009.

    PubMed

    Ward, Brian W; Schiller, Jeannine S

    2011-09-01

    This brief has shown that racial and ethnic differences exist in the prevalence of complex activity limitations among adults. Further, within the U.S. Hispanic adult population, a number of significant differences were found in complex activity limitations among Mexican, Puerto Rican, Cuban, Central or South American, and other Hispanic adults—differences that would likely go unnoticed if the Hispanic population were treated as a single group. These disparities in the prevalence of complex activity limitations are further influenced by sex and age.

  13. Relationships Between Vocal Activity and Perception of Communicators in Small Group Interaction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daley, John A.; And Others

    1977-01-01

    Discusses a study designed to investigate the relationships between vocal activity level and interpersonal attraction, perceived credibility, perceived homophily or interpersonal similarity and perceived power or ability to influence. (MH)

  14. Identification of a novel cyanobacterial group as active diazotrophs in a coastal microbial mat using NanoSIMS analysis

    PubMed Central

    Woebken, Dagmar; Burow, Luke C; Prufert-Bebout, Leslie; Bebout, Brad M; Hoehler, Tori M; Pett-Ridge, Jennifer; Spormann, Alfred M; Weber, Peter K; Singer, Steven W

    2012-01-01

    N2 fixation is a key process in photosynthetic microbial mats to support the nitrogen demands associated with primary production. Despite its importance, groups that actively fix N2 and contribute to the input of organic N in these ecosystems still remain largely unclear. To investigate the active diazotrophic community in microbial mats from the Elkhorn Slough estuary, Monterey Bay, CA, USA, we conducted an extensive combined approach, including biogeochemical, molecular and high-resolution secondary ion mass spectrometry (NanoSIMS) analyses. Detailed analysis of dinitrogenase reductase (nifH) transcript clone libraries from mat samples that fixed N2 at night indicated that cyanobacterial nifH transcripts were abundant and formed a novel monophyletic lineage. Independent NanoSIMS analysis of 15N2-incubated samples revealed significant incorporation of 15N into small, non-heterocystous cyanobacterial filaments. Mat-derived enrichment cultures yielded a unicyanobacterial culture with similar filaments (named Elkhorn Slough Filamentous Cyanobacterium-1 (ESFC-1)) that contained nifH gene sequences grouping with the novel cyanobacterial lineage identified in the transcript clone libraries, displaying up to 100% amino-acid sequence identity. The 16S rRNA gene sequence recovered from this enrichment allowed for the identification of related sequences from Elkhorn Slough mats and revealed great sequence diversity in this cluster. Furthermore, by combining 15N2 tracer experiments, fluorescence in situ hybridization and NanoSIMS, in situ N2 fixation activity by the novel ESFC-1 group was demonstrated, suggesting that this group may be the most active cyanobacterial diazotroph in the Elkhorn Slough mat. Pyrotag sequences affiliated with ESFC-1 were recovered from mat samples throughout 2009, demonstrating the prevalence of this group. This work illustrates that combining standard and single-cell analyses can link phylogeny and function to identify previously unknown key

  15. Reversible dissociation of active octamer of cyanase to inactive dimer promoted by alteration of the sulfhydryl group.

    PubMed

    Anderson, P M; Johnson, W V; Korte, J J; Xiong, X F; Sung, Y C; Fuchs, J A

    1988-04-25

    Cyanase is an inducible enzyme in Escherichia coli that catalyzes the reaction of cyanate with bicarbonate resulting in the decomposition of cyanate to ammonia and bicarbonate. In this study, the role of the single sulfhydryl group in each of the eight identical subunits of cyanase was investigated. Tetranitromethane, methyl methanethiosulfonate, N-ethylmaleimide, and Hg2+ all reacted with the sulfhydryl group to give derivatives which had reduced activities and which dissociated reversibly to inactive dimer. Association of inactive dimer to active octamer was facilitated by the presence of azide (cyanate analog) and bicarbonate, increased temperature and enzyme concentration, and presence of phosphate. Nitration of tyrosine residues by tetranitromethane occurred only in the absence of azide and bicarbonate, suggesting that at least some of the tyrosine residues become exposed when octamer dissociates to dimer. Site-directed mutagenesis was used to prepare a mutant enzyme in which serine was substituted for cysteine. The mutant enzyme was catalytically active and had properties very similar to native enzyme, except that it was less stable to treatment with urea and to high temperatures. These results establish that in native cyanase the sulfhydryl group per se is not required for catalytic activity, but it may play a role in stabilizing octameric structure, and that octameric structure is required for catalytic activity.

  16. The Transcriptional Repressor Polycomb Group Factor 6, PCGF6, Negatively Regulates Dendritic Cell Activation and Promotes Quiescence.

    PubMed

    Boukhaled, Giselle M; Cordeiro, Brendan; Deblois, Genevieve; Dimitrov, Vassil; Bailey, Swneke D; Holowka, Thomas; Domi, Anisa; Guak, Hannah; Chiu, Huai-Hsuan Clare; Everts, Bart; Pearce, Edward J; Lupien, Mathieu; White, John H; Krawczyk, Connie M

    2016-08-16

    Pro-inflammatory signals provided by the microenvironment are critical to activate dendritic cells (DCs), components of the innate immune system that shape both innate and adaptive immunity. However, to prevent inappropriate immune activation, mechanisms must be in place to restrain DC activation to ensure DCs are activated only once sufficient stimuli have been received. Here, we report that DC activation and immunogenicity are regulated by the transcriptional repressor Polycomb group factor 6 (PCGF6). Pcgf6 is rapidly downregulated upon stimulation, and this downregulation is necessary to permit full DC activation. Silencing PCGF6 expression enhanced both spontaneous and stimulated DC activation. We show that PCGF6 associates with the H3K4me3 demethylase JARID1c, and together, they negatively regulate H3K4me3 levels in DCs. Our results identify two key regulators, PCGF6 and JARID1c that temper DC activation and implicate active transcriptional silencing via histone demethylation as a previously unappreciated mechanism for regulating DC activation and quiescence.

  17. The Transcriptional Repressor Polycomb Group Factor 6, PCGF6, Negatively Regulates Dendritic Cell Activation and Promotes Quiescence.

    PubMed

    Boukhaled, Giselle M; Cordeiro, Brendan; Deblois, Genevieve; Dimitrov, Vassil; Bailey, Swneke D; Holowka, Thomas; Domi, Anisa; Guak, Hannah; Chiu, Huai-Hsuan Clare; Everts, Bart; Pearce, Edward J; Lupien, Mathieu; White, John H; Krawczyk, Connie M

    2016-08-16

    Pro-inflammatory signals provided by the microenvironment are critical to activate dendritic cells (DCs), components of the innate immune system that shape both innate and adaptive immunity. However, to prevent inappropriate immune activation, mechanisms must be in place to restrain DC activation to ensure DCs are activated only once sufficient stimuli have been received. Here, we report that DC activation and immunogenicity are regulated by the transcriptional repressor Polycomb group factor 6 (PCGF6). Pcgf6 is rapidly downregulated upon stimulation, and this downregulation is necessary to permit full DC activation. Silencing PCGF6 expression enhanced both spontaneous and stimulated DC activation. We show that PCGF6 associates with the H3K4me3 demethylase JARID1c, and together, they negatively regulate H3K4me3 levels in DCs. Our results identify two key regulators, PCGF6 and JARID1c that temper DC activation and implicate active transcriptional silencing via histone demethylation as a previously unappreciated mechanism for regulating DC activation and quiescence. PMID:27498878

  18. Active learning: A small group histology laboratory exercise in a whole class setting utilizing virtual slides and peer education.

    PubMed

    Bloodgood, Robert A

    2012-01-01

    Histology laboratory instruction is moving away from the sole use of the traditional combination of light microscopes and glass slides in favor of virtual microscopy and virtual slides. At the same time, medical curricula are changing so as to reduce scheduled time for basic science instruction as well as focusing on student-centered learning approaches such as small group active learning and peer-instruction. It is important that medical schools resist the temptation to respond to this conjunction of events by turning histology into a self-study activity. This article describes a lymphoid histology laboratory exercise, occurring in a specially equipped Learning Studio housing an entire medical class that utilizes virtual slides in the context of small group active learning and peer instruction.

  19. Coordinated regulation of Myc trans-activation targets by Polycomb and the Trithorax group protein Ash1

    PubMed Central

    Goodliffe, Julie M; Cole, Michael D; Wieschaus, Eric

    2007-01-01

    Background The Myc oncoprotein is a transcriptional regulator whose function is essential for normal development. Myc is capable of binding to 10% of the mammalian genome, and it is unclear how a developing embryo controls the DNA binding of its abundant Myc proteins in order to avoid Myc's potential for inducing tumorigenesis. Results To identify chromatin binding proteins with a potential role in controlling Myc activity, we established a genetic assay for dMyc activity in Drosophila. We conducted a genome-wide screen using this assay, and identified the Trithorax Group protein Ash1 as a modifier of dMyc activity. Ash1 is a histone methyltransferase known for its role in opposing repression by Polycomb. Using RNAi in the embryo and Affymetrix microarrays, we show that ash1 RNAi causes the increased expression of many genes, suggesting that it is directly or indirectly required for repression in the embryo, in contrast to its known role in maintenance of activation. Many of these genes also respond similarly upon depletion of Pc and pho transcripts, as determined by concurrent microarray analysis of Pc and pho RNAi embryos, suggesting that the three are required for low levels of expression of a common set of targets. Further, many of these overlapping targets are also activated by Myc overexpression. We identify a second group of genes whose expression in the embryo requires Ash1, consistent with its previously established role in maintenance of activation. We find that this second group of Ash1 targets overlaps those activated by Myc and that ectopic Myc overcomes their requirement for Ash1. Conclusion Genetic, genomic and chromatin immunoprecipitation data suggest a model in which Pc, Ash1 and Pho are required to maintain a low level of expression of embryonic targets of activation by Myc, and that this occurs, directly or indirectly, by a combination of disparate chromatin modifications. PMID:17519021

  20. Positional effects of hydroxy groups on catalytic activity of proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Iridium(III) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Suna, Yuki; Fujita, Etsuko; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Wang, Wan-Hui; Kambayashi, Hide; Manaka, Yuichi; Muckerman, James T.; Himeda, Yuichiro

    2014-11-12

    Proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Ir(III) complexes possessing a bipyridine ligand with two hydroxy groups at the 3,3'-, 4,4'-, 5,5'- or 6,6'-positions (3DHBP, 4DHBP, 5DHBP, or 6DHBP) were systematically investigated. UV-vis titration data provided average pK a values of the hydroxy groups on the ligands. Both hydroxy groups were found to deprotonate in the pH 4.6–5.6 range for the 4–6DHBP complexes. One of the hydroxy groups of the 3DHBP complex exhibited the low pKa value of < 0.4 because the deprotonation is facilitated by the strong intramolecular hydrogen bond formed between the generated oxyanion and the remaining hydroxy group, which in turn leads to an elevated pKa value of ~13.6 for the second deprotonation step. The crystal structures of the 4– and 6DHBP complexes obtained from basic aqueous solutions revealed their deprotonated forms. The intramolecular hydrogen bond in the 3DHBP complex was also observed in the crystal structures. The catalytic activities of these complexes in aqueous phase reactions, at appropriate pH, for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (pH 8.5), dehydrogenation of formic acid (pH 1.8), transfer hydrogenation reactions using formic acid/formate as a hydrogen source (pH 7.2 and 2.6) were investigated to compare the positional effects of the hydroxy groups. The 4– and 6DHBP complexes exhibited remarkably enhanced catalytic activities under basic conditions because of the resonance effect of the strong electrondonating oxyanions, whereas the 5DHBP complex exhibited negligible activity despite the presence of electron-donating groups. The 3DHBP complex exhibited relatively high catalytic activity at low pH owing to the one strong electron-donating oxyanion group stabilized by the intramolecular hydrogen bond. DFT calculations were employed to study the mechanism of CO₂ hydrogenation by the 4DHBP and 6DHBP complexes, and comparison of the activation free energies of the H₂ heterolysis and CO

  1. Positional effects of hydroxy groups on catalytic activity of proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Iridium(III) complexes

    DOE PAGES

    Suna, Yuki; Fujita, Etsuko; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Wang, Wan-Hui; Kambayashi, Hide; Manaka, Yuichi; Muckerman, James T.; Himeda, Yuichiro

    2014-11-12

    Proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Ir(III) complexes possessing a bipyridine ligand with two hydroxy groups at the 3,3'-, 4,4'-, 5,5'- or 6,6'-positions (3DHBP, 4DHBP, 5DHBP, or 6DHBP) were systematically investigated. UV-vis titration data provided average pK a values of the hydroxy groups on the ligands. Both hydroxy groups were found to deprotonate in the pH 4.6–5.6 range for the 4–6DHBP complexes. One of the hydroxy groups of the 3DHBP complex exhibited the low pKa value of < 0.4 because the deprotonation is facilitated by the strong intramolecular hydrogen bond formed between the generated oxyanion and the remaining hydroxy group, which in turn leadsmore » to an elevated pKa value of ~13.6 for the second deprotonation step. The crystal structures of the 4– and 6DHBP complexes obtained from basic aqueous solutions revealed their deprotonated forms. The intramolecular hydrogen bond in the 3DHBP complex was also observed in the crystal structures. The catalytic activities of these complexes in aqueous phase reactions, at appropriate pH, for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (pH 8.5), dehydrogenation of formic acid (pH 1.8), transfer hydrogenation reactions using formic acid/formate as a hydrogen source (pH 7.2 and 2.6) were investigated to compare the positional effects of the hydroxy groups. The 4– and 6DHBP complexes exhibited remarkably enhanced catalytic activities under basic conditions because of the resonance effect of the strong electrondonating oxyanions, whereas the 5DHBP complex exhibited negligible activity despite the presence of electron-donating groups. The 3DHBP complex exhibited relatively high catalytic activity at low pH owing to the one strong electron-donating oxyanion group stabilized by the intramolecular hydrogen bond. DFT calculations were employed to study the mechanism of CO₂ hydrogenation by the 4DHBP and 6DHBP complexes, and comparison of the activation free energies of the H₂ heterolysis and CO₂ insertion steps

  2. Human Activity Dampens the Benefits of Group Size on Vigilance in Khulan (Equus hemionus) in Western China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mu-Yang; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Xu, Wen-Xuan; Blank, David; Yang, Wei-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Animals receive anti-predator benefits from social behavior. As part of a group, individuals spend less time being vigilant, and vigilance decreases with increasing group size. This phenomenon, called "the many-eyes effect", together with the "encounter dilution effect", is considered among the most important factors determining individual vigilance behavior. However, in addition to group size, other social and environmental factors also influence the degree of vigilance, including disturbance from human activities. In our study, we examined vigilance behavior of Khulans (Equus hemionus) in the Xinjiang Province in western China to test whether and how human disturbance and group size affect vigilance. According to our results, Khulan showed a negative correlation between group size and the percentage time spent vigilant, although this negative correlation depended on the groups' disturbance level. Khulan in the more disturbed area had a dampened benefit from increases in group size, compared to those in the undisturbed core areas. Provision of continuous areas of high-quality habitat for Khulans will allow them to form larger undisturbed aggregations and to gain foraging benefits through reduced individual vigilance, as well as anti-predator benefits through increased probability of predator detection.

  3. Preparation and ozone-surface modification of activated carbon. Thermal stability of oxygen surface groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jaramillo, J.; Álvarez, P. M.; Gómez-Serrano, V.

    2010-06-01

    The control of the surface chemistry of activated carbon by ozone and heat treatment is investigated. Using cherry stones, activated carbons were prepared by carbonization at 900 °C and activation in CO 2 or steam at 850 °C. The obtained products were ozone-treated at room temperature. After their thermogravimetric analysis, the samples were heat-treated to 300, 500, 700 or 900 °C. The textural characterization was carried out by N 2 adsorption at 77 K, mercury porosimetry, and density measurements. The surface analysis was performed by the Bohem method and pH of the point of zero charge (pH pzc). It has been found that the treatment of activated carbon with ozone combined with heat treatment enables one to control the acidic-basic character and strength of the carbon surface. Whereas the treatment with ozone yields acidic carbons, carbon dioxide and steam activations of the carbonized product and the heat treatment of the ozone-treated products result in basic carbons; the strength of a base which increases with the increasing heat treatment temperature. pH pzc ranges between 3.6 and 10.3.

  4. [Activity and Future Perspective of Local Independent Clinical Trial Group (OGSG)].

    PubMed

    Tsujinaka, Toshimasa

    2016-04-01

    Osaka Gastrointestinal Cancer Chemotherapy Study Group (OGSG) was established in 2000 and has been conducting investigator initiated multi-institutional collaboration trials regarding the treatment of gastrointestinal cancer, especially using chemotherapeutic agents. Although organization of OGSG has been renovated to perform post-marketing clinical trials with high quality, OGSG is now facing severe financial crisis because of shortage of donation from pharmaceutical companies. Here, present problems and future perspectives are discussed. PMID:27220796

  5. The NLP toxin family in Phytophthora sojae includes rapidly evolving groups that lack necrosis-inducing activity.

    PubMed

    Dong, Suomeng; Kong, Guanghui; Qutob, Dinah; Yu, Xiaoli; Tang, Junli; Kang, Jixiong; Dai, Tingting; Wang, Hai; Gijzen, Mark; Wang, Yuanchao

    2012-07-01

    Necrosis- and ethylene-inducing-like proteins (NLP) are widely distributed in eukaryotic and prokaryotic plant pathogens and are considered to be important virulence factors. We identified, in total, 70 potential Phytophthora sojae NLP genes but 37 were designated as pseudogenes. Sequence alignment of the remaining 33 NLP delineated six groups. Three of these groups include proteins with an intact heptapeptide (Gly-His-Arg-His-Asp-Trp-Glu) motif, which is important for necrosis-inducing activity, whereas the motif is not conserved in the other groups. In total, 19 representative NLP genes were assessed for necrosis-inducing activity by heterologous expression in Nicotiana benthamiana. Surprisingly, only eight genes triggered cell death. The expression of the NLP genes in P. sojae was examined, distinguishing 20 expressed and 13 nonexpressed NLP genes. Real-time reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction results indicate that most NLP are highly expressed during cyst germination and infection stages. Amino acid substitution ratios (Ka/Ks) of 33 NLP sequences from four different P. sojae strains resulted in identification of positive selection sites in a distinct NLP group. Overall, our study indicates that expansion and pseudogenization of the P. sojae NLP family results from an ongoing birth-and-death process, and that varying patterns of expression, necrosis-inducing activity, and positive selection suggest that NLP have diversified in function.

  6. Is race erased? Decoding race from patterns of neural activity when skin color is not diagnostic of group boundaries

    PubMed Central

    Ratner, Kyle G.; Kaul, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Several theories suggest that people do not represent race when it does not signify group boundaries. However, race is often associated with visually salient differences in skin tone and facial features. In this study, we investigated whether race could be decoded from distributed patterns of neural activity in the fusiform gyri and early visual cortex when visual features that often covary with race were orthogonal to group membership. To this end, we used multivariate pattern analysis to examine an fMRI dataset that was collected while participants assigned to mixed-race groups categorized own-race and other-race faces as belonging to their newly assigned group. Whereas conventional univariate analyses provided no evidence of race-based responses in the fusiform gyri or early visual cortex, multivariate pattern analysis suggested that race was represented within these regions. Moreover, race was represented in the fusiform gyri to a greater extent than early visual cortex, suggesting that the fusiform gyri results do not merely reflect low-level perceptual information (e.g. color, contrast) from early visual cortex. These findings indicate that patterns of activation within specific regions of the visual cortex may represent race even when overall activation in these regions is not driven by racial information. PMID:22661619

  7. The Effect of Online Chronic Disease Personas on Activation: Within-Subjects and Between-Groups Analyses

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background Although self-management of chronic disease is important, engaging patients and increasing activation for self-care using online tools has proven difficult. Designing more tailored interventions through the application of condition-specific personas may be a way to increase engagement and patient activation. Personas are developed from extensive interviews with patients about their shared values and assumptions about their health. The resulting personas tailor the knowledge and skills necessary for self-care and guide selection of the self-management tools for a particular audience. Objective Pre-post changes in self-reported levels of activation for self-management were analyzed for 11 chronic health personas developed for 4 prevalent chronic diseases. Methods Personas were created from 20 to 25 hour-long nondirected interviews with consumers with a common, chronic disease (eg, diabetes). The interviews were transcribed and coded for behaviors, feelings, and beliefs using the principles of grounded theory. A second group of 398 adults with self-reported chronic disease were recruited for online testing of the personas and their impact on activation. The activation variables, based on an integrated theory of health behavior, were knowledge of a given health issue, perceived self-management skills, confidence in improving health, and intention to take action in managing health. Pre-post changes in activation were analyzed with a mixed design with 1 within-subjects factor (pre-post) and 1 between-group factor (persona) using a general linear model with repeated measures. Results Sixteen pre-post changes for 4 measures of activation were analyzed. All but 2 of the within-subjects effects were statistically significant and all changes were in the direction of increased activation scores at posttest. Five significant differences between personas were observed, showing which personas performed better. Of low activation participants, 50% or more shifted to high

  8. Students' Evaluation of Google Hangouts through a Cross-Cultural Group Discussion Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kobayashi, Michiko

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated perceived ease of use and usefulness of Google Hangouts as an instructional/learning tool. Forty-two teacher education students at U.S and Japanese universities participated in an online cross-cultural activity using Google Hangouts and discussed cultural differences between the two countries and their teaching philosophies.…

  9. Teaching Middle School Students with Learning Disabilities To Recruit Peer Assistance during Cooperative Learning Group Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolford, Patricia L.; Heward, William L.; Alber, Sheila R.

    2001-01-01

    Four 8th graders with learning disabilities were taught to recruit assistance from peers during cooperative learning activities in two general classrooms. Training consisted of modeling, role playing, corrective feedback, and praise. Recruitment training increased the productivity and accuracy with which the students completed their language arts…

  10. HIGH-DIMENSIONAL PROFILING OF TRANSCRIPTION FACTOR ACTIVITY DIFFERENTIATES TOXCAST CHEMICAL GROUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The ToxCast™ project at the U.S. EPA uses a diverse battery of high throughput screening assays and informatics models to rapidly characterize the activity of chemicals. A central goal of the project is to provide empirical evidence to aid in the prioritization of chemicals for a...

  11. The Math Explorer: Games and Activities for Middle School Youth Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Murphy, Pat; Lambertson, Lori; Tesler, Pearl

    This book offers games and mathematics activities using a hands-on approach for middle school students and features games, puzzles, experiments, and projects. Contents include: (1) "Boxed In!"; (2) "Oddball"; (3) "Pig"; (4) "Madagascar Solitaire"; (5) "Fantastic Four"; (6) "Eratosthenes' Sieve"; (7) "Hopping Hundred"; (8) "Tic-Tac-Toe Times"; (9)…

  12. A summary of major activities of the UNH and NRL groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chupp, E. L.

    1988-01-01

    The major activities of the SMM GRS team members at the University of New Hampshire and the Naval Research Laboratory since the last semi-annual report are summarized. An updated list of published papers and invited papers or contributed papers presented at scientific meetings is provided.

  13. How Teachers Manage Individual and Small-Group Work in Active Classrooms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kierstead, Janet

    1986-01-01

    Describes how teachers manage multitask classroom activities by defining teacher and student work cycles, sorting students into attention categories by assessing their work daily, and providing assistance to students according to need. Includes figures illustrating student's and teacher's work cycles and the three levels of classroom decision…

  14. The Thumbs Up Ecology Curriculum: A Fun Group of School Site Activities for Sixth Graders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, John; And Others

    This guide is a collection of "fun" school site activities for sixth graders. Some of the topics covered are: animals, trees, energy and lifestyle, land use and you, energy conservation, and car-pooling. Each section offers both introductory information about the topic as well as questions to ponder such as what, so what, now what, and another way…

  15. Growing into Greatness: A Study of a Local History Group of Active-Retired Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrigan, Trudy; Byrne, Brid; Harris, Phyllis; Lalor, Maureen; O'Connor, Maura; O'Reilly, Kathleen; Quinn, Frank; Forde, Kathleen

    2005-01-01

    Research in Canada on the learning needs of older people looked at such issues as how to cope with changes in society, the need to make a contribution and the need to be influential. The White Paper on Adult Education "Learning for Life" notes that strategies for active ageing stress the critical importance of access to learning as a key tool in…

  16. Variability in tannin content, chemistry and activity in a diverse group of tannin containing sorghum cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tannins are large polyphenolic polymers and are known to bind proteins, limiting their digestibility. Tannins are also known for having excellent antioxidant potential. To examine the precise impact of tannin content and composition on the biological activities (protein binding, protein digestibil...

  17. Below Regulatory Concern Owners Group: Evaluation of dry active waste monitoring instruments and techniques: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, V.W.; Endres, G.W.R.; Merwin, S.E.; Moeller, M.P.; Robertson, D.E.; Young, J.A.

    1989-03-01

    The disposal of low-level radioactive waste (LLRW) is costly, so most nuclear power stations have found or will find that it is cost-effective to dispose of dry active waste (DAW) with activity levels that are Below Regulatory Concern (BRC) at a sanitary landfill or incinerator. It appears that substantial volumes of DAW can be exempted from disposal as LLRW if the maximum exposure to an individual member of the public from BRC waste does not exceed a few mrem per year effective dose equivalent. The Electric Power Research Institute (EPRI) has requested that Battelle, Pacific Northwest Laboratories (BNW) evaluate instruments and methods that could be used to measure surface contamination (activity per unit area) and radioactivity concentrations (activity per unit mass or volume) in BRC waste. Instrumentation utilized in a DAW BRC monitoring program must be capable of satisfying performance objectives. This instrumentations must measure bulk concentrations of radioactivity in DAW to assure that annual inventory disposal limits are not exceeded at each disposal site; measure radionuclide concentrations in disposal containers (e.g., bags, boxes, etc.) to assure that maximum allowable concentration limits in the DAW are not exceeded; assure that discrete radioactive particles (DRPs), if present in DAW, do not exceed maximum permissible activity limits; and possess detection capability to allow utilities to set operational limits between the detection limit and the disposal limit at their option. Our evaluations indicate that bag monitors and barrel counters have the necessary sensitivity to meet all of these objectives. 20 refs., 7 figs., 11 tabs.

  18. Adsorption between TC-stabilized AuNPs and the phosphate group: application of the PTP1B activity assay.

    PubMed

    Lv, Jun; Wang, Xiaonan; Zhang, Yuanyuan; Li, Defeng; Zhang, Juan; Sun, Lizhou

    2015-12-01

    Based on the adsorption between tetracycline (TC) and phosphate groups, a general colorimetric method is explored in this work by using TC-stabilized gold nanoparticles (TC/AuNPs) and 4-aminophenyl phosphate-functionalized Fe3O4 magnetic nanoparticles (APP/MNPs). Taking protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) as an example, 4-aminophenyl phosphate (APP) can be hydrolyzed into 4-aminophenol (AP) by PTP1B, resulting in the disappearance of the phosphate group on the outer layer of MNPs and the loss of corresponding adsorptive ability. Upon addition of TC/AuNP solution, TC/AuNPs will remain in the supernatant solution after magnetic separation and a high absorbance value can be observed. So PTP1B activity is related to the concentrations of TC/AuNPs in the supernatant solution. In this work, the enzyme activity can be determined at levels as low as 0.0885 U mL(-1) and over a linear detection range as wide as 0.1 U mL(-1) to 0.9 U mL(-1). Moreover, using the proposed method, the inhibition effect of betulinic acid (BA) and sodium orthovanadate (Na3VO4) on PTP1B activity can be tested with IC50 values of 30 μM and 4 μM, respectively. Therefore, a universal platform for the accurate colorimetric analysis of kinase and phosphatase activities can be established through the adsorption between TC and phosphate groups.

  19. Importance of sulfate groups for the macrophage-stimulating activities of ascophyllan isolated from the brown alga Ascophyllum nodosum.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zedong; Ueno, Mikinori; Nishiguchi, Tomoki; Abu, Ryogo; Isaka, Shogo; Okimura, Takasi; Yamaguchi, Kenichi; Oda, Tatsuya

    2013-10-18

    To investigate the role of sulfate groups on the macrophage-stimulating activities of ascophyllan, we prepared desulfated ascophyllan, and its effects on RAW264.7 cells were compared with native ascophyllan. The chemical structural analysis revealed that nearly 21% of sulfate groups of ascophyllan were removed by desulfation reaction, while no significant changes in the molecular mass and monosaccharide composition occurred after desulfation. NO- and cytokine- (TNF-α and G-CSF) inducing activities of the desulfated ascophyllan on RAW264.7 cells were significantly decreased as compared to native ascophyllan. Furthermore, the activity of desulfated ascophyllan to induce reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation from RAW264.7 cells decreased to almost negligible level. Our results suggest that the level of sulfate groups of ascophyllan is an important structural element responsible for the macrophage-stimulating activities. Probably, even the limited removal of sulfate residues sensitive to desulfation reaction may result in significant decrease in the bioactivities of ascophyllan. PMID:24025707

  20. Creating Neighbourhood Groupings Based on Built Environment Features to Facilitate Health Promotion Activities

    PubMed Central

    Schopflocher, Donald; VanSpronsen, Eric; Spence, John C.; Vallianatos, Helen; Raine, Kim D.; Plotnikoff, Ronald C.; Nykiforuk, Candace I.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Detailed assessments of the built environment often resist data reduction and summarization. This project sought to develop a method of reducing built environment data to an extent that they can be effectively communicated to researchers and community stakeholders. We aim to help in an understanding of how these data can be used to create neighbourhood groupings based on built environment characteristics and how the process of discussing these neighbourhoods with community stakeholders can result in the development of community-informed health promotion interventions. Methods We used the Irvine Minnesota Inventory (IMI) to assess 296 segments of a semi-rural community in Alberta. Expert raters “created” neighbourhoods by examining the data. Then, a consensus grouping was developed using cluster analysis, and the number of IMI variables to characterize the neighbourhoods was reduced by multiple discriminant function analysis. Results The 296 segments were reduced to a consensus set of 10 neighbourhoods, which could be separated from each other by 9 functions constructed from 24 IMI variables. Biplots of these functions were an effective means of summarizing and presenting the results of the community assessment, and stimulated community action. Conclusions It is possible to use principled quantitative methods to reduce large amounts of information about the built environment into meaningful summaries. These summaries, or built environment neighbourhoods, were useful in catalyzing action with community stakeholders and led to the development of health-promoting built environment interventions. PMID:23618092

  1. Vibrational and electronic optical activity of the chiral disulphide group: implications for disulphide bridge conformation.

    PubMed

    Bednárová, Lucie; Bour, Petr; Malon, Petr

    2010-05-15

    Using dihydrogendisulphide (H(2)S(2)), dimethyl- ((CH(3))(2)S(2)), and diethyldisulphide ((CH(3)CH(2))(2)S(2))as model molecules, theoretical ECD, VCD, and ROA spectra of nonplanar disulphides were calculated by DFT methods. Most of the calculated electronic and vibrational chiroptical features suffer an equivocal relation between calculatedsigns of ECD, VCD, or ROA and the sense of disulphide nonplanarity as noted earlier for low-lying ECD bands. This is a consequence of local C(2) symmetry of a disulphide group causing most electronic and vibrational transitions to occur as pairs falling to alternative A, B symmetry species, which become degenerate and switch their succession (and consequently the observed chiroptical sign pattern) at the energetically most favorable perpendicular conformation. According to present calculations, the key to resolving this ambiguity may involve the S-S stretching vibrational mode at approximately 500 cm(-1). The relation of signs of the relevant VCD and ROA features to sense of disulphide chirality seems simpler and less ambiguous. The right-handed arrangement of the S-S group (0 < chi(S-S) < 180 degrees) results in mostly negative VCD signals. Although relation to ROA still suffers some ambiguity, it gets clearer along the series H(2)S(2)-(CH(3))(2)S(2)-(CH(3)CH(2))(2)S(2). ROA is also attractive for the analysis of disulphide-containing peptides and proteins, because applying it to aqueous solutions is not problematic.

  2. A Stable Bacterial Peroxidase with Novel Halogenating Activity and an Autocatalytically Linked Heme Prosthetic Group*

    PubMed Central

    Auer, Markus; Gruber, Clemens; Bellei, Marzia; Pirker, Katharina F.; Zamocky, Marcel; Kroiss, Daniela; Teufer, Stefan A.; Hofbauer, Stefan; Soudi, Monika; Battistuzzi, Gianantonio; Furtmüller, Paul G.; Obinger, Christian

    2013-01-01

    Reconstructing the phylogenetic relationships of the main evolutionary lines of the mammalian peroxidases lactoperoxidase and myeloperoxidase revealed the presence of novel bacterial heme peroxidase subfamilies. Here, for the first time, an ancestral bacterial heme peroxidase is shown to possess a very high bromide oxidation activity (besides conventional peroxidase activity). The recombinant protein allowed monitoring of the autocatalytic peroxide-driven formation of covalent heme to protein bonds. Thereby, the high spin ferric rhombic heme spectrum became similar to lactoperoxidase, the standard reduction potential of the Fe(III)/Fe(II) couple shifted to more positive values (−145 ± 10 mV at pH 7), and the conformational and thermal stability of the protein increased significantly. We discuss structure-function relationships of this new peroxidase in relation to its mammalian counterparts and ask for its putative physiological role. PMID:23918925

  3. Human Activity Dampens the Benefits of Group Size on Vigilance in Khulan (Equus hemionus) in Western China

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Mu-Yang; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E.; Xu, Wen-Xuan; Blank, David; Yang, Wei-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Animals receive anti-predator benefits from social behavior. As part of a group, individuals spend less time being vigilant, and vigilance decreases with increasing group size. This phenomenon, called “the many-eyes effect”, together with the “encounter dilution effect”, is considered among the most important factors determining individual vigilance behavior. However, in addition to group size, other social and environmental factors also influence the degree of vigilance, including disturbance from human activities. In our study, we examined vigilance behavior of Khulans (Equus hemionus) in the Xinjiang Province in western China to test whether and how human disturbance and group size affect vigilance. According to our results, Khulan showed a negative correlation between group size and the percentage time spent vigilant, although this negative correlation depended on the groups’ disturbance level. Khulan in the more disturbed area had a dampened benefit from increases in group size, compared to those in the undisturbed core areas. Provision of continuous areas of high-quality habitat for Khulans will allow them to form larger undisturbed aggregations and to gain foraging benefits through reduced individual vigilance, as well as anti-predator benefits through increased probability of predator detection. PMID:26756993

  4. Effects of oxygen functional groups on the enhancement of the hydrogen spillover of Pd-doped activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Chung, Tsui-Yun; Tsao, Cheng-Si; Tseng, Hui-Ping; Chen, Chien-Hung; Yu, Ming-Sheng

    2015-03-01

    The hydrogen storage performance of Pd-doped oxidized activated carbon (Pd/AC-ox) with various oxygen contents or functional groups was investigated. The surface chemistry of the Pd/AC-ox sample was modified by treatment with hydrogen gas. Temperature-programmed desorption was performed to characterize the oxygen functional groups in each sample. In this study, low- and high-pressure hydrogen adsorption isotherm experiments were conducted using a static volumetric measurement at room temperature (RT) and pressures of up to 8 MPa. The results showed that increasing the oxygen content and functional groups on the surface of the Pd/AC-ox significantly improved the reversible RT hydrogen storage capacity due to the spillover effect. The hydrogen spillover enhancement factors at 0.12 MPa were greater than 100% for all samples. The hydrogen uptake of Pd/AC-ox1 at RT and 8 MPa with an oxygen content of 8.94 wt.% was 0.37 wt.%, which was 48% greater than that of Pd-free AC-ox (0.25 wt.%). In addition, the hydrogen uptake of Pd/AC-ox3 with lower oxygen contents demonstrates that the hydrogen spillover enhancement gradually disappears when the pressure is increased to more than 2 MPa (i.e., a transition from spillover to physisorption). The surface diffusion, or reversible adsorption, of the spiltover H atoms, which is enhanced by oxygen functional groups, was affected by a threshold amount of oxygen groups (such as hydroxyl groups). PMID:25490569

  5. Synthesis, structural characterization and anti-carcinogenic activity of new cyclotriphosphazenes containing dioxybiphenyl and chalcone groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Görgülü, Ahmet Orhan; Koran, Kenan; Özen, Furkan; Tekin, Suat; Sandal, Süleyman

    2015-05-01

    2,2-Dichloro-4,4,6,6-bis[spiro(2‧,2″-dioxy-1‧,1″-biphenylyl]cyclotriphosphazene (2) was synthesized from hexachlorocyclotriphosphazene (HCCP) and 2,2‧-dihydroxybiphenyl. The mixed substituent chalcone/dioxybiphenyl cyclophosphazenes (2a-h) were obtained from the reactions of (2) with hydroxy chalcone compounds in K2CO3/acetone system. The chalcone-cyclophosphazene compounds were characterized by elemental analysis, FT-IR, 1H, 13C, 31P NMR techniques. In vitro anti-carcinogenic activities of all compounds were determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay. Anti-carcinogenic activity of the compounds (2a-h) against androgen-dependent (LNCaP) and independent (PC-3) human prostate cancer cell lines were investigated. Our results indicate that the chalcone-phosphazene compounds (2a-h) have anti-carcinogenic activity on PC-3 and LNCaP cell lines (p < 0.05). The effective dose of the compounds was determined as 100 μM.

  6. Carboxylic Acids as A Traceless Activation Group for Conjugate Additions: A Three-Step Synthesis of (±)-Pregabalin

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The direct application of carboxylic acids as a traceless activation group for radical Michael additions has been accomplished via visible light-mediated photoredox catalysis. Photon-induced oxidation of a broad series of carboxylic acids, including hydrocarbon-substituted, α-oxy, and α-amino acids, provides a versatile CO2-extrusion platform to generate Michael donors without the requirement for organometallic activation or propagation. A diverse array of Michael acceptors is amenable to this new conjugate addition strategy. An application of this technology to a three-step synthesis of the medicinal agent pregabalin (commercialized by Pfizer under the trade name Lyrica) is also presented. PMID:25032785

  7. The active galactic nucleus population in X-ray-selected galaxy groups at 0.5 < Z < 1.1

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Semyeong; Woo, Jong-Hak; Matsuoka, Kenta; Mulchaey, John S.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Tanaka, Masayuki; Cooper, Michael C.; Ziparo, Felicia; Bauer, Franz E.

    2014-07-20

    We use Chandra data to study the incidence and properties of active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in 16 intermediate redshift (0.5 < z < 1.1) X-ray-selected galaxy groups in the Chandra Deep Field-South. We measure an AGN fraction of f(L{sub X,H}>10{sup 42};M{sub R}<−20)=8.0{sub −2.3}{sup +3.0}% at z-bar ∼0.74, approximately a factor of two higher than the AGN fraction found for rich clusters at comparable redshift. This extends the trend found at low redshift for groups to have higher AGN fractions than clusters. Our estimate of the AGN fraction is also more than a factor of three higher than that of low redshift X-ray-selected groups. Using optical spectra from various surveys, we also constrain the properties of emission-line selected AGNs in these groups. In contrast to the large population of X-ray AGNs (N(L{sub X,{sub H}} > 10{sup 41} erg s{sup –1}) = 25), we find only four emission-line AGNs, three of which are also X-ray bright. Furthermore, most of the X-ray AGNs in our groups are optically dull (i.e., lack strong emission-lines), similar to those found in low redshift X-ray groups and clusters of galaxies. This contrasts with the AGN population found in low redshift optically selected groups which are dominated by emission-line AGNs. The differences between the optically and X-ray-selected AGNs populations in groups are consistent with a scenario where most AGNs in the densest environments are currently in a low accretion state.

  8. North-south asymmetry in small and large sunspot group activity and violation of even-odd solar cycle rule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javaraiah, J.

    2016-07-01

    According to Gnevyshev-Ohl (G-O) rule an odd-numbered cycle is stronger than its preceding even-numbered cycle. In the modern time the cycle pair (22, 23) violated this rule. By using the combined Greenwich Photoheliographic Results (GPR) and Solar Optical Observing Network (SOON) sunspot group data during the period 1874-2015, and Debrecen Photoheliographic Data (DPD) of sunspot groups during the period 1974-2015, here we have found that the solar cycle pair (22, 23) violated the G-O rule because, besides during cycle 23 a large deficiency of small sunspot groups in both the northern and the southern hemispheres, during cycle 22 a large abundance of small sunspot groups in the southern hemisphere. In the case of large and small sunspot groups the cycle pair (22, 23) violated the G-O rule in the northern and southern hemispheres, respectively, suggesting the north-south asymmetry in solar activity has a significant contribution in the violation of G-O rule. The amplitude of solar cycle 24 is smaller than that of solar cycle 23. However, Coronal Mass Ejections (CMEs) rate in the rising phases of the cycles 23 and 24 are almost same (even slightly large in cycle 24). From both the SOON and the DPD sunspot group data here we have also found that on the average the ratio of the number (counts) of large sunspot groups to the number of small sunspot groups is larger in the rising phase of cycle 24 than that in the corresponding phase of cycle 23. We suggest this could be a potential reason for the aforesaid discrepancy in the CME rates during the rising phases of cycles 23 and 24. These results have significant implication on solar cycle mechanism.

  9. Complexes With Biologically Active Ligands. Part 1. Synthesis of Coordination Compounds of Diazoxide With Transition- and Main-Group Cations

    PubMed Central

    Supuran, Claudiu T.

    1996-01-01

    Complexes of diazoxide (3-methyl-7-chloro-1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide) - an antihypertensive and hyperglycemic pharmacological agent - with a series of transition- and main-group di-, triand tetravalent metal ions were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic, thermogravimetric, magnetic and conductimetric measurements. The complexes were tested as inhibitors of the enzyme carbonic anhydrase (CA), proving modest activity towards CA II and better inhibition of CA I. PMID:18472790

  10. Recovering Physical Activity Missing Data Measured by Accelerometers: A Comparison of Individual and Group-Centered Recovery Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhuang, Jie; Chen, Peijie; Wang, Chao; Jin, Jing; Zhu, Zheng; Zhang, Wenjie

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine which method, individual information-centered (IIC) or group information-centered (GIC), is more efficient in recovering missing physical activity (PA) data. Method: A total of 2,758 Chinese children and youth aged 9 to 17 years old (1,438 boys and 1,320 girls) wore ActiGraph GT3X/GT3X+…

  11. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity.

    PubMed

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  12. The Indirect Effect of Age Group on Switch Costs via Gray Matter Volume and Task-Related Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Steffener, Jason; Gazes, Yunglin; Habeck, Christian; Stern, Yaakov

    2016-01-01

    Healthy aging simultaneously affects brain structure, brain function, and cognition. These effects are often investigated in isolation ignoring any relationships between them. It is plausible that age related declines in cognitive performance are the result of age-related structural and functional changes. This straightforward idea is tested in within a conceptual research model of cognitive aging. The current study tested whether age-related declines in task-performance were explained by age-related differences in brain structure and brain function using a task-switching paradigm in 175 participants. Sixty-three young and 112 old participants underwent MRI scanning of brain structure and brain activation. The experimental task was an executive context dual task with switch costs in response time as the behavioral measure. A serial mediation model was applied voxel-wise throughout the brain testing all pathways between age group, gray matter volume, brain activation and increased switch costs, worsening performance. There were widespread age group differences in gray matter volume and brain activation. Switch costs also significantly differed by age group. There were brain regions demonstrating significant indirect effects of age group on switch costs via the pathway through gray matter volume and brain activation. These were in the bilateral precuneus, bilateral parietal cortex, the left precentral gyrus, cerebellum, fusiform, and occipital cortices. There were also significant indirect effects via the brain activation pathway after controlling for gray matter volume. These effects were in the cerebellum, occipital cortex, left precentral gyrus, bilateral supramarginal, bilateral parietal, precuneus, middle cingulate extending to medial superior frontal gyri and the left middle frontal gyri. There were no significant effects through the gray matter volume alone pathway. These results demonstrate that a large proportion of the age group effect on switch costs can

  13. Yield of intensified tuberculosis case-finding activities using Xpert® MTB/RIF among risk groups in Nepal

    PubMed Central

    Baral, S.; Shrestha, P.; Puri, M.; Kandel, S.; Lamichanne, B.; Elsey, H.; Brouwer, M.; Goel, S.; Chinnakali, P.

    2016-01-01

    Setting: Twenty-two districts of Nepal, where intensified case-finding (ICF) activities for tuberculosis (TB) were implemented among risk groups under the TB REACH initiative in collaboration with the National TB Programme from July 2013 to November 2015. Objectives: To assess the yield of TB screening using an algorithm with smear microscopy followed by Xpert® MTB/RIF. Design: A descriptive study using routinely collected data. Results: Of 145 679 individuals screened, 28 574 (19.6%) had presumptive TB; 1239 (4.3%) of these were diagnosed with TB and 1195 (96%) were initiated on anti-tuberculosis treatment. The yield of screening was highest among people living with the human immunodeficiency virus (PLHIV) (6.1%), followed by household contacts (3.5%) and urban slum dwellers (0.5%). Among other risk groups, such as prisoners, factory workers, refugees and individuals with diabetes, the yield was less than 0.5%. The number needed to screen to diagnose an active TB case was 17 for PLHIV, 29 for household contacts and 197 for urban slum dwellers. Of 11 525 patients from ICF and the routine programme, 112 (1%) were diagnosed with multidrug-resistant TB. Conclusion: There was a substantial yield of TB cases among risk groups such as PLHIV and household contacts. Although the yield in urban slum dwellers was found to be moderate, some intervention should nonetheless be targeted because of the large population and poor access to care in this group. PMID:27358808

  14. Ground substrate affects activity budgets and hair loss in outdoor captive groups of rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta).

    PubMed

    Beisner, Brianne A; Isbell, Lynne A

    2008-12-01

    How the captive environment influences the behavior of animals is relevant to the well-being of captive animals. Captivity diverges from the natural environment in many ways, and one goal of enrichment practices is to encourage species-typical behavior in these unnatural environments. This study investigated the influence of grass vs. gravel substrate on activity budgets and degree of hair loss in seven groups of captive rhesus macaques housed in outdoor enclosures at the California National Primate Research Center. Groups having grass substrate spent a greater proportion of their time foraging and a smaller proportion of time grooming compared with groups having gravel substrate. Increased time spent grooming in gravel enclosures may have contributed to significantly greater hair loss in those enclosures. A causal relationship between ground substrate on foraging and grooming, and therefore hair loss, is strengthened by similar changes in activity budgets and hair loss in a single group that was moved from gravel to grass substrate halfway through the study. These results add to growing evidence that substrate type in captivity is important to consider because it affects animal well-being. In particular, these results reveal that grass substrate is more effective than gravel in stimulating foraging and reducing allo-grooming to levels that are comparable to wild populations, and enable animals to maintain healthier coats.

  15. Cockayne syndrome group B protein regulates DNA double-strand break repair and checkpoint activation

    PubMed Central

    Batenburg, Nicole L; Thompson, Elizabeth L; Hendrickson, Eric A; Zhu, Xu-Dong

    2015-01-01

    Mutations of CSB account for the majority of Cockayne syndrome (CS), a devastating hereditary disorder characterized by physical impairment, neurological degeneration and segmental premature aging. Here we report the generation of a human CSB-knockout cell line. We find that CSB facilitates HR and represses NHEJ. Loss of CSB or a CS-associated CSB mutation abrogating its ATPase activity impairs the recruitment of BRCA1, RPA and Rad51 proteins to damaged chromatin but promotes the formation of 53BP1-Rif1 damage foci in S and G2 cells. Depletion of 53BP1 rescues the formation of BRCA1 damage foci in CSB-knockout cells. In addition, knockout of CSB impairs the ATM- and Chk2-mediated DNA damage responses, promoting a premature entry into mitosis. Furthermore, we show that CSB accumulates at sites of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) in a transcription-dependent manner. The kinetics of DSB-induced chromatin association of CSB is distinct from that of its UV-induced chromatin association. These results reveal novel, important functions of CSB in regulating the DNA DSB repair pathway choice as well as G2/M checkpoint activation. PMID:25820262

  16. Recruiting a Diverse Group of Middle School Girls Into the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls

    PubMed Central

    Elder, John P.; Shuler, LaVerne; Moe, Stacey G.; Grieser, Mira; Pratt, Charlotte; Cameron, Sandra; Hingle, Melanie; Pickrel, Julie L.; Saksvig, Brit I.; Schachter, Kenneth; Greer, Susan; Bothwell, Elizabeth K. Guth

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND School-based study recruitment efforts are both time consuming and challenging. This paper highlights the recruitment strategies employed by the national, multisite Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG), a study designed to measure the effectiveness of an intervention to reduce the decline of physical activity levels among middle school—aged girls. TAAG provided a unique opportunity to recruit large cohorts of randomly sampled girls within 36 diverse middle schools across the United States. METHODS Key elements of the formative planning, coordination, and design of TAAG’s recruitment efforts included flexibility, tailoring, and the use of incentives. Various barriers, including a natural disaster, political tension, and district regulations, were encountered throughout the recruitment process, but coordinated strategies and frequent communication between the 6 TAAG sites were helpful in tailoring the recruitment process at the 36 intervention and control schools. RESULTS Progressively refined recruitment strategies and specific attention to the target audience of middle school girls resulted in overall study recruitment rates of 80%, 85%, and 89%, for the baseline, posttest, and follow-up period, respectively. DISCUSSION The steady increase in recruitment rates over time is attributed to an emphasis on successful strategies and a willingness to modify less successful methods. Open and consistent communication, an increasingly coordinated recruitment strategy, interactive recruitment presentations, and participant incentives resulted in an effective recruitment campaign. PMID:18808471

  17. Osteogenic activities of genistein derivatives were influenced by the presence of prenyl group at ring A.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Li, Xiao-Li; Yao, Xin-Sheng; Wong, Man-Sau

    2008-12-01

    Our recent report indicated that the crude extract from stem bark of Erythrina variegata L. (Leguminosae) (EV) exerted beneficial effects against osteoporosis induced by estrogen deficiency in vivo. Follow-up phytochemical study has isolated genistein-derivatives mainly in the form of prenylgenistein from this extract, including 6-prenylgenistein, 8-prenylgenistein, and 6, 8-diprenylgenistein. The present study was performed to investigate the structure-function relationship of these compounds on osteoblastic proliferation, differentiation and mineralization in UMR 106 cells. Our results showed that genistein did not stimulate cell growth while 8-prenylgenistein promoted cell growth significantly by 10 approximately 23%. In contrast, the treatment by 6-prenylgenistein for 48 h reduced UMR 106 cell proliferation when compared to cells treated with genistein. The proliferation of 6,8-diprenylgenistein-treated cells was greater than those treated by 6-prenylgenistein at all testing concentrations. For ALP activity, significant increase was found in cells treated by either 8-prenylgenistein or 6,8-diprenylgenistein for 48 h at the concentration of 10(-10) M. In mineralization study, the content of Ca and P in extracellular matrix were significantly increased in 8-prenylgenistein treated cells. The results showed that genistein derivatives isolated from EV demonstrated stimulatory effects on osteogenesis in UMR 106 cells. Based on the study of structure-activity relationship, it appears that prenylation at C-8, but not at C-6, could increase the bone-protective effect of genistein. PMID:19099220

  18. Role of hydroxyl groups on the stability and catalytic activity of Au clusters on rutile surface

    SciTech Connect

    Kent, Paul R

    2011-01-01

    Hydroxyls are present as surface terminations of transition metal oxides under ambient conditions and may modify the properties of supported catalysts. We perform first-principles density functional theory calculations to investigate the role of hydroxyls on the catalytic activity of supported gold clusters on TiO{sub 2} (rutile). We find that they have a long-range effect increasing the adhesion of gold clusters on rutile. While hydroxyls make one gold atom more electronegative, a more complex charge-transfer scenario is observed on larger clusters which are important for catalytic applications. This enhances the molecular adsorption and coadsorption energies of CO and O{sub 2}, thereby increasing the catalytic activity of gold clusters for CO oxidation, consistent with reported experiments. Hydroxyls at the interface between gold and rutile surface are most important to this process, even when not directly bound to gold. As such, accurate models of catalytic processes on gold and other catalysts should include the effect of surface hydroxyls.

  19. In vitro anti-mycobacterial activity of nine medicinal plants used by ethnic groups in Sonora, Mexico

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Sonoran ethnic groups (Yaquis, Mayos, Seris, Guarijíos, Pimas, Kikapúes and Pápagos) use mainly herbal based preparations as their first line of medicinal treatment. Among the plants used are those with anti-tuberculosis properties; however, no formal research is available. Methods Organic extracts were obtained from nine medicinal plants traditionally used by Sonoran ethnic groups to treat different kinds of diseases; three of them are mainly used to treat tuberculosis. All of the extracts were tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv using the Alamar Blue redox bioassay. Results Methanolic extracts from Ambrosia confertiflora, Ambrosia ambrosioides and Guaiacum coulteri showed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of 200, 790 and 1000 μg/mL, respectively, whereas no effect was observed with the rest of the methanolic extracts at the concentrations tested. Chloroform, dichloromethane, and ethyl acetate extracts from Ambrosia confertiflora showed a MIC of 90, 120 and 160 μg/mL, respectively. Conclusions A. confertiflora and A. ambrosioides showed the best anti-mycobacterial activity in vitro. The activity of Guaiacum coulteri is consistent with the traditional use by Sonoran ethnic groups as anti-tuberculosis agent. For these reasons, it is important to investigate a broader spectrum of medicinal plants in order to find compounds active against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. PMID:24267469

  20. Neuronal activity of the cat supraoptic nucleus is influenced by muscle small-diameter afferent (groups III and IV) receptors.

    PubMed

    Kannan, H; Yamashita, H; Koizumi, K; Brooks, C M

    1988-08-01

    In anesthetized cats, responses of single neurosecretory neurons of the supraoptic nucleus to activation of muscle receptors were investigated. Electrical stimulation (1-3 pulses at 200 Hz) of group III and IV pure muscle afferents (gastrocnemius nerve) evoked excitation of greater than 50% of supraoptic nucleus neurons (n = 50), whereas stimulation of group Ia or Ib fibers was ineffective. Baroreceptor stimulation inhibited 95% of these supraoptic nucleus neurons that responded to activation of muscle afferents. Excitation of receptors in the gastrocnemius muscle by intra-arterial injection of chemicals (NaCl, KCl, and bradykinin) increased firing rates of most (84%, 74%, and 80%, respectively) neurosecretary neurons. The magnitude of the excitatory response was dose dependent--bradykinin being the most effective. The response disappeared after muscle denervation. When the gastrocnemius muscle alone was contracted phasically by ventral root stimulation, discharges of the supraoptic nucleus neurons increased, whereas quick stretch of the muscle had no effect. We conclude that activation of muscle receptors by chemical or mechanical stimulus can directly excite neurosecretory neurons in the supraoptic nucleus and that afferent impulses are carried by polymodal fibers of small diameter but not by the largest afferents (group I) from the muscle. The results may relate to increased concentrations of plasma vasopressin during exercise.

  1. Gluteal muscle group activation and its relationship with pelvis and torso kinematics in high-school baseball pitchers.

    PubMed

    Oliver, Gretchen D; Keeley, David W

    2010-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the activation patterns of the gluteal muscle group and their relationship to pelvis and torso kinematics throughout the high-school pitching motion. A single group, repeated-measures design was used to collect gluteus maximus and gluteus medius muscle activity through surface electromyography for the preferred and nonpreferred sides during the various phases of the pitching motion. In addition, data describing the kinematics of the pelvis and torso were collected at foot contact, maximum shoulder external rotation, ball release, and maximum shoulder internal rotation. For all pitchers, preferred gluteus maximus activity was observed to be in excess of 100% of their maximum voluntary isometric contraction throughout the stride and arm-cocking phases of the pitching motion. The observed means for the preferred gluteus medius, nonpreferred gluteus maximus, and nonpreferred gluteus medius, although different in magnitude, were similar in pattern. From the conclusion of the stride phase, through the conclusion of the arm-cocking phase, muscle activity increased for all pitchers. In examining the relationship between the rate of axial pelvis rotation and gluteal activity, several significant relationships were observed. In contrast, no significant relationships were observed with gluteal activity parameters and the rate of axial torso rotation. However, because the pitching motion progresses sequentially from the pelvis to the torso, variability in pelvis rotation may be directly related to variability in torso rotation. The findings from this study indicate that during the baseball pitch, there is a need for greater control of gluteal activation throughout the pitching motion.

  2. LISA Pathfinder Discharge Working Group: Activities, Results, and Lessons Learned for LISA/NGO

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ziegler, T.; Bergner, P.; Hechenblaikner, G.; Brandt, N.

    2013-01-01

    In 2011, the European Space Agency (ESA) entrusted Astrium GmbH to identify the root cause and corrective measures for the shortcomings of the LISA Pathfinder discharge system baseline that were identified during the system level testing in the torsion pendulum at the University of Trento. The main goal was to maximize the discharge system robustness under the given constraint to minimize the impact on manufacturing and the AIT process of the existing flight hardware. Astrium GmbH set-up a dedicated discharge working group (DWG) for 9 months, bringing together the expertise of surface scientists (DLR Stuttgart, Uni Würzburg, Uni Modena, BEAR Trieste) with the existing significant knowledge in the LTP community (Uni Trento, Imperial College London, CGS, Selex Galileo, TWT GmbH, ESA). The findings resulted in a recommendation to modify the baseline discharge system of LISA Pathfinder, including the definition of dedicated manufacturing and AIT requirements. These findings have relevance also for LISA/NGO, since they allow for a significantly more robust discharge system design.

  3. RECENT ACTIVITIES OF THE NUCLEAR SMUGGLING INTERNATIONAL TECHNICAL WORKING GROUP TO THWART ILLICIT TRAFFICKING

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, D K; Biro, T; Chartier, B; Mayer, K; Niemeyer, S; Thompson, P

    2007-10-25

    The Nuclear Smuggling International Technical Working Group (ITWG) is an informal association of nuclear forensic practitioners working in partnership with law enforcement, first responder, and nuclear regulatory professionals that cooperate to deter the illicit trafficking of nuclear materials. The objective of the ITWG is to advance the science of nuclear forensics and to provide a common approach and effective technical solutions to governments who request assistance. the ITWG was chartered in 1996 and since that time 30 nations and organizations have participated in 12 annual meetings and two analytical round-robin trials involving plutonium and highly enriched uranium. A third analytical round-robin as well as several table-top exercises are planned for later in 2007-2008. International interest in the ITWG has grown in over the past five years measured by the number of participants at its annual meetings. This growth has spawned the ITWG Nuclear Forensics Laboratories as a companion technical affiliate focusing exclusively on the scientific aspects of nuclear forensics and nuclear smuggling incident response.

  4. Teacher management behaviors and pupil task involvement during small group laboratory activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beasley, Warren

    A major concern of many beginning and experienced teachers is that of classroom management and control. This article describes recent research into defining classroom management procedures that are used by high school science teachers and their relationship to pupil ontaskness. The classroom is conceptualized as a manipulable behavioral system. This construct arises directly from Barker's (1968) ecological psychology, the classroom and its occupants being conceptualized as a behavior setting. The behaviors of the teacher and the pupils are an integral part of the unit (behavior setting), which in turn coerces certain behaviors from its participants. Thus settings, and, in particular, subsettings, are seen as more important determiners of social behavior than the personality of individual teacher or pupil. The methodology employed in this research has involved the extensive use of video in naturalistic science classrooms. Tapes of both teacher and pupil behaviors were continuously and independently recorded. Intensive analysis using electronic recording instruments interfaced with the computer has allowed the collection and sophisticated analysis of the observational data. Data relating to teacher management behavior in small group settings have been analyzed and the relationships to pupil task involvement have been explored.

  5. Working group report on beam plasmas, electronic propulsion, and active experiments using beams

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dawson, J. M.; Eastman, T.; Gabriel, S.; Hawkins, J.; Matossian, J.; Raitt, J.; Reeves, G.; Sasaki, S.; Szuszczewicz, E.; Winkler, J. R.

    1986-01-01

    The JPL Workshop addressed a number of plasma issues that bear on advanced spaceborne technology for the years 2000 and beyond. Primary interest was on the permanently manned space station with a focus on identifying environmentally related issues requiring early clarification by spaceborne plasma experimentation. The Beams Working Group focused on environmentally related threats that platform operations could have on the conduct and integrity of spaceborne beam experiments and vice versa. Considerations were to include particle beams and plumes. For purposes of definition it was agreed that the term particle beams described a directed flow of charged or neutral particles allowing single-particle trajectories to represent the characteristics of the beam and its propagation. On the other hand, the word plume was adopted to describe a multidimensional flow (or expansion) of a plasma or neutral gas cloud. Within the framework of these definitions, experiment categories included: (1) Neutral- and charged-particle beam propagation, with considerations extending to high powers and currents. (2) Evolution and dynamics of naturally occurring and man-made plasma and neutral gas clouds. In both categories, scientific interest focused on interactions with the ambient geoplasma and the evolution of particle densities, energy distribution functions, waves, and fields.

  6. An active site rearrangement within the Tetrahymena group I ribozyme releases nonproductive interactions and allows formation of catalytic interactions.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Raghuvir N; Van Schie, Sabine N S; Giambaşu, George; Dai, Qing; Yesselman, Joseph D; York, Darrin; Piccirilli, Joseph A; Herschlag, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Biological catalysis hinges on the precise structural integrity of an active site that binds and transforms its substrates and meeting this requirement presents a unique challenge for RNA enzymes. Functional RNAs, including ribozymes, fold into their active conformations within rugged energy landscapes that often contain misfolded conformers. Here we uncover and characterize one such "off-pathway" species within an active site after overall folding of the ribozyme is complete. The Tetrahymena group I ribozyme (E) catalyzes cleavage of an oligonucleotide substrate (S) by an exogenous guanosine (G) cofactor. We tested whether specific catalytic interactions with G are present in the preceding E•S•G and E•G ground-state complexes. We monitored interactions with G via the effects of 2'- and 3'-deoxy (-H) and -amino (-NH(2)) substitutions on G binding. These and prior results reveal that G is bound in an inactive configuration within E•G, with the nucleophilic 3'-OH making a nonproductive interaction with an active site metal ion termed MA and with the adjacent 2'-OH making no interaction. Upon S binding, a rearrangement occurs that allows both -OH groups to contact a different active site metal ion, termed M(C), to make what are likely to be their catalytic interactions. The reactive phosphoryl group on S promotes this change, presumably by repositioning the metal ions with respect to G. This conformational transition demonstrates local rearrangements within an otherwise folded RNA, underscoring RNA's difficulty in specifying a unique conformation and highlighting Nature's potential to use local transitions of RNA in complex function.

  7. Erwinia asparaginase achieves therapeutic activity after pegaspargase allergy: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Salzer, Wanda L; Asselin, Barbara; Supko, Jeffrey G; Devidas, Meenakshi; Kaiser, Nicole A; Plourde, Paul; Winick, Naomi J; Reaman, Gregory H; Raetz, Elizabeth; Carroll, William L; Hunger, Stephen P

    2013-07-25

    AALL07P2 evaluated whether substitution of Erwinia asparaginase 25000 IU/m(2) for 6 doses given intramuscularly Monday/Wednesday/Friday (M/W/F) to children and young adults with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and clinical allergy to pegaspargase would provide a 48-hour nadir serum asparaginase activity (NSAA) ≥ 0.10 IU/mL. AALL07P2 enrolled 55 eligible/evaluable patients. NSAA ≥ 0.1 IU/mL was achieved in 38 of 41 patients (92.7%) with acceptable samples 48 hours and in 38 of 43 patients (88.4%) 72 hours after dosing during course 1. Among samples obtained during all courses, 95.8% (252 of 263) of 48-hour samples and 84.5% (125 of 148) of 72-hour samples had NSAA ≥ 0.10-IU/mL. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by fitting the serum asparaginase activity-time course for all 6 doses given during course 1 to a 1-compartment open model with first order absorption. Erwinia asparaginase administered with this schedule achieved therapeutic NSAA at both 48 and 72 hours and was well tolerated with no reports of hemorrhage, thrombosis, or death, and few cases of grade 2 to 3 allergic reaction (n = 6), grade 1 to 3 hyperglycemia (n = 6), or grade 1 pancreatitis (n = 1). Following allergy to pegaspargase, Erwinia asparaginase 25000 IU/m(2) × 6 intramuscularly M/W/F can be substituted for a single dose of pegaspargase.

  8. Introduction of Methyl Groups at C2 and C6 Positions Enhances the Antiangiogenesis Activity of Curcumin.

    PubMed

    Koo, Hyun-Jung; Shin, Sarah; Choi, Joon Young; Lee, Kyung-Han; Kim, Byung-Tae; Choe, Yearn Seong

    2015-01-01

    Curcumin has diverse biological activities, but is known to undergo rapid metabolism via reduction of vinylic double bonds and phase II conjugation. To prevent reductive metabolism of curcumin, we introduced a methyl group at both C2 and C6 positions (compound 1) or at the C2 position (compound 2) of curcumin, creating steric hindrance on double bonds against metabolizing enzymes. As predicted, these compounds were resistant to reduction by alcohol dehydrogenase. Compound 1 was further evaluated for its antiangiogenesis activity in vitro and in vivo. It exhibited significantly greater inhibitory activity than curcumin against endothelial cell migration, invasion, and tube formation. Similarly, the in vivo Matrigel plug assay in C57BL/6 mice showed more pronounced reduction of blood vessels in the plugs containing 1 than those containing curcumin. Moreover, 1 suppressed tumor growth more effectively than curcumin in a U87MG mouse xenograft model by inhibiting angiogenesis. In vivo metabolite analysis by liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry demonstrated that 1 underwent markedly slower reductive metabolism than curcumin. Taken together, our results indicate that 1 has enhanced antiangiogenesis activity and suppression of tumor growth compared with curcumin, reflecting diminished reductive metabolism owing to the introduction of methyl groups at the C2 and C6 positions of curcumin. PMID:26391485

  9. Ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase: a catalytically active dithiol group links photoreduced ferredoxin to thioredoxin functional in photosynthetic enzyme regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Droux, M.; Miginiac-Maslow, M.; Jacquot, J.P.; Gadal, P.; Crawford, N.A.; Kosower, N.S.; Buchanan, B.B.

    1987-07-01

    The mechanism by which the ferredoxin-thioredoxin system activates the target enzyme, NADP-malate dehydrogenase, was investigated by analyzing the sulfhydryl status of individual protein components with (/sup 14/C)iodoacetate and monobromobimane. The data indicate that ferredoxin-thioredoxin reductase (FTR)--an iron-sulfur enzyme present in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms--is the first member of a thiol chain that links light to enzyme regulation. FTR possesses a catalytically active dithiol group localized on the 13 kDa (similar) subunit, that occurs in all species investigated and accepts reducing equivalents from photoreduced ferredoxin and transfers them stoichiometrically to the disulfide form of thioredoxin m. The reduced thioredoxin m, in turn, reduces NADP-malate dehydrogenase, thereby converting it from an inactive (S-S) to an active (SH) form. The means by which FTR is able to combine electrons (from photoreduced ferredoxin) with protons (from the medium) to reduce its active disulfide group remains to be determined.

  10. Linking structure to function: The search for active sites in non-platinum group metal oxygen reduction reaction catalysts

    DOE PAGES

    Holby, Edward F.; Zelenay, Piotr

    2016-05-17

    Atomic-scale structures of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) active sites in non-platinum group metal (non-PGM) catalysts, made from pyrolysis of carbon, nitrogen, and transition-metal (TM) precursors have been the subject of continuing discussion in the fuel cell electrocatalysis research community. We found that quantum chemical modeling is a path forward for understanding of these materials and how they catalyze the ORR. Here, we demonstrate through literature examples of how such modeling can be used to better understand non-PGM ORR active site relative stability and activity and how such efforts can also aid in the interpretation of experimental signatures produced by thesemore » materials.« less

  11. Synthesis of a new group of aliphatic hydrazide derivatives and the correlations between their molecular structure and biological activity.

    PubMed

    Kostecka, Małgorzata

    2012-01-01

    In view of the growing demand for new compounds showing biological activity against pathogenic microorganisms, such as pathogenic and phytopathogenic fungi, the objective of this study was to synthesize a new group of aliphatic and aromatic derivatives of hydrazide. In consequence of the reactions observed during synthesis, the resulting compounds retained their linear structure. Their structure and lipophilicity, measured by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), were analyzed. Correlations were determined between the compounds' molecular parameters and biological activity against Fusarium solani and Fusarium oxysporum fungi. The investigated compounds were also examined for their antifungal activity against Aspergillus fumigatus. The obtained results indicate that compounds with fluorine-containing substituents penetrate the cell structure more effectively and are characterized by higher antifungal potential than analogues with different substituents. PMID:22441334

  12. The neural basis of the bystander effect--the influence of group size on neural activity when witnessing an emergency.

    PubMed

    Hortensius, Ruud; de Gelder, Beatrice

    2014-06-01

    Naturalistic observation and experimental studies in humans and other primates show that observing an individual in need automatically triggers helping behavior. The aim of the present study is to clarify the neurofunctional basis of social influences on individual helping behavior. We investigate whether when participants witness an emergency, while performing an unrelated color-naming task in an fMRI scanner, the number of bystanders present at the emergency influences neural activity in regions related to action preparation. The results show a decrease in activity with the increase in group size in the left pre- and postcentral gyri and left medial frontal gyrus. In contrast, regions related to visual perception and attention show an increase in activity. These results demonstrate the neural mechanisms of social influence on automatic action preparation that is at the core of helping behavior when witnessing an emergency.

  13. Electroencephalographic cartography. II. By means of statistical group studies-activation by visual attention.

    PubMed

    Etevenon, P; Tortrat, D; Benkelfat, C

    1985-01-01

    10 male volunteers, right-handers, mean age 30.4 years, were recorded in four successive sequences: under 'eyes closed' conditions, right and then left hemisphere, followed by an 'eyes open' situation with visual attention fixed on a cartoon, right and then left hemisphere recordings. Each EEG recording was made simultaneously over 16 EEG channels for each hemisphere, according to a protocol previously described as well as Fourier analysis and EEG mapping on a minicomputer (HP 5451 C, HP 1000). Each EEG recording was stored on a cartography data base, and 90 maps could be drawn from 10 spectral parameters applied to the raw EEG and 5 frequency bands. Permutation paired Fisher tests were applied to three main EEG parameters: mean centroid frequencies, RMS amplitudes in microvolts and relative (%) amplitudes. Activation of EEG in the 'eyes open' situation during visual fixation was found compared to the 'eyes closed' situation: decreasing dominant EEG frequency and low delta and theta mean frequencies, no change in a mean alpha frequency; increasing fast mean beta frequencies, together with a major decrease in theta, alpha, beta 1 amplitudes, and a concomitant increase in raw EEG, delta and beta 2 amplitudes. Finally, the percent alpha amplitude was decreased when other percent amplitudes were increased in delta, theta, beta 1 and beta 2 frequency bands. A symmetry between hemispheres was observed in the 'eyes closed' situation. Averaged EEG maps between subjects illustrate these findings, especially relative (%) alpha amplitude maps and also maps of coefficients of resonance of the alpha rhythm.

  14. Amyloidosis involving the respiratory system: 5-year's experience of a multi-disciplinary group's activity.

    PubMed

    Scala, Raffaele; Maccari, Uberto; Madioni, Chiara; Venezia, Duccio; La Magra, Lidia Calogera

    2015-01-01

    Amyloidosis may involve the respiratory system with different clinical-radiological-functional patterns which are not always easy to be recognized. A good level of knowledge of the disease, an active integration of the pulmonologist within a multidisciplinary setting and a high level of clinical suspicion are necessary for an early diagnosis of respiratory amyloidosis. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the number and the patterns of amyloidosis involving the respiratory system. We searched the cases of amyloidosis among patients attending the multidisciplinary rare and diffuse lung disease outpatients' clinic of Pulmonology Unit of the Hospital of Arezzo from 2007 to 2012. Among the 298 patients evaluated during the study period, we identified three cases of amyloidosis with involvement of the respiratory system, associated or not with other extra-thoracic localizations, whose diagnosis was histo-pathologically confirmed after the pulmonologist, the radiologist, and the pathologist evaluation. Our experience of a multidisciplinary team confirms that intra-thoracic amyloidosis is an uncommon disorder, representing 1.0% of the cases of rare and diffuse lung diseases referred to our center. The diagnosis of the disease is not always easy and quick as the amyloidosis may involve different parts of the respiratory system (airways, pleura, parenchyma). It is therefore recommended to remind this orphan disease in the differential diagnosis of the wide clinical scenarios the pulmonologist may intercept in clinical practice.

  15. Kinetic and thermodynamic study of a chemically modified highly active xylanase from Scopulariopsis sp: existence of an essential amino group.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Ahmed Jawaard; Bokhari, Saleem Ahmed; Siddiqui, Khawar Sohail

    2007-01-01

    The amino groups of purified least acidic xylanase (LAX) isomer and carboxyl groups of purified highly acidic xylanase (HAX) isomer from Scopulariopsis sp. were chemically modified, resulting in charge neutralization and reversal. Modification of the second amino group was accompanied by the complete loss of enzyme activity in both the absence and presence of xylose. Multiple alignments of family 10 and 11 xylanases revealed that there is a pair of fully conserved Lys residues only in family 10 members. Xylanase structures from family 10 members showed that one of the conserved Lys residues is found near the active-site cleft that makes an H-bond with the substrate. The LAX and HAX isoenzymes in which one amino and three to four carboxyl groups were modified were subjected to kinetic and thermodynamic characterization. There were no differences in pH optima between the native and modified HAX, but there was a broadening of pH optimum toward the alkaline range for charge-neutralized LAX and a double pH optimum for charge-reversed LAX. TheV max/K m of both modified LAX and HAX decreased relative to the native species. The thermodynamics of xylan hydrolysis showed that the decrease in the catalytic activity of modified LAX enzymes was entropically driven. When compared with native enzyme, the thermostabilities of modified LAX enzymes increased in the presence and decreased in the absence of substrate. The thermodynamics of kinetic stability for modified LAX enzymes revealed that this increase in thermolability was owing to the decrease in DeltaH# with a concomitant increase in DeltaS# compared with native LAX. The thermostabilities of all the modified HAX species decreased except that of charge-neutralized HAX, whose half-life significantly increased in 50% (v/v) aqueous dioxan. These results suggest that the altered properties of the modified enzymes were a result of the conformational changes brought about by chemical modification. PMID:18025557

  16. Erysipelas caused by group A streptococcus activates the contact system and induces the release of heparin-binding protein.

    PubMed

    Linder, Adam; Johansson, Linda; Thulin, Pontus; Hertzén, Erika; Mörgelin, Matthias; Christensson, Bertil; Björck, Lars; Norrby-Teglund, Anna; Akesson, Per

    2010-05-01

    Bacterial skin infections, such as erysipelas or cellulitis, are characterized by fever and a painful erythematous rash. Despite the high prevalence of these infections, little is known about the underlying pathogenic mechanisms. This is partly due to the fact that a bacterial diagnosis is often difficult to attain. To gain insight into the pathogenesis of erysipelas, we investigated the samples obtained from infected and noninfected areas of skin from 12 patients with erysipelas. Bacterial cultures, detection of specific streptococcal antibodies in convalescent sera, and immunohistochemical analyses of biopsies indicated group A streptococcal etiology in 11 of the 12 patients. Also, electron micrographs of erythematous skin confirmed the presence of group A streptococcal cells and showed a limited solubilization of the surface-attached M protein. Degradation of high-molecular-weight kininogen and upregulation of the bradykinin-1 receptor in inflamed tissues indicated activation of the contact system in 11 patients. Analyses of release of the vasoactive heparin-binding protein (HBP) showed increased levels in the infected as compared with the noninfected areas. The results suggest that group A streptococci induce contact activation and HBP release during skin infection, which likely contribute to the symptoms seen in erysipelas: fever, pain, erythema, and edema.

  17. Evidence for histidyl and carboxy groups at the active site of the human placental Na+-H+ exchanger.

    PubMed Central

    Ganapathy, V; Balkovetz, D F; Ganapathy, M E; Mahesh, V B; Devoe, L D; Leibach, F H

    1987-01-01

    The Na+-H+ exchanger of the human placental brush-border membrane was inhibited by pretreatment of the membrane vesicles with a histidyl-group-specific reagent, diethyl pyrocarbonate and with a carboxy-group-specific reagent, N-ethoxycarbonyl-2-ethoxy-1,2-dihydroquinoline. In both cases the inhibition was irreversible and non-competitive in nature. But, if the membrane vesicles were treated with these reagents in the presence of amiloride, cimetidine or clonidine, there was no inhibition. Since amiloride, cimetidine and clonidine all interact with the active site of the exchanger in a mutually exclusive manner, the findings provide evidence for the presence of essential histidyl and carboxy groups at or near the active site of the human placental Na+-H+ exchanger. This conclusion was further substantiated by the findings that Rose Bengal-catalysed photo-oxidation of histidine residues as well as covalent modification of carboxy residues with NN'-dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide irreversibly inhibited the Na+-H+ exchanger and that amiloride protected the exchanger from inhibition caused by NN'-dicyclohexylcarbodi-imide. PMID:2822022

  18. Chemometric Analysis of Some Biologically Active Groups of Drugs on the Basis Chromatographic and Molecular Modeling Data.

    PubMed

    Stasiak, Jolanta; Koba, Marcin; Baczek, Tomasz; Bucinski, Adam

    2015-01-01

    In this work, three different groups of drugs such as 12 analgesic drugs, 11 cardiovascular system drugs and 36 "other" compounds, respectively, were analyzed with cluster analysis (CA), principal component analysis (PCA) and factor analysis (FA) methods. All chemometric analysis were based on the chromatographic parameters (logk and logk(w)) determined by means of high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and also by molecular modeling descriptors calculated using various computer programs (HyperChem, Dragon, and the VCCLAB). The clustering of compounds were obtained by CA (using various algorithm as e.g. Ward method or unweighted pair-group method using arithmetic averages as well as Euclidean or Manhattan distance), and allowed to build dendrograms linked drugs with similar physicochemical and pharmacological properties were discussed. Moreover, the analysis performed for analyzed groups of compounds with the use of FA or PCA methods indicated that almost all information reached in input chromatographic parameters as well as in molecular modeling descriptors can be explained by first two factors. Additionally, all analyzed drugs were clustered according to their chemical structure and pharmacological activity. Summarized, the performed classification analysis of studied drugs was focused on similarities and differences in methods being used for chemometric analysis as well as focused abilities to drugs classification (clustering) according to their molecular structures and pharmacological activity performed on the basis of chromatographic experimental and molecular modeling data. Thus, the most important application of statistically important molecular descriptors taken from QSRR models to classification analysis allow detailed biological (pharmacological) classification of analyzed drugs.

  19. Role of membrane oxidation in controlling the activity of human group IIa secretory phospholipase A(2) toward apoptotic lymphoma cells.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, Elizabeth; Nelson, Jennifer; Anderson, Lynn; Brewer, Kelly; Melchor, Stephanie; Judd, Allan M; Bell, John D

    2013-02-01

    The membranes of healthy lymphocytes normally resist hydrolysis by secretory phospholipase A(2). However, they become susceptible during the process of apoptosis. Previous experiments have demonstrated the importance of certain physical changes to the membrane during cell death such as a reduction in membrane lipid order and exposure of phosphatidylserine on the membrane surface. Nevertheless, those investigations also showed that at least one additional factor was required for rapid hydrolysis by the human group IIa phospholipase isozyme. This study was designed to test the possibility that oxidation of membrane lipids is the additional factor. Flow cytometry and confocal microscopy with a fluorescent probe of oxidative potential suggested that oxidation of the plasma membrane occurs during apoptosis stimulated by thapsigargin. When oxidative potential was high, the activity of human group IIa secretory phospholipase A(2) was enhanced 30- to 100-fold compared to that observed with conditions sufficient for maximal hydrolysis by other secretory phospholipase A(2) isoforms. Direct oxidation of cell membranes with either of two oxidizing agents also stimulated hydrolysis by secretory phospholipase A(2). Both oxidizers caused externalization of phosphatidylserine, but a change in lipid order did not always occur. These results demonstrated that membrane oxidation strongly stimulates human group IIa secretory phospholipase A(2) activity toward apoptotic cells. Interestingly, the change in membrane order, previously thought to be imperative for high rates of hydrolysis, was not required when membrane lipids were oxidized. Whether phosphatidylserine exposure is still necessary with oxidation remains unresolved since the two events could not be deconvoluted.

  20. High mobility group box 1 induced human lung myofibroblasts differentiation and enhanced migration by activation of MMP-9.

    PubMed

    Lee, Chen-Chen; Wang, Chien-Neng; Lee, Yueh-Lun; Tsai, Yi-Ru; Liu, Jau-Jin

    2015-01-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein that involves the binding with DNA and influences chromatin regulation and transcription. HMGB1 is also a cytokine that can activate monocytes and neutrophils involved in inflammation. In this study, we investigated the role of HMGB1 on cellular activation using human fibroblast cell line WI-38. After treatment with 1, 10, and 100 ng/mL of HMGB1 for 24 h, we did not find obviously cytotoxicity and cellular proliferation of WI-38 cells by MTT and BrdU incorporation assay, respectively. However, we found that treatment with 10 and 100 ng/mL of HMGB1 induced the differentiation of lung fibroblasts into myofibroblasts and myofibroblasts showed higher migration ability through activation of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9 activation. To delineate the mechanism underlying HMGB1-induced cellular migration, we examined HMGB1-induced mitogen activated protein kinases (MAPKs), including extracellular signal related kinase (ERK), c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), and p38 mitogen activated protein kinase (p38) phosphorylation, as well as nuclear factor (NF)-κB nuclear translocation. Using specific inhibitors and shRNAs of protein kinases, we observed that repression of ERK, JNK, p38, and NF-κB all inhibited HMGB1-induced cellular differentiation, migration and MMP-9 activation in WI-38 cells. In addition, knocking down of RAGE but not TLR2 and TLR4 by shRNAs attenuated HMGB1-induced myofibroblast differentiation and migration. In conclusion, our study demonstrated that HMGB1 induced lung fibroblasts' differentiation into myofibroblasts and enhanced cell migration through induction of MMP-9 activation and the RAGE-MAPK and NF-κB interaction signaling pathways. Targeting HMGB1 might be a potential therapeutic approach for alleviation of airway remodeling seen in chronic airway inflammatory diseases.

  1. Tag team simulation: An innovative approach for promoting active engagement of participants and observers during group simulations.

    PubMed

    Levett-Jones, Tracy; Andersen, Patrea; Reid-Searl, Kerry; Guinea, Stephen; McAllister, Margaret; Lapkin, Samuel; Palmer, Lorinda; Niddrie, Marian

    2015-09-01

    Active participation in immersive simulation experiences can result in technical and non-technical skill enhancement. However, when simulations are conducted in large groups, maintaining the interest of observers so that they do not disengage from the learning experience can be challenging. We implemented Tag Team Simulation with the aim of ensuring that both participants and observers had active and integral roles in the simulation. In this paper we outline the features of this innovative approach and provide an example of its application to a pain simulation. Evaluation was conducted using the Satisfaction with Simulation Experience Scale. A total of 444 year nursing students participated from a population of 536 (response rate 83%). Cronbach's alpha for the Scale was .94 indicating high internal consistency. The mean satisfaction score for participants was 4.63 compared to 4.56 for observers. An independent sample t test revealed no significant difference between these scores (t (300) = -1.414, p = 0.16). Tag team simulation is an effective approach for ensuring observers' and participants' active involvement during group-based simulations and one that is highly regarded by students. It has the potential for broad applicability across a range of leaning domains both within and beyond nursing. PMID:25936431

  2. Investigating temporary acyclicity in a captive group of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): Relationship between management, adrenal activity and social factors.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie L; Trotter, Jessica; Jones, Martin; Brown, Janine L; Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Walker, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Routine faecal steroid monitoring has been used to aid the management of five captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) females at Chester Zoo, UK, since 2007. Progestagen analysis initially revealed synchronised oestrous cycles among all females. However, a 14- to 20-week period of temporary acyclicity subsequently occurred in three females, following several management changes (increased training, foot-care and intermittent matriarch removal for health reasons) and the initiation of pregnancy in another female. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate whether these management changes were related to increased adrenal activity and disruption of ovarian activity, or whether social factors may have been involved in the temporary cessation of cyclicity. Faecal samples collected every other day were analysed to investigate whether glucocorticoid metabolites were related to reproductive status (pregnant, cycling, acyclic) or management (training, foot-care, matriarch presence). Routine training and foot-care were not associated with adrenal activity; however, intensive foot-care to treat an abscess in one female was associated with increased glucocorticoid concentration. Matriarch presence influenced adrenal activity in three females, being lower when the matriarch was separated from the group at night compared to being always present. However, in the females that exhibited temporary acyclicity, there was no consistent relationship between glucocorticoids and cyclicity state. Although the results of this study do not fully explain this occurrence, the highly synchronised nature of oestrous cycles within this group, and the concurrent acyclicity in three females, raises the question of whether social factors could have been involved in the temporary disruption of ovarian activity.

  3. Investigating temporary acyclicity in a captive group of Asian elephants (Elephas maximus): Relationship between management, adrenal activity and social factors.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Katie L; Trotter, Jessica; Jones, Martin; Brown, Janine L; Steinmetz, Hanspeter W; Walker, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    Routine faecal steroid monitoring has been used to aid the management of five captive Asian elephant (Elephas maximus) females at Chester Zoo, UK, since 2007. Progestagen analysis initially revealed synchronised oestrous cycles among all females. However, a 14- to 20-week period of temporary acyclicity subsequently occurred in three females, following several management changes (increased training, foot-care and intermittent matriarch removal for health reasons) and the initiation of pregnancy in another female. The aim of this study was to retrospectively investigate whether these management changes were related to increased adrenal activity and disruption of ovarian activity, or whether social factors may have been involved in the temporary cessation of cyclicity. Faecal samples collected every other day were analysed to investigate whether glucocorticoid metabolites were related to reproductive status (pregnant, cycling, acyclic) or management (training, foot-care, matriarch presence). Routine training and foot-care were not associated with adrenal activity; however, intensive foot-care to treat an abscess in one female was associated with increased glucocorticoid concentration. Matriarch presence influenced adrenal activity in three females, being lower when the matriarch was separated from the group at night compared to being always present. However, in the females that exhibited temporary acyclicity, there was no consistent relationship between glucocorticoids and cyclicity state. Although the results of this study do not fully explain this occurrence, the highly synchronised nature of oestrous cycles within this group, and the concurrent acyclicity in three females, raises the question of whether social factors could have been involved in the temporary disruption of ovarian activity. PMID:26393308

  4. Chemical modification of xylanase from Trichosporon cutaneum shows the presence of carboxyl groups and cysteine residues essential for enzyme activity.

    PubMed

    Wen, L; Miao, Z W; Qing, W D

    1999-08-01

    The endo-beta-1,4-xylanase (EC 3.2.1.8) from Trichosporon cutaneum was chemically modified using amino acid-specific reagents. The enzyme does not bear arginines essential for activity, since 1,2-cyclohexanedione and 2,3-butanedione, although they modify the enzyme (after chromatographic analysis), have no effect on its activity. Reaction of the enzyme with tetranitromethane and N-acetylimidazole did not result in a significant activity loss as a result of modification of tyrosine residues. The water-soluble carbodiimide 1-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl]-3-ethylcarbodiimide inactivated the xylanase rapidly and completely in a pseudo-first-order process, and kinetic analysis indicated that at least one molecule of carbodiimide binds to the enzyme for inactivation. A mixture of neutral xylooligomers provided significant protection of the enzyme against this carbodiimide inactivation. Reaction of the xylanase with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid did not result in a significant activity loss as a result of modification of lysine residues. Titration of the enzyme with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and treatment with iodoacetamide and p-chloromercuribenzoate indicated the presence of a free/active thiol group. Xylan completely protected the enzyme from inactivation by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate, suggesting the presence of cysteine at the substrate-binding site. Inactivation of xylanase by p-hydroxymercuribenzoate could be restored by cysteine. PMID:10609644

  5. Group II-activated lumbosacral interneurones with an ascending projection to midlumbar segments of the cat spinal cord.

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, P J; Riddell, J S

    1989-01-01

    1. In anaesthetized cats, single-unit microelectrode recordings were made in the lateral funiculus at L6, from the axons of lumbosacral interneurones discharged by hindlimb group II muscle afferents. 2. The level of the ascending projection of these interneurones was investigated by antidromic activation of their axons in the lateral funiculus from different spinal levels. The majority of units encountered were found to have an ascending projection to at least the L4 level and, of these, most (85%) did not project beyond the L4 or L3 segments of the cord. 3. The axons studied were discharged by group II afferents primarily from knee extensor muscles. Some units were discharged in addition by cutaneous and/or joint afferents. 4. The implications of this ascending projection are discussed. PMID:2778739

  6. Central domain of IL-33 is cleaved by mast cell proteases for potent activation of group-2 innate lymphoid cells.

    PubMed

    Lefrançais, Emma; Duval, Anais; Mirey, Emilie; Roga, Stéphane; Espinosa, Eric; Cayrol, Corinne; Girard, Jean-Philippe

    2014-10-28

    Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is an alarmin cytokine from the IL-1 family. IL-33 activates many immune cell types expressing the interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1) receptor ST2, including group-2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s, natural helper cells, nuocytes), the major producers of IL-5 and IL-13 during type-2 innate immune responses and allergic airway inflammation. IL-33 is likely to play a critical role in asthma because the IL33 and ST2/IL1RL1 genes have been reproducibly identified as major susceptibility loci in large-scale genome-wide association studies. A better understanding of the mechanisms regulating IL-33 activity is thus urgently needed. Here, we investigated the role of mast cells, critical effector cells in allergic disorders, known to interact with ILC2s in vivo. We found that serine proteases secreted by activated mast cells (chymase and tryptase) generate mature forms of IL-33 with potent activity on ILC2s. The major forms produced by mast cell proteases, IL-33(95-270), IL-33(107-270), and IL-33(109-270), were 30-fold more potent than full-length human IL-33(1-270) for activation of ILC2s ex vivo. They induced a strong expansion of ILC2s and eosinophils in vivo, associated with elevated concentrations of IL-5 and IL-13. Murine IL-33 is also cleaved by mast cell tryptase, and a tryptase inhibitor reduced IL-33-dependent allergic airway inflammation in vivo. Our study identifies the central cleavage/activation domain of IL-33 (amino acids 66-111) as an important functional domain of the protein and suggests that interference with IL-33 cleavage and activation by mast cell and other inflammatory proteases could be useful to reduce IL-33-mediated responses in allergic asthma and other inflammatory diseases.

  7. Cascade amplification of self-similar frequency-modulated pulses in normal group velocity dispersion active fibres

    SciTech Connect

    Zolotovskii, Igor' O; Okhotnikov, Oleg G; Sementsov, Dmitrii I; Sysolyatin, A A; Fotiadi, A A

    2012-09-30

    This paper examines the possibility of efficient amplification of self-similar frequency-modulated wave packets in longitudinally inhomogeneous active fibres. We analyse the dynamics of parabolic pulses with a constant frequency modulation rate and derive algorithms for optimising the group velocity dispersion profile in order to ensure self-similar propagation of such pulses. We demonstrate that the use of a cascade scheme can ensure efficient amplification of individual subpicosecond pulses of this type. (optical fibres, lasers and amplifiers. properties and applications)

  8. No Pet or Their Person Left Behind: Increasing the Disaster Resilience of Vulnerable Groups through Animal Attachment, Activities and Networks

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Kirrilly; Every, Danielle; Rainbird, Sophia; Cornell, Victoria; Smith, Bradley; Trigg, Joshua

    2014-01-01

    Simple Summary The potential for reconfiguring pet ownership from a risk factor to a protective factor for natural disaster survival has been recently proposed. But how might this resilience-building proposition apply to members of the community who are already considered vulnerable? This article addresses this important question by synthesizing information about what makes seven particular groups vulnerable, the challenges to increasing their resilience and how animals figure in their lives. It concludes that animal attachment could provide a novel conduit for accessing, communicating with and motivating vulnerable people to engage in resilience building behaviors that promote survival and facilitate recovery. Abstract Increased vulnerability to natural disasters has been associated with particular groups in the community. This includes those who are considered de facto vulnerable (children, older people, those with disabilities etc.) and those who own pets (not to mention pets themselves). The potential for reconfiguring pet ownership from a risk factor to a protective factor for natural disaster survival has been recently proposed. But how might this resilience-building proposition apply to vulnerable members of the community who own pets or other animals? This article addresses this important question by synthesizing information about what makes particular groups vulnerable, the challenges to increasing their resilience and how animals figure in their lives. Despite different vulnerabilities, animals were found to be important to the disaster resilience of seven vulnerable groups in Australia. Animal attachment and animal-related activities and networks are identified as underexplored devices for disseminating or ‘piggybacking’ disaster-related information and engaging vulnerable people in resilience building behaviors (in addition to including animals in disaster planning initiatives in general). Animals may provide the kind of innovative approach required

  9. Boron-doped bismuth oxybromide microspheres with enhanced surface hydroxyl groups: Synthesis, characterization and dramatic photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, ZhangSheng; Liu, JinLong; Wang, HaiYang; Cao, Gang; Niu, JiNan

    2016-02-01

    B-doped BiOBr photocatalysts were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method with boric acid used as boron source. As-obtained products consist of novel hierarchical microspheres, whose nanosheet building units were formed by nanoparticles splicing. They showed dramatic photocatalytic efficiency toward the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol under the visible-light irradiation and the highest activity was achieved by 0.075B-BiOBr. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the enriched surface hydroxyl groups on B-doped BiOBr samples, which not only improved the adsorption of pollutant on the photocatalyst but also promoted the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. In addition, it was found that the main reactive species responsible for the degradation of organic pollutant were h(+) and O2(-) radicals, instead of OH radicals. PMID:26590875

  10. Generation of 2,000 breast cancer metabolic landscapes reveals a poor prognosis group with active serotonin production.

    PubMed

    Leoncikas, Vytautas; Wu, Huihai; Ward, Lara T; Kierzek, Andrzej M; Plant, Nick J

    2016-01-01

    A major roadblock in the effective treatment of cancers is their heterogeneity, whereby multiple molecular landscapes are classified as a single disease. To explore the contribution of cellular metabolism to cancer heterogeneity, we analyse the Metabric dataset, a landmark genomic and transcriptomic study of 2,000 individual breast tumours, in the context of the human genome-scale metabolic network. We create personalized metabolic landscapes for each tumour by exploring sets of active reactions that satisfy constraints derived from human biochemistry and maximize congruency with the Metabric transcriptome data. Classification of the personalized landscapes derived from 997 tumour samples within the Metabric discovery dataset reveals a novel poor prognosis cluster, reproducible in the 995-sample validation dataset. We experimentally follow mechanistic hypotheses resulting from the computational study and establish that active serotonin production is a major metabolic feature of the poor prognosis group. These data support the reconsideration of concomitant serotonin-specific uptake inhibitors treatment during breast cancer chemotherapy. PMID:26813959

  11. Boron-doped bismuth oxybromide microspheres with enhanced surface hydroxyl groups: Synthesis, characterization and dramatic photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Liu, ZhangSheng; Liu, JinLong; Wang, HaiYang; Cao, Gang; Niu, JiNan

    2016-02-01

    B-doped BiOBr photocatalysts were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method with boric acid used as boron source. As-obtained products consist of novel hierarchical microspheres, whose nanosheet building units were formed by nanoparticles splicing. They showed dramatic photocatalytic efficiency toward the degradation of Rhodamine B (RhB) and phenol under the visible-light irradiation and the highest activity was achieved by 0.075B-BiOBr. The enhanced photocatalytic activity could be attributed to the enriched surface hydroxyl groups on B-doped BiOBr samples, which not only improved the adsorption of pollutant on the photocatalyst but also promoted the separation of photogenerated electron-hole pairs. In addition, it was found that the main reactive species responsible for the degradation of organic pollutant were h(+) and O2(-) radicals, instead of OH radicals.

  12. Generation of 2,000 breast cancer metabolic landscapes reveals a poor prognosis group with active serotonin production

    PubMed Central

    Leoncikas, Vytautas; Wu, Huihai; Ward, Lara T.; Kierzek, Andrzej M.; Plant, Nick J.

    2016-01-01

    A major roadblock in the effective treatment of cancers is their heterogeneity, whereby multiple molecular landscapes are classified as a single disease. To explore the contribution of cellular metabolism to cancer heterogeneity, we analyse the Metabric dataset, a landmark genomic and transcriptomic study of 2,000 individual breast tumours, in the context of the human genome-scale metabolic network. We create personalized metabolic landscapes for each tumour by exploring sets of active reactions that satisfy constraints derived from human biochemistry and maximize congruency with the Metabric transcriptome data. Classification of the personalized landscapes derived from 997 tumour samples within the Metabric discovery dataset reveals a novel poor prognosis cluster, reproducible in the 995-sample validation dataset. We experimentally follow mechanistic hypotheses resulting from the computational study and establish that active serotonin production is a major metabolic feature of the poor prognosis group. These data support the reconsideration of concomitant serotonin-specific uptake inhibitors treatment during breast cancer chemotherapy. PMID:26813959

  13. Work group II: Using Geographic Information Systems for enhancing research relevant to policy on diet, physical activity, and weight.

    PubMed

    Matthews, Stephen A; Moudon, Anne Vernez; Daniel, Mark

    2009-04-01

    Geographic Information Systems (GIS) was a theme for one of the four workgroups convened for the Measures of the Food and Built Environment meeting held in Bethesda, Maryland in November 2007. This summary of group discussions frames several critical conceptual, methodologic, and data challenges regarding the use of GIS to enhance research relevant to policy on diet, physical activity, and weight. Broad recommendations are offered in five areas: (1) theoretical and conceptual development in framing place effects on health; (2) contextualizing people and spatial behavior in built environments and improving empirical representations of place; (3) geospatial data availability, quality, and standards; (4) privacy and confidentiality; and, (5) building capacity in GIS personnel and infrastructure. These topics are inter-related. Although our discussion focuses on issues relevant to the role of the built environment in diet and physical activity outcomes, our recommendations also are salient to health and environment research generally.

  14. Antibacterial activity of diketopiperazines isolated from a marine fungus using t-butoxycarbonyl group as a simple tool for purification.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Bahaa El-Dien M; Rateb, Mostafa E

    2015-08-15

    Nine diketopiperazines were characterized from the culture of marine fungal isolate MR2012 which based on DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. The isolated fungal metabolites 4-12 were unambiguously identified as a series of simple and re-arranged diketopiperazines by analysis of spectroscopic data. t-Butoxycarbonyl group (BOC) derivatization was used to separate the intractable mixture of 4 and 5. When all compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria, the isolated metabolites showed moderate to weak effects, while the semisynthetic derivatives 4a and 5a displayed strong activity comparable to the positive control, tetracycline against gram positive bacteria. PMID:26099531

  15. Antibacterial activity of diketopiperazines isolated from a marine fungus using t-butoxycarbonyl group as a simple tool for purification.

    PubMed

    El-Gendy, Bahaa El-Dien M; Rateb, Mostafa E

    2015-08-15

    Nine diketopiperazines were characterized from the culture of marine fungal isolate MR2012 which based on DNA amplification and sequencing of the fungal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region was identified as Aspergillus fumigatus. The isolated fungal metabolites 4-12 were unambiguously identified as a series of simple and re-arranged diketopiperazines by analysis of spectroscopic data. t-Butoxycarbonyl group (BOC) derivatization was used to separate the intractable mixture of 4 and 5. When all compounds were evaluated for antimicrobial activity against gram positive bacteria, the isolated metabolites showed moderate to weak effects, while the semisynthetic derivatives 4a and 5a displayed strong activity comparable to the positive control, tetracycline against gram positive bacteria.

  16. Effects of Visual Cortex Activation on the Nociceptive Blink Reflex in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Sava, Simona L.; de Pasqua, Victor; Magis, Delphine; Schoenen, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Bright light can cause excessive visual discomfort, referred to as photophobia. The precise mechanisms linking luminance to the trigeminal nociceptive system supposed to mediate this discomfort are not known. To address this issue in healthy human subjects we modulated differentially visual cortex activity by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or flash light stimulation, and studied the effect on supraorbital pain thresholds and the nociceptive-specific blink reflex (nBR). Low frequency rTMS that inhibits the underlying cortex, significantly decreased pain thresholds, increased the 1st nBR block ipsi- and contralaterally and potentiated habituation contralaterally. After high frequency or sham rTMS over the visual cortex, and rMS over the right greater occipital nerve we found no significant change. By contrast, excitatory flash light stimulation increased pain thresholds, decreased the 1st nBR block of ipsi- and contralaterally and increased habituation contralaterally. Our data demonstrate in healthy subjects a functional relation between the visual cortex and the trigeminal nociceptive system, as assessed by the nociceptive blink reflex. The results argue in favour of a top-down inhibitory pathway from the visual areas to trigemino-cervical nociceptors. We postulate that in normal conditions this visuo-trigeminal inhibitory pathway may avoid disturbance of vision by too frequent blinking and that hypoactivity of the visual cortex for pathological reasons may promote headache and photophobia. PMID:24936654

  17. Effects of visual cortex activation on the nociceptive blink reflex in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Sava, Simona L; de Pasqua, Victor; Magis, Delphine; Magis, Delphine; Schoenen, Jean; Schoenen, Jean

    2014-01-01

    Bright light can cause excessive visual discomfort, referred to as photophobia. The precise mechanisms linking luminance to the trigeminal nociceptive system supposed to mediate this discomfort are not known. To address this issue in healthy human subjects we modulated differentially visual cortex activity by repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) or flash light stimulation, and studied the effect on supraorbital pain thresholds and the nociceptive-specific blink reflex (nBR). Low frequency rTMS that inhibits the underlying cortex, significantly decreased pain thresholds, increased the 1st nBR block ipsi- and contralaterally and potentiated habituation contralaterally. After high frequency or sham rTMS over the visual cortex, and rMS over the right greater occipital nerve we found no significant change. By contrast, excitatory flash light stimulation increased pain thresholds, decreased the 1st nBR block of ipsi- and contralaterally and increased habituation contralaterally. Our data demonstrate in healthy subjects a functional relation between the visual cortex and the trigeminal nociceptive system, as assessed by the nociceptive blink reflex. The results argue in favour of a top-down inhibitory pathway from the visual areas to trigemino-cervical nociceptors. We postulate that in normal conditions this visuo-trigeminal inhibitory pathway may avoid disturbance of vision by too frequent blinking and that hypoactivity of the visual cortex for pathological reasons may promote headache and photophobia. PMID:24936654

  18. Remarkable anti-trichomonas vaginalis activity of plants traditionally used by the Mbyá-Guarani indigenous group in Brazil.

    PubMed

    Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellate protozoan, is the causative agent of trichomonosis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Taking into account the increased prevalence of metronidazole-resistant isolates, alternative drugs are essential for the successful treatment. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and popular wisdom about the use of medicinal plants is a powerful tool in this search. In this study, the activity of 10 medicinal plants extensively used in daily life by Mbyá-Guarani indigenous group was evaluated against seven different T. vaginalis isolates. Among the aqueous extracts tested, Verbena sp. (Guachu ka'a in Mbyá-Guarani language) and Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Guavira in Mbyá-Guarani language) showed the highest activity against T. vaginalis with MIC value of 4.0 mg/mL reaching 100% of efficacy against the parasite. The kinetic growth assays showed that the extracts promoted complete growth abolishment after 4 h of incubation. In addition, the extracts tested did not promote a significant hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Our results show for the first time the potential activity of Verbena sp. and C. xanthocarpa against T. vaginalis. In addition, this study demonstrates that indigenous knowledge is an important source of new prototype antiprotozoal agents. PMID:23865068

  19. Remarkable Anti-Trichomonas vaginalis Activity of Plants Traditionally Used by the Mbyá-Guarani Indigenous Group in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Brandelli, Clara Lia Costa; Vieira, Patrícia de Brum; Macedo, Alexandre José; Tasca, Tiana

    2013-01-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellate protozoan, is the causative agent of trichomonosis, the most common nonviral sexually transmitted disease worldwide. Taking into account the increased prevalence of metronidazole-resistant isolates, alternative drugs are essential for the successful treatment. Natural products are the source of most new drugs, and popular wisdom about the use of medicinal plants is a powerful tool in this search. In this study, the activity of 10 medicinal plants extensively used in daily life by Mbyá-Guarani indigenous group was evaluated against seven different T. vaginalis isolates. Among the aqueous extracts tested, Verbena sp. (Guachu ka'a in Mbyá-Guarani language) and Campomanesia xanthocarpa (Guavira in Mbyá-Guarani language) showed the highest activity against T. vaginalis with MIC value of 4.0 mg/mL reaching 100% of efficacy against the parasite. The kinetic growth assays showed that the extracts promoted complete growth abolishment after 4 h of incubation. In addition, the extracts tested did not promote a significant hemolytic activity against human erythrocytes. Our results show for the first time the potential activity of Verbena sp. and C. xanthocarpa against T. vaginalis. In addition, this study demonstrates that indigenous knowledge is an important source of new prototype antiprotozoal agents. PMID:23865068

  20. Activation of Plant Innate Immunity by Extracellular High Mobility Group Box 3 and Its Inhibition by Salicylic Acid

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Hyong Woo; Manohar, Murli; Manosalva, Patricia; Tian, Miaoying; Moreau, Magali; Klessig, Daniel F.

    2016-01-01

    Damage-associated molecular pattern molecules (DAMPs) signal the presence of tissue damage to induce immune responses in plants and animals. Here, we report that High Mobility Group Box 3 (HMGB3) is a novel plant DAMP. Extracellular HMGB3, through receptor-like kinases BAK1 and BKK1, induced hallmark innate immune responses, including i) MAPK activation, ii) defense-related gene expression, iii) callose deposition, and iv) enhanced resistance to Botrytis cinerea. Infection by necrotrophic B. cinerea released HMGB3 into the extracellular space (apoplast). Silencing HMGBs enhanced susceptibility to B. cinerea, while HMGB3 injection into apoplast restored resistance. Like its human counterpart, HMGB3 binds salicylic acid (SA), which results in inhibition of its DAMP activity. An SA-binding site mutant of HMGB3 retained its DAMP activity, which was no longer inhibited by SA, consistent with its reduced SA-binding activity. These results provide cross-kingdom evidence that HMGB proteins function as DAMPs and that SA is their conserved inhibitor. PMID:27007252