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Sample records for active rtms group

  1. rTMS Induced Tinnitus Relief Is Related to an Increase in Auditory Cortical Alpha Activity

    PubMed Central

    Müller, Nadia; Lorenz, Isabel; Langguth, Berthold; Weisz, Nathan

    2013-01-01

    Chronic tinnitus, the continuous perception of a phantom sound, is a highly prevalent audiological symptom. A promising approach for the treatment of tinnitus is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as this directly affects tinnitus-related brain activity. Several studies indeed show tinnitus relief after rTMS, however effects are moderate and vary strongly across patients. This may be due to a lack of knowledge regarding how rTMS affects oscillatory activity in tinnitus sufferers and which modulations are associated with tinnitus relief. In the present study we examined the effects of five different stimulation protocols (including sham) by measuring tinnitus loudness and tinnitus-related brain activity with Magnetoencephalography before and after rTMS. Changes in oscillatory activity were analysed for the stimulated auditory cortex as well as for the entire brain regarding certain frequency bands of interest (delta, theta, alpha, gamma). In line with the literature the effects of rTMS on tinnitus loudness varied strongly across patients. This variability was also reflected in the rTMS effects on oscillatory activity. Importantly, strong reductions in tinnitus loudness were associated with increases in alpha power in the stimulated auditory cortex, while an unspecific decrease in gamma and alpha power, particularly in left frontal regions, was linked to an increase in tinnitus loudness. The identification of alpha power increase as main correlate for tinnitus reduction sheds further light on the pathophysiology of tinnitus. This will hopefully stimulate the development of more effective therapy approaches. PMID:23390539

  2. Superior antidepressant effect occurring 1 month after rTMS: add-on rTMS for subjects with medication-resistant depression

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Shaw-Ji; Chang, Chung-Hung; Tsai, Hsin-Chi; Chen, Shao-Tsu; Lin, Chaucer CH

    2013-01-01

    Depression is a major psychiatric disorder. The standard treatment for depression is antidepressant medication, but the responses to antidepressant treatment are only partial, even poor, among 30%–45% of patients. Refractory depression is defined as depression that does not respond to antidepressant therapy after 4 weeks of use. There is evidence that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may exert effects in treating psychiatric disorder through moderating focal neuronal functions. High-frequency rTMS on the left prefrontal area and low-frequency rTMS on the right prefrontal area were shown to be effective in alleviating depressive symptoms. Given the statistically significant antidepressant effectiveness noted, the clinical application of rTMS as a depression treatment warrants further studies. Application of rTMS as an add-on therapy would be a practical research model. High-frequency (5–20 Hz) rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex was found to have a significant effect on medication-resistant depression. In the present study, we not only measured the acute antidepressant effect of rTMS during treatment and immediately after its completion but also evaluated participants 1 month after completion of the treatment protocol. Study participants were divided into two groups: an active rTMS group (n = 10) and a sham group (n = 10). The active rTMS group was defined as participants who received the rTMS protocol, and the sham group was defined as participants who received a sham rTMS procedure. A significant Hamilton Depression Rating Scale score reduction was observed in both groups after the fifth and tenth treatments. However, those in the active rTMS group maintained their improvement as measured one month after completion of the rTMS protocol. Participants who received active rTMS were more likely to have persistent improvement in depression scores than participants who received sham rTMS. PMID:23576870

  3. Focal electrical stimulation as an effective sham control for active rTMS and biofeedback treatments

    PubMed Central

    Sheffer, Christine E; Mennemeier, Mark; Landes, Reid D; Dornhoffer, John; Kimbrell, Timothy; Bickel, Warren; Brackman, Sharon; Chelette, Kenneth C; Brown, Ginger; Vuong, Mai

    2013-01-01

    A valid sham control is important for determining the efficacy and effectiveness of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as an experimental and clinical tool. Given the manner in which rTMS is applied, separately or in combination with self-regulatory approaches, and its intended impact on brain states, a valid sham control of this type may well serve as a meaningful control for biofeedback studies, where efforts to develop a credible control have often been less than ideal. This study examined the effectiveness of focal electrical stimulation of the frontalis muscle as a sham technique for blinding participants to high-frequency rTMS over the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) at durations, intensities, and schedules of stimulation similar to many clinical applications. In this within-subjects single blind design, 19 participants made guesses immediately after receiving 54 counterbalanced rTMS sessions (sham, 10Hz, 20Hz); 7 (13%) of the guesses were made for sham, 31 (57%) were made for 10Hz, and 16 (30%) were made for 20Hz. Participants correctly guessed the sham condition 6% (CI: 1%, 32%) of the time, which is less than the odds of chance (i.e., of guessing at random, 33%); correctly guessed the 10Hz condition 66% (CI: 43%, 84%) of the time, which was greater than chance; and correctly guessed the 20Hz condition 41% (CI: 21%, 65%) of the time, which was no different than chance. Focal electrical stimulation therefore can be an effective sham control for high-frequency rTMS of the DLPFC, as well as for active biofeedback interventions. Participants were unaware that electrical stimulation was, in fact, sham rTMS. PMID:23702828

  4. Effects of prefrontal rTMS on autonomic reactions to affective pictures.

    PubMed

    Berger, Christoph; Domes, Gregor; Balschat, Johannes; Thome, Johannes; Höppner, Jacqueline

    2017-02-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can modulate the excitability of stimulated cortical areas, such as prefrontal areas involved in emotion regulation. Low frequency (LF) rTMS is expected to have inhibitory effects on prefrontal regions, and thereby should disinhibit limbic activity, resulting in enhanced emotional and autonomic reactions. For high frequency (HF) rTMS, the opposite pattern might be assumed. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of different rTMS frequencies applied to the right dlPFC on autonomic functions and on emotional perception. In a crossover design, two groups of 20 healthy young women were either stimulated with one session of LF rTMS (1 Hz) or one session of HF rTMS (10 Hz), compared to sham stimulation. We assessed phasic cardiac responses (PCR), skin conductance reactions (SCR), and emotional appraisal of emotional pictures as well as recognition memory after each rTMS application. After LF rTMS, PCR (heart rate deceleration) during presentation of pictures with negative and neutral valence was significantly increased compared to the presentation of positive pictures. In contrast, the modulatory effect of picture valence and arousal on the cardiac orienting response was absent after HF rTMS. Our results suggest that frontal LF rTMS indirectly activates the ANS via inhibition of the right dlPFC activity, likely by enhancing the sensory processing or attention to aversive and neutral stimuli.

  5. High frequency rTMS; a more effective treatment for auditory verbal hallucinations?

    PubMed

    de Weijer, Antoin D; Sommer, Iris E C; Lotte Meijering, Anne; Bloemendaal, Mirjam; Neggers, Sebastiaan F W; Daalman, Kirstin; Boezeman, Eduard H J F

    2014-12-30

    The great majority of studies on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as a therapeutic tool for auditory verbal hallucinations (AVH) have used 1-Hz stimulation with inconsistent results. Recently, it has been suggested that 20-Hz rTMS has strong therapeutic effects. It is conceivable that this 20-Hz stimulation is more effective than 1-Hz stimulation. The aim of this preliminary study is to investigate the efficacy of 20-Hz rTMS compared with 1-Hz rTMS as a treatment for AVH. Eighteen schizophrenia patients with medication-resistant AVH were randomized over two treatment groups. Each group received either 20 min of 1-Hz rTMS or 13 trains of 20-Hz rTMS daily over 1 week. After week 1, patients received a follow-up treatment once a week for 3 weeks. Stimulation location was based on individual AVH-related activation patterns identified with functional magnetic resonance imaging. Severity of AVH was monitored with the Auditory Hallucination Rating Scale (AHRS). Both groups showed a decrease in AVH after week 1 of rTMS. This decrease was significant for the 20-Hz group and the 1-Hz group. When the two treatment types were compared, no treatment type was superior. Based on these results we cannot conclude whether high frequency rTMS is more effective against AVH than is traditional 1-Hz rTMS. More research is needed to optimize stimulation parameters and to investigate potential target locations for stimulation.

  6. Repetitive activation of the corticospinal pathway by means of rTMS may reduce the efficiency of corticomotoneuronal synapses.

    PubMed

    Taube, Wolfgang; Leukel, Christian; Nielsen, Jens Bo; Lundbye-Jensen, Jesper

    2015-06-01

    Low-frequency rTMS applied to the primary motor cortex (M1) may produce depression of motor-evoked potentials (MEPs). This depression is commonly assumed to reflect changes in cortical circuits. However, little is known about rTMS-induced effects on subcortical circuits. Therefore, the present study aimed to clarify whether rTMS influences corticospinal transmission by altering the efficiency of corticomotoneuronal (CM) synapses. The corticospinal transmission to soleus α-motoneurons was evaluated through conditioning of the soleus H-reflex by magnetic stimulation of either M1 (M1-conditioning) or the cervicomedullary junction (CMS-conditioning). The first facilitation of the H-reflex (early facilitation) was determined after M1- and CMS-conditioning. Comparison of the early facilitation before and after 20-min low-frequency (1 Hz) rTMS revealed suppression with M1- (-17 ± 4%; P = 0.001) and CMS-conditioning (-6 ± 2%; P = 0.04). The same rTMS protocol caused a significant depression of compound MEPs, whereas amplitudes of H-reflex and M-wave remained unaffected, indicating a steady level of motoneuronal excitability. Thus, the effects of rTMS are likely to occur at a premotoneuronal site-either at M1 and/or the CM synapse. As the early facilitation reflects activation of direct CM projections, the most likely site of action is the synapse of the CM neurons onto spinal motoneurons.

  7. High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Improves Functional Recovery by Enhancing Neurogenesis and Activating BDNF/TrkB Signaling in Ischemic Rats.

    PubMed

    Luo, Jing; Zheng, Haiqing; Zhang, Liying; Zhang, Qingjie; Li, Lili; Pei, Zhong; Hu, Xiquan

    2017-02-20

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has rapidly become an attractive therapeutic approach for stroke. However, the mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate whether high-frequency rTMS improves functional recovery mediated by enhanced neurogenesis and activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) pathway and to compare the effect of conventional 20 Hz rTMS and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) on ischemic rats. Rats after rTMS were sacrificed seven and 14 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), following evaluation of neurological function. Neurogenesis was measured using specific markers: Ki67, Nestin, doublecortin (DCX), NeuN and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and the expression levels of BDNF were visualized by Western blotting and RT-PCR analysis. Both high-frequency rTMS methods significantly improved neurological function and reduced infarct volume. Moreover, 20 Hz rTMS and iTBS significantly promoted neurogenesis, shown by an increase of Ki67/DCX, Ki67/Nestin, and Ki67/NeuN-positive cells in the peri-infarct striatum. These beneficial effects were accompanied by elevated protein levels of BDNF and phosphorylated-TrkB. In conclusion, high-frequency rTMS improves functional recovery possibly by enhancing neurogenesis and activating BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway and conventional 20 Hz rTMS is better than iTBS at enhancing neurogenesis in ischemic rats.

  8. High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Improves Functional Recovery by Enhancing Neurogenesis and Activating BDNF/TrkB Signaling in Ischemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jing; Zheng, Haiqing; Zhang, Liying; Zhang, Qingjie; Li, Lili; Pei, Zhong; Hu, Xiquan

    2017-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has rapidly become an attractive therapeutic approach for stroke. However, the mechanisms underlying this remain elusive. This study aimed to investigate whether high-frequency rTMS improves functional recovery mediated by enhanced neurogenesis and activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) pathway and to compare the effect of conventional 20 Hz rTMS and intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) on ischemic rats. Rats after rTMS were sacrificed seven and 14 days after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), following evaluation of neurological function. Neurogenesis was measured using specific markers: Ki67, Nestin, doublecortin (DCX), NeuN and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), and the expression levels of BDNF were visualized by Western blotting and RT-PCR analysis. Both high-frequency rTMS methods significantly improved neurological function and reduced infarct volume. Moreover, 20 Hz rTMS and iTBS significantly promoted neurogenesis, shown by an increase of Ki67/DCX, Ki67/Nestin, and Ki67/NeuN-positive cells in the peri-infarct striatum. These beneficial effects were accompanied by elevated protein levels of BDNF and phosphorylated-TrkB. In conclusion, high-frequency rTMS improves functional recovery possibly by enhancing neurogenesis and activating BDNF/TrkB signaling pathway and conventional 20 Hz rTMS is better than iTBS at enhancing neurogenesis in ischemic rats. PMID:28230741

  9. Is 1 Hz rTMS Always Inhibitory in Healthy Individuals?

    PubMed Central

    Caparelli, EC; Backus, W; Telang, F; Wang, GJ; Maloney, T; Goldstein, RZ; Henn, F

    2012-01-01

    1 Hz repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is considered to have an inhibitory effect in healthy people because it suppresses the excitability of the motor or visual cortex that is expressed as an increase in the motor or the phosphene threshold (PT), respectively. However, the underlying mechanisms and the brain structures involved in the action of rTMS are still unknown. In this study we used two sessions of simultaneous TMS-functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), one before and one after, 15 minutes of 1Hz rTMS to map changes in brain function associated with the reduction in cortical excitability of the primary visual cortex induced by 1 Hz rTMS, when TMS was applied on the occipital area of healthy volunteers. Two groups were evaluated, one group composed of people that can see phosphenes, and another of those lacking this perception. The inhibitory effect, induced by the 1 Hz rTMS, was observed through the increase of the PT, in the first group, but did not lead to a global reduction in brain activation, instead, showed change in the activation pattern before and after rTMS. Conversely, for the second group, changes in brain activation were observed just in few brain areas, suggesting that the effect of 1 Hz rTMS might not be inhibitory for everyone and that the concept of inhibitory/excitatory effect of rTMS may need to be revised. PMID:22930669

  10. The effects of motor cortex rTMS on corticospinal descending activity.

    PubMed

    Di Lazzaro, V; Profice, P; Pilato, F; Dileone, M; Oliviero, A; Ziemann, U

    2010-04-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the human motor cortex can produce long-lasting changes in the excitability of the motor cortex to single pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). rTMS may increase or decrease motor cortical excitability depending critically on the characteristics of the stimulation protocol. However, it is still poorly defined which mechanisms and central motor circuits contribute to these rTMS induced long-lasting excitability changes. We have had the opportunity to perform a series of direct recordings of the corticospinal volley evoked by single pulse TMS from the epidural space of conscious patients with chronically implanted spinal electrodes before and after several protocols of rTMS that increase or decrease brain excitability. These recordings provided insight into the physiological basis of the effects of rTMS and the specific motor cortical circuits involved.

  11. Cerebral Hemodynamics With rTMS in Alcohol Dependence: A Randomized, Sham-Controlled Study.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Biswa Ranjan; Maiti, Rituparna; Nizamie, S Haque

    2016-04-08

    The authors studied cerebral hemodynamics in alcohol dependence and evaluated their changes with application of high-frequency rTMS. A prospective, single-blind, randomized, parallel-group, sham-controlled clinical study was conducted with patients with alcohol dependence (DSM-IV-TR). The study population comprised 25 subjects each in active rTMS, sham rTMS, and healthy control groups. At baseline, cerebral hemodynamic indices were measured with transcranial Doppler sonography. Subjects in the active rTMS group received 10 sessions of rTMS daily; the sham group was administered sham rTMS with the same parameters. Cerebral hemodynamic parameters were repeated 5 minutes after the last rTMS session. At baseline, mean velocity (MV) of both middle cerebral artery (MCA; R-MCA: p=0.003; L-MCA: p=0.002) and anterior cerebral artery (ACA; R-ACA: p=0.003; L-ACA: p=.001) was significantly reduced. Pulsatility index (PI) of MCA (p<0.001) and resistance index (RI) of ACA (R-ACA: p=0.009; L-ACA: p=0.008) were increased in alcohol-dependent subjects in comparison with healthy controls. In the active rTMS group, except L-MCA PI, significant differences were observed in values of MV, PI, and RI of both MCA and ACA following rTMS intervention; such changes were not evident in the sham rTMS group. The changes in mean difference in MV of L-MCA (p=0.006) and L-ACA (p=0.015) were statistically significant in the active rTMS group, in comparison with the sham group. Significant differences were also observed between the two groups postintervention, in RI of L-MCA (p=0.001) and ACA (R-ACA: p=0.010; L-ACA: p=0.015). Alcohol dependence may result in altered cerebral hemodynamic parameters, which can be improved with high-frequency rTMS application.

  12. Disrupting SMA activity modulates explicit and implicit emotional responses: an rTMS study.

    PubMed

    Rodigari, Alessia; Oliveri, Massimiliano

    2014-09-05

    Supplementary Motor Area (SMA) has been considered as an interface between the emotional/motivational system and motor effector system. Here, we investigated whether it is possible to modulate emotional responses using non-invasive brain stimulation of the SMA. 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) trains were applied over the SMA of healthy subjects performing a task requiring to judge the valence and arousal of emotional stimuli. rTMS trains over the SMA increased the perceived valence of emotionally negative visual stimuli, while decreasing the perceived valence of emotionally positive ones. The modulatory effect on emotional valence was specific for stimuli with emotional content, since it was not observed for neutral visual stimuli. The effect was also specific for the site of stimulation, since rTMS of the visual cortex failed to modulate either perceived valence or arousal. These findings provide the first example of neuromodulation of emotional responses based on non-invasive brain stimulation.

  13. Using a combination of fMRI and anterior temporal lobe rTMS to measure intrinsic and induced activation changes across the semantic cognition network

    PubMed Central

    Binney, Richard J.; Lambon Ralph, Matthew A.

    2015-01-01

    By developing and applying a method which combines fMRI and rTMS to explore semantic cognition, we identified both intrinsic (related to automatic changes in task/stimulus-related processing) and induced (i.e., associated with the effect of TMS) activation changes in the core, functionally-coupled network elements. Low-frequency rTMS applied to the human anterior temporal lobe (ATL) induced: (a) a local suppression at the site of stimulation; (b) remote suppression in three other ipsilateral semantic regions; and (c) a compensatory up-regulation in the contralateral ATL. Further examination of activity over time revealed that the compensatory changes appear to be a modulation of intrinsic variations that occur within the unperturbed network. As well as providing insights into the dynamic collaboration between core regions, the ability to observe intrinsic and induced changes in vivo may provide an important opportunity to understand the key mechanisms that underpin recovery of function in neurological patient groups. PMID:25448851

  14. Modulatory effects of 5Hz rTMS over the primary somatosensory cortex in focal dystonia--an fMRI-TMS study.

    PubMed

    Schneider, Susanne A; Pleger, Burkhard; Draganski, Bogdan; Cordivari, Carla; Rothwell, John C; Bhatia, Kailash P; Dolan, Ray J

    2010-01-15

    Dystonia is associated with impaired somatosensory ability. The electrophysiological method of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can be used for noninvasive stimulation of the human cortex and can alter cortical excitability and associated behavior. Among others, rTMS can alter/improve somatosensory discrimation abilities, as shown in healthy controls. We applied 5Hz-rTMS over the left primary somatosensory cortex (S1) in 5 patients with right-sided writer's dystonia and 5 controls. We studied rTMS effects on tactile discrimination accuracy and concomitant rTMS-induced changes in hemodynamic activity measured by functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Before rTMS, patients performed worse on the discrimination task than controls even though fMRI showed greater task-related activation bilaterally in the basal ganglia (BG). In controls, rTMS led to improved discrimination; fMRI revealed this was associated with increased activity of the stimulated S1, bilateral premotor cortex and BG. In dystonia patients, rTMS had no effect on discrimination; fMRI showed similar cortical effects to controls except for no effects in BG. Improved discrimination after rTMS in controls is linked to enhanced activation of S1 and BG. Failure of rTMS to increase BG activation in dystonia may be associated with the lack of effect on sensory discrimination in this group and may reflect impaired processing in BG-S1 connections. Alternatively, the increased BG activation seen in the baseline state without rTMS may reflect a compensatory strategy that saturates a BG contribution to this task.

  15. The efficacy of cerebellar vermal deep high frequency (theta range) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in schizophrenia: A randomized rater blind-sham controlled study.

    PubMed

    Garg, Shobit; Sinha, Vinod Kumar; Tikka, Sai Krishna; Mishra, Preeti; Goyal, Nishant

    2016-09-30

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising therapeutic for schizophrenia. Treatment effects of rTMS have been variable across different symptom clusters, with negative symptoms showing better response, followed by auditory hallucinations. Cerebellum, especially vermis and its abnormalities (both structural and functional) have been implicated in cognitive, affective and positive symptoms of schizophrenia. rTMS to this alternate site has been suggested as a novel target for treating patients with this disorder. Hypothesizing cerebellar vermal magnetic stimulation as an adjunct to treat schizophrenia psychopathology, we conducted a double blind randomized sham controlled rTMS study. In this study, forty patients were randomly allocated (using block randomization method) to active high frequency (theta patterned) rTMS (n=20) and sham (n=20) groups. They received 10 sessions over 2 weeks. The Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS) and Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) scores were assessed at baseline, after last session and at 4 weeks (2 weeks post-rTMS). We found a significantly greater improvement in the group receiving active rTMS sessions, compared to the sham group on negative symptoms, and depressive symptoms. We conclude that cerebellar stimulation can be used as an effective adjunct to treat negative and affective symptoms.

  16. Abnormal Anterior Cingulate N-Acetylaspartate and Executive Functioning in Treatment-Resistant Depression After rTMS Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Jia, Fujun; Guo, Guangquan; Quan, Dongming; Li, Gang; Wu, Huawang; Zhang, Bin; Fan, Changhe; He, Xiajun; Huang, Huiyan

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cognitive impairment is a key feature of treatment-resistant depression (TRD) and can be related to the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) function. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as an antidepressant intervention has increasingly been investigated in the last two decades. However, no studies to date have investigated the association between neurobiochemical changes within the anterior cingulate and executive dysfunction measured in TRD being treated with rTMS. Methods: Thirty-two young depressed patients with treatment-resistant unipolar depression were enrolled in a double-blind, randomized study [active (n=18) vs. sham (n=14)]. ACC metabolism was investigated before and after high-frequency (15Hz) rTMS using 3-tesla proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1H-MRS). The results were compared with 28 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. Executive functioning was measured with the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test (WCST) among 34 subjects with TRD and 28 healthy subjects. Results: Significant reductions in N-acetylaspartate (NAA) and choline-containing Compound levels in the left ACC were found in subjects with TRD pre-rTMS when compared with healthy controls. After successful treatment, NAA levels increased significantly in the left ACC of subjects and were not different from those of age-matched controls. In the WCST, more perseverative errors and fewer correct numbers were observed in TRD subjects at baseline. Improvements in both perseverative errors and correct numbers occurred after active rTMS. In addition, improvement of perseverative errors was positively correlated with enhancement of NAA levels in the left ACC in the active rTMS group. Conclusions: Our results suggest that the NAA concentration in the left ACC is associated with an improvement in cognitive functioning among subjects with TRD response to active rTMS. PMID:26025780

  17. Cognitive Effects of High-Frequency rTMS in Schizophrenia Patients With Predominant Negative Symptoms: Results From a Multicenter Randomized Sham-Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Hasan, Alkomiet; Guse, Birgit; Cordes, Joachim; Wölwer, Wolfgang; Winterer, Georg; Gaebel, Wolfgang; Langguth, Berthold; Landgrebe, Michael; Eichhammer, Peter; Frank, Elmar; Hajak, Göran; Ohmann, Christian; Verde, Pablo E; Rietschel, Marcella; Ahmed, Raees; Honer, William G; Malchow, Berend; Karch, Susanne; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Falkai, Peter; Wobrock, Thomas

    2016-05-01

    Cognitive impairments are one of the main contributors to disability and poor long-term outcome in schizophrenia. Proof-of-concept trials indicate that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has the potential to improve cognitive functioning. We analyzed the effects of 10-Hz rTMS to the left DLPFC on cognitive deficits in schizophrenia in a large-scale and multicenter, sham-controlled study. A total of 156 schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms were randomly assigned to a 3-week intervention (10-Hz rTMS, 15 sessions, 1000 stimuli per session) with either active or sham rTMS. The Rey Auditory Verbal Learning Test, Trail Making Test A and B, Wisconsin Card Sorting Test, Digit Span Test, and the Regensburg Word Fluency Test were administered before intervention and at day 21, 45, and 105 follow-up. From the test results, a neuropsychological composite score was computed. Both groups showed no differences in any of the outcome variables before and after intervention. Both groups improved markedly over time, but effect sizes indicate a numeric, but nonsignificant superiority of active rTMS in certain cognitive tests. Active 10-Hz rTMS applied to the left DLPFC for 3 weeks was not superior to sham rTMS in the improvement of various cognitive domains in schizophrenia patients with predominant negative symptoms. This is in contrast to previous preliminary proof-of-concept trials, but highlights the need for more multicenter randomized controlled trials in the field of noninvasive brain stimulation.

  18. On the importance of placebo timing in rTMS studies for pain relief.

    PubMed

    André-Obadia, Nathalie; Magnin, Michel; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2011-06-01

    The efficacy of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the motor cortex for neuropathic pain relief is founded on double-blind studies versus placebo. In these studies, however, the analgesic effect of active interventions remained modest compared with the placebo effect. This observation led us to re-evaluate the intrinsic placebo action on pain relief according to the relative timing of active and sham rTMS interventions. In a randomized controlled study including 45 patients, we compared the analgesic effect of sham rTMS that either preceded or followed an active rTMS, which could be itself either successful or unsuccessful. Placebo analgesia differed significantly when the sham rTMS session followed a successful or an unsuccessful active rTMS. Placebo sessions induced significant analgesia when they followed a successful rTMS (mean pain decrease of 11%), whereas they tended to worsen pain when following an unsuccessful rTMS (pain increase of 6%). Only when the sham intervention was applied before any active rTMS were placebo scores unchanged from the baseline. These results probably reflect an unconscious conditioned learning. The timing of placebo relative to active interventions should be taken into account in rTMS studies for pain relief, and possibly in other conditions too. The fact that placebo effects could be enhanced by a previous rTMS with an analgesic effect as low as 10% suggests that a 30% pain decrease threshold in therapeutic trials may be too severe because smaller analgesic effects may have a clinical significance too. Sham rTMS induces significant analgesia only when preceded by a successful active stimulation. Such a placebo modulation is probably related to an unconscious conditioned learning.

  19. Different frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD): A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingting; Xie, Qinglian; Zheng, Zhong; Zou, Ke; Wang, Lijuan

    2017-06-01

    Posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a psychiatric disorder. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been found to be effective for treating PTSD, but whether different frequencies have different effects remains controversial. We conducted this systematic review and meta-analysis to address this question. We searched the literature for studies written in English or Chinese in 9 electronic databases from the databases' inception to August 1, 2016. Additional articles were identified from the reference lists of identified studies and from personal reference collections. Eighteen articles were included, and 11 were suitable for the meta-analysis (Combined sample size was 377 (217 in active rTMS groups, 160 in sham-controlled groups)). Low-frequency (LF) rTMS resulted in a significant reduction in the PTSD total score and the depression score (1. PTSD total score: pooled SMD, 0.92; CI, 0.11-1.72; 2. Depression: pooled SMD, 0.54; CI, 0.08-1.00). High-frequency (HF) rTMS showed the following results: 1. PTSD total score: pooled SMD, 3.24; CI, 2.24-4.25; 2. re-experiencing: pooled SMD, -1.77; CI, -2.49-(-1.04); 3. Avoidance: pooled SMD, -1.57; CI, -2.50-(-0.84); 4. hyperarousal: pooled SMD, -1.32; CI, -2.17-(-0.47); 5. depression: pooled SMD, 1.92; CI, 0.80-3.03; and 6. Anxiety: pooled SMD, 2.67; CI, 1.82-3.52. Therefore, both HF and LF rTMS can alleviate PTSD symptoms. Although the evidence is extremely limited, LF rTMS can reduce overall PTSD and depression symptoms. HF rTMS can improve the main and related symptoms of PTSD. However, additional research is needed to substantiate these findings.

  20. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Modulates Event-Related Potential (ERP) Indices of Attention in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Manuel F.; Baruth, Joshua M.; El-Baz, Ayman; Tasman, Allan; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Estate

    2014-01-01

    Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) have previously been shown to have significantly augmented and prolonged event-related potentials (ERP) to irrelevant visual stimuli compared to controls at both early and later stages (e.g., N200, P300) of visual processing and evidence of an overall lack of stimulus discrimination. Abnormally large and indiscriminative cortical responses to sensory stimuli may reflect cortical inhibitory deficits and a disruption in the excitation/inhibition ratio. Low-frequency (≤1HZ) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to increase inhibition of stimulated cortex by the activation of inhibitory circuits. It was our prediction that after 12 sessions of low-frequency rTMS applied bilaterally to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortices in individuals with ASD there would be a significant improvement in ERP indices of selective attention evoked at later (i.e., 200–600 ms) stages of attentional processing as well as an improvement in motor response error rate. We assessed 25 participants with ASD in a task of selective attention using illusory figures before and after 12 sessions of rTMS in a controlled design where a waiting-list group of 20 children with ASD performed the same task twice. We found a significant improvement in both N200 and P300 components as a result of rTMS as well as a significant reduction in response errors. We also found significant reductions in both repetitive behavior and irritability according to clinical behavioral questionnaires as a result of rTMS. We propose that rTMS has the potential to become an important therapeutic tool in ASD research and treatment. PMID:24683490

  1. Is rTMS an effective therapeutic strategy that can be used to treat Parkinson's disease?

    PubMed

    Arias-Carrion, Oscar; Machado, Sergio; Paes, Flavia; Velasques, Bruna; Teixeira, Silmar; Cardenas-Morales, Lizbeth; Piedade, Roberto; Ribeiro, Pedro; Nardi, Antonio E

    2011-09-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive procedure whereby a pulsed magnetic field stimulates electrical activity in the brain. Parkinson's disease (PD) is a neurodegenerative process characterized by numerous motor and nonmotor clinical manifestations for which effective, mechanism-based treatments remain elusive. Consequently, more advanced non-invasive therapeutic methods are required. A possible method of rehabilitation that may be effective and potentially viable for use in clinical practice is rTMS. Here, we focus on the basic foundation of rTMS, the main findings of rTMS from animal models, the effects of rTMS on sensorimotor integration in patients with PD, and the experimental advances of rTMS that may become a viable clinical application to treat the disease.

  2. The Characteristic and Changes of the Event-Related Potentials (ERP) and Brain Topographic Maps before and after Treatment with rTMS in Subjective Tinnitus Patients

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Changming; Zheng, Yiqing; Zhang, Xueyuan

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To compare the event-related potentials (ERPs) and brain topographic maps characteristic and change in normal controls and subjective tinnitus patients before and after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment. Methods and Participants The ERPs and brain topographic maps elicited by target stimulus were compared before and after 1-week treatment with rTMS in 20 subjective tinnitus patients and 16 healthy controls. Results Before rTMS, target stimulus elicited a larger N1 component than the standard stimuli (repeating sounds)in control group but not in tinnitus patients. Instead, the tinnitus group pre-treatment exhibited larger amplitude of N1 in response to standard stimuli than to deviant stimuli. Furthermore tinnitus patients had smaller mismatch negativity (MMN) and late discriminative negativity (LDN)component at Fz compared with the control group. After rTMS treatment, tinnitus patients showed increased N1 response to deviant stimuli and larger MMN and LDN compared with pre-treatment. The topographic maps for the tinnitus group before rTMS -treatment demonstrated global asymmetry between the left and right cerebral hemispheres with more negative activities in left side and more positive activities in right side. In contrast, the brain topographic maps for patients after rTMS-treatment and controls seem roughly symmetrical. The ERP amplitudes and brain topographic maps in post-treatment patient group showed no significant difference with those in controls. Conclusions The characterical changes in ERP and brain topographic maps in tinnitus patients maybe related with the electrophysiological mechanism of tinnitus induction and development. It can be used as an objective biomarker for the evaluation of auditory central in subjective tinnitus patients. These findings support the notion that rTMS treatment in tinnitus patients may exert a beneficial effect. PMID:23951019

  3. Multiple bout rTMS on spatial working memory: a comparison study of two cortical areas.

    PubMed

    Pearce, Alan J; Lum, Jarrad A G; Seth, Sunaina; Rafael, Olivia; Hsu, Chia-Ming K; Drury, Hannah G K; Tooley, Gregory A

    2014-07-01

    It has been established that acute (within-session) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves spatial working memory (SWM). However, questions remain regarding the safety and effectiveness of multiple bouts of rTMS and the optimal cortical area to stimulate. This preliminary study investigated, in healthy participants, multiple bouts of rTMS over the dorsolateral pre-frontal cortex (DLPFC), or posterior parietal cortex (PPC) on SWM. Twenty participants (10m, 10f), all naïve to rTMS, where randomized into a DLPFC or PPC group, receiving six sessions of rTMS (5Hz at 80% of motor threshold) every second day over two weeks. Prior to and post rTMS bouts, all participants completed testing for SWM measuring individuals' accuracy, strategy, and speed. Following repeated bouts of rTMS, significant improvements were observed with no contraindications in stimulating PPC but not DLPFC. This preliminary study has demonstrated that repeated rTMS bouts improve SWM safety providing potential for clinical application.

  4. A Framework for Combining rTMS with Behavioral Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tsagaris, K. Zoe; Labar, Douglas R.; Edwards, Dylan J.

    2016-01-01

    Upon its inception, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was delivered at rest, without regard to the potential impact of activity occurring during or around the time of stimulation. rTMS was considered an experimental intervention imposed on the brain; therefore, the myriad features that might suppress or enhance its desired effects had not yet been explored. The field of rTMS has since grown substantially and therapeutic benefits have been reported, albeit with modest and inconsistent improvements. Work in this field accelerated following approval of a psychiatric application (depression), and it is now expanding to other applications and disciplines. In the last decade, experimental enquiry has sought new ways to improve the therapeutic benefits of rTMS, intended to enhance underlying brain reorganization and functional recovery by combining it with behavioral therapy. This concept is appealing, but poorly defined and requires clarity. We provide an overview of how combined rTMS and behavioral therapy has been delineated in the literature, highlighting the diversity of approaches. We outline a framework for study design and reporting such that the effects of this emerging method can be better understood. PMID:27895557

  5. A Framework for Combining rTMS with Behavioral Therapy.

    PubMed

    Tsagaris, K Zoe; Labar, Douglas R; Edwards, Dylan J

    2016-01-01

    Upon its inception, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was delivered at rest, without regard to the potential impact of activity occurring during or around the time of stimulation. rTMS was considered an experimental intervention imposed on the brain; therefore, the myriad features that might suppress or enhance its desired effects had not yet been explored. The field of rTMS has since grown substantially and therapeutic benefits have been reported, albeit with modest and inconsistent improvements. Work in this field accelerated following approval of a psychiatric application (depression), and it is now expanding to other applications and disciplines. In the last decade, experimental enquiry has sought new ways to improve the therapeutic benefits of rTMS, intended to enhance underlying brain reorganization and functional recovery by combining it with behavioral therapy. This concept is appealing, but poorly defined and requires clarity. We provide an overview of how combined rTMS and behavioral therapy has been delineated in the literature, highlighting the diversity of approaches. We outline a framework for study design and reporting such that the effects of this emerging method can be better understood.

  6. Optimizing rTMS treatment of a balance disorder with EEG neural synchrony and functional connectivity.

    PubMed

    Guofa Shou; Han Yuan; Urbano, Diamond; Yoon-Hee Cha; Lei Ding

    2016-08-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been increasingly used for its potential treatment effects across diverse mental disorders. However, the treatment effect is elusive and the rate of positive responders is not high, which make it in great demand of optimizing rTMS protocols to improve the treatment effects and the rate. In this regard, neural activity guided optimization has indicated great potential in several neuroimaging studies. In this paper, we present our ongoing work on optimizing rTMS treatment of a balance disorder, i.e., Mal de Debarquement syndrome (MdDS), by investigating treatment-related EEG neural synchrony and functional connectivity changes. Motivated by our previous pilot study of rTMS on MdDS, we firstly applied a bilateral dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) rTMS protocol to evaluate its efficacy and the treatment-related neural responses via an independent component analysis (ICA)-based framework. Thereafter, guided by identified EEG neural synchrony and functional connectivity patterns, we proposed three potential stimulation targets covering posterior nodes of the default mode network (DMN), and implemented a new rTMS protocol by stimulating the target with the great symptoms relief. The preliminary clinical response data has indicated that the new rTMS protocol significantly increase the rate of positive responders and the degrees of the improvement. The present study demonstrates that it is promising to integrate EEG neural synchrony and functional connectivity into the optimization of rTMS protocols for different mental disorders.

  7. rTMS neuromodulation improves electrocortical functional measures of information processing and behavioral responses in autism

    PubMed Central

    Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Sears, Lonnie L.; Opris, Ioan; Casanova, Manuel F.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: Reports in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) of a minicolumnopathy with consequent deficits of lateral inhibition help explain observed behavioral and executive dysfunctions. We propose that neuromodulation based on low frequency repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) will enhance lateral inhibition through activation of inhibitory double bouquet interneurons and will be accompanied by improvements in the prefrontal executive functions. In addition we proposed that rTMS will improve cortical excitation/inhibition ratio and result in changes manifested in event-related potential (ERP) recorded during cognitive tests. Materials and Methods: Along with traditional clinical behavioral evaluations the current study used ERPs in a visual oddball task with illusory figures. We compared clinical, behavioral and electrocortical outcomes in two groups of children with autism (TMS, wait-list group). We predicted that 18 session long course in autistic patients will have better behavioral and ERP outcomes as compared to age- and IQ-matched WTL group. We used 18 sessions of 1 Hz rTMS applied over the dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex in 27 individuals with ASD diagnosis. The WTL group was comprised of 27 age-matched subjects with ASD tested twice. Both TMS and WTL groups were assessed at the baseline and after completion of 18 weekly sessions of rTMS (or wait period) using clinical behavioral questionnaires and during performance on visual oddball task with Kanizsa illusory figures. Results: Post-TMS evaluations showed decreased irritability and hyperactivity on the Aberrant Behavior Checklist (ABC), and decreased stereotypic behaviors on the Repetitive Behavior Scale (RBS-R). Following rTMS course we found decreased amplitude and prolonged latency in the frontal and fronto-central N100, N200 and P300 (P3a) ERPs to non-targets in active TMS treatment group. TMS resulted in increase of P2d (P2a to targets minus P2a to non-targets) amplitude. These ERP

  8. BDNF genotype influence the efficacy of rTMS in stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Uhm, Kyeong Eun; Kim, Yun-Hee; Yoon, Kyung Jae; Hwang, Jung Min; Chang, Won Hyuk

    2015-05-06

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genotype can influence neural response to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in normal individuals. In this study we established personalized stimulus intensity of facilitatory rTMS according to BDNF genotype in stroke patients. Twenty-two chronic stroke patients were enrolled. All patients underwent three different sessions of rTMS over the ipsilesional M1 in randomized order with a washout period exceeding 24h: first condition, high-frequency rTMS with sub-threshold intensity; second condition, high-frequency rTMS with supra-threshold intensity; third condition, sham rTMS. Cortical excitability in the affected hemisphere was assessed with motor evoked potentials (MEPs) before and after stimulation. Data were analyzed according to BDNF genotype. Six [27.3%] and 16 [72.7%] participants were classified in the Val/Val group and Met allele group, respectively. In each group, significant increases were observed in the amplitude of MEPs after the stimulation in the first and second conditions (p<0.05), but not in the third condition. However, a significantly higher increase of amplitude of MEPs was observed between the first and second conditions in only the Val/Val group (p<0.05). BDNF genotype and stimulus intensity should be considered when high-frequency rTMS is used for the modulation of cortical excitability in patients with chronic stroke.

  9. Recovery of motor disability and spasticity in post-stroke after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).

    PubMed

    Málly, J; Dinya, E

    2008-07-01

    Lately it has been indicated that the stimulation of both sides of the motor cortices with different frequencies of rTMS can improve the behaviour of a paretic arm. We studied the effect of rTMS in severe cases of post-stroke after nearly 10 years. They had wide hemispheric lesion and their paresis had not changed for more than 5 years. The majority of patients could not move their fingers on the affected side. In our study we examined whether the active movement could be induced by rTMS even several years after stroke and which hemisphere (affected or unaffected) stimulated by rTMS would be the best location for attenuating the spasticity and for developing movement in the paretic arm. Sixty-four patients (more than 5 years after stroke in a stable state) were followed for 3 months. They were treated with rTMS with 1 Hz at 30% of 2.3T 100 stimuli per session twice a day for a week. The area to be stimulated was chosen according to the evoked movement by TMS in the paretic arm. That way, four groups were created and compared. In group A, where both hemispheres were stimulated (because of the single stimulation of TMS could induce movement from both sides of hemispheres) the spasticity decreased but the movement could not be influenced. A highly significant improvement in spasticity, in movement induction and in the behaviour of paresis was observed in group B, where before treatment, there was no evoked movement in the paretic arm from stimulating either hemispheres of the brain. For treatment we stimulated the unaffected hemisphere from where the intact arm is moved (ipsilateral to the paretic side). In both groups C (contralateral hemisphere to the paretic arm) and D (ipsilaterally evoked movement in the paretic arm), the spasticity decreased during the first week, but the movement of the paretic arm improved only in group C. It seems that spasticity can be modified by the stimulation either the affected or the unaffected hemisphere, but the induction of movement

  10. Comparison of the Effects of 1 Hz and 20 Hz rTMS on Motor Recovery in Subacute Stroke Patients

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Chul; Choi, Hee Eun; Lee, Byeong-Ju; Lee, Ki Hoon; Lim, Young-Joon

    2014-01-01

    Objective To compare the low frequency (1 Hz) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with high frequency (20 Hz) rTMS on motor functional improvement of the affected upper extremity in subacute stroke patients. Methods Forty patients with subacute ischemic stroke participated in this study. The first group received 10 sessions of 20 Hz rTMS at ipsilesional M1 area and the other group received 10 sessions of 1 Hz rTMS at contralesional M1 area. Motor training of the hemiparetic hand was conducted after each rTMS train. All the patients received conventional occupational therapy immediately after each rTMS session. Manual function test (MFT), Fugl-Meyer Assessment scale (FMS), Modified Barthel Index (MBI), Brunnstrom recovery stage, and grip strength were used to assess motor function before, at the end of, and one month after the last session of rTMS. Results No adverse side effects were reported during the course of the experiment using rTMS. No significant difference in motor function of the affected upper extremity was observed between the two groups before rTMS. Significant improvements in MFT, FMS, MBI, and Brunnstrom stage were observed in the both groups at the end of the last rTMS session and one month later (p<0.05). No significant difference was found between the two groups (p>0.05). Conclusion There was no significant difference in motor function of the affected upper extremity between 1 Hz and 20 Hz rTMS during the subacute period of ischemic stroke. Thus, we cannot conclude which has a greater effect. PMID:25379487

  11. Does rTMS Alter Neurocognitive Functioning in Patients with Panic Disorder/Agoraphobia? An fNIRS-Based Investigation of Prefrontal Activation during a Cognitive Task and Its Modulation via Sham-Controlled rTMS

    PubMed Central

    Sickinger, Stephanie; Haeussinger, Florian B.; Laeger, Inga; Arolt, Volker; Zwanzger, Peter; Fallgatter, Andreas J.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives. Neurobiologically, panic disorder (PD) is supposed to be characterised by cerebral hypofrontality. Via functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), we investigated whether prefrontal hypoactivity during cognitive tasks in PD-patients compared to healthy controls (HC) could be replicated. As intermittent theta burst stimulation (iTBS) modulates cortical activity, we furthermore investigated its ability to normalise prefrontal activation. Methods. Forty-four PD-patients, randomised to sham or verum group, received 15 iTBS-sessions above the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in addition to psychoeducation. Before first and after last iTBS-treatment, cortical activity during a verbal fluency task was assessed via fNIRS and compared to the results of 23 HC. Results. At baseline, PD-patients showed hypofrontality including the DLPFC, which differed significantly from activation patterns of HC. However, verum iTBS did not augment prefrontal fNIRS activation. Solely after sham iTBS, a significant increase of measured fNIRS activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) during the phonological task was found. Conclusion. Our results support findings that PD is characterised by prefrontal hypoactivation during cognitive performance. However, verum iTBS as an “add-on” to psychoeducation did not augment prefrontal activity. Instead we only found increased fNIRS activation in the left IFG after sham iTBS application. Possible reasons including task-related psychophysiological arousal are discussed. PMID:24757668

  12. Combined rTMS treatment targeting the Anterior Cingulate and the Temporal Cortex for the Treatment of Chronic Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Kreuzer, Peter M.; Lehner, Astrid; Schlee, Winfried; Vielsmeier, Veronika; Schecklmann, Martin; Poeppl, Timm B.; Landgrebe, Michael; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been proposed as a tinnitus treatment option. Promising results have been obtained by consecutive stimulation of lateral frontal and auditory brain regions. We investigated a combined stimulation paradigm targeting the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) with double cone coil rTMS, followed by stimulation of the temporo-parietal junction area with a figure-of-eight coil. The study was conducted as a randomized, double-blind pilot trial in 40 patients suffering from chronic tinnitus. We compared mediofrontal stimulation with double-cone-coil, (2000 stimuli, 10 Hz) followed by left temporo-parietal stimulation with figure-of-eight-coil (2000 stimuli, 1 Hz) to left dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortex stimulation with figure-of-eight-coil (2000 stimuli, 10 Hz) followed by temporo-parietal stimulation with figure-of-eight-coil (2000 stimuli, 1 Hz). The stimulation was feasible with comparable dropout rates in both study arms; no severe adverse events were registered. Responder rates did not differ in both study arms. There was a significant main effect of time for the change in the TQ score, but no significant time x group interaction. This pilot study demonstrated the feasibility of combined mediofrontal/temporoparietal-rTMS-stimulation with double cone coil in tinnitus patients but failed to show better outcome compared to an actively rTMS treated control group. PMID:26667790

  13. Mixed effectiveness of rTMS and retraining in the treatment of focal hand dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Kimberley, Teresa J.; Schmidt, Rebekah L. S.; Chen, Mo; Dykstra, Dennis D.; Buetefisch, Cathrin M.

    2015-01-01

    Though the pathophysiology of dystonia remains uncertain, two primary factors implicated in the development of dystonic symptoms are excessive cortical excitability and impaired sensorimotor processing. The aim of this study was to determine the functional efficacy of an intervention combining repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and sensorimotor retraining. A randomized, single-subject, multiple baseline design with crossover was used to examine participants with focal hand dystonia (FHD) (n = 9). Intervention: 5 days rTMS + sensorimotor retraining (SMR) vs. Five days rTMS + control therapy (CTL) (which included stretching and massage). The rTMS was applied to the premotor cortex at 1 Hz at 80% resting motor threshold for 1200 pulses. For sensorimotor retraining, a subset of the Learning-based Sensorimotor Training program was followed. Each session in both groups consisted of rTMS followed immediately by 30 min of the therapy intervention (SMR or CTL). Contrary to our hypothesis, group analyses revealed no additional benefit from the SMR training vs. CTL. When analyzed across group however, there was significant improvement from the first baseline assessment in several measures, including tests of sensory ability and self-rated changes. The patient rated improvements were accompanied by a moderate effect size suggesting clinical meaningfulness. These results provide encouragement for further investigation of rTMS in FHD with a need to optimize a secondary intervention and determine likely responders vs. non-responders. PMID:26217209

  14. A comparison of the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) by number of stimulation sessions on hemispatial neglect in chronic stroke patients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Kyun; Jung, Jae Hwan; Shin, Sung Hun

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied either during one session of stimulation, or by ten sessions of low-frequency stimulation over the left parietal cortex, on hemispatial neglect in stroke patients. We enrolled 34 subjects that had experienced a stroke. All subjects received 1,200 real rTMS over the left parietal cortex at an intensity of 90% of motor thresholds with 1 Hz. Subjects were divided into two groups. One group of subjects (n = 19) received real rTMS over the left parietal cortex in a single session of stimulation, and the other group (n = 15), underwent a total of ten sessions of daily stimulations for 2 weeks. Letter cancelation test, line bisection test, and Ota's task were administered to compare the effects of different rTMS protocols, before and after rTMS. The results showed no difference in baseline value between the single session group and the ten sessions group. Total ten sessions of low-frequency rTMS over the left parietal cortex, compared with the single session of rTMS, significantly improved hemispatial neglect in letter cancelation, line bisection, and Ota's task (P < 0.01). Finally, a total of ten sessions of low-frequency rTMS can be used in treatment by rTMS for patients suffering from hemispatial neglect after stroke.

  15. Impact of 5-Hz rTMS over the primary sensory cortex is related to white matter volume in individuals with chronic stroke.

    PubMed

    Brodie, Sonia M; Borich, Michael R; Boyd, Lara A

    2014-11-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique that may facilitate mechanisms of motor learning. In a recent single-blind, pseudo-randomized study, we showed that 5-Hz rTMS over ipsilesional primary somatosensory cortex followed by practice of a skilled motor task enhanced motor learning compared with sham rTMS + practice in individuals with chronic stroke. However, the beneficial effect of stimulation was inconsistent. The current study examined how differences in sensorimotor cortex morphology might predict rTMS-related improvements in motor learning in these individuals. High-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance images were acquired and processed in FreeSurfer using a newly developed automated, whole brain parcellation technique. Gray matter and white matter volumes of the ipsilesional primary somatosensory and motor cortices were extracted. A significant positive association was observed between the volume of white matter in the primary somatosensory cortex and motor learning-related change, exclusively in the group that received active 5-Hz rTMS. A regression model with age, gray matter and white matter volumes as predictors was significant for predicting motor learning-related change in individuals who received active TMS. White matter volume predicted the greatest amount of variance (47.6%). The same model was non-significant when volumes of the primary motor cortex were considered. We conclude that white matter volume in the cortex underlying the TMS coil may be a novel predictor for behavioral response to 5-Hz rTMS over the ipsilesional primary somatosensory followed by motor practice.

  16. Impairing somatosensory working memory using rTMS.

    PubMed

    Auksztulewicz, Ryszard; Spitzer, Bernhard; Goltz, Dominique; Blankenburg, Felix

    2011-09-01

    Numerous studies in animals and humans have related central aspects of somatosensory working memory function to neural activity in the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG). However, as previous studies have almost exclusively used correlational analyses, the question whether sustained neural activity in the IFG is causally involved in successful maintenance of somatosensory information remains unanswered. We used an online repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol to disrupt neuronal activity in the IFG while participants were maintaining tactile information throughout the delay for later comparison against a probe stimulus. rTMS impaired participants' performance in the working memory task, but not in a physically matched perceptual control task. Targeting the IFG in either hemisphere led to comparable working memory impairment. Our results show that the neural activity in the IFG plays a causal role in successful maintenance of somatosensory information.

  17. Hypomanic shift observed during rTMS treatment of patients with unipolar depressive disorder: four case reports

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Objective Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can enhance the excitement of the brain through adjusting the biological activities of the cerebral cortex and has wide biological effects, making it one basic mechanism of therapy for depression. In the treatment of unipolar depressive disorder, almost in every treatment method, hypomanic and manic shifts can be observed. There is still a lack of data regarding manic and hypomanic symptoms triggered by rTMS applications. Method We describe four cases with unipolar depression in which high-frequency rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex applied as an add-on antidepressive strategy may have induced a hypomanic episode. Results In these cases, 25 Hz rTMS combined with antidepressants may have contributed to the occurrence of hypomanic symptoms. Conclusion Using an intensive methodology of rTMS may induce hypomanic or manic symptoms. PMID:23618105

  18. Prefrontal neuromodulation using rTMS improves error monitoring and correction function in autism.

    PubMed

    Sokhadze, Estate M; Baruth, Joshua M; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Guela E; El-Baz, Ayman S; Casanova, Manuel F

    2012-06-01

    One important executive function known to be compromised in autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is related to response error monitoring and post-error response correction. Several reports indicate that children with ASD show reduced error processing and deficient behavioral correction after an error is committed. Error sensitivity can be readily examined by measuring event-related potentials (ERP) associated with responses to errors, the fronto-central error-related negativity (ERN), and the error-related positivity (Pe). The goal of our study was to investigate whether reaction time (RT), error rate, post-error RT change, ERN, and Pe will show positive changes following 12-week long slow frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) over dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) in high functioning children with ASD. We hypothesized that 12 sessions of 1 Hz rTMS bilaterally applied over the DLPFC will result in improvements reflected in both behavioral and ERP measures. Participants were randomly assigned to either active rTMS treatment or wait-list (WTL) groups. Baseline and post-TMS/or WTL EEG was collected using 128 channel EEG system. The task involved the recognition of a specific illusory shape, in this case a square or triangle, created by three or four inducer disks. ERN in TMS treatment group became significantly more negative. The number of omission errors decreased post-TMS. The RT did not change, but post-error RT became slower. There were no changes in RT, error rate, post-error RT slowing, nor in ERN/Pe measures in the wait-list group. Our results show significant post-TMS differences in the response-locked ERP such as ERN, as well as behavioral response monitoring measures indicative of improved error monitoring and correction function. The ERN and Pe, along with behavioral performance measures, can be used as functional outcome measures to assess the effectiveness of neuromodulation (e.g., rTMS) in children with autism and thus may have important practical implications.

  19. Brain SPECT guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in treatment resistant major depressive disorder.

    PubMed

    Jha, Shailesh; Chadda, Rakesh K; Kumar, Nand; Bal, C S

    2016-06-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has emerged as a potential treatment in treatment resistant major depressive disorder (MDD). However, there is no consensus about the exact site of stimulation for rTMS. Single-photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) offers a potential technique in deciding the site of stimulation. The present study was conducted to assess the difference in outcome of brain SPECT assisted rTMS versus standard protocol of twenty sessions of high frequency rTMS as add on treatment in 20 patients with treatment resistant MDD, given over a period of 4 weeks. Thirteen subjects (group I) received high frequency rTMS over an area of hypoperfusion in the prefrontal cortex, as identified on SPECT, whereas 7 subjects (group II) were administered rTMS in the left dorsoslateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) area. Improvement was monitored using standardized instruments. Patients in the group I showed a significantly better response compared to those in the group II. In group I, 46% of the subjects were responders on MADRS, 38% on BDI and 77% on CGI. The parallel figures of responders in Group II were 0% on MADRS, 14% on BDI and 43% on CGI. There were no remitters in the study. No significant untoward side effects were noticed. The study had limitations of a small sample size and non-controlled design, and all the subjects were also receiving the standard antidepressant therapy. Administration of rTMS over brain SPECT specified area of hypoperfusion may have a better clinical outcome compared to the standard protocol.

  20. Stroke recovery can be enhanced by using repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, J-P

    2006-01-01

    Post-stroke recovery is based on plastic changes in the central nervous system that can compensate the loss of activity in affected brain regions. In particular, monohemispheric stroke is thought to result in disinhibition of the contralesional unaffected hemisphere. Neurorehabilitation programs improve function partly by enhancing cortical reorganization. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive way of producing potent changes in cortical excitability. Therefore, the application of rTMS was recently proposed to promote functional recovery in stroke patients, owing to the induced neuroplasticity. This review discusses the first clinical results that were obtained by rTMS in patients with post-stroke motor deficit, visuospatial neglect, or aphasia. These results are promising and depend on the site and frequency of stimulation. In summary, functional recovery might be obtained either when rTMS is applied at low-frequency (around 1 Hz) over the disinhibited, unaffected hemisphere in order to restore defective inhibition or when rTMS is applied at high-frequency (5 Hz or more) over the affected hemisphere in order to reactivate hypoactive regions. The overall procedure remains to be optimized, in particular regarding the number of rTMS sessions and the time of rTMS application after stroke. Cortical stimulation is an exciting perspective for improving functional recovery from stroke. Transient application of non-invasive transcranial stimulation during the time of the rehabilitation process will be preferable to the temporary implantation of epidural cortical electrodes, as recently proposed. Therefore, in the future, acute or recent stroke might be a major indication of rTMS in neurological practice.

  1. Impact of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Brain Functional Marker of Auditory Hallucinations in Schizophrenia Patients

    PubMed Central

    Maïza, Olivier; Hervé, Pierre-Yve; Etard, Olivier; Razafimandimby, Annick; Montagne-Larmurier, Aurélie; Dollfus, Sonia

    2013-01-01

    Several cross-sectional functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) studies reported a negative correlation between auditory verbal hallucination (AVH) severity and amplitude of the activations during language tasks. The present study assessed the time course of this correlation and its possible structural underpinnings by combining structural, functional MRI and repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS). Methods: Nine schizophrenia patients with AVH (evaluated with the Auditory Hallucination Rating scale; AHRS) and nine healthy participants underwent two sessions of an fMRI speech listening paradigm. Meanwhile, patients received high frequency (20 Hz) rTMS. Results: Before rTMS, activations were negatively correlated with AHRS in a left posterior superior temporal sulcus (pSTS) cluster, considered henceforward as a functional region of interest (fROI). After rTMS, activations in this fROI no longer correlated with AHRS. This decoupling was explained by a significant decrease of AHRS scores after rTMS that contrasted with a relative stability of cerebral activations. A voxel-based-morphometry analysis evidenced a cluster of the left pSTS where grey matter volume negatively correlated with AHRS before rTMS and positively correlated with activations in the fROI at both sessions. Conclusion: rTMS decreases the severity of AVH leading to modify the functional correlate of AVH underlain by grey matter abnormalities. PMID:24961421

  2. Motor cortex rTMS improves dexterity in relapsing-remitting and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Elzamarany, Eman; Afifi, Lamia; El-Fayoumy, Neveen M; Salah, Husam; Nada, Mona

    2016-06-01

    The motor cortex (MC) receives an excitatory input from the cerebellum which is reduced in patients with cerebellar lesions. High-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) induces cortical facilitation which can counteract the reduced cerebellar drive to the MC. Our study included 24 relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS) and secondary progressive multiple sclerosis (SPMS) patients with dysmetria. The patients were divided into two groups: Group A received two sessions of real MC rTMS and Group B received one session of real rTMS and one session of sham rTMS. Ten healthy volunteers formed group C. Evaluation was carried out using the nine-hole pegboard task and the cerebellar functional system score (FSS) of the expanded disability status scale (EDSS). Group A patients showed a significant improvement in the time required to finish the pegboard task (P = 0.002) and in their cerebellar FSS (P = 0.000) directly after the second session and 1 month later. The RRMS patients showed more improvement than the SPMS patients. Group B patients did not show any improvement in the pegboard task or the cerebellar FSS. These results indicate that MC rTMS can be a promising option in treating both RRMS or SPMS patients with cerebellar impairment and that its effect can be long-lasting.

  3. Subgenual Cingulate Theta Activity Predicts Treatment Response of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation in Participants With Vascular Depression

    PubMed Central

    Narushima, Kenji; McCormick, Laurie; Yamada, Throu; Thatcher, Robert; Robinson, Robert G.

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is an effective treatment for depression. Increased metabolism in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) is a known predictor for antidepressant response. The authors assessed whether increased theta power within the ACC predicts rTMS response in participants with vascular depression. Sixty-five participants were randomized to active or sham rTMS. Outcome was assessed using the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale. Electroencephalography was obtained, and comparisons were made among each group with a normative database using low-resolution electromagnetic tomography. Results suggest that vascular depression participants respond well to rTMS and that increased low-theta power in the subgenual ACC predicts response to rTMS. PMID:20160213

  4. Effect of Low-Frequency rTMS and NMES on Subacute Unilateral Hemispheric Stroke With Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Kil-Byung; Lee, Hong-Jae; Yoo, Jeehyun

    2014-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and neuromuscular electrical stimulation (NMES) on post-stroke dysphagia. Methods Subacute (<3 months), unilateral hemispheric stroke patients with dysphagia were randomly assigned to the conventional dysphagia therapy (CDT), rTMS, or NMES groups. In rTMS group, rTMS was performed at 100% resting motor threshold with 1 Hz frequency for 20 minutes per session (5 days per week for 2 weeks). In NMES group, electrical stimulation was applied to the anterior neck for 30 minutes per session (5 days per week for 2 weeks). All three groups were given conventional dysphagia therapy for 4 weeks. We evaluated the functional dysphagia scale (FDS), pharyngeal transit time (PTT), the penetration-aspiration scale (PAS), and the American Speech-Language Hearing Association National Outcomes Measurement System (ASHA NOMS) swallowing scale at baseline, after 2 weeks, and after 4 weeks. Results Forty-seven patients completed the study; 15 in the CDT group, 14 in the rTMS group, and 18 in the NMES group. Mean changes in FDS and PAS for liquid during first 2 weeks in the rTMS and NMES groups were significantly higher than those in the CDT group, but no significant differences were found between the rTMS and NMES group. No significant difference in mean changes of FDS and PAS for semi-solid, PTT, and ASHA NOMS was observed among the three groups. Conclusion These results indicated that both low-frequency rTMS and NMES could induce early recovery from dysphagia; therefore, they both could be useful therapeutic options for dysphagic stroke patients. PMID:25379488

  5. A systematic review of non-motor rTMS induced motor cortex plasticity

    PubMed Central

    Nordmann, Grégory; Azorina, Valeriya; Langguth, Berthold; Schecklmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Motor cortex excitability can be measured by single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can induce neuroplastic effects in stimulated and in functionally connected cortical regions. Due to its ability to non-invasively modulate cortical activity, rTMS has been investigated for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, such studies revealed a high variability of both clinical and neuronal effects induced by rTMS. In order to better elucidate this meta-plasticity, rTMS-induced changes in motor cortex excitability have been monitored in various studies in a pre-post stimulation design. Here, we give a literature review of studies investigating motor cortex excitability changes as a neuronal marker for rTMS effects over non-motor cortical areas. A systematic literature review in April 2014 resulted in 29 articles in which motor cortex excitability was assessed before and after rTMS over non-motor areas. The majority of the studies focused on the stimulation of one of three separate cortical areas: the prefrontal area (17 studies), the cerebellum (8 studies), or the temporal cortex (3 studies). One study assessed the effects of multi-site rTMS. Most studies investigated healthy controls but some also stimulated patients with neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., affective disorders, tinnitus). Methods and findings of the identified studies were highly variable showing no clear systematic pattern of interaction of non-motor rTMS with measures of motor cortex excitability. Based on the available literature, the measurement of motor cortex excitability changes before and after non-motor rTMS has only limited value in the investigation of rTMS related meta-plasticity as a neuronal state or as a trait marker for neuropsychiatric diseases. Our results do not suggest that there are systematic alterations of cortical excitability changes during rTMS treatment, which calls

  6. A systematic review of non-motor rTMS induced motor cortex plasticity.

    PubMed

    Nordmann, Grégory; Azorina, Valeriya; Langguth, Berthold; Schecklmann, Martin

    2015-01-01

    Motor cortex excitability can be measured by single- and paired-pulse transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can induce neuroplastic effects in stimulated and in functionally connected cortical regions. Due to its ability to non-invasively modulate cortical activity, rTMS has been investigated for the treatment of various neurological and psychiatric disorders. However, such studies revealed a high variability of both clinical and neuronal effects induced by rTMS. In order to better elucidate this meta-plasticity, rTMS-induced changes in motor cortex excitability have been monitored in various studies in a pre-post stimulation design. Here, we give a literature review of studies investigating motor cortex excitability changes as a neuronal marker for rTMS effects over non-motor cortical areas. A systematic literature review in April 2014 resulted in 29 articles in which motor cortex excitability was assessed before and after rTMS over non-motor areas. The majority of the studies focused on the stimulation of one of three separate cortical areas: the prefrontal area (17 studies), the cerebellum (8 studies), or the temporal cortex (3 studies). One study assessed the effects of multi-site rTMS. Most studies investigated healthy controls but some also stimulated patients with neuropsychiatric conditions (e.g., affective disorders, tinnitus). Methods and findings of the identified studies were highly variable showing no clear systematic pattern of interaction of non-motor rTMS with measures of motor cortex excitability. Based on the available literature, the measurement of motor cortex excitability changes before and after non-motor rTMS has only limited value in the investigation of rTMS related meta-plasticity as a neuronal state or as a trait marker for neuropsychiatric diseases. Our results do not suggest that there are systematic alterations of cortical excitability changes during rTMS treatment, which calls

  7. Conditions for enhancing the encoding of an elementary motor memory by rTMS

    PubMed Central

    Buetefisch, C. M.; Howard, C.; Korb, C.; Haut, M.W.; Shuster, L.; Pergami, P.; Smith, C.; Hobbs, G.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Motor learning results in changes of movement representation in primary motor cortex (M1) a process involving long-term potentiation (LTP). Pairing motor training with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of M1 enhances the formation of a motor memory. Here we determined the effect of pairing M1 stimulation and the execution of training movements at different times and frequencies on the formation of a motor memory. Methods Formation of a motor memory was defined as increases in motor evoked potentials (MEP) of the training agonist (extensor carpi ulnaris muscle, ECU) and increases in peak acceleration of the trained movements that last more than 60 min. Training consisted of auditory-paced ballistic wrist extension movements (30 min, 0.5 Hz) paired with 0.1, 0.25 or 0.5 Hz subthreshold rTMS. The rTMS pulse was applied at either the onset, 100ms prior to or 300ms after the onset of training movement related increases in electromyographic (EMG) activity of ECU. This was compared to a sham condition. Results Only 0.1 Hz rTMS applied at the onset of the training related increase in ECU-EMG activity resulted in increases in MEP amplitudes and peak acceleration when compared to the sham. Conclusions The formation of motor memory is enhanced above the naïve level by co-administration of low frequency rTMS at the time of execution of training movements. Significance These results indicate the importance of time and frequency of rTMS in these settings and should be considered in the design of rehabilitation treatment strategies using rTMS. PMID:25113275

  8. Evidence-based guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS).

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; André-Obadia, Nathalie; Antal, Andrea; Ayache, Samar S; Baeken, Chris; Benninger, David H; Cantello, Roberto M; Cincotta, Massimo; de Carvalho, Mamede; De Ridder, Dirk; Devanne, Hervé; Di Lazzaro, Vincenzo; Filipović, Saša R; Hummel, Friedhelm C; Jääskeläinen, Satu K; Kimiskidis, Vasilios K; Koch, Giacomo; Langguth, Berthold; Nyffeler, Thomas; Oliviero, Antonio; Padberg, Frank; Poulet, Emmanuel; Rossi, Simone; Rossini, Paolo Maria; Rothwell, John C; Schönfeldt-Lecuona, Carlos; Siebner, Hartwig R; Slotema, Christina W; Stagg, Charlotte J; Valls-Sole, Josep; Ziemann, Ulf; Paulus, Walter; Garcia-Larrea, Luis

    2014-11-01

    A group of European experts was commissioned to establish guidelines on the therapeutic use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) from evidence published up until March 2014, regarding pain, movement disorders, stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, tinnitus, depression, anxiety disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder, schizophrenia, craving/addiction, and conversion. Despite unavoidable inhomogeneities, there is a sufficient body of evidence to accept with level A (definite efficacy) the analgesic effect of high-frequency (HF) rTMS of the primary motor cortex (M1) contralateral to the pain and the antidepressant effect of HF-rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). A Level B recommendation (probable efficacy) is proposed for the antidepressant effect of low-frequency (LF) rTMS of the right DLPFC, HF-rTMS of the left DLPFC for the negative symptoms of schizophrenia, and LF-rTMS of contralesional M1 in chronic motor stroke. The effects of rTMS in a number of indications reach level C (possible efficacy), including LF-rTMS of the left temporoparietal cortex in tinnitus and auditory hallucinations. It remains to determine how to optimize rTMS protocols and techniques to give them relevance in routine clinical practice. In addition, professionals carrying out rTMS protocols should undergo rigorous training to ensure the quality of the technical realization, guarantee the proper care of patients, and maximize the chances of success. Under these conditions, the therapeutic use of rTMS should be able to develop in the coming years.

  9. Neuromodulation integrating rTMS and neurofeedback for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder: An exploratory study

    PubMed Central

    Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Tasman, Allan; Sears, Lonnie L.; Wang, Yao; Lamina, Eva V.; Casanova, Manuel F.

    2014-01-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, language, stereotyped behaviors, and restricted range of interests. In previous studies low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used, with positive behavioral and electrophysiological results, for the experimental treatment in ASD. In this study we combined prefrontal rTMS sessions with electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback (NFB) to prolong and reinforce TMS-induced EEG changes. The pilot trial recruited 42 children with ASD (~14.5 yrs). Outcome measures included behavioral evaluations and reaction time test with event-related potential (ERP) recording. For the main goal of this exploratory study we used rTMS-neurofeedback combination (TMS-NFB, N=20) and waitlist (WTL, N=22) groups to examine effects of 18 sessions of integrated rTMS-NFB treatment or wait period) on behavioral responses, stimulus and response-locked ERPs, and other functional and clinical outcomes. The underlying hypothesis was that combined TMS-NFB will improve executive functions in autistic patients as compared to the waitlist group. Behavioral and ERP outcomes were collected in pre- and post-treatment tests in both groups. Results of the study supported our hypothesis by demonstration of positive effects of combined TMS-NFB neurotherapy in active treatment group as compared to control waitlist group, as the TMS-NFB group showed significant improvements in behavioral and functional outcomes as compared to the waitlist group. PMID:25267414

  10. Neuromodulation integrating rTMS and neurofeedback for the treatment of autism spectrum disorder: an exploratory study.

    PubMed

    Sokhadze, Estate M; El-Baz, Ayman S; Tasman, Allan; Sears, Lonnie L; Wang, Yao; Lamina, Eva V; Casanova, Manuel F

    2014-12-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a pervasive developmental disorder characterized by deficits in social interaction, language, stereotyped behaviors, and restricted range of interests. In previous studies low frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used, with positive behavioral and electrophysiological results, for the experimental treatment in ASD. In this study we combined prefrontal rTMS sessions with electroencephalographic (EEG) neurofeedback (NFB) to prolong and reinforce TMS-induced EEG changes. The pilot trial recruited 42 children with ASD (~14.5 years). Outcome measures included behavioral evaluations and reaction time test with event-related potential (ERP) recording. For the main goal of this exploratory study we used rTMS-neurofeedback combination (TMS-NFB, N = 20) and waitlist (WTL, N = 22) groups to examine effects of 18 sessions of integrated rTMS-NFB treatment or wait period) on behavioral responses, stimulus and response-locked ERPs, and other functional and clinical outcomes. The underlying hypothesis was that combined TMS-NFB will improve executive functions in autistic patients as compared to the WTL group. Behavioral and ERP outcomes were collected in pre- and post-treatment tests in both groups. Results of the study supported our hypothesis by demonstration of positive effects of combined TMS-NFB neurotherapy in active treatment group as compared to control WTL group, as the TMS-NFB group showed significant improvements in behavioral and functional outcomes as compared to the WTL group.

  11. A Randomised Controlled Trial of Neuronavigated Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in Anorexia Nervosa

    PubMed Central

    McClelland, Jessica; Kekic, Maria; Bozhilova, Natali; Nestler, Steffen; Dew, Tracy; Van den Eynde, Frederique; David, Anthony S.; Rubia, Katya; Campbell, Iain C.; Schmidt, Ulrike

    2016-01-01

    Background Anorexia nervosa (AN) is associated with morbid fear of fatness, extreme food restriction and altered self-regulation. Neuroimaging data implicate fronto-striatal circuitry, including the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Methods In this double-blind parallel group study, we investigated the effects of one session of sham-controlled high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the left DLPFC (l-DLPFC) in 60 individuals with AN. A food exposure task was administered before and after the procedure to elicit AN-related symptoms. Outcomes The primary outcome measure was ‘core AN symptoms’, a variable which combined several subjective AN-related experiences. The effects of rTMS on other measures of psychopathology (e.g. mood), temporal discounting (TD; intertemporal choice behaviour) and on salivary cortisol concentrations were also investigated. Safety, tolerability and acceptability were assessed. Results Fourty-nine participants completed the study. Whilst there were no interaction effects of rTMS on core AN symptoms, there was a trend for group differences (p = 0.056): after controlling for pre-rTMS scores, individuals who received real rTMS had reduced symptoms post-rTMS and at 24-hour follow-up, relative to those who received sham stimulation. Other psychopathology was not altered differentially following real/sham rTMS. In relation to TD, there was an interaction trend (p = 0.060): real versus sham rTMS resulted in reduced rates of TD (more reflective choice behaviour). Salivary cortisol concentrations were unchanged by stimulation. rTMS was safe, well–tolerated and was considered an acceptable intervention. Conclusions This study provides modest evidence that rTMS to the l-DLPFC transiently reduces core symptoms of AN and encourages prudent decision making. Importantly, individuals with AN considered rTMS to be a viable treatment option. These findings require replication in multiple-session studies to evaluate

  12. Neural Network Based Response Prediction of rTMS in Major Depressive Disorder Using QEEG Cordance

    PubMed Central

    Ozekes, Serhat; Gultekin, Selahattin; Tarhan, Nevzat; Hizli Sayar, Gokben; Bayram, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Objective The combination of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-pharmacological form of therapy for treating major depressive disorder (MDD), and electroencephalogram (EEG) is a valuable tool for investigating the functional connectivity in the brain. This study aims to explore whether pre-treating frontal quantitative EEG (QEEG) cordance is associated with response to rTMS treatment among MDD patients by using an artificial intelligence approach, artificial neural network (ANN). Methods The artificial neural network using pre-treatment cordance of frontal QEEG classification was carried out to identify responder or non-responder to rTMS treatment among 55 MDD subjects. The classification performance was evaluated using k-fold cross-validation. Results The ANN classification identified responders to rTMS treatment with a sensitivity of 93.33%, and its overall accuracy reached to 89.09%. Area under Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) value for responder detection using 6, 8 and 10 fold cross validation were 0.917, 0.823 and 0.894 respectively. Conclusion Potential utility of ANN approach method can be used as a clinical tool in administering rTMS therapy to a targeted group of subjects suffering from MDD. This methodology is more potentially useful to the clinician as prediction is possible using EEG data collected before this treatment process is initiated. It is worth using feature selection algorithms to raise the sensitivity and accuracy values. PMID:25670947

  13. Increased cerebellar activation after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation over the primary motor cortex in patients with multiple system atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Li, Linling; Wu, Tianxia; Hou, Bo; Wu, Shuang; Feng, Feng; Cui, Liying

    2016-01-01

    Background Previous review reported that the high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the primary motor area (M1) of Parkinson’s disease (PD) patients could alleviate their symptoms. This study aimed to investigate the effect of rTMS over the left M1 of patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). Methods Fifteen MSA patients were randomly assigned to receive a 10-session real (EP: group of experimental patients; n=7) or sham (CP: group of control patients; n=8) rTMS stimulation over two weeks. The overall experimental procedure consisted of two functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) sessions, before and after a 10-session rTMS treatment. A complex self-paced sequential tapping task was performed during fMRI scanning. In addition, 18 age and gender matched healthy controls (HC) were enrolled. Subjects from the HC group did not receive any rTMS treatment and they underwent fMRI examination only once. The primary end point was the motor score change of the Unified Multiple System Atrophy Rating Scale (UMSARS-II) measured before and after the 5th and 10th session. Task-related activation was also compared among groups. Results After active rTMS treatment, only patients of EP group significant improvement in UMSARS-II score. Compared to HC, MSA patients showed significant activation over similar brain areas except for the cerebellum. Increased activation was obtained in the bilateral cerebellum after rTMS treatment in the EP group. On the contrary, no increased activation was identified in the CP group. Conclusions Our results highlight rTMS over M1 induced motor improvement in MSA patients that may be associated with increased activation in the cerebellum. PMID:27127756

  14. Placebo-controlled study of rTMS combined with Lokomat(®) gait training for treatment in subjects with motor incomplete spinal cord injury.

    PubMed

    Kumru, Hatice; Benito-Penalva, Jesus; Valls-Sole, Josep; Murillo, Narda; Tormos, Josep M; Flores, Cecilia; Vidal, Joan

    2016-12-01

    High-frequency rTMS combined with gait training improves lower extremity motor score (LEMS) and gait velocity in SCI subjects who are able to walk over ground. The aim of this study was to optimize the functional outcome in early phases of gait rehabilitation in SCI using rTMS as an additional treatment to physical therapy. The present study included 31 motor incomplete SCI subjects randomized to receive real or sham rTMS, just before Lokomat gait training (15 subjects for real, 16 for sham rTMS). rTMS consisted of one daily session for 20 days over vertex (at 20 Hz). The subjects were evaluated using modified Ashworth scale (MAS) for spasticity, upper and lower extremity motor score (UEMS and LEMS, respectively), ten meters walking test (10MWT) and Walking Index for SCI (WISCI-II) for gait at baseline, after last rTMS session, and during follow-up. UEMS and LEMS improved significantly after last session in both groups and during follow-up period. The improvement was greater in real than in sham rTMS group. At follow-up, 71.4 % of the subjects after real rTMS and 40 % of the subjects after sham rTMS could perform 10MWT without significant differences in gait velocity, cadence, step length and WISCI-II between both groups. We conclude that 20 sessions of daily high-frequency rTMS combined with Lokomat gait training can lead to clinical improvement of gait in motor incomplete SCI. Such combined treatment improved motor strength in lower extremity in incomplete SCI subjects and in upper extremity in those with cervical SCI.

  15. Group Activities for Math Enthusiasts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holdener, J.; Milnikel, R.

    2016-01-01

    In this article we present three group activities designed for math students: a balloon-twisting workshop, a group proof of the irrationality of p, and a game of Math Bingo. These activities have been particularly successful in building enthusiasm for mathematics and camaraderie among math faculty and students at Kenyon College.

  16. High-frequency rTMS on leg motor area in the early phase of stroke.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, Nobuyuki; Abo, Masahiro; Hara, Takatoshi; Yamada, Naoki; Niimi, Masachika; Kakuda, Wataru

    2017-03-01

    Although repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for upper limb motor area in stroke patients is beneficial, it has been poorly investigated in rTMS for leg motor area. Furthermore, no study has examined the usefulness of rTMS for leg motor area in patients in the early phase of stroke. Twenty-one patients with a hemispheric stroke lesion in the early phase were randomly assigned into two groups: the high-frequency (HF)-rTMS group [N = 11] and the sham stimulation group [N = 10]. Patients received rTMS for 5 consecutive days, beginning 10.9 ± 6.6 days on average after the onset. Brunnstrom Recovery Stages (BRS) for the lower limbs and the Ability for Basic Movement Scale Revised (ABMS II) were assessed before and after the intervention. The improvement in BRS for the lower limbs was significant after the intervention in the HF-rTMS group. Although both the HF-rTMS and sham stimulation groups had significant improvements in ABMS II scores, the extent of improvement in the AMBS II was significantly greater in the HF-rTMS group than in the sham stimulation group. Application of HF-rTMS over the bilateral leg motor areas has potential to be a new rehabilitation therapy for patients in the acute phase of stroke.

  17. fMRI Guided rTMS Evidence for Reduced Left Prefrontal Involvement after Task Practice

    PubMed Central

    Jansma, Johan Martijn; van Raalten, Tamar R.; Boessen, Ruud; Neggers, Sebastiaan F. W.; Jacobs, Richard H. A. H.; Kahn, René S.; Ramsey, Nick F.

    2013-01-01

    Introduction Cognitive tasks that do not change the required response for a stimulus over time (‘consistent mapping’) show dramatically improved performance after relative short periods of practice. This improvement is associated with reduced brain activity in a large network of brain regions, including left prefrontal and parietal cortex. The present study used fMRI-guided repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), which has been shown to reduce processing efficacy, to examine if the reduced activity in these regions also reflects reduced involvement, or possibly increased efficiency. Methods First, subjects performed runs of a Sternberg task in the scanner with novel or practiced target-sets. This data was used to identify individual sites for left prefrontal and parietal peak brain activity, as well as to examine the change in activity related to practice. Outside of the scanner, real and sham rTMS was applied at left prefrontal and parietal cortex to examine their involvement novel and practiced conditions. Results Prefrontal as well as parietal rTMS significantly reduced target accuracy for novel targets. Prefrontal, but not parietal, rTMS interference was significantly lower for practiced than novel target-sets. rTMS did not affect non-target accuracy, or reaction time in any condition. Discussion These results show that task practice in a consistent environment reduces involvement of the prefrontal cortex. Our findings suggest that prefrontal cortex is predominantly involved in target maintenance and comparison, as rTMS interference was only detectable for targets. Findings support process switching hypotheses that propose that practice creates the possibility to select a response without the need to compare with target items. Our results also support the notion that practice allows for redistribution of limited maintenance resources. PMID:24376494

  18. Mechanism of functional recovery after repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the subacute cerebral ischemic rat model: neural plasticity or anti-apoptosis?

    PubMed

    Yoon, Kyung Jae; Lee, Yong-Taek; Han, Tai Ryoon

    2011-10-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been studied increasingly in recent years to determine whether it has a therapeutic benefit on recovery after stroke. However, the underlying mechanisms of rTMS in stroke recovery remain unclear. Here, we evaluated the effect of rTMS on functional recovery and its underlying mechanism by assessing proteins associated with neural plasticity and anti-apoptosis in the peri-lesional area using a subacute cerebral ischemic rat model. Twenty cerebral ischemic rats were randomly assigned to the rTMS or the sham group at post-op day 4. A total of 3,500 impulses with 10 Hz frequency were applied to ipsilesional cortex over a 2-week period. Functional outcome was measured before (post-op day 4) and after rTMS (post-op day 18). The rTMS group showed more functional improvement on the beam balance test and had stronger Bcl-2 and weaker Bax expression on immunohistochemistry compared with the sham group. The expression of NMDA and MAP-2 showed no significant difference between the two groups. These results suggest that rTMS in subacute cerebral ischemia has a therapeutic effect on functional recovery and is associated with an anti-apoptotic mechanism in the peri-ischemic area rather than with neural plasticity.

  19. Triple-site rTMS for the treatment of chronic tinnitus: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, Astrid; Schecklmann, Martin; Greenlee, Mark W.; Rupprecht, Rainer; Langguth, Berthold

    2016-01-01

    Recent research indicates that tinnitus is related to alterations of neural networks including temporal, parietal, and prefrontal brain regions. The current study examines a rTMS protocol which targets three central nodes of these networks in a two-arm randomized parallel group trial. Overall, 49 patients with chronic tinnitus were randomized to receive either triple-site stimulation (left dorsolateral prefrontal stimulation, 1000 pulses, 20 Hz plus left and right temporoparietal stimulation, 1000 pulses each, 1 Hz) or single-site stimulation (left temporoparietal stimulation, 3000 pulses, 1 Hz). Both groups were treated in ten sessions. Tinnitus severity as measured by the tinnitus questionnaire was assessed before rTMS (day1), after rTMS (day12) and at two follow-up visits (day 90 and day 180). The triple-site protocol was well tolerated. There was a significant reduction in tinnitus severity for both treatment groups. The triple-site group tended to show a more pronounced treatment effect at day 90. However, the measurement time point x group interaction effect was not significant. The current results confirm former studies that indicated a significant reduction of tinnitus severity after rTMS treatment. No significant superiority of the multisite protocol was observed. Future approaches for the enhancement of treatment effects are discussed. PMID:26927363

  20. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the treatment of depression in Parkinson disease: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled clinical trials.

    PubMed

    Xie, Cheng-Long; Chen, Jie; Wang, Xiao-Dan; Pan, Jia-Lin; Zhou, Yi; Lin, Shi-Yi; Xue, Xiao-Dong; Wang, Wen-Wen

    2015-10-01

    The objective of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for the treatment of depression in patients with Parkinson disease in order to arrive at qualitative and quantitative conclusions about the efficacy of rTMS. We included randomized controlled trials examining the effects of rTMS compared with sham-rTMS or selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs). The quality of included studies was strictly evaluated. Data analyses were performed using the RevMan5.1 software. Eight studies including 312 patients met all inclusion criteria. The results showed that rTMS could evidently improve the HRSD score compared with sham-rTMS (p < 0.00001). However, we found similar antidepressant efficacy between rTMS and SSRIs groups in terms of HRSD and BDI score (p = 0.65; p = 0.75, respectively). Furthermore, patients who received rTMS could evidently show improvement on the unified Parkinson's disease rating scale (UPDRS), ADL score, and UPDRS motor score compared with sham-rTMS or SSRIs (p < 0.05, p = 0.05, respectively). The subgroup analysis by frequency of rTMS evidenced that the efficacy of low-frequency rTMS was superior to sham-rTMS (p < 0.0001) in terms of the outcome measure according to HAMD scale. Meanwhile, the high-frequency rTMS has the same antidepressant efficacy as SSRIs (p = 0.94). The current meta-analysis provided evidence that rTMS was superior to sham-rTMS and had similar antidepressant efficacy as SSRIs, and may have the additional advantage of some improvement in motor function.

  1. The effects of 3 weeks of rTMS treatment on P200 amplitude in patients with depression.

    PubMed

    Choi, Kyung Mook; Jang, Kyoung-Mi; Jang, Kuk In; Um, Yoo Hyun; Kim, Myung-Sun; Kim, Do-Won; Shin, Dongkyoo; Chae, Jeong-Ho

    2014-08-08

    Previous studies have reported that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) induces neuronal plasticity in the brain. Although event-related potential (ERP) is an exploration tool, the rTMS effects on ERPs in patients with major depression have not been fully explored. We demonstrated that rTMS treatment induces changes in brain function in patients with medication-resistant major depression using the ERP. Eighteen patients with medication-resistant major depression (five males and 13 females) participated in this study. The patients received rTMS treatment for 3 weeks. All patients completed clinical scales, including the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), Hamilton Anxiety Scale (HAM-A), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (SAI, TAI), Ruminative Response Scale, Emotion Regulation Questionnaire, and Cognitive Emotion Regulation Questionnaire (CERQ), as well as the ERP auditory oddball task, at their first visit (baseline) and at the 3-week visit (3-weeks). The HAM-D, HAM-A, BDI, SAI, and "blaming others" scale of the CERQ decreased significantly after rTMS treatment. In ERP auditory oddball task, when FP1, FP2, FZ, FCZ, CZ, and PZ channels were analyzed, P200 amplitudes showed a main effect for time of measurement and increased after 3 weeks of rTMS treatment. Standardized low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography showed significant activation in the left middle frontal gyrus by 3 weeks of rTMS treatment. The results suggest that relatively longer rTMS treatment induces changes in brain function in patients with medication-resistant major depression, which can be identified using ERP.

  2. The compensatory dynamic of inter-hemispheric interactions in visuospatial attention revealed using rTMS and fMRI.

    PubMed

    Plow, Ela B; Cattaneo, Zaira; Carlson, Thomas A; Alvarez, George A; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Battelli, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    A balance of mutual tonic inhibition between bi-hemispheric posterior parietal cortices is believed to play an important role in bilateral visual attention. However, experimental support for this notion has been mainly drawn from clinical models of unilateral damage. We have previously shown that low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) over the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) generates a contralateral attentional deficit in bilateral visual tracking. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study whether rTMS temporarily disrupts the inter-hemispheric balance between bilateral IPS in visual attention. Following application of 1 Hz rTMS over the left IPS, subjects performed a bilateral visual tracking task while their brain activity was recorded using fMRI. Behaviorally, tracking accuracy was reduced immediately following rTMS. Areas ventro-lateral to left IPS, including inferior parietal lobule (IPL), lateral IPS (LIPS), and middle occipital gyrus (MoG), showed decreased activity following rTMS, while dorsomedial areas, such as Superior Parietal Lobule (SPL), Superior occipital gyrus (SoG), and lingual gyrus, as well as middle temporal areas (MT+), showed higher activity. The brain activity of the homologues of these regions in the un-stimulated, right hemisphere was reversed. Interestingly, the evolution of network-wide activation related to attentional behavior following rTMS showed that activation of most occipital synergists adaptively compensated for contralateral and ipsilateral decrement after rTMS, while activation of parietal synergists, and SoG remained competing. This pattern of ipsilateral and contralateral activations empirically supports the hypothesized loss of inter-hemispheric balance that underlies clinical manifestation of visual attentional extinction.

  3. The compensatory dynamic of inter-hemispheric interactions in visuospatial attention revealed using rTMS and fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Plow, Ela B.; Cattaneo, Zaira; Carlson, Thomas A.; Alvarez, George A.; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Battelli, Lorella

    2014-01-01

    A balance of mutual tonic inhibition between bi-hemispheric posterior parietal cortices is believed to play an important role in bilateral visual attention. However, experimental support for this notion has been mainly drawn from clinical models of unilateral damage. We have previously shown that low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) over the intraparietal sulcus (IPS) generates a contralateral attentional deficit in bilateral visual tracking. Here, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to study whether rTMS temporarily disrupts the inter-hemispheric balance between bilateral IPS in visual attention. Following application of 1 Hz rTMS over the left IPS, subjects performed a bilateral visual tracking task while their brain activity was recorded using fMRI. Behaviorally, tracking accuracy was reduced immediately following rTMS. Areas ventro-lateral to left IPS, including inferior parietal lobule (IPL), lateral IPS (LIPS), and middle occipital gyrus (MoG), showed decreased activity following rTMS, while dorsomedial areas, such as Superior Parietal Lobule (SPL), Superior occipital gyrus (SoG), and lingual gyrus, as well as middle temporal areas (MT+), showed higher activity. The brain activity of the homologues of these regions in the un-stimulated, right hemisphere was reversed. Interestingly, the evolution of network-wide activation related to attentional behavior following rTMS showed that activation of most occipital synergists adaptively compensated for contralateral and ipsilateral decrement after rTMS, while activation of parietal synergists, and SoG remained competing. This pattern of ipsilateral and contralateral activations empirically supports the hypothesized loss of inter-hemispheric balance that underlies clinical manifestation of visual attentional extinction. PMID:24860462

  4. Transient alcohol craving suppression by rTMS of dorsal anterior cingulate: an fMRI and LORETA EEG study.

    PubMed

    De Ridder, Dirk; Vanneste, Sven; Kovacs, Silvia; Sunaert, Stefan; Dom, Geert

    2011-05-27

    It has recently become clear that alcohol addiction might be related to a brain dysfunction, in which a genetic background and environmental factors shape brain mechanisms involved with alcohol consumption. Craving, a major component determining relapses in alcohol abuse has been linked to abnormal activity in the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsal anterior cingulated cortex (dACC) and amygdala. We report the results of a patient who underwent rTMS targeting the dACC using a double cone coil in an attempt to suppress very severe intractable alcohol craving. Functional imaging studies consisting of fMRI and resting state EEG were performed before rTMS, after successful rTMS and after unsuccessful rTMS with relapse. Craving was associated with EEG beta activity and connectivity between the dACC and PCC in the patient in comparison to a healthy population, which disappeared after successful rTMS. Cue induced worsening of craving pre-rTMS activated the ACC-vmPFC and PCC on fMRI, as well as the nucleus accumbens area, and lateral frontoparietal areas. The nucleus accumbens, ACC-vmPFC and PCC activation disappeared on fMRI following successful rTMS. Relapse was associated with recurrence of ACC and PCC EEG activity, but in gamma band, in comparison to a healthy population. On fMRI nucleus accumbens, ACC and PCC activation returned to the initial activation pattern. A pathophysiological approach is described to suppress alcohol craving temporarily by rTMS directed at the anterior cingulate. Linking functional imaging changes to craving intensity suggests this approach warrants further exploration.

  5. Comparing single-site with multisite rTMS for the treatment of chronic tinnitus – clinical effects and neuroscientific insights: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several years ago, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the auditory cortex has been introduced as a treatment approach for chronic tinnitus. Even if this treatment is beneficial for a subgroup of patients, the overall effects are limited. This limitation may be due to the fact that the auditory cortex is only one of several brain areas involved in tinnitus. Whereas auditory areas are considered to code for tinnitus loudness, conscious perception of and attention allocation to tinnitus is supposed to be reflected by network activity involving frontal and parietal cortical areas. The aim of the present study is to influence this frontoparietal network more efficiently by perturbing the most important nodes with rTMS. Methods/design This is a randomized, double-blind, parallel-group study. Patients receive rTMS treatment on 10 consecutive working days using either the multisite rTMS protocol (left dorsolateral prefrontal, 1,000 stimuli, 20 Hz; left temporoparietal, 1,000 stimuli, 1 Hz; right temporoparietal stimulation, 1,000 stimuli, 1 Hz) or a single-site protocol (unilateral stimulation of the temporoparietal cortex, 3,000 stimuli, 1 Hz). Individuals aged 18 to 70 years with chronic tinnitus ≥6-month duration and a Tinnitus Handicap Inventory score ≥38 are recruited for the study. A total of 50 patients are needed to detect a clinical relevant change of tinnitus severity (α = 0.05; 1 – β = 0.80). Primary outcome measures are the change in the Tinnitus Questionnaire score from baseline to the end of treatment as well as the number of treatment responders as defined by a reduction in the Tinnitus Questionnaire score of ≥5 points. Furthermore, changes in brain structure and activity are assessed using (functional) magnetic resonance imaging and electroencephalography in the resting state. Those measurements are also performed in 25 healthy control subjects. Discussion This study is designed to reveal whether network

  6. Cerebellar rTMS disrupts predictive language processing

    PubMed Central

    Lesage, Elise; Morgan, Blaire E.; Olson, Andrew C.; Meyer, Antje S.; Miall, R. Chris

    2012-01-01

    Summary The human cerebellum plays an important role in language, amongst other cognitive and motor functions [1], but a unifying theoretical framework about cerebellar language function is lacking. In an established model of motor control, the cerebellum is seen as a predictive machine, making short-term estimations about the outcome of motor commands. This allows for flexible control, on-line correction, and coordination of movements [2]. The homogeneous cytoarchitecture of the cerebellar cortex suggests that similar computations occur throughout the structure, operating on different input signals and with different output targets [3]. Several authors have therefore argued that this ‘motor’ model may extend to cerebellar nonmotor functions [3–5], and that the cerebellum may support prediction in language processing [6]. However, this hypothesis has never been directly tested. Here, we used the ‘Visual World’ paradigm [7], where on-line processing of spoken sentence content can be assessed by recording the latencies of listeners' eye movements towards objects mentioned. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was used to disrupt function in the right cerebellum, a region implicated in language [8]. After cerebellar rTMS, listeners showed delayed eye fixations to target objects predicted by sentence content, while there was no effect on eye fixations in sentences without predictable content. The prediction deficit was absent in two control groups. Our findings support the hypothesis that computational operations performed by the cerebellum may support prediction during both motor control and language processing. PMID:23017990

  7. Clinically Meaningful Efficacy and Acceptability of Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for Treating Primary Major Depression: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized, Double-Blind and Sham-Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Berlim, Marcelo T; Van den Eynde, Frederique; Jeff Daskalakis, Z

    2013-01-01

    Clinical trials on low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (LF-rTMS) over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex have yielded conflicting evidence concerning its overall efficacy for treating major depression (MD). As this may have been the result of limited statistical power of individual trials, we have carried the present systematic review and meta-analysis to examine this issue. We searched the literature for English language randomized, double-blind and sham-controlled trials (RCTs) on LF-rTMS for treating MD from 1995 through July 2012 using EMBASE, PsycINFO, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, SCOPUS, and ProQuest Dissertations & Theses, and from October 2008 until July 2012 using MEDLINE. The main outcome measures were response and remission rates as well as overall dropout rates at study end. We used a random-effects model, odds ratios (ORs) and number needed to treat (NNT). Data were obtained from eight RCTs, totaling 263 subjects with MD. After an average of 12.6±3.9 rTMS sessions, 38.2% (50/131) and 15.1% (20/132) of subjects receiving active LF-rTMS and sham rTMS were classified as responders (OR=3.35; 95% CI=1.4–8.02; p=0.007). Also, 34.6% (35/101) and 9.7% (10/103) of subjects receiving active LF-rTMS and sham rTMS were classified as remitters (OR=4.76; 95% CI=2.13–10.64; p<0.0001). The associated NNT for both response and remission rates was 5. Sensitivity analyses have shown that protocols delivering >1200 magnetic pulses in total as well as those offering rTMS as a monotherapy for MD were associated with higher rates of response to treatment. No differences on mean baseline depression scores and dropout rates for active and sham rTMS groups were found. Finally, the risk of publication bias was low. In conclusion, LF-rTMS is a promising treatment for MD, as it provides clinically meaningful benefits that are comparable to those of standard antidepressants and high-frequency rTMS. Furthermore, LF-rTMS seems to

  8. 1 Hz rTMS of the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) modifies sensorimotor timing

    PubMed Central

    Krause, Vanessa; Bashir, Shahid; Pollok, Bettina; Caipa, Anuhya; Schnitzler, Alfons; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2013-01-01

    In order to investigate the relevance of the left posterior parietal cortex (PPC) for precise sensorimotor timing we applied 1 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over left PPC, right PPC and visual cortex of healthy participants for ten minutes, respectively. The impact on sensorimotor timing of the right hand was assessed using a synchronization task that required subjects to synchronize their right index finger taps with respect to constant auditory, visual or auditory-visual pacing. Our results reveal reduced negative tap-to-pacer asynchronies following rTMS of the left PPC in all pacing conditions. This effect lasted for about 5 minutes after cessation of rTMS. Right PPC and visual cortex stimulation did not yield any significant behavioural effects. Since suppression of left PPC modified right-hand synchronization accuracy independent of the pacing signal’s modality, the present data support the significance of left PPC for anticipatory motor control over a primary role in multisensory integration. The present data suggest that 1 Hz rTMS might interrupt a matching process of anticipated and real sensorimotor feedback within PPC. Alternatively, downregulation of left PPC activity may affect M1 excitability via functional connections leading to a delay in motor output and, thus, smaller tap-to-pacer asynchronies. PMID:23103789

  9. Modulation of N400 in chronic non-fluent aphasia using low frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS).

    PubMed

    Barwood, Caroline H S; Murdoch, Bruce E; Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Lloyd, David; Riek, Stephan; O'Sullivan, John D; Coulthard, Alan; Wong, Andrew

    2011-03-01

    Low frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has previously been applied to language homologues in non-fluent populations of persons with aphasia yielding significant improvements in behavioral language function up to 43 months post stimulation. The present study aimed to investigate the electrophysiological correlates associated with the application of rTMS through measurement of the semantic based N400 Event-related brain potentials (ERP) component. Low frequency (1 Hz) rTMS was applied to the anterior portion of the homologue to Broca's area (pars triangularis), for 20 min per day for 10 days, using a stereotactic neuronavigational system. Twelve non-fluent persons with aphasia, 2-6 years post stroke were stimulated. Six participants were randomly assigned to receive real stimulation and six participants were randomly assigned to receive a blind sham control condition. ERP measures were recorded at baseline, 1 week and 2 months subsequent to stimulation. The findings demonstrate treatment related changes observed in the stimulation group when compared to the placebo control group at 2 months post stimulation indicating neuromodulation of N400 as a result of rTMS. No treatment related changes were identified in the stimulation group, when compared to the sham group from baseline to 1 week post stimulation. The electrophysiological results represent the capacity of rTMS to modulate neural language networks and measures of lexical-semantic function in participants with non-fluent aphasia and suggest that time may be an important factor in brain reorganization subsequent to rTMS.

  10. Activities of the WASVSO Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simonsen, Michael A.; van Poucker, Joseph F.; Greene, Stephen M.

    2001-04-01

    This poster outlines the goals, activities, and achievements of the Warren Astronomical Society Variable Star Observers (WASVSO), a special-interest sub-group of the Warren Astronomical Society in Michigan. The WASVSO holds monthly meetings to discuss variable star behavior, terminology, current events, observing techniques, Internet resources, software, and of course, the weather. Ongoing projects include monitoring cataclysmic variables, active galactic nuclei, and stars that need more observations from the AAVSO "News Flashes" and "Alert Notices". We are also actively involved in "spreading the word" about AAVSO and variable star observing through presentations at star parties and a speaker exchange program with other astronomy clubs throughout the Midwest and Canada. The WASVSO also maintains an impressive website featuring member areas, upcoming events, articles on variable stars and observing techniques, charts for obscure cataclsmic variables, utilities for observing, and links to variable star organizations and observers throughout the world. Members of the WASVSO contributed 94% of all variable star observations submitted to the AAVSO from Michigan in the fiscal year 2000-2001, and our enthusiasm has catapulted Michigan from 20th place to 11th in overall numbers of US observations submitted to AAVSO in one year.

  11. Analgesic effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with chronic low back pain.

    PubMed

    Ambriz-Tututi, Mónica; Alvarado-Reynoso, Beatriz; Drucker-Colín, René

    2016-08-22

    The objective of the present study was to assess the benefits of 1-week repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in patients with chronic low back pain (LBP). The visual analogue scale (VAS), Short Form McGill pain questionnaire (SF-MPQ), and Short Form 36 Health Survey were used to evaluate the effect of this treatment. Eighty-two patients diagnosed with LBP were divided randomly into three groups: rTMS-treated group, sham group, and physical therapy-treated group. We observed a significant reduction in VAS and SF-MPQ scores in the rTMS-treated group, but not in the sham group. Moreover, patients who received rTMS had a lower mean pain score than patients treated with physical therapy. Our study suggests that rTMS produces safe, significant, and long-term relief in patients with LBP without evident side effects. This study shows for the first time that long-term repeated sessions of rTMS decrease pain perception of LBP. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Meta-analysis of the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on negative and positive symptoms in schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Freitas, Catarina; Fregni, Felipe; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro

    2009-01-01

    Background A growing body of evidence suggests that repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can alleviate negative and positive symptoms of refractory schizophrenia. However, trials to date have been small and results are mixed. Methods We performed meta-analyses of all prospective studies of the therapeutic application of rTMS in refractory schizophrenia assessing the effects of high-frequency rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) to treat negative symptoms, and low-frequency rTMS to the left temporo-parietal cortex (TPC) to treat auditory hallucinations (AH) and overall positive symptoms. Results When analyzing controlled (active arms) and uncontrolled studies together, the effect sizes showed significant and moderate effects of rTMS on negative and positive symptoms (based on PANSS-N or SANS, and PANSS-P or SAPS, respectively). However, the analysis for the sham-controlled studies revealed a small non-significant effect size for negative (0.27, p=0.417) and for positive symptoms (0.17, p=0.129). When specifically analyzing AH (based on AHRS, HCS or SAH), the effect size for the sham-controlled studies was large and significant (1.04; p=0.002). Conclusions These meta-analyses support the need for further controlled, larger trials to assess the clinical efficacy of rTMS on negative and positive symptoms of schizophrenia, while suggesting the need for exploration for alternative stimulation protocols. PMID:19138833

  13. Cerebral Processing of Prosodic Emotional Signals: Evaluation of a Network Model Using rTMS

    PubMed Central

    Plewnia, Christian; Wildgruber, Dirk

    2014-01-01

    A great number of functional imaging studies contributed to developing a cerebral network model illustrating the processing of prosody in the brain. According to this model, the processing of prosodic emotional signals is divided into three main steps, each related to different brain areas. The present study sought to evaluate parts of the aforementioned model by using low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over two important brain regions identified by the model: the superior temporal cortex (Experiment 1) and the inferior frontal cortex (Experiment 2). The aim of both experiments was to reduce cortical activity in the respective brain areas and evaluate whether these reductions lead to measurable behavioral effects during prosody processing. However, results obtained in this study revealed no rTMS effects on the acquired behavioral data. Possible explanations for these findings are discussed in the paper. PMID:25171220

  14. Teaching Interpersonal Skills through Group Activities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrew, Linda G.; Lewis, Stephen D.

    1998-01-01

    Indicates the importance of interpersonal skills in the workplace and suggests that the business curricula offers many opportunities for incorporation of group activities. Offers steps for planning student group activities. (JOW)

  15. 10 Hz rTMS over right parietal cortex alters sense of agency during self-controlled movements

    PubMed Central

    Ritterband-Rosenbaum, Anina; Karabanov, Anke N.; Christensen, Mark S.; Nielsen, Jens Bo

    2014-01-01

    A large body of fMRI and lesion-literature has provided evidence that the Inferior Parietal Cortex (IPC) is important for sensorimotor integration and sense of agency (SoA). We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to explore the role of the IPC during a validated SoA detection task. 12 healthy, right-handed adults were included. The effects of rTMS on subjects' SoA during self-controlled movements were explored. The experiment consisted of 1/3 self-controlled movements and 2/3 computer manipulated movements that introduced uncertainty as to whether the subjects were agents of an observed movement. Subjects completed three sessions, in which subjects received online rTMS over the right IPC (active condition), over the vertex (CZ) (sham condition) or no TMS but a sound-matched control. We found that rTMS over right IPC significantly altered SoA of the non-perturbed movements. Following IPC stimulation subjects were more likely to experience self-controlled movements as being externally perturbed compared to the control site (P = 0.002) and the stimulation-free control (P = 0.042). The data support the importance of IPC activation during sensorimotor comparison in order to correctly determine the agent of movements. PMID:25009489

  16. Inhibitory repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex modulates early affective processing.

    PubMed

    Zwanzger, Peter; Steinberg, Christian; Rehbein, Maimu Alissa; Bröckelmann, Ann-Kathrin; Dobel, Christian; Zavorotnyy, Maxim; Domschke, Katharina; Junghöfer, Markus

    2014-11-01

    The dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (dlPFC) has often been suggested as a key modulator of emotional stimulus appraisal and regulation. Therefore, in clinical trials, it is one of the most frequently targeted regions for non-invasive brain stimulation such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). In spite of various encouraging reports that demonstrate beneficial effects of rTMS in anxiety disorders, psychophysiological studies exploring the underlying neural mechanisms are sparse. Here we investigated how inhibitory rTMS influences early affective processing when applied over the right dlPFC. Before and after rTMS or sham stimulation, subjects viewed faces with fearful or neutral expressions while whole-head magnetoencephalography (MEG) was recorded. Due to the disrupted functioning of the right dlPFC, visual processing in bilateral parietal, temporal, and occipital areas was amplified starting at around 90 ms after stimulus onset. Moreover, increased fear-specific activation was found in the right TPJ area in a time-interval between 110 and 170 ms. These neurophysiological effects were reflected in slowed reaction times for fearful, but not for neutral faces in a facial expression identification task while there was no such effect on a gender discrimination control task. Our study confirms the specific and important role of the dlPFC in regulation of early emotional attention and encourages future clinical research to use minimal invasive methods such as transcranial magnetic (TMS) or direct current stimulation (tDCS).

  17. Chemically-related Groups of Active Ingredients

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Many pesticide active ingredients affect pests in similar ways, and we re-evaluate them together as a group. Groups include carbamate insecticides, neonicotinoids, organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethrins, and pyrethroids.

  18. Poor Tolerance of Motor Cortex rTMS in Chronic Migraine

    PubMed Central

    Teo, Wei-Peng; Kannan, Aravinda; Loh, Pei-Kee; Chew, Effie; Sharma, Vijay Kumar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Two small studies had evaluated the efficacy of rTMS in migraine. One tested high frequency rTMS over the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex while the other evaluated 1 Hz rTMS over the vertex. Aim: To test the feasibility of 10 Hz rTMS of motor cortex as an adjunctive therapy in patients with chronic migraine Materials and Methods: We randomized (2:1 ratio) chronic migraine patients on medical preventive treatment to receive either rTMS or sham therapy for 10 sessions. rTMS (80% resting motor threshold, 10Hz, 20 trains, 5 secs/train, inter-train interval 1 min, total 1000 stimuli/session) was applied over the right motor cortex. Result: Nine patients were randomized. Six received rTMS and three had sham therapy. Three patients in the rTMS arm withdrew from the study due to increased headache frequency and discomfort from the treatment. The remaining six cases (3 rTMS, 3 sham) completed the study. The study was prematurely stopped due to the significant worsening of headache from rTMS. No significant differences in outcome measures were found between real and sham rTMS. Conclusion: Although the study was terminated prematurely, the high dropout rate (50%) due to worsening headaches suggested that rTMS over the motor cortex is poorly tolerated in chronic migraine. PMID:25386478

  19. Cumulative sessions of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) build up facilitation to subsequent TMS-mediated behavioural disruptions.

    PubMed

    Valero-Cabré, Antoni; Pascual-Leone, Alvaro; Rushmore, Richard J

    2008-02-01

    A single session of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can induce behavioural effects that outlast the duration of the stimulation train itself (off-line effects). Series of rTMS sessions on consecutive days are being used for therapeutic applications in a variety of disorders and are assumed to lead to the build-up of cumulative effects. However, no studies have carefully assessed this notion. In the present study we applied 30 daily sessions of 1 Hz rTMS (continuous train of 20 min) to repeatedly modulate activity in the posterior parietal cortex and associated neural systems in two intact cats. We assessed the effect on visuospatial orientation before and after each stimulation session. Cumulative sessions of rTMS progressively induced visuospatial neglect-like 'after-effects' of greater magnitude (from 5-10% to 40-50% error levels) and increasing spatial extent (from 90-75 degrees to 45-30 degrees eccentricity locations), affecting the visual hemifield contralateral to the stimulated hemisphere. Nonetheless, 60 min after each TMS session, visual detection-localization abilities repeatedly returned to baseline levels. Furthermore, no lasting behavioural effect could be demonstrated at any time across the study, when subjects were tested 1 or 24 h post-rTMS. We conclude that the past history of periodically cumulative rTMS sessions builds up a lasting 'memory', resulting in increased facilitation to subsequent TMS-induced disruptions. Such a phenomenon allows a behavioural effect of progressively higher magnitude, but equal duration, in response to individual TMS interventions.

  20. Abnormal short-latency synaptic plasticity in the motor cortex of subjects with Becker muscular dystrophy: a rTMS study.

    PubMed

    Golaszewski, Stefan; Schwenker, Kerstin; Bergmann, Jürgen; Brigo, Francesco; Christova, Monica; Trinka, Eugen; Nardone, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    We used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to further investigate motor cortex excitability in 13 patients with Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), six of them with slight mental retardation. RTMS delivered at 5Hz frequency and suprathreshold intensity progressively increases the size of motor evoked potentials (MEPs) in healthy subjects; the rTMS-induced facilitation of MEPs was significantly reduced in the BMD patients mentally retarded or classified as borderline when compared with age-matched control subjects and the BMD patients with normal intelligence. The increase in the duration of the cortical silent period was similar in both patient groups and controls. These findings suggest an altered cortical short-term synaptic plasticity in glutamate-dependent excitatory circuits within the motor cortex in BMD patients with intellectual disabilities. RTMS studies may shed new light on the physiological mechanisms of cortical involvement in dystrophinopathies.

  1. Small Group Activities for Introductory Business Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mundrake, George

    1999-01-01

    Describes numerous small-group activities for the following areas of basic business education: consumer credit, marketing, business organization, entrepreneurship, insurance, risk management, economics, personal finance, business careers, global markets, and government regulation. (SK)

  2. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) influences spatial cognition and modulates hippocampal structural synaptic plasticity in aging mice.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun; Zhang, Zhanchi; Kang, Lin; Geng, Dandan; Wang, Yanyong; Wang, Mingwei; Cui, Huixian

    2014-10-01

    Normal aging is characteristic with the gradual decline in cognitive function associated with the progressive reduction of structural and functional plasticity in the hippocampus. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has developed into a novel neurological and psychiatric tool that can be used to investigate the neurobiology of cognitive function. Recent studies have demonstrated that low-frequency rTMS (≤1Hz) affects synaptic plasticity in rats with vascular dementia (VaD), and it ameliorates the spatial cognitive ability in mice with Aβ1-42-mediated memory deficits, but there are little concerns about the effects of rTMS on normal aging related cognition and synaptic plasticity changes. Thus, the current study investigated the effects of rTMS on spatial memory behavior, neuron and synapse morphology in the hippocampus, and synaptic protein markers and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) in normal aging mice, to illustrate the mechanisms of rTMS in regulating cognitive capacity. Relative to adult animals, aging caused hippocampal-dependent cognitive impairment, simultaneously inhibited the activation of the BDNF-TrkB signaling pathway, reduced the transcription and expression of synaptic protein markers: synaptophysin (SYN), growth associated protein 43 (GAP43) and post-synaptic density protein 95 (PSD95), as well as decreased synapse density and PSD (post-synaptic density) thickness. Interestingly, rTMS with low intensity (110% average resting motor threshold intensity, 1Hz, LIMS) triggered the activation of BDNF and TrkB, upregulated the level of synaptic protein markers, and increased synapse density and thickened PSD, and further reversed the spatial cognition dysfunction in aging mice. Conversely, high-intensity magnetic stimulation (150% average resting motor threshold intensity, 1Hz, HIMS) appeared to be detrimental, inducing thinning of PSDs, disordered synaptic structure, and a large number of

  3. Effects of weekly low-frequency rTMS on autonomic measures in children with autism spectrum disorder

    PubMed Central

    Casanova, Manuel Fernando; Hensley, Marie K.; Sokhadze, Estate M.; El-Baz, Ayman S.; Wang, Yao; Li, Xiaoli; Sears, Lonnie

    2014-01-01

    The term autism spectrum disorder (ASD) describes a range of conditions characterized by impairments in social interactions, communication, and by restricted and repetitive behaviors. Autism spectrum disorder may also present with symptoms suggestive of autonomic nervous system (ANS) dysfunction. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of 18 sessions of low frequency (LF) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on autonomic function in children with ASD by recording electrocardiogram (ECG) and electrodermal activity (EDA) pre- post- and during each rTMS session. The autonomic measures of interest in this study were R-R cardiointervals in EKG (R-R), time and frequency domain measures of heart rate variability (HRV) and skin conductance level (SCL). Heart rate variability measures such as R-R intervals, standard deviation of cardiac intervals, pNN50 (percentage of cardiointervals >50 ms different from preceding interval), power of high frequency (HF) and LF components of HRV spectrum, LF/HF ratio, were then derived from the recorded EKG. We expected that the course of 18 weekly inhibitory LF rTMS applied to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) would enhance autonomic balance by facilitating frontal inhibition of limbic activity thus resulting in decreased overall heart rate (HR), increased HRV (in a form of increased HF power), decreased LF power (resulting in decreased LF/HF ratio), and decreased SCL. Behavioral evaluations post-18 TMS showed decreased irritability, hyperactivity, stereotype behavior and compulsive behavior ratings while autonomic measures indicated a significant increase in cardiac interval variability and a decrease of tonic SCL. The results suggest that 18 sessions of LF rTMS in ASD results in increased cardiac vagal control and reduced sympathetic arousal. PMID:25374530

  4. Right prefrontal rTMS treatment for refractory auditory command hallucinations - a neuroSPECT assisted case study.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Shaul; Dannon, Pinhas N; Goshen, Elinor; Amiaz, Revital; Zwas, Tzila S; Grunhaus, Leon

    2002-11-30

    Auditory command hallucinations probably arise from the patient's failure to monitor his/her own 'inner speech', which is connected to activation of speech perception areas of the left cerebral cortex and to various degrees of dysfunction of cortical circuits involved in schizophrenia as supported by functional brain imaging. We hypothesized that rapid transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), by increasing cortical activation of the right prefrontal brain region, would bring about a reduction of the hallucinations. We report our first schizophrenic patient affected with refractory command hallucinations treated with 10 Hz rTMS. Treatment was performed over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, with 1200 magnetic stimulations administered daily for 20 days at 90% motor threshold. Regional cerebral blood flow changes were monitored with neuroSPECT. Clinical evaluation and scores on the Positive and Negative Symptoms Scale and the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale demonstrated a global improvement in the patient's condition, with no change in the intensity and frequency of the hallucinations. NeuroSPECT performed at intervals during and after treatment indicated a general improvement in cerebral perfusion. We conclude that right prefrontal rTMS may induce a general clinical improvement of schizophrenic brain function, without directly influencing the mechanism involved in auditory command hallucinations.

  5. Therapeutic impact of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on tinnitus: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Soleimani, Robabeh; Jalali, Mir Mohammad; Hasandokht, Tolou

    2016-07-01

    In this study, we conducted a systematic literature review and meta-analysis on the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) compared with sham in chronic tinnitus patients. We searched databases, from their onset up to August 2014, for randomized controlled trials (RCT) in English that assessed the effectiveness of rTMS for chronic tinnitus. RCTs were selected according to inclusion/exclusion criteria before data were extracted. For the meta-analysis weighted mean differences (and standard deviations) of Tinnitus Questionnaire (TQ) and Tinnitus Handicap Inventory (THI) scores were determined. Therapeutic success was defined as difference of at least 7 points in the THI score between baseline and the follow-up assessment after treatment. The odds ratio (OR) for this variable was assessed. Results from 15 RCTs were analyzed. The mean difference for TQ score at 1 week after intervention was 3.42. For THI, the data of mean difference score in two groups, 1 and 6 month after intervention, was 6.71 and 12.89, respectively. The all comparisons indicated a significant medium to large effect size in follow-up which is in favor of the rTMS. The pooled OR of therapeutic success of the studies which used THI at 1 month after intervention was 15.75. These data underscore the clinical effect of rTMS in the treatment of tinnitus. However, there is high variability of studies design and reported outcomes. Replication of data in multicenter trials with a large number of patients and long-term follow-up is needed before further conclusions can be drawn.

  6. Dexterity with numbers: rTMS over left angular gyrus disrupts finger gnosis and number processing.

    PubMed

    Rusconi, Elena; Walsh, Vincent; Butterworth, Brian

    2005-01-01

    Since the original description of Gerstmann's syndrome with its four cardinal symptoms, among which are finger agnosia and acalculia, the neuro-cognitive relationship between fingers and calculation has been debated. We asked our participants to perform four different tasks, two of which involved fingers and the other two involving numbers, during repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the posterior parietal lobe of either hemisphere. In the finger tasks, they were required to transform a tactile stimulus randomly delivered on one of their fingers into a speeded key-press response either with the same or with the homologous finger on the opposite hand. In the numerical tasks, they were asked to perform a magnitude or a parity matching on pairs of single digits, in the context of arithmetically related or unrelated numerical primes. In accordance with the original anatomical hypothesis put forward by Gerstmann [Gerstmann, J. (1924). Fingeragnosie: eine umschriebene Stoerung der Orienterung am eigenen Koerper. Wiener clinische Wochenschrift, 37, 1010-12], we found that rTMS over the left angular gyrus disrupted tasks requiring access to the finger schema and number magnitude processing in the same group of participants. In addition to the numerous studies which have employed special populations such as neurological patients and children, our data confirm the presence of a relationship between numbers and body knowledge in skilled adults who no longer use their fingers for solving simple arithmetical tasks.

  7. Primary motor cortex functionally contributes to language comprehension: An online rTMS study.

    PubMed

    Vukovic, Nikola; Feurra, Matteo; Shpektor, Anna; Myachykov, Andriy; Shtyrov, Yury

    2017-02-01

    Among various questions pertinent to grounding human cognitive functions in a neurobiological substrate, the association between language and motor brain structures is a particularly debated one in neuroscience and psychology. While many studies support a broadly distributed model of language and semantics grounded, among other things, in the general modality-specific systems, theories disagree as to whether motor and sensory cortex activity observed during language processing is functional or epiphenomenal. Here, we assessed the role of motor areas in linguistic processing by investigating the responses of 28 healthy volunteers to different word types in semantic and lexical decision tasks, following repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of primary motor cortex. We found that early rTMS (delivered within 200ms of word onset) produces a left-lateralised and meaning-specific change in reaction speed, slowing down behavioural responses to action-related words, and facilitating abstract words - an effect present only during semantic, but not lexical, decision. We interpret these data in light of action-perception theory of language, bolstering the claim that motor cortical areas play a functional role in language comprehension.

  8. Advanced Extravehicular Activity Breakout Group Summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kosmo, Joseph J.; Perka, Alan; Walz, Carl; Cobb, Sharon; Hanford, Anthony; Eppler, Dean

    2005-01-01

    This viewgraph document summarizes the workings of the Advanced Extravehicular Activity (AEVA) Breakout group in a Martian environment. The group was tasked with: identifying potential contaminants and pathways for AEVA systems with respect to forward and backward contamination; identifying plausible mitigation alternatives and obstacles for pertinent missions; identifying topics that require further research and technology development and discuss development strategies with uncertain Planetary Protection (PP) requirements; Identifying PP requirements that impose the greatest mission/development costs; Identifying PP requirements/topics that require further definition;

  9. Combining rTMS and Task-Oriented Training in the Rehabilitation of the Arm after Stroke: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Haiqun

    2013-01-01

    Introduction. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a promising technique for promoting rehabilitation of arm function after stroke. The feasibility and impact of rTMS as an adjunct to traditional task-oriented training to improve arm function have not yet been demonstrated. Objective. Evaluate the feasibility of a randomized controlled trial aimed at determining the efficacy of rTMS as an adjunct to task-oriented therapy in facilitating restoration of arm function after stroke. Methods. Stratified block-randomized controlled trial set in the general community. Eleven stroke persons with mild to severe arm deficits were recruited and randomized to receive 8 sessions of real-rTMS or sham-rTMS followed by ninety minutes of arm tasks designed to improve function. Results. Medium to large, statistically significant effect sizes (0.49 to 1.63) were observed in both groups on several measures of arm function at the postintervention evaluation. Three out of four subjects in the real-TMS condition showed increased levels of corticomotor excitability after the first stimulation session. Conclusions. Preliminary evidence suggests that an rTMS protocol potent enough to induce transient increases in cortical excitability of the lesioned hemisphere is feasible but did not show promising results as an adjunct to task-specific training. This trial is registration with Clinical Trials.gov NCT00850408. PMID:24363954

  10. Shaped magnetic field pulses by multi-coil repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) differentially modulate anterior cingulate cortex responses and pain in volunteers and fibromyalgia patients

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has shown promise in the alleviation of acute and chronic pain by altering the activity of cortical areas involved in pain sensation. However, current single-coil rTMS technology only allows for effects in surface cortical structures. The ability to affect activity in certain deep brain structures may however, allow for a better efficacy, safety, and tolerability. This study used PET imaging to determine whether a novel multi-coil rTMS would allow for preferential targeting of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex (dACC), an area always activated with pain, and to provide preliminary evidence as to whether this targeted approach would allow for efficacious, safe, and tolerable analgesia both in a volunteer/acute pain model as well as in fibromyalgia chronic pain patients. Methods Part 1: Different coil configurations were tested in a placebo-controlled crossover design in volunteers (N = 16). Tonic pain was induced using a capsaicin/thermal pain model and functional brain imaging was performed by means of H215O positron emission tomography – computed tomography (PET/CT) scans. Differences in NRS pain ratings between TMS and sham treatment (NRSTMS-NRSplacebo) which were recorded each minute during the 10 minute PET scans. Part 2: 16 fibromyalgia patients were subjected to 20 multi-coil rTMS treatments over 4 weeks and effects on standard pain scales (Brief Pain Inventory, item 5, i.e. average pain NRS over the last 24 hours) were recorded. Results A single 30 minute session using one of 3 tested rTMS coil configurations operated at 1 Hz consistently produced robust reduction (mean 70% on NRS scale) in evoked pain in volunteers. In fibromyalgia patients, the 20 rTMS sessions also produced a significant pain inhibition (43% reduction in NRS pain over last 24 hours), but only when operated at 10 Hz. This degree of pain control was maintained for at least 4 weeks after the final session

  11. Low-frequency rTMS in patients with subacute ischemic stroke: clinical evaluation of short and long-term outcomes and neurophysiological assessment of cortical excitability

    PubMed Central

    Blesneag, AV; Slăvoacă, DF; Popa, L; Stan, AD; Jemna, N; Isai Moldovan, F; Mureșanu, DF

    2015-01-01

    Rationale: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is used alone or in combination with physiotherapy for rehabilitation of stroke patients. TMS mapping can also quantify the excitability of the motor area in both the ipsilesional (IL) and contralateral (CL) hemisphere. Objective: This study is the first to measure the dynamics of cortical excitability by TMS mapping before and after treatment with low-frequency (LF) rTMS in the contralesional hemisphere at three different timepoints. Furthermore, the patients were clinically evaluated during the same visit as the mapping to establish both short and long-term outcomes after rTMS treatment. Methods and Results: A total of 16 participants with acute ischemic stroke were assessed 10 days post-stroke by TMS mapping. The patients were randomized into two equal groups: a real rTMS group and a sham group. The rTMS group received LF-rTMS to the contralesional hemisphere for 10 days, starting on the first day after the first mapping. Each subject was also evaluated by mapping on days 45 and 90 after stroke onset. The primary clinical outcome measured was the Fugl-Meyer Assessment for Upper Extremity (FMA-UE) on days 10, 45 and 90 post-stroke. At 10 days after stroke onset, both groups presented low excitability in the lesion side and high excitability in the non-affected side. In the real rTMS group, at 45 days after stroke, a downward trend in the excitability of the contralesional hemisphere and an upward trend in the excitability of the lesioned side were observed. At 90 days after stroke, a tendency toward balanced excitability between both hemispheres was observed. In the sham group, at both 45 and 90 days, we observed increased excitability in the non-affected side compared to the side with the lesioned motor area. At 45 days, the real rTMS group demonstrated a better recovery of the upper limb motor function than the sham group, but at 90 days, there was no significant difference between the two groups

  12. Contribution of TMS and rTMS in the Understanding of the Pathophysiology and in the Treatment of Dystonia

    PubMed Central

    Lozeron, Pierre; Poujois, Aurélia; Richard, Alexandra; Masmoudi, Sana; Meppiel, Elodie; Woimant, France; Kubis, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    Dystonias represent a heterogeneous group of movement disorders responsible for sustained muscle contraction, abnormal postures, and muscle twists. It can affect focal or segmental body parts or be generalized. Primary dystonia is the most common form of dystonia but it can also be secondary to metabolic or structural dysfunction, the consequence of a drug’s side-effect or of genetic origin. The pathophysiology is still not elucidated. Based on lesion studies, dystonia has been regarded as a pure motor dysfunction of the basal ganglia loop. However, basal ganglia lesions do not consistently produce dystonia and lesions outside basal ganglia can lead to dystonia; mild sensory abnormalities have been reported in the dystonic limb and imaging studies have shown involvement of multiple other brain regions including the cerebellum and the cerebral motor, premotor and sensorimotor cortices. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is a non-invasive technique of brain stimulation with a magnetic field applied over the cortex allowing investigation of cortical excitability. Hyperexcitability of contralateral motor cortex has been suggested to be the trigger of focal dystonia. High or low frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) can induce excitatory or inhibitory lasting effects beyond the time of stimulation and protocols have been developed having either a positive or a negative effect on cortical excitability and associated with prevention of cell death, γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) interneurons mediated inhibition and brain-derived neurotrophic factor modulation. rTMS studies as a therapeutic strategy of dystonia have been conducted to modulate the cerebral areas involved in the disease. Especially, when applied on the contralateral (pre)-motor cortex or supplementary motor area of brains of small cohorts of dystonic patients, rTMS has shown a beneficial transient clinical effect in association with restrained motor cortex excitability. TMS is currently a valuable tool to

  13. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Affects Event-Related Potential Measures of Novelty Processing in Autism

    PubMed Central

    Baruth, Joshua; Tasman, Allan; Mansoor, Mehreen; Ramaswamy, Rajesh; Sears, Lonnie; Mathai, Grace; El-Baz, Ayman; Casanova, Manuel F.

    2009-01-01

    In our previous study on individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) (Sokhadze et al., Appl Psychophysiol Biofeedback 34:37–51, 2009a) we reported abnormalities in the attention-orienting frontal event-related potentials (ERP) and the sustained-attention centro-parietal ERPs in a visual oddball experiment. These results suggest that individuals with autism over-process information needed for the successful differentiation of target and novel stimuli. In the present study we examine the effects of low-frequency, repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on novelty processing as well as behavior and social functioning in 13 individuals with ASD. Our hypothesis was that low-frequency rTMS application to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLFPC) would result in an alteration of the cortical excitatory/inhibitory balance through the activation of inhibitory GABAergic double bouquet interneurons. We expected to find post-TMS differences in amplitude and latency of early and late ERP components. The results of our current study validate the use of low-frequency rTMS as a modulatory tool that altered the disrupted ratio of cortical excitation to inhibition in autism. After rTMS the parieto-occipital P50 amplitude decreased to novel distracters but not to targets; also the amplitude and latency to targets increased for the frontal P50 while decreasing to non-target stimuli. Low-frequency rTMS minimized early cortical responses to irrelevant stimuli and increased responses to relevant stimuli. Improved selectivity in early cortical responses lead to better stimulus differentiation at later-stage responses as was made evident by our P3b and P3a component findings. These results indicate a significant change in early, middle-latency and late ERP components at the frontal, centro-parietal, and parieto-occipital regions of interest in response to target and distracter stimuli as a result of rTMS treatment. Overall, our preliminary results show that rTMS may prove to

  14. Effects of high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on spontaneously hypertensive rats, an animal model of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jungyun; Park, Heamen; Yu, Seong-Lan; Jee, Sungju; Cheon, Keun-Ah; Song, Dong Ho; Kim, Seung Jun; Im, Woo-Young; Kang, Jaeku

    2016-10-01

    The current treatment of choice for attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is pharmacotherapy. A search for new treatment options is underway, however, as the wide application of drugs to the general population of patients with ADHD is limited by side effects and the variance of pharmacokinetic effects of the drugs in each patient. In the present study, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive treatment used in a number of other psychiatric disorders, to spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs), an animal model of ADHD, in order to assess the efficacy of the treatment in modifying behavioural symptoms as well as levels of dopamine, noradrenaline, serotonin, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). A total of fifteen sessions of high-frequency rTMS treatment were administered. Behavioural symptoms were observed using open field, Y-maze, and elevated plus-maze tests. Upon completion of the experiments, rats were sacrificed, and the neurochemical changes in brain tissue were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography and Western blotting. The SHRs treated with rTMS tended to exhibit less locomotor activity in the open field test over the course of treatment, but there was no improvement in inattention as measured by the Y-maze test. Furthermore, BDNF concentration increased and noradrenaline concentration decreased in the prefrontal cortex of SHRs treated with rTMS. The results of the present preclinical study indicate that rTMS may constitute a new modality of treatment for patients with ADHD, through further evaluation of specific treatment parameters as well as safety and efficacy in humans are required.

  15. More female patients and fewer stimuli per session are associated with the short-term antidepressant properties of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS): a meta-analysis of 54 sham-controlled studies published between 1997–2013

    PubMed Central

    Kedzior, Karina Karolina; Azorina, Valeriya; Reitz, Sarah Kim

    2014-01-01

    Background Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) appears to have short-term antidepressant properties. The aim of the current study was to update our previous meta-analysis and to investigate factors associated with the antidepressant properties of rTMS. Method Following a systematic literature search conducted in Medline and PsycInfo, N=14 sham-controlled, parallel design studies (published after 2008 to August 2013) that had utilized rTMS of the DLPFC in major depression were included in the current meta-analysis. The sensitivity and moderator analyses also included data from N=40 studies (published in 1997–2008) from our previous meta-analysis. The effect size (Cohen’s d) in each study was the standardized difference in mean depression scores (on Hamilton Depression Rating Scale, Beck Depression Inventory, Montgomery Åsberg Depression Rating Scale) from baseline to final (after last session) in rTMS compared to sham groups. Results According to a random-effects model with inverse-variance weights, depression scores were significantly reduced after rTMS compared to sham in studies published from 2008–2013 based on N=659 patients (overall mean weighted d=−0.42, 95% confidence interval: −0.66, −0.18, P=0.001). Combining studies from our past and current meta-analyses (published in 1997–2013; N=54) revealed that depression was significantly reduced after left-fast (>1 Hz), right-slow (≤1 Hz), and bilateral (or sequential) rTMS of DLPFC compared to sham. Significant antidepressant properties of rTMS were observed in studies with patients who were treatment resistant, unipolar (or bipolar), non-psychotic, medication-free (or started on antidepressants concurrently with rTMS). According to univariate meta-regressions, depression scores were significantly lower in studies with more female patients and fewer stimuli per session. There was little evidence that publication bias occurred in the

  16. Low-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Modulates Evoked-Gamma Frequency Oscillations in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD)

    PubMed Central

    Baruth, Joshua M.; Casanova, Manuel F.; El-Baz, Ayman; Horrell, Tim; Mathai, Grace; Sears, Lonnie; Sokhadze, Estate

    2010-01-01

    Introduction It has been reported that individuals with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) have abnormal reactions to the sensory environment and visuo-perceptual abnormalities. Electrophysiological research has provided evidence that gamma band activity (30-80 Hz) is a physiological indicator of the co-activation of cortical cells engaged in processing visual stimuli and integrating different features of a stimulus. A number of studies have found augmented and indiscriminative gamma band power at early stages of visual processing in ASD; this may be related to decreased inhibitory processing and an increase in the ratio of cortical excitation to inhibition. Low frequency or ‘slow’ (≤1HZ) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been shown to increase inhibition of stimulated cortex by the activation of inhibitory circuits. Methods We wanted to test the hypothesis of gamma band abnormalities at early stages of visual processing in ASD by investigating relative evoked (i.e. ~ 100 ms) gamma power in 25 subjects with ASD and 20 age-matched controls using Kanizsa illusory figures. Additionally, we wanted to assess the effects of 12 sessions of bilateral ‘slow’ rTMS to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) on evoked gamma activity using a randomized controlled design. Results In individuals with ASD evoked gamma activity was not discriminative of stimulus type, whereas in controls early gamma power differences between target and non-target stimuli were highly significant. Following rTMS individuals with ASD showed significant improvement in discriminatory gamma activity between relevant and irrelevant visual stimuli. We also found significant improvement in the responses on behavioral questionnaires (i.e., irritability, repetitive behavior) as a result of rTMS. Conclusion We proposed that ‘slow’ rTMS may have increased cortical inhibitory tone which improved discriminatory gamma activity at early stages of visual processing. rTMS has the

  17. Contralateral neglect induced by right posterior parietal rTMS in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Fierro, B; Brighina, F; Oliveri, M; Piazza, A; La Bua, V; Buffa, D; Bisiach, E

    2000-05-15

    We applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in order to induce interference on visuo-spatial perception in 11 healthy subjects. Subjects performed a visuo-spatial task requiring judgements about the symmetry of prebisected lines. Visual stimuli consisted of symmetrically or asymmetrically transected lines, tachystoscopically presented for 50 ms on a computer-monitor. Performance was examined in basal condition and during rTMS trains of 10 stimuli at 25 Hz, delivered through a focal coil over right or left posterior parietal cortex (P5 and P6 sites) and triggered synchronously with visual stimulus. Randomly intermixed sham rTMS trains were employed to control for non-specific effects. Right parietal rTMS induced a significant rightward bias in symmetry judgements as compared with basal and sham rTMS conditions. No differences emerged between other conditions.

  18. New advances in the rehabilitation of CNS diseases applying rTMS.

    PubMed

    Málly, Judit; Stone, Trevor W

    2007-02-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) can directly stimulate the CNS, modifying the brain's plasticity to enhance the behavior of the paretic extremities. Studies with low-frequency repetitive TMS (rTMS) on the intact hemisphere and those with high frequencies on the affected hemisphere could increase the speed of movement in the hand affected by CNS injury. Stimulation of the motor pathway may contribute to faster improvement in patients with spinal cord injury. Symptoms of Parkinson's disease (such as cognition and working memory, neglect syndrome and global aphasia) can be influenced by rTMS. However, the site of stimulation and the parameters of rTMS are different. Processes that contribute to the behavior of rTMS include the modification of brain plasticity, induction of neurogenesis, growth of new fibers in the spinal cord or all of these together. According to previous research, rTMS may be suitable as an add-on therapy to rehabilitation in CNS diseases.

  19. History, Studies and Specific Uses of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in Treating Epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    NOOHI, Sima; AMIRSALARI, Susan

    2016-01-01

    Objective In this study, repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) and its specific use for treating epilepsy were carefully scrutinized. Materials & Methods Target researches such as review articles, case reports, books and theses, which had to do with therapeutic method of rTMS were surveyed. It is worth mentioning that until the final stages, the search for records and documents related to rTMS went on and in the end, the collected data underwent a qualitative analysis. Results As the literature review suggests, TMS principally applies electromagnetic induction to generate an electric current inside the brain without physical contact. The therapeutic uses of rTMS are for a wide range of mental disorders, namely epilepsy, chronic pains, motor disorders and so on. Conclusion Despite safety concerns and possible side effects, many researchers subscribe to rTMS and see a bright future for it. PMID:27057180

  20. Efficacy and safety of the Chinese herbal medicine shuganjieyu with and without adjunctive repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) for geriatric depression: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    XIE, Minmin; JIANG, Wenhai; YANG, Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Background Pharmacological treatment of geriatric depression is often ineffective because patients cannot tolerate adequate doses of antidepressant medications. Aim Examine the efficacy and safety of shuganjieyu – the first Chinese herbal medicine approved for the treatment of depression by China’s drug regulatory agency -- with and without adjunctive treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of geriatric depression. Methods Sixty-five inpatients 60 or older who met ICD-10 criteria for depression were randomly assigned to an experimental group (shuganjieyu + rTMS) (n=36) or a control group (shuganjieyu + sham rTMS)(n=29). All participants received 4 capsules of shuganjieyu daily for 6 weeks. rTMS (or sham rTMS) was administered 20 minutes daily, five days a week for 4 weeks. Blinded raters used the Hamilton Rating Scale for Depression (HAMD-17) and the Treatment Emergent Symptom Scale to assess clinical efficacy and safety at baseline and 1, 2, 4, and 6 weeks after starting treatment. Over the six-week trial, there was only one dropout from the experimental group and two dropouts from the control group. Results None of the patients had serious side effects, but 40% in the experimental group and 50% in the control group experienced minor side effects that all resolved spontaneously. Both groups showed substantial stepwise improvement in depressive symptoms over the 6 weeks. Repeated measures ANOVA found no differences between the two groups. After 6 weeks, 97% of the experimental group had experienced a 25% or greater drop in the level of depression, but only 20% had experience a 50% or greater drop in the level of depression; the corresponding values in the control group were 96% and 19%. There were some minor, non-significant differences in the onset of the treatment effect between the different types of depressive symptoms, but by the second week of treatment all five HAMD-17 subscale scores had improved significantly

  1. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) to Treat Social Anxiety Disorder: Case Reports and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Paes, Flávia; Baczynski, Tathiana; Novaes, Felipe; Marinho, Tamires; Arias-Carrión, Oscar; Budde, Henning; Sack, Alexander T.; Huston, Joseph P.; Almada, Leonardo Ferreira; Carta, Mauro; Silva, Adriana Cardoso; Nardi, Antonio E.; Machado, Sergio

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a common and debilitating anxiety disorders. However, few studies had been dedicated to the neurobiology underlying SAD until the last decade. Rates of non-responders to standard methods of treatment remain unsatisfactorily high of approximately 25%, including SAD. Advances in our understanding of SAD could lead to new treatment strategies. A potential non invasive therapeutic option is repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). Thus, we reported two cases of SAD treated with rTMS Methods: The bibliographical search used Pubmed/Medline, ISI Web of Knowledge and Scielo databases. The terms chosen for the search were: anxiety disorders, neuroimaging, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation. Results: In most of the studies conducted on anxiety disorders, except SAD, the right prefrontal cortex (PFC), more specifically dorsolateral PFC was stimulated, with marked results when applying high-rTMS compared with studies stimulating the opposite side. However, according to the “valence hypothesis”, anxiety disorders might be characterized by an interhemispheric imbalance associated with increased right-hemispheric activity. With regard to the two cases treated with rTMS, we found a decrease in BDI, BAI and LSAS scores from baseline to follow-up. Conclusion: We hypothesize that the application of low-rTMS over the right medial PFC (mPFC; the main structure involved in SAD circuitry) combined with high-rTMS over the left mPFC, for at least 4 weeks on consecutive weekdays, may induce a balance in brain activity, opening an attractive therapeutic option for the treatment of SAD. PMID:24278088

  2. Group Work vs. Whole Class Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tanveer, Asma

    2008-01-01

    Group work has only been recently introduced in the education system of Pakistan but many primary teachers, especially in the public schools, are still not aware of how different kinds of strategies that is group work and whole class teaching facilitate learning among students. This paper aims to provide an overview of teaching strategies to…

  3. Efficacy of deep rTMS for neuropathic pain in the lower limb: a randomized, double-blind crossover trial of an H-coil and figure-8 coil.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Takeshi; Hosomi, Koichi; Maruo, Tomoyuki; Goto, Yuko; Yokoe, Masaru; Kageyama, Yu; Shimokawa, Toshio; Yoshimine, Toshiki; Saitoh, Youichi

    2017-02-03

    OBJECTIVE Electrical motor cortex stimulation can relieve neuropathic pain (NP), but its use requires patients to undergo an invasive procedure. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the primary motor cortex (M1) using a figure-8 coil can relieve NP noninvasively, but its ability to relieve lower limb pain is still limited. Deep rTMS using an H-coil can effectively stimulate deep brain regions and has been widely used for the treatment of various neurological diseases; however, there have been no clinical studies comparing the effectiveness of figure-8 coils and H-coils. This study assessed the clinical effectiveness of 5 once-daily stimulations with H-coils and figure-8 coils in patients with NP. METHODS This randomized, double-blind, 3-way crossover trial examined 18 patients with NP who sequentially received 3 types of stimulations in the M1 for 5 consecutive days; each 5-day stimulation period was followed by a 17-day follow-up period before crossing over to the next type of stimulation. During each rTMS session, patients received a 5-Hz rTMS to the M1 region corresponding to the painful lower limb. The visual analog scale (VAS) and the Japanese version of the short-form McGill Pain Questionnaire 2 (SF-MPQ2-J) were used to measure pain intensity. The primary outcome was VAS score reduction immediately after and 1 hour after intervention. RESULTS Both the VAS and SF-MPQ2-J showed significant pain improvement immediately after deep rTMS with an H-coil as compared with the sham group (p < 0.001 and p = 0.049, respectively). However, neither outcome measure showed significant pain improvement when using a figure-8 coil. The VAS also showed significant pain improvement 1 hour after deep rTMS with an H-coil (p = 0.004) but not 1 hour after rTMS using a figure-8 coil. None of the patients exhibited any serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS The current findings suggest that the use of deep rTMS with an H-coil in the lower limb region of the M1 in

  4. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity which demonstrates standing waves in air generated by a loudspeaker driven by an audio oscillator. The waves are detected by cool spots on a glowing nichrome wire contained in an inexpensive piece of equipment. Also describes activities involving analysis of kinematics through data taking and graphing. (JM)

  5. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, Glenn; Insley, Peter

    1985-01-01

    Explains two activities: (1) a "rotator demonstration" (a turntable, pendulum, chalk, and other materials), which can be used in many activities to demonstrate rotational concepts; and (2) an "Eskimo yo-yo," consisting of two balls (plus long strings and a glass tube) which rotate in opposite directions to show centripetal force. (JN)

  6. Exploring Group Activity Therapy with Ethnically Diverse Adolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paone, Tina R.; Malott, Krista M.; Maldonado, Jose M.

    2008-01-01

    Group activity therapy has been promoted as an effective means of providing growth opportunities for adolescents through the use of structured, developmentally appropriate activities in a group setting. This article qualitatively explores outcomes of 12 sessions of group activity therapy with ethnically diverse adolescents in a school setting. The…

  7. Group Learning as Relational Economic Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saito, Eisuke; Atencio, Matthew

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to discuss group learning in line with economic perspectives of embeddedness and integration emanating from the work of Karl Polanyi. Polanyi's work defines economy as a necessary interaction among human beings for survival; the economy is considered inextricably linked from broader society and social relations rather…

  8. Doing Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Materials needed and procedures for conducting two activities are provided. The first investigates drops of a liquid which float on water in a watchglass resting on top of a loudspeaker. The second investigates electromagnetic phenomena. (JN)

  9. Active microwave users working group program planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ulaby, F. T.; Bare, J.; Brown, W. E., Jr.; Childs, L. F.; Dellwig, L. F.; Heighway, J. E.; Joosten, R.; Lewis, A. J.; Linlor, W.; Lundien, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    A detailed programmatic and technical development plan for active microwave technology was examined in each of four user activities: (1) vegetation; (2) water resources and geologic applications, and (4) oceanographic applications. Major application areas were identified, and the impact of each application area in terms of social and economic gains were evaluated. The present state of knowledge of the applicability of active microwave remote sensing to each application area was summarized and its role relative to other remote sensing devices was examined. The analysis and data acquisition techniques needed to resolve the effects of interference factors were reviewed to establish an operational capability in each application area. Flow charts of accomplished and required activities in each application area that lead to operational capability were structured.

  10. rTMS of the occipital cortex abolishes Braille reading and repetition priming in blind subjects.

    PubMed

    Kupers, R; Pappens, M; de Noordhout, A Maertens; Schoenen, J; Ptito, M; Fumal, A

    2007-02-27

    To study the functional involvement of the visual cortex in Braille reading, we applied repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over midoccipital (MOC) and primary somatosensory (SI) cortex in blind subjects. After rTMS of MOC, but not SI, subjects made significantly more errors and showed an abolishment of the improvement in reading speed following repetitive presentation of the same word list, suggesting a role of the visual cortex in repetition priming in the blind.

  11. The role of the ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex in idiom comprehension: An rTMS study.

    PubMed

    Häuser, Katja I; Titone, Debra A; Baum, Shari R

    2016-10-01

    Previous research is equivocal with respect to the neural substrates of idiom processing. Particularly elusive is the role of the left ventro-lateral prefrontal cortex (VLPFC), a region implicated in semantic control generally. Although fMRI studies have shown that the left VLPFC is active during idiom processing (see Rapp et al. (2012), for review), rTMS studies have failed to corroborate a clear role of this prefrontal region (e.g., Oliveri et al., 2004). We investigated this issue using a semantic meaningfulness judgment task that compared idiom comprehension following rTMS-stimulation to the left VLPFC relative to a control site (vertex). We also investigated whether individual differences in general cognitive capacity among comprehenders modulated the effects of rTMS. The results indicate that left VLPFC stimulation particularly affected the processing of low-familiar idioms, possibly because these items involve a maximal semantic conflict between a salient literal and less-known figurative meaning. Of note, this pattern only emerged for comprehenders with higher cognitive control capacity, possibly because they were more likely to activate or maintain multiple semantic representations during idiom processing, which required VLPFC integrity. Taken together, the results support the importance of the left VLPFC to idiom processing.

  12. Improvements in hand function in adults with chronic tetraplegia following a multi-day 10Hz rTMS intervention combined with repetitive task practice

    PubMed Central

    Gomes-Osman, Joyce; Field-Fote, Edelle C.

    2014-01-01

    Background and Purpose Evidence suggests the use of stimulation to increase corticomotor excitability improves hand function in persons with cervical spinal cord injury (SCI). We assessed effects of multi-day application of 10Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) applied to the corticomotor hand area combined with repetitive task practice (RTP) in participants with tetraplegia and neurologically healthy participants. Methods Using a double-blind randomized crossover design, 11 participants with chronic tetraplegia and 10 neurologically healthy participants received 3 sessions of 10Hz rTMS+RTP and 3 sessions of sham-rTMS+RTP to the corticomotor hand region controlling the weaker hand. RTMS was interleaved with RTP of a skilled motor task between pulse trains. Hand function (Jebsen-Taylor Hand Function Test [JTT], pinch, and grasp strength) and corticomotor excitability (amplitude of motor-evoked potential) were assessed prior to and following the rTMS+RTP and sham-rTMS+RTP phases. We assessed significance using paired t-tests on pre-post differences and effect sizes using standardized response mean (SRM). Results RTMS+RTP was associated with larger effect sizes compared to sham-rTMS+RTP for improvement in JTT for both the trained hand (SRM=0.85 and 0.42, respectively), non-trained hand (0.55, 0.31, respectively), and for grasp strength of the trained hand in the SCI group (0.67, 0.39, respectively) alone. Effect sizes for all other measures were small and there were no statistical between-condition differences in the outcomes assessed. Discussion and Conclusions RTMS may be a valuable adjunct to RTP for improving hand function in persons with tetraplegia. Higher stimulation dose (frequency, intensity, number of sessions) may be associated with larger effects. Video Abstract available (See Supplemental Digital Conent 1) for more insights from the authors. PMID:25415549

  13. [The Problems with Domestic Introduction of rTMS from the Three Viewpoints of Scientific Evidence, Specialty and Social Responsibility].

    PubMed

    Shinosaki, Kazuhiro

    2015-01-01

    The domestic introduction of rTMS is expected as a new treatment option for treatment-resistant depression. I discussed some problems with the introduction from three viewpoints : scientific evidence, specialty, and social responsibility. I surveyed scientific evidence for rTMS regarding the action mechanism, effectiveness, side effects, and its positioning in the treatment guidelines. To secure the quality of rTMS treatment, I proposed rTMS guidelines, nurturing of the specialists, and a center hospital plan, and pointed out some medium-term problems after its introduction and the consistency of rTMS treatment and standard depression treatment. From the viewpoint of social responsibility, rTMS treatment should be a medical service covered by health insurance to avoid its misuse. We should prepare to overcome the public suspicion of brain stimulation treatment for mental disease.

  14. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1984-01-01

    Describes an activity in which two pulleys are connected by a wire loop; when the bottom pulley is dipped into hot water, the pulleys rotate. Also suggests that students design/build a machine to propel a bean; the machine must use materials including one bean, two plastic straws, and two rubber bands. (JN)

  15. DOING Physics--Physics Activities for Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwicker, Earl, Ed.

    1985-01-01

    Describes three demonstrations/activities that involve forces: (1) a canoe-like boat made from copper window screen; (2) magnetic forces with a paper clip and ceramic magnetic; and (3) an "icemobile" machine that cuts ice cubes without an obvious source of energy. (DH)

  16. The use of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) to relieve pain.

    PubMed

    Lefaucheur, Jean-Pascal; Antal, Andrea; Ahdab, Rechdi; Ciampi de Andrade, Daniel; Fregni, Felipe; Khedr, Eman M; Nitsche, Michael; Paulus, Walter

    2008-10-01

    Chronic pain resulting from injury of the peripheral or central nervous system may be associated with a significant dysfunction of extensive neural networks. Noninvasive stimulation techniques, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may be suitable to treat chronic pain as they can act on these networks by modulating neural activities not only in the stimulated area, but also in remote regions that are interconnected to the site of stimulation. Motor cortex was the first cortical target that was proved to be efficacious in chronic pain treatment. At present, significant analgesic effects were also shown to occur after the stimulation of other cortical targets (including prefrontal and parietal areas) in acute provoked pain, chronic neuropathic pain, fibromyalgia, or visceral pain. Therapeutic applications of rTMS in pain syndromes are limited by the short duration of the induced effects, but prolonged pain relief can be obtained by repeating rTMS sessions every day for several weeks. Recent tDCS studies also showed some effects on various types of chronic pain. We review the evidence to date of these two techniques of noninvasive brain stimulation for the treatment of pain.

  17. Individual and group dynamics in purchasing activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Lei; Guo, Jin-Li; Fan, Chao; Liu, Xue-Jiao

    2013-01-01

    As a major part of the daily operation in an enterprise, purchasing frequency is in constant change. Recent approaches on the human dynamics can provide some new insights into the economic behavior of companies in the supply chain. This paper captures the attributes of creation times of purchase orders to an individual vendor, as well as to all vendors, and further investigates whether they have some kind of dynamics by applying logarithmic binning to the construction of distribution plots. It’s found that the former displays a power-law distribution with approximate exponent 2.0, while the latter is fitted by a mixture distribution with both power-law and exponential characteristics. Obviously, two distinctive characteristics are presented for the interval time distribution from the perspective of individual dynamics and group dynamics. Actually, this mixing feature can be attributed to the fitting deviations as they are negligible for individual dynamics, but those of different vendors are cumulated and then lead to an exponential factor for group dynamics. To better describe the mechanism generating the heterogeneity of the purchase order assignment process from the objective company to all its vendors, a model driven by product life cycle is introduced, and then the analytical distribution and the simulation result are obtained, which are in good agreement with the empirical data.

  18. Revisiting the therapeutic effect of rTMS on negative symptoms in schizophrenia: A meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Shi, Chuan; Yu, Xin; Cheung, Eric F.C.; Shum, David H.K.; Chan, Raymond C.K.

    2014-01-01

    This study sought to determine the moderators in the treatment effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on negative symptoms in schizophrenia. We performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies on the therapeutic application of rTMS in schizophrenia assessing the effects of both low-frequency and high-frequency rTMS on negative symptoms. Results indicate that rTMS is effective in alleviating negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The effect size was moderate (0.63 and 0.53, respectively). The effect size of rTMS on negative symptoms in sham-controlled trials was 0.80 as measured by the SANS and 0.41 as measured by the PANSS. A longer duration of illness was associated with poorer efficacy of rTMS on negative symptoms. A 10 Hz setting, at least 3 consecutive weeks of treatment, treatment site at the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and a 110% motor threshold (MT) were found to be the best rTMS parameters for the treatment of negative symptoms. The results of our meta-analysis suggest that rTMS is an effective treatment option for negative symptoms in schizophrenia. The moderators of rTMS on negative symptoms included duration of illness, stimulus frequency, duration of illness, position and intensity of treatment as well as the type of outcome measures used. PMID:24411074

  19. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2003-01-01

    TD64, the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group, is one of several groups with high-fidelity fluids design and analysis expertise in the Space Transportation Directorate at Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC). TD64 assists personnel working on other programs. The group participates in projects in the following areas: turbomachinery activities, nozzle activities, combustion devices, and the Columbia accident investigation.

  20. Activities of the Boom and Chassis Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dell, Jason Scott; Meeks, Thomas Bayne; Merkel, Kelly; Nelson, Brent; Winchell, Tom

    1992-01-01

    Group One of the NASA Lunar Enabler Project has designed the primary chassis and boom structures for the lunar vehicle. Both components also feature V-clamps that were adapted to interface connections within the structure. The chassis features a front end, rear end section, middle cross-section, and face plate. The rear section contains an extra compartment for the engine, hydraulic pump, fuel bottles, and oil reservoir necessary for the wheel drives. Each section consists of tubular aluminum 6061-T6. The boom features four degrees of freedom system, where the minimum factor of safety of any part is 1.5 (but, normally much higher). It consists of a tapered upper boom, lower boom, and three elbows that complement the articulation joints. Each section of the boom has been constructed from aluminum 6061-T6. There are four joints and eight V-clamps in the boom assembly. The V-clamps feature support rings that prevent axial rotation. They provide easy adaptability and assembly.

  1. Group Dynamics and Initiative Activities with Outdoor Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zwaagstra, Lynn

    This paper focuses on group dynamics and introduces the use of initiative activities as a means of facilitating a more cohesive group experience in outdoor programs. Specific topics addressed and defined include: (1) curative factors of groups (universality, didactic learning, altruism, socialization, peer learning, group cohesiveness); (2) stages…

  2. Touching motion: rTMS on the human middle temporal complex interferes with tactile speed perception.

    PubMed

    Basso, Demis; Pavan, Andrea; Ricciardi, Emiliano; Fagioli, Sabrina; Vecchi, Tomaso; Miniussi, Carlo; Pietrini, Pietro

    2012-10-01

    Brain functional and psychophysical studies have clearly demonstrated that visual motion perception relies on the activity of the middle temporal complex (hMT+). However, recent studies have shown that hMT+ seems to be also activated during tactile motion perception, suggesting that this visual extrastriate area is involved in the processing and integration of motion, irrespective of the sensorial modality. In the present study, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to assess whether hMT+ plays a causal role in tactile motion processing. Blindfolded participants detected changes in the speed of a grid of tactile moving points with their finger (i.e. tactile modality). The experiment included three different conditions: a control condition with no TMS and two TMS conditions, i.e. hMT+-rTMS and posterior parietal cortex (PPC)-rTMS. Accuracies were significantly impaired during hMT+-rTMS but not in the other two conditions (No-rTMS or PPC-rTMS), moreover, thresholds for detecting speed changes were significantly higher in the hMT+-rTMS with respect to the control TMS conditions. These findings provide stronger evidence that the activity of the hMT+ area is involved in tactile speed processing, which may be consistent with the hypothesis of a supramodal role for that cortical region in motion processing.

  3. Naloxone-Reversible Modulation of Pain Circuitry by Left Prefrontal rTMS

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, Joseph J; Borckardt, Jeffrey J; Canterberry, Melanie; Li, Xingbao; Hanlon, Colleen A; Brown, Truman R; George, Mark S

    2013-01-01

    A 20-minute session of 10 Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of Brodmann Area (BA) nine of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) can produce analgesic effects on postoperative and laboratory-induced pain. This analgesia is blocked by pretreatment with naloxone, a μ-opioid antagonist. The purpose of this sham-controlled, double-blind, crossover study was to identify the neural circuitry that underlies the analgesic effects of left DLPFC rTMS, and to examine how the function of this circuit, including midbrain and medulla, changes during opioid blockade. Fourteen healthy volunteers were randomized to receive intravenous saline or naloxone immediately before sham and real left DLPFC rTMS on the same experimental visit. One week later, each participant received the novel pretreatment but the same stimulation paradigm. Using short sessions of heat on capsaicin-sensitized skin, hot allodynia was assessed during 3 Tesla functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanning at baseline, post-sham rTMS, and post-real rTMS. Data were analyzed using whole-brain voxel-based analysis, as well as time series extractions from anatomically-defined regions of interest representing midbrain and medulla. Consistent with previous findings, real rTMS significantly reduced hot allodynia pain ratings. This analgesia was associated with elevated blood oxygenation-level dependent (BOLD) signal in BAs 9 and 10, and diminished BOLD signal in the anterior cingulate, thalamus, midbrain, and medulla during pain. Naloxone pretreatment largely abolished rTMS-induced analgesia, as well as rTMS-induced attenuation of BOLD signal response to painful stimuli throughout pain processing regions, including midbrain and medulla. These preliminary results suggest that left DLPFC rTMS drives top-down opioidergic analgesia. PMID:23314221

  4. Short and Long-term Effects of rTMS Treatment on Alzheimer’s Disease at Different Stages: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Rutherford, Grant; Lithgow, Brian; Moussavi, Zahra

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) uses a magnetic coil to induce an electric field in brain tissue. As a pilot study, we investigated the effect of rTMS treatment on 10 volunteers with Alzheimer’s disease (AD) in a two-stage study. The first stage consisted of a double-blind crossover study with real and sham treatments. Each treatment block consisted of 13 sessions over 4 weeks. During each session, 2000 TMS pulses at 90%–100% of resting motor threshold were applied to dorsolateral prefrontal cortex bilaterally, and the patients were kept cognitively active by object/action naming during the treatment. The second stage was an open-label study, in which the same treatments were performed in 2-week blocks (10 sessions) approximately every 3 months as follow-up treatments on six of the volunteers, who completed the first stage of the study. Primary outcome measures were the Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MOCA) and the Alzheimer’s Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale. The secondary outcome measures were the Revised Memory and Behavior Checklist as well as our team’s custom-designed cognitive assessments. The results showed a noticeably stronger improvement on all assessments during the real treatment as compared to the sham treatment. The changes in MOCA scores as well as our designed cognitive assessment were found to be statistically significant, with particularly strong results in the six volunteers who were in the early stages of the disease. The long-term trends observed in the second stage of the study also showed generally less decline than would be expected for their condition. It appears that rTMS can be an effective tool for improving the cognitive abilities of patients with early to moderate stages of AD. However, the positive effects of rTMS may persist for only up to a few weeks. Specific skills being practiced during rTMS treatment may retain their improvement for longer periods. PMID:26064066

  5. [Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) for Higher Brain Function Deficits].

    PubMed

    Inoue, Yukichi

    2016-12-01

    The management of higher brain dysfunctions such as stroke-induced unilateral spatial neglect (USN) or aphasia is crucial because these dysfunctions have devastating neurological repercussions on the patients' daily life and quality of life. Impairment of the physiological interhemispheric rivalry is often the result of brain insults such as strokes or traumatic injuries, and it may lead to USN or aphasia. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a non-invasive brain stimulation method, is a promising tool for restoring the pathological imbalance in interhemispheric rivalry by either suppressing the hyperactivity of the unaffected hemisphere or facilitating hypoactivity in the affected hemisphere. The concept of paradoxical functional facilitation (Kapur, 1996) has important clinical implications when coupled with rTMS applications. In addition to conventional rTMS (c-rTMS), other clinically relevant protocols of patterned rTMS (p-rTMS) have been developed: the theta burst stimulation (TBS), the paired associative stimulation (PAS), and the quadripulse stimulation (QPS). TBS is commonly used in the rehabilitation of patients with post-stroke USN and those with non-fluent aphasia because of its prolonged beneficial effects and the short duration of stimulation. TBS may be considered an effective and safe protocol of rTMS. We foresee broader clinical applications of p-rTMS (TBS) and c-rTMS in the treatment of various neurological deficits.

  6. Supporting "Learning by Design" Activities Using Group Blogs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fessakis, Georgios; Tatsis, Konstantinos; Dimitracopoulou, Angelique

    2008-01-01

    The paper presents a case study of the educational exploitation of group blogging for the implementation of a "learning by design" activity. More specifically, a group of students used a blog as a communication and information management tool in the University course of ICT-enhanced Geometry learning activities. The analysis of the designed…

  7. PEGASUS: Designing a System for Supporting Group Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kyprianidou, Maria; Demetriadis, Stavros; Pombortsis, Andreas; Karatasios, George

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to present the design and first results of the integration of a web-based system person-centred group-activity support system (PEGASUS) in university instruction, as a means for advancing person-centred learning by supporting group activity. The PEGASUS is expected to help students and teachers in two distinct…

  8. Teacher Educators' Design and Implementation of Group Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Hei, Miranda S. A.; Sjoer, Ellen; Admiraal, Wilfried; Strijbos, Jan-Willem

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to describe how teacher educators design and implement group learning activities (GLAs). We used the Group Learning Activities Instructional Design (GLAID) framework to analyse their descriptions. The GLAID framework includes eight components: (1) interaction, (2) learning objectives and outcomes, (3) assessment, (4) task…

  9. Student expectations in a group learning activity on harmonic motion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaczynski, Adam; Wittmann, Michael C.

    2013-01-01

    Students in a sophomore-level mechanics course participated in a new group learning activity that was intended to support model-building and finding coherence between multiple representations in the context of an underdamped harmonic system. Not all of the student groups framed the activity in the same way, and many attempted tasks that existed outside of the prompts of the activity. For one group, this meant that instead of providing a rich verbal description, they framed the activity as finding a mathematical expression.

  10. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2002-01-01

    This viewgraph report presents an overview of activities and accomplishments of NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group. Expertise in this group focuses on high-fidelity fluids design and analysis with application to space shuttle propulsion and next generation launch technologies. Topics covered include: computational fluid dynamics research and goals, turbomachinery research and activities, nozzle research and activities, combustion devices, engine systems, MDA development and CFD process improvements.

  11. High-frequency rTMS for the Treatment of Chronic Fatigue Syndrome: A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Kakuda, Wataru; Momosaki, Ryo; Yamada, Naoki; Abo, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Structural and functional abnormalities of the prefrontal cortex seem to correlate with fatigue in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). We consecutively applied facilitatory high-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) of seven CFS patients over three days. Five patients completed the 3-day protocol without any adverse events. For the other two patients, we had to reduce the stimulation intensity in response to mild adverse reactions. In most of the patients, treatment resulted in an improvement of fatigue symptoms. High-frequency rTMS applied over the DLPFC can therefore be a potentially useful therapy for CFS patients. PMID:27904120

  12. Anterior temporal lobes mediate semantic representation: mimicking semantic dementia by using rTMS in normal participants.

    PubMed

    Pobric, Gorana; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ralph, Matthew A Lambon

    2007-12-11

    Studies of semantic dementia and PET neuroimaging investigations suggest that the anterior temporal lobes (ATL) are a critical substrate for semantic representation. In stark contrast, classical neurological models of comprehension do not include ATL, and likewise functional MRI studies often fail to show activations in the ATL, reinforcing the classical view. Using a novel application of low-frequency, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the ATL, we demonstrate that the behavioral pattern of semantic dementia can be mirrored in neurologically intact participants: Specifically, we show that temporary disruption to neural processing in the ATL produces a selective semantic impairment leading to significant slowing in both picture naming and word comprehension but not to other equally demanding, nonsemantic cognitive tasks.

  13. Anterior temporal lobes mediate semantic representation: Mimicking semantic dementia by using rTMS in normal participants

    PubMed Central

    Pobric, Gorana; Jefferies, Elizabeth; Ralph, Matthew A. Lambon

    2007-01-01

    Studies of semantic dementia and PET neuroimaging investigations suggest that the anterior temporal lobes (ATL) are a critical substrate for semantic representation. In stark contrast, classical neurological models of comprehension do not include ATL, and likewise functional MRI studies often fail to show activations in the ATL, reinforcing the classical view. Using a novel application of low-frequency, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the ATL, we demonstrate that the behavioral pattern of semantic dementia can be mirrored in neurologically intact participants: Specifically, we show that temporary disruption to neural processing in the ATL produces a selective semantic impairment leading to significant slowing in both picture naming and word comprehension but not to other equally demanding, nonsemantic cognitive tasks. PMID:18056637

  14. Impaired Prefronto-Thalamic Functional Connectivity as a Key Feature of Treatment-Resistant Depression: A Combined MEG, PET and rTMS Study

    PubMed Central

    Li, Cheng-Ta; Chen, Li-Fen; Tu, Pei-Chi; Wang, Shyh-Jen; Chen, Mu-Hong; Su, Tung-Ping; Hsieh, Jen-Chuen

    2013-01-01

    Prefrontal left-right functional imbalance and disrupted prefronto-thalamic circuitry are plausible mechanisms for treatment-resistant depression (TRD). Add-on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), effective in treating antidepressant-refractory TRD, was administered to verify the core mechanisms underlying the refractoriness to antidepressants. Thirty TRD patients received a 2-week course of 10-Hz rTMS to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). Depression scores were evaluated at baseline (W0), and the ends of weeks 1, 2, and 14 (W14). Responders were defined as those who showed an objective improvement in depression scores ≥50% after rTMS. Left-right frontal alpha asymmetry (FAA) was measured by magnetoencephalography at each time point as a proxy for left-right functional imbalance. Prefronto-thalamic connections at W0 and W14 were assessed by studying couplings between prefrontal alpha waves and thalamic glucose metabolism (PWTMC, reflecting intact thalamo-prefrontal connectivity). A group of healthy control subjects received magnetoencephalography at W0 (N = 50) to study whether FAA could have a diagnostic value for TRD, or received both magnetoencephalography and positron-emission-tomography at W0 (N = 10) to confirm the existence of PWTMC in the depression-free state. We found that FAA changes cannot differentiate between TRD and healthy subjects or between responders and non-responders. No PWTMC were found in the TRD group at W0, whereas restitution of the PWTMC was demonstrated only in the sustained responders at W14 and euthymic healthy controls. In conclusion, we affirmed impaired prefronto-thalamic functional connections, but not frontal functional imbalance, as a core deficit in TRD. PMID:23936378

  15. Activity Group Therapy for Emotionally Disturbed Pre-School Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Plenk, Agnes M.

    1978-01-01

    The article discusses the comprehensive services offered emotionally disturbed preschool children by a voluntary social agency (the Childrens Center in Salt Lake City, Utah), focusing on activity group therapy, the major therapeutic tool used there. (Author/DLS)

  16. Overview of MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Wang, Tee-See; Griffin, Lisa; Turner, James E. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    This document is a presentation graphic which reviews the activities of the Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group at Marshall Space Flight Center (i.e., Code TD64). The work of this group focused on supporting the space transportation programs. The work of the group is in Computational Fluid Dynamic tool development. This development is driven by hardware design needs. The major applications for the design and analysis tools are: turbines, pumps, propulsion-to-airframe integration, and combustion devices.

  17. Effects of Collaborative Activities on Group Identity in Virtual World

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Hyungsung; Seo, Sumin

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of collaborative activities on group identity in a virtual world such as "Second Life." To achieve this purpose, this study adopted events that promoted participants' interactions using tools inherent in "Second Life." The interactive tools given to the control group in this…

  18. Blood group isoantibody stimulation in man by feeding blood group-active bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Springer, Georg F.; Horton, Richard E.

    1969-01-01

    It was investigated whether or not the human blood group isoantibodies A and B could be induced by immunogenic stimuli via natural routes with a kind of antigenic substance to which all humans are commonly exposed, or if the appearance of these antibodies is independent of antigenic stimuli as has long been believed. Escherichia coli O86, which possess high human blood group B and faint A activity in vitro, were fed to healthy humans and those with intestinal disorders. 80% of the sick individuals of blood group O and A responded with a significant rise of anti-B antibodies which was frequently de novo in infants; significant increase of anti-A isoantibodies among blood group O individuals was less frequent. Over one-third of the healthy individuals also had a significant isoantibody increase. Intestinal lesions favor isoantibody stimulation by intestinal bacteria; this view was supported by the study of control infants. Persons of blood group A responded more frequently with anti-B and anti-E. coli O86 antibody production than those of blood group O. Isoantibody increase was accompanied with antibody rise against E. coli O86. Inhalation of E. coli O86 or blood group AH(O)-specific hog mucin also evoked isoantibodies. The induced isoantibodies were specifically inhibited by small amounts of human blood group substances. E. coli O86-induced anti-blood group antibodies in germ-free chickens and preexisting blood group antibodies in ordinary chickens were neutralized by intravenous injection of E. coli O86 lipopolysaccharide. This study demonstrates that human isoantibodies A and B are readily elicited via physiological routes, by blood group-active E. coli, provided the genetically determined apparatus of the host is responsive. Antibodies against a person's own blood group were not formed. Interpretation of these results permits some careful generalizations as to the origin of so-called natural antibodies. PMID:4893685

  19. Applying an Activity System to Online Collaborative Group Work Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Hyungshin; Kang, Myunghee

    2010-01-01

    This study determines whether an activity system provides a systematic framework to analyse collaborative group work. Using an activity system as a unit of analysis, the research examined learner behaviours, conflicting factors and facilitating factors while students engaged in collaborative work via asynchronous computer-mediated communication.…

  20. Overview af MSFC's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, Roberto; Griffin, Lisa; Williams, Robert

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents viewgraphs on NASA Marshall Space Flight Center's Applied Fluid Dynamics Analysis Group Activities. The topics include: 1) Status of programs at MSFC; 2) Fluid Mechanics at MSFC; 3) Relevant Fluid Dynamics Activities at MSFC; and 4) Shuttle Return to Flight.

  1. Mobilizing and Activating Group Demands: The American Agriculture Movement.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Browne, William P.

    1983-01-01

    An analysis of the American agriculture movement begun in 1977 provides insight into group behavior, mobilization, and activation. Leaders who had recruited participants and organized local and state activities were interviewed. Problems of organizing, specifically when protest is involved, are also discussed. (KC)

  2. The Neuroprotective Mechanism of Low-Frequency rTMS on Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons of Parkinson's Disease Model Mice.

    PubMed

    Dong, Qiaoyun; Wang, Yanyong; Gu, Ping; Shao, Rusheng; Zhao, Li; Liu, Xiqi; Wang, Zhanqiang; Wang, Mingwei

    2015-01-01

    Background. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease in elder people, pathophysiologic basis of which is the severe deficiency of dopamine in the striatum. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of low-frequency rTMS on Parkinson's disease in model mice. Methods. The effects of low-frequency rTMS on the motor function, cortex excitability, neurochemistry, and neurohistopathology of MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease mice were investigated through behavioral detection, electrophysiologic technique, high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. Results. Low-frequency rTMS could improve the motor coordination impairment of Parkinson's disease mice: the resting motor threshold significantly decreased in the Parkinson's disease mice; the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neuron and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase were significantly improved by low-frequency rTMS; moreover, the expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor were also improved by low-frequency rTMS. Conclusions. Low-frequency rTMS had a neuroprotective effect on the nigral dopaminergic neuron which might be due to the improved expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The present study provided a theoretical basis for the application of low-frequency rTMS in the clinical treatment and recovery of Parkinson's disease.

  3. The Neuroprotective Mechanism of Low-Frequency rTMS on Nigral Dopaminergic Neurons of Parkinson's Disease Model Mice

    PubMed Central

    Dong, Qiaoyun; Wang, Yanyong; Gu, Ping; Shao, Rusheng; Zhao, Li; Liu, Xiqi; Wang, Zhanqiang; Wang, Mingwei

    2015-01-01

    Background. Parkinson's disease is a neurodegenerative disease in elder people, pathophysiologic basis of which is the severe deficiency of dopamine in the striatum. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the neuroprotective effect of low-frequency rTMS on Parkinson's disease in model mice. Methods. The effects of low-frequency rTMS on the motor function, cortex excitability, neurochemistry, and neurohistopathology of MPTP-induced Parkinson's disease mice were investigated through behavioral detection, electrophysiologic technique, high performance liquid chromatography-electrochemical detection, immunohistochemical staining, and western blot. Results. Low-frequency rTMS could improve the motor coordination impairment of Parkinson's disease mice: the resting motor threshold significantly decreased in the Parkinson's disease mice; the degeneration of nigral dopaminergic neuron and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase were significantly improved by low-frequency rTMS; moreover, the expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line derived neurotrophic factor were also improved by low-frequency rTMS. Conclusions. Low-frequency rTMS had a neuroprotective effect on the nigral dopaminergic neuron which might be due to the improved expressions of brain derived neurotrophic factor and glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor. The present study provided a theoretical basis for the application of low-frequency rTMS in the clinical treatment and recovery of Parkinson's disease. PMID:25883828

  4. Low-frequency rTMS inhibitory effects in the primary motor cortex: Insights from TMS-evoked potentials.

    PubMed

    Casula, Elias P; Tarantino, Vincenza; Basso, Demis; Arcara, Giorgio; Marino, Giuliana; Toffolo, Gianna Maria; Rothwell, John C; Bisiacchi, Patrizia S

    2014-09-01

    The neuromodulatory effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) have been mostly investigated by peripheral motor-evoked potentials (MEPs). New TMS-compatible EEG systems allow a direct investigation of the stimulation effects through the analysis of TMS-evoked potentials (TEPs). We investigated the effects of 1-Hz rTMS over the primary motor cortex (M1) of 15 healthy volunteers on TEP evoked by single pulse TMS over the same area. A second experiment in which rTMS was delivered over the primary visual cortex (V1) of 15 healthy volunteers was conducted to examine the spatial specificity of the effects. Single-pulse TMS evoked four main components: P30, N45, P60 and N100. M1-rTMS resulted in a significant decrease of MEP amplitude and in a significant increase of P60 and N100 amplitude. There was no effect after V1-rTMS. 1-Hz rTMS appears to increase the amount of inhibition following a TMS pulse, as demonstrated by the higher N100 and P60, which are thought to originate from GABAb-mediated inhibitory post-synaptic potentials. Our results confirm the reliability of the TMS-evoked N100 as a marker of cortical inhibition and provide insight into the neuromodulatory effects of 1-Hz rTMS. The present finding could be of relevance for therapeutic and diagnostic purposes.

  5. Trithorax group proteins: switching genes on and keeping them active.

    PubMed

    Schuettengruber, Bernd; Martinez, Anne-Marie; Iovino, Nicola; Cavalli, Giacomo

    2011-11-23

    Cellular memory is provided by two counteracting groups of chromatin proteins termed Trithorax group (TrxG) and Polycomb group (PcG) proteins. TrxG proteins activate transcription and are perhaps best known because of the involvement of the TrxG protein MLL in leukaemia. However, in terms of molecular analysis, they have lived in the shadow of their more famous counterparts, the PcG proteins. Recent advances have improved our understanding of TrxG protein function and demonstrated that the heterogeneous group of TrxG proteins is of critical importance in the epigenetic regulation of the cell cycle, senescence, DNA damage and stem cell biology.

  6. rTMS in the Treatment of Drug Addiction: An Update about Human Studies

    PubMed Central

    Bellamoli, Elisa; Manganotti, Paolo; Schwartz, Robert P.; Rimondo, Claudia; Gomma, Maurizio; Serpelloni, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction can be a devastating and chronic relapsing disorder with social, psychological, and physical consequences, and more effective treatment options are needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been assessed in a growing number of studies for its therapeutic potential in treating addiction. This review paper offers an overview on the current state of clinical research in treating drug addiction with rTMS. Because of the limited research in this area, all studies (including case reports) that evaluated the therapeutic use of rTMS in nicotine, alcohol, or illicit drug addiction were included in this review. Papers published prior to December 2012 were found through an NCBI PubMed search. A total of eleven studies were identified that met review criteria. There is nascent evidence that rTMS could be effective in reducing cocaine craving and nicotine and alcohol craving and consumption and might represent a potential therapeutic tool for treating addiction. Further studies are needed to identify the optimal parameters of stimulation for the most effective treatment of drug addiction, to improve our comprehension of the treatment neurophysiological effects, and to conduct rigorous, controlled efficacy studies with adequate power. PMID:24803733

  7. Construction and Evaluation of Rodent-Specific rTMS Coils

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Alexander D.; Lowe, Andrea S.; Garrett, Andrew R.; Woodward, Robert; Bennett, William; Canty, Alison J.; Garry, Michael I.; Hinder, Mark R.; Summers, Jeffery J.; Gersner, Roman; Rotenberg, Alexander; Thickbroom, Gary; Walton, Joseph; Rodger, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Rodent models of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) play a crucial role in aiding the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying TMS induced plasticity. Rodent-specific TMS have previously been used to deliver focal stimulation at the cost of stimulus intensity (12 mT). Here we describe two novel TMS coils designed to deliver repetitive TMS (rTMS) at greater stimulation intensities whilst maintaining spatial resolution. Two circular coils (8 mm outer diameter) were constructed with either an air or pure iron-core. Peak magnetic field strength for the air and iron-cores were 90 and 120 mT, respectively, with the iron-core coil exhibiting less focality. Coil temperature and magnetic field stability for the two coils undergoing rTMS, were similar at 1 Hz but varied at 10 Hz. Finite element modeling of 10 Hz rTMS with the iron-core in a simplified rat brain model suggests a peak electric field of 85 and 12.7 V/m, within the skull and the brain, respectively. Delivering 10 Hz rTMS to the motor cortex of anaesthetized rats with the iron-core coil significantly increased motor evoked potential amplitudes immediately after stimulation (n = 4). Our results suggest these novel coils generate modest magnetic and electric fields, capable of altering cortical excitability and provide an alternative method to investigate the mechanisms underlying rTMS-induced plasticity in an experimental setting. PMID:27445702

  8. rTMS in the treatment of drug addiction: an update about human studies.

    PubMed

    Bellamoli, Elisa; Manganotti, Paolo; Schwartz, Robert P; Rimondo, Claudia; Gomma, Maurizio; Serpelloni, Giovanni

    2014-01-01

    Drug addiction can be a devastating and chronic relapsing disorder with social, psychological, and physical consequences, and more effective treatment options are needed. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive brain stimulation technique that has been assessed in a growing number of studies for its therapeutic potential in treating addiction. This review paper offers an overview on the current state of clinical research in treating drug addiction with rTMS. Because of the limited research in this area, all studies (including case reports) that evaluated the therapeutic use of rTMS in nicotine, alcohol, or illicit drug addiction were included in this review. Papers published prior to December 2012 were found through an NCBI PubMed search. A total of eleven studies were identified that met review criteria. There is nascent evidence that rTMS could be effective in reducing cocaine craving and nicotine and alcohol craving and consumption and might represent a potential therapeutic tool for treating addiction. Further studies are needed to identify the optimal parameters of stimulation for the most effective treatment of drug addiction, to improve our comprehension of the treatment neurophysiological effects, and to conduct rigorous, controlled efficacy studies with adequate power.

  9. Construction and Evaluation of Rodent-Specific rTMS Coils.

    PubMed

    Tang, Alexander D; Lowe, Andrea S; Garrett, Andrew R; Woodward, Robert; Bennett, William; Canty, Alison J; Garry, Michael I; Hinder, Mark R; Summers, Jeffery J; Gersner, Roman; Rotenberg, Alexander; Thickbroom, Gary; Walton, Joseph; Rodger, Jennifer

    2016-01-01

    Rodent models of transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) play a crucial role in aiding the understanding of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying TMS induced plasticity. Rodent-specific TMS have previously been used to deliver focal stimulation at the cost of stimulus intensity (12 mT). Here we describe two novel TMS coils designed to deliver repetitive TMS (rTMS) at greater stimulation intensities whilst maintaining spatial resolution. Two circular coils (8 mm outer diameter) were constructed with either an air or pure iron-core. Peak magnetic field strength for the air and iron-cores were 90 and 120 mT, respectively, with the iron-core coil exhibiting less focality. Coil temperature and magnetic field stability for the two coils undergoing rTMS, were similar at 1 Hz but varied at 10 Hz. Finite element modeling of 10 Hz rTMS with the iron-core in a simplified rat brain model suggests a peak electric field of 85 and 12.7 V/m, within the skull and the brain, respectively. Delivering 10 Hz rTMS to the motor cortex of anaesthetized rats with the iron-core coil significantly increased motor evoked potential amplitudes immediately after stimulation (n = 4). Our results suggest these novel coils generate modest magnetic and electric fields, capable of altering cortical excitability and provide an alternative method to investigate the mechanisms underlying rTMS-induced plasticity in an experimental setting.

  10. rTMS strategies for the study and treatment of schizophrenia: a review

    PubMed Central

    Stanford, Arielle D.; Sharif, Zafar; Corcoran, Cheryl; Urban, Nina; Malaspina, Dolores; Lisanby, Sarah H.

    2010-01-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and repetitive TMS (rTMS) have been used increasingly over the past few years to study both the pathophysiology of schizophrenia as well as the utility of focal neuromodulation as a novel treatment for schizophrenia. rTMS treatment studies to date have explored its effect on both positive and negative symptoms by targeting cortical regions thought to underlie these symptom clusters. Studies on auditory hallucinations have been largely positive, while efficacy for negative symptoms is equivocal. A better understanding of the functional abnormalities that accompany symptoms may facilitate the development of rTMS as a treatment modality. Furthermore, schizophrenia patients appear to have abnormal cortical inhibition, consistent with GABA and dopamine abnormalities in schizophrenia. The effect of TMS on GABA and dopamine neurotransmission has not been clearly delineated. Given the variability in cortical response to rTMS in schizophrenia, methods to optimize dosage are essential. Consideration of these factors among others may broaden the scope of utility of TMS for schizophrenia as well as enhance its efficacy. PMID:18241358

  11. rTMS as a Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease with and without Comorbidity of Depression: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Gole, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    With an ever-increasing population of Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients worldwide, a noninvasive treatment for AD is needed. In this paper, the application of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulus (rTMS) as a treatment for patients with probable AD is compared to the application of rTMS as a treatment for depression. Comorbidity of depression and dementia is discussed, as well as possible links between the two diseases. The possible confounding antidepressant effects of rTMS on cognitive improvements in AD patients are discussed. PMID:26317096

  12. Discriminative Latent Models for Recognizing Contextual Group Activities

    PubMed Central

    Lan, Tian; Wang, Yang; Yang, Weilong; Robinovitch, Stephen N.; Mori, Greg

    2012-01-01

    In this paper, we go beyond recognizing the actions of individuals and focus on group activities. This is motivated from the observation that human actions are rarely performed in isolation; the contextual information of what other people in the scene are doing provides a useful cue for understanding high-level activities. We propose a novel framework for recognizing group activities which jointly captures the group activity, the individual person actions, and the interactions among them. Two types of contextual information, group-person interaction and person-person interaction, are explored in a latent variable framework. In particular, we propose three different approaches to model the person-person interaction. One approach is to explore the structures of person-person interaction. Differently from most of the previous latent structured models, which assume a predefined structure for the hidden layer, e.g., a tree structure, we treat the structure of the hidden layer as a latent variable and implicitly infer it during learning and inference. The second approach explores person-person interaction in the feature level. We introduce a new feature representation called the action context (AC) descriptor. The AC descriptor encodes information about not only the action of an individual person in the video, but also the behavior of other people nearby. The third approach combines the above two. Our experimental results demonstrate the benefit of using contextual information for disambiguating group activities. PMID:22144516

  13. Discriminative latent models for recognizing contextual group activities.

    PubMed

    Lan, Tian; Wang, Yang; Yang, Weilong; Robinovitch, Stephen N; Mori, Greg

    2012-08-01

    In this paper, we go beyond recognizing the actions of individuals and focus on group activities. This is motivated from the observation that human actions are rarely performed in isolation; the contextual information of what other people in the scene are doing provides a useful cue for understanding high-level activities. We propose a novel framework for recognizing group activities which jointly captures the group activity, the individual person actions, and the interactions among them. Two types of contextual information, group-person interaction and person-person interaction, are explored in a latent variable framework. In particular, we propose three different approaches to model the person-person interaction. One approach is to explore the structures of person-person interaction. Differently from most of the previous latent structured models, which assume a predefined structure for the hidden layer, e.g., a tree structure, we treat the structure of the hidden layer as a latent variable and implicitly infer it during learning and inference. The second approach explores person-person interaction in the feature level. We introduce a new feature representation called the action context (AC) descriptor. The AC descriptor encodes information about not only the action of an individual person in the video, but also the behavior of other people nearby. The third approach combines the above two. Our experimental results demonstrate the benefit of using contextual information for disambiguating group activities.

  14. The Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Plays a Role in Self-Initiated Elaborative Cognitive Processing during Episodic Memory Encoding: rTMS Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Hawco, Colin; Berlim, Marcelo T.; Lepage, Martin

    2013-01-01

    During episodic memory encoding, elaborative cognitive processing can improve later recall or recognition. While multiple studies examined the neural correlates of encoding strategies, few studies have explicitly focused on the self-initiation of elaborative encoding. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), a method which can transiently disrupt neural activity, was administered during an associative encoding task. rTMS was either applied to the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) or to the vertex (a control region not involved in memory encoding) during presentation of pairs of words. Pairs could be semantically related or not related. Two encoding instructions were given, either cueing participants to analyze semantic relationships (cued condition), or to memorize the pair without any specific strategy cues (the self-initiated condition). Participants filled out a questionnaire regarding their use of memory strategies and performed a cued-recall task. We hypothesized that if the DLPFC plays a role in the self-initiation of elaborative encoding we would observe a reduction in memory performance in the self-initiated condition, particularly for related. We found a significant correlation between the effects of rTMS and strategy use, only in the self-initiated condition with related pairs. High strategy users showed reduced performance following DLPFC stimulation, while low strategy users tended to show increased recall following DLPFC stimulation during encoding. These results suggest the left DLPFC may be involved in the self-initiation of memory strategy use, and individuals may utilize different neural networks depending on their use of encoding strategies. PMID:24040072

  15. Impact of rTMS on functional connectivity within the language network in schizophrenia patients with auditory hallucinations.

    PubMed

    Briend, F; Leroux, E; Delcroix, N; Razafimandimby, A; Etard, O; Dollfus, S

    2017-02-08

    This exploratory study investigated the functional connectivity (FC) in the language network in schizophrenia patients (SZ) with auditory verbal hallucinations (AVHs), and the therapeutic efficacy of rTMS on it. Eleven SZ with AVHs and 10 healthy controls (HC) underwent two fMRI sessions using a speech listening paradigm. SZ received 20Hz rTMS following the first fMRI session. Compared to HC, SZ showed a reduced FC in the language network. While AVHs improved after 12days, no changes in FC were observed. This suggests the efficacy of high-frequency rTMS on AVH without any impact for rTMS on FC within the language network.

  16. Forestry Activities. A Guide for Youth Group Leaders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forest Service (USDA), Washington, DC.

    Twenty-six activities related to forestry, conservation, and outdoor education comprise the content of this leader's guide. Designed for use with youth groups, ideas and techniques range from forest conservation mobiles, locating forest fires, and Christmas tree uses to litterbug campaigns, watershed experiments, and crossword puzzles. Activities…

  17. Active Classroom Participation in a Group Scribbles Primary Science Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chen, Wenli; Looi, Chee-Kit

    2011-01-01

    A key stimulus of learning efficacy for students in the classroom is active participation and engagement in the learning process. This study examines the nature of teacher-student and student-student discourse when leveraged by an interactive technology--Group Scribbles (GS) in a Primary 5 Science classroom in Singapore which supports rapid…

  18. Ovalbumin with Glycated Carboxyl Groups Shows Membrane-Damaging Activity

    PubMed Central

    Tang, Ching-Chia; Shi, Yi-Jun; Chen, Ying-Jung; Chang, Long-Sen

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate whether glycated ovalbumin (OVA) showed novel activity at the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated OVA (Man-OVA) was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-dextro (d)-mannopyranoside. An increase in the number of modified carboxyl groups increased the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA on cell membrane-mimicking vesicles, whereas OVA did not induce membrane permeability in the tested phospholipid vesicles. The glycation of carboxyl groups caused a notable change in the gross conformation of OVA. Moreover, owing to their spatial positions, the Trp residues in Man-OVA were more exposed, unlike those in OVA. Fluorescence quenching studies suggested that the Trp residues in Man-OVA were located on the interface binds with the lipid vesicles, and their microenvironment was abundant in positively charged residues. Although OVA and Man-OVA showed a similar binding affinity for lipid vesicles, the lipid-interacting feature of Man-OVA was distinct from that of OVA. Chemical modification studies revealed that Lys and Arg residues, but not Trp residues, played a crucial role in the membrane-damaging activity of Man-OVA. Taken together, our data suggest that glycation of carboxyl groups causes changes in the structural properties and membrane-interacting features of OVA, generating OVA with membrane-perturbing activities at the lipid-water interface. PMID:28264493

  19. Combining Functional Neuroimaging with Off-Line Brain Stimulation: Modulation of Task-Related Activity in Language Areas

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Andoh, Jamila; Paus, Tomas

    2011-01-01

    Repetitive TMS (rTMS) provides a noninvasive tool for modulating neural activity in the human brain. In healthy participants, rTMS applied over the language-related areas in the left hemisphere, including the left posterior temporal area of Wernicke (LTMP) and inferior frontal area of Broca, have been shown to affect performance on word…

  20. Evolution and flare activity of a group in July 1978

    SciTech Connect

    Sattarov, I.

    1983-03-01

    The evolution of a sunspot group with a delta configuration which passed over the solar disk on July 8--21, 1978, is studied on the basis of original materials consisting of photoheliograms, H..cap alpha.. filtergrams, and wide-band photographs obtained in Tashkent. More than 160 H..cap alpha.. flares, including 22 flares of importance 1 and 10 flares of importance 2, were observed in the active region (AR) containing this group according to Solar-Geophysical Data. As a result of a comparison of the evolutionary changes of the group with the flare activity of the AR it was found that the flare activity is connected with the formation of a new sunspot group within an old one, with its maximum falling at the time of formation of the first nuclei, and new nuclei are formed along the zero line of the longitudinal field of the old group; the nodes of the majority of flares are located near new nuclei, symmetrical relative to the zero line; the area of the new nuclei increases impulsively; the total area of the entire group varies, fluctuating about its average value, and flares happen during the slowing and cessation of the increase in area; some nuclei show proper motion at a velocity of approx.0.5 km/sec while others show intermittent motion, like pulsation, directed outside the old group; as a result of the development of new nuclei near old ones the small nuclei break up, while the boundary of the large nucleus is deformed on the side of the new nuclei and bright points shine within it.

  1. Adherence to physical activity guidelines among cancer support group participants.

    PubMed

    Stevinson, C; Lydon, A; Amir, Z

    2014-03-01

    Physical activity is recommended after cancer diagnosis for physical function, quality of life and survival benefits. This study provided preliminary data on the prevalence of physical activity among adult men and women with cancer in the UK. As part of a national survey of cancer support group participation, questionnaires including items on leisure-time physical activity and demographic information were completed by 748 cancer survivors. Overall, 395 (52.8%) participants reported no weekly moderate or vigorous intensity physical activity, 221 (29.5%) reported some activity but below minimum recommendations and 132 (17.6%) were meeting published guidelines. Gender, health status and socio-economic status were independently associated with meeting guidelines. Among participants in good or fair health who were not meeting guidelines, 59.9% thought that they ought to be more physically active. In conclusion, overall levels of physical activity are low among cancer survivors in the UK. However, the majority of insufficiently active participants showed awareness of the need to increase their activity, and may be receptive to interventions for promoting physical activity in this population.

  2. Laterality, frequency and replication of rTMS treatment for chronic tinnitus: pilot studies and a review of maintenance treatment

    PubMed Central

    Mennemeier, M.; Munn, T.; Allensworth, M.; Lenow, J.K.; Brown, G.; Allen, S.; Dornhoffer, J.; Williams, D.K.

    2012-01-01

    This manuscript reports on findings of three open label, pilot studies and it reviews studies using rTMS as a maintenance treatment for any disorder. The first pilot study examined whether a patient’s original treatment response to 1 Hz rTMS over temporal cortex could be replicated by stimulating a homologous region of the opposite hemisphere. The second study examined whether a patient’s response to 1Hz rTMS could be replicated by applying 10 Hz rTMS over the same treatment site. The third study applied a 3-day course of maintenance rTMS, either at 1 or 10 Hz, when subjects indicated that the benefit of their last course of treatment was waning. Patients with bilateral subjective tinnitus of at least 6 months duration were recruited from a prior, sham controlled study with treatment crossover that applied 1Hz rTMS over temporal cortex. Both treatment responders and non-responders were recruited. Results indicated, first, that the original treatment response, both positive and negative, is replicated after stimulating a homologous region of the opposite hemisphere; second, patients respond similarly to 1 and 10 Hz stimulation of the same treatment site (an exception was one patient who initially failed 1 Hz stimulation but responded positively to 10 Hz stimulation); and, third, maintenance rTMS had a sustained and additive benefit for tinnitus among treatment responders. Conclusions are that rTMS-induced effects on tinnitus are neither hemisphere specific nor frequency dependent; although, different frequencies of rTMS may have greater potency for a given subject. Maintenance treatment is a well tolerated approach with demonstrated feasibility for managing chronic tinnitus in persons who respond positively to an initial course of treatment. PMID:22486989

  3. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves behavioral and biochemical deficits in levodopa-induced dyskinetic rats model

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Lina; Yi, Maoli; Zhang, Hongli

    2016-01-01

    Fluctuations of dopamine levels and upregulations of NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation in the striatum have been connected with levodopa (L-dopa)-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is one of the noninvasive and potential method treating dyskinesia. Yet, the effect of rTMS on the above key pathological events remains unclear. In this study, we gave L-dopa treatment intraperitoneally for 22 days to 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned PD rats to prepare LID rats model, and subsequently applied rTMS daily for 3 weeks to LID rats model. The effect of rTMS on abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) was assessed. After ending the experiments, we further determined tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dopaminergic neurons number by immunohistochemistry, dopamine levels by HPLC, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels by ELISA, NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of NR2B with Fyn by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. The results demonstrated that rTMS obviously attenuated AIMs scores, reduced the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and the fluctuations of striatal dopamine levels. Meanwhile, rTMS significantly increased the expression of GDNFwhich couldrestore the damage of dopaminergic neurons. Additionally, rTMS also reduced the levels of the NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation andits interactions with Fyn in the lesioned striatum of LID rats model. Thus, these data indicate that rTMS can provide benefit for the therapy of LID by improving the key biochemical deficits related to dyskinesia. PMID:27613848

  4. Cognitive correlates of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in treatment-resistant depression- a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The aim of the current study was to investigate the cognitive correlates of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in 10 treatment-resistant depression patients. Methods Patients received forty 20-min sessions of fast-frequency (10 Hz) rTMS of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) over 20 days. Concept-shift ability (accuracy and duration of performance) was assessed daily with a Modified Concept-Shifting Task (mCST) in patients and in eight healthy volunteers. General cognitive functioning test (Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status; RBANS), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI) and Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D) were applied before the first and after the last rTMS. Results Compared to before rTMS on the first 10 days, the patients performed the mCST significantly more accurately after rTMS on the last 10 days (p < .001, partial eta squared=.78) while the same comparison in healthy volunteers was not statistically significant (p = .256, partial eta squared=.18). A significant improvement in immediate memory on RBANS and reduction in BDI and HAM-D scores were also observed after the last compared to before the first rTMS. Conclusion The rTMS is associated with an improvement in selective cognitive functions that is not explained by practice effects on tasks administered repeatedly. Trial registration Name: "Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in the treatment of depression, assessed with HAM-D over a four week period." URL: www.actr.org.au Registration number: ACTRN012605000145606 PMID:23031294

  5. The effects of 1 Hz rTMS preconditioned by tDCS on gait kinematics in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    von Papen, Mitra; Fisse, Mirabell; Sarfeld, Anna-Sophia; Fink, Gereon R; Nowak, Dennis A

    2014-07-01

    Hypokinetic gait is a common and very disabling symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the motor cortex has been used with variable effectiveness to treat hypokinesia in PD. Preconditioning rTMS by transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) may enhance its effectiveness to treat hypokinetic gait in PD. Three-dimensional kinematic gait analysis was performed (1) prior to, (2) immediately after and (3) 30 min after low-frequency rTMS (1 Hz, 900 pulses, 80% of resting motor threshold) over M1 contralateral to the more affected body side preconditioned by (1) cathodal, (2) anodal or (3) sham tDCS (amperage: 1 mA, duration: 10 min) in ten subjects with PD (7 females, mean age 63 ± 9 years) and ten healthy subjects (four females, mean age 50 ± 11 years). The effects of tDCS-preconditioned rTMS on gait kinematics were assessed by the following parameters: number of steps, step length, stride length, double support time, cadence, swing and stance phases. Our data suggest a bilateral improvement of hypokinetic gait in PD after 1 Hz rTMS over M1 of the more affected body side preceded by anodal tDCS. In contrast, 1 Hz rTMS alone (preceded by sham tDCS) and 1 Hz rTMS preceded by cathodal tDCS were ineffective to improve gait kinematics in PD. In healthy subjects, gait kinematics was unaffected by either intervention. Preconditioning motor cortex rTMS by tDCS is a promising approach to treat hypokinetic gait in PD.

  6. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) improves behavioral and biochemical deficits in levodopa-induced dyskinetic rats model.

    PubMed

    Ba, Maowen; Kong, Min; Guan, Lina; Yi, Maoli; Zhang, Hongli

    2016-09-13

    Fluctuations of dopamine levels and upregulations of NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation in the striatum have been connected with levodopa (L-dopa)-induced dyskinesia (LID) in Parkinson's disease (PD). Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is one of the noninvasive and potential method treating dyskinesia. Yet, the effect of rTMS on the above key pathological events remains unclear. In this study, we gave L-dopa treatment intraperitoneally for 22 days to 6-hydroxydopamine-lesioned PD rats to prepare LID rats model, and subsequently applied rTMS daily for 3 weeks to LID rats model. The effect of rTMS on abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) was assessed. After ending the experiments, we further determined tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive dopaminergic neurons number by immunohistochemistry, dopamine levels by HPLC, glial cell line-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) levels by ELISA, NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation and interactions of NR2B with Fyn by immunoblotting and immunoprecipitation. The results demonstrated that rTMS obviously attenuated AIMs scores, reduced the loss of nigral dopaminergic neurons and the fluctuations of striatal dopamine levels. Meanwhile, rTMS significantly increased the expression of GDNF, which couldrestore the damage of dopaminergic neurons. Additionally, rTMS also reduced the levels of the NR2B tyrosine phosphorylation andits interactions with Fyn in the lesioned striatum of LID rats model. Thus, these data indicate that rTMS can provide benefit for the therapy of LID by improving the key biochemical deficits related to dyskinesia.

  7. In-Group and Out-Group Membership Mediates Anterior Cingulate Activation to Social Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Krill, Austen; Platek, Steven M.

    2009-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed to examine sensitivity to social exclusion in three conditions: same-race, other-race, and self-resembling faces. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), specifically the dorsal ACC, has been targeted as a key substrate in the physical and social pain matrix and was hypothesized to regulate activation response to various facial conditions. We show that participants demonstrated greatest ACC activation when being excluded by self-resembling and same-race faces, relative to other-race faces. Additionally, participants expressed greater distress and showed increased ACC activation as a result of exclusion in the same-race condition relative to the other-race condition. A positive correlation between implicit racial bias and activation in the amygdala was also evident. Implicit attitude about other-race faces partly explains levels of concern about exclusion by out-group individuals. These findings suggest that individuals are more distressed and their brain (i.e. neural alarm system) responds with greater activation when being excluded by individuals whom they are more likely to share group membership with. PMID:19597546

  8. Modulation of Group I Ribozyme Activity by Cationic Porphyrins

    PubMed Central

    Matsumura, Shigeyoshi; Ito, Tatsunobu; Tanaka, Takahiro; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Ikawa, Yoshiya

    2015-01-01

    The effects of cationic porphyrins on the catalytic activities of four group I ribozymes were investigated. A cationic porphyrin possessing four pyridinium moieties (pPyP) inhibited two group IC3 ribozymes (Syn Rz and Azo Rz) and a group IC1 ribozyme (Tet Rz). In the case of a group IA2 ribozyme (Td Rz), however, pPyP served not only as an inhibitor but also as an activator, and the effects of pPyP were dependent on its concentration. To analyze the structural and electronic factors determining the effects of pPyP on group I ribozymes, three cationic porphyrins (pPyNCP, pPyF4P, and TMPyP) were also examined. As interactions between small organic molecules and nucleic acids are attractive and important issues in biochemistry and biotechnology, this study contributes to the development of porphyrin-based molecules that can modulate functions of structured RNA molecules. PMID:25811638

  9. Lasting EEG/MEG Aftereffects of Rhythmic Transcranial Brain Stimulation: Level of Control Over Oscillatory Network Activity

    PubMed Central

    Veniero, Domenica; Vossen, Alexandra; Gross, Joachim; Thut, Gregor

    2015-01-01

    A number of rhythmic protocols have emerged for non-invasive brain stimulation (NIBS) in humans, including transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS), oscillatory transcranial direct current stimulation (otDCS), and repetitive (also called rhythmic) transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). With these techniques, it is possible to match the frequency of the externally applied electromagnetic fields to the intrinsic frequency of oscillatory neural population activity (“frequency-tuning”). Mounting evidence suggests that by this means tACS, otDCS, and rTMS can entrain brain oscillations and promote associated functions in a frequency-specific manner, in particular during (i.e., online to) stimulation. Here, we focus instead on the changes in oscillatory brain activity that persist after the end of stimulation. Understanding such aftereffects in healthy participants is an important step for developing these techniques into potentially useful clinical tools for the treatment of specific patient groups. Reviewing the electrophysiological evidence in healthy participants, we find aftereffects on brain oscillations to be a common outcome following tACS/otDCS and rTMS. However, we did not find a consistent, predictable pattern of aftereffects across studies, which is in contrast to the relative homogeneity of reported online effects. This indicates that aftereffects are partially dissociated from online, frequency-specific (entrainment) effects during tACS/otDCS and rTMS. We outline possible accounts and future directions for a better understanding of the link between online entrainment and offline aftereffects, which will be key for developing more targeted interventions into oscillatory brain activity. PMID:26696834

  10. Neuronavigation Increases the Physiologic and Behavioral Effects of Low-Frequency rTMS of Primary Motor Cortex in Healthy Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Bashir, S.; Edwards, D.

    2013-01-01

    Low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) can exert local and inter-hemispheric neuromodulatory effects on cortical excitability. These physiologic effects can translate into changes in motor behavior, and may offer valuable therapeutic interventions in recovery from stroke. Neuronavigated TMS can maximize accurate and consistent targeting of a given cortical region, but is a lot more involved that conventional TMS. We aimed to assess whether neuronavigation enhances the physiologic and behavioral effects of low-frequency rTMS. Ten healthy subjects underwent two experimental sessions during which they received 1600 pulses of either navigated or non-navigated 1 Hz rTMS at 90% of the resting motor threshold (RMT) intensity over the motor cortical representation for left first dorsal interosseous (FDI) muscle. We compared the effects of navigated and non-navigated rTMS on motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) to single-pulse TMS, intracortical inhibition (ICI) and intracortical facilitation (ICF) by paired-pulse TMS, and performance in various behavioral tasks (index finger tapping, simple reaction time and grip strength tasks). Following navigated rTMS, the amplitude of MEPs elicited from the contralateral (unstimulated) motor cortex was significantly increased, and was associated with an increase in ICF and a trend to decrease in ICI. In contrast, non-navigated rTMS elicited nonsignificant changes, most prominently ipsilateral to rTMS. Behaviorally, navigated rTMS significantly improved reaction time RT and pinch force with the hand ipsilateral to stimulation. Non-navigated rTMS lead to similar behavioral trends, although the effects did not reach significance. In summary, navigated rTMS leads to more robust modulation of the contralateral (unstimulated) hemisphere resulting in physiologic and behavioral effects. Our findings highlight the spatial specificity of inter-hemispheric TMS effects, illustrate the superiority of navigated rTMS for certain

  11. Emotional face recognition, empathic trait (BEES), and cortical contribution in response to positive and negative cues. The effect of rTMS on dorsal medial prefrontal cortex.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Bortolotti, Adriana

    2013-02-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between three different measures related to the affective empathy: facial expression detection in response to different emotional patterns (positive vs. negative), personal response to empathic scale [Balanced Emotional Empathy Scale (BEES)], and dorsal medial prefrontal cortex (dMPFC) contribution to mediate the facial detection task. Nineteen subjects took part in the study and they were required to recognize facial expression of emotions, after having empathized with these emotional cues. Repeated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) method was used in the present research in order to produce a temporary virtual disruption of dMPFC activity. dMPFC disruption induced a worse performance, especially in response to negative expressions (i.e. anger and fear). High-BEES subjects paid a higher cost after frontal brain perturbation: they showed to be unable to correctly detect facial expressions more than low-BEES. Moreover, a "negative valence effect" was observed only for high-BEES, and it was probably related with their higher impairment to recognize negative more than positive expressions. dMPFC was found to support emotional facial expression recognition in an empathic condition, with a specific increased responsiveness for negative-valenced faces. The contribution of this research was discussed to explain the mechanisms underlying affective empathy based on rTMS application.

  12. The relationship between brain oscillatory activity and therapeutic effectiveness of transcranial magnetic stimulation in the treatment of major depressive disorder

    PubMed Central

    Leuchter, Andrew F.; Cook, Ian A.; Jin, Yi; Phillips, Bill

    2013-01-01

    Major depressive disorder (MDD) is marked by disturbances in brain functional connectivity. This connectivity is modulated by rhythmic oscillations of brain electrical activity, which enable coordinated functions across brain regions. Oscillatory activity plays a central role in regulating thinking and memory, mood, cerebral blood flow, and neurotransmitter levels, and restoration of normal oscillatory patterns is associated with effective treatment of MDD. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a robust treatment for MDD, but the mechanism of action (MOA) of its benefits for mood disorders remains incompletely understood. Benefits of rTMS have been tied to enhanced neuroplasticity in specific brain pathways. We summarize here the evidence that rTMS entrains and resets thalamocortical oscillators, normalizes regulation and facilitates reemergence of intrinsic cerebral rhythms, and through this mechanism restores normal brain function. This entrainment and resetting may be a critical step in engendering neuroplastic changes and the antidepressant effects of rTMS. It may be possible to modify the method of rTMS administration to enhance this MOA and achieve better antidepressant effectiveness. We propose that rTMS can be administered: (1) synchronized to a patient's individual alpha frequency (IAF), or synchronized rTMS (sTMS); (2) as a low magnetic field strength sinusoidal waveform; and, (3) broadly to multiple brain areas simultaneously. We present here the theory and evidence indicating that these modifications could enhance the therapeutic effectiveness of rTMS for the treatment of MDD. PMID:23550274

  13. rTMS over bilateral inferior parietal cortex induces decrement of spatial sustained attention.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jeyeon; Ku, Jeonghun; Han, Kiwan; Park, Jinsick; Lee, Hyeongrae; Kim, Kyung Ran; Lee, Eun; Husain, Masud; Yoon, Kang Jun; Kim, In Young; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, Sun I

    2013-01-01

    Sustained attention is an essential brain function that enables a subject to maintain attention level over the time of a task. In previous work, the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL) has been reported as one of the main brain regions related to sustained attention, however, the right lateralization of vigilance/sustained attention is unclear because information about the network for sustained attention is traditionally provided by neglect patients who typically have right brain damage. Here, we investigated sustained attention by applying a virtual lesion technique, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), over the left and right superior parietal lobe (SPL) and IPL. We used two different types of visual sustained attention tasks: spatial (location based) and non-spatial (feature based). When the participants performed the spatial task, repetitive TMS (rTMS) over either the right or left IPL induced a significant decrement of sustained attention causing a progressive increment of errors and response time. In contrast, participants' performance was not changed by rTMS on the non-spatial task. Also, omission errors (true negative) gradually increased with time on right and left IPL rTMS conditions, while commission errors (false positive) were relatively stable. These findings suggest that the maintenance of attention, especially in tasks regarding spatial location, is not uniquely lateralized to the right IPL, but may also involve participation of the left IPL.

  14. rTMS over bilateral inferior parietal cortex induces decrement of spatial sustained attention

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Jeyeon; Ku, Jeonghun; Han, Kiwan; Park, Jinsick; Lee, Hyeongrae; Kim, Kyung Ran; Lee, Eun; Husain, Masud; Yoon, Kang Jun; Kim, In Young; Jang, Dong Pyo; Kim, Sun I.

    2013-01-01

    Sustained attention is an essential brain function that enables a subject to maintain attention level over the time of a task. In previous work, the right inferior parietal lobe (IPL) has been reported as one of the main brain regions related to sustained attention, however, the right lateralization of vigilance/sustained attention is unclear because information about the network for sustained attention is traditionally provided by neglect patients who typically have right brain damage. Here, we investigated sustained attention by applying a virtual lesion technique, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), over the left and right superior parietal lobe (SPL) and IPL. We used two different types of visual sustained attention tasks: spatial (location based) and non-spatial (feature based). When the participants performed the spatial task, repetitive TMS (rTMS) over either the right or left IPL induced a significant decrement of sustained attention causing a progressive increment of errors and response time. In contrast, participants' performance was not changed by rTMS on the non-spatial task. Also, omission errors (true negative) gradually increased with time on right and left IPL rTMS conditions, while commission errors (false positive) were relatively stable. These findings suggest that the maintenance of attention, especially in tasks regarding spatial location, is not uniquely lateralized to the right IPL, but may also involve participation of the left IPL. PMID:23403477

  15. The ethics of neuromodulation for anorexia nervosa: a focus on rTMS

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective Recently there has been emerging clinical and research interest in the application of deep brain stimulation (DBS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to the treatment of anorexia nervosa (AN). To our knowledge, few studies have discussed ethical aspects associated with the increased use of neuromodulation in AN, some of which are quite specific to AN, despite the rapid development and dissemination of these new technologies. Method We provide a brief overview of three published rTMS studies for AN and discuss ethical issues involved in the use of neuromodulation for AN. Results In contrast to neurosurgery or DBS, rTMS is a less invasive technique, with less associated risk, and thus has greater potential to become a more widespread augmentation or add-on therapy for AN. New therapeutic procedures are promising, yet they raise ethical questions regarding informed consent and patient selection. Illness-specific issues surrounding authenticity and autonomy are important to consider, ensuring an ethical approach to treatment for patients with AN. Discussion We argue that ethical investigations for neuromodulation techniques are timely and important, and discussions should go beyond the immediate goals of patient safety, consent, and risk and benefit, to consider broader ethical concepts such as authenticity and autonomy. PMID:24690315

  16. Recruitment and Retention of Smokers Versus Nonsmokers in an rTMS Study

    PubMed Central

    Sheffer, Christine E; Brackman, Sharon; Mennemeier, Mark; Brown, Ginger; Landes, Reid D; Dornhoffer, John; Kimbrell, Timothy; Bickel, Warren K

    2015-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a new frontier in the examination of addictive behaviors and perhaps the development of new interventions. This study examined differences in recruitment, eligibility, and retention among smokers and nonsmokers in an rTMS study. We modeled participant eligibility and study completion among eligible participants accounting for demographic differences between smokers and nonsmokers. Nonsmokers were more likely than smokers to remain eligible for the study after the in-person screen (84.2% versus 57.4%; OR 4.0 CI: 1.0, 15.4, p=0.05) and to complete the study (87.5% versus 59.3%; OR=43.9 CI: 2.8, 687.2, p=0.007). The preliminary findings suggest that careful screening for drugs of abuse and brain abnormalities among smokers prior to administering rTMS is warranted. More research is needed concerning the prevalence of brain abnormalities in smokers. Smokers might need to be informed about a higher risk of incidental MRI findings. PMID:26436136

  17. Efficacy of cumulative high-frequency rTMS on freezing of gait in Parkinson’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Min Su; Hyuk Chang, Won; Cho, Jin Whan; Youn, Jinyoung; Kim, Yun Kwan; Woong Kim, Sun; Kim, Yun-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Purpose: Freezing of gait (FOG) affects mobility and balance seriously. Few reports have investigated the effects of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) on FOG in Parkinson’s disease (PD). We investigated the efficacy of high-frequency rTMS for the treatment of FOG in PD. Methods: Seventeen patients diagnosed with PD were recruited in a randomized, double-blinded, cross-over study. We applied high frequency rTMS (90% of resting motor threshold, 10 Hz, 1,000 pulses) over the lower leg primary motor cortex of the dominant hemisphere (M1-LL) for five sessions in a week. We also administered alternative sham stimulation with a two-week wash out period. The primary outcomes were measured before, immediately after, and one week after the intervention using the Standing Start 180° Turn Test (SS-180) with video analysis and the Freezing of Gait Questionnaire (FOG-Q). The secondary outcome measurements consisted of Timed Up and Go (TUG) tasks and the Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale part III (UPDRS-III). Motor cortical excitability was also evaluated. Results: There were significant improvements in the step required to complete the SS-180 and FOG-Q in the rTMS condition compared to the sham condition, and the effects continued for a week. The TUG and UPDRS-III also showed significant ameliorations over time in the rTMS condition. The MEP amplitude at 120% resting motor threshold and intracortical facilitation also increased after real rTMS condition. Conclusions: High frequency rTMS over the M1-LL may serve as an add-on therapy for improving FOG in PD. PMID:26409410

  18. Dynamic regulation of Polycomb group activity during plant development.

    PubMed

    Bemer, Marian; Grossniklaus, Ueli

    2012-11-01

    Polycomb group (PcG) complexes play important roles in phase transitions and cell fate determination in plants and animals, by epigenetically repressing sets of genes that promote either proliferation or differentiation. The continuous differentiation of new organs in plants, such as leaves or flowers, requires a highly dynamic PcG function, which can be induced, modulated, or repressed when necessary. In this review, we discuss the recent advance in understanding PcG function in plants and focus on the diverse molecular mechanisms that have been described to regulate and counteract PcG activity in Arabidopsis.

  19. Enhanced biological activity of carotenoids stabilized by phenyl groups.

    PubMed

    You, Ji Suk; Jeon, Sunhwa; Byun, Youn Jung; Koo, Sangho; Choi, Shin Sik

    2015-06-15

    Carotenoids are lipid soluble food ingredients with multifunction including antioxidant and anticancer activities. However, carotenoids are destructively oxidized upon reaction with radicals resulting in toxic effects on biological systems. Two synthetic carotenoids (BAS and BTS) containing the aromatic phenyl groups with a para-substituent (OMe and Me, respectively) at C-13 and C-13' position were prepared in order to overcome a structural instability of carotenoid. Both BAS and BTS exerted stronger radical scavenging activity than β-carotene in DPPH and ABTS assays. In particular, BTS significantly reduced in vivo ROS (reactive oxygen species) levels and improved body growth and reproduction of Caenorhabditiselegans. BTS has a great potential for the advanced and modified carotenoid material with stability leading to enhanced bioavailability.

  20. Space station group activities habitability module study: A synopsis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nixon, David; Glassman, Terry

    1987-01-01

    Space station habitability was studied by investigating crew activity routines, proximities, ergonomic envelopes, and group volumes. Ten alternative schematic interior designs were proposed. Preliminary conclusions include: (1) in-service interior modifications may be necessary and should be planned for; (2) design complexity will be increased if the module cluster is reduced from five to three; (3) the increased crew circulation attendant upon enhancement of space station activity may produce human traffic bottlenecks and should be planned for; (4) a single- or two-person quiet area may be desirable to provide crew members with needed solitude during waking hours; and (5) the decision to choose a two-shift or three-shift daily cycle will have a significant impact on the design configuration and operational efficiency of the human habitat.

  1. The International Particle Physics Outreach Group (ippog):. Aims and Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barney, David

    2012-08-01

    The International Particle Physics Outreach Group, IPPOG, is a network of particle physics communication and education experts. IPPOG's principle aim is to maximize the impact of education and outreach efforts related to particle physics through information exchange and the sharing of expertise. IPPOG has initiated several major European and Worldwide activities, such as the "International Particle Physics Masterclasses" where each year thousands of high school students in more than 20 countries come to one of about 120 nearby universities or research centres for a day in order to unravel the mysteries of particle physics. IPPOG has also initiated a global database of education and outreach materials, aimed at supporting other particle physicists and education professionals. The aims and activities of IPPOG will be described, as well as plans to include more countries & laboratories in the network.

  2. 75 FR 51525 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-20

    ... Federal Railroad Administration Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update... of Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC) Working Group Activities. SUMMARY: The FRA is updating its announcement of RSAC's Working Group activities to reflect its current status. FOR...

  3. Environmental distribution, abundance and activity of the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lloyd, K. G.; Biddle, J.; Teske, A.

    2011-12-01

    Many marine sedimentary microbes have only been identified by 16S rRNA sequences. Consequently, little is known about the types of metabolism, activity levels, or relative abundance of these groups in marine sediments. We found that one of these uncultured groups, called the Miscellaneous Crenarchaeotal Group (MCG), dominated clone libraries made from reverse transcribed 16S rRNA, and 454 pyrosequenced 16S rRNA genes, in the White Oak River estuary. Primers suitable for quantitative PCR were developed for MCG and used to show that 16S rRNA DNA copy numbers from MCG account for nearly all the archaeal 16S rRNA genes present. RT-qPCR shows much less MCG rRNA than total archaeal rRNA, but comparisons of different primers for each group suggest bias in the RNA-based work relative to the DNA-based work. There is no evidence of a population shift with depth below the sulfate-methane transition zone, suggesting that the metabolism of MCG may not be tied to sulfur or methane cycles. We classified 2,771 new sequences within the SSU Silva 106 database that, along with the classified sequences in the Silva database was used to make an MCG database of 4,646 sequences that allowed us to increase the named subgroups of MCG from 7 to 19. Percent terrestrial sequences in each subgroup is positively correlated with percent of the marine sequences that are nearshore, suggesting that membership in the different subgroups is not random, but dictated by environmental selective pressures. Given their high phylogenetic diversity, ubiquitous distribution in anoxic environments, and high DNA copy number relative to total archaea, members of MCG are most likely anaerobic heterotrophs who are integral to the post-depositional marine carbon cycle.

  4. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) priming of 1Hz repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) modulates experimental pain thresholds.

    PubMed

    Moloney, Tonya M; Witney, Alice G

    2013-02-08

    Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) and repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of primary motor cortex (M1) modulate cortical excitability. Both techniques have been demonstrated to modulate chronic pain and experimental pain thresholds, but with inconsistent effects. Preconditioning M1 with weak tDCS (1mA) standardizes the effects of subsequent stimulation via rTMS on levels of cortical excitability. Here we examine whether 1Hz rTMS, primed with tDCS, could effectively standardize the modulation of pain thresholds. Thermal pain thresholds were determined using quantitative sensory testing (QST) of the palmar thenar of both hands in 12 healthy males pre and post tDCS - 1Hz rTMS over the hand area of the left M1. Cathodal tDCS preconditioning of 1Hz rTMS successfully reversed the normal suppressive effect of low frequency rTMS and effectively modulated cold and heat pain thresholds. Conversely, anodal tDCS - 1Hz rTMS led to a decrease in cold pain thresholds. Therefore, this study supports that preconditioning M1 using cathodal tDCS before subsequent stimulation via 1Hz rTMS facilitates the production of analgesia.

  5. Preliminary Evidence of the Effects of High-frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Swallowing Functions in Post-Stroke Individuals with Chronic Dysphagia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Ivy K. Y.; Chan, Karen M. K.; Wong, C. S.; Cheung, Raymond T. F.

    2015-01-01

    Background: There is growing evidence of potential benefits of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) in the rehabilitation of dysphagia. However, the site and frequency of stimulation for optimal effects are not clear. Aims: The aim of this pilot study is to investigate the short-term effects of high-frequency 5 Hz rTMS applied to…

  6. Neural activity reveals perceptual grouping in working memory.

    PubMed

    Rabbitt, Laura R; Roberts, Daniel M; McDonald, Craig G; Peterson, Matthew S

    2017-03-01

    There is extensive evidence that the contralateral delay activity (CDA), a scalp recorded event-related brain potential, provides a reliable index of the number of objects held in visual working memory. Here we present evidence that the CDA not only indexes visual object working memory, but also the number of locations held in spatial working memory. In addition, we demonstrate that the CDA can be predictably modulated by the type of encoding strategy employed. When individual locations were held in working memory, the pattern of CDA modulation mimicked previous findings for visual object working memory. Specifically, CDA amplitude increased monotonically until working memory capacity was reached. However, when participants were instructed to group individual locations to form a constellation, the CDA was prolonged and reached an asymptote at two locations. This result provides neural evidence for the formation of a unitary representation of multiple spatial locations.

  7. Photovoltaic Reliability Group activities in USA and Brazil (Presentation Recording)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.; Cruz, Leila R. O.

    2015-09-01

    Recently prices of photovoltaic (PV) systems have been reduced considerably and may continue to be reduced making them attractive. If these systems provide electricity over the stipulated warranty period, it would be possible attain socket parity within the next few years. Current photovoltaic module qualifications tests help in minimizing infant mortality but do not guarantee useful lifetime over the warranty period. The PV Module Quality Assurance Task Force (PVQAT) is trying to formulate accelerated tests that will be useful towards achieving the ultimate goal of assuring useful lifetime over the warranty period as well as to assure manufacturing quality. Unfortunately, assuring the manufacturing quality may require 24/7 presence. Alternatively, collecting data on the performance of fielded systems would assist in assuring manufacturing quality. Here PV systems installed by home-owners and small businesses can constitute as an important untapped source of data. The volunteer group, PV - Reliable, Safe and Sustainable Quality! (PVRessQ!) is providing valuable service to small PV system owners. Photovoltaic Reliability Group (PVRG) is initiating activities in USA and Brazil to assist home owners and small businesses in monitoring photovoltaic (PV) module performance and enforcing warranty. It will work in collaboration with small PV system owners, consumer protection agencies. Brazil is endowed with excellent solar irradiance making it attractive for installation of PV systems. Participating owners of small PV systems would instruct inverter manufacturers to copy the daily e-mails to PVRG and as necessary, will authorize the PVRG to carry out review of PV systems. The presentation will consist of overall activities of PVRG in USA and Brazil.

  8. An Update on the VAMOS Extremes Working Group Activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schubert, Siegfried; Cavalcanti, Iracema

    2011-01-01

    We review here the progress of the Variability of the American MOnsoon Systems (VAMOS) extremes working group since it was formed in February of 2010. The goals of the working group are to 1) develop an atlas of warm-season extremes over the Americas, 2) evaluate existing and planned simulations, and 3) suggest new model runs to address mechanisms and predictability of extremes. Substantial progress has been made in the development of an extremes atlas based on gridded observations and several reanalysis products including Modern Era Retrospective-Analysis for Research and Applications (MERRA) and Climate Forecast System Reanalysis (CFSR). The status of the atlas, remaining issues and plans for its expansion to include model data will be discussed. This includes the possibility of adding a companion atlas based on station observations based on the software developed under the World Climate Research Programme (WCRP) Expert Team on Climate Change. Detection and Indices (ETCCDI) activity. We will also review progress on relevant research and plans for the use and validation of the atlas results.

  9. Incorporating More Individual Accountability in Group Activities in General Chemistry

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cox, Charles T., Jr.

    2015-01-01

    A modified model of cooperative learning known as the GIG model (for group-individual-group) designed and implemented in a large enrollment freshman chemistry course. The goal of the model is to establish a cooperative environment while emphasizing greater individual accountability using both group and individual assignments. The assignments were…

  10. Quantity, Quality, and Variety of Pupil Responses during an Open-Communication Structured Group Directed Reading-Thinking Activity and a Closed Communication Structured Group Directed Reading Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Petre, Richard M.

    The quality, quantity, and variety of pupil responses while using two different group directed reading activities, the Directed Reading Activity (DRA), and the Directed Reading-Thinking Activity (DRTA) were investigated in this study. The subjects, all fourth graders in two nearby communities, were grouped into above-grade-level, at-grade-level,…

  11. Inter-individual variability in cortical excitability and motor network connectivity following multiple blocks of rTMS

    PubMed Central

    Nettekoven, Charlotte; Volz, Lukas J.; Leimbach, Martha; Pool, Eva-Maria; Rehme, Anne K.; Eickhoff, Simon B.; Fink, Gereon R.; Grefkes, Christian

    2016-01-01

    The responsiveness to non-invasive neuromodulation protocols shows high inter-individual variability, the reasons of which remain poorly understood. We here tested whether the response to intermittent theta-burst stimulation (iTBS) – an effective repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) protocol for increasing cortical excitability – depends on network properties of the cortical motor system. We furthermore investigated whether the responsiveness to iTBS is dose-dependent. To this end, we used a sham-stimulation controlled, single-blinded within-subject design testing for the relationship between iTBS aftereffects and (i) motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) as well as (ii) resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in 16 healthy subjects. In each session, three blocks of iTBS were applied, separated by 15 min. We found that non-responders (subjects not showing an MEP increase of ≥10% after one iTBS block) featured stronger rsFC between the stimulated primary motor cortex (M1) and premotor areas before stimulation compared to responders. However, only the group of responders showed increases in rsFC and MEPs, while most non-responders remained close to baseline levels after all three blocks of iTBS. Importantly, there was still a large amount of variability in both groups. Our data suggest that responsiveness to iTBS at the local level (i.e., M1 excitability) depends upon the pre-interventional network connectivity of the stimulated region. Of note, increasing iTBS dose did not turn non-responders into responders. The finding that higher levels of pre-interventional connectivity precluded a response to iTBS could reflect a ceiling effect underlying non-responsiveness to iTBS at the systems level. PMID:26052083

  12. Parietal rTMS distorts the mental number line: simulating 'spatial' neglect in healthy subjects.

    PubMed

    Göbel, Silke M; Calabria, Marco; Farnè, Alessandro; Rossetti, Yves

    2006-01-01

    Patients with left-sided visuospatial neglect, typically after damage to the right parietal lobe, show a systematic bias towards larger numbers when asked to bisect a numerical interval. This has been taken as further evidence for a spatial representation of numbers, perhaps akin to a mental number line with smaller numbers represented to the left and larger numbers to the right. Previously, contralateral neglect-like symptoms in physical line bisection have been induced in healthy subjects with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over right posterior parietal lobe. Here we used rTMS over parietal and occipital sites in healthy subjects to investigate spatial representations in a number bisection task. Subjects were asked to name the midpoint of numerical intervals without calculating. On control trials subjects' behaviour was similar to performance reported in physical line bisection experiments. Subjects underestimated the midpoint of the numerical interval. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation produced representational neglect-like symptoms in number bisection when applied over right posterior parietal cortex (right PPC). Repetitive TMS over right PPC shifted the perceived midpoint of the numerical interval significantly to the right while occipital TMS had no effect on bisection performance. Our study therefore provides further evidence that subjects use spatial representations, perhaps akin to a mental number line, in basic numerical processing tasks. Furthermore, we showed that the right posterior parietal cortex is crucially involved in spatial representation of numbers.

  13. The Use of a Group Blog to Actively Support Learning Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duarte, Paulo

    2015-01-01

    Despite the widespread use of blogs in higher education, there remains a lack of knowledge and consensus about the use and value of blogging in higher education, particularly when used for long periods. This article investigates the use of a group blog to assist traditional teaching activities and foster collaborative learning through the…

  14. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

    1998-12-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

  15. Structural Brain Changes Following Left Temporal Low-Frequency rTMS in Patients with Subjective Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Langguth, Berthold; Poeppl, Timm B.; Rupprecht, Rainer; Hajak, Göran; Landgrebe, Michael; Schecklmann, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the temporal cortex has been used to treat patients with subjective tinnitus. While rTMS is known to induce morphological changes in healthy subjects, no study has investigated yet whether rTMS treatment induces grey matter (GM) changes in tinnitus patients as well, whether these changes are correlated with treatment success, and whether GM at baseline is a useful predictor for treatment outcome. Therefore, we examined magnetic resonance images of 77 tinnitus patients who were treated with rTMS of the left temporal cortex (10 days, 2000 stimuli/day, 1 Hz). At baseline and after the last treatment session high-resolution structural images of the brain were acquired and tinnitus severity was assessed. For a subgroup of 41 patients, additional brain scans were done after a follow-up period of 90 days. GM changes were analysed by means of voxel based morphometry. Transient GM decreases were detectable in several brain regions, especially in the insula and the inferior frontal cortex. These changes were not related to treatment outcome though. Baseline images correlated with change in tinnitus severity in the frontal cortex and the lingual gyrus, suggesting that GM at baseline might hold potential as a possible predictor for treatment outcome. PMID:24991438

  16. Efficacy and Safety of Repeated Courses of rTMS Treatment in Patients with Chronic Subjective Tinnitus

    PubMed Central

    Lehner, Astrid; Schecklmann, Martin; Poeppl, Timm B.; Kreuzer, Peter M.; Peytard, Juliette; Frank, Elmar; Langguth, Berthold

    2015-01-01

    Background. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has shown promising effects in the treatment of chronic subjective tinnitus. However, little is known about maintenance treatment in order to achieve long-lasting improvements. Objective. This study addresses the questions whether the repeated application of rTMS treatment can contribute to the maintenance or enhancement of treatment effects and if so in which cases repetitive treatment courses are beneficial. Methods. 55 patients with chronic tinnitus were treated with two rTMS treatment courses with ten treatment sessions each. The mean intertreatment interval was 20.65 ± 18.56 months. Tinnitus severity was assessed before and after each treatment course. Results. Both treatments were well tolerated and caused significant improvement of tinnitus severity. The main predictor for the outcome of the second treatment was the development of tinnitus distress in the phase between both treatment courses: the more patients worsened in this interval, the more they improved during the second treatment course. Conclusion. Repeated application of rTMS seems to be useful in tinnitus management and should preferentially be offered to patients who experience a worsening of their tinnitus during the intertreatment interval, irrespective of their response to the first treatment course. PMID:26583152

  17. A single session of rTMS over the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex influences attentional control in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Vanderhasselt, Marie-Anne; De Raedt, Rudi; Baeken, Chris; Leyman, Lemke; D'Haenen, Hugo

    2009-01-01

    Depressed patients are impaired in the ability to shift their focus of attention. This attentional control process is related to dysfunctions in the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC). It has been proposed that a dorsal circuit plays an important role in the interaction between emotional and attentional information processing. However, because the different emphasis of fundamental cognitive neuroscience research and clinical research of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the DLPFC, little research has been done on the effects of rTMS on cognitive functioning after a single stimulation session to explore the neural systems underlying depression. This study was conducted as a double-blind, placebo-controlled, crossover, within subjects design. Sixteen depressed patients performed a modified task switching paradigm, before and after receiving high frequency (HF) versus placebo rTMS over the left DLPFC. One session of HF-rTMS over the left DLPFC had a specific beneficial effect on task-switching performance, whereas mood remained stable. Antidepressant effects of rTMS could be related to the same neurochemical changes that underlie cognitive functioning. Therefore, task switching performance may provide a unique window into the extent of antidepressant effects which can be considered as second-order long-term effects possibly related to primary alternations in cognitive functioning.

  18. Modulation of N400 in Chronic Non-Fluent Aphasia Using Low Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barwood, Caroline H. S.; Murdoch, Bruce E.; Whelan, Brooke-Mai; Lloyd, David; Riek, Stephan; O'Sullivan, John D.; Coulthard, Alan; Wong, Andrew

    2011-01-01

    Low frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) has previously been applied to language homologues in non-fluent populations of persons with aphasia yielding significant improvements in behavioral language function up to 43 months post stimulation. The present study aimed to investigate the electrophysiological correlates…

  19. The Fantastic Facilitator: Engaging Activities for Leading Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duttweiler, Patricia Cloud

    This document is designed to help facilitators with the formation and development of effective teams of people who have no previous history as a team and no training in group processes. Part 1 provides a narrative explanation of the stages of group development (investing in membership, forming attachments to subgroups, confronting/debating issues,…

  20. An Activity Group Experience for Disengaged Elderly Persons.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, John Ewing; Bodden, Jack L.

    1978-01-01

    Tested the activity theory (which proposes that elderly persons remain in active contact with their environment) and disengagement theory (which suggests adjustment comes through reduction of activity and social contact). Disengaged elderly were identified. Subjects demonstrated significant improvement over the untreated control subjects. Results…

  1. Group Problem Solving as a Zone of Proximal Development activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brewe, Eric

    2006-12-01

    Vygotsky described learning as a process, intertwined with development, which is strongly influenced by social interactions with others that are at differing developmental stages.i These interactions create a Zone of Proximal Development for each member of the interaction. Vygotsky’s notion of social constructivism is not only a theory of learning, but also of development. While teaching introductory physics in an interactive format, I have found manifestations of Vygotsky’s theory in my classroom. The source of evidence is a paired problem solution. A standard mechanics problem was solved by students in two classes as a homework assignment. Students handed in the homework and then solved the same problem in small groups. The solutions to both the group and individual problem were assessed by multiple reviewers. In many cases the group score was the same as the highest individual score in the group, but in some cases, the group score was higher than any individual score. For this poster, I will analyze the individual and group scores and focus on three groups solutions and video that provide evidence of learning through membership in a Zone of Proximal Development. Endnotes i L. Vygotsky -Mind and society: The development of higher mental processes. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. (1978).

  2. Influence of ethylene-oxy spacer group on the activity of linezolid: synthesis of potent antibacterials possessing a thiocarbonyl group.

    PubMed

    Selvakumar, N; Raheem, Mohammed A; Khera, Manoj Kumar; Rajale, Trideep V; Kumar, Magadi Sitaram; Kandepu, Sreenivas; Das, Jagattaran; Rajagopalan, R; Iqbal, Javed; Trehan, Sanjay

    2003-12-01

    The influence of an ethylene-oxy spacer element between the heterocycle and the aromatic ring in linezolid is reported. The introduction of such spacer group generated compounds with inferior antibacterial activity. However, the conversion of the acetamide group present in the linezolid analogues to either thiocarbamate or thioacetamide functionality restored the activity. The synthesis of linezolid analogues possessing the ethylene-oxy spacer group along with SAR studies with different heterocycles and preparation of some thiocarbonyl compounds possessing potent antibacterial property are presented.

  3. Formation of nanostructured Group IIA metal activated sensors: The transformation of Group IIA metal compound sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tune, Travis C.; Baker, Caitlin; Hardy, Neil; Lin, Arthur; Widing, Timothy J.; Gole, James L.

    2015-05-01

    Trends in the Group IIA metal oxides and hydroxides of magnesium, calcium, and barium are unique in the periodic table. In this study we find that they display novel trends as decorating nanostructures for extrinsic semiconductor interfaces. The Group IIA metal ions are strong Lewis acids. We form these M2+ ions in aqueous solution and bring these solutions in contact with a porous silicon interface to form interfaces for conductometric measurements. Observed responses are consistent with the formation of MgO whereas the heavier elements display behaviors which suggest the effect of their more basic nature. Mg(OH)2, when formed, represents a weak base whereas the heavier metal hydroxides of Ca, Sr, and Ba are strong bases. However, the hydroxides tend to give up hydrogen and act as Brönsted acids. For the latter elements, the reversible interaction response of nanostructures deposited to the porous silicon (PS) interface is modified, as the formation of more basic sites appears to compete with M2+ Lewis acidity and hydroxide Brönsted acidity. Mg2+ forms an interface whose response to the analytes NH3 and NO is consistent with MgO and well explained by the recently developing Inverse Hard/Soft Acid/Base model. The behavior of the Ca2+ and Ba2+ decorated interfaces as they interact with the hard base NH3 follows a reversal of the model, indicating a decrease in acidic character as the observed conductometric response suggests the interaction with hydroxyl groups. A change from oxide-like to hydroxide-like constituents is supported by XPS studies. The changes in conductometric response is easily monitored in contrast to changes associated with the Group IIA oxides and hydroxides observed in XPS, EDAX, IR, and NMR measurements.

  4. Parents' Networking Strategies: Participation of Formal and Informal Parent Groups in School Activities and Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wanat, Carolyn L.

    2010-01-01

    This case study examined parent groups' involvement in school activities and their participation in decision making. Research questions included the following: (1) What is the nature of parent groups in schools? (2) What activities and issues gain parent groups' attention and participation? (3) How do parent groups communicate concerns about…

  5. Enhanced excitatory synaptic network activity following transient group I metabotropic glutamate activation.

    PubMed

    Pan, Y-Z; Rutecki, P A

    2014-09-05

    Prolonged activation of group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) using the agonist (S)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG) produces long-lasting changes in the CA3 region of the hippocampal slice. Changes in CA3 pyramidal neuron excitability that follow DHPG exposure result in abnormal network activity manifest by epileptiform activity that consists of interictal and longer lasting ictal epileptiform discharges. In this study we evaluated changes in synaptic activity of CA3 neurons in rat hippocampal slices that occurred after exposure to DHPG. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings were made from visually identified CA3 neurons in control artificial cerebrospinal fluid at times greater than 1h after DHPG exposure. Compared to control slices, neurons from slices exposed to DHPG showed enhanced amplitude and frequency of spontaneously occurring excitatory postsynaptic currents (EPSCs) without a concurrent change in inhibitory postsynaptic current (IPSC) amplitude or frequency. Miniature EPSCs were not affected by DHPG exposure but mIPSCs occurred less frequently and were of reduced amplitude. IPSCs recorded in the presence of ionotropic glutamate receptor blockade occurred less frequently in neurons that had been exposed to DHPG. Monosynaptic-evoked IPSPs were also reduced in amplitude in neurons that had been exposed to DHPG. Taken together, these findings demonstrated an enhanced network excitability of the CA3 region and failure of compensatory synaptic inhibition. We propose that prolonged activation of group I mGluR that may occur under conditions of pathological glutamate release results in long-lasting changes in CA3 synaptic network activity and epileptiform activity driven by excessive synaptic excitation.

  6. Dynamic modulation of rTMS on functional connectivity and functional network connectivity to children with cerebral palsy: a case report.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zhiwei; Xing, Guoqiang; He, Bin; Chen, Huaping; Ou, Jun; McClure, Morgan A; Liu, Hua; Wang, Yunfeng; Mu, Qiwen

    2016-03-02

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive treatment tool for the recovery of cerebral palsy (CP). This report describes the modulation effect of rTMS to functional connectivity, functional network connectivity, motor, and cognitive ability following treatment in a child with mild ataxia CP. After receiving 8 months of 0.5 Hz rTMS treatment over the right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the child showed a gradual improvement in motor and cognitive-related functional connectivity and functional network connectivity following treatment as well as improved motor, cognitive functions. These pilot results provide the first evidence of the efficiency of 0.5 Hz of rTMS on a child with CP. Further large sample studies are needed to verify and expand the present findings.

  7. Governance - Alignment and Configuration of Business Activities Task Group Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    governance level and the Enterprise Model as a way of ensuring integration at the management and work/execution levels 3. Ensure shared services (i.e...Management Framework o QDR Organizational Model o Secretary of Defense 2006-2008 Priorities o Shared Services Defense Business Board...support for horizontal and vertical organizations • Move “supporting” organizations to shared services model May 2006 "Team Defense" 18 Task Group

  8. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in the Management of Alcohol Dependence and other Substance Abuse Disorders – Emerging Data and Clinical Relevance

    PubMed Central

    Sousa, Avinash De

    2013-01-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) has been used widely in various psychiatric disorders like depression and schizophrenia. There have been some reports of its usefulness in alcohol dependence and substance use disorders. The present paper reviews the studies done using rTMS in substance use disorders including alcohol and nicotine dependence. Various studies done have been reviewed including the proposed mechanisms of action are outlined with the future research needs and need for further clinical data PMID:25337357

  9. Working Group 5: Measurements technology and active experiments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whipple, E.; Barfield, J. N.; Faelthammar, C.-G.; Feynman, J.; Quinn, J. N.; Roberts, W.; Stone, N.; Taylor, W. L.

    1986-01-01

    Technology issues identified by working groups 5 are listed. (1) New instruments are needed to upgrade the ability to measure plasma properties in space. (2) Facilities should be developed for conducting a broad range of plasma experiments in space. (3) The ability to predict plasma weather within magnetospheres should be improved and a capability to modify plasma weather developed. (4) Methods of control of plasma spacecraft and spacecraft plasma interference should be upgraded. (5) The space station laboratory facilities should be designed with attention to problems of flexibility to allow for future growth. These issues are discussed.

  10. Is the cerebellum a potential target for stimulation in Parkinson's disease? Results of 1-Hz rTMS on upper limb motor tasks.

    PubMed

    Minks, Eduard; Mareček, Radek; Pavlík, Tomáš; Ovesná, Petra; Bareš, Martin

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to find whether 1-Hz cerebellar repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) could affect upper limb movement in early-stage Parkinson's disease (PD). Twenty patients with PD underwent one session with real and one with sham rTMS. rTMS (1 Hz, 600 pulses) was targeted at the right lateral cerebellum. Before and after rTMS, patients performed two motor tests with their fingers and hands (ball test, nine-hole peg test). The duration of these tests was measured. There were statistically significant differences (p < 0.05) in the results of the tests after real stimulation and sham stimulation. We excluded the impact of learning. After real rTMS, we observed a significantly faster response in the ball test and a slower response in the nine-hole peg test, both on the right upper limb. This study indicates the influence of 1-Hz cerebellar rTMS in modifying the voluntary movements of the upper limb in PD. This influence is differentiated: the improvement of gross motor skills and the worsening of fine motor skills.

  11. Characterization of inhibitory mechanism and antifungal activity between group-1 and group-2 phytocystatins from taro (Colocasia esculenta).

    PubMed

    Wang, Ke-Ming; Kumar, Senthil; Cheng, Yi-Sheng; Venkatagiri, Shripathi; Yang, Ai-Hwa; Yeh, Kai-Wun

    2008-10-01

    Tarocystatin from Colocasia esculenta, a group-2 phytocystatin, is a defense protein against phytopathogenic nematodes and fungi. It is composed of a highly conserved N-terminal region, which is homological to group-1 cystatin, and a repetitive peptide at the C-terminus. The purified recombinant proteins of tarocystatin, such as full-length (FL), N-terminus (Nt) and C-terminus (Ct) peptides, were produced and their inhibitory activities against papain as well as their antifungal effects were investigated. Kinetic analysis revealed that FL peptide exhibited mixed type inhibition (K(ia) = 0.098 microM and K(ib) = 0.252 microM) and Nt peptide showed competitive inhibition (K(i) = 0.057 microM), whereas Ct peptide possessed weak papain activation properties. A shift in the inhibitory pattern from competitive inhibition of Nt peptide alone to mixed type inhibition of FL peptide implied that the Ct peptide has an regulatory effect on the function of FL peptide. Based on the inhibitory kinetics of FL (group-2) and Nt (group-1) peptides on papain activity, an inhibitory mechanism of group-2 phytocystatins and a regulatory mechanism of extended Ct peptide have each been proposed. By contrast, the antifungal activity of Nt peptide appeared to be greater than that of FL peptide, and the Ct peptide showed no effect on antifungal activity, indicating that the antifungal effect is not related to proteinase inhibitory activity. The results are valid for most phytocystatins with respect to the inhibitory mechanism against cysteine proteinase.

  12. The sorting of blood group active proteins during enucleation.

    PubMed

    Satchwell, Timothy J; Bell, Amanda J; Toye, Ashley M

    2015-04-01

    Enucleation represents the critical stage during red blood cell development when the nucleus is extruded from an orthochromatic erythroblast in order to generate a nascent immature reticulocyte. Extrusion of the nucleus results in loss of a proportion of the erythroblast plasma membrane, which surrounds the nucleus, the bulk of the endoplasmic reticulum and a small region of cytoplasm. For this reason enucleation provides an important point in erythroblast differentiation at which proteins not required for the function of the erythrocyte can be lost, whilst those that are important for the structure-function properties of the mature erythrocyte must be efficiently retained in the reticulocyte plasma membrane. Disturbances in protein distribution during enucleation are envisaged to occur during human diseases such as Hereditary Spherocytosis. This article will discuss the current knowledge of erythroblast enucleation in the context of retention and loss of proteins that display antigenic blood group sites and that exist within multiprotein complexes within the erythrocyte membrane.

  13. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Dwight J; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E

    2015-10-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues, such as stimulus similarity, lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA), is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual's VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity, and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change-detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); and similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM.

  14. Contralateral delay activity tracks the influence of Gestalt grouping principles on active visual working memory representations

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, Dwight J.; Gözenman, Filiz; Arciniega, Hector; Berryhill, Marian E.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that factors influencing perception, such as Gestalt grouping cues, can influence the storage of information in visual working memory (VWM). In some cases, stationary cues such as stimulus similarity lead to superior VWM performance. However, the neural correlates underlying these benefits to VWM performance remain unclear. One neural index, the contralateral delay activity (CDA) is an event-related potential that shows increased amplitude according to the number of items held in VWM and asymptotes at an individual’s VWM capacity limit. Here, we applied the CDA to determine whether previously reported behavioral benefits supplied by similarity, proximity and uniform connectedness were reflected as a neural savings such that the CDA amplitude was reduced when these cues were present. We implemented VWM change detection tasks with arrays including similarity and proximity (Experiment 1); uniform connectedness (Experiments 2a and 2b); similarity/proximity and uniform connectedness (Experiment 3). The results indicated that when there was a behavioral benefit to VWM, this was echoed by a reduction in CDA amplitude, which suggests more efficient processing. However, not all perceptual grouping cues provided a VWM benefit in the same measure (e.g., accuracy) or of the same magnitude. We also found unexpected interactions between cues. We observed a mixed bag of effects, suggesting that these powerful perceptual grouping benefits are not as predictable in VWM. The current findings indicate that, when grouping cues produce behavioral benefits, there is a parallel reduction in the neural resources required to maintain grouped items within VWM. PMID:26018644

  15. Current activities of the Atmospheric Composition Sub-Group of the CEOS Working Group on Calibration and Validation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bojkov, Bojan

    The Atmospheric Sub-Group of the CEOS Calibration and Validation Working Group (CEOS WGCV/ASCG) was established in November 2001 with mission to ensure accurate and traceable calibration of remotely-sensed atmospheric chemistry radiance data and validation of higher level products, for application to atmospheric chemistry and climate research. This working-group, consisting of 15 members from space agencies and other relevant agencies and organizations with broad experience in calibration, modeling, algorithm development and validation, meet on an annual basis to promote international collaboration and technical exchanges, encourage interactions between mission scientists and data users, recommend network validation sites, develop comprehensive validation methodologies involving ground-based and space-borne assets, and specify comprehensive and consistent multi-mission validation datasets. Recent activities of the ACSG, including the recent ground-based intercomparisons, the ongoing NASA-ESA-NDACC validation data sharing activities, and the planned multi-agency CO2 validation efforts, will be presented.

  16. AGN physics - A Chandra-Swift Census of AGN activity in Compact Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tzanavaris, Panayiotis

    2012-09-01

    We present a missing link in the study of AGN activity in compact groups of galaxies. The level of this activity in compact groups remains controversial, but has only been studied with optical and infrared diagnostics. We present the first systematic study of 40 compact group galaxies in 9 groups, combining Chandra and Swift data, and providing the first X-ray/UV view of galactic nuclei in compact groups. Our results provide independent evidence that the level of AGN activity in compact groups is representative of their unique environment, which is distinct to that of rich clusters and the field.

  17. Meta-Analysis of Group Learning Activities: Empirically Based Teaching Recommendations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tomcho, Thomas J.; Foels, Rob

    2012-01-01

    Teaching researchers commonly employ group-based collaborative learning approaches in Teaching of Psychology teaching activities. However, the authors know relatively little about the effectiveness of group-based activities in relation to known psychological processes associated with group dynamics. Therefore, the authors conducted a meta-analytic…

  18. Engager and Avoider Behaviour in Types of Activities Performed by Out-of-Class Learning Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yan, Louisa; Kember, David

    2004-01-01

    This study examines the out-of-class learning activities undertaken, at the students' volition, by groups of students. Data were gathered through 57 individual and 15 focus group interviews with university students in Hong Kong. Group activities reported included: copying, sharing material, consulting peers, consulting teachers, studying and…

  19. Releasing the Cortical Brake by Non-Invasive Electromagnetic Stimulation? rTMS Induces LTD of GABAergic Neurotransmission

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Maximilian; Vlachos, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique which modulates cortical excitability beyond the stimulation period. However, despite its clinical use rTMS-based therapies which prevent or reduce disabilities in a functionally significant and sustained manner are scarce. It remains unclear how rTMS-mediated changes in cortical excitability, which are not task- or input-specific, exert beneficial effects in some healthy subjects and patients. While experimental evidence exists that repetitive magnetic stimulation (rMS) is linked to the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory neurotransmission, less attention has been dedicated to rTMS-induced structural, functional and molecular adaptations at inhibitory synapses. In this review article we provide a concise overview on basic neuroscience research, which reveals an important role of local disinhibitory networks in promoting associative learning and memory. These studies suggest that a reduction in inhibitory neurotransmission facilitates the expression of associative plasticity in cortical networks under physiological conditions. Hence, it is interesting to speculate that rTMS may act by decreasing GABAergic neurotransmission onto cortical principal neurons. Indeed, evidence has been provided that rTMS is capable of modulating inhibitory networks. Consistent with this suggestion recent basic science work discloses that a 10 Hz rTMS protocol reduces GABAergic synaptic strength on principal neurons. These findings support a model in which rTMS-induced long-term depression (LTD) of GABAergic synaptic strength mediates changes in excitation/inhibition-balance of cortical networks, which may in turn facilitate (or restore) the ability of stimulated networks to express input- and task-specific associative synaptic plasticity. PMID:27965542

  20. Releasing the Cortical Brake by Non-Invasive Electromagnetic Stimulation? rTMS Induces LTD of GABAergic Neurotransmission.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Maximilian; Vlachos, Andreas

    2016-01-01

    Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) is a non-invasive brain stimulation technique which modulates cortical excitability beyond the stimulation period. However, despite its clinical use rTMS-based therapies which prevent or reduce disabilities in a functionally significant and sustained manner are scarce. It remains unclear how rTMS-mediated changes in cortical excitability, which are not task- or input-specific, exert beneficial effects in some healthy subjects and patients. While experimental evidence exists that repetitive magnetic stimulation (rMS) is linked to the induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) of excitatory neurotransmission, less attention has been dedicated to rTMS-induced structural, functional and molecular adaptations at inhibitory synapses. In this review article we provide a concise overview on basic neuroscience research, which reveals an important role of local disinhibitory networks in promoting associative learning and memory. These studies suggest that a reduction in inhibitory neurotransmission facilitates the expression of associative plasticity in cortical networks under physiological conditions. Hence, it is interesting to speculate that rTMS may act by decreasing GABAergic neurotransmission onto cortical principal neurons. Indeed, evidence has been provided that rTMS is capable of modulating inhibitory networks. Consistent with this suggestion recent basic science work discloses that a 10 Hz rTMS protocol reduces GABAergic synaptic strength on principal neurons. These findings support a model in which rTMS-induced long-term depression (LTD) of GABAergic synaptic strength mediates changes in excitation/inhibition-balance of cortical networks, which may in turn facilitate (or restore) the ability of stimulated networks to express input- and task-specific associative synaptic plasticity.

  1. Enhancement of CA3 hippocampal network activity by activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors.

    PubMed

    Ster, Jeanne; Mateos, José María; Grewe, Benjamin Friedrich; Coiret, Guyllaume; Corti, Corrado; Corsi, Mauro; Helmchen, Fritjof; Gerber, Urs

    2011-06-14

    Impaired function or expression of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRIIs) is observed in brain disorders such as schizophrenia. This class of receptor is thought to modulate activity of neuronal circuits primarily by inhibiting neurotransmitter release. Here, we characterize a postsynaptic excitatory response mediated by somato-dendritic mGluRIIs in hippocampal CA3 pyramidal cells and in stratum oriens interneurons. The specific mGluRII agonists DCG-IV or LCCG-1 induced an inward current blocked by the mGluRII antagonist LY341495. Experiments with transgenic mice revealed a significant reduction of the inward current in mGluR3(-/-) but not in mGluR2(-/-) mice. The excitatory response was associated with periods of synchronized activity at theta frequency. Furthermore, cholinergically induced network oscillations exhibited decreased frequency when mGluRIIs were blocked. Thus, our data indicate that hippocampal responses are modulated not only by presynaptic mGluRIIs that reduce glutamate release but also by postsynaptic mGluRIIs that depolarize neurons and enhance CA3 network activity.

  2. BRAIN REWARD ACTIVITY TO MASKED IN-GROUP SMILING FACES PREDICTS FRIENDSHIP DEVELOPMENT

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pin-Hao A.; Whalen, Paul J.; Freeman, Jonathan B.; Taylor, James M.; Heatherton, Todd F.

    2015-01-01

    This study examined whether neural responses in the ventral striatum (VS) to in-group facial expressions—presented without explicit awareness—could predict friendship patterns in newly arrived individuals from China six months later. Individuals who initially showed greater VS activity in response to in-group happy expressions during functional neuroimaging later made considerably more in-group friends, suggesting that VS activity might reflect reward processes that drive in-group approach behaviors. PMID:26185595

  3. rTMS of medial parieto-occipital cortex interferes with attentional reorienting during attention and reaching tasks.

    PubMed

    Ciavarro, Marco; Ambrosini, Ettore; Tosoni, Annalisa; Committeri, Giorgia; Fattori, Patrizia; Galletti, Claudio

    2013-09-01

    Unexpected changes in the location of a target for an upcoming action require both attentional reorienting and motor planning update. In both macaque and human brain, the medial posterior parietal cortex is involved in both phenomena but its causal role is still unclear. Here we used on-line rTMS over the putative human V6A (pV6A), a reach-related region in the dorsal part of the anterior bank of the parieto-occipital sulcus, during an attention and a reaching task requiring covert shifts of attention and planning of reaching movements toward cued targets in space. We found that rTMS increased RTs to invalidly cued but not to validly cued targets during both the attention and reaching task. Furthermore, we found that rTMS induced a deviation of reaching endpoints toward visual fixation and that this deviation was larger for invalidly cued targets. The results suggest that reorienting signals are used by human pV6A area to rapidly update the current motor plan or the ongoing action when a behaviorally relevant object unexpectedly occurs in an unattended location. The current findings suggest a direct involvement of the action-related dorso-medial visual stream in attentional reorienting and a more specific role of pV6A area in the dynamic, on-line control of reaching actions.

  4. Exploring Group Dynamics of Primary 6 Students Engaged in Mathematical Modelling Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eric, Chan Chun Ming

    2014-01-01

    This paper explores the group dynamics among three groups of students involved in collaborative learning in mathematical modelling activities. It reports how group dynamics were established and their influence on the students' mathematical problem-solving endeavours. Through video analyses, discourse structures were identified to suggest the…

  5. The Effect of Science Activities on Concept Acquisition of Age 5-6 Children Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dogru, Mustafa; Seker, Fatih

    2012-01-01

    Present research aims to determine the effect of science activities on concept development of preschool period age 5-6 children groups. Parallel to research objective, qualitative research pattern has been the selected method. Study group comprises of collectively 48 children from 5-6 age group attending to a private education institution in city…

  6. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-08-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6-8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p < 0.001), with no difference between interventions. No amelioration of psychiatric symptoms was observed. The dropout rate was lower with cognitive behavioural therapy than with recreational activity, and participants in cognitive behavioural therapy rated themselves as more generally improved, as well as more improved regarding expression of needs and understanding of difficulties. Both interventions appear to be promising treatment options for adults with autism spectrum disorder. The interventions' similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout.

  7. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6–8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p < 0.001), with no difference between interventions. No amelioration of psychiatric symptoms was observed. The dropout rate was lower with cognitive behavioural therapy than with recreational activity, and participants in cognitive behavioural therapy rated themselves as more generally improved, as well as more improved regarding expression of needs and understanding of difficulties. Both interventions appear to be promising treatment options for adults with autism spectrum disorder. The interventions’ similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout. PMID:24089423

  8. The Expanding Evidence Base for rTMS Treatment of Depression

    PubMed Central

    George, Mark S.; Taylor, Joseph J.; Short, E. Baron

    2014-01-01

    Purpose of review Daily left prefrontal transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) for several weeks was first proposed as an acute treatment for depression in the early 1990’s, and was FDA approved in 2008. In the past year several important studies have been published that extend our understanding of this novel treatment approach. Recent findings The first round of multisite clinical trials with TMS addressed whether prefrontal rTMS has efficacy and were conducted in carefully selected depressed patients who were antidepressant medication free. Several more recent studies assess the clinical effectiveness of TMS and report that about 35–40% of real world patients who are commonly taking adjunctive antidepressants reach remission with a modest side effect profile. There are also new studies examining the durability of the TMS induced antidepressant effect. 58% of TMS remitters remain remitted at 3-month follow-up. Summary These recent studies suggest that daily left prefrontal TMS over several weeks as a treatment for depression appears to not only have efficacy in rigorous randomized controlled trials, but is effective in real world settings, with remission in 30–40% of patients. The TMS antidepressant effect, once achieved, appears to be as durable as with other antidepressant medications or interventions. Much more research is needed, particular with issues such as the TMS coil location, stimulation intensity and frequency, and dosing strategy. PMID:23154644

  9. Group II p21-activated kinases as therapeutic targets in gastrointestinal cancer

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yang-Guang; Ning, Ke; Li, Feng

    2016-01-01

    P21-activated kinases (PAKs) are central players in various oncogenic signaling pathways. The six PAK family members are classified into group I (PAK1-3) and group II (PAK4-6). Focus is currently shifting from group I PAKs to group II PAKs. Group II PAKs play important roles in many fundamental cellular processes, some of which have particular significance in the development and progression of cancer. Because of their important functions, group II PAKs have become popular potential drug target candidates. However, few group II PAKs inhibitors have been reported, and most do not exhibit satisfactory kinase selectivity and “drug-like” properties. Isoform- and kinase-selective PAK inhibitors remain to be developed. This review describes the biological activities of group II PAKs, the importance of group II PAKs in the development and progression of gastrointestinal cancer, and small-molecule inhibitors of group II PAKs for the treatment of cancer. PMID:26811660

  10. The physical activity profiles of South Asian ethnic groups in England

    PubMed Central

    Bhatnagar, Prachi; Townsend, Nick; Shaw, Alison; Foster, Charlie

    2016-01-01

    Background To identify what types of activity contribute to overall physical activity in South Asian ethnic groups and how these vary according to sex and age. We used the White British ethnic group as a comparison. Methods Self-reported physical activity was measured in the Health Survey for England 1999 and 2004, a nationally representative, cross-sectional survey that boosted ethnic minority samples in these years. We merged the two survey years and analysed data from 19 476 adults. The proportions of total physical activity achieved through walking, housework, sports and DIY activity were calculated. We stratified by sex and age group and used analysis of variances to examine differences between ethnic groups, adjusted for the socioeconomic status. Results There was a significant difference between ethnic groups for the contributions of all physical activity domains for those aged below 55 years, with the exception of walking. In women aged 16–34 years, there was no significant difference in the contribution of walking to total physical activity (p=0.38). In the 35–54 age group, Bangladeshi males have the highest proportion of total activity from walking (30%). In those aged over 55 years, the proportion of activity from sports was the lowest in all South Asian ethnic groups for both sexes. Conclusions UK South Asians are more active in some ways that differ, by age and sex, from White British, but are similarly active in other ways. These results can be used to develop targeted population level interventions for increasing physical activity levels in adult UK South Asian populations. PMID:26677257

  11. Effect of Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation on fMRI Resting-State Connectivity in Multiple System Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Chou, Ying-hui; Zhao, Yan-Ping; Hou, Bo; Feng, Feng

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive neuromodulation technique that has been used to treat neurological and psychiatric conditions. Although results of rTMS intervention are promising, so far, little is known about the rTMS effect on brain functional networks in clinical populations. In this study, we used a whole-brain connectivity analysis of resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data to uncover changes in functional connectivity following rTMS intervention and their association with motor symptoms in patients with multiple system atrophy (MSA). Patients were randomized to active rTMS or sham rTMS groups and completed a 10-session 5-Hz rTMS treatment over the left primary motor area. The results showed significant rTMS-related changes in motor symptoms and functional connectivity. Specifically, (1) significant improvement of motor symptoms was observed in the active rTMS group, but not in the sham rTMS group; and (2) several functional links involving the default mode, cerebellar, and limbic networks exhibited positive changes in functional connectivity in the active rTMS group. Moreover, the positive changes in functional connectivity were associated with improvement in motor symptoms for the active rTMS group. The present findings suggest that rTMS may improve motor symptoms by modulating functional links connecting to the default mode, cerebellar, and limbic networks, inferring a future therapeutic candidate for patients with MSA. PMID:25786196

  12. Psychosocial mediators of group cohesion on physical activity intention of older adults.

    PubMed

    Caperchione, Cristina; Mummery, Kerry

    2007-01-01

    Considerable evidence has indicated that group-based physical activity may be a promising approach to reducing and preventing age-related illness. However, this research has not examined the mechanisms by which cohesion may impact on behaviour. The purpose of the present research was to utilise the theory of planned behaviour to investigate the mechanism by which group cohesion may affect physical activity intention. Participants were recruited from an existing physical activity intervention studying the effects of group cohesion on physical activity behaviour. The outcomes of this intervention are reported elsewhere. This paper presents data from a sub-sample of the intervention population (N=74) that examined the mediating relationships between the theory of planned behaviour and group cohesion on physical activity intention. Analyses showed that attitude and perceived behavioural control mediated the relationship between specific group cohesion concepts and physical activity intention. The direct measure of subjective norm failed to display a mediating relationship. The mediating relationships displayed between attitude and perceived behavioural control and physical activity intention provide insight into potential mechanisms by which group cohesion may affect behaviour.

  13. Modulation of non-painful phantom sensation in subjects with spinal cord injury by means of rTMS.

    PubMed

    Nardone, Raffaele; Langthaler, Patrick B; Höller, Yvonne; Bathke, Arne; Frey, Vanessa N; Brigo, Francesco; Trinka, Eugen

    2015-09-01

    We aimed in this study to investigate whether repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS), given as theta burst stimulation (TBS), can interfere with non-painful phantom sensations in subjects with spinal cord injury (SCI). In double-blind, sham-controlled experiments in five subjects with cervical or thoracic traumatic SCI, we evaluated the effects of a single session of inhibitory (continuous) TBS, excitatory (intermittent) TBS, or placebo TBS, on simplex and complex non-painful phantom sensations. The interventions targeted the contralateral primary motor cortex (M1), the primary sensory cortex (S1) and the posterior parietal cortex (PPC). Measurements were carried out at baseline (T0), 5 min (T1) and 30 min later (T2) after the intervention. Descriptive evaluation of results shows that non-painful phantom sensations were not affected by rTMS applied over M1. Continuous (inhibitory) TBS over S1 induced a short-lasting decrease of simple non-painful phantom sensations, while continuous TBS over PPC induced a short-lasting decrease of both simple and complex phantom sensations. Intermittent (excitatory) TBS over PPC induced a slight increase of non-painful phantom sensations. Tests for significance confirm these observations, but must be interpreted with caution because of the small sample size. In conclusion, non-painful phantom sensations may be associated to a hyperexcitability of PPC and to a lesser extent of S1, which can be normalized by inhibitory rTMS. Our preliminary findings provide further evidence that neuromodulatory techniques are able to reverse phantom sensations not only after limb amputation but also in other conditions characterized by deafferentation such as SCI.

  14. The Effects of Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Protocols on Cortical Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury

    PubMed Central

    Ljubisavljevic, Milos R.; Javid, Asma; Oommen, Joji; Parekh, Khatija; Nagelkerke, Nico; Shehab, Safa; Adrian, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Although repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in treatment of stroke in humans has been explored over the past decade the data remain controversial in terms of optimal stimulation parameters and the mechanisms of rTMS long-term effects. This study aimed to explore the potential of different rTMS protocols to induce changes in gene expression in rat cortices after acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury. The stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with subsequent reperfusion. Changes in the expression of 96 genes were examined using low-density expression arrays after MCAO alone and after MCAO combined with 1Hz, 5Hz, continuous (cTBS) and intermittent (iTBS) theta-burst rTMS. rTMS over the lesioned hemisphere was given for two weeks (with a 2-day pause) in a single daily session and a total of 2400 pulses. MCAO alone induced significant upregulation in the expression of 44 genes and downregulation in 10. Two weeks of iTBS induced significant increase in the expression of 52 genes. There were no downregulated genes. 1Hz and 5Hz had no significant effects on gene expression, while cTBS effects were negligible. Upregulated genes included those involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, injury response and cellular repair, structural remodeling, neuroprotection, neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity. The results show that long-term rTMS in acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury induces complex changes in gene expression that span multiple pathways, which generally promote the recovery. They also demonstrate that induced changes primarily depend on the rTMS frequency (1Hz and 5Hz vs. iTBS) and pattern (cTBS vs. iTBS). The results further underlines the premise that one of the benefits of rTMS application in stroke may be to prime the brain, enhancing its potential to cope with the injury and to rewire. This could further augment its potential to favorably respond to rehabilitation, and to restore some of the loss functions. PMID

  15. The Effects of Different Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) Protocols on Cortical Gene Expression in a Rat Model of Cerebral Ischemic-Reperfusion Injury.

    PubMed

    Ljubisavljevic, Milos R; Javid, Asma; Oommen, Joji; Parekh, Khatija; Nagelkerke, Nico; Shehab, Safa; Adrian, Thomas E

    2015-01-01

    Although repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) in treatment of stroke in humans has been explored over the past decade the data remain controversial in terms of optimal stimulation parameters and the mechanisms of rTMS long-term effects. This study aimed to explore the potential of different rTMS protocols to induce changes in gene expression in rat cortices after acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury. The stroke was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) with subsequent reperfusion. Changes in the expression of 96 genes were examined using low-density expression arrays after MCAO alone and after MCAO combined with 1Hz, 5Hz, continuous (cTBS) and intermittent (iTBS) theta-burst rTMS. rTMS over the lesioned hemisphere was given for two weeks (with a 2-day pause) in a single daily session and a total of 2400 pulses. MCAO alone induced significant upregulation in the expression of 44 genes and downregulation in 10. Two weeks of iTBS induced significant increase in the expression of 52 genes. There were no downregulated genes. 1Hz and 5Hz had no significant effects on gene expression, while cTBS effects were negligible. Upregulated genes included those involved in angiogenesis, inflammation, injury response and cellular repair, structural remodeling, neuroprotection, neurotransmission and neuronal plasticity. The results show that long-term rTMS in acute ischemic-reperfusion brain injury induces complex changes in gene expression that span multiple pathways, which generally promote the recovery. They also demonstrate that induced changes primarily depend on the rTMS frequency (1Hz and 5Hz vs. iTBS) and pattern (cTBS vs. iTBS). The results further underlines the premise that one of the benefits of rTMS application in stroke may be to prime the brain, enhancing its potential to cope with the injury and to rewire. This could further augment its potential to favorably respond to rehabilitation, and to restore some of the loss functions.

  16. The effects of rTMS over the primary motor cortex: the link between action and language.

    PubMed

    Repetto, Claudia; Colombo, Barbara; Cipresso, Pietro; Riva, Giuseppe

    2013-01-01

    Is the primary motor cortex (M1) necessary for language comprehension? The present study investigates the role of the primary motor cortex during verbs comprehension, within the framework of the embodied theories of language. We applied rTMS over the right and left hand portion of M1 and tested the effects of the stimulation toward the processing of hand-related action verbs versus abstract verbs. Results underlined a specific inhibition effect following left stimulation, only with hand-related action verbs. These findings seem to corroborate the hypothesis of a functional role of M1 in action verbs comprehension.

  17. The Relationship between Students' Small Group Activities, Time Spent on Self-Study, and Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kamp, Rachelle J. A.; Dolmans, Diana H. J. M.; van Berkel, Henk J. M.; Schmidt, Henk G.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between the contributions students make to the problem-based tutorial group process as observed by their peers, self-study time and achievement. To that end, the Maastricht Peer Activity Rating Scale was administered to students participating in Problem-Based Learning tutorial groups.…

  18. DHPG Activation of Group 1 mGluRs in BLA Enhances Fear Conditioning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudy, Jerry W.; Matus-Amat, Patricia

    2009-01-01

    Group 1 metabotropic glutamate receptors are known to play an important role in both synaptic plasticity and memory. We show that activating these receptors prior to fear conditioning by infusing the group 1 mGluR agonist, (R.S.)-3,5-dihydroxyphenylglycine (DHPG), into the basolateral region of the amygdala (BLA) of adult Sprague-Dawley rats…

  19. Need for Cognition and Active Information Search in Small Student Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Curseu, Petru Lucian

    2011-01-01

    In a sample of 213 students organized in 44 groups this study tests the impact of need for cognition on active information search by using a multilevel analysis. The results show that group members with high need for cognition seek more advice in task related issues than those with low need for cognition and this pattern of information exchange is…

  20. What does low-intensity rTMS do to the cerebellum?

    PubMed

    Morellini, N; Grehl, S; Tang, A; Rodger, J; Mariani, J; Lohof, A M; Sherrard, R M

    2015-02-01

    Non-invasive stimulation of the human cerebellum, such as by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS), is increasingly used to investigate cerebellar function and identify potential treatment for cerebellar dysfunction. However, the effects of TMS on cerebellar neurons remain poorly defined. We applied low-intensity repetitive TMS (LI-rTMS) to the mouse cerebellum in vivo and in vitro and examined the cellular and molecular sequelae. In normal C57/Bl6 mice, 4 weeks of LI-rTMS using a complex biomimetic high-frequency stimulation (BHFS) alters Purkinje cell (PC) dendritic and spine morphology; the effects persist 4 weeks after the end of stimulation. We then evaluated whether LI-rTMS could induce climbing fibre (CF) reinnervation to denervated PCs. After unilateral pedunculotomy in adult mice and 2 weeks sham or BHFS stimulation, VGLUT2 immunohistochemistry was used to quantify CF reinnervation. In contrast to sham, LI-rTMS induced CF reinnervation to the denervated hemicerebellum. To examine potential mechanisms underlying the LI-rTMS effect, we verified that BHFS could induce CF reinnervation using our in vitro olivocerebellar explants in which denervated cerebellar tissue is co-cultured adjacent to intact cerebella and treated with brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) (as a positive control), sham or LI-rTMS for 2 weeks. Compared with sham, BDNF and BHFS LI-rTMS significantly increased CF reinnervation, without additive effect. To identify potential underlying mechanisms, we examined intracellular calcium flux during the 10-min stimulation. Complex high-frequency stimulation increased intracellular calcium by release from intracellular stores. Thus, even at low intensity, rTMS modifies PC structure and induces CF reinnervation.

  1. Structure-antifungal activity relationships of polyene antibiotics of the amphotericin B group.

    PubMed

    Tevyashova, Anna N; Olsufyeva, Evgenia N; Solovieva, Svetlana E; Printsevskaya, Svetlana S; Reznikova, Marina I; Trenin, Aleksei S; Galatenko, Olga A; Treshalin, Ivan D; Pereverzeva, Eleonora R; Mirchink, Elena P; Isakova, Elena B; Zotchev, Sergey B; Preobrazhenskaya, Maria N

    2013-08-01

    A comprehensive comparative analysis of the structure-antifungal activity relationships for the series of biosynthetically engineered nystatin analogues and their novel semisynthetic derivatives, as well as amphotericin B (AMB) and its semisynthetic derivatives, was performed. The data obtained revealed the significant influence of the structure of the C-7 to C-10 polyol region on the antifungal activity of these polyene antibiotics. Comparison of positions of hydroxyl groups in the antibiotics and in vitro antifungal activity data showed that the most active are the compounds in which hydroxyl groups are in positions C-8 and C-9 or positions C-7 and C-10. Antibiotics with OH groups at both C-7 and C-9 had the lowest activity. The replacement of the C-16 carboxyl with methyl group did not significantly affect the in vitro antifungal activity of antibiotics without modifications at the amino group of mycosamine. In contrast, the activity of the N-modified derivatives was modulated both by the presence of CH3 or COOH group in the position C-16 and by the structure of the modifying substituent. The most active compounds were tested in vivo to determine the maximum tolerated doses and antifungal activity on the model of candidosis sepsis in leukopenic mice (cyclophosphamide-induced). Study of our library of semisynthetic polyene antibiotics led to the discovery of compounds, namely, N-(L-lysyl)-BSG005 (compound 3n) and, especially, L-glutamate of 2-(N,N-dimethylamino)ethyl amide of S44HP (compound 2j), with high antifungal activity that were comparable in in vitro and in vivo tests to AMB and that have better toxicological properties.

  2. What Do We Want Small Group Activities For? Voices from EFL Teachers in Japan

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kato, Yoshitaka

    2016-01-01

    This paper discusses the fundamental issue of why small group activities are utilized in the language learning classroom. Although these activities have gained popularity in the field of Teaching English as a Second Language (TESL), supported by a sound theoretical base, few studies have so far examined the reasons why language teachers are…

  3. Fostering an Active Learning Environment for Undergraduates: Peer-to-Peer Interactions in a Research Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Long, Christopher E.; Matthews, Michael A.; Thompson, Nancy S.

    2007-01-01

    The benefits of active learning in the traditional classroom setting are well established among engineering educators; however, this learning model can thrive in other settings, namely in a research group. This work presents findings from an educational research project specifically designed to foster active learning among undergraduates and…

  4. Work group IV: Future directions for measures of the food and physical activity environments.

    PubMed

    Story, Mary; Giles-Corti, Billie; Yaroch, Amy Lazarus; Cummins, Steven; Frank, Lawrence Douglas; Huang, Terry T-K; Lewis, LaVonna Blair

    2009-04-01

    Much progress has been made in the past 5 to 10 years in measuring and understanding the impact of the food and physical activity environments on behavioral outcomes. Nevertheless, this research is in its infancy. A work group was convened to identify current evidence gaps and barriers in food and physical activity environments and policy research measures, and develop recommendations to guide future directions for measurement and methodologic research efforts. A nominal group process was used to determine six priority areas for food and physical activity environments and policy measures to move the field forward by 2015, including: (1) identify relevant factors in the food and physical activity environments to measure, including those most amenable to change; (2) improve understanding of mechanisms for relationships between the environment and physical activity, diet, and obesity; (3) develop simplified measures that are sensitive to change, valid for different population groups and settings, and responsive to changing trends; (4) evaluate natural experiments to improve understanding of food and physical activity environments and their impact on behaviors and weight; (5) establish surveillance systems to predict and track change over time; and (6) develop standards for adopting effective health-promoting changes to the food and physical activity environments. The recommendations emanating from the work group highlight actions required to advance policy-relevant research related to food and physical activity environments.

  5. Integration of Structured Expressive Activities within a Humanistic Group Play Therapy Format for Preadolescents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bratton, Sue C.; Ceballos, Peggy L.; Ferebee, Kelly Webb

    2009-01-01

    The integration of expressive activities in play groups with preadolescents encourages them to reach more deeply into their own resources, enabling them to handle future challenges more effectively. Developmental and therapeutic rationale, along with research support, is given for the integration of creative activities into a humanistic play group…

  6. Upper Elementary Boys' Participation during Group Singing Activities in Single-Sex and Coeducational Classes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bazzy, Zadda M.

    2010-01-01

    As boys in the upper elementary grades become increasingly influenced by peer pressure, many are less likely to participate in singing activities because singing is considered a "feminine" activity. The purpose of this research was to explore if there was an effect on upper elementary boys' level of participation during group singing activities…

  7. IMPORTANCE OF ACTIVATED CARBON'S OXYGEN SURFACE FUNCTIONAL GROUPS ON ELEMENTAL MERCURY ADSORPTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The effect of varying physical and chemical properties of activated carbons on adsorption of elemental mercury [Hg(0)] was studied by treating two activated carbons to modify their surface functional groups and pore structures. Heat treatment (1200 K) in nitrogen (N2), air oxidat...

  8. Group cohesion and between session homework activities predict self-reported cognitive-behavioral skill use amongst participants of SMART Recovery groups.

    PubMed

    Kelly, Peter J; Deane, Frank P; Baker, Amanda L

    2015-04-01

    SMART Recovery groups are cognitive-behaviorally oriented mutual support groups for individuals with addictions. The aim of the study was to assess the extent to which the quality of group facilitation, group cohesion and the use of between session homework activities contribute to self-rated use of cognitive-behavioral skills amongst group participants. Participants attending SMART Recovery groups in Australia completed a cross sectional survey (N=124). The survey included measures of cognitive and behavioral skill utilization, group cohesion, quality of group facilitation and a rating of how frequently participants leave group meetings with an achievable between session homework plan. On average, participants had been attending SMART Recovery meetings for 9 months. Participants were most likely to attend SMART Recovery for problematic alcohol use. Regression analyses indicated that group cohesion significantly predicted use of cognitive restructuring, but that only provision of homework at the end of each group session predicted self-reported behavioral activation. Both group cohesion and leaving a group with an achievable homework plan predicted participant use of cognitive behavioral skills. The concrete actions associated with homework activities may facilitate behavioral activation. There is a need for longitudinal research to examine the relationship between the utilization of cognitive and behavioral skills and participant outcomes (e.g. substance use, mental health) for people attending SMART Recovery groups.

  9. [Cellulase and xylanase activities of Fusarium Lk:Fr. genus fungi of different trophic groups].

    PubMed

    Kurchenko, I M; Sokolova, O V; Zhdanova, N M; Iarynchyn, A M; Iovenko, O M

    2008-01-01

    A comparative analysis of cellulase and xylanase activities of 26 fungal strains of phytopathogenic, saprophytic and endophytic Fusarium species has been realized using the qualitative reactions. The rare of their linear growth on the media with carboxymethyl cellulose or xylane has been studied. It was shown that the fungi of genus Fusarium belonging to different trophic groups possessed low activities of investigated enzymes as a whole, but in endophytic strains their levels were lower than in phytopathogenic ones. At the same time the distinct strain dependence of cellulase and xylanase activities was fixed in the fungi of different trophic groups. As far as the cellulase and xylanase activities in phytopathogenic isolates varied from complete absence to high levels, and since the activity maximum for each of the investigated strains was observed in different growth terms the conclusion was made that the cellulase and xylanase activities could not be considered as possible markers of the fungal isolate pathogenicity on the strain level.

  10. Variant for estimating the activity of tropical cyclone groups in the world ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroshevich, M. I.

    2016-12-01

    It is especially important to know the character and the intensity level of tropical cyclone (TC) activity when the system for estimating the cyclonic danger and risk is formed. During seasons of increased cyclonic activity, when several TCs are simultaneously active, the total energy effect of the cyclone group joint action is not estimated numerically. Cyclonic activity is as a rule characterized by the number of TCs that occur in the considered zone. A variant of the criterion, according to which relative cyclonic activity is estimated, is presented.

  11. Mutualistic Benefits Generate an Unequal Distribution of Risky Activities Among Unrelated Group Members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukuk, Penelope F.; Ward, Seamus A.; Jozwiak, Amy

    Recent studies provide a new challenge to the adequacy of theories concerning the evolution of cooperation among nonrelatives: some individuals perform high-risk activities while others do not. We examined a communal hymenopteran species, Lasioglossum(Chilalictus)hemichalceum, to determine why group members engaged in demonstrably risky activities (foraging) tolerate the selfish behavior (remaining in the nest) of unrelated nestmates. Experimental removal of adult females indicated that their presence is required for the protection of brood from ant predators. Nonforagers ensure the continued presence of adults in the nest if the risk-taking foragers die, thereby safeguarding the survival of forager offspring. This results in an unequal distribution of risky activities within social groups in which avoidance of risky activities by some group members is ultimately beneficial to risk takers.

  12. Synergistic effect between defect sites and functional groups on the hydrolysis of cellulose over activated carbon.

    PubMed

    Foo, Guo Shiou; Sievers, Carsten

    2015-02-01

    The chemical oxidation of activated carbon by H2 O2 and H2 SO4 is investigated, structural and chemical modifications are characterized, and the materials are used as catalysts for the hydrolysis of cellulose. Treatment with H2 O2 enlarges the pore size and imparts functional groups such as phenols, lactones, and carboxylic acids. H2 SO4 treatment targets the edges of carbon sheets primarily, and this effect is more pronounced with a higher temperature. Adsorption isotherms demonstrate that the adsorption of oligomers on functionalized carbon is dominated by van der Waals forces. The materials treated chemically are active for the hydrolysis of cellulose despite the relative weakness of most of their acid sites. It is proposed that a synergistic effect between defect sites and functional groups enhances the activity by inducing a conformational change in the glucan chains if they are adsorbed at defect sites. This activates the glycosidic bonds for hydrolysis by in-plane functional groups.

  13. Evaluating the roles of the inferior frontal gyrus and superior parietal lobule in deductive reasoning: an rTMS study.

    PubMed

    Tsujii, Takeo; Sakatani, Kaoru; Masuda, Sayako; Akiyama, Takekazu; Watanabe, Shigeru

    2011-09-15

    This study used off-line repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to examine the roles of the superior parietal lobule (SPL) and inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) in a deductive reasoning task. Subjects performed a categorical syllogistic reasoning task involving congruent, incongruent, and abstract trials. Twenty four subjects received magnetic stimulation to the SPL region prior to the task. In the other 24 subjects, TMS was administered to the IFG region before the task. Stimulation lasted for 10min, with an inter-pulse frequency of 1Hz. We found that bilateral SPL (Brodmann area (BA) 7) stimulation disrupted performance on abstract and incongruent reasoning. Left IFG (BA 45) stimulation impaired congruent reasoning performance while paradoxically facilitating incongruent reasoning performance. This resulted in the elimination of the belief-bias. In contrast, right IFG stimulation only impaired incongruent reasoning performance, thus enhancing the belief-bias effect. These findings are largely consistent with the dual-process theory of reasoning, which proposes the existence of two different human reasoning systems: a belief-based heuristic system; and a logic-based analytic system. The present findings suggest that the left language-related IFG (BA 45) may correspond to the heuristic system, while bilateral SPL may underlie the analytic system. The right IFG may play a role in blocking the belief-based heuristic system for solving incongruent reasoning trials. This study could offer an insight about functional roles of distributed brain systems in human deductive reasoning by utilizing the rTMS approach.

  14. Gender differences in the neural network of facial mimicry of smiles--An rTMS study.

    PubMed

    Korb, Sebastian; Malsert, Jennifer; Rochas, Vincent; Rihs, Tonia A; Rieger, Sebastian W; Schwab, Samir; Niedenthal, Paula M; Grandjean, Didier

    2015-09-01

    Under theories of embodied emotion, exposure to a facial expression triggers facial mimicry. Facial feedback is then used to recognize and judge the perceived expression. However, the neural bases of facial mimicry and of the use of facial feedback remain poorly understood. Furthermore, gender differences in facial mimicry and emotion recognition suggest that different neural substrates might accompany the production of facial mimicry, and the processing of facial feedback, in men and women. Here, repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) was applied to the right primary motor cortex (M1), the right primary somatosensory cortex (S1), or, in a control condition, the vertex (VTX). Facial mimicry of smiles and emotion judgments were recorded in response to video clips depicting changes from neutral or angry to happy facial expressions. While in females rTMS over M1 and S1 compared to VTX led to reduced mimicry and, in the case of M1, delayed detection of smiles, there was no effect of TMS condition for males. We conclude that in female participants M1 and S1 play a role in the mimicry and in the use of facial feedback for accurate processing of smiles.

  15. Resting-State Cortico-Thalamic-Striatal Connectivity Predicts Response to Dorsomedial Prefrontal rTMS in Major Depressive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Salomons, Tim V; Dunlop, Katharine; Kennedy, Sidney H; Flint, Alastair; Geraci, Joseph; Giacobbe, Peter; Downar, Jonathan

    2014-01-01

    Despite its high toll on society, there has been little recent improvement in treatment efficacy for major depressive disorder (MDD). The identification of biological markers of successful treatment response may allow for more personalized and effective treatment. Here we investigate whether resting-state functional connectivity predicted response to treatment with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC). Twenty-five individuals with treatment-refractory MDD underwent a 4-week course of dmPFC-rTMS. Before and after treatment, subjects received resting-state functional MRI scans and assessments of depressive symptoms using the Hamilton Depresssion Rating Scale (HAMD17). We found that higher baseline cortico-cortical connectivity (dmPFC-subgenual cingulate and subgenual cingulate to dorsolateral PFC) and lower cortico-thalamic, cortico-striatal, and cortico-limbic connectivity were associated with better treatment outcomes. We also investigated how changes in connectivity over the course of treatment related to improvements in HAMD17 scores. We found that successful treatment was associated with increased dmPFC-thalamic connectivity and decreased subgenual cingulate cortex-caudate connectivity, Our findings provide insight into which individuals might respond to rTMS treatment and the mechanisms through which these treatments work. PMID:24150516

  16. Group 14 hydrides with low valent elements for activation of small molecules.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Swadhin K; Roesky, Herbert W

    2012-02-21

    Transition metal compounds are well known as activators of small molecules, and they serve as efficient catalysts for a variety of homogeneous and heterogeneous transformations. In contrast, there is a general feeling that main group compounds cannot act as efficient catalysts because of their inability to activate small molecules. Traditionally, the activation of small molecules is considered one of the key steps during a catalytic cycle with transition metals. As a consequence, researchers have long neglected the full range of possibilities in harnessing main group elements for the design of efficient catalysts. Recent developments, however, have made it possible to synthesize main group compounds with low-valent elements capable of activating small molecules. In particular, the judicious use of sterically appropriate ligands has been successful in preparing and stabilizing a variety of Group 14 hydrides with low-valent elements. In this Account, we discuss recent advances in the synthesis of Group 14 hydrides with low-valent elements and assess their potential as small-molecule activators. Group 14, which comprises the nonmetal C, the semimetals Si and Ge, and the metals Sn and Pb, was for years a source of hydrides with the Group 14 element almost exclusively in tetravalent form. Synthetic difficulties and the low stability of Group 14 hydrides in lower oxidation states were difficult to overcome. But in 2000, a divalent Sn(II) hydride was prepared as a stable compound through the incorporation of sterically encumbered aromatic ligands. More recently, the stabilization of GeH(2) and SnH(2) complexes using an N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) as a donor and BH(3) or a metal carbonyl complex as an acceptor was reported. A similar strategy was also employed to synthesize the Si(II) hydride. This class of hydrides may be considered coordinatively saturated, with the lone pair of electrons on the Group 14 elements taking part in coordination. We discuss the large

  17. Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD): a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Zhong-Rui; Shi, Li-Jun

    2014-01-01

    Background and objective: Randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) as augmentation of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) for SSRI-resistant obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) have yielded conflicting results. Therefore, this meta-analysis was conducted to assess the efficacy of this strategy for SSRI-resistant OCD. Methods: Scientific and medical databases, including international databases (PubMed, MEDLINE, EMBASE, CCTR, Web of Science, PsycINFO), two Chinese databases (CBM-disc, CNKI), and relevant websites dated up to July 2014, were searched for RCTs on this strategy for treating OCD. Mantel-Haenszel random-effects model was used. Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) score, response rates and drop-out rates were evaluated. Results: Data were obtained from nine RCTs consisting of 290 subjects. Active rTMS was an effective augmentation strategy in treating SSRI-resistant OCD with a pooled WMD of 3.89 (95% CI = [1.27, 6.50]) for reducing Y-BOCS score and a pooled odds ratio (OR) of 2.65 (95% CI = [1.36, 5.17] for response rates. No significant differences in drop-out rates were found. No publication bias was detected. Conclusion: The pooled examination demonstrated that this strategy seems to be efficacious and acceptable for treating SSRI-resistant OCD. As the number of RCTs included here was limited, further large-scale multi-center RCTs are required to validate our conclusions. PMID:25663986

  18. Potentiation of acid-sensing ion channel activity by peripheral group I metabotropic glutamate receptor signaling.

    PubMed

    Gan, Xiong; Wu, Jing; Ren, Cuixia; Qiu, Chun-Yu; Li, Yan-Kun; Hu, Wang-Ping

    2016-05-01

    Glutamate activates peripheral group I metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and contributes to inflammatory pain. However, it is still not clear the mechanisms are involved in group I mGluR-mediated peripheral sensitization. Herein, we report that group I mGluRs signaling sensitizes acid-sensing ion channels (ASICs) in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons and contributes to acidosis-evoked pain. DHPG, a selective group I mGluR agonist, can potentiate the functional activity of ASICs, which mediated the proton-induced events. DHPG concentration-dependently increased proton-gated currents in DRG neurons. It shifted the proton concentration-response curve upwards, with a 47.3±7.0% increase of the maximal current response to proton. Group I mGluRs, especially mGluR5, mediated the potentiation of DHPG via an intracellular cascade. DHPG potentiation of proton-gated currents disappeared after inhibition of intracellular Gq/11 proteins, PLCβ, PKC or PICK1 signaling. Moreover, DHPG enhanced proton-evoked membrane excitability of rat DRG neurons and increased the amplitude of the depolarization and the number of spikes induced by acid stimuli. Finally, peripherally administration of DHPG dose-dependently exacerbated nociceptive responses to intraplantar injection of acetic acid in rats. Potentiation of ASIC activity by group I mGluR signaling in rat DRG neurons revealed a novel peripheral mechanism underlying group I mGluRs involvement in hyperalgesia.

  19. Promoting Physical Activity With Group Pictures. Affiliation-Based Visual Communication for High-Risk Populations.

    PubMed

    Reifegerste, Doreen; Rossmann, Constanze

    2017-02-01

    Past research in social and health psychology has shown that affiliation motivation is associated with health behavior, especially for high-risk populations, suggesting that targeting this motivation could be a promising strategy to promote physical activity. However, the effects that affiliation appeals (e.g., pictures depicting companionship during physical activities) and accompanying slogans have on motivating physical activity have been largely unexplored. Hence, our two studies experimentally tested the effects of exposure to affiliation-based pictures for overweight or less active people, as well as the moderating effect of affiliation motivation. The results of these two studies give some indication that group pictures (with or without an accompanying slogan) can be an effective strategy to improve high-risk populations' attitudes, self-efficacy, and intentions to engage in physical activity. Affiliation motivation as a personality trait did not interact with these effects, but was positively associated with attitudes, independent of the group picture effect.

  20. Predicted group II intron lineages E and F comprise catalytically active ribozymes.

    PubMed

    Nagy, Vivien; Pirakitikulr, Nathan; Zhou, Katherine Ismei; Chillón, Isabel; Luo, Jerome; Pyle, Anna Marie

    2013-09-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing, retrotransposable ribozymes that contribute to gene expression and evolution in most organisms. The ongoing identification of new group II introns and recent bioinformatic analyses have suggested that there are novel lineages, which include the group IIE and IIF introns. Because the function and biochemical activity of group IIE and IIF introns have never been experimentally tested and because these introns appear to have features that distinguish them from other introns, we set out to determine if they were indeed self-splicing, catalytically active RNA molecules. To this end, we transcribed and studied a set of diverse group IIE and IIF introns, quantitatively characterizing their in vitro self-splicing reactivity, ionic requirements, and reaction products. In addition, we used mutational analysis to determine the relative role of the EBS-IBS 1 and 2 recognition elements during splicing by these introns. We show that group IIE and IIF introns are indeed distinct active intron families, with different reactivities and structures. We show that the group IIE introns self-splice exclusively through the hydrolytic pathway, while group IIF introns can also catalyze transesterifications. Intriguingly, we observe one group IIF intron that forms circular intron. Finally, despite an apparent EBS2-IBS2 duplex in the sequences of these introns, we find that this interaction plays no role during self-splicing in vitro. It is now clear that the group IIE and IIF introns are functional ribozymes, with distinctive properties that may be useful for biotechnological applications, and which may contribute to the biology of host organisms.

  1. How to lead a group--practical principles and experiences of conducting a promotional group in health-related physical activity.

    PubMed

    Rinne, M; Toropainen, E

    1998-04-01

    In this article the different roles and styles of instruction for the leader of a promotional group in physical activity are described. The promotional group is defined as one in which group dynamics is used to its maximum in order to facilitate permanent change in the members' health-related physical activities. Thus e.g., the group forms its own goals on the basis of its members' individual needs and aspirations and the group members provide feedback, behavioural models and encouragement to each other in their pursuit of change. The leader-instructor works in a stepwise fashion from assessment to evaluation to reformulation of plans made and monitors closely the stages of adoption of physical activity in his or her group. As the group advances the instructor should be ready to transfer more and more responsibility to the members.

  2. Work group I: Measures of the food and physical activity environment: instruments.

    PubMed

    Saelens, Brian E; Glanz, Karen

    2009-04-01

    A work group was convened to identify the core challenges, content gaps, and corresponding possible solutions for improving food- and physical activity-environment instrumentation. Identified challenges included instrument proliferation, the scaling or grain of instruments and appropriate aggregation to the neighborhood or community level, and unknown sensitivity to change of most instruments. Solutions for addressing these challenges included establishing an interactive and real-time instrument repository, developing and enforcing high standards for instrument reporting, increasing community-researcher collaborations, and implementing surveillance of food and physical activity environment. Solid instrumentation will accelerate a better understanding of food- and physical activity-environment effects on eating and physical activity behaviors.

  3. Industrial Hygiene Group: 1986 Annual report on research and special activities

    SciTech Connect

    Ettinger, H.J.

    1987-11-01

    This report details all the 1986 research activities and some selected operational programs of the Industrial Hygiene Group. During 1986, research studies were directed at: respiratory protection, personal protective clothing, applied industrial hygiene, and aerosols and air cleaning. In several instances, the transfer of technology, previously developed by the Industrial Hygiene Group, is described together with the application of research developments to operational health protection programs.

  4. Salivary alpha amylase activity in human beings of different age groups subjected to psychological stress.

    PubMed

    Sahu, Gopal K; Upadhyay, Seema; Panna, Shradha M

    2014-10-01

    Salivary alpha-amylase (sAA) has been proposed as a sensitive non-invasive biomarker for stress-induced changes in the body that reflect the activity of the sympathetic nervous system. Though several experiments have been conducted to determine the validity of this salivary component as a reliable stress marker in human subjects, the effect of stress induced changes on sAA level in different age groups is least studied. This article reports the activity of sAA in human subjects of different age groups subjected to psychological stress induced through stressful video clip. Differences in sAA level based on sex of different age groups under stress have also been studied. A total of 112 subjects consisting of both the male and female subjects, divided into two groups on basis of age were viewed a video clip of corneal transplant surgery as stressor. Activity of sAA from saliva samples of the stressed subjects were measured and compared with the activity of the samples collected from the subjects before viewing the clip. The age ranges of subjects were 18-25 and 40-60 years. The sAA level increased significantly in both the groups after viewing the stressful video. The increase was more pronounced in the younger subjects. The level of sAA was comparatively more in males than females in the respective groups. No significant change in sAA activity was observed after viewing the soothed video clip. Significant increase of sAA level in response to psychological stress suggests that it might act as a reliable sympathetic activity biochemical marker in different stages of human beings.

  5. Group D prothrombin activators from snake venom are structural homologues of mammalian blood coagulation factor Xa.

    PubMed Central

    Rao, Veena S; Joseph, Jeremiah S; Kini, R Manjunatha

    2003-01-01

    Procoagulant venoms of several Australian elapids contain proteinases that specifically activate prothrombin; among these, Group D activators are functionally similar to coagulation factor Xa (FXa). Structural information on this class of prothrombin activators will contribute significantly towards understanding the mechanism of FXa-mediated prothrombin activation. Here we present the purification of Group D prothrombin activators from three Australian snake venoms (Hoplocephalus stephensi, Notechis scutatus scutatus and Notechis ater niger) using a single-step method, and their N-terminal sequences. The N-terminal sequence of the heavy chain of hopsarin D (H. stephensi) revealed that a fully conserved Cys-7 was substituted with a Ser residue. We therefore determined the complete amino acid sequence of hopsarin D. Hopsarin D shows approximately 70% similarity with FXa and approximately 98% similarity with trocarin D, a Group D prothrombin activator from Tropidechis carinatus. It possesses the characteristic Gla domain, two epidermal growth factor-like domains and a serine proteinase domain. All residues important for catalysis are conserved, as are most regions involved in interactions with factor Va and prothrombin. However, there are some structural differences. Unlike FXa, hopsarin D is glycosylated in both its chains: in light-chain residue 52 and heavy-chain residue 45. The glycosylation on the heavy chain is a large carbohydrate moiety adjacent to the active-site pocket. Overall, hopsarin D is structurally and functionally similar to mammalian coagulation FXa. PMID:12403650

  6. Site-restricted plasminogen activation mediated by group A streptococcal streptokinase variants.

    PubMed

    Cook, Simon M; Skora, Amanda; Walker, Mark J; Sanderson-Smith, Martina L; McArthur, Jason D

    2014-02-15

    SK (streptokinase) is a secreted plasminogen activator and virulence factor of GAS (group A Streptococcus). Among GAS isolates, SK gene sequences are polymorphic and are grouped into two sequence clusters (cluster type-1 and cluster type-2) with cluster type-2 being further classified into subclusters (type-2a and type-2b). In the present study, we examined the role of bacterial and host-derived cofactors in SK-mediated plasminogen activation. All SK variants, apart from type-2b, can form an activator complex with Glu-Plg (Glu-plasminogen). Specific ligand-binding-induced conformational changes in Glu-Plg mediated by fibrinogen, PAM (plasminogen-binding group A streptococcal M protein), fibrinogen fragment D or fibrin, were required for type-2b SK to form a functional activator complex with Glu-Plg. In contrast with type-1 and type-2a SK, type-2b SK activator complexes were inhibited by α2-antiplasmin unless bound to fibrin or to the GAS cell-surface via PAM in combination with fibrinogen. Taken together, these data suggest that type-2b SK plasminogen activation may be restricted to specific microenvironments within the host such as fibrin deposits or the bacterial cell surface through the action of α2-antiplasmin. We conclude that phenotypic SK variation functionally underpins a pathogenic mechanism whereby SK variants differentially focus plasminogen activation, leading to specific niche adaption within the host.

  7. The working group ``Science with the SRT'': tasks, activities, and results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prandoni, I.; Felli, M.

    The Working Group Science with the SRT was formed in May 2004, with the aim of providing scientific input to the Board of the SRT, in order to plan the focal plane instrumentation development of the SRT. In the present contribution, tasks and activities of the Working Group are outlined, and the main indications and results are briefly summarized. For a detailed discussion we refer to the IRA Internal Report ``The Sardinia Radio Telescope (SRT). Science and Technical Requirements'' produced by the members of the Working Group.

  8. In-vehicle group activity modeling and simulation in sensor-based virtual environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shirkhodaie, Amir; Telagamsetti, Durga; Poshtyar, Azin; Chan, Alex; Hu, Shuowen

    2016-05-01

    Human group activity recognition is a very complex and challenging task, especially for Partially Observable Group Activities (POGA) that occur in confined spaces with limited visual observability and often under severe occultation. In this paper, we present IRIS Virtual Environment Simulation Model (VESM) for the modeling and simulation of dynamic POGA. More specifically, we address sensor-based modeling and simulation of a specific category of POGA, called In-Vehicle Group Activities (IVGA). In VESM, human-alike animated characters, called humanoids, are employed to simulate complex in-vehicle group activities within the confined space of a modeled vehicle. Each articulated humanoid is kinematically modeled with comparable physical attributes and appearances that are linkable to its human counterpart. Each humanoid exhibits harmonious full-body motion - simulating human-like gestures and postures, facial impressions, and hands motions for coordinated dexterity. VESM facilitates the creation of interactive scenarios consisting of multiple humanoids with different personalities and intentions, which are capable of performing complicated human activities within the confined space inside a typical vehicle. In this paper, we demonstrate the efficiency and effectiveness of VESM in terms of its capabilities to seamlessly generate time-synchronized, multi-source, and correlated imagery datasets of IVGA, which are useful for the training and testing of multi-source full-motion video processing and annotation. Furthermore, we demonstrate full-motion video processing of such simulated scenarios under different operational contextual constraints.

  9. Circadian activity rhythm in pre-pubertal and pubertal marmosets (Callithrix jacchus) living in family groups.

    PubMed

    Melo, Paula R; Gonçalves, Bruno S B; Menezes, Alexandre A L; Azevedo, Carolina V M

    2016-03-01

    In marmosets, a phase advance was observed in activity onset in pubertal animals living in captivity under semi-natural conditions which had stronger correlation with the times of sunrise over the course of the year than the age of the animal. In order to evaluate the effect of puberty on the circadian activity rhythm in male and female marmosets living in family groups in controlled lighting conditions, the activity of 5 dyads of twins (4 ♀/♂ and 1 ♂/♂) and their respective parents was continuously monitored by actiwatches between the 4th and 12th months of age. The families were kept under LD 12:12 h with constant humidity and temperature. The onset of puberty was identified by monitoring fecal steroids. Juveniles showed higher totals of daily activity and differences in the daily distribution of activity in relation to parents, in which the bimodal profile was characterized by higher levels in evening activity in relation to morning activity. Regarding the phase, the activity onset and offset, occurred later in relation to parents. After entering puberty, the activity onset and offset occurred later and there was an increase in total daily activity. On the other hand, when assessing the effect of sex, only females showed a delay in the activity offset and an increase in total daily activity. Therefore, the circadian activity rhythm in marmosets has peculiar characteristics in the juvenile stage in relation to the total of daily activity, the onset and offset of the active phase, and the distribution of activity during this phase. Besides, the entering puberty was associated with a phase delay and increase on total daily activity, with differences between sexes, possibly due to hormonal influences and/or social modulation on rhythm.

  10. Weapons in disguise--activating mechanisms and protecting group chemistry in nature.

    PubMed

    Kwan, Jason C; Luesch, Hendrik

    2010-11-22

    Bioactive natural products often possess uniquely functionalized structures with unusual modes of action; however, the natural product itself is not always the active species. We discuss molecules that draw on protecting group chemistry or else require activation to unmask reactive centers, illustrating that nature is not only a source of complex structures but also a guide for elegant chemical transformations which provides ingenious chemical solutions for drug delivery.

  11. [Preparation, characterization and adsorption performance of mesoporous activated carbon with acidic groups].

    PubMed

    Li, Kun-Quan; Li, Ye; Zheng, Zheng; Zhang, Yu-Xuan

    2013-06-01

    Mesoporous activated carbons containing acidic groups were prepared with cotton stalk based fiber as raw materials and H3PO4 as activating agent by one step carbonization method. Effects of impregnation ratio, carbonization temperature and heat preservation time on the yield, elemental composition, oxygen-containing acid functional groups and adsorptive capacity of activated carbon were studied. The adsorption capacity of the prepared activated carbon AC-01 for p-nitroaniline and Pb(II) was studied, and the adsorption mechanism was also suggested according to the equilibrium experimental results. The maximum yield of activated carbons prepared from cotton stalk fiber reached 35.5% when the maximum mesoporous volume and BET surface area were 1.39 cm3 x g(-1) and 1 731 m2 x g(-1), respectively. The activated carbon AC-01 prepared under a H3 PO4/precursor ratio of 3:2 and activated at 900 degrees C for 90 min had a total pore volume of 1.02 cm3 x g(-1), a micoporous ratio of 31%, and a mesoporous ratio of 65%. The pore diameter of the mesoporous activated carbon was mainly distributed in the range of 2-5 nm. The Langmuir maximum adsorption capacities of Pb(II) and p-nitroaniline on cotton stalk fiber activated carbon were 123 mg x g(-1) and 427 mg x g(-1), respectively, which were both higher than those for commercial activated carbon fiber ACF-CK. The equilibrium adsorption experimental data showed that mesopore and oxygen-containing acid functional groups played an important role in the adsorption.

  12. Novel method for the preparation of polymethacrylates with nonlinear optically active side groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Strohriegl, Peter; Mueller, Harry; Nuyken, Oskar

    1993-01-01

    Because of their excellent optical properties, a variety of polymethacrylates with pendant NLO-chromophores has been prepared and investigated by different research groups. The method normally used for the synthesis of these polymers is the free radical polymerization of the corresponding methacrylates with NLO-active side groups. However, the NLO- chromophores, usually large conjugated molecules with an electron donor and an electron acceptor substituent, often contain a number of functional groups, e.g., nitro- or azo groups. These may act as retarders or inhibitors in a free radical polymerization. So in many cases the yields are not quantitative and the molecular weights are quite low. We present an alternative method for the preparation of polymethacrylates with pendant NLO-chromophores, the polymeranalogous esterification of poly(methacryloyl chloride). In a first step, reactive prepolymers are prepared by the free radical polymerization of methacryloyl chloride (MAC1) or by copolymerization of MAC1 with methyl methacrylate (MMA). These prepolymers are esterified using NLO-active side groups with a hydroxy-terminated spacer. Well defined, high molecular weight polymethacrylates with high dye contents can be prepared by this method. A copolymer with 19 mole% of azochromophores exhibits an electro-optical coefficient of 9 pm/V at 1300 mm after poling, whereas 19 pm/V (1500 nm) were measured for a polymer with 90 mole% of NLO active azobenzene side groups. In addition, the novel method provides easy access to some novel copolymers with both NLO-active azobenzene units and photocrosslinkable cinnamoyl groups.

  13. A method to quantify movement activity of groups of animals using automated image analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Jianyu; Yu, Haizhen; Liu, Ying

    2009-07-01

    Most physiological and environmental changes are capable of inducing variations in animal behavior. The behavioral parameters have the possibility to be measured continuously in-situ by a non-invasive and non-contact approach, and have the potential to be used in the actual productions to predict stress conditions. Most vertebrates tend to live in groups, herds, flocks, shoals, bands, packs of conspecific individuals. Under culture conditions, the livestock or fish are in groups and interact on each other, so the aggregate behavior of the group should be studied rather than that of individuals. This paper presents a method to calculate the movement speed of a group of animal in a enclosure or a tank denoted by body length speed that correspond to group activity using computer vision technique. Frame sequences captured at special time interval were subtracted in pairs after image segmentation and identification. By labeling components caused by object movement in difference frame, the projected area caused by the movement of every object in the capture interval was calculated; this projected area was divided by the projected area of every object in the later frame to get body length moving distance of each object, and further could obtain the relative body length speed. The average speed of all object can well respond to the activity of the group. The group activity of a tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) school to high (2.65 mg/L) levels of unionized ammonia (UIA) concentration were quantified based on these methods. High UIA level condition elicited a marked increase in school activity at the first hour (P<0.05) exhibiting an avoidance reaction (trying to flee from high UIA condition), and then decreased gradually.

  14. Involving postgraduate's students in undergraduate small group teaching promotes active learning in both

    PubMed Central

    Kalra, Ruchi; Modi, Jyoti Nath; Vyas, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Background: Lecture is a common traditional method for teaching, but it may not stimulate higher order thinking and students may also be hesitant to express and interact. The postgraduate (PG) students are less involved with undergraduate (UG) teaching. Team based small group active learning method can contribute to better learning experience. Aim: To-promote active learning skills among the UG students using small group teaching methods involving PG students as facilitators to impart hands-on supervised training in teaching and managerial skills. Methodology: After Institutional approval under faculty supervision 92 UGs and 8 PGs participated in 6 small group sessions utilizing the jigsaw technique. Feedback was collected from both. Observations: Undergraduate Feedback (Percentage of Students Agreed): Learning in small groups was a good experience as it helped in better understanding of the subject (72%), students explored multiple reading resources (79%), they were actively involved in self-learning (88%), students reported initial apprehension of performance (71%), identified their learning gaps (86%), team enhanced their learning process (71%), informal learning in place of lecture was a welcome change (86%), it improved their communication skills (82%), small group learning can be useful for future self-learning (75%). Postgraduate Feedback: Majority performed facilitation for first time, perceived their performance as good (75%), it was helpful in self-learning (100%), felt confident of managing students in small groups (100%), as facilitator they improved their teaching skills, found it more useful and better identified own learning gaps (87.5%). Conclusions: Learning in small groups adopting team based approach involving both UGs and PGs promoted active learning in both and enhanced the teaching skills of the PGs. PMID:26380201

  15. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    DOE PAGES

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-19

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Köhler theory to predict themore » effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid–liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.« less

  16. Prediction of cloud condensation nuclei activity for organic compounds using functional group contribution methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petters, M. D.; Kreidenweis, S. M.; Ziemann, P. J.

    2016-01-01

    A wealth of recent laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that organic aerosol composition evolves with time in the atmosphere, leading to changes in the influence of the organic fraction to cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) spectra. There is a need for tools that can realistically represent the evolution of CCN activity to better predict indirect effects of organic aerosol on clouds and climate. This work describes a model to predict the CCN activity of organic compounds from functional group composition. Following previous methods in the literature, we test the ability of semi-empirical group contribution methods in Köhler theory to predict the effective hygroscopicity parameter, kappa. However, in our approach we also account for liquid-liquid phase boundaries to simulate phase-limited activation behavior. Model evaluation against a selected database of published laboratory measurements demonstrates that kappa can be predicted within a factor of 2. Simulation of homologous series is used to identify the relative effectiveness of different functional groups in increasing the CCN activity of weakly functionalized organic compounds. Hydroxyl, carboxyl, aldehyde, hydroperoxide, carbonyl, and ether moieties promote CCN activity while methylene and nitrate moieties inhibit CCN activity. The model can be incorporated into scale-bridging test beds such as the Generator of Explicit Chemistry and Kinetics of Organics in the Atmosphere (GECKO-A) to evaluate the evolution of kappa for a complex mix of organic compounds and to develop suitable parameterizations of CCN evolution for larger-scale models.

  17. Physical activity and beverage consumption in preschoolers: focus groups with parents and teachers

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Qualitative research is a method in which new ideas and strategies can be discovered. This qualitative study aimed to investigate parents’ and teachers’ opinions on physical activity and beverage consumption of preschool children. Through separate, independent focus groups, they expressed their perceptions on children’s current physical activity and beverage consumption levels, factors that influence and enhance these behaviours, and anticipated barriers to making changes. Methods Multi-cultural and multi-geographical focus groups were carried out in six European countries (Belgium, Bulgaria, Germany, Greece, Poland and Spain). In total, twenty-four focus groups with 122 parents and eighteen focus groups with 87 teachers were conducted between October 2010 and January 2011. Based on a semi-structured interview guide, questions on preschoolers’ physical activity (opinions on preschoolers’ physical activity, how to increase physical activity, facilitators and barriers of physical activity) and beverage consumption (rules and policies, factors influencing promotion of healthy drinking, recommendations for future intervention development) were asked. The information was analyzed using qualitative data analysis software (NVivo8). Results The focus group results indicated misperceptions of caregivers on preschoolers’ physical activity and beverage consumption levels. Caregivers perceived preschoolers as sufficiently active; they argue that children need to learn to sit still in preparation for primary school. At most preschools, children can drink only water. In some preschools sugar-sweetened beverages like chocolate milk or fruit juices, are also allowed. It was mentioned that sugar-sweetened beverages can be healthy due to mineral and vitamin content, although according to parents their daily intake is limited. These opinions resulted in low perceived needs to change behaviours. Conclusions Although previous research shows need of change in

  18. 75 FR 49913 - Active Duty Service Determinations For Civilian or Contractual Groups

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-16

    ... Department of the Air Force Active Duty Service Determinations For Civilian or Contractual Groups SUMMARY: On July 30, 2010, the Secretary of the Air Force, acting as Executive Agent of the Secretary of Defense...'' for purposes of all laws administered by the Department of Veterans Affairs (VA). FOR...

  19. Bill Gates' Great-Great-Granddaughter's Honeymoon: An Astronomy Activity for Several Different Age Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fraknoi, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    When students finish a unit or course on the planets these days, they are often overwhelmed with facts, comparisons, and images. A good culminating activity, to help them organize their thinking (and review), is to have them divide into small groups (travel agencies) and come up with their top ten solar system "tourist sights" for future space…

  20. Active Group Learning: A Selective Study of Effective Public Humanities Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charles C., Jr.

    A study of active group learning that occurred during 61 state humanities programs in 35 states is discussed, and 11 recommendations to state humanities councils are offered. Information was obtained from a mail survey and review of state council proposals and narrative reports. Definitions of learning and information on the following learning…

  1. Effects of Cooperative Group Work Activities on Pre-School Children's Pattern Recognition Skills

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarim, Kamuran

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this research is twofold; to investigate the effects of cooperative group-based work activities on children's pattern recognition skills in pre-school and to examine the teachers' opinions about the implementation process. In line with this objective, for the study, 57 children (25 girls and 32 boys) were chosen from two private schools…

  2. When Talking Won't Work: Implementing Experiential Group Activities with Addicted Clients

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagedorn, W. Bryce; Hirshhorn, Meredith A.

    2009-01-01

    Traditional talk therapy, particularly cognitive behavioral techniques, are often ineffective when working with addicted clients for many reasons. By tapping into the power of the group modality, experiential activities can serve as a powerful facilitator of insight and behavior change. The authors provide a brief review of the literature followed…

  3. Peer Interactions among Children with Profound Intellectual and Multiple Disabilities during Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nijs, Sara; Penne, Anneleen; Vlaskamp, Carla; Maes, Bea

    2016-01-01

    Background: Children with profound intellectual and multiple disabilities (PIMD) meet other children with PIMD in day care centres or schools. This study explores the peer-directed behaviours of children with PIMD, the peer interaction-influencing behaviour of the direct support workers and the children's positioning. Method: Group activities for…

  4. Activating Group Recycling in Action: A Rhodium-Catalyzed Carbothiolation Route to Substituted Isoquinolines

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    A new rhodium(I) catalyst allows practical and efficient alkyne carbothiolation reactions to be achieved on synthetically useful ketone-bearing aryl methyl sulfides. The carbothiolation adducts, featuring a ‘recycled methyl sulfide’ activating group, are convenient precursors to highly substituted isoquinolines. PMID:24083625

  5. 78 FR 75905 - Credit for Increasing Research Activities: Intra-Group Gross Receipts

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-13

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BE14 Credit for Increasing Research Activities: Intra-Group Gross Receipts AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of... under section 41 of the Internal Revenue Code (Code) relating to the treatment of qualified...

  6. Children's Preferences for Group Musical Activities in Child Care Centres: A Cross-Cultural Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yim, Hoi Yin Bonnie; Ebbeck, Marjory

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports on a cross-cultural research study of children's preferences for group musical activities in child care centres. A total of 228 young children aged 4-5 years in seven child care centres in Hong Kong and in the Adelaide City of South Australia participated in the study. Both qualitative and quantitative data were collected via a…

  7. Information Activities and Appropriation in Teacher Trainees' Digital, Group-Based Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanell, Fredrik

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: This paper reports results from an ethnographic study of teacher trainees' information activities in digital, group-based learning and their relation to the interplay between use and appropriation of digital tools and the learning environment. Method: The participants in the present study are 249 pre-school teacher trainees in…

  8. Use of a Wiki-Based Software to Manage Research Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Ting; Vezenov, Dmitri V.; Simboli, Brian

    2014-01-01

    This paper discusses use of the wiki software Confluence to organize research group activities and lab resources. Confluence can serve as an electronic lab notebook (ELN), as well as an information management and collaboration tool. The article provides a case study in how researchers can use wiki software in "home-grown" fashion to…

  9. An Investigation of the Structure of Group Activities in ELT Coursebooks.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobs, George M.; Ball, Jessica

    1996-01-01

    Reports a study examining the use of group activities in 10 randomly selected English-language teaching coursebooks published since 1990. Results are discussed in light of theory and research on cooperative learning; task-based language teaching; and the roles of learners, teachers, and coursebooks. (26 references) (Author/CK)

  10. Peer Groups and Substance Use: Examining the Direct and Interactive Effect of Leisure Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships among adolescent leisure activities, peer behavior, and substance use. We suggest that peer group interaction can have a differential effect on adolescent deviant behavior depending on the type of leisure pattern adolescents engage in. We analyze data from a representative national sample of Icelandic…

  11. Osteoporosis Knowledge, Calcium Intake, and Weight-Bearing Physical Activity in Three Age Groups of Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Terrio, Kate; Auld, Garry W.

    2002-01-01

    Determined the extent and integration of osteoporosis knowledge in three age groups of women, comparing knowledge to calcium intake and weight bearing physical activity (WBPA). Overall calcium intake was relatively high. There were no differences in knowledge, calcium intake, or WBPA by age, nor did knowledge predict calcium intake and WBPA. None…

  12. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multifamily Focus Groups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To explore multiple family members' perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthful eating and physical activity in the home. Design: Ten multifamily focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting and Participants: Community setting with primarily black and white families. Family members (n = 103) were aged 8 to 61…

  13. Communication: Active space decomposition with multiple sites: Density matrix renormalization group algorithm

    SciTech Connect

    Parker, Shane M.; Shiozaki, Toru

    2014-12-07

    We extend the active space decomposition method, recently developed by us, to more than two active sites using the density matrix renormalization group algorithm. The fragment wave functions are described by complete or restricted active-space wave functions. Numerical results are shown on a benzene pentamer and a perylene diimide trimer. It is found that the truncation errors in our method decrease almost exponentially with respect to the number of renormalization states M, allowing for numerically exact calculations (to a few μE{sub h} or less) with M = 128 in both cases. This rapid convergence is because the renormalization steps are used only for the interfragment electron correlation.

  14. A Small-Group Activity Introducing the Use and Interpretation of BLAST †

    PubMed Central

    Newell, Peter D.; Fricker, Ashwana D.; Roco, Constance Armanda; Chandrangsu, Pete; Merkel, Susan M.

    2013-01-01

    As biological sequence data are generated at an ever increasing rate, the role of bioinformatics in biological research also grows. Students must be trained to complete and interpret bioinformatic searches to enable them to effectively utilize the trove of sequence data available. A key bioinformatic tool for sequence comparison and genome database searching is BLAST (Basic Local Alignment Search Tool). BLAST identifies sequences in a database that are similar to the entered query sequence, and ranks them based on the length and quality of the alignment. Our goal was to introduce sophomore and junior level undergraduate students to the basic functions and uses of BLAST with a small group activity lasting a single class period. The activity provides students an opportunity to perform a BLAST search, interpret the data output, and use the data to make inferences about bacterial cell envelope structure. The activity consists of two parts. Part 1 is a handout to be completed prior to class, complete with video tutorial, that reviews cell envelope structure, introduces key terms, and allows students to familiarize themselves with the mechanics of a BLAST search. Part 2 consists of a hands-on, web-based small group activity to be completed during the class period. Evaluation of the activity through student performance assessments suggests that students who complete the activity can better interpret the BLAST output parameters % query coverage and % max identity. While the topic of the activity is bacterial cell wall structure, it could be adapted to address other biological concepts. PMID:24358388

  15. Pre-Session Satiation as a Treatment for Stereotypy During Group Activities.

    PubMed

    Rispoli, Mandy; Camargo, Síglia Hoher; Neely, Leslie; Gerow, Stephanie; Lang, Russell; Goodwyn, Fara; Ninci, Jennifer

    2014-05-01

    Individuals with developmental disabilities may engage in automatically reinforced behaviors that may interfere with learning opportunities. Manipulation of motivating operations has been shown to reduce automatically maintained behavior in some individuals. Considering behavioral indicators of satiation may assist in identifying the point at which an abolishing operation has begun to effect behavior. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of pre-session satiation of automatic reinforcement on subsequent levels of stereotypy and activity engagement during group activities for three males ages 5 to 13 years with developmental disabilities. Following functional analyses with analogue conditions, an alternating treatment design compared a pre-session access to stereotypy condition with a no-pre-session access condition prior to group activity sessions. Results indicated that pre-session satiation of the putative reinforcer produced by stereotypy was effective in decreasing stereotypy and increasing activity engagement during subsequent group activities for all participants. These findings add to the literature supporting the effectiveness of abolishing operations to decrease automatically maintained stereotypy.

  16. Townes Group Activities from 1983-2000: Personal Recollections of William Danchi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danchi, William C.

    2015-01-01

    I arrived in Berkeley in October 1983 as a post-doc, and my appointment was at the Space Sciences Laboratory (SSL). During that time the group was very large, with multiple activities led by Charlie himself and also by Senior Fellows such as John Lacy, Dan Jaffe, and Al Betz at the top of the hill at Space Sciences. Another significant contingent of the Townes group was housed in Birge Hall on campus, led by Reinhard Genzel when he was an Assistant Professor in the Physics Department. Although the group encompassed two separate locations, it functioned as one large group. Either we rode with Charlie up and down the hill, or (if we were concerned about our safety!) we took the bus.

  17. “Convivência” Groups: Building Active and Healthy Communities of Older Adults in Brazil

    PubMed Central

    Benedetti, Tânia R. Bertoldo; d'Orsi, Eleonora; Schwingel, Andiara; Chodzko-Zajko, Wojtek J.

    2012-01-01

    In old age, social groups can be a crucial component for health and well-being. In 2009-2010, a follow-up survey was carried out in Florianópolis, Brazil to understand the impact of a variety of programs established since 2002 that were designed to enhance social activities among the older adult population. This study employed two surveys within the population of older adults in Florianópolis. The first survey interviewed a total of 875 older adults in 2002, and the second survey involved 1,705 older adults between 2009 and 2010. By 2010, many new programs were offered in the community and the enrollment of older adults in social programs followed similar trends. “Convivência” groups stood out as extremely popular social groups among this population. This paper discusses some of the potential outcomes associated with participation in “convivência” groups. PMID:22830022

  18. Effects of sulfate group in red seaweed polysaccharides on anticoagulant activity and cytotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Liang, Wanai; Mao, Xuan; Peng, Xiaohui; Tang, Shunqing

    2014-01-30

    In this paper, the structural effects of two main red seaweed polysaccharides (agarose and carrageenan) and their sulfated derivatives on the anticoagulant activity and cytotoxicity were investigated. The substitution position rather than the substitution degree of sulfate groups shows the biggest impact on both the anticoagulant activity and the cell proliferation. Among them, C-2 of 3,6-anhydro-α-d-Galp is the most favorable position for substitution, whereas C-6 of β-d-Galp is the most disadvantageous. Moreover, the secondary structures of glycans also play a key role in biological activities. These demonstrations warrant that the red seaweed polysaccharides should be seriously considered in biomedical applications after carefully tailoring the sulfate groups.

  19. Activities of the OECD/NEA Expert Group on Assay Data for Spent Nuclear Fuel

    SciTech Connect

    Gauld, Ian C; Rugama, Yolanda

    2009-01-01

    Management of spent nuclear fuel is a key issue for many NEA member countries. In nuclear criticality safety, the decision of many countries to advance burnup credit as part of their licensing strategy has heightened recent interest in experimental data needed to validate computer codes used in burnup credit calculations. This paper discusses recent activities of an Expert Group on assay data, formed under the OECD/NEA/NSC/WPNCS (Working Party on Nuclear Criticality Safety) to help coordinate isotopic assay data activities and facilitate international collaboration between NEA member countries developing or implementing burnup credit methodologies. Recent activities of the Expert Group are described, focusing on the planned expansion of the Spent Fuel Isotopic Composition Database (SFCOMPO), and preparation of a state-of-the-art report on assay data that includes sections on recommended radiochemical analysis methods, techniques, and lessons learned from previous experiments.

  20. Blood group ABO and Lewis antigens in bladder tumors: correlation between glycosyltransferase activity and antigen expression.

    PubMed

    Orntoft, T F; Wolf, H

    1988-01-01

    Pronounced changes in the expression of ABO and Lewis antigens have been observed in transitional cell carcinomas compared with normal urothelium. These changes are associated with changes in the activity of blood-group gene-encoded glycosyltransferases. This paper describes the correlation between blood-group antigen expression and the activity of glycosyltransferases in transitional cell carcinomas. Examined individuals were A1A2BO, Lewis, and secretor typed by the use of blood and saliva. The activity of alpha-2-, and alpha-4-L-fucosyltransferases as well as the alpha-3-N-acetyl-D-galactosaminyltransferase were determined as p-moles of labelled sugar incorporated by Lacto-N-biose I and 2'-fucosyllactose, respectively, per 100,000 carcinoma cells. In 3 non-secretors whose erythrocytes types as Le(a+b-), the alpha-2-L-fucosyltransferase activity was similar to that in 3 secretors, and the Leb antigen could be demonstrated to be present by monoclonal antibodies, both by immunohistological and immunochemical means. In 11 tumors from A individuals, the A1-transferase was severely reduced in 9 individuals who showed a loss of A antigen expression, and present in 2 individuals with A antigen expression in cytoplasmic vesicles. In conclusion, we demonstrate a good correlation between individual glycosyltransferase activity and expression of blood group Leb and loss of expression of blood group A in transitional cell carcinomas. Immunostaining of neutral glycolipids separated by TLC showed the Leb-active glycolipids to be simple hexa-saccharides in both secretors and non-secretors.

  1. Detection and comparison of neuraminidase activities in human and bovine group B streptococci.

    PubMed

    Ekin, Ismail Hakki; Gurturk, Kemal; Ilhan, Ziya; Ekin, Suat; Borum, Ayse Ebru; Arabaci, Cigdem; Yesilova, Abdullah

    2016-12-01

    Human and bovine group B streptococcus (GBS) isolates were serotyped and amounts of released N-acetylneuraminic acid from N-acetylneuraminyl-lactose by extracellular neuraminidase were colorimetrically assessed. According to serotyping by co-agglutination method, 30 of bovine GBS and 43 of human GBS could be serotyped (ST) by monospecific antisera coated with protein A. The remaining GBS strains were designated as nontypeable (NT). The released N-acetylneuraminic acid was determined in 90.9% of bovine GBS and 47.1% of human GBS isolates. The differences between the total bovine and human GBS isolates were statistically significant (p < 0.001). In comparison with detected N-acetylneuraminic acid level in bovine and human groups, significant decrease was observed in the bovine NT group according to increased human NT (p < 0.01) and bovine ST groups (p < 0.01). However, N-acetylneuraminic acid level in bovine ST and bovine total groups significantly (p < 0.001) increased with respect to the human ST group and human total group. Neuraminidase activity was detected more frequently in bovine GBS isolates. Considerable differentiations were observed between typeable and nontypeable isolates.

  2. [Identification of catalytically active groups of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) germ lipase].

    PubMed

    Korneeva, O S; Popova, T N; Kapranchikov, V S; Motina, E A

    2008-01-01

    The active site of wheat germ lipase was studied by the Dixon method and chemical modification. The profile of curve logV = f(pH), pK and ionization heat values, lipase photoinactivation, and lipase inactivation with diethylpyrocarbonate and dicyclohexylcarbodiimide led us to assume that the active site of the enzyme comprises the carboxylic group of aspartic or glutamic acid and the imidazole group of histidine. Apparently, the OH-group of serine plays a key role in catalysis: as a result of incubation for 1 h in the presence of phenylmethylsulfonyl fluoride, the enzyme activity decreased by more than 70%. It is shown that ethylenediamine tetraacetate is a noncompetitive inhibitor of lipase. Wheat germs are very healthful because they are rich in vitamins, essential amino acids, and proteins. For this reason, wheat germs are widely used in food, medical, and feed mill industries [1-3]. However, their use is limited by instability during storage, which is largely determined by the effect of hydrolytic and redox enzymes. Representative enzymes of this group are lipase (glycerol ester hydrolase, EC 3.1.1.3), which hydrolyzes triglycerides of higher fatty acids, and lipoxygenase (EC 1.13.11.13), which oxidizes polyunsaturated higher fatty acids.

  3. Activation of Group I Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Potentiates Heteromeric Kainate Receptors

    PubMed Central

    Wetherington, Jonathon; Shaw, Renee; Serrano, Geidy; Swanger, Sharon; Dingledine, Raymond

    2013-01-01

    Kainate receptors (KARs), a family of ionotropic glutamate receptors, are widely expressed in the central nervous system and are critically involved in synaptic transmission. KAR activation is influenced by metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGlu) signaling, but the underlying mechanisms are not understood. We undertook studies to examine how mGlu modulation affects activation of KARs. Confocal immunohistochemistry of rat hippocampus and cultured rat cortex revealed colocalization of the high-affinity KAR subunits with group I mGlu receptors. In hippocampal and cortical cultures, the calcium signal caused by activation of native KARs was potentiated by activation of group I mGlu receptors. In Xenopus laevis oocytes, activation of group I mGlu receptors potentiated heteromeric but not homomeric KAR-mediated currents, with no change in agonist potency. The potentiation of heteromeric KARs by mGlu1 activation was attenuated by GDPβS, blocked by an inhibitor of phospholipase C or the calcium chelator 1,2-bis(o-aminophenoxy)ethane-N,N,N′,N′-tetraacetic acid (BAPTA), prolonged by the phosphatase inhibitor okadaic acid, but unaffected by the tyrosine kinase inhibitor lavendustin A. Protein kinase C (PKC) inhibition reduced the potentiation by mGlu1 of GluK2/GluK5, and conversely, direct activation of PKC by phorbol 12-myristate,13-acetate potentiated GluK2/GluK5. Using site-directed mutagenesis, we identified three serines (Ser833, Ser836, and Ser840) within the membrane proximal region of the GluK5 C-terminal domain that, in combination, are required for mGlu1-mediated potentiation of KARs. Together, these data suggest that phosphorylation of key residues in the C-terminal domain changes the overall charge of this domain, resulting in potentiated agonist responses. PMID:23066089

  4. OTX2 Activity at Distal Regulatory Elements Shapes the Chromatin Landscape of Group 3 Medulloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Boulay, Gaylor; Awad, Mary E; Riggi, Nicolo; Archer, Tenley C; Iyer, Sowmya; Boonseng, Wannaporn E; Rossetti, Nikki E; Naigles, Beverly; Rengarajan, Shruthi; Volorio, Angela; Kim, James C; Mesirov, Jill P; Tamayo, Pablo; Pomeroy, Scott L; Aryee, Martin J; Rivera, Miguel N

    2017-02-17

    Medulloblastoma is the most frequent malignant pediatric brain tumor and is divided into at least four subgroups known as WNT, SHH, Group 3, and Group 4. Here, we characterized gene regulation mechanisms in the most aggressive subtype, Group 3 tumors, through genome-wide chromatin and expression profiling. Our results show that most active distal sites in these tumors are occupied by the transcription factor OTX2. Highly active OTX2-bound enhancers are often arranged as clusters of adjacent peaks and are also bound by the transcription factor NEUROD1. These sites are responsive to OTX2 and NEUROD1 knockdown and could also be generated de novo upon ectopic OTX2 expression in primary cells, showing that OTX2 cooperates with NEUROD1 and plays a major role in maintaining and possibly establishing regulatory elements as a pioneer factor. Among OTX2 target genes, we identified the kinase NEK2, whose knockdown and pharmacologic inhibition decreased cell viability. Our studies thus show that OTX2 controls the regulatory landscape of Group 3 medulloblastoma through cooperative activity at enhancer elements and contributes to the expression of critical target genes.SIGNIFICANCE: The gene regulation mechanisms that drive medulloblastoma are not well understood. Using chromatin profiling, we find that the transcription factor OTX2 acts as a pioneer factor and, in cooperation with NEUROD1, controls the Group 3 medulloblastoma active enhancer landscape. OTX2 itself or its target genes, including the mitotic kinase NEK2, represent attractive targets for future therapies. Cancer Discov; 7(3); 1-14. ©2017 AACR.

  5. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology

    PubMed Central

    Siegford, Janice M.; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K.; Daigle, Courtney L.; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G.; Hernandez, Carlos E.; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J.

    2016-01-01

    Simple Summary Tracking of individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. We describe several tracking systems that are currently in use for laying hens and review each, highlighting their strengths and weaknesses, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suited, and relevant issues to fit the best technology for the intended purpose. Abstract Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns

  6. Development, Evaluation and Implementation of Chief Complaint Groupings to Activate Data Collection

    PubMed Central

    Bajaj, L.; Hoffman, J.; Alessandrini, E.; Ballard, D. W.; Norris, R.; Tzimenatos, L.; Swietlik, M.; Tham, E.; Grundmeier, R. W.; Kuppermann, N.; Dayan, P. S.

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Overuse of cranial computed tomography scans in children with blunt head trauma unnecessarily exposes them to radiation. The Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network (PECARN) blunt head trauma prediction rules identify children who do not require a computed tomography scan. Electronic health record (EHR) based clinical decision support (CDS) may effectively implement these rules but must only be provided for appropriate patients in order to minimize excessive alerts. Objectives To develop, implement and evaluate site-specific groupings of chief complaints (CC) that accurately identify children with head trauma, in order to activate data collection in an EHR. Methods As part of a 13 site clinical trial comparing cranial computed tomography use before and after implementation of CDS, four PECARN sites centrally developed and locally implemented CC groupings to trigger a clinical trial alert (CTA) to facilitate the completion of an emergency department head trauma data collection template. We tested and chose CC groupings to attain high sensitivity while maintaining at least moderate specificity. Results Due to variability in CCs available, identical groupings across sites were not possible. We noted substantial variability in the sensitivity and specificity of seemingly similar CC groupings between sites. The implemented CC groupings had sensitivities greater than 90% with specificities between 75–89%. During the trial, formal testing and provider feedback led to tailoring of the CC groupings at some sites. Conclusions CC groupings can be successfully developed and implemented across multiple sites to accurately identify patients who should have a CTA triggered to facilitate EHR data collection. However, CC groupings will necessarily vary in order to attain high sensitivity and moderate-to-high specificity. In future trials, the balance between sensitivity and specificity should be considered based on the nature of the clinical condition

  7. Reductions in Cortico-Striatal Hyperconnectivity Accompany Successful Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder with Dorsomedial Prefrontal rTMS

    PubMed Central

    Dunlop, Katharine; Woodside, Blake; Olmsted, Marion; Colton, Patricia; Giacobbe, Peter; Downar, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling illness with high rates of nonresponse to conventional treatments. OCD pathophysiology is believed to involve abnormalities in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuits through regions such as dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and ventral striatum. These regions may constitute therapeutic targets for neuromodulation treatments, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). However, the neurobiological predictors and correlates of successful rTMS treatment for OCD are unclear. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural predictors and correlates of response to 20–30 sessions of bilateral 10 Hz dmPFC-rTMS in 20 treatment-resistant OCD patients, with 40 healthy controls as baseline comparators. A region of interest in the dmPFC was used to generate whole-brain functional connectivity maps pre-treatment and post treatment. Ten of 20 patients met the response criteria (⩾50% improvement on Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, YBOCS); response to dmPFC-rTMS was sharply bimodal. dmPFC-rTMS responders had higher dmPFC-ventral striatal connectivity at baseline. The degree of reduction in this connectivity, from pre- to post-treatment, correlated to the degree of YBOCS symptomatic improvement. Baseline clinical and psychometric data did not predict treatment response. In summary, reductions in fronto-striatal hyperconnectivity were associated with treatment response to dmPFC-rTMS in OCD. This finding is consistent with previous fMRI studies of deep brain stimulation in OCD, but opposite to previous reports on mechanisms of dmPFC-rTMS in major depression. fMRI could prove useful in predicting the response to dmPFC-rTMS in OCD. PMID:26440813

  8. Reductions in Cortico-Striatal Hyperconnectivity Accompany Successful Treatment of Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder with Dorsomedial Prefrontal rTMS.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Katharine; Woodside, Blake; Olmsted, Marion; Colton, Patricia; Giacobbe, Peter; Downar, Jonathan

    2016-04-01

    Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is a disabling illness with high rates of nonresponse to conventional treatments. OCD pathophysiology is believed to involve abnormalities in cortico-striatal-thalamic-cortical circuits through regions such as dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (dmPFC) and ventral striatum. These regions may constitute therapeutic targets for neuromodulation treatments, such as repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS). However, the neurobiological predictors and correlates of successful rTMS treatment for OCD are unclear. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to identify neural predictors and correlates of response to 20-30 sessions of bilateral 10 Hz dmPFC-rTMS in 20 treatment-resistant OCD patients, with 40 healthy controls as baseline comparators. A region of interest in the dmPFC was used to generate whole-brain functional connectivity maps pre-treatment and post treatment. Ten of 20 patients met the response criteria (⩾50% improvement on Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Scale, YBOCS); response to dmPFC-rTMS was sharply bimodal. dmPFC-rTMS responders had higher dmPFC-ventral striatal connectivity at baseline. The degree of reduction in this connectivity, from pre- to post-treatment, correlated to the degree of YBOCS symptomatic improvement. Baseline clinical and psychometric data did not predict treatment response. In summary, reductions in fronto-striatal hyperconnectivity were associated with treatment response to dmPFC-rTMS in OCD. This finding is consistent with previous fMRI studies of deep brain stimulation in OCD, but opposite to previous reports on mechanisms of dmPFC-rTMS in major depression. fMRI could prove useful in predicting the response to dmPFC-rTMS in OCD.

  9. Effect of Low-Frequency rTMS on Aphasia in Stroke Patients: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Xia, Nan; Jin, Chun-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Hua; Hao, Jian-Feng; Guan, Hong-Bo; Tang, Hong; Li, Jian-An; Cai, De-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Background Small clinical trials have reported that low-frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) might improve language recovery in patients with aphasia after stroke. However, no systematic reviews or meta-analyses studies have investigated the effect of rTMS on aphasia. The objective of this study was to perform a meta-analysis of studies that explored the effects of low-frequency rTMS on aphasia in stroke patients. Methods We searched PubMed, CENTRAL, Embase, CINAHL, ScienceDirect, and Journals@Ovid for randomized controlled trials published between January 1965 and October 2013 using the keywords “aphasia OR language disorders OR anomia OR linguistic disorders AND repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation OR rTMS”. We used fixed- and random-effects models to estimate the standardized mean difference (SMD) and a 95% CI for the language outcomes. Results Seven eligible studies involving 160 stroke patients were identified in this meta-analysis. A significant effect size of 1.26 was found for the language outcome severity of impairment (95% CI = 0.80 to 1.71) without heterogeneity (I2 = 0%, P = 0.44). Further analyses demonstrated prominent effects for the naming subtest (SMD = 0.52, 95% CI = 0.18 to 0.87), repetition (SMD = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.16 to 0.92), writing (SMD = 0.70, 95% CI = 0.19 to 1.22), and comprehension (the Token test: SMD = 0.58, 95% CI = 0.07 to 1.09) without heterogeneity (I2 = 0%). The SMD of AAT and BDAE comprehension subtests was 0.32 (95% CI = −0.08 to 0.72) with moderate heterogeneity (I2 = 32%,P = 0.22). The effect size did not change significantly even when any one trial was eliminated. None of the patients from the 7 included articles reported adverse effects from rTMS. Conclusions Low-frequency rTMS with a 90% resting motor threshold that targets the triangular part of the right inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) has a positive effect on language recovery

  10. Rh D blood group conversion using transcription activator-like effector nucleases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyun O; Baek, Eun J; Kurita, Ryo; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Nakamura, Yukio; Kim, Hyongbum

    2015-06-16

    Group O D-negative blood cells are universal donors in transfusion medicine and methods for converting other blood groups into this universal donor group have been researched. However, conversion of D-positive cells into D-negative is yet to be achieved, although conversion of group A or B cells into O cells has been reported. The Rh D blood group is determined by the RHD gene, which encodes a 12-transmembrane domain protein. Here we convert Rh D-positive erythroid progenitor cells into D-negative cells using RHD-targeting transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). After transfection of TALEN-encoding plasmids, RHD-knockout clones are obtained. Erythroid-lineage cells differentiated from these knockout erythroid progenitor cells do not agglutinate in the presence of anti-D reagents and do not express D antigen, as assessed using flow cytometry. Our programmable nuclease-induced blood group conversion opens new avenues for compatible donor cell generation in transfusion medicine.

  11. Rh D blood group conversion using transcription activator-like effector nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Young-Hoon; Kim, Hyun O.; Baek, Eun J.; Kurita, Ryo; Cha, Hyuk-Jin; Nakamura, Yukio; Kim, Hyongbum

    2015-01-01

    Group O D-negative blood cells are universal donors in transfusion medicine and methods for converting other blood groups into this universal donor group have been researched. However, conversion of D-positive cells into D-negative is yet to be achieved, although conversion of group A or B cells into O cells has been reported. The Rh D blood group is determined by the RHD gene, which encodes a 12-transmembrane domain protein. Here we convert Rh D-positive erythroid progenitor cells into D-negative cells using RHD-targeting transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs). After transfection of TALEN-encoding plasmids, RHD-knockout clones are obtained. Erythroid-lineage cells differentiated from these knockout erythroid progenitor cells do not agglutinate in the presence of anti-D reagents and do not express D antigen, as assessed using flow cytometry. Our programmable nuclease-induced blood group conversion opens new avenues for compatible donor cell generation in transfusion medicine. PMID:26078220

  12. Towards a common framework for assessing the activity and associations of groups who sexually abuse children

    PubMed Central

    Cockbain, Ella; Brayley, Helen; Sullivan, Joe

    2013-01-01

    Extensive social psychological research emphasises the importance of groups in shaping individuals’ thoughts and actions. Within the child sexual abuse (CSA) literature criminal organisation has been largely overlooked, with some key exceptions. This research was a novel collaboration between academia and the UK's Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre (CEOP). Starting from the premise that the group is, in itself, a form of social situation affecting abuse, it offers the first systematic situational analysis of CSA groups. In-depth behavioural data from a small sample of convicted CSA group-offenders (n = 3) were analysed qualitatively to identify factors and processes underpinning CSA groups’ activities and associations: group formation, evolution, identity and resources. The results emphasise CSA groups’ variability, fluidity and dynamism. The foundations of a general framework are proposed for researching and assessing CSA groups and designing effective interventions. It is hoped that this work will stimulate discussion and development in this long-neglected area of CSA, helping to build a coherent knowledge-base. PMID:26494978

  13. Design, synthesis, and antifungal activities of novel triazole derivatives containing the benzyl group

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Kehan; Huang, Lei; Xu, Zheng; Wang, Yanwei; Bai, Guojing; Wu, Qiuye; Wang, Xiaoyan; Yu, Shichong; Jiang, Yuanying

    2015-01-01

    In previous studies undertaken by our group, a series of 1-(1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-yl)-2-(2,4-difluorophenyl)-3-substituted-2-propanols (1a–r), which were analogs of fluconazole, was designed and synthesized by click chemistry. In the study reported here, the in vitro antifungal activities of all the target compounds were evaluated against eight human pathogenic fungi. Compounds 1a, 1q, and 1r showed the more antifungal activity than the others. PMID:25792806

  14. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  15. Engagement in elderly persons with dementia attending animal-assisted group activity.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Christine; Pedersen, Ingeborg; Bergland, Astrid; Enders-Slegers, Marie-José; Ihlebæk, Camilla

    2016-09-02

    The need for meaningful activities that enhance engagement is very important among persons with dementia (PWDs), both for PWDs still living at home, as well as for PWDs admitted to a nursing home (NH). In this study, we systematically registered behaviours related to engagement in a group animal-assisted activity (AAA) intervention for 21 PWDs in NHs and among 28 home-dwelling PWDs attending a day care centre. The participants interacted with a dog and its handler for 30 minutes, twice a week for 12 weeks. Video-recordings were carried out early (week 2) and late (week 10) during the intervention period and behaviours were categorized by the use of an ethogram. AAA seems to create engagement in PWDs, and might be a suitable and health promoting intervention for both NH residents and participants of a day care centre. Degree of dementia should be considered when planning individual or group based AAA.

  16. Group behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa.

  17. Chlorosulfonation of polystyrene substrates for bioanalytical assays: distribution of activated groups at the surface.

    PubMed

    del Prado, Anselmo; Briz, Nerea; Navarro, Rodrigo; Pérez, Mónica; Gallardo, Alberto; Reinecke, Helmut

    2012-12-07

    In this work the activation of transparent PS substrates by chlorosulfonation is described and their distribution in the subsurface region is analyzed. For this purpose XPS, FTIR-ATR and colorimetry have been used. It is shown that the electrophilic aromatic substitution of polystyrene in pure chlorosulfonic acid is extremely quick with complete surface coverage by chlorosulfonic groups achieved after only a 10 minute reaction time at -10 °C. It is further demonstrated that the reaction is very surface selective and that even after reaction times as long as 3 hours, the modification is limited to a layer with a thickness of less than one micron. The activated PS substrates can be further functionalized in a second step with carboxylic groups. Due to the excellent optical transparency that the samples maintain upon modification, the modified systems were successfully probed for use in ELISA assays.

  18. Syntheses and Characterization of Chiral Arm Liquid Crystals--Containing Active Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Ying; Zhang, Fang-Di; He, Xiao-Zhi

    2016-05-01

    A new series of chiral two-arm dopant containg active group were first synthesized. Four precursors of C1~C4 were obtained at first and then were esterized separately with isosorbide and got four two-arm liquid crystals (MC1~MC4). The chemical structures and LC properties of the liquid crystalline molecule were measured by spectrum and thermal analysis techniques. XRD curves of MC1~MC4 samples only showed broad peaks at wide-angle, no sharp peak was seen for all the samples. The results showed that MC1~MC4 appeared cholesteric phase with oily streak texture or lined texture and finger print texture. Cholesteric phase was successfully induced by isosorbide. The different active group of two arm liquid crystal and chiral core had effects on their liquid crystalline properties.

  19. New Horizons in C-F Activation by Main Group Electrophiles

    SciTech Connect

    Ozerov, Oleg V.

    2016-02-13

    This technical report describes progress on the DOE sponsored project "New Horizons in C-F Activation by Main Group Electrophiles" during the period of 09/15/2010 – 08/31/2015. The main goal of this project was to develop improved catalysts for conversion of carbon-fluorine bonds in potentially harmful compounds. The approach involved combining of a highly reactive positively charged main-group compound with a highly unreactive negatively charged species (anions) as a way to access potent catalysts for carbon-fluorine bond activation. This report details progress made in improving synthetic pathways to a variety of new anions with improved properties and analysis of their potential in catalysis.

  20. Control of Surface Functional Groups on Pertechntate Sorption on Activated Carbon

    SciTech Connect

    Y. Wang; H. Gao; R. Yeredla; H. Xu; M. Abrecht; G.D. Stasio

    2006-07-05

    {sup 99}Tc is highly soluble and poorly adsorbed by natural materials under oxidizing conditions, thus being of particular concern for radioactive waste disposal. Activated carbon can potentially be used as an adsorbent for removing Tc from aqueous solutions. We have tested six commercial activated carbon materials for their capabilities for sorption of pertechnetate (TcO{sub 4}{sup -}). The tested materials can be grouped into two distinct types: Type I materials have high sorption capabilities with the distribution coefficients (K{sub d}) varying from 9.5 x 10{sup 5} to 3.2 x 10{sup 3} mL/g as the pH changes from 4.5 to 9.5, whereas type II materials have relatively low sorption capabilities with K{sub d} remaining more or less constant (1.1 x 10{sup 3} - 1.8 x 10{sup 3} mL/g) over a similar pH range. The difference in sorption behavior between the two types of materials is attributed to the distribution of surface functional groups. The predominant surface groups are identified to be carboxylic and phenolic groups. The carboxylic group can be further divided into three subgroups A, B, and C in the order of increasing acidity. The high sorption capabilities of type I materials are found to be caused by the presence of a large fraction of carboxylic subgroups A and B, while the low sorption capabilities of type II materials are due to the exclusive presence of phenolic and carboxylic subgroup C. Therefore, the performance of activated carbon for removing TcO{sub 4}{sup -} can be improved by enhancing the formation of carboxylic subgroups A and B during material processing.

  1. Improving Diet and Physical Activity Practices in Group Homes Serving Residents With Severe Mental Illness

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Glen; Ziegahn, Linda; Schuyler, Barlow; Rowlett, Al; Cassady, Diana

    2011-01-01

    Background People with severe mental illness (SMI) are at least 50% more likely to be overweight for various reasons, including poor nutrition, sedentary lifestyles, and side effects of antipsychotic medications. Objectives Among residents with SMI who live in group homes, we examined (1) factors that affected the motivations of both group home operators and residents around improvement of residents' diet and physical activity, (2) how operators and residents viewed responsibility for maintaining good health in group homes, and (3) strategies from operators and residents for improving diet and exercise. Methods The research team conducted 6 focus groups—3 with group home operators and 3 with residents, using a community-based participatory research (CBPR) process and qualitative data analysis. Results Both group home operators and residents discussed conflicting feelings about foods they know as healthy and foods they prefer to eat. Operators attributed barriers to better health to the perceived negative attitudes of residents and providers, lack of communication with health care providers, and poor working relationships with the state licensing body that protects individual rights on lifestyle choices. Residents reported barriers of their own negative attitudes, limited menu options, lack of organized activities, existing health problems, and side effects of medications. Conclusion Residents and operators had concrete suggestions for changes they could make individually, as well as recommendations for systemic changes to support healthier lifestyles. These recommendations provide a basis for designing an urgently needed pilot intervention program to address the current epidemic of obesity and diabetes in people with SMI residing in group homes. PMID:21169705

  2. Assessing Activity and Location of Individual Laying Hens in Large Groups Using Modern Technology.

    PubMed

    Siegford, Janice M; Berezowski, John; Biswas, Subir K; Daigle, Courtney L; Gebhardt-Henrich, Sabine G; Hernandez, Carlos E; Thurner, Stefan; Toscano, Michael J

    2016-02-02

    Tracking individual animals within large groups is increasingly possible, offering an exciting opportunity to researchers. Whereas previously only relatively indistinguishable groups of individual animals could be observed and combined into pen level data, we can now focus on individual actors within these large groups and track their activities across time and space with minimal intervention and disturbance. The development is particularly relevant to the poultry industry as, due to a shift away from battery cages, flock sizes are increasingly becoming larger and environments more complex. Many efforts have been made to track individual bird behavior and activity in large groups using a variety of methodologies with variable success. Of the technologies in use, each has associated benefits and detriments, which can make the approach more or less suitable for certain environments and experiments. Within this article, we have divided several tracking systems that are currently available into two major categories (radio frequency identification and radio signal strength) and review the strengths and weaknesses of each, as well as environments or conditions for which they may be most suitable. We also describe related topics including types of analysis for the data and concerns with selecting focal birds.

  3. Graphene Oxide Catalyzed C-H Bond Activation: The Importance Oxygen Functional Groups for Biaryl Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Gao, Yongjun; Tang, Pei; Zhou, Hu; Zhang, Wei; Yang, Hanjun; Yan, Ning; Hu, Gang; Mei, Donghai; Wang, Jianguo; Ma, Ding

    2016-02-24

    A heterogeneous, inexpensive and environment-friendly carbon catalytic system was developed for the C-H bond arylation of benzene resulting in the subsequent formation of biaryl compounds. The oxygen-containing groups on these graphene oxide sheets play an essential role in the observed catalytic activity. The catalytic results of model compounds and DFT calculations show that these functional groups promote this reaction by stabilization and activation of K ions at the same time of facilitating the leaving of I. And further mechanisms studies show that it is the charge induced capabilities of oxygen groups connected to specific carbon skeleton together with the giant π-reaction platform provided by the π-domain of graphene that played the vital roles in the observed excellent catalytic activity. D. Mei acknowledges the support from the US Department of Energy (DOE), Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. Computing time was granted by the grand challenge of computational catalysis of the William R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory.

  4. Bovine serum albumin with glycated carboxyl groups shows membrane-perturbing activities.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shin-Yi; Chen, Ying-Jung; Kao, Pei-Hsiu; Chang, Long-Sen

    2014-12-15

    The aim of the present study aimed to investigate whether glycated bovine serum albumin (BSA) showed novel activities on the lipid-water interface. Mannosylated BSA (Man-BSA) was prepared by modification of the carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-d-mannopyranoside. In contrast to BSA, Man-BSA notably induced membrane permeability of egg yolk phosphatidylcholine (EYPC)/egg yolk sphingomyelin (EYSM)/cholesterol (Chol) and EYPC/EYSM vesicles. Noticeably, Man-BSA induced the fusion of EYPC/EYSM/Chol vesicles, but not of EYPC/EYSM vesicles. Although BSA and Man-BSA showed similar binding affinity for lipid vesicles, the lipid-bound conformation of Man-BSA was distinct from that of BSA. Moreover, Man-BSA adopted distinct structure upon binding with the EYPC/EYSM/Chol and EYPC/EYSM vesicles. Man-BSA could induce the fusion of EYPC/EYSM/Chol vesicles with K562 and MCF-7 cells, while Man-BSA greatly induced the leakage of Chol-depleted K562 and MCF-7 cells. The modified BSA prepared by conjugating carboxyl groups with p-aminophenyl α-d-glucopyranoside also showed membrane-perturbing activities. Collectively, our data indicate that conjugation of carboxyl groups with monosaccharide generates functional BSA with membrane-perturbing activities on the lipid-water interface.

  5. Synthesis, insecticidal, and acaricidal activities of novel 2-aryl-pyrrole derivatives containing ester groups.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yu; Li, Yongqiang; Ou, Xiaoming; Zhang, Pengxiang; Huang, Zhiqiang; Bi, Fuchun; Huang, Runqiu; Wang, Qingmin

    2008-11-12

    A series of novel 2-aryl-pyrrole derivatives containing ester groups were synthesized, and their structures were characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. The insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm, mosquito, diamondback moth, green rice leafhopper, and bean aphids and acaricidal activities against spider mite of these new compounds were evaluated. The results of bioassays indicated that some of these title compounds exhibited excellent insecticidal and acaricidal activities. The insecticidal activities against oriental armyworm of compounds IVa, IVd, IVe, IVf, IVg, IVi, IVk, and IVp were equal to commercialized Chlorfenapyr, and the insecticidal activities of most of compounds IVb, IVc, IVd, IVf, IVg, IVj, IVk, IVl, IVs, IVt, IVu, IVw, IVx, IVz, and Chlorfenapyr against mosquito at 0.10 mg kg (-1) were 100%, and the acaricidal activities of compounds IVd, IVe, IVf, IVg, IVh, IVi, and IVk were equal or superior to Chlorfenapyr. Especially, the results indicated that the acaricidal activity of [4-bromo-2-(4-chlorophenyl)-3-cyano-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyrrol-1-yl]methyl 3-methylbutanoate ( IVg) against spider mite was 2.65-fold as high as that of Chlorfenapyr from the value of LC 50.

  6. Lysis of typhus-group rickettsia-infected targets by lymphokine activated killers

    SciTech Connect

    Carl, M.; Dasch, G.A.

    1986-03-01

    The authors recently described a subset of OKT8, OKT3-positive lymphocytes from typhus-group rickettsia immune individuals which were capable of lysing autologous PHA-blasts or Epstein-Barr virus transformed B cells (LCL) infected with typhus-group rickettsiae. In order to determine if killing by these effectors was HLA-restricted, they stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) from typhus-group rickettsia immune individuals in vitro with typhus-group rickettsia-derived antigen for one week and then measured lysis of autologous LCL or HLA-mismatched LCL in a 4-6 hour Cr/sup 51/-release assay. There was significant lysis of both the autologous and the HLA-mismatched infected targets as compared to the corresponding uninfected targets. Since this suggested that the effectors were lymphokine activated killers (LAK) rather than cytotoxic T lymphocytes, they then tested this hypothesis by stimulating PBMC from both immune and non-immune individuals in vitro for one week with purified interleukin 2 and measuring lysis of infected, autologous LCL. PBMC thus treated, from both immune and non-immune individuals, were capable of significantly lysing autologous, infected LCL as compared to the non-infected control. They therefore conclude that targets infected with typhus-group rickettsiae are susceptible to lysis to LAK.

  7. Interference of left and right cerebellar rTMS with procedural learning.

    PubMed

    Torriero, Sara; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Koch, Giacomo; Caltagirone, Carlo; Petrosini, Laura

    2004-11-01

    Increasing evidence suggests cerebellar involvement in procedural learning. To further analyze its role and to assess whether it has a lateralized influence, in the present study we used a repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation interference approach in a group of normal subjects performing a serial reaction time task. We studied 36 normal volunteers: 13 subjects underwent repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the left cerebellum and performed the task with the right (6 subjects) or left (7 subjects) hand; 10 subjects underwent repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on the right cerebellum and performed the task with the hand ipsilateral (5 subjects) or contralateral (5 subjects) to the stimulation; another 13 subjects served as controls and were not submitted to repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation; 7 of them performed the task with the right hand and 6 with the left hand. The main results show that interference with the activity of the lateral cerebellum induces a significant decrease of procedural learning: Interference with the right cerebellar hemisphere activity induces a significant decrease in procedural learning regardless of the hand used to perform the serial reaction time task, whereas left cerebellar hemisphere activity seems more linked with procedural learning through the ipsilateral hand. In conclusion, the present study shows for the first time that a transient interference with the functions of the cerebellar cortex results in an impairment of procedural learning in normal subjects and it provides new evidences for interhemispheric differences in the lateral cerebellum.

  8. Sunspot groups with high flare activity: Specific features of magnetic configuration, morphology, and dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fursyak, Yu. A.

    2016-12-01

    Specific features of the magnetic configuration, morphological structure, dynamics, and evolution of sunspot groups of the current (24th) cycle of solar activity with high flare activity are considered. The gradients of longitudinal magnetic fields at places of δ-configuration are calculated. The main finding is a time delay of 24-30 h between the time when the magnetic field gradient reaches a critical level of 0.1 G/km and the time when the first of powerful flares occurs in the active region. The study is based on data from the SDO and GOES-15 spacecrafts and ground-based solar telescopes (TST-2 at the Crimean Astrophysical Observatory of the Russian Academy of Sciences and the 150-foot telescope at the Mount Wilson Observatory).

  9. Recognition of human-vehicle interactions in group activities via multi-attributed semantic message generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2015-05-01

    Improved Situational awareness is a vital ongoing research effort for the U.S. Homeland Security for the past recent years. Many outdoor anomalous activities involve vehicles as their primary source of transportation to and from the scene where a plot is executed. Analysis of dynamics of Human-Vehicle Interaction (HVI) helps to identify correlated patterns of activities representing potential threats. The objective of this paper is bi-folded. Primarily, we discuss a method for temporal HVI events detection and verification for generation of HVI hypotheses. To effectively recognize HVI events, a Multi-attribute Vehicle Detection and Identification technique (MVDI) for detection and classification of stationary vehicles is presented. Secondly, we describe a method for identification of pertinent anomalous behaviors through analysis of state transitions between two successively detected events. Finally, we present a technique for generation of HVI semantic messages and present our experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of semantic messages for discovery of HVI in group activities.

  10. Distribution and characterization of hemolytic activity by an oral anaerobe from the Streptococcus milleri group.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, T; Koreeda, H

    2004-04-01

    Some oral anaerobes from the Streptococcus milleri strain group were found to secrete human specific hemolytic toxin, which was detected when bacteria were cultured in Todd-Hewitt broth and Brain Heart Infusion broth. The toxin elicited by the Streptococcus intermedius strain was partially fractionated by ammonium sulfate precipitation. Preincubation with glutathione or cysteine showed significant inhibiting effects; however, no effects were seen with dithiothreitol or beta-mercaptoethanol, and cholesterol was a weak inhibitor. Five kinds of protease inhibitor had no effect on the hemolytic activity, and rabbit preimmune and immune sera against the bacterial cells showed weak inhibition at a similar level. Digestion with trypsin, chymotrypsin, proteinase-K, subtilisin and pronase-P brought about a rise in activity, followed by a decrease during long-term incubation. Other enzymes tested showed no effects. Further, the presence of the intermedilysin gene in the portion with hemolytic activity was not identified by polymerase chain reaction.

  11. Peer groups and substance use: examining the direct and interactive effect of leisure activity.

    PubMed

    Thorlindsson, Thorolfur; Bernburg, Jon Gunnar

    2006-01-01

    This paper explores the relationships among adolescent leisure activities, peer behavior, and substance use. We suggest that peer group interaction can have a differential effect on adolescent deviant behavior depending on the type of leisure pattern adolescents engage in. We analyze data from a representative national sample of Icelandic adolescents, exploring the variations in the use of alcohol and illegal drugs among three different patterns of leisure activity, controlling for parental ties and school commitment. The findings show that alcohol and substance use varies significantly across the three leisure patterns. Moreover, it was found that the well-known relationship between adolescent substance use and having substance-using friends is significantly contingent on the type of leisure pattern. Our findings suggest that it is important to take into account different peer leisure activities in order to understand adolescent substance use. Finally, we discuss the implications of the findings for prevention work with adolescents.

  12. ABDOMINAL MUSCLE ACTIVATION INCREASES LUMBAR SPINAL STABILITY: ANALYSIS OF CONTRIBUTIONS OF DIFFERENT MUSCLE GROUPS

    PubMed Central

    Stokes, Ian A.F.; Gardner-Morse, Mack G.; Henry, Sharon M.

    2011-01-01

    Background Antagonistic activation of abdominal muscles and raised intra-abdominal pressure are associated with both spinal unloading and spinal stabilization. Rehabilitation regimens have been proposed to improve spinal stability via selective recruitment of certain trunk muscle groups. This biomechanical study used an analytical model to address whether lumbar spinal stability is increased by selective activation of abdominal muscles. Methods The biomechanical model included anatomically realistic three-layers of curved abdominal musculature connected by fascia, rectus abdominis and 77 symmetrical pairs of dorsal muscles. The muscle activations were calculated with the model loaded with either flexion, extension, lateral bending or axial rotation moments up to 60 Nm, along with intra-abdominal pressure up to 5 or 10 kPa (37.5 or 75 mm Hg) and partial bodyweight. After solving for muscle forces, a buckling analysis quantified spinal stability. Subsequently, different patterns of muscle activation were studied by forcing activation of selected abdominal muscles to at least 10% or 20% of maximum. Findings The spinal stability increased by an average factor of 1.8 with doubling of intra-abdominal pressure. Forced activation of obliques or transversus abdominis muscles to at least 10% of maximum increased stability slightly for efforts other than flexion, but forcing at least 20% activation generally did not produce further increase in stability. Forced activation of rectus abdominis did not increase stability. Interpretation Based on predictions from an analytical spinal buckling model, the degree of stability was not substantially influenced by selective forcing of muscle activation. This casts doubt on the supposed mechanism of action of specific abdominal muscle exercise regimens that have been proposed for low back pain rehabilitation. PMID:21571410

  13. AGN POPULATION IN HICKSON COMPACT GROUPS. I. DATA AND NUCLEAR ACTIVITY CLASSIFICATION

    SciTech Connect

    MartInez, M. A.; Del Olmo, A.; Perea, J.; Coziol, R. E-mail: chony@iaa.es E-mail: rcoziol@astro.ugto.mx

    2010-03-15

    We have conducted a new spectroscopic survey to characterize the nature of nuclear activity in Hickson compact group (HCG) galaxies and establish its frequency. We have obtained new intermediate-resolution optical spectroscopy for 200 member galaxies and corrected for underlying stellar population contamination using galaxy templates. Spectra for 11 additional galaxies have been acquired from the ESO and 6dF public archives, and emission-line ratios have been taken from the literature for 59 more galaxies. Here we present the results of our classification of the nuclear activity for 270 member galaxies, which belong to a well-defined sample of 64 HCGs. We found a large fraction of galaxies, 63%, with emission lines. Using standard diagnostic diagrams, 45% of the emission-line galaxies were classified as pure active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 23% as Transition Objects (TOs), and 32% as star-forming nuclei (SFNs). In the HCGs, the AGN activity appears as the most frequent activity type. Adopting the interpretation that in TOs a low-luminosity AGN coexists with circumnuclear star formation, the fraction of galaxies with an AGN could rise to 42% of the whole sample. The low frequency (20%) of SFNs confirms that there is no star formation enhancement in HCGs. After extinction correction, we found a median AGN H{alpha} luminosity of 7.1 x 10{sup 39} erg s{sup -1}, which implies that AGNs in HCG have a characteristically low luminosity. This result added to the fact that there is an almost complete absence of broad-line AGNs in compact groups (CGs) as found by MartInez et al. and corroborated in this study for HCGs, is consistent with very few gas left in these galaxies. In general, therefore, what may characterize the level of activity in CGs is a severe deficiency of gas.

  14. A New Calibrated Sunspot Group Series Since 1749: Statistics of Active Day Fractions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usoskin, I. G.; Kovaltsov, G. A.; Lockwood, M.; Mursula, K.; Owens, M.; Solanki, S. K.

    2016-11-01

    Although sunspot-number series have existed since the mid-nineteenth century, they are still the subject of intense debate, with the largest uncertainty being related to the "calibration" of the visual acuity of individual observers in the past. A daisy-chain regression method is usually applied to inter-calibrate the observers, which may lead to significant bias and error accumulation. Here we present a novel method for calibrating the visual acuity of the key observers to the reference data set of Royal Greenwich Observatory sunspot groups for the period 1900 - 1976, using the statistics of the active-day fraction. For each observer we independently evaluate their observational thresholds [SS] defined such that the observer is assumed to miss all of the groups with an area smaller than SS and report all the groups larger than SS. Next, using a Monte-Carlo method, we construct a correction matrix for each observer from the reference data set. The correction matrices are significantly non-linear and cannot be approximated by a linear regression or proportionality. We emphasize that corrections based on a linear proportionality between annually averaged data lead to serious biases and distortions of the data. The correction matrices are applied to the original sunspot-group records reported by the observers for each day, and finally the composite corrected series is produced for the period since 1748. The corrected series is provided as supplementary material in electronic form and displays secular minima around 1800 (Dalton Minimum) and 1900 (Gleissberg Minimum), as well as the Modern Grand Maximum of activity in the second half of the twentieth century. The uniqueness of the grand maximum is confirmed for the last 250 years. We show that the adoption of a linear relationship between the data of Wolf and Wolfer results in grossly inflated group numbers in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries in some reconstructions.

  15. Bronchodilator activity of xanthine derivatives substituted with functional groups at the 1- or 7-position.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, K; Yamamoto, Y; Kurita, M; Sakai, R; Konno, K; Sanae, F; Ohshima, T; Takagi, K; Hasegawa, T; Iwasaki, N

    1993-05-14

    Xanthine derivatives with several functional groups at the 1- or 7-position were synthesized, and their pharmacological activities in guinea pigs were studied. In general, the in vitro tracheal relaxant action and positive chronotropic action of 3-propylxanthines were increased by substitutions with nonpolar functional groups at the 1-position, but decreased by any substitution at the 7-position. On the other hand, because positive chronotropic actions of substituents with allyl, aminoalkyl, alkoxyalkyl, and normal alkyl groups were much less than tracheal muscle became very high with substitutions of 3'-butenyl, (dimethylamino)ethyl, 2'-ethoxyethyl, 3'-methoxypropyl, and n-propyl groups at the 1-position and of 2'-ethoxyethyl, 2'-oxopropyl, and n-propyl groups at the 7-position, compared with theophylline and the corresponding unsubstituted xanthines, 3-propylxanthine and 1-methyl-3-propylxanthine. When compounds were intraduodenally administered to the guinea pig, 1-(2'-ethoxyethyl)-, 1-(3'-methoxypropyl)-, 1-(3'-butenyl)-, and 1-[(dimethylamino)-ethyl]-3-propylxanthines, 1-methyl-7-(2'-oxopropyl)-3-propylxanthine, and denbufylline (1,3-di-n-butyl-7-(2'-oxopropyl)xanthine) effectively inhibited the acetylcholine-induced bronchospasm without heart stimulation or central nervous system-stimulation at the effective dosage range. Particularly, the bronchodilatory effect of 1-(2'-ethoxyethyl)-3-propylxanthine was much stronger and more continuous than those of theophylline and pentoxifylline. On the other hand, there were certain relationships among the in vitro tracheal relaxant activities of these compounds, their affinities for adenosine (A1) receptors in the brain membrane, and their inhibition of cyclic AMP-phosphodiesterase (PDE) in the tracheal muscle. The affinity for A2 receptors of these compounds was very low or negligible. This suggests that both the action on A1 receptors or interaction with adenosine and the cyclic AMP-PDE inhibitory activity contribute

  16. Structure-activity relationship study of vitamin D analogs with oxolane group in their side chain.

    PubMed

    Belorusova, Anna Y; Martínez, Andrea; Gándara, Zoila; Gómez, Generosa; Fall, Yagamare; Rochel, Natacha

    2017-04-02

    Synthetic analogs of 1α,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25(OH)2D3) have been developed with the goal of improving the biological profile of the natural hormone for therapeutic applications. Derivatives of 1,25(OH)2D3 with the oxolane moiety branched in the side chain at carbon C20, act as Vitamin D nuclear Receptor (VDR) superagonists being several orders of magnitude more active than the natural ligand. Here, we describe the synthesis and biological evaluation of three diastereoisomers of (1S, 3R)-Dihydroxy-(20S)-[(2″-hydroxy-2″-propyl)-tetrahydrofuryl]-22,23,24,25,26,27-hexanor-1α-hydroxyvitamin D3, with different stereochemistry at positions C2 and C5 of the oxolane ring branched at carbon C22 (1, C2RC5S; 2, C2SC5R; 3, C2SC5S). These compounds act as weak VDR agonist in transcriptional assays with compound 3 being the most active. X-ray crystallographic analysis of the VDR ligand-binding domain accommodating the three compounds indicates that the oxolane group branched at carbon C22 is not constrained as in case of compound with oxolane group branched at C20 leading to the loss of interactions of the triene group and increased flexibility of the C/D-rings and of the side chain.

  17. Group planarian sudden mortality: Is the threshold around global geomagnetic activity ≥K6?

    PubMed

    Murugan, Nirosha J; Karbowski, Lukasz M; Mekers, William Ft; Persinger, Michael A

    2015-01-01

    Sudden deaths in groups of animals have been observed by field and laboratory biologists. We have measured mortalities in large group-housed planarian during the infrequent periods of very intense geomagnetic activity. In 13 separate episodes over the last 5 y we have observed the sudden death in our laboratory of hundreds of planarian if their density was about 1 worm per cc and the global geomagnetic activity was K≥6 the day before or the day of the observation of the mortality. Such mortality never occurred in other conditions or days. Both estimates of the "magnetic moment" of a planarian in magnetic fields above this threshold of sustained magnetic flux density as well as the magnetic energy within the planarian volume predict values that could affect phenomenon associated with the total numbers of pH-dependent charges within each worm. These conditions could affect the Levin-Burr bioelectrical signals and networks that affect patterning information and sustainability in whole living systems. The establishment of a central reservoir for the report of these transient events might allow Life Scientists to more fully appreciate the impact of these pervasive global stimuli upon dense groups of animals.

  18. The role of areas MT+/V5 and SPOC in spatial and temporal control of manual interception: an rTMS study

    PubMed Central

    Dessing, Joost C.; Vesia, Michael; Crawford, J. Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Manual interception, such as catching or hitting an approaching ball, requires the hand to contact a moving object at the right location and at the right time. Many studies have examined the neural mechanisms underlying the spatial aspects of goal-directed reaching, but the neural basis of the spatial and temporal aspects of manual interception are largely unknown. Here, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to investigate the role of the human middle temporal visual motion area (MT+/V5) and superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC) in the spatial and temporal control of manual interception. Participants were required to reach-to-intercept a downward moving visual target that followed an unpredictably curved trajectory, presented on a screen in the vertical plane. We found that rTMS to MT+/V5 influenced interceptive timing and positioning, whereas rTMS to SPOC only tended to increase the spatial variance in reach end points for selected target trajectories. These findings are consistent with theories arguing that distinct neural mechanisms contribute to spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal control of manual interception. PMID:23468002

  19. "…The times they aren't a-changin'…" rTMS does not affect basic mechanisms of temporal discrimination: a pilot study with ERPs.

    PubMed

    Giovannelli, F; Ragazzoni, A; Battista, D; Tarantino, V; Del Sordo, E; Marzi, T; Zaccara, G; Avanzini, G; Viggiano, M P; Cincotta, M

    2014-10-10

    In time processing, the role of different cortical areas is still under investigation. Event-related potentials (ERPs) represent valuable indices of neural timing mechanisms in the millisecond-to-second domain. We used an interference approach by repetitive TMS (rTMS) on ERPs and behavioral performance to investigate the role of different cortical areas in processing basic temporal information. Ten healthy volunteers were requested to decide whether time intervals between two tones (S1-S2, probe interval) were shorter (800ms), equal to, or longer (1200ms) than a previously listened 1000-ms interval (target interval) and press different buttons accordingly. This task was performed at the baseline and immediately after a 15-min-long train of 1-Hz rTMS delivered over the supplementary motor area, right posterior parietal cortex, right superior temporal gyrus, or an occipital control area. Task accuracy, reaction time, and ERPs during (contingent negative variation, CNV) and after the presentation of probe intervals were analyzed. At the baseline, CNV amplitude was modulated by the duration of the probe interval. RTMS had no significant effect on behavioral or ERP measures. These preliminary data suggest that stimulated cortical areas are less crucially involved than other brain regions (e.g. subcortical structures) in the explicit discrimination of auditory time intervals in the range of hundreds of milliseconds.

  20. Low-frequency rTMS over the Parieto-frontal network during a sensorimotor task: The role of absolute beta power in the sensorimotor integration.

    PubMed

    Gongora, Mariana; Bittencourt, Juliana; Teixeira, Silmar; Basile, Luis F; Pompeu, Fernando; Droguett, Enrique López; Arias-Carrion, Oscar; Budde, Henning; Cagy, Mauricio; Velasques, Bruna; Nardi, Antonio Egídio; Ribeiro, Pedro

    2016-01-12

    Several studies have demonstrated that Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) promotes alterations in the Central Nervous System circuits and networks. The focus of the present study is to examine the absolute beta power patterns in the Parieto-frontal network. We hypothesize that rTMS alters the mechanisms of the sensorimotor integration process during a visuomotor task. Twelve young healthy volunteers performed a visuomotor task involving decision making recorded (Catch a ball in a free fall) by Electroencephalography. rTMS was applied on the Superior Parietal Cortex (SPC; Brodmann area [BA] 7) with low-frequency (1 Hz - 15 min - 80% Resting Motor Threshold). For each Frontal and Parietal region, a two-way ANOVA was used to compare the absolute beta power before and after TMS for each condition of the study (Rest 1, Task and Rest 2). The results demonstrated interactions (TMS vs. Condition) for the Frontal electrodes: Fp1, Fp2 and F7 and an effect of TMS (before and after) for F4.The results for the Parietal region showed a main effect of Condition for the P3, PZ and P4 electrodes. Thus, our paradigm was useful to better understand the reorganization and neural plasticity mechanisms in the parieto-frontal network during the sensorimotor integration process.

  1. The role of areas MT+/V5 and SPOC in spatial and temporal control of manual interception: an rTMS study.

    PubMed

    Dessing, Joost C; Vesia, Michael; Crawford, J Douglas

    2013-01-01

    Manual interception, such as catching or hitting an approaching ball, requires the hand to contact a moving object at the right location and at the right time. Many studies have examined the neural mechanisms underlying the spatial aspects of goal-directed reaching, but the neural basis of the spatial and temporal aspects of manual interception are largely unknown. Here, we used repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) to investigate the role of the human middle temporal visual motion area (MT+/V5) and superior parieto-occipital cortex (SPOC) in the spatial and temporal control of manual interception. Participants were required to reach-to-intercept a downward moving visual target that followed an unpredictably curved trajectory, presented on a screen in the vertical plane. We found that rTMS to MT+/V5 influenced interceptive timing and positioning, whereas rTMS to SPOC only tended to increase the spatial variance in reach end points for selected target trajectories. These findings are consistent with theories arguing that distinct neural mechanisms contribute to spatial, temporal, and spatiotemporal control of manual interception.

  2. Practical tethering of vitamin B1 on a silica surface via its phosphate group and evaluation of its activity.

    PubMed

    Vartzouma, Ch; Louloudi, M; Butler, I S; Hadjiliadis, N

    2002-03-07

    A convenient immobilization of thiamine pyrophosphate molecules on a silica surface through the phosphate group is developed, leading to a very active heterogenized biocatalyst for pyruvate decarboxylation.

  3. Activation of carboxyl group with cyanate: peptide bond formation from dicarboxylic acids.

    PubMed

    Danger, Grégoire; Charlot, Solenne; Boiteau, Laurent; Pascal, Robert

    2012-06-01

    The reaction of cyanate with C-terminal carboxyl groups of peptides in aqueous solution was considered as a potential pathway for the abiotic formation of peptide bonds under the condition of the primitive Earth. The catalytic effect of dicarboxylic acids on cyanate hydrolysis was definitely attributed to intramolecular nucleophilic catalysis by the observation of the 1H-NMR signal of succinic anhydride when reacting succinic acid with KOCN in aqueous solution (pH 2.2-5.5). The formation of amide bonds was noticed when adding amino acids or amino acid derivatives into the solution. The reaction of N-acyl aspartic acid derivatives was observed to proceed similarly and the scope of the cyanate-promoted reaction was analyzed from the standpoint of prebiotic peptide formation. The role of cyanate in activating peptide C-terminus constitutes a proof of principle that intramolecular reactions of adducts of peptides C-terminal carboxyl groups with activating agents represent a pathway for peptide activation in aqueous solution, the relevance of which is discussed in connexion with the issue of the emergence of homochirality.

  4. Mechanistic considerations on contact-active antimicrobial surfaces with controlled functional group densities.

    PubMed

    Bieser, Arno M; Tiller, Joerg C

    2011-04-08

    A series of N-alkyl-N,N-dimethyldeoxyammonium celluloses is synthesized by converting tosyl celluloses with DBA and DDA, respectively. Surface coatings with these water-insoluble derivatives contain well-defined densities of quaternary ammonium functions and nonactive hydrophobic and hydrophilic groups. It is shown that the antimicrobial activity of such surfaces against S. aureus requires a delicate balance between DDA, BDA, and hydrophobic groups. A mechanism is proposed that involves the selective adhesion of anionic phospholipids from the bacterial cell membrane. This so-called phospholipid sponge effect is supported by the fact that all coatings could be deactivated by treatment with SDS or negatively charged phospholipids, but not with neutral phospholipids.

  5. Synthesis, characterization and catalytic activity of acid-base bifunctional materials through protection of amino groups

    SciTech Connect

    Shao, Yanqiu; Liu, Heng; Yu, Xiaofang; Guan, Jingqi; Kan, Qiubin

    2012-03-15

    Graphical abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The acid-base bifunctional material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized through protection of amino groups. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} catalyst containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties. -- Abstract: Acid-base bifunctional mesoporous material SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} was successfully synthesized under low acidic medium through protection of amino groups. X-ray diffraction (XRD), N{sub 2} adsorption-desorption, transmission electron micrographs (TEM), back titration, {sup 13}C magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR and {sup 29}Si magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR were employed to characterize the synthesized materials. The obtained bifunctional material was tested for aldol condensation reaction between acetone and 4-nitrobenzaldehyde. Compared with monofunctional catalysts of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15 and SBA-15-NH{sub 2}, the bifunctional sample of SO{sub 3}H-SBA-15-NH{sub 2} containing amine and sulfonic acid groups exhibited excellent acid-basic properties, which make it possess high activity for the aldol condensation.

  6. [Design, synthesis, and biological activities of histone deacetylase inhibitors with diketo ester as zinc binding group].

    PubMed

    Lu, Hui; Su, Hong; Yang, Bo; You, Qi-Dong

    2011-03-01

    Histone deacetylases (HDACs) inhibition causes hyperacetylation of histones leading to growth arrest, differentiation and apoptosis of tumor cells, representing a new strategy in cancer therapy. Many of previously reported HDACs inhibitors are hydroxamic acid derivatives, which could chelate the zinc ion in the active site in a bidentate fashion. However, hydroxamic acids occasionally have produced problems such as poor pharmacokinetics, severe toxicity and low selectivity. Herein we describe the identification of a new series of non-hydroxamate HDACs inhibitors bearing diketo ester moieties as zinc binding group. HDACs inhibition assay and antiproliferation assays in vitro against multiple cancer cell lines were used for evaluation. These compounds displayed low antiproliferative activity against solid tumor cells, while good antiproliferative activity against human leukemic monocyte lymphoma cell line U937. Compound CPUYS707 is the best with GI50 value of 0.31 micromol x L(-1) against U937 cells, which is more potent than SAHA and MS-275. HDACs inhibition activity of these compounds is lower than that expected, further evaluation is needed.

  7. Structure-activity relationships among the kanamycin aminoglycosides: role of ring I hydroxyl and amino groups.

    PubMed

    Salian, Sumantha; Matt, Tanja; Akbergenov, Rashid; Harish, Shinde; Meyer, Martin; Duscha, Stefan; Shcherbakov, Dmitri; Bernet, Bruno B; Vasella, Andrea; Westhof, Eric; Böttger, Erik C

    2012-12-01

    The kanamycins form an important subgroup of the 4,6-disubstituted 2-deoxystreptamine aminoglycoside antibiotics, comprising kanamycin A, kanamycin B, tobramycin, and dibekacin. These compounds interfere with protein synthesis by targeting the ribosomal decoding A site, and they differ in the numbers and locations of amino and hydroxy groups of the glucopyranosyl moiety (ring I). We synthesized kanamycin analogues characterized by subtle variations of the 2' and 6' substituents of ring I. The functional activities of the kanamycins and the synthesized analogues were investigated (i) in cell-free translation assays on wild-type and mutant bacterial ribosomes to study drug-target interaction, (ii) in MIC assays to assess antibacterial activity, and (iii) in rabbit reticulocyte translation assays to determine activity on eukaryotic ribosomes. Position 2' forms an intramolecular H bond with O5 of ring II, helping the relative orientations of the two rings with respect to each other. This bond becomes critical for drug activity when a 6'-OH substituent is present.

  8. Healthful Eating and Physical Activity in the Home Environment: Results from Multi-Family Focus Groups

    PubMed Central

    Berge, Jerica M.; Arikian, Aimee; Doherty, William J.; Neumark-Sztainer, Dianne

    2012-01-01

    Objective To explore multiple family members’ perceptions of risk and protective factors for healthy eating and physical activity in the home. Design Ten multi-family focus groups were conducted with 26 families. Setting Community setting. Participants Primarily Black and White families. Family members (n = 103) were between the ages of 8–61 years. Analysis A grounded hermeneutic approach. Phenomenon of Interest Risk and protective factors for healthy eating and physical activity in the home environment. Results Ten major themes were identified by family members related to health behaviors in the home environment, including: (a) accessibility to healthy foods and activity, (b) time constraints, (c) stage of youth development, (d) individual investment in health behaviors, (e) family investment in health behaviors, (f) family meals and shared activities, (g) parent modeling, (h) making health behaviors fun, (i) making health behaviors part of the family lifestyle, and (j) community investment in family health behaviors. Conclusions and Implications This study identified the importance of the family system and the reciprocal influences within the home environment on health behaviors. In addition, individual and community-level suggestions were identified. Insights from the families provide leads for future research and ideas for the prevention of youth obesity. PMID:22192951

  9. Nonplanar tertiary amides in rigid chiral tricyclic dilactams. Peptide group distortions and vibrational optical activity.

    PubMed

    Pazderková, Markéta; Profant, Václav; Hodačová, Jana; Sebestík, Jaroslav; Pazderka, Tomáš; Novotná, Pavlína; Urbanová, Marie; Safařík, Martin; Buděšínský, Miloš; Tichý, Miloš; Bednárová, Lucie; Baumruk, Vladimír; Maloň, Petr

    2013-08-22

    We investigate amide nonplanarity in vibrational optical activity (VOA) spectra of tricyclic spirodilactams 5,8-diazatricyclo[6,3,0,0(1,5)]undecan-4,9-dione (I) and its 6,6',7,7'-tetradeuterio derivative (II). These rigid molecules constrain amide groups to nonplanar geometries with twisted pyramidal arrangements of bonds to amide nitrogen atoms. We have collected a full range vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) and Raman optical activity (ROA) spectra including signals of C-H and C-D stretching vibrations. We report normal-mode analysis and a comparison of calculated to experimental VCD and ROA. The data provide band-to-band assignment and offer a possibility to evaluate roles of constrained nonplanar tertiary amide groups and rigid chiral skeletons. Nonplanarity shows as single-signed VCD and ROA amide I signals, prevailing the couplets expected to arise from the amide-amide interaction. Amide-amide coupling dominates amide II (mainly C'-N stretching, modified in tertiary amides by the absence of a N-H bond) transitions (strong couplet in VCD, no significant ROA) probably due to the close proximity of amide nitrogen atoms. At lower wavenumbers, ROA spectra exhibit another likely manifestation of amide nonplanarity, showing signals of amide V (δ(oop)(N-C) at ~570 cm(-1)) and amide VI (δ(oop)(C'═O) at ~700 cm(-1) and ~650 cm(-1)) vibrations.

  10. 5-HT7 receptor modulators: Amino groups attached to biphenyl scaffold determine functional activity.

    PubMed

    Kim, Youngjae; Park, Hyeri; Lee, Jeongeun; Tae, Jinsung; Kim, Hak Joong; Min, Sun-Joon; Rhim, Hyewhon; Choo, Hyunah

    2016-11-10

    5-HT7 receptor (5-HT7R) agonists and antagonists have been reported to be used for treatment of neuropathic pain and depression, respectively. In this study, as a novel scaffold for 5-HT7R modulators, we designed and prepared a series of biphenyl-3-yl-methanamine derivatives with various amino groups. Evaluation of functional activities as well as binding affinities of the title compounds identified partial agonists (EC50 = 0.55-3.2 μM) and full antagonists (IC50 = 5.57-23.1 μM) depending on the amino substituents. Molecular docking study suggested that the ligand-based switch in functional activity from agonist to antagonist results from the size of the amino groups and thereby different binding modes to 5-HT7R. In particular, interaction of the ligand with Arg367 of 5-HT7R is shown to differentiate agonists and antagonists. In the pharmacophore model study, two distinct pharmacophore models can tell whether a ligand is an agonist or an antagonist. Taken together, this study provides valuable information for designing novel compounds with selective agonistic or antagonistic properties against 5-HT7R.

  11. Sound production by North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in surface active groups.

    PubMed

    Parks, Susan E; Tyack, Peter L

    2005-05-01

    The surface active group (SAG) is the most commonly observed surface social behavior of North Atlantic right whales. Recordings were made from 52 SAGs in the Bay of Fundy, Canada between July and September, from 1999 to 2002. The call types recorded from these groups were similar to those described previously for Southern right whales (Eubalaena australis), with six major call types being termed scream, gunshot, blow, upcall, warble, and downcall. The percentage of total calls of each call type depended on the group size and composition. The most common call type recorded was the scream call. The scream calls were produced by the focal female in a SAG. Production of other sound types can be attributed to whales other than the focal female, with gunshot and upcalls produced by males, and warble calls produced by female calves. The source levels for these sounds range from 137 to 162 dB rms re 1 ,tPa-m for tonal calls and 174 to 192 dB rms for broadband gunshot sounds.

  12. Sound production by North Atlantic right whales (Eubalaena glacialis) in surface active groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parks, Susan E.; Tyack, Peter L.

    2005-05-01

    The surface active group (SAG) is the most commonly observed surface social behavior of North Atlantic right whales. Recordings were made from 52 SAGs in the Bay of Fundy, Canada between July and September, from 1999 to 2002. The call types recorded from these groups were similar to those described previously for Southern right whales (Eubalaena australis), with six major call types being termed scream, gunshot, blow, upcall, warble, and downcall. The percentage of total calls of each call type depended on the group size and composition. The most common call type recorded was the scream call. The scream calls were produced by the focal female in a SAG. Production of other sound types can be attributed to whales other than the focal female, with gunshot and upcalls produced by males, and warble calls produced by female calves. The source levels for these sounds range from 137 to 162 dB rms re 1 μPa-m for tonal calls and 174 to 192 dB rms for broadband gunshot sounds. .

  13. A pilot study of ambulatory masticatory muscle activities in TMJD diagnostic groups

    PubMed Central

    Iwasaki, LR; Gonzalez, YM; Liu, H; Marx, DB; Gallo, LM; Nickel, JC

    2015-01-01

    Objective To determine differences in masticatory muscle usage between TMJD diagnostic groups. Setting and Sample Population Seventy-one informed and consented subjects (27 men; 44 women) participated at the University at Buffalo. Material and Methods Research Diagnostic Criteria and imaging data were used to categorize subjects according to presence/absence (+/−) of TMJ disc placement (DD) and chronic pain (P) (+DD+P, n=18; +DD-P, n =14; −DD-P, n=39). EMG/bite-force calibrations determined subject-specific masseter and temporalis muscle activities per 20 N bite-force (T20N, μV). Over 3 days and nights subjects collected EMG recordings. Duty factors (DFs, % of recording time) were determined based on threshold intervals (5–9, 10–24, 25–49, 50–79, ≥80%T20N). ANOVA and Tukey-Kramer post-hoc tests identified (i) diagnostic group differences in T20N, and (ii) effects of diagnostic group, gender, time, and interval, and on muscle DFs. Results Mean (±standard error) temporalis T20N in +DD+P subjects was significantly higher (71.4±8.8 μV) than masseter T20N in these subjects (19.6±8.8 μV; P=0.001) and in −DD-P subjects (25.3±6.0 μV, P=0.0007). Masseter DFs at 5–9%T20N were significantly higher in +DD-P women (3.48%) than +DD-P men (0.85%) and women and men in both other diagnostic groups (all P<0.03); and in +DD+P women (2.00%) compared to −DD-P men (0.83%; P=0.029). Night-time DFs at 5–9%T20N in +DD-P women (1.97%) were significantly higher than in −DD-P men (0.47%) and women (0.24%; all P<0.01). Conclusions Between-group differences were found in masticatory muscle activities in both laboratory and natural environmental settings. PMID:25865543

  14. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. The following individuals and groups are considered to have performed...

  15. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. The following individuals and groups are considered to have performed...

  16. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. The following individuals and groups are considered to have performed...

  17. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. The following individuals and groups are considered to have performed...

  18. Activity of growth factors in the IL-6 group in the differentiation of human lung adenocarcinoma.

    PubMed

    McCormick, C; Freshney, R I

    2000-02-01

    The role of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) group of cytokines in differentiation of two lung adenocarcinoma cell lines has been examined using induction of alkaline phosphatase and expression of surfactant protein A. Oncostatin M was the most active and potent for alkaline phosphatase in A549 cells, with IL-6 having similar activity but less potency. Neither cytokine induced alkaline phosphatase in NCI-H441 cells, although induction was obtained with lung fibroblast-conditioned medium. Surfactant protein A was induced in NCI-H441 cells by conditioned medium and dexamethasone and, to a much lesser extent, by oncostatin M or IL-6. Induction of alkaline phosphatase and surfactant protein A were both dexamethasone-dependent, though some induction of surfactant protein A was obtained with interferon-alpha in the absence of dexamethasone. The activity present in lung fibroblast-conditioned medium suggests paracrine control, but this appears not to be due to oncostatin M or IL-6 as disabling antibodies to either cytokine were not inhibitory, and, although alkaline phosphatase was induced in A549 by both cytokines, it was only induced by conditioned medium in NCI-H441 cells. Furthermore, surfactant protein A was induced in H441 by conditioned medium to a much greater extent than by oncostatin M or IL-6. These data demonstrate that cytokines of the IL-6 group have potential as differentiation inducers in lung adenocarcinoma cells and that there is an equivalent paracrine factor(s) in lung fibroblast conditioned medium. As the production of this factor by fibroblasts is not enhanced by glucocorticoid, although the response of the target cell is, it would appear to be distinct from the fibrocyte pneumocyte factor previously described by Post et al 1984.

  19. Activity of growth factors in the IL-6 group in the differentiation of human lung adenocarcinoma

    PubMed Central

    McCormick, C; Freshney, R I

    2000-01-01

    The role of the interleukin-6 (IL-6) group of cytokines in differentiation of two lung adenocarcinoma cell lines has been examined using induction of alkaline phosphatase and expression of surfactant protein A. Oncostatin M was the most active and potent for alkaline phosphatase in A549 cells, with IL-6 having similar activity but less potency. Neither cytokine induced alkaline phosphatase in NCI-H441 cells, although induction was obtained with lung fibroblast-conditioned medium. Surfactant protein A was induced in NCI-H441 cells by conditioned medium and dexamethasone and, to a much lesser extent, by oncostatin M or IL-6. Induction of alkaline phosphatase and surfactant protein A were both dexamethasone-dependent, though some induction of surfactant protein A was obtained with interferon-α in the absence of dexamethasone. The activity present in lung fibroblast-conditioned medium suggests paracrine control, but this appears not to be due to oncostatin M or IL-6 as disabling antibodies to either cytokine were not inhibitory, and, although alkaline phosphatase was induced in A549 by both cytokines, it was only induced by conditioned medium in NCI-H441 cells. Furthermore, surfactant protein A was induced in H441 by conditioned medium to a much greater extent than by oncostatin M or IL-6. These data demonstrate that cytokines of the IL-6 group have potential as differentiation inducers in lung adenocarcinoma cells and that there is an equivalent paracrine factor(s) in lung fibroblast conditioned medium. As the production of this factor by fibroblasts is not enhanced by glucocorticoid, although the response of the target cell is, it would appear to be distinct from the fibrocyte pneumocyte factor previously described by Post et al 1984 Nature308: 284–286. © 2000 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10732762

  20. High-Intensity, Unilateral Resistance Training of a Non-Paretic Muscle Group Increases Active Range of Motion in a Severely Paretic Upper Extremity Muscle Group after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Urbin, M. A.; Harris-Love, Michelle L.; Carter, Alex R.; Lang, Catherine E.

    2015-01-01

    Limited rehabilitation strategies are available for movement restoration when paresis is too severe following stroke. Previous research has shown that high-intensity resistance training of one muscle group enhances strength of the homologous, contralateral muscle group in neurologically intact adults. How this “cross education” phenomenon might be exploited to moderate severe weakness in an upper extremity muscle group after stroke is not well understood. The primary aim of this study was to examine adaptations in force-generating capacity of severely paretic wrist extensors resulting from high intensity, dynamic contractions of the non-paretic wrist extensors. A secondary, exploratory aim was to probe neural adaptations in a subset of participants from each sample using a single-pulse, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) protocol. Separate samples of neurologically intact controls (n = 7) and individuals ≥4 months post stroke (n = 6) underwent 16 sessions of training. Following training, one-repetition maximum of the untrained wrist extensors in the control group and active range of motion of the untrained, paretic wrist extensors in the stroke group were significantly increased. No changes in corticospinal excitability, intracortical inhibition, or interhemispheric inhibition were observed in control participants. Both stroke participants who underwent TMS testing, however, exhibited increased voluntary muscle activation following the intervention. In addition, motor-evoked potentials that were unobtainable prior to the intervention were readily elicited afterwards in a stroke participant. Results of this study demonstrate that high-intensity resistance training of a non-paretic upper extremity muscle group can enhance voluntary muscle activation and force-generating capacity of a severely paretic muscle group after stroke. There is also preliminary evidence that corticospinal adaptations may accompany these gains. PMID:26074871

  1. Highly active oxygen reduction non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst without direct metal-nitrogen coordination.

    PubMed

    Strickland, Kara; Miner, Elise; Jia, Qingying; Tylus, Urszula; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Liang, Wentao; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jaouen, Frédéric; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-06-10

    Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon-nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation.

  2. Immobilization of modified papain with anhydride groups on activated cotton fabric.

    PubMed

    Xue, Yong; Nie, Huali; Zhu, Limin; Li, Shubai; Zhang, Haitao

    2010-01-01

    Papain (EC 3.4.22.2) has been chemically modified using two novel reagents including different anhydrides of 1,2,4-benzenetricarboxylic and pyromellitic acids. Then, the modified papain was immobilized on the activated cotton fabric by a two-step method. The number of free amino groups in the modified protein was investigated through the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid method. Energy dispersive spectrometer was used to characterize papain immobilization. Some parameters of both modified and native papain immobilized on cotton fabric, such as optimum temperature, optimum pH, and the stabilities for reservation in various detergents were studied and compared. The resultant papain had its optimum pH shifted from 6.0 to 9.0. Compared with immobilized native papain, the thermal stability and the resistance to alkali and washing detergent of immobilized modified enzyme were improved considerably. When the concentration of detergent was 20 mg/ml, the activity of the immobilized pyromellitic papain retained about 40% of its original activity, whereas the native papain was almost inhibited. This work demonstrated that the cotton fabric immobilized modified papain has potential applications in the functional textiles field.

  3. A Relaxed Active Site After Exon Ligation by the Group I Intron

    SciTech Connect

    Lipchock,S.; Strobel, S.

    2008-01-01

    During RNA maturation, the group I intron promotes two sequential phosphorotransfer reactions resulting in exon ligation and intron release. Here, we report the crystal structure of the intron in complex with spliced exons and two additional structures that examine the role of active-site metal ions during the second step of RNA splicing. These structures reveal a relaxed active site, in which direct metal coordination by the exons is lost after ligation, while other tertiary interactions are retained between the exon and the intron. Consistent with these structural observations, kinetic and thermodynamic measurements show that the scissile phosphate makes direct contact with metals in the ground state before exon ligation and in the transition state, but not after exon ligation. Despite no direct exonic interactions and even in the absence of the scissile phosphate, two metal ions remain bound within the active site. Together, these data suggest that release of the ligated exons from the intron is preceded by a change in substrate-metal coordination before tertiary hydrogen bonding contacts to the exons are broken.

  4. Highly active oxygen reduction non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst without direct metal–nitrogen coordination

    PubMed Central

    Strickland, Kara; Miner, Elise; Jia, Qingying; Tylus, Urszula; Ramaswamy, Nagappan; Liang, Wentao; Sougrati, Moulay-Tahar; Jaouen, Frédéric; Mukerjee, Sanjeev

    2015-01-01

    Replacement of noble metals in catalysts for cathodic oxygen reduction reaction with transition metals mostly create active sites based on a composite of nitrogen-coordinated transition metal in close concert with non-nitrogen-coordinated carbon-embedded metal atom clusters. Here we report a non-platinum group metal electrocatalyst with an active site devoid of any direct nitrogen coordination to iron that outperforms the benchmark platinum-based catalyst in alkaline media and is comparable to its best contemporaries in acidic media. In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy in conjunction with ex situ microscopy clearly shows nitrided carbon fibres with embedded iron particles that are not directly involved in the oxygen reduction pathway. Instead, the reaction occurs primarily on the carbon–nitrogen structure in the outer skin of the nitrided carbon fibres. Implications include the potential of creating greater active site density and the potential elimination of any Fenton-type process involving exposed iron ions culminating in peroxide initiated free-radical formation. PMID:26059552

  5. covR Mediated Antibiofilm Activity of 3-Furancarboxaldehyde Increases the Virulence of Group A Streptococcus

    PubMed Central

    Ashwinkumar Subramenium, Ganapathy; Viszwapriya, Dharmaprakash; Iyer, Prasanth Mani; Balamurugan, Krishnaswamy; Karutha Pandian, Shunmugiah

    2015-01-01

    Background Group A streptococcus (GAS, Streptococcus pyogenes), a multi-virulent, exclusive human pathogen responsible for various invasive and non-invasive diseases possesses biofilm forming phenomenon as one of its pathogenic armaments. Recently, antibiofilm agents have gained prime importance, since inhibiting the biofilm formation is expected to reduce development of antibiotic resistance and increase their susceptibility to the host immune cells. Principal Findings The current study demonstrates the antibiofilm activity of 3Furancarboxaldehyde (3FCA), a floral honey derived compound, against GAS biofilm, which was divulged using crystal violet assay, light microscopy, and confocal laser scanning microscopy. The report is extended to study its effect on various aspects of GAS (morphology, virulence, aggregation) at its minimal biofilm inhibitory concentration (132μg/ml). 3FCA was found to alter the growth pattern of GAS in solid and liquid medium and increased the rate of auto-aggregation. Electron microscopy unveiled the increase in extra polymeric substances around cell. Gene expression studies showed down-regulation of covR gene, which is speculated to be the prime target for the antibiofilm activity. Increased hyaluronic acid production and down regulation of srtB gene is attributed to the enhanced rate of auto-aggregation. The virulence genes (srv, mga, luxS and hasA) were also found to be over expressed, which was manifested with the increased susceptibility of the model organism Caenorhabditis elegans to 3FCA treated GAS. The toxicity of 3FCA was ruled out with no adverse effect on C. elegans. Significance Though 3FCA possess antibiofilm activity against GAS, it was also found to increase the virulence of GAS. This study demonstrates that, covR mediated antibiofilm activity may increase the virulence of GAS. This also emphasizes the importance to analyse the acclimatization response and virulence of the pathogen in the presence of antibiofilm compounds

  6. Teaching high-school Geoscience through a group-based activity: the Geotrivia experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bakopoulou, Athanasia

    2015-04-01

    Geotrivia is an educational game which aims at the enhancement of geoscience teaching in secondary education, through an interactive group-based activity. As behavioural teaching methods no longer excite students in a multitask society, new approaches should be implemented to keep up with novel learning methodologies and team-based techniques. Thus, the main aim of the experiment was to come up with an alternative learning process on geology and geography in order to upgrade and attract more students to Geosciences. Geotrivia is based on the techniques of motivation (competition to be the winner) and enjoyable educational time (it is funny to play a game) in terms of team-based student collaboration. Pedagogical aims of Geotrivia consist of team-based work, independency, autonomy and initiative, active participation, student self-evaluation and metacognition. Geotrivia is a card game, consisting of about 150 playing cards, a whistle and an hourglass. Each playing card contains a geology- or geography-related question and the answer to the question is given in the lower part of the card. Class students are divided in about 4 groups of about 5 students each. The aim of each group is to collect as many cards as possible. The hourglass is flipped and a member of the team takes the pack of cards and uses it to ask questions to his team; the other members have to answer as many questions. The team wins a card when they give a correct answer. The game is played at the end of each curriculum unit; a comprehensive version of the game is held at end of the school year. Most -but not all- questions are based on the course syllabus, which deals with the geology and geography of Europe at junior high school level (e.g. what is the cause of high seismicity in Greece?). Accordingly, Geotrivia questions can be adjusted to each country school book of geology - geography at any grade. To evaluate the results of Geotrivia, we used the methodology of pretest and posttest, an

  7. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2016-03-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells.

  8. Polyhydrides of Platinum Group Metals: Nonclassical Interactions and σ-Bond Activation Reactions.

    PubMed

    Esteruelas, Miguel A; López, Ana M; Oliván, Montserrat

    2016-08-10

    The preparation, structure, dynamic behavior in solution, and reactivity of polyhydride complexes of platinum group metals, described during the last three decades, are contextualized from both organometallic and coordination chemistry points of view. These compounds, which contain dihydrogen, elongated dihydrogen, compressed dihydride, and classical dihydride ligands promote the activation of B-H, C-H, Si-H, N-H, O-H, C-C, C-N, and C-F, among other σ-bonds. In this review, it is shown that, unlike other more mature areas, the chemistry of polyhydrides offers new exciting conceptual challenges and at the same time the possibility of interacting with other fields including the conversion and storage of regenerative energy, organic synthetic chemistry, drug design, and material science. This wide range of possible interactions foresees promising advances in the near future.

  9. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    SciTech Connect

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2016-03-02

    Here, the most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. In conclusion, from these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells.

  10. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    DOE PAGES

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; ...

    2016-03-02

    Here, the most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigatemore » the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. In conclusion, from these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells.« less

  11. Trithorax and Polycomb group-dependent regulation: a tale of opposing activities.

    PubMed

    Geisler, Sarah J; Paro, Renato

    2015-09-01

    Intricate layers of regulation determine the unique gene expression profiles of a given cell and, therefore, underlie the immense phenotypic diversity observed among cell types. Understanding the mechanisms that govern which genes are expressed and which genes are silenced is a fundamental focus in biology. The Polycomb and Trithorax group chromatin proteins play important roles promoting the stable and heritable repression and activation of gene expression, respectively. These proteins, which are conserved across metazoans, modulate post-translational modifications on histone tails and regulate nucleosomal structures. Here, we review recent advances that have shed light on the mechanisms by which these two classes of proteins act to maintain epigenetic memory and allow dynamic switches in gene expression during development.

  12. Factors affecting the in vitro activity of cefoperazone against the Bacteroides fragilis group.

    PubMed Central

    Sutter, V L; Kwok, Y Y

    1981-01-01

    The in vitro activity of cefoperazone against 32 strains of bacteria of the Bacteroides fragilis group was determined on four media by using a variety of test parameters. Lower mean minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were obtained on Mueller-Hinton blood agar and supplemented brain heart infusion agar than were obtained on brucella laked blood agar or Wilkins-Chalgren agar. Higher MICs were obtained with 6-h inocula than with 24-h inocula, and slightly higher MICs were obtained with tests read at 48 as compared with 24 h. Conducting tests in an anaerobic glove box had little effect. The greatest differences in mean MICs were seen with inoculum densities of 10(4) and 10(5) colony-forming units. PMID:6459765

  13. STS-107 crew poses for a group portrait during TCDT M113 training activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2002-01-01

    KENNEDY SPACE CENTER, FLA. -- -- The STS-107 crew poses for a group portrait with their instructor beside an M113 armored personnel carrier. The crew is participating in Terminal Countdown Demonstration Test activities, a standard part of launch preparations. In the front, from left, are Payload Specialist Ilan Ramon (the first Israeli astronaut), Instructor George Hoggard, Mission Specialist Laurel Clark, Commander Rick Husband, Mission Specialist David Brown, and Payload Commander Michael Anderson. In the back, from left, are Mission Specialist Kalpana Chawla and Pilot William 'Willie' McCool. STS-107 is a mission devoted to research and will include more than 80 experiments that will study Earth and space science, advanced technology development, and astronaut health and safety. Launch is planned for Jan. 16, 2003, between 10 a.m. and 2 p.m. EST aboard Space Shuttle Columbia.

  14. Restricted mobility of specific functional groups reduces anti-cancer drug activity in healthy cells

    PubMed Central

    Martins, Murillo L.; Ignazzi, Rosanna; Eckert, Juergen; Watts, Benjamin; Kaneno, Ramon; Zambuzzi, Willian F.; Daemen, Luke; Saeki, Margarida J.; Bordallo, Heloisa N.

    2016-01-01

    The most common cancer treatments currently available are radio- and chemo-therapy. These therapies have, however, drawbacks, such as, the reduction in quality of life and the low efficiency of radiotherapy in cases of multiple metastases. To lessen these effects, we have encapsulated an anti-cancer drug into a biocompatible matrix. In-vitro assays indicate that this bio-nanocomposite is able to interact and cause morphological changes in cancer cells. Meanwhile, no alterations were observed in monocytes and fibroblasts, indicating that this system might carry the drug in living organisms with reduced clearance rate and toxicity. X-rays and neutrons were used to investigate the carrier structure, as well as to assess the drug mobility within the bio-nanocomposite. From these unique data we show that partial mobility restriction of active groups of the drug molecule suggests why this carrier design is potentially safer to healthy cells. PMID:26932808

  15. Synthesis and antitumor activity of new amphiphilic alkylglycerolipids substituted with a polar head group, 2-(2-trimethylammonioethoxy)ethyl or a congeneric oligo(ethyleneoxy)ethyl group.

    PubMed

    Ukawa, K; Imamiya, E; Yamamoto, H; Aono, T; Kozai, Y; Okutani, T; Nomura, H; Honma, Y; Hozumi, M; Kudo, I

    1989-12-01

    A new series of amphiphilic 1-octadecyl glycerolipids (eleven compounds, 1a-k) were designed and synthesized, in which the 3-phosphocholine portion of platelet-activating factor (1-alkyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine, PAF) was replaced by the 2-(2-trimethylammonioethoxy)ethyl group and congeneric groups having oligo(ethyleneoxy)ethyl bridges of various lengths at position 3, together with modification at position 2 (lower alkyl, acetonyl, acetoacetyl, carboxymethyl and pyrimidin-2-yl groups). These ether lipids, characterized by a nonphosphorus lysoglycerolipid structure, showed potent antitumor activity in vitro (human promyelocytic leukemia cells, HL-60, and human epidermoid carcinoma cells, KB) and in vivo (mouse sarcoma S180 and mouse mammary carcinoma MM46). Maximal in vitro potency was obtained with 1-O-octadecyl-2-O-(2-pyrimidinyl)-3-O-[2-(2-trimethylammonioethoxy )ethyl] glycerol (1g; IC50 values for both HL-60 and KB were 0.32 microgram/ml, indicating a higher activity than alkyl-lysophospholipid, ET18-OMe). Several appropriately 2-substituted 1-octadecylglycerolipids with the 3-[2-(2-trimethylammonioethoxy)ethyl] group (e.g., methyl, 1b; butyl, 1f; 2,2,2-trifluoroethyl, 1j; and acetonyl, 1k) showed a potent life-span-prolonging effect on mice with ascites sarcoma S180 and on those with mammary carcinoma MM46, when administered intraperitoneally at 16.5 and 12.5 mg/kg/d, respectively. Compounds 1b and 1k showed definite tumor growth inhibition against solid sarcoma S180 in mice, whether given p.o. or i.v. at 16.5 mg/kg/d. Studies on the structure-activity relationships indicate that the metabolic stability to phospholipase C or related enzymes is at least partly responsible for the potent antitumor activity of this series of ether lipids.

  16. Minimizing within-experiment and within-group effects in Activation Likelihood Estimation meta-analyses.

    PubMed

    Turkeltaub, Peter E; Eickhoff, Simon B; Laird, Angela R; Fox, Mick; Wiener, Martin; Fox, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Activation Likelihood Estimation (ALE) is an objective, quantitative technique for coordinate-based meta-analysis (CBMA) of neuroimaging results that has been validated for a variety of uses. Stepwise modifications have improved ALE's theoretical and statistical rigor since its introduction. Here, we evaluate two avenues to further optimize ALE. First, we demonstrate that the maximum contribution of an experiment makes to an ALE map is related to the number of foci it reports and their proximity. We present a modified ALE algorithm that eliminates these within-experiment effects. However, we show that these effects only account for 2-3% of cumulative ALE values, and removing them has little impact on thresholded ALE maps. Next, we present an alternate organizational approach to datasets that prevents subject groups with multiple experiments in a dataset from influencing ALE values more than others. This modification decreases cumulative ALE values by 7-9%, changes the relative magnitude of some clusters, and reduces cluster extents. Overall, differences between results of the standard approach and these new methods were small. This finding validates previous ALE reports against concerns that they were driven by within-experiment or within-group effects. We suggest that the modified ALE algorithm is theoretically advantageous compared with the current algorithm, and that the alternate organization of datasets is the most conservative approach for typical ALE analyses and other CBMA methods. Combining the two modifications minimizes both within-experiment and within-group effects, optimizing the degree to which ALE values represent concordance of findings across independent reports.

  17. Unique lead adsorption behavior of activated hydroxyl group in two-dimensional titanium carbide.

    PubMed

    Peng, Qiuming; Guo, Jianxin; Zhang, Qingrui; Xiang, Jianyong; Liu, Baozhong; Zhou, Aiguo; Liu, Riping; Tian, Yongjun

    2014-03-19

    The functional groups and site interactions on the surfaces of two-dimensional (2D) layered titanium carbide can be tailored to attain some extraordinary physical properties. Herein a 2D alk-MXene (Ti3C2(OH/ONa)(x)F(2-x)) material, prepared by chemical exfoliation followed by alkalization intercalation, exhibits preferential Pb(II) sorption behavior when competing cations (Ca(II)/Mg(II)) coexisted at high levels. Kinetic tests show that the sorption equilibrium is achieved in as short a time as 120 s. Attractively, the alk-MXene presents efficient Pb(II) uptake performance with the applied sorption capacities of 4500 kg water per alk-MXene, and the effluent Pb(II) contents are below the drinking water standard recommended by the World Health Organization (10 μg/L). Experimental and computational studies suggest that the sorption behavior is related to the hydroxyl groups in activated Ti sites, where Pb(II) ion exchange is facilitated by the formation of a hexagonal potential trap.

  18. Two sulfhydryl groups near the active site of soybean beta-amylase.

    PubMed

    Mikami, B; Nomura, K; Morita, Y

    1994-01-01

    The less reactive SH groups of soybean beta-amylase, SH4, SH5, and SH6, were modified with p-chloromercuribenzoic acid or N-ethylmaleimide, after the reactive SH groups, SH1, SH2, and SH3, were blocked with 5,5'-dithiobis-(2-nitrobenzoic acid) and cyanide. The enzyme activity decreased, accompanied by the modification of SH4. alpha-Cyclodextrin protected SH4 from the modification more effectively than maltose. The SH4-modified enzyme still bound to glucose, maltose, and alpha-cyclodextrin. SH4 was concerned with neither the catalysis nor substrate binding but its large substituent affected the substrate binding site. The sequencing of the 5-(iodoacetoamidoethyl)-aminoaphthalene-1-sulfonate-labeled peptides showed that SH4, SH5, and SH6 are Cys343, Cys82, and Cys208, respectively. Comparison of the primary structure of beta-amylases also showed that the sequence around SH4 (Cys343), as well as SH2 (Cys95), is strongly conserved between higher plant and bacterial beta-amylases. These results agree with the structure model deduced from X-ray crystallography of soybean beta-amylase.

  19. Evaluation of Hylife-II and Sombrero using 175- and 566- group neutron transport and activation cross sections

    SciTech Connect

    Cullen, D; Latkowski, J; Sanz, J

    1999-06-18

    Recent modifications to the TART Monte Carlo neutron and photon transport code enable calculation of 566-group neutron spectra. This expanded group structure represents a significant improvement over the 50- and 175-group structures that have been previously available. To support use of this new capability, neutron activation cross section libraries have been created in the 175- and 566-group structures starting from the FENDL/A-2.0 pointwise data. Neutron spectra have been calculated for the first walls of the HYLIFE-II and SOMBRERO inertial fusion energy power plant designs and have been used in subsequent neutron activation calculations. The results obtained using the two different group structures are compared to each other as well as to those obtained using a 175-group version of the EAF3.1 activation cross section library.

  20. Exquisite Moments: Achieving Optimal Flow in Three Activity-Based Groups Regardless of Early-Childhood Adversity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomson, Paula; Jaque, S. Victoria

    2016-01-01

    Flow experiences (also known as optimal performance) occur when people engage in activities they enjoy. The authors discuss such events in their study that examined a number of healthy, active individuals (performing artists, athletes, and others engaged in a range of recreational activities) and divided these into three groups based on adverse…

  1. Group Intensive Cognitive Activation in Patients with Major or Mild Neurocognitive Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Panerai, Simonetta; Tasca, Domenica; Musso, Sabrina; Catania, Valentina; Ruggeri, Federica; Raggi, Alberto; Muratore, Stefano; Prestianni, Giuseppina; Bonforte, Cinzia; Ferri, Raffaele

    2016-01-01

    Background: No standard protocols are available for cognitive rehabilitation (CR) in conditions like Major or Mild Neurocognitive disorder (M-NCD or m-NCD, respectively); however, preliminary data seem to indicate that such interventions might have cost-effective beneficial effects and are free from side effect or adverse events. Three basic approaches are known: cognitive stimulation (CS), cognitive training (CT), and CR. Objective: Aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of a protocol of group intensive cognitive activation (g-ICA) in patients with both M-NCD and m-NCD; the protocol was specifically arranged in our Research Institute, based on the principles of the central role of the patient and the mediation pedagogy. Subjects and Methods: Sixteen patients with M-NCD and fifteen patients with m-NCD were enrolled, as well as eleven patients with M-NCD who were used as a control group (CG). The intervention was carried-out by a clinical neuropsychologist with daily group sessions over a period of 2 months. Neuropsychological assessment was performed at baseline and after the completion of the rehabilitative intervention. Results: General cognitive functioning, attention, ideomotor praxis and visual memory scores were found to be significantly increased in all patients. Beneficial and significant effects were also found for constructive praxis in M-NCD and for executive functioning in m-NCD. All areas of the language function were significantly ameliorated in m-NCD, while this happened only for verbal repetition and syntax-grammar comprehension in M-NCD. No changes were detected for long- and short-term verbal memory, which were found to be worsened in controls without activation. Conclusion: Our findings seem to indicate that g-ICA might be effective in inducing beneficial changes on the general cognitive functioning and other specific functions in patients with both m-NCD and M-NCD. Moreover, the specific protocol proposed, even if susceptible of important

  2. Activity targets for nanostructured platinum-group-metal-free catalysts in hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Setzler, Brian P.; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Wittkopf, Jarrid A.; Yan, Yushan

    2016-12-01

    Fuel cells are the zero-emission automotive power source that best preserves the advantages of gasoline automobiles: low upfront cost, long driving range and fast refuelling. To make fuel-cell cars a reality, the US Department of Energy has set a fuel cell system cost target of US$30 kW-1 in the long-term, which equates to US$2,400 per vehicle, excluding several major powertrain components (in comparison, a basic, but complete, internal combustion engine system costs approximately US$3,000). To date, most research for automotive applications has focused on proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), because these systems have demonstrated the highest power density. Recently, however, an alternative technology, hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMFCs), has gained significant attention, because of the possibility to use stable platinum-group-metal-free catalysts, with inherent, long-term cost advantages. In this Perspective, we discuss the cost profile of PEMFCs and the advantages offered by HEMFCs. In particular, we discuss catalyst development needs for HEMFCs and set catalyst activity targets to achieve performance parity with state-of-the-art automotive PEMFCs. Meeting these targets requires careful optimization of nanostructures to pack high surface areas into a small volume, while maintaining high area-specific activity and favourable pore-transport properties.

  3. Activity targets for nanostructured platinum-group-metal-free catalysts in hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells.

    PubMed

    Setzler, Brian P; Zhuang, Zhongbin; Wittkopf, Jarrid A; Yan, Yushan

    2016-12-06

    Fuel cells are the zero-emission automotive power source that best preserves the advantages of gasoline automobiles: low upfront cost, long driving range and fast refuelling. To make fuel-cell cars a reality, the US Department of Energy has set a fuel cell system cost target of US$30 kW(-1) in the long-term, which equates to US$2,400 per vehicle, excluding several major powertrain components (in comparison, a basic, but complete, internal combustion engine system costs approximately US$3,000). To date, most research for automotive applications has focused on proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs), because these systems have demonstrated the highest power density. Recently, however, an alternative technology, hydroxide exchange membrane fuel cells (HEMFCs), has gained significant attention, because of the possibility to use stable platinum-group-metal-free catalysts, with inherent, long-term cost advantages. In this Perspective, we discuss the cost profile of PEMFCs and the advantages offered by HEMFCs. In particular, we discuss catalyst development needs for HEMFCs and set catalyst activity targets to achieve performance parity with state-of-the-art automotive PEMFCs. Meeting these targets requires careful optimization of nanostructures to pack high surface areas into a small volume, while maintaining high area-specific activity and favourable pore-transport properties.

  4. Specialization of the DNA-Cleaving Activity of a Group I Ribozyme Through In Vitro Evolution

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsang, Joyce; Joyce, Gerald F.

    1996-01-01

    In an earlier study, an in vitro evolution procedure was applied to a large population of variants of the Tetrahymena group 1 ribozyme to obtain individuals with a 10(exp 5)-fold improved ability to cleave a target single-stranded DNA substrate under simulated physiological conditions. The evolved ribozymes also showed a twofold improvement, compared to the wild-type, in their ability to cleave a single-stranded RNA substrate. Here, we report continuation of the in vitro evolution process using a new selection strategy to achieve both enhanced DNA and diminished RNA-cleavage activity. Our strategy combines a positive selection for DNA cleavage with a negative selection against RNA binding. After 36 "generations" of in vitro evolution, the evolved population showed an approx. 100-fold increase in the ratio of DNA to RNA-cleavage activity. Site-directed mutagenesis experiment confirmed the selective advantage of two covarying mutations within the catalytic core of ribozyme that are largely responsible for this modified behavior. The population of ribozymes has now undergone a total of 63 successive generations of evolution, resulting in an average 28 mutations relative to the wild-type that are responsible for the altered phenotype.

  5. Gravity monitoring of Tatun Volcanic Group activities and inference for underground fluid circulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mouyen, Maxime; Chao, Benjamin Fong; Hwang, Cheinway; Hsieh, Wen-Chi

    2016-12-01

    The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG), located on the northern coast of Taiwan adjacent to the city of Taipei, experiences active hydrothermalism but has no historical record of volcanic eruption. Yet recent studies suggest that TVG is dormant-active rather than extinct. To monitor mass transfers and to gain further understanding of this volcanic area, gravity variations have been recorded continuously since 2012 using a superconducting gravimeter, and once every few months since 2005 using absolute gravimeters. We analyze the continuous gravity time series and propose a model that best explains the gravity variations due to local groundwater redistribution. By correcting these variations, we identify gravity changes as large as 35 μGal that occurred concomitantly to fluid pressure-induced earthquakes and changes in the gas composition at Dayoukeng, one of TVG's fumaroles, over 2005-2007. We examine several fluid movements that can match the gravity observations, yet too few additional constraints exist to favor any of them. In particular, no significant ground displacements are observed when these gravity variations occurred. On the other hand, the model of gravity changes due to local groundwater redistribution can be routinely computed and removed from the ongoing time gravity measurements in order to quickly identify any unusual mass transfer occurring beneath TVG.

  6. Adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy in Hyderabad, India: barriers, facilitators and identification of target groups.

    PubMed

    Dworkin, Mark S; Douglas, G W; Sabitha Rani, G P; Chakraborty, Apurba

    2016-03-01

    We assessed the barriers and facilitators to highly active antiretroviral therapy adherence and determined their prevalence among HIV/AIDS patients in Hyderabad, India. We conducted a cross-sectional study among HIV-infected adults prescribed highly active antiretroviral therapy and receiving care from nine clinics. Depression was screened using Patient Health Questionnaire 9 and facilitators of HIV medication adherence were assessed using an 11-item scale which yielded a total positive attitude to disease score. Prevalence ratios of non-adherence between different categories of potential risk factors were calculated. We compared mean 'facilitators to adherence' scores between the adherent and non-adherent population. Multivariable Poisson regression with robust variance was used to identify independent risk factors. Among the 211 respondents, nearly 20% were non-adherent, approximately 8% had either moderately severe or severe depression and mean score for combined facilitators to medication adherence was 33.35 (±7.88) out of a possible 44 points. Factors significantly associated with non-adherence included older age, female sex worker, moderate-to-severe depression and the combined facilitators to medication adherence score. These data from a broad range of clinical settings in Hyderabad reveal that key groups to focus on for adherence intervention are female sex workers, older persons and those with depression.

  7. Parents' and children's perceptions of active video games: a focus group study.

    PubMed

    Dixon, Robyn; Maddison, Ralph; Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Jull, Andrew; Meagher-Lundberg, Patricia; Widdowson, Deborah

    2010-06-01

    Energy expenditure studies have shown that playing Active Video Games (AVGs) is positively associated with increases in heart rate and oxygen consumption. It is proposed that playing AVGs may be a useful means of addressing inactivity and obesity in children. This study explored children's and parents' perceptions of AVGs and the likely facilitators and barriers to sustained use of AVGs. Data were gathered using focus group interviews: seven with children, four with adults. Both children and parents reported that AVGs offered a way to increase activity and improve fitness. Barriers to sustained engagement, according to parents, were the cost of AVGs and lack of space in the home to play the games. According to children, the likelihood of long-term engagement with AVGs depended on game content and child age, with AVGs being seen as more appropriate for younger children than teenagers. It would appear that there is potential for AVGs to reduce inactivity in young people. However, barriers to widespread, sustainable adoption would need to be addressed if this potential is to be realized.

  8. The challenge of "teaching" large groups of learners: strategies to increase active participation and learning.

    PubMed

    Nierenberg, D W

    1998-01-01

    While teaching in a tutorial, seminar, or problem-based learning group format may be the most fun and most active/interactive for both learner and faculty mentor, there are situations in medical student education in which various constraints require the use of the "lecture" format. Similar constraints may occur in the field of continuing medical education, or graduate medical education, as well. When this occurs, the faculty mentor can increase the active participation of the learners in the audience by continuously stressing seven key pedagogical (androgogical) principles. These include: 1) begin the learning exercise with a clinical example or anecdote to show the relevance of the material to the student; 2) frequently ask the students whether they have ever seen examples of what you describe in their previous experience with patients, personal experience, experience with relatives, etc.; 3) ask students frequently whether they have heard similar material presented differently in other courses; 4) recruit students to help solve "mystery cases"; 5) show examples of similar material from real life (e.g., patient descriptions, or even excerpts from favorite TV shows); 6) ask students to help summarize key points at the end of the session; and 7) allow, or even encourage, whispering during the class. Using some or all of these techniques can help turn a "lecture format" into a much more fun, interactive, and valuable session that emphasizes "learning" rather than "teaching."

  9. Working Group 1: Current plans of various organisations for lunar activities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Balsiger, H.; Pilcher, C.

    1994-01-01

    Summaries of presentations by representatives of several space agencies and the International Academy of Astronautics concerning lunar activities are presented. Participating space agencies reported two different types of lunar planning, long term planning and scenarios and lunar missions competing within regular programs. The long term plans of the various agencies look remarkably similar. They all involve a phased approach (coincidentally all incorporating four phases) and all address three prime scientific elements: science of, on, and from the Moon. The missions under consideration by the second group of agencies could readily fit as elements in the longer term program. There is great interest in lunar astronomy. There is a great deal of potential infrastructure and lunar transport capability already available. There is also a wide range of interesting technological developments that could form part of a lunar program. A well concerted and coordinated international effort could lead to an affordable program. Recommendations are: an international conference on lunar exploration should be held every other year; an electronic network should be established for the daily exchange of information; and a mechanism should be established for regular working level coordination of activities.

  10. Anatomically-adapted graph wavelets for improved group-level fMRI activation mapping.

    PubMed

    Behjat, Hamid; Leonardi, Nora; Sörnmo, Leif; Van De Ville, Dimitri

    2015-12-01

    A graph based framework for fMRI brain activation mapping is presented. The approach exploits the spectral graph wavelet transform (SGWT) for the purpose of defining an advanced multi-resolutional spatial transformation for fMRI data. The framework extends wavelet based SPM (WSPM), which is an alternative to the conventional approach of statistical parametric mapping (SPM), and is developed specifically for group-level analysis. We present a novel procedure for constructing brain graphs, with subgraphs that separately encode the structural connectivity of the cerebral and cerebellar gray matter (GM), and address the inter-subject GM variability by the use of template GM representations. Graph wavelets tailored to the convoluted boundaries of GM are then constructed as a means to implement a GM-based spatial transformation on fMRI data. The proposed approach is evaluated using real as well as semi-synthetic multi-subject data. Compared to SPM and WSPM using classical wavelets, the proposed approach shows superior type-I error control. The results on real data suggest a higher detection sensitivity as well as the capability to capture subtle, connected patterns of brain activity.

  11. Theory of divalent main group H2 activation: electronics and quasiclassical trajectories.

    PubMed

    Devarajan, Deepa; Doubleday, Charles E; Ess, Daniel H

    2013-08-05

    Density functional theory (DFT), absolutely localized molecular orbital (ALMO) analysis, and quasiclassical trajectories (QCTs) were used to study the structure, barrier heights, thermodynamics, electronic properties, and dynamics of dihydrogen (H2) activation by singlet divalent main group compounds (ER2; E = C, Si, Ge). ALMO energy and charge decomposition calculations reveal that in the transition state CR2 acts as an ambiphile toward H2 because of equal forward-bonding and back-bonding orbital stabilization while SiR2 and GeR2 act as nucleophiles with dominant orbital energy stabilization arising from ER2 to H2 donation. Frontier molecular orbital (FMO) energy gaps do not provide a reasonable estimate of energy stabilization gained between the ER2 and H2 in the transition state or an accurate description of the nucleophilic versus electrophilic character because of electron repulsion and orbital overlap influences that are neglected. In CR2 transition states, forward-bonding and back-bonding are maximized in the nonleast motion geometry. In contrast, SiR2/GeR2 transition states have side-on geometries to avoid electron-electron repulsion. Electron repulsion, rather than orbital interactions, also determines the relative barrier heights of CR2 versus SiR2/GeR2 reactions. Examination of barrier heights and reaction energies shows a clear kinetic-thermodynamic relationship for ER2 activation of H2. A computational survey of R groups on ER2 divalent atom centers was performed to explore the possibility for H2 activation to occur with a low barrier and thermodynamically reversible. QCTs show that dihydrogen approach and reaction with CR2 may involve geometries significantly different than the static transition-state structure. In contrast, trajectories for dihydrogen addition to SiR2 involve geometries close to the side-on approach suggested by the static transition-state structure. QCTs also demonstrate that addition of H2 to CR2 and SiR2 is dynamically concerted

  12. [Phytase activity in some groups of bacteria. Search for and cloning of genes for bacterial phytases].

    PubMed

    Shedova, E N; Berezina, O V; Khmel', I A; Lipasova, V A; Borriss, R; Velikodvorskaia, G A

    2004-01-01

    A search for phytase genes in 9 Bacillus strains from the collection of IMGAN was implemented. The growth optimum of strains IX-22, IX-12B, K17-2, K18, IMG I, IMG II, M4 and M8 was 50-60 degrees C; the optimal growth temperature for Bacillus sp. 790 was 45-47 degrees C. According to the sequence data of 16S RNA genes, Bacillus sp. 790 belongs to the B. subtilis/amyloliquefaciens group. The other 8 strains were identified as B. licheniformis. Selection of Bacillus strains, potentially containing the phytase genes, was performed via PCR with primers designed on the basis of the conserved sequence regions of the phyA gene from B. amyloliquefaciens FZB45 with chromosomal DNA being used as the template. The nucleotide sequences of all PCR fragments showed a high level of homology to the known Bacillus phytase genes. The gene libraries of B. licheniformis M8 and B. amyloliquefaciens 790 in E. coli were constructed and phytase-containing clones were selected from them. Twenty-four Pseudomonas strains of different species, 5 Xanthomonas maltophilia strains and 1 Xanthomonas malvacearum (all from the mentioned collection) were tested for phytase activity. Such activity was found in 13 Pseudomonas strains and in 6 Xanthomonas strains. The accumulation of phytase in Pseudomonas was shown to take place at later (over 2 days') growth stages. The optimum pH for phytase from 3 Pseudomonas strains were established. The enzymes were found to be most active at pH 5.5.

  13. Seismicity characteristics of a potentially active Quaternary volcano: The Tatun Volcano Group, northern Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konstantinou, Konstantinos I.; Lin, Cheng-Horng; Liang, Wen-Tzong

    2007-02-01

    The Tatun Volcano Group (TVG) is located at the northern tip of Taiwan, near the capital Taipei and close to two nuclear power plants. Because of lack of any activity in historical times it has been classified as an extinct volcano, even though more recent studies suggest that TVG might have been active during the last 20 ka. In May 2003 a seismic monitoring project at the TVG area was initiated by deploying eight three-component seismic stations some of them equipped with both short-period and broadband sensors. During the 18 months observation period local seismicity mainly consisted of high frequency earthquakes either occurring as isolated events, or as a continuous sequence in the form of spasmodic bursts. Mixed and low frequency events were also present during the same period, even though they occurred only rarely. Arrival times from events with clear P-/S-wave phases were inverted in order to obtain a minimum 1D velocity model with station corrections. Probabilistic nonlinear earthquake locations were calculated for all these events using the newly derived velocity model. Most high frequency seismicity appeared to be concentrated near the areas of hydrothermal activity, forming tight clusters at depths shallower than 4 km. Relative locations, calculated using the double-difference method and utilising catalogue and cross-correlation differential traveltimes, showed insignificant differences when compared to the nonlinear probabilistic locations. In general, seismicity in the TVG area seems to be primarily driven by circulation of hydrothermal fluids as indicated by the occurrence of spasmodic bursts, mixed/low frequency events and a b-value (1.17 ± 0.1) higher than in any other part of Taiwan. These observations, that are similar to those reported in other dormant Quaternary volcanoes, indicate that a magma chamber may still exist beneath TVG and that a future eruption or period of unrest should not be considered unlikely.

  14. Natural variation in 210Po and 210Pb activity concentrations in the urine of Finnish population groups.

    PubMed

    Muikku, Maarit; Heikkinen, Tarja; Solatie, Dina; Vesterbacka, Pia

    2011-11-01

    A study to determine activity concentrations of (210)Pb and (210)Po in the urine of certain Finnish population groups was conducted, to investigate the variation in natural background level of urinary excretion. The study participants were divided into three groups mainly based on their diet. The first group comprised recreational fishermen and the second group represented people consuming more reindeer meat than an average Finn, while people using drinking water with very high activity concentrations of (210)Po were selected for the third group. The fourth group was a control group. The mean urinary excretion of (210)Po in groups 1 and 2 was 73 and 100 mBq d(-1), respectively. These values were higher than the value of the control group (20 mBq d(-1)) and the mean values reported in the literature. The mean daily urinary excretion of (210)Pb in groups 1 and 2, 70 and 52 mBq d(-1), was also slightly higher than that in the control group (32 mBq d(-1)). In contrast, the excretion rates of both (210)Po and (210)Pb for the members of group 3 were one to two orders of magnitude higher than those reported in the literature. This was clearly due to the elevated levels of natural radionuclides in their drinking water. The present study demonstrates the importance of possessing good knowledge of the background levels, in order to allow the determination of the additional exposure due, for example, to the malevolent use of radiation.

  15. Structure-activity relationships of nonisomerizable derivatives of tamoxifen: importance of hydroxyl group and side chain positioning for biological activity.

    PubMed

    Murphy, C S; Parker, C J; McCague, R; Jordan, V C

    1991-03-01

    The antiestrogen tamoxifen [(Z)-1(p-beta-dimethylaminoethoxy-phenyl)-1,2-diphenylbut-1-ene] is an effective anticancer agent against estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. The alkylaminoethane side chain is essential for antiestrogenic activity, but the potency of the antiestrogen can be increased by para hydroxylation of the phenyl ring on carbon 1 of but-1-ene. This compound, 4-hydroxytamoxifen, is a metabolite of tamoxifen and has a very high binding affinity for ER [J. Endocrinol. 75:305-316 (1977)] because the hydroxyl is located in the equivalent position as the 3-phenolic hydroxyl of 17 beta-estradiol. In this study, we have examined the relationship between the relative positions of the hydroxyl and the alkyl-aminoethane side chain and the pharmacological activity of the ligand. A fixed seven-membered ring derivative of the triphenylethylene was used to prevent isomerization. All compounds were tested, with and without 17 beta-estradiol, for their effects on the growth of estrogen-responsive T47D and MCF-7 human breast cancer cells in vitro. The growth of MDA-MB-231 ER-negative breast cancer cells was not affected by any of the compounds tested, at a concentration (1 microM) that had a profound estrogenic or antiestrogenic action in ER-positive cell lines. The relative binding affinity of the compounds was determined using rat uterine ER and was found to be consistent with the observed potencies in vitro. The compounds found to be antiestrogens in vitro were antiestrogenic against estradiol (0.08 micrograms daily) in the 3-day immature rat uterine weight test. All compounds were partial agonists in vivo. In general, the estrogenic and antiestrogenic results obtained in vivo were consistent with the potency estimates obtained with the breast cancer cells in vitro. The results of this extensive structure-activity relationship study demonstrate that the substitution for 4-hydroxytamoxifen appears to be optimal to produce a potent antiestrogen; all

  16. Promoting healthy diets and active lives to hard-to-reach groups: market research study.

    PubMed

    White, S L; Maloney, S K

    1990-01-01

    Continued progress over the next decade in reducing premature morbidity and mortality from chronic disease will require that health communication efforts target a significant proportion of the American public that has not been influenced by the health promotion efforts of the 1980s. Focus groups conducted with members of the hard-to-reach American public showed that while being healthy seemed to be important to participants, and they were generally aware of what to do to stay healthy, they had a different operational definition of health than that used in health promotion programs. Participants seemed to believe that better health behaviors would build their resistance to acute illnesses, that is, keep them healthy, but that chronic diseases, such as cancer and diabetes, were due to fate and heredity and beyond their individual control. The focus group results show that participants had not made the link between chronic disease prevention and the importance of diet, exercise, and weight control. Although most of them seemed to express a genuine interest in "doing better," they were not able to supply more than superficial examples of how such changes might be made. Surprisingly, there were more similarities than differences in participants' attitudes and beliefs, with the similarities cutting across boundaries of race-ethnicity, age, and sex. Interest in changing behaviors was only slightly more pronounced among female rather than male, and older rather than younger, participants. However, there was not much evidence from the participants that they were actively seeking health information or trying to reconcile conflicting knowledge and beliefs.

  17. Rh(III)-catalyzed synthesis of sultones through C-H activation directed by a sulfonic acid group.

    PubMed

    Qi, Zisong; Wang, Mei; Li, Xingwei

    2014-09-04

    A new rhodium-catalyzed synthesis of sultones via the oxidative coupling of sulfonic acids with internal alkynes is described. The reaction proceeds via aryl C-H activation assisted by a sulfonic acid group.

  18. Evaluation of Work Place Group and Internet Based Physical Activity Interventions on Psychological Variables Associated with Exercise Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Dawson, Kimberley A.; Tracey, Jill; Berry, Tanya

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research was to compare group-based and internet-based physical activity interventions in terms of desirability, participant characteristics, exercise self-efficacy, and barrier self-efficacy. Pretest questionnaires were completed prior to voluntary enrollment into either of the ten-week physical activity interventions. Both interventions were based on Social Cognitive Theory and the Transtheoretical Model. Interventions were followed with posttest questionnaires. Results demonstrated that the internet intervention attracted more participants, but only the group-based participants showed significant increases in exercise and barrier self-efficacy. At pretest, participants who selected the internet intervention were significantly lower in life and job satisfaction than those who selected the group intervention. Results suggest that traditional group-based exercise interventions are helpful for improving cognitions associated with exercise behavior change (e.g., exercise self-efficacy) and that the internet intervention may help employees who fall into an “unhappy employee ”typology. Key pointsGroup-based physical activity interventions are capable of improving exercise self-efficacy and barrier self-efficacy.At pretest, participants who selected the internet physical activity intervention were significantly lower in job and life satisfaction than those who selected the group-intervention.While the internet intervention attracted more participants, the group-based physical activity intervention was more successful at changing cognitions associated with successful exercise behavior change. PMID:24149963

  19. Evaluation Tools to Guide Students' Peer-Assessment and Self-Assessment in Group Activities for the Lab and Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wenzel, Thomas J.

    2007-01-01

    Evaluation tools are provided that help students' peer-assessment and self-assessment in group activities for the laboratories and classroom. The self- and peer-evaluations have helped teachers provide better feedback to the students and feel more confident in assigning each individual a grade for their contribution to the group laboratory project.

  20. Collaborative Learning in an Online Course: A Comparison of Communication Patterns in Small and Whole Group Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jahng, Namsook; Nielsen, Wendy S.; Chan, Eric K. H.

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the investigation of collaborative learning processes in an online course that examined students' communication during whole-group discussions and small-group activities. Content analysis and social network analysis methods were employed to code and categorize text messages to uncover students' communication behaviour. The…

  1. Supporting Active Learning in an Undergraduate Geotechnical Engineering Course Using Group-Based Audience Response Systems Quizzes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donohue, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The use of audience response systems (ARSs) or "clickers" in higher education has increased over the recent years, predominantly owing to their ability to actively engage students, for promoting individual and group learning, and for providing instantaneous feedback to students and teachers. This paper describes how group-based ARS…

  2. Sport and Physical Activity in the Lives of Looked-After Children: A "Hidden Group" in Research, Policy and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quarmby, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Looked-after children are arguably one of the most disadvantaged groups in society and constitute a "hidden group" in relation to sport and physical activity research, policy and practice. Research on looked-after children has explored the views of caregivers, practitioners and policy-makers who have often been asked to speak for…

  3. Group Dynamics in the Language Classroom: Embodied Participation as Active Reception in the Collective Zone of Proximal Development

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van Compernolle, Rémi A.; Williams, Lawrence

    2013-01-01

    This article explores the notion of "active reception" during small-group collaborative interaction in the foreign language classroom, focusing on the embodied participation of a secondary (nonspeaking) interactant, Diane. Drawing on Vygotskian sociocultural theory, we argue that within small-group work, a Zone of Proximal Development…

  4. Functional co-activation within the prefrontal cortex supports the maintenance of behavioural performance in fear-relevant situations before an iTBS modulated virtual reality challenge in participants with spider phobia.

    PubMed

    Deppermann, S; Notzon, S; Kroczek, A; Rosenbaum, D; Haeussinger, F B; Diemer, J; Domschke, K; Fallgatter, A J; Ehlis, A-C; Zwanzger, P

    2016-07-01

    A number of studies/meta-analyses reported moderate antidepressant effects of activating repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) over the prefrontal cortex (PFC). Regarding the treatment of anxiety, study outcomes are inconsistent, probably because of the heterogenity of anxiety disorders/study designs. To specifically evaluate the impact of rTMS on emotion regulation in fear-relevant situations we applied a sham-controlled activating protocol (intermittent Theta Burst Stimulation/iTBS) over the left PFC (F3) succeeded by a virtual reality (VR) challenge in n=41 participants with spider phobia and n=42 controls. Prior to/after iTBS and following VR prefrontal activation was assessed by functional near-infrared spectroscopy during an emotional Stroop paradigm. Performance (reaction times/error rates) was evaluated. Stimuli were rated regarding valence/arousal at both measurements. We found diminished activation in the left inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) of participants with spider phobia compared to controls, particularly elicited by emotionally-irrelevant words. Simultaneously, a functional connectivity analysis showed increased co-activation between the left IFG and the contra-lateral hemisphere. Behavioural performance was unimpaired. After iTBS/VR no significant differences in cortical activation between the phobic and control group remained. However, verum-iTBS did not cause an additional augmentation. We interpreted our results in terms of a prefrontal network which gets activated by emotionally-relevant stimuli and supports the maintenance of adequate behavioural reactions. The missing add-on effects of iTBS might be due to a ceiling effect of VR, thereby supporting its potential during exposure therapy. Concurrently, it implies that the efficient application of iTBS in the context of emotion regulation still needs to be studied further.

  5. Ionization behavior, stoichiometry of association, and accessibility of functional groups in the active layers of reverse osmosis and nanofiltration membranes.

    PubMed

    Coronell, Orlando; González, Mari I; Mariñas, Benito J; Cahill, David G

    2010-09-01

    We characterized the fully aromatic polyamide (PA) active layers of six commercial reverse osmosis (RO) and nanofiltration (NF) membranes and found that in contrast to their similar elemental composition, total concentration of functional groups, and degree of polymerization, the ionization behavior and spatial distribution of carboxylic (R-COOH) groups within the active layers can be significantly different. We also studied the steric effects experienced by barium ion (Ba2+) in the active layers by determining the fraction of carboxylate (R-COO-) groups accessible to Ba2+; such fraction, referred to as the accessibility ratio (AR), was found to vary within the range AR=0.40-0.81, and to be generally independent of external solution pH. Additionally, we studied an NF membrane with a sulfonated polyethersulfone (SPES) active layer, and found that the concentration of sulfonate (R-SO3-) groups in the active layer was 1.67 M, independent of external solution pH and approximately three times higher than the maximum concentration (approximately 0.45+/-0.25 M) of R-COO- groups in PA active layers. The R-SO3- groups were found to be highly accessible to Ba2+ (AR=0.95+/-0.01).

  6. Increased cytotoxicity and streptolysin O activity in group G streptococcal strains causing invasive tissue infections

    PubMed Central

    Siemens, Nikolai; Kittang, Bård R.; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Oppegaard, Oddvar; Johansson, Linda; Bruun, Trond; Mylvaganam, Haima; Arnell, Per; Hyldegaard, Ole; Nekludov, Michael; Karlsson, Ylva; Svensson, Mattias; Skrede, Steiner; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2015-01-01

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has emerged as an important cause of severe skin and soft tissue infections, but little is known of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying tissue pathology. Patient samples and a collection of invasive and non-invasive group G SDSE strains (n = 69) were analyzed with respect to virulence factor expression and cytotoxic or inflammatory effects on human cells and 3D skin tissue models. SDSE strains efficiently infected the 3D-skin model and severe tissue pathology, inflammatory responses and altered production of host structural framework proteins associated with epithelial barrier integrity were evident already at 8 hours post-infection. Invasive strains were significantly more cytotoxic towards keratinocytes and expressed higher Streptokinase and Streptolysin O (SLO) activities, as compared to non-invasive strains. The opposite was true for Streptolysin S (SLS). Fractionation and proteomic analysis of the cytotoxic fractions implicated SLO as a factor likely contributing to the keratinocyte cytotoxicity and tissue pathology. Analyses of patient tissue biopsies revealed massive bacterial load, high expression of slo, as well as immune cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory markers. Our findings suggest the contribution of SLO to epithelial cytotoxicity and tissue pathology in SDSE tissue infections. PMID:26601609

  7. Current activities and results of the Long Duration Exposure Facility Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Leago, Kimberly S.; Warren, Jack L.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Zolensky, Michael E.

    1994-01-01

    Fiscal Year 1994 will bring to a close the initial investigative activities associated with the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF). LDEF was a 14-faced spacecraft (i.e., 12-sided cylinder and two ends) which housed 54 different experimental packages in low-Earth orbit (LEO) from Apr. 1984 to Jan. 1990 (i.e., for approx. 5.75 years). Since LDEF's return, the Meteoroid & Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) has been examining various LDEF components in order to better understand and define the LEO particulate environment. Members of the M&D SIG at JSC in Houston, TX have been contributing to these studies by carefully examining and documenting all impact events found on LDEF's 6061-T6 aluminum Intercostals (i.e., one of the spacecraft's structural frame components). Unlike all other hardware on LDEF, the frame exposed significantly large surface areas of a single homogeneous material in all (i.e., 26) possible LDEF pointing directions. To date, 28 of the 68 Intercostals in the possession of the M&D SIG have been documented. This data, as well as similar information from various LDEF investigators, can be accessed through the M&D SIG Database which is maintained at JSC.

  8. LDEF meteoroid and debris special investigation group investigations and activities at the Johnson Space Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    See, Thomas H.; Warren, Jack L.; Zolensky, Michael E.; Sapp, Clyde A.; Bernhard, Ronald P.; Dardano, Claire B.

    1995-01-01

    Since the return of the Long Duration Exposure Facility (LDEF) in January, 1990, members of the Meteoroid and Debris Special Investigation Group (M&D SIG) at the Johnson Space Center (JSC) in Houston, Texas have been examining LDEF hardware in an effort to expand the knowledge base regarding the low-Earth orbit (LEO) particulate environment. In addition to the various investigative activities, JSC is also the location of the general Meteoroid & Debris database. This publicly accessible database contains information obtained from the various M&D SIG investigations, as well as limited data obtained by individual LDEF Principal Investigators. LDEF exposed approximately 130 m(exp 2) of surface area to the LEO particulate environment, approximately 15.4 m(exp 2) of which was occupied by structural frame components (i.e., longerons and intercoastals) of the spacecraft. The data reported here was obtained as a result of detailed scans of LDEF intercoastals, 68 of which reside at JSC. The limited amount of data presently available on the A0178 thermal control blankets was reported last year and will not be reiterated here. The data presented here are limited to measurements of crater diameters and their frequency of occurrence (i.e., flux).

  9. Group A Streptococcal M1 Protein Provides Resistance against the Antimicrobial Activity of Histones

    PubMed Central

    Döhrmann, Simon; LaRock, Christopher N.; Anderson, Ericka L.; Cole, Jason N.; Ryali, Brinda; Stewart, Chelsea; Nonejuie, Poochit; Pogliano, Joe; Corriden, Ross; Ghosh, Partho; Nizet, Victor

    2017-01-01

    Histones are essential elements of chromatin structure and gene regulation in eukaryotes. An unexpected attribute of these nuclear proteins is their antimicrobial activity. A framework for histone release and function in host defense in vivo was revealed with the discovery of neutrophil extracellular traps, a specialized cell death process in which DNA-based structures containing histones are extruded to ensnare and kill bacteria. Investigating the susceptibility of various Gram-positive pathogens to histones, we found high-level resistance by one leading human pathogen, group A Streptococcus (GAS). A screen of isogenic mutants revealed that the highly surface-expressed M1 protein, a classical GAS virulence factor, was required for high-level histone resistance. Biochemical and microscopic analyses revealed that the N-terminal domain of M1 protein binds and inactivates histones before they reach their cell wall target of action. This finding illustrates a new pathogenic function for this classic GAS virulence factor, and highlights a potential innate immune evasion strategy that may be employed by other bacterial pathogens. PMID:28220899

  10. Synthesis, characterization, investigation of biological activity and theoretical studies of hydrazone compounds containing choloroacetyl group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cukurovali, Alaaddin; Yilmaz, Engin

    2014-10-01

    In this study, three new hydrazide-hydrazone derivative compounds which contain choloroacetyl group have been synthesized and characterized. In the characterization, spectral techniques such as IR, 1H NMR, 13C NMR and UV-Vis spectroscopy techniques were used. Antibacterial effects of the synthesized compounds were investigated against Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Enterococcus faecalis ATCC 29212, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 and Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853. In the theoretical calculations Gaussian 09 software was used with the DFT/6-311+(d,p) basis set. Experimental X-ray analysis of compounds has not been studied. Theoretical bond lengths of synthesized compounds were compared with experimental bond lengths of a similar compound. Theoretical and experimental bond lengths are in good agreement with R2: 0.896, 0.899 and 0.900 for compounds 1, 2, and 3, respectively. For antibacterial activity, the most effective one was found to be N‧-(4-bromobenzylidene)-2-chloro-N-(4-(3-methyl-3-phenylcyclobutyl)-thiazol-2-yl) acetohydrazide against P.aeroginaosa ATTC 27853, among the studied compounds.

  11. Increased cytotoxicity and streptolysin O activity in group G streptococcal strains causing invasive tissue infections.

    PubMed

    Siemens, Nikolai; Kittang, Bård R; Chakrakodi, Bhavya; Oppegaard, Oddvar; Johansson, Linda; Bruun, Trond; Mylvaganam, Haima; Svensson, Mattias; Skrede, Steiner; Norrby-Teglund, Anna

    2015-11-25

    Streptococcus dysgalactiae subsp. equisimilis (SDSE) has emerged as an important cause of severe skin and soft tissue infections, but little is known of the pathogenic mechanisms underlying tissue pathology. Patient samples and a collection of invasive and non-invasive group G SDSE strains (n = 69) were analyzed with respect to virulence factor expression and cytotoxic or inflammatory effects on human cells and 3D skin tissue models. SDSE strains efficiently infected the 3D-skin model and severe tissue pathology, inflammatory responses and altered production of host structural framework proteins associated with epithelial barrier integrity were evident already at 8 hours post-infection. Invasive strains were significantly more cytotoxic towards keratinocytes and expressed higher Streptokinase and Streptolysin O (SLO) activities, as compared to non-invasive strains. The opposite was true for Streptolysin S (SLS). Fractionation and proteomic analysis of the cytotoxic fractions implicated SLO as a factor likely contributing to the keratinocyte cytotoxicity and tissue pathology. Analyses of patient tissue biopsies revealed massive bacterial load, high expression of slo, as well as immune cell infiltration and pro-inflammatory markers. Our findings suggest the contribution of SLO to epithelial cytotoxicity and tissue pathology in SDSE tissue infections.

  12. Volcanic activity observed from continuous seismic records in the region of the Klyuchevskoy group of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, N.; Droznin, D.; Droznina, S.; Senyukov, S.; Chebrov, V.; Gordeev, E.; Frank, W.

    2014-12-01

    We analyze continuous seismic records from 18 permanent stations operated in vicinity of the Klyuchevskoy group of volcanos (Kamchatka, Russia) during the period between 2009 and 2014. We explore the stability of the inter-station cross-correlation to detect different periods of sustained emission from seismic energy. The main idea of this approach is that cross-correlation waveforms computed from a wavefield emitted by a seismic source from a fixed position remain stable during the period when this source is acting. The detected periods of seismic emission correspond to different episodes of activity of volcanoes: Klyuchevskoy, Tolbachik, Shiveluch, and Kizimen. For Klyuchevskoy and Tolbachik whose recent eruptions are mostly effusive, the detected seismic signals correspond to typical volcanic tremor, likely caused by degassing processes. For Shiveluch and Kizimen producing more silicic lavas, the observed seismic emission often consists of many repetitive long period (LP) seismic events that might be related to the extrusion of viscous magmas. We develop an approach for automatic detection of these individual LP events in order to characterize variations of their size and recurrence in time.

  13. Volcanic activity observed from continuous seismic records in the region of the Klyuchevskoy group of volcanoes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shapiro, N.; Droznin, D.; Droznina, S.; Senyukov, S.; Chebrov, V.; Gordeev, E.; Frank, W.

    2015-12-01

    We analyze continuous seismic records from 18 permanent stations operated in vicinity of the Klyuchevskoy group of volcanos (Kamchatka, Russia) during the period between 2009 and 2014. We explore the stability of the inter-station cross-correlation to detect different periods of sustained emission from seismic energy. The main idea of this approach is that cross-correlation waveforms computed from a wavefield emitted by a seismic source from a fixed position remain stable during the period when this source is acting. The detected periods of seismic emission correspond to different episodes of activity of volcanoes: Klyuchevskoy, Tolbachik, Shiveluch, and Kizimen. For Klyuchevskoy and Tolbachik whose recent eruptions are mostly effusive, the detected seismic signals correspond to typical volcanic tremor, likely caused by degassing processes. For Shiveluch and Kizimen producing more silicic lavas, the observed seismic emission often consists of many repetitive long period (LP) seismic events that might be related to the extrusion of viscous magmas. We develop an approach for automatic detection of these individual LP events in order to characterize variations of their size and recurrence in time.

  14. 77 FR 28894 - Agency Information Collection Activities: Collection of Qualitative Feedback Through Focus Groups

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-16

    ... Qualitative Feedback Through Focus Groups ACTION: 30-Day Notice of Information Collection for Office of... sure to add ``1615-NEW, Collection of Qualitative Feedback through Focus Groups'' in the subject box...: Collection of Qualitative Feedback through Focus Groups. (3) Agency form number, if any, and the...

  15. 76 FR 72997 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... during a scheduled meeting on October 6-7, 2011. The ETF II has formed two additional Task Groups to work... regulatory language to the Passenger Safety Working Group at the September 16, 2010, meeting. More work... Safety Task Group has produced draft regulatory language for a System Safety Rule, but further work...

  16. Invented Spelling Activities in Small Groups and Early Spelling and Reading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Margarida Alves; Salvador, Liliana; Albuquerque, Ana; Silva, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    Our aim was to assess the impact of an invented spelling programme conducted in small groups on children's written language acquisition in Portuguese. We expected the experimental group to have better post-test results than the control group in spelling and reading. Participants were 160 preschool-age children who were randomly divided into an…

  17. Activity budget, diet, and use of space by two groups of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus) in eastern Amazonia.

    PubMed

    Pinheiro, Tatyana; Ferrari, Stephen F; Lopes, Maria Aparecida

    2013-07-01

    Squirrel monkeys (Saimiri spp.) are widely distributed in the Amazon basin. This study describes the ecological and behavioral patterns of two social groups of S. sciureus in forests adjacent to the Tucuruí hydroelectric reservoir in eastern Amazonia, including range size, activity budgets, and composition of the diet. The groups were monitored at Base 4 (group B4) and Germoplasma Island (group GI). Quantitative behavioral data were collected using instantaneous scan sampling to record behavior, substrate use, and height. Home ranges were delimited using a GPS to determine group position after each 50 m of movement. Home ranges were 75.0 ha for group B4 (39 members) and 77.5 ha for group GI (32 members). The use of vertical strata was well defined, with a marked preference for the middle and lower levels of the canopy. The activity budgets of both groups were typical of those of other squirrel monkeys and were dominated by foraging (B4 = 48.7 %; GI = 49.6 %), moving (both groups 28.9 %), and feeding (B4 = 14.6 %; GI = 12.4 %). Resting was rare (B4 = 3.5 %; GI = 2.6 %) and less common than social behavior (B4 = 4.3 %; GI = 6.4 %). The diet of both groups was dominated by plant material (B4 = 70.7 % of feeding records; GI = 71.4 %), which is in contrast with the more insectivorous diets recorded for Saimiri at other sites. Group GI spent more time foraging during the dry season, whereas group B4 spent more time in the rainy season when the consumption of fruit increased (significantly, in the case of group GI). The less insectivorous diet of these groups may be due to a number of factors, including the unique habitat configuration at the site and reduced hydrological stress due to the proximity of the reservoir.

  18. The Role of Praise and Worship Activities in Spiritual Well-Being: Perceptions of a Pentecostal Youth Ministry Group

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tshabalala, Bhekani G.; Patel, Cynthia J.

    2010-01-01

    The present study explores the role of "praise and worship" activities in the spiritual well-being of a select group of Pentecostal youth. Forty youth members completed an adapted version of the Spiritual Well-being Scale (SWBS) and a questionnaire. In addition to ranking "praise and worship" activities, they were asked about the roles that…

  19. 38 CFR 3.7 - Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... considered to have performed active military, naval, or air service. 3.7 Section 3.7 Pensions, Bonuses, and... Indemnity Compensation General § 3.7 Individuals and groups considered to have performed active military... military, naval, or air service: (a) Aerial transportation of mail (Pub. L. 140, 73d Congress). Persons...

  20. The Pervasive Problem With Placebos in Psychology: Why Active Control Groups Are Not Sufficient to Rule Out Placebo Effects.

    PubMed

    Boot, Walter R; Simons, Daniel J; Stothart, Cary; Stutts, Cassie

    2013-07-01

    To draw causal conclusions about the efficacy of a psychological intervention, researchers must compare the treatment condition with a control group that accounts for improvements caused by factors other than the treatment. Using an active control helps to control for the possibility that improvement by the experimental group resulted from a placebo effect. Although active control groups are superior to "no-contact" controls, only when the active control group has the same expectation of improvement as the experimental group can we attribute differential improvements to the potency of the treatment. Despite the need to match expectations between treatment and control groups, almost no psychological interventions do so. This failure to control for expectations is not a minor omission-it is a fundamental design flaw that potentially undermines any causal inference. We illustrate these principles with a detailed example from the video-game-training literature showing how the use of an active control group does not eliminate expectation differences. The problem permeates other interventions as well, including those targeting mental health, cognition, and educational achievement. Fortunately, measuring expectations and adopting alternative experimental designs makes it possible to control for placebo effects, thereby increasing confidence in the causal efficacy of psychological interventions.

  1. The structure-anticoagulant activity relationships of sulfated lacquer polysaccharide: effect of carboxyl group and position of sulfation.

    PubMed

    Yang, Jianhong; Du, Yumin; Huang, Ronghua; Wan, Yunyang; Wen, Yan

    2005-07-01

    Regiospecific oxidation of the primary hydroxyl groups in lacquer polysaccharide (LPL, Mw 6.85 x 10(4)) and its NaIO4 oxidation derivatives (LPLde) to C-6 carboxy groups was achieved with NaOCl in the presence of Tempo and NaBr. Sulfate groups were incorporated into the oxidated polysaccharides using Py.SO3 complex as a reagent. Reactivity of polysaccharide hydroxyl group was C-6 > C-2 > C-4. Sulfate groups were mainly linked to the second hydroxy at C-2 in the products. The results of APTT assay showed after incorporation of carboxyl groups into lacquer polysaccharides, the intrinsic coagulation pathway was promoted, and all sulfated polysaccharides had very weak anticoagulant activity within the scope of studied DS (0.39-1.11). These indicated that carboxyl groups and sulfate groups had the synergistic action. At the same time, the anticoagulant activity increased very slowly with the DS in the second hydroxy. This indicated that 6-O-SO3- in the side chains took an important role in the anticoagulant activity.

  2. rTMS: A Treatment to Restore Function After Severe TBI

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    measured as Neuropsychological attention test measures, Functional Measures, Symptom Measures and Neurophysiological Measures between baseline and after...cohort of Veterans with Parkinson’s Disease using neuropsychological tests and resting state functional connectivity. Identify a neural therapeutic...mail.mil; Phone #301-619-4063 Aim I will determine immediate effects of Active APT-III + Active iTBS on neuropsychological measures of attention

  3. Antitumor activities and interaction with DNA of oxaliplatin-type platinum complexes with linear or branched alkoxyacetates as leaving groups.

    PubMed

    Yin, Runting; Gou, Shaohua; Liu, Xia; Lou, Liguang

    2011-08-01

    Five oxaliplatin-typed platinum complexes containing trans-1R, 2R-diaminocyclohexane chelating platinum cores, characteristic of linear or branched alkoxycarboxylates as leaving groups, were biologically evaluated. These compounds showed higher antitumor activity, lower toxicity in vivo than cisplatin or oxaliplatin. And the results revealed that the antitumor activity and interaction with DNA of these compounds were highly related to the nature of leaving groups. Among these complexes, 5a, cis-(trans-1R, 2R-diaminocyclohexane) bis (2-tert-butoxyacetate) platinum(II), showed the highest antitumor activity and the lowest toxicity.

  4. Making a difference: Ten case studies of DSM/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities

    SciTech Connect

    English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J.; Schweitzer, M.

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses the activities of organizations that seek to promote integrated resource planning and aggressive, cost-effective demand-side management by utilities. The activities of such groups -- here called energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) -- are examined in ten detailed am studies. Nine of the cases involve some form of interactive effort between investor-owned electric utilities and non-utility to develop policies, plans, or programs cooperatively. Many but not all of the interactive efforts examined are formal collaboratives. In addition, all ten cases include discussion of other EEAG activities, such as coalition-building, research, participation in statewide energy planning, and intervention in regulatory proceedings.

  5. Group III alcohol dehydrogenase from Pectobacterium atrosepticum: insights into enzymatic activity and organization of the metal ion-containing region.

    PubMed

    Elleuche, Skander; Fodor, Krisztian; von der Heyde, Amélie; Klippel, Barbara; Wilmanns, Matthias; Antranikian, Garabed

    2014-05-01

    NAD(P)(+)-dependent alcohol dehydrogenases (ADH) are widely distributed in all phyla. These proteins can be assigned to three nonhomologous groups of isozymes, with group III being highly diverse with regards to catalytic activity and primary structure. Members of group III ADHs share a conserved stretch of amino acid residues important for cofactor binding and metal ion coordination, while sequence identities for complete proteins are highly diverse (<20 to >90 %). A putative group III ADH PaYqhD has been identified in BLAST analysis from the plant pathogenic enterobacterium Pectobacterium atrosepticum. The PaYqhD gene was expressed in the heterologous host Escherichia coli, and the recombinant protein was purified in a two-step purification procedure to homogeneity indicating an obligate dimerization of monomers. Four conserved amino acid residues involved in metal ion coordination were substituted with alanine, and their importance for catalytic activity was confirmed by circular dichroism spectrum determination, in vitro, and growth experiments. PaYqhD exhibits optimal activity at 40 °C with short carbon chain aldehyde compounds and NADPH as cofactor indicating the enzyme to be an aldehyde reductase. No oxidative activities towards alcoholic compounds were detectable. EDTA completely inhibited catalytic activity and was fully restored by the addition of Co(2+). Activity measurements together with sequence alignments and structure analysis confirmed that PaYqhD belongs to the butanol dehydrogenase-like enzymes within group III of ADHs.

  6. The benefits of in-group contact through physical activity involvement for health and well-being among Korean immigrants

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Junhyoung; Heo, Jinmoo; Kim, Jun

    2014-01-01

    This qualitative study is designed to examine the benefits of physical activity involvement with members of the same ethnic group. For this study, Korean immigrants who were members of Korean physical activity clubs such as badminton and tennis were selected as participants. Using a constructive grounded theory methodology, three themes were identified as benefits of physical activity involvement: (1) the experience of psychological well-being, (2) the creation of a unique cultural world, and (3) the facilitation of physical activity involvement. The findings of this study suggest that Korean immigrant participants gained various social, cultural, and psychological benefits by engaging in activities with other Korean immigrants. PMID:24875239

  7. Anaerobic Activation of p-Cymene in Denitrifying Betaproteobacteria: Methyl Group Hydroxylation versus Addition to Fumarate

    PubMed Central

    Strijkstra, Annemieke; Trautwein, Kathleen; Jarling, René; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Dörries, Marvin; Reinhardt, Richard; Drozdowska, Marta; Golding, Bernard T.; Wilkes, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The betaproteobacteria “Aromatoleum aromaticum” pCyN1 and “Thauera” sp. strain pCyN2 anaerobically degrade the plant-derived aromatic hydrocarbon p-cymene (4-isopropyltoluene) under nitrate-reducing conditions. Metabolite analysis of p-cymene-adapted “A. aromaticum” pCyN1 cells demonstrated the specific formation of 4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol and 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde, whereas with “Thauera” sp. pCyN2, exclusively 4-isopropylbenzylsuccinate and tentatively identified (4-isopropylphenyl)itaconate were observed. 4-Isopropylbenzoate in contrast was detected with both strains. Proteogenomic investigation of p-cymene- versus succinate-adapted cells of the two strains revealed distinct protein profiles agreeing with the different metabolites formed from p-cymene. “A. aromaticum” pCyN1 specifically produced (i) a putative p-cymene dehydrogenase (CmdABC) expected to hydroxylate the benzylic methyl group of p-cymene, (ii) two dehydrogenases putatively oxidizing 4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol (Iod) and 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde (Iad), and (iii) the putative 4-isopropylbenzoate-coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (Ibl). The p-cymene-specific protein profile of “Thauera” sp. pCyN2, on the other hand, encompassed proteins homologous to subunits of toluene-activating benzylsuccinate synthase (termed [4-isopropylbenzyl]succinate synthase IbsABCDEF; identified subunits, IbsAE) and protein homologs of the benzylsuccinate β-oxidation (Bbs) pathway (termed BisABCDEFGH; all identified except for BisEF). This study reveals that two related denitrifying bacteria employ fundamentally different peripheral degradation routes for one and the same substrate, p-cymene, with the two pathways apparently converging at the level of 4-isopropylbenzoyl-CoA. PMID:25261521

  8. Activities of the task group 8 on thin film PV module reliability (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhere, Neelkanth G.

    2016-09-01

    Photovoltaic (PV) modules and systems are being used increasingly to provide renewable energy to schools, residences, small businesses and utilities. At this time, the home owners and small businesses have considerable difficulty in detecting module and/or system degradation and especially enforcing warranty. It needs to be noted that IEC 61215-1 (test req.), -2 (test proc.) and -1-1 (c-Si) are forecasted to be circulated end of Feb 2016 and only editorial changes would be possible. 61215 series does include thin film technologies and would be replacing 61646. Moreover, IEC 61215-1, section 7.2 power output and electric circuitry does contain significant changes to acceptance criteria regarding rated label values, particularly rated power. Even though it is believed that consensus could be achieved within IEC TC82 WG2, some of the smaller players that do not participate actively in IEC TC82 - may not be surprised and must be informed. The other tech specific parts 61215-1-2 (CdTe), -1-3 (a-Si, µc-Si) and -1-4 (CIS, CIGS) are out for comments. The IEC closing date was January 29, 2016. The additions alternative damp heat (DH) test proposed Solar Frontier is being reviewed. In the past, only 600 V systems were permitted in the grid-connected residential and commercial systems in the US. The US commercial systems can now use higher voltage (1,000-1500V) in order to reduce BOS component costs. It is believed that there would not be any problems. The Task Group 8 is collecting data on higher voltage systems.

  9. Supporting active learning in an undergraduate geotechnical engineering course using group-based audience response systems quizzes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Donohue, Shane

    2014-01-01

    The use of audience response systems (ARSs) or 'clickers' in higher education has increased over the recent years, predominantly owing to their ability to actively engage students, for promoting individual and group learning, and for providing instantaneous feedback to students and teachers. This paper describes how group-based ARS quizzes have been integrated into an undergraduate civil engineering course on foundation design. Overall, the ARS summary quizzes were very well received by the students. Feedback obtained from the students indicates that the majority believed the group-based quizzes were useful activities, which helped to improve their understanding of course materials, encouraged self-assessment, and assisted preparation for their summative examination. Providing students with clickers does not, however, necessarily guarantee the class will be engaged with the activity. If an ARS activity is to be successful, careful planning and design must be carried out and modifications adopted where necessary, which should be informed by the literature and relevant student feedback.

  10. Using A Facebook Group As An Adjunct To A Pilot mHealth Physical Activity Intervention: A Mixed Methods Approach.

    PubMed

    Pumper, Megan A; Mendoza, Jason A; Arseniev-Koehler, Alina; Holm, Matthew; Waite, Alan; Moreno, Megan A

    2015-01-01

    In the United States, most adolescents do not obtain the recommended amounts of physical activity for optimal health. Around 80% of adolescents own a mobile device, and social media is frequently used by adolescents on mobile devices. Few studies have examined the use of social media as part of an intervention to promote physical activity. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the use of a Facebook group as part of a mHealth physical activity intervention trial. Adolescents, ages 14-18 years, were recruited for a four week physical activity intervention using the FitBit Flex. Participants were also given the option to join a private Facebook group where they could interact and were given badges for fitness accomplishments. The research assistant moderator posted on the Facebook group an average of 25.3 times (SD=7.2). Post-intervention, participants completed a phone interview about their experience. Of 30 intervention participants (avg age 16.0 (SD=1.1), 60.0% female), 17 opted to join the Facebook group (avg age 16.3 (SD=1.2), 47.0% female) of which 10 completed a qualitative interview. Participants averaged 4.9 interactions (SD=8.7) on the Facebook group wall throughout the intervention. From the interview responses, major themes included enjoying the badge feature of the Facebook group and wanting more content and interaction. In conclusion, participants used and enjoyed having the Facebook group, particularly the badge feature of the group, as an adjunct to the physical activity intervention.

  11. A robust technique for semantic annotation of group activities based on recognition of extracted features in video streams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elangovan, Vinayak; Shirkhodaie, Amir

    2013-05-01

    Recognition and understanding of group activities can significantly improve situational awareness in Surveillance Systems. To maximize reliability and effectiveness of Persistent Surveillance Systems, annotations of sequential images gathered from video streams (i.e. imagery and acoustic features) must be fused together to generate semantic messages describing group activities (GA). To facilitate efficient fusion of extracted features from any physical sensors a common structure will suffice to ease integration of processed data into new comprehension. In this paper, we describe a framework for extraction and management of pertinent features/attributes vital for annotation of group activities reliably. A robust technique is proposed for fusion of generated events and entities' attributes from video streams. A modified Transducer Markup Language (TML) is introduced for semantic annotation of events and entities attributes. By aggregation of multi-attribute TML messages, we have demonstrated that salient group activities can be spatiotemporal can be reliable annotated. This paper discusses our experimental results; our analysis of a set of simulated group activities performed under different contexts and demonstrates the efficiency and effectiveness of the proposed modified TML data structure which facilitates seamless fusion of extracted information from video streams.

  12. Therapeutic administration of atomoxetine combined with rTMS and occupational therapy for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke: a case series study of three patients.

    PubMed

    Kinoshita, Shoji; Kakuda, Wataru; Yamada, Naoki; Momosaki, Ryo; Okuma, Ryo; Watanabe, Shu; Abo, Masahiro

    2016-03-01

    Atomoxetine, a selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor, has been reported to enhance brain plasticity, but has not yet been used in stroke patients. We reported the feasibility and clinical benefits on motor functional recovery of the combination of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) and intensive occupational therapy (OT) in stroke patients. This pilot study was designed to evaluate the additive effects of oral atomoxetine to rTMS/OT in post-stroke hemiparetic patients. The study included three post-stroke patients with upper limb hemiparesis. Treatment with 40 mg/day atomoxetine commenced 2 weeks before admission. After confirming tolerance, the dose was increased to 120 mg/day. Low-frequency rTMS/OT was provided daily for 15 days during continued atomoxetine therapy. Motor function of the affected upper limb was evaluated with the Fugl-Meyer Assessment and Wolf Motor Function test. All patients completed the protocol and showed motor improvement up to 4 weeks after the treatment. No atomoxetine-related side effects were noted. Our protocol of triple therapy of atomoxetine, low-frequency rTMS, and OT is safe and feasible intervention for upper limb hemiparesis after stroke.

  13. The Impact of Accelerated Right Prefrontal High-Frequency Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on Cue-Reactivity: An fMRI Study on Craving in Recently Detoxified Alcohol-Dependent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Herremans, Sarah C.; Van Schuerbeek, Peter; De Raedt, Rudi; Matthys, Frieda; Buyl, Ronald; De Mey, Johan; Baeken, Chris

    2015-01-01

    In alcohol-dependent patients craving is a difficult-to-treat phenomenon. It has been suggested that high-frequency (HF) repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) may have beneficial effects. However, exactly how this application exerts its effect on the underlying craving neurocircuit is currently unclear. In an effort to induce alcohol craving and to maximize detection of HF-rTMS effects to cue-induced alcohol craving, patients were exposed to a block and event-related alcohol cue-reactivity paradigm while being scanned with fMRI. Hence, we assessed the effect of right dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) stimulation on cue-induced and general alcohol craving, and the related craving neurocircuit. Twenty-six recently detoxified alcohol-dependent patients were included. First, we evaluated the impact of one sham-controlled stimulation session. Second, we examined the effect of accelerated right DLPFC HF-rTMS treatment: here patients received 15 sessions in an open label accelerated design, spread over 4 consecutive days. General craving significantly decreased after 15 active HF-rTMS sessions. However, cue-induced alcohol craving was not altered. Our brain imaging results did not show that the cue-exposure affected the underlying craving neurocircuit after both one and fifteen active HF-rTMS sessions. Yet, brain activation changes after one and 15 HF-rTMS sessions, respectively, were observed in regions associated with the extended reward system and the default mode network, but only during the presentation of the event-related paradigm. Our findings indicate that accelerated HF-rTMS applied to the right DLPFC does not manifestly affect the craving neurocircuit during an alcohol-related cue-exposure, but instead it may influence the attentional network. PMID:26295336

  14. How Do We Index?: A Report of Some Aslib Informatics Group Activity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Kevin P.

    1983-01-01

    Results of workshops focusing on the indexing process conducted by Aslib Informatics Group and its predecessor the Co-ordinate Indexing Group are reported, noting seminars held in 1977, 1978, 1980, and 1981. Indexing techniques and subject words chosen for journal articles are appended. (EJS)

  15. Final Report: Main Group Element Chemistry in Service of Hydrogen Storage and Activation

    SciTech Connect

    David A. Dixon; Anthony J. Arduengo, III

    2010-09-30

    goal was met in terms of reducing the number of costly experiments and helping to focus the experimental effort on the potentially optimal targets. We have used computational chemistry approaches to predict the thermodynamic properties of a wide range of compounds containing boron, nitrogen, hydrogen, and other elements as appropriate including carbon. These calculations were done in most cases with high level molecular orbital theory methods that have small error bars on the order of ± 1 to 2 kcal/mol. The results were used to benchmark more approximate methods such as density functional theory for larger systems and for database development. We predicted reliable thermodynamics for thousands of compounds for release and regeneration schemes to aid/guide materials design and process design and simulation. These are the first reliable computed values for these compounds and for many represent the only available values. Overall, the computational results have provided us with new insights into the chemistry of main group and organic-base chemical hydrogen systems from the release of hydrogen to the regeneration of spent fuel. A number of experimental accomplishments were also made in this project. The experimental work on hydrogen storage materials centered on activated polarized σ- or π-bonded frameworks that hold the potential for ready dihydrogen activation, uptake, and eventually release. To this end, a large number of non-traditional valence systems including carbenes, cyanocarbons, and C-B and and B-N systems were synthesized and examined. During the course of these studies an important lead arose from the novel valency of a class of stable organic singlet bi-radical systems. A synthetic strategy to an “endless” hydrogen storage polymer has been developed based on our cyanocarbon chemistry. A key issue with the synthetic efforts was being able to link the kinetics of release with the size of the substituents as it was difficult to develop a low molecular

  16. Research and Teaching: Instructor Use of Group Active Learning in an Introductory Biology Sequence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Auerbach, Anna Jo; Schussler, Elisabeth E.

    2016-01-01

    Active learning (or learner-centered) pedagogies have been shown to enhance student learning in introductory biology courses. Student collaboration has also been shown to enhance student learning and may be a critical part of effective active learning practices. This study focused on documenting the use of individual active learning and group…

  17. The Impact of Group Activities on Social Relations in an Early Education Setting in Spain

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ortega, Rosario; Romera, Eva M.; Monks, Claire P.

    2009-01-01

    This article promotes a psychosocial perspective that proposes that relational activities are an enriching factor in pupils' social learning. This study offers a model of intervention, using activities that promote peer-relations among preschoolers. The activities share several characteristics including: (a) being designed to be appropriate for…

  18. Effects of using nursing home residents to serve as group activity leaders: lessons learned from the RAP project.

    PubMed

    Skrajner, Michael J; Haberman, Jessica L; Camp, Cameron J; Tusick, Melanie; Frentiu, Cristina; Gorzelle, Gregg

    2014-03-01

    Previous research has demonstrated that persons with early to moderate stage dementia are capable of leading small group activities for persons with more advanced dementia. In this study, we built upon this previous work by training residents in long-term care facilities to fill the role of group activity leaders using a Resident-Assisted Programming (RAP) training regimen. There were two stages to the program. In the first stage, RAP training was provided by researchers. In the second stage, RAP training was provided to residents by activities staff members of long-term care facilities who had been trained by researchers. We examine the effects of RAP implemented by researchers and by activities staff member on long-term care resident with dementia who took part in these RAP activities. We also examined effects produced by two types of small group activities: two Montessori-based activities and an activity which focuses on persons with more advanced dementia, based on the work of Jitka Zgola. Results demonstrate that levels of positive engagement seen in players during RAP (resident-led activities) were typically higher than those observed during standard activities programming led by site staff. In general, Montessori-Based Dementia Programming® produced more constructive engagement than Zgola-based programming (ZBP), though ZBP did increase a positive form of engagement involving observing activities with interest. In addition, RAP implemented by activities staff members produced effects that were, on the whole, similar to those produced when RAP was implemented by researchers. Implications of these findings for providing meaningful social roles for persons with dementia residing in long-term care, and suggestions for further research in this area, are discussed.

  19. Effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation on mood in healthy subjects

    PubMed Central

    Moulier, Virginie; Gaudeau-Bosma, Christian; Isaac, Clémence; Allard, Anne-Camille; Bouaziz, Noomane; Sidhoumi, Djedia; Braha-Zeitoun, Sonia; Benadhira, René; Thomas, Fanny; Januel, Dominique

    2016-01-01

    Background High frequency repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) of the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) has shown significant efficiency in the treatment of resistant depression. However in healthy subjects, the effects of rTMS remain unclear. Objective Our aim was to determine the impact of 10 sessions of rTMS applied to the DLPFC on mood and emotion recognition in healthy subjects. Design In a randomised double-blind study, 20 subjects received 10 daily sessions of active (10 Hz frequency) or sham rTMS. The TMS coil was positioned on the left DLPFC through neuronavigation. Several dimensions of mood and emotion processing were assessed at baseline and after rTMS with clinical scales, visual analogue scales (VASs), and the Ekman 60 faces test. Results The 10 rTMS sessions targeting the DLPFC were well tolerated. No significant difference was found between the active group and the control group for clinical scales and the Ekman 60 faces test. Compared to the control group, the active rTMS group presented a significant improvement in their adaptation to daily life, which was assessed through VAS. Conclusion This study did not show any deleterious effect on mood and emotion recognition of 10 sessions of rTMS applied on the DLPFC in healthy subjects. This study also suggested a positive effect of rTMS on quality of life. PMID:26993786

  20. Activity related to the carcinogenicity of plastic additives in the benzophenone group.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Daisuke; Asada, Shin; Kageyama, Shiho; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Noriho; Takeda, Ken; Goto, Sumio

    2006-06-01

    This study examines the activities relating to the carcinogenicity of six types of benzophenone derivatives (benzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxybenzophenone) currently used in plastic products as additives to serve as ultraviolet absorbing agents. The evaluation of the initiation activity used a light absorption umu-test, a luminescent umu-test and the Ames test. The promotion activity was examined by a Bhas assay, a method that uses Bhas 42 cells for the formation of transformation foci. The luminescent umu-test indicated positive initiation activity of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, and pseudo-positive activity of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone. In the Ames test, 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxybenzophenone showed pseudo-positive initiation activity. Conversely, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone indicated weak promotion activity at 10 microg/ml concentration.

  1. Increased Pain Communication following Multiple Group Memberships Salience Leads to a Relative Reduction in Pain-Related Brain Activity

    PubMed Central

    Jetten, Jolanda; Molenberghs, Pascal; Bastian, Brock; Karnadewi, Fika

    2016-01-01

    Pain is a fundamental human experience that triggers a range of social and psychological responses. In this study, we present behavioral and fMRI data to examine the effect of multiple group memberships salience on reported and neural indices of pain. We found that participants expressed higher levels of pain when more social group memberships were salient. This is consistent with the notion that pain itself motivates people to communicate their pain, and more so when multiple psychological resources are salient. In addition, fMRI results reveal an interesting twist: when participants increased their pain reporting as group memberships increased (from one group to four), there was a corresponding relative reduction in dorsal anterior cingulate cortex and anterior insula activation. These results provide evidence for an adaptive response to pain: the more people make use of the social resources at their disposal when experiencing pain, the less pain areas are activated. PMID:27657917

  2. Effect of phosphate activating group on oligonucleotide formation on montmorillonite: the regioselective formation of 3',5'-linked oligoadenylates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prabahar, K. J.; Cole, T. D.; Ferris, J. P.

    1994-01-01

    The effects of amine structure on the montmorillonite-catalyzed oligomerization of the 5'-phosphoramidates of adenosine are investigated. 4-Aminopyridine derivatives yielded oligoadenylates as long as dodecamers with a regioselectivity for 3',5'-phosphodiester bond formation averaging 88%. Linear and cyclic oligomers are obtained and no A5'ppA-containing products are detected. Oligomers as long as the hexanucleotide are obtained using 2-aminobenzimidazole as the activating group. A predominance of pA2'pA is detected in the dimer fraction along with cyclic 3',5'-trimer; no A5'ppA-containing oligomers were detected. Little or no oligomer formation was observed when morpholine, piperidine, pyrazole, 1,2,4-triazole, and 2-pyridone are used as phosphate-activating groups. The effects of the structure of the phosphate activating group on the oligomer structure and chain lengths are discussed.

  3. 75 FR 76070 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... current knowledge about post traumatic interventions and to advance evidence-based recommendations for... tasked to provide advice regarding development of implementing regulations for critical incident stress... implement an approved ``critical incident stress plan.'' During the Medical Standards Working Group...

  4. Genetic enhancement of visual learning by activation of protein kinase C pathways in small groups of rat cortical neurons.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guo-Rong; Wang, Xiaodan; Kong, Lingxin; Lu, Xiu-Gui; Lee, Brian; Liu, Meng; Sun, Mei; Franklin, Corinna; Cook, Robert G; Geller, Alfred I

    2005-09-14

    Although learning and memory theories hypothesize that memories are encoded by specific circuits, it has proven difficult to localize learning within a cortical area. Neural network theories predict that activation of a small fraction of the neurons in a circuit can activate that circuit. Consequently, altering the physiology of a small group of neurons might potentiate a specific circuit and enhance learning, thereby localizing learning to that circuit. In this study, we activated protein kinase C (PKC) pathways in small groups of neurons in rat postrhinal (POR) cortex. We microinjected helper virus-free herpes simplex virus vectors that expressed a constitutively active PKC into POR cortex. This PKC was expressed predominantly in glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in POR cortex. This intervention increased phosphorylation of five PKC substrates that play critical roles in neurotransmitter release (GAP-43 and dynamin) or glutamatergic neurotransmission (specific subunits of AMPA or NMDA receptors and myristoylated alanine-rich C kinase substrate). Additionally, activation of PKC pathways in cultured cortical neurons supported activation-dependent increases in release of glutamate and GABA. This intervention enhanced the learning rate and accuracy of visual object discriminations. In individual rats, the numbers of transfected neurons positively correlated with this learning. During learning, neuronal activity was increased in neurons proximal to the transfected neurons. These results demonstrate that potentiating small groups of glutamatergic and GABAergic neurons in POR cortex enhances visual object learning. More generally, these results suggest that learning can be mediated by specific cortical circuits.

  5. Interactions Between Odorant Functional Group and Hydrocarbon Structure Influence Activity in Glomerular Response Modules in the Rat Olfactory Bulb

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Brett A.; Farahbod, Haleh; Leon, Michael

    2008-01-01

    To investigate the effect of odorant hydrocarbon structure on spatial representations in the olfactory bulb systematically, we exposed rats to odorant chemicals possessing one of four different oxygen-containing functional groups on one of five different hydrocarbon backbones. We also used several hydrocarbon odorants lacking other functional groups. Hydrocarbon structural categories included straight-chained, branched, double-bonded, alicyclic, and aromatic features. Activity throughout the entire glomerular layer was measured as uptake of [14C]2-deoxyglucose and was mapped into anatomically standardized data matrices for statistical comparisons across different animals. Patterns evoked by straight-chained aliphatic odorants confirmed an association of activity in particular glomerular response modules with particular functional groups. However, the amount of activity in these same modules also was affected significantly by differences in hydrocarbon structure. Thus, the molecular features recognized by receptors projecting to these response modules appear to involve both functional group and hydrocarbon structural elements. In addition, particular benzyl and cyclohexyl odorants evoked activity in dorsal modules previously associated with the ketone functional group, which represents an exception to the rule of one feature per response module that had emerged from our previous studies. These dorsal modules also responded to nitrogen-containing aromatic compounds involving pyridine and pyrazine rings. The unexpected overlap in modular responses to ketones and odorants seemingly unrelated to ketones may reflect some covert shared molecular feature, the existence of odorant sensory neurons with multiple specificities, or a mosaic of sensory neuron projections to these particular modules. PMID:15678471

  6. The Brown Algae Pl.LSU/2 Group II Intron-Encoded Protein Has Functional Reverse Transcriptase and Maturase Activities

    PubMed Central

    Zerbato, Madeleine; Holic, Nathalie; Moniot-Frin, Sophie; Ingrao, Dina; Galy, Anne; Perea, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing mobile elements found in prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles. These introns propagate by homing into precise genomic locations, following assembly of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the intron-encoded protein (IEP) and the spliced intron RNA. Engineered group II introns are now commonly used tools for targeted genomic modifications in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. We speculate that the catalytic activation of currently known group II introns is limited in eukaryotic cells. The brown algae Pylaiella littoralis Pl.LSU/2 group II intron is uniquely capable of in vitro ribozyme activity at physiological level of magnesium but this intron remains poorly characterized. We purified and characterized recombinant Pl.LSU/2 IEP. Unlike most IEPs, Pl.LSU/2 IEP displayed a reverse transcriptase activity without intronic RNA. The Pl.LSU/2 intron could be engineered to splice accurately in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and splicing efficiency was increased by the maturase activity of the IEP. However, spliced transcripts were not expressed. Furthermore, intron splicing was not detected in human cells. While further tool development is needed, these data provide the first functional characterization of the PI.LSU/2 IEP and the first evidence that the Pl.LSU/2 group II intron splicing occurs in vivo in eukaryotes in an IEP-dependent manner. PMID:23505475

  7. The brown algae Pl.LSU/2 group II intron-encoded protein has functional reverse transcriptase and maturase activities.

    PubMed

    Zerbato, Madeleine; Holic, Nathalie; Moniot-Frin, Sophie; Ingrao, Dina; Galy, Anne; Perea, Javier

    2013-01-01

    Group II introns are self-splicing mobile elements found in prokaryotes and eukaryotic organelles. These introns propagate by homing into precise genomic locations, following assembly of a ribonucleoprotein complex containing the intron-encoded protein (IEP) and the spliced intron RNA. Engineered group II introns are now commonly used tools for targeted genomic modifications in prokaryotes but not in eukaryotes. We speculate that the catalytic activation of currently known group II introns is limited in eukaryotic cells. The brown algae Pylaiella littoralis Pl.LSU/2 group II intron is uniquely capable of in vitro ribozyme activity at physiological level of magnesium but this intron remains poorly characterized. We purified and characterized recombinant Pl.LSU/2 IEP. Unlike most IEPs, Pl.LSU/2 IEP displayed a reverse transcriptase activity without intronic RNA. The Pl.LSU/2 intron could be engineered to splice accurately in Saccharomyces cerevisiae and splicing efficiency was increased by the maturase activity of the IEP. However, spliced transcripts were not expressed. Furthermore, intron splicing was not detected in human cells. While further tool development is needed, these data provide the first functional characterization of the PI.LSU/2 IEP and the first evidence that the Pl.LSU/2 group II intron splicing occurs in vivo in eukaryotes in an IEP-dependent manner.

  8. Motor imagery-based skill acquisition disrupted following rTMS of the inferior parietal lobule.

    PubMed

    Kraeutner, Sarah N; Keeler, Laura T; Boe, Shaun G

    2016-02-01

    Motor imagery (MI), the mental rehearsal of motor tasks, has promise as a therapy in post-stroke rehabilitation. The potential effectiveness of MI is attributed to the facilitation of plasticity in numerous brain regions akin to those recruited for physical practice. It is suggested, however, that MI relies more heavily on regions commonly affected post-stroke, including left hemisphere parietal regions involved in visuospatial processes. However, the impact of parietal damage on MI-based skill acquisition that underlies rehabilitation remains unclear. Here, we examine the contribution of the left inferior parietal lobule (IPL) to MI using inhibitory transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) and an MI-based implicit sequence learning (ISL) paradigm. Participants (N = 27) completed the MI-based ISL paradigm after receiving continuous theta burst stimulation to the left IPL (TMS), or with the coil angled away from the scalp (sham). Reaction time differences (dRT) and effect sizes between implicit and random sequences assessed success of MI-based learning. Mean dRT for the sham group was 36.1 ± 28.2 ms (d = 0.71). Mean dRT in the TMS group was 7.7 ± 38.5 ms (d = 0.11). These results indicate that inhibition of the left IPL impaired MI-based learning. We conclude that the IPL and likely the visuospatial processes it mediates are critical for MI performance and thus MI-based skill acquisition or learning. Ultimately, these findings have implications for the use of MI in post-stroke rehabilitation.

  9. The ACTIVATE study: results from a group-randomized controlled trial comparing a traditional worksite health promotion program with an activated consumer program.

    PubMed

    Terry, Paul E; Fowles, Jinnet Briggs; Xi, Min; Harvey, Lisa

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE. This study compares a traditional worksite-based health promotion program with an activated consumer program and a control program DESIGN. Group randomized controlled trial with 18-month intervention. SETTING. Two large Midwestern companies. SUBJECTS. Three hundred and twenty employees (51% response). INTERVENTION. The traditional health promotion intervention offered population-level campaigns on physical activity, nutrition, and stress management. The activated consumer intervention included population-level campaigns for evaluating health information, choosing a health benefits plan, and understanding the risks of not taking medications as prescribed. The personal development intervention (control group) offered information on hobbies. The interventions also offered individual-level coaching for high risk individuals in both active intervention groups. MEASURES. Health risk status, general health status, consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to evaluate health information. ANALYSIS. Multivariate analyses controlled for baseline differences among the study groups. RESULTS. At the population level, compared with baseline performance, the traditional health promotion intervention improved health risk status, consumer activation, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. Compared with baseline performance, the activated consumer intervention improved consumer activation, productivity, and the ability to recognize reliable health websites. At the population level, however, only the activated consumer intervention improved any outcome more than the control group did; that outcome was consumer activation. At the individual level for high risk individuals, both traditional health coaching and activated consumer coaching positively affected health risk status and consumer activation. In addition, both coaching interventions improved participant ability to recognize a reliable health website. Consumer activation coaching also

  10. Extended Functional Groups (EFG): An Efficient Set for Chemical Characterization and Structure-Activity Relationship Studies of Chemical Compounds.

    PubMed

    Salmina, Elena S; Haider, Norbert; Tetko, Igor V

    2015-12-23

    The article describes a classification system termed "extended functional groups" (EFG), which are an extension of a set previously used by the CheckMol software, that covers in addition heterocyclic compound classes and periodic table groups. The functional groups are defined as SMARTS patterns and are available as part of the ToxAlerts tool (http://ochem.eu/alerts) of the On-line CHEmical database and Modeling (OCHEM) environment platform. The article describes the motivation and the main ideas behind this extension and demonstrates that EFG can be efficiently used to develop and interpret structure-activity relationship models.

  11. Seeking Shared Practice: A Juxtaposition of the Attributes and Activities of Organized Fossil Groups with Those of Professional Paleontology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crippen, Kent J.; Ellis, Shari; Dunckel, Betty A.; Hendy, Austin J. W.; MacFadden, Bruce J.

    2016-10-01

    This study sought to define the attributes and practices of organized fossil groups (e.g., clubs, paleontological societies) as amateur paleontologists, as well as those of professional paleontologists, and explore the potential for these two groups to work collaboratively as a formalized community. Such an investigation is necessary to develop design principles for an online environment that supports this community and encourages communication and shared practice among individuals with different backgrounds in paleontology and who are geographically isolated. A national survey of fossil group representatives and professional paleontologists was used to address the research questions. The results provide a rich description of the attributes and activities of both groups and are discussed in terms of three design principles for supporting the two groups in a form of collaboration and fellowship via a coherent shared practice within an online learning community.

  12. Serum γ-Glutamyltransferase, Alanine Aminotransferase and Aspartate Aminotransferase Activity in Healthy Blood Donor of Different Ethnic Groups in Gorgan

    PubMed Central

    Mehrpouya, Masoumeh; Pourhashem, Zeinab

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Measure of liver enzymes may help to increase safety of blood donation for both blood donor and recipient. Determination of liver enzymes may prepare valuable clinical information. Aim To assess serum γ-Glutamyltransferase (GGT), Alanine Aminotransferase (ALT), and Aspartate Aminotransferase (AST) activities in healthy blood donors in different ethnic groups in Gorgan. Materials and Methods This study was performed in 450 healthy male blood donors, in three ethnic groups (Fars, Sistanee and Turkman) who attended Gorgan blood transfusion center. Liver enzymes (GGT, ALT and AST) were determined. Results Serum AST and ALT in three ethnic groups were significant except for serum GGT levels. There was significant correlation between family histories of liver disease and systolic blood pressure and AST in Fars, and GGT in Sistanee ethnic groups. Conclusion Several factors, such as age, family history of diabetes mellitus, family history of liver disease and smoking habit had no effect on some liver enzymes in different ethnic groups in this area. Variation of AST, ALT, and GGT enzyme activities in healthy subjects was associated with some subjects in our study groups. According to our study, it suggests that screening of AST and GGT enzymes in subjects with family history of liver disease is necessary in different ethnic groups. PMID:27630834

  13. Group Member or Outsider: Perceptions of Undergraduates with Disabilities on Leisure Time Physical Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Devine, Mary Ann

    2013-01-01

    College provides students with many opportunities to achieve academic success and enrich other aspects of their lives. Participating in campus activities can reduce stress, create social connections, promote healthy active living, and broaden civic engagement (Lindsey & Sessoms, 2006; Watson, Ayers, Zizzi, & Naoi, 2006). Studies noting…

  14. Exploring Preferences of Mentoring Activities among Generational Groups of Registered Nurses in Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Posey-Goodwin, Patricia Ann

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore differences in perceptions of mentoring activities from four generations of registered nurses in Florida, using the Alleman Mentoring Activities Questionnaire ® (AMAQ ®). Statistical procedures of analysis of variance (ANOVA) were employed to explore differences among 65 registered nurses in Florida from…

  15. A Potpourri of Activities--For Use in Heterogeneously Grouped Secondary School English Classes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schullstrom, Faith Z.

    This pamphlet includes a variety of suggestions and activities to stimulate language and thereby increase students' control over their environment and their lives. Although many of these activities can be used with elementary students, the emphasis in this collection is on language stimulation among secondary school children. The first section…

  16. Identification and biological activity of antifungal saponins from shallot ( Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Teshima, Yoshiki; Ikeda, Tsuyoshi; Imada, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Kazunori; El-Sayed, Magdi A; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Tanaka, Shuhei; Ito, Shin-Ichi

    2013-08-07

    The n-butanol extract of shallot basal plates and roots showed antifungal activity against plant pathogenic fungi. The purified compounds from the extract were examined for antifungal activity to determine the predominant antifungal compounds in the extract. Two major antifungal compounds purified were determined to be alliospiroside A (ALA) and alliospiroside B. ALA had prominent antifungal activity against a wide range of fungi. The products of acid hydrolysis of ALA showed a reduced antifungal activity, suggesting that the compound's sugar chain is essential for its antifungal activity. Fungal cells treated with ALA showed rapid production of reactive oxygen species. The fungicidal action of ALA was partially inhibited by a superoxide scavenger, Tiron, suggesting that superoxide anion generation in the fungal cells may be related to the compound's action. Inoculation experiments showed that ALA protected strawberry plants against Colletotrichum gloeosporioides , indicating that ALA has the potential to control anthracnose of the plant.

  17. Control of abdominal and expiratory intercostal muscle activity during vomiting - Role of ventral respiratory group expiratory neurons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Alan D.; Tan, L. K.; Suzuki, Ichiro

    1987-01-01

    The role of ventral respiratory group (VRG) expiratory (E) neurons in the control of abdominal and internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting was investigated in cats. Two series of experiments were performed: in one, the activity of VRG E neurons was recorded during fictive vomiting in cats that were decerebrated, paralyzed, and artificially ventilated; in the second, the abdominal muscle activity during vomiting was compared before and after sectioning the axons of descending VRG E neurons in decerebrate spontaneously breathing cats. The results show that about two-thirds of VRG E neurons that project at least as far caudally as the lower thoracic cord contribute to internal intercostal muscle activity during vomiting. The remaining VRG E neurons contribute to abdominal muscle activation. As shown by severing the axons of the VRG E neurons, other, as yet unidenified, inputs (either descending from the brain stem or arising from spinal reflexes) can also produce abdominal muscle activation.

  18. Group Grammar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Karen

    2015-01-01

    In this article Karen Adams demonstrates how to incorporate group grammar techniques into a classroom activity. In the activity, students practice using the target grammar to do something they naturally enjoy: learning about each other.

  19. Constructing Group Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heimlich, Joe E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents guidelines for constructing group learning activities, describes group learning methods (discussion, gaming, role play, simulation, projects), and provides tips for facilitating group activities. (SK)

  20. A Group Contingency plus Self-Management Intervention Targeting At-Risk Secondary Students' Class-Work and Active Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trevino-Maack, Sylvia I.; Kamps, Debra; Wills, Howard

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of the present study is to show that an independent group contingency (GC) combined with self-management strategies and randomized-reinforcer components can increase the amount of written work and active classroom responding in high school students. Three remedial reading classes and a total of 15 students participated in this study.…

  1. Understanding EFL Students' Participation in Group Peer Feedback of L2 Writing: A Case Study from an Activity Theory Perspective

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yu, Shulin; Lee, Icy

    2015-01-01

    While the last three decades have witnessed a growing body of research on peer feedback in first language (L1) and second language (L2) writing, research about students' motives for participating in group peer feedback has remained underexplored. In order to fill this important gap, this case study, guided by the constructs of activity and motive…

  2. Activation of Group II Metabotropic Glutamate Receptors Induces Depotentiation in Amygdala Slices and Reduces Fear-Potentiated Startle in Rats

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lin, Chia-Ho; Lee, Chia-Ching; Huang, Ya-Chun; Wang, Su-Jane; Gean, Po-Wu

    2005-01-01

    There is a close correlation between long-term potentiation (LTP) in the synapses of lateral amygdala (LA) and fear conditioning in animals. We predict that reversal of LTP (depotentiation) in this area of the brain may ameliorate conditioned fear. Activation of group II metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluR II) with DCG-IV induces…

  3. Perspective: Crowd-based breath analysis: assessing behavior, activity, exposures, and emotional response of people in groups

    EPA Science Inventory

    A new concept for exhaled breath analysis has emerged wherein groups, or even crowds of people are simultaneously sampled in enclosed environments to detect overall trends in their activities and recent exposures. The basic idea is to correlate the temporal profile of known breat...

  4. 78 FR 61330 - Subzone 141F, Authorization of Production Activity, John D. Brush & Co., dba Sentry Group, (Safes...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE Foreign-Trade Zones Board Subzone 141F, Authorization of Production Activity, John D. Brush & Co., dba Sentry Group, (Safes and Secured Storage Devices), Pittsford and East Rochester, New York On May 30,...

  5. Intercultural Interactions of Mono-Cultural, Mono-Lingual Local Students in Small Group Learning Activities: A Bourdieusian Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Colvin, Cassandra; Fozdar, Farida; Volet, Simone

    2015-01-01

    This research examines the understandings and experiences of mono-cultural, mono-lingual local students in relation to intercultural interactions within small group learning activities at university. Bourdieu's concepts of field, habitus and capital are employed to illuminate a number of barriers to intercultural interaction. Using qualitative…

  6. Activation of group IVC phospholipase A2 by polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons induces apoptosis of human coronary artery endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    Richards, Sean M.; Elgayyar, Mona A.; Menn, Fu-Minn; Vulava, Vijay M.; McKay, Larry; Sanseverino, John; Sayler, Gary; Tucker, Dawn E.; Leslie, Christina C.; Lu, Kim P.; Ramos, Kenneth S.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to environmental pollutants, such as polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) found in coal tar mixtures and tobacco sources, is considered a significant risk factor for the development of heart disease in humans. The goal of this study was to determine the influence of PAHs present at a Superfund site on human coronary artery endothelial cell (HCAEC) phospholipase A2 (PLA2) activity and apoptosis. Extremely high levels of 12 out of 15 EPA high-priority PAHs were present in both the streambed and floodplain sediments at a site where an urban creek and its adjacent floodplain were extensively contaminated by PAHs and other coal tar compounds. Nine of the 12 compounds and a coal tar mixture (SRM 1597A) activated group IVC PLA2 in HCAECs, and activation of this enzyme was associated with histone fragmentation and poly (ADP) ribose polymerase (PARP) cleavage. Genetic silencing of group IVC PLA2 inhibited both 3H-fatty acid release and histone fragmentation by PAHs and SRM 1597A, indicating that individual PAHs and a coal tar mixture induce apoptosis of HCAECs via a mechanism that involves group IVC PLA2. Western blot analysis of aortas isolated from feral mice (Peromyscus leucopus) inhabiting the Superfund site showed increased PARP and caspase-3 cleavage when compared to reference mice. These data suggest that PAHs induce apoptosis of HCAECs via activation of group IVC PLA2. PMID:21132278

  7. Effects of Applying STR for Group Learning Activities on Learning Performance in a Synchronous Cyber Classroom

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuo, Tony C. T.; Shadiev, Rustam; Hwang, Wu-Yuin; Chen, Nian-Shing

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to apply Speech to Text Recognition (STR) for individual oral presentations and group discussions of students in a synchronous cyber classroom. An experiment was conducted to analyze the effectiveness of applying STR on learning performance. Students' perceptions and behavioral intentions toward using STR were also investigated.…

  8. A Simple Method for Encouraging Active Participation in Small-Group Discussion Sessions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Adrian

    1977-01-01

    A format for a small-group teaching session is described that could be modified for any subject in a medical curriculum. The technique discussed uses subgroups and a simple recording chart that have been successful in teaching microbiology to medical students. (LBH)

  9. Promoting Active Engagement in Small Group Learning Experiences for Students with Autism and Significant Learning Needs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carnahan, Christi; Musti-Rao, Shobana; Bailey, Jody

    2009-01-01

    Students with disabilities have greater success when teachers have high expectations, use evidence-based practices, and design engaging learning experiences. Educators and other professionals often disagree about how to create such environments for students with autism, especially during small group academic instruction. This study evaluated the…

  10. Group Tasks, Activities, Dynamics, and Interactions in Collaborative Robotics Projects with Elementary and Middle School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yuen, Timothy T.; Boecking, Melanie; Stone, Jennifer; Tiger, Erin Price; Gomez, Alvaro; Guillen, Adrienne; Arreguin, Analisa

    2014-01-01

    Robotics provide the opportunity for students to bring their individual interests, perspectives and areas of expertise together in order to work collaboratively on real-world science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) problems. This paper examines the nature of collaboration that manifests in groups of elementary and middle school…

  11. Techniques for rapid quantitative assessment of activity levels in small-group tutorials.

    PubMed

    Prinz, J F; Yip, H Y; Tipoe, G L; Lucas, P W; Lenstrup, M

    1998-07-01

    Two techniques for the rapid quantitative analysis of student participation in small-group teaching were investigated. In the first approach an observer, who also acted as a 'critical friend', recorded the length of individual contributions using a computer keyboard as a simple timing device. In the second approach, small-group sessions were recorded with a portable stereophonic audiotape recorder. The teacher was recorded on one channel, all students on the other. A computer program produced automated analysis of these small group interactions by computing relative amount of speech on each channel. Simple analysis produced automatically by the programs revealed the overall style of the tutorial--variably 'mini-lectures' by teachers with very little participation by the student body, rapid 'question and answer' sessions with about equal teacher/student body involvement or 'mini-presentations' by students with the teacher offering sparse comments in the manner of a facilitator. By presenting results in a graphic format, teachers can be given rapid objective feedback on their teaching style. Coupled with short verbal/non-verbal quizzes at the end of tutorials and information from other assessments, the value of using levels of participation as a measure of the efficiency of such small-group sessions can itself be assessed.

  12. Effects of Prior Knowledge Activation through Small-Group Discussion on the Processing of Science Text.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schmidt, Henk G.; Patel, Vimla L.

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the extent to which problem analysis facilitated the subsequent processing of expository text, both for novices and a comparison group. A text on osmosis consisted of six-pages and was used as reading material. The ninth-grade students were considered novices because they were unfamiliar with the…

  13. U.S.-GERMAN BILATERAL WORKING GROUP PHASE 3 ACTIVITIES-AN OVERVIEW

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S.-German Bilateral Working Group originated in 1990 in order to share and transfer information, ideas, tools and techniques regarding environmental research. The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the German Federal Ministry for Education and Research (BMBF) de...

  14. Web-Support for Activating Use of Theory in Group-Based Learning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van der Veen, Jan; van Riemsdijk, Maarten; Laagland, Eelco; Gommer, Lisa; Jones, Val

    This paper describes a series of experiments conducted within the context of a course on organizational theory that is taught at the Department of Management Sciences at the University of Twente (Netherlands). In 1997, a group-based learning approach was adopted, but after the first year it was apparent that acquisition and application of theory…

  15. Group Time Experiences: Belonging, Being and Becoming through Active Participation within Early Childhood Communities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leggett, Nicole; Ford, Margot

    2016-01-01

    The National Quality Standards (NQS) as part of the Australian National Quality Framework were developed in 2011 and included several references to the organisation of small and large groups within early childhood settings (ACECQA 2013). The NQS act in tandem with the Early Years Learning Framework (EYLF) (DEEWR 2009) and are the basis by which…

  16. Why an Active Comparison Group Makes a Difference and What to Do about It

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Datta, Lois-ellin

    2007-01-01

    The Randomized Control Trials (RCT) design and its quasi-experimental kissing cousin, the Comparison Group Trials (CGT), are golden to some and not even silver to others. At the center of the affection, at the vortex of the discomfort, are beliefs about what it takes to establish causality. These designs are considered primarily when the purpose…

  17. Modification of the Nominal Group Activity for On-Line Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maulding, Wanda S.

    This paper discusses how the Nominal Group Technique (NGT) can be adapted for use in online instruction. The four basic stages of the NGT (listing, recording, collating, and prioritizing) are described, and modifications for online delivery are detailed, including: (1) the instructor posts the Socratic question or problem to be posed; (2) students…

  18. Revealing of Biological Activity in Crude Extracts, Seperated Fractions, Groups of Chemical Substance and Individual Compounds

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Crude extracts, separated fractions, groups of chemical substances, and individual compounds from natural sources are all evaluated stepwise while performing purifications in in-house bioassays. In a stepwise fashion proceeding from crude extracts to fractions and on to pure compounds, decisions ar...

  19. 77 FR 58608 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-21

    ... is tasked to review braking system requirements and international braking system requirements versus... basic parameters, and consider use of service proven braking systems. The Task Group will also consider... RSAC on June 26, 2007. The Passenger Train Emergency Systems final rule, focusing on...

  20. 77 FR 24257 - Railroad Safety Advisory Committee (RSAC); Working Group Activity Update

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-23

    ... braking system requirements and international braking system requirements versus existing U.S... consider use of service proven braking systems. The Task Group will also consider performance-based... approved by the full RSAC on June 26, 2007. The Passenger Train Emergency Systems final rule, focusing...

  1. Physical activity levels during phase IV cardiac rehabilitation in a group of male myocardial infarction patients

    PubMed Central

    Woolf-May, K; Bird, S; MacIntyre, P

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To determine physical activity levels during phase IV cardiac rehabilitation in 31 male myocardial infarction patients (median age 62, range 53–77 years). Methods: Patients recorded daily physical activity over 16 weeks in a diary. Diaries were analysed for total general physical activity (TGPA), leisure time physical activity (LTPA), and "active for life" exercise classes (AFL). Pre- and post-observation period (OP) subjects underwent a 10 m shuttle walking test (SWT) to determine changes in aerobic fitness. Rate of perceived exertion (RPE) determined exercise intensity. Estimated gross energy expenditure (EEE) was determined by a regression equation between RPE and Vo2 (l min–1) during SWT. A total of 97% of subjects were on lipid lowering medication. Results: There were no correlations between Vo2 (l min–1) and body mass, therefore kcal min–1 indicated activity intensity. There were no significant changes in physical activity patterns or in aerobic fitness. Estimated total LTPA (median 1376, range 128–3380 kcal week–1) was less than that recommended to improve aerobic fitness and/or slow progression of coronary artery disease. Sixteen subjects attended a median of 29 (range 1–46) AFL during LTPA; one way ANOVA showed these subjects worked at greater EEE (AFL, n = 16, 6.6 (standard deviation 1.4) v no-AFL, n = 15, 5.1 (1.8) EEE kcal min–1, p = 0.017). Conclusion: Physical activity was stable, but patients' EEE appeared insufficient to improve aerobic fitness or slow progression of coronary artery disease. It was suggested that the promotion of LTPA and the availability of AFL classes should be reconsidered. PMID:15728680

  2. Accessibility and ion exchange stoichiometry of ionized carboxylic groups in the active layer of FT30 reverse osmosis membrane.

    PubMed

    Coronell, Orlando; Mariñas, Benito I; Cahill, David G

    2009-07-01

    We have experimentally determined the concentration of Ba2+ that associates with the accessible ionized R-COO- groups in the polyamide active layer of the FT30 reverse osmosis membrane in the pH range 3.42-10.30. Ba2+ concentrations in the active layer ([Ba2+]) were measured using the ion-probing/Rutherford backscattering spectrometry procedure reported in our previous work. We found that at all but the lowest experimental pH 3.42, [Ba2+] was lower than the corresponding total concentrations of R-COO- groups; their difference was consistent with steric and charge effects determining the accessibility and association, respectively, of Ba2+ to R-COO- groups. Accordingly, we propose two descriptors, the accessibility ratio (AR) and the neutralization number (NN), to account for the observed difference. AR, the fraction of R-COO- groups accessible to Ba2+ ions, and NN, the average number of R-COO- groups neutralized per Ba2+ ion, were determined experimentally performing Ag(+)-Ba2+ ion-exchange tests. The resulting AR = 0.40 indicated that on average only 40% of ionizable carboxylic groups were accessible to Ba2+. [Ba2+] values calculated using R-COO- concentrations and the AR and NN concepts were in agreement with experimental [Ba2+] results.

  3. Potent antitumor activity of quinolone compounds with an unsaturated aminoazabicyclo group at the C-7 position of the quinolone ring.

    PubMed

    Arakawa, H; Mano, E; Hakoda, N; Yoshinari, T; Nakagawa, S; Okura, A

    1996-04-01

    Relationships between the substituents on the quinolone nucleus of 2 and related compounds and their biological activities were studied. 2, 3 and 1 carrying a (1R, 2R, 6R)-2-amino-8-azabicyclo[4.3.0.]non-3-en-8-yl group at the C-7 position increased the rate of formation of DNA-protein complexes in cells, and inhibited the growth of tumor cells more strongly than the compounds with other substituents. The introduction of a fluorine atom or a methoxy group at the 8-position and an amino group at the 5-position increased the activity still further. The three compounds listed were all effective against P388 leukemia in mice. Subcutaneous injection of 2 at 2 mg/kg strongly suppressed the growth of human MX-1 breast cancer cells in nude mice. 1 has various functional groups that increase the cytotoxic potential of quinolone derivatives: a (1R, 2R, 6R)-2-amino-8-azabicyclo[4.3.0.]non-3-en-8-yl moiety at C-7, a cyclopropyl group at the 1-position, fluorine atoms at the 6- and 8-positions, and an amino group at the 5-position of the quinoline carboxylic acid. These data suggest that this series of compounds provide good models for the further design of potent antitumor quinolones.

  4. "We Are in This Together": Common Group Identity Predicts Majority Members' Active Acculturation Efforts to Integrate Immigrants.

    PubMed

    Kunst, Jonas R; Thomsen, Lotte; Sam, David L; Berry, John W

    2015-10-01

    Although integration involves a process of mutual accommodation, the role of majority groups is often downplayed to passive tolerance, leaving immigrants with the sole responsibility for active integration. However, we show that common group identity can actively involve majority members in this process across five studies. Study 1 showed that common identity positively predicted support of integration efforts; Studies 2 and 3 extended these findings, showing that it also predicted real behavior such as monetary donations and volunteering. A decrease in modern racism mediated the relations across these studies, and Studies 4 and 5 further demonstrated that it indeed mediated these effects over and above acculturation expectations and color-blindness, which somewhat compromised integration efforts. Moreover, the last two studies also demonstrated that common, but not dual, groups motivated integration efforts. Common identity appears crucial for securing majorities' altruistic efforts to integrate immigrants and, thus, for achieving functional multiculturalism.

  5. Linking structure to function: The search for active sites in non-platinum group metal oxygen reduction reaction catalysts

    SciTech Connect

    Holby, Edward F.; Zelenay, Piotr

    2016-05-17

    Atomic-scale structures of oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) active sites in non-platinum group metal (non-PGM) catalysts, made from pyrolysis of carbon, nitrogen, and transition-metal (TM) precursors have been the subject of continuing discussion in the fuel cell electrocatalysis research community. We found that quantum chemical modeling is a path forward for understanding of these materials and how they catalyze the ORR. Here, we demonstrate through literature examples of how such modeling can be used to better understand non-PGM ORR active site relative stability and activity and how such efforts can also aid in the interpretation of experimental signatures produced by these materials.

  6. Nonequilibrium dynamics of active matter with correlated noise: A dynamical renormalization group study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kachan, Devin; Levine, Alex; Bruinsma, Robijn

    2014-03-01

    Biology is rife with examples of active materials - soft matter systems driven into nonequilibrium steady states by energy input at the micro scale. For example, solutions of active micron scale swimmers produce active fluids showing phenomena reminiscent of turbulent convection at low Reynolds number; cytoskeletal networks driven by endogenous molecular motors produce active solids whose mechanics and low frequency strain fluctuations depend sensitively on motor activity. One hallmark of these systems is that they are driven at the micro scale by temporally correlated forces. In this talk, we study how correlated noise at the micro scale leads to novel long wavelength and long time scale dynamics at the macro scale in a simple model system. Specifically, we study the fluctuations of a ϕ4 scalar field obeying model A dynamics and driven by noise with a finite correlation time τ. We show that the effective dynamical system at long length and time scales is driven by white noise with a renormalized amplitude and renormalized transport coefficients. We discuss the implications of this result for a broad class of active matter systems driven at the micro scale by colored noise.

  7. High frequency rTMS over the left parietal lobule increases non-word reading accuracy.

    PubMed

    Costanzo, Floriana; Menghini, Deny; Caltagirone, Carlo; Oliveri, Massimiliano; Vicari, Stefano

    2012-09-01

    Increasing evidence in the literature supports the usefulness of Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS) in studying reading processes. Two brain regions are primarily involved in phonological decoding: the left superior temporal gyrus (STG), which is associated with the auditory representation of spoken words, and the left inferior parietal lobe (IPL), which operates in phonological computation. This study aimed to clarify the specific contribution of IPL and STG to reading aloud and to evaluate the possibility of modulating healthy participants' task performance using high frequency repetitive TMS (hf-rTMS). The main finding is that hf-rTMS over the left IPL improves non-word reading accuracy (fewer errors), whereas hf-rTMS over the right STG selectively decreases text-reading accuracy (more errors). These results confirm the prevalent role of the left IPL in grapheme-to-phoneme conversion. The non-word reading improvement after Left-IPL stimulation provide a direct link between left IPL activation and advantages in sublexical procedures, mainly involved in non-word reading. Results indicate also the specific involvement of STG in reading morphologically complex words and in processing the representation of the text. The text reading impairment after stimulation of the right STG can be interpreted in light of an inhibitory influence on the homologous area. In sum, data document that hf-rTMS is effective in modulating the reading accuracy of expert readers and that the modulation is task related and site specific. These findings suggest new perspectives for the treatment of reading disorders.

  8. The CHD3 chromatin remodeler PICKLE and polycomb group proteins antagonistically regulate meristem activity in the Arabidopsis root.

    PubMed

    Aichinger, Ernst; Villar, Corina B R; Di Mambro, Riccardo; Sabatini, Sabrina; Köhler, Claudia

    2011-03-01

    The chromatin modifying Polycomb group (PcG) and trithorax group (trxG) proteins are central regulators of cell identity that maintain a tightly controlled balance between cell proliferation and cell differentiation. The opposing activities of PcG and trxG proteins ensure the correct expression of specific transcriptional programs at defined developmental stages. Here, we report that the chromatin remodeling factor PICKLE (PKL) and the PcG protein CURLY LEAF (CLF) antagonistically determine root meristem activity. Whereas loss of PKL function caused a decrease in meristematic activity, loss of CLF function increased meristematic activity. Alterations of meristematic activity in pkl and clf mutants were not connected with changes in auxin concentration but correlated with decreased or increased expression of root stem cell and meristem marker genes, respectively. Root stem cell and meristem marker genes are modified by the PcG-mediated trimethylation of histone H3 on lysine 27 (H3K27me3). Decreased expression levels of root stem cell and meristem marker genes in pkl correlated with increased levels of H3K27me3, indicating that root meristem activity is largely controlled by the antagonistic activity of PcG proteins and PKL.

  9. 2015 Focus Groups on Sexual Assualt and Response Among Active Duty Members (2015 FGSAPR)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-01

    ofsexualassault response and prevention. 15. SUBJECT TERMS " ~~ Perceptions about Unwanted Gender-Related Behaviors , Options for Reporting Sexual Assault...unwanted gender-related behaviors ; the focus groups provide deeper insights into the dynamics behind the survey results and help better understand...gender-related behaviors at their base/installation, but they do not portray a statistical report on prevalence rates or quantitative evaluation of

  10. Positional effects of hydroxy groups on catalytic activity of proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Iridium(III) complexes

    SciTech Connect

    Suna, Yuki; Fujita, Etsuko; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; Wang, Wan-Hui; Kambayashi, Hide; Manaka, Yuichi; Muckerman, James T.; Himeda, Yuichiro

    2014-11-12

    Proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Ir(III) complexes possessing a bipyridine ligand with two hydroxy groups at the 3,3'-, 4,4'-, 5,5'- or 6,6'-positions (3DHBP, 4DHBP, 5DHBP, or 6DHBP) were systematically investigated. UV-vis titration data provided average pK a values of the hydroxy groups on the ligands. Both hydroxy groups were found to deprotonate in the pH 4.6–5.6 range for the 4–6DHBP complexes. One of the hydroxy groups of the 3DHBP complex exhibited the low pKa value of < 0.4 because the deprotonation is facilitated by the strong intramolecular hydrogen bond formed between the generated oxyanion and the remaining hydroxy group, which in turn leads to an elevated pKa value of ~13.6 for the second deprotonation step. The crystal structures of the 4– and 6DHBP complexes obtained from basic aqueous solutions revealed their deprotonated forms. The intramolecular hydrogen bond in the 3DHBP complex was also observed in the crystal structures. The catalytic activities of these complexes in aqueous phase reactions, at appropriate pH, for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (pH 8.5), dehydrogenation of formic acid (pH 1.8), transfer hydrogenation reactions using formic acid/formate as a hydrogen source (pH 7.2 and 2.6) were investigated to compare the positional effects of the hydroxy groups. The 4– and 6DHBP complexes exhibited remarkably enhanced catalytic activities under basic conditions because of the resonance effect of the strong electrondonating oxyanions, whereas the 5DHBP complex exhibited negligible activity despite the presence of electron-donating groups. The 3DHBP complex exhibited relatively high catalytic activity at low pH owing to the one strong electron-donating oxyanion group stabilized by the intramolecular hydrogen bond. DFT calculations were employed to study the mechanism of CO₂ hydrogenation by the 4DHBP and 6DHBP complexes, and comparison of the activation free energies of the H₂ heterolysis and CO

  11. Positional effects of hydroxy groups on catalytic activity of proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Iridium(III) complexes

    DOE PAGES

    Suna, Yuki; Fujita, Etsuko; Ertem, Mehmed Z.; ...

    2014-11-12

    Proton-responsive half-sandwich Cp*Ir(III) complexes possessing a bipyridine ligand with two hydroxy groups at the 3,3'-, 4,4'-, 5,5'- or 6,6'-positions (3DHBP, 4DHBP, 5DHBP, or 6DHBP) were systematically investigated. UV-vis titration data provided average pK a values of the hydroxy groups on the ligands. Both hydroxy groups were found to deprotonate in the pH 4.6–5.6 range for the 4–6DHBP complexes. One of the hydroxy groups of the 3DHBP complex exhibited the low pKa value of < 0.4 because the deprotonation is facilitated by the strong intramolecular hydrogen bond formed between the generated oxyanion and the remaining hydroxy group, which in turn leadsmore » to an elevated pKa value of ~13.6 for the second deprotonation step. The crystal structures of the 4– and 6DHBP complexes obtained from basic aqueous solutions revealed their deprotonated forms. The intramolecular hydrogen bond in the 3DHBP complex was also observed in the crystal structures. The catalytic activities of these complexes in aqueous phase reactions, at appropriate pH, for hydrogenation of carbon dioxide (pH 8.5), dehydrogenation of formic acid (pH 1.8), transfer hydrogenation reactions using formic acid/formate as a hydrogen source (pH 7.2 and 2.6) were investigated to compare the positional effects of the hydroxy groups. The 4– and 6DHBP complexes exhibited remarkably enhanced catalytic activities under basic conditions because of the resonance effect of the strong electrondonating oxyanions, whereas the 5DHBP complex exhibited negligible activity despite the presence of electron-donating groups. The 3DHBP complex exhibited relatively high catalytic activity at low pH owing to the one strong electron-donating oxyanion group stabilized by the intramolecular hydrogen bond. DFT calculations were employed to study the mechanism of CO₂ hydrogenation by the 4DHBP and 6DHBP complexes, and comparison of the activation free energies of the H₂ heterolysis and CO₂ insertion steps

  12. The Structural Basis of Functional Group Activation by Sulfotransferases in Complex Metabolic Pathways

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Jennifer Gehret; Eisman, Eli B.; Kulkarni, Sarang; Gerwick, Lena; Gerwick, William H.; Wipf, Peter; Sherman, David H.; Smith, Janet L.

    2012-01-01

    Sulfated molecules with diverse functions are common in biology, but sulfonation as a method to activate a metabolite for chemical catalysis is rare. Catalytic activity was characterized and crystal structures were determined for two such “activating” sulfotransferases (STs) that sulfonate β-hydroxyacyl thioester substrates. The CurM polyketide synthase (PKS) ST domain from the curacin A biosynthetic pathway of Moorea producens and the olefin synthase (OLS) ST from a hydrocarbon-producing system of Synechococcus PCC 7002 both occur as a unique acyl carrier protein (ACP), ST and thioesterase (TE) tridomain within a larger polypeptide. During pathway termination, these cyanobacterial systems introduce a terminal double bond into the β-hydroxyacyl-ACP-linked substrate by the combined action of the ST and TE. Under in vitro conditions, CurM PKS ST and OLS ST acted on β-hydroxy fatty acyl-ACP substrates; however, OLS ST was not reactive toward analogs of the natural PKS ST substrate bearing a C5-methoxy substituent. The crystal structures of CurM ST and OLS ST revealed that they are members of a distinct protein family relative to other prokaryotic and eukaryotic sulfotransferases. A common binding site for the sulfonate donor 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphosulfate was visualized in complexes with the product 3'-phosphoadenosine-5'-phosphate. Critical functions for several conserved amino acids in the active site were confirmed by site-directed mutagenesis, including a proposed glutamate catalytic base. A dynamic active-site flap unique to the “activating” ST family affects substrate selectivity and product formation, based on the activities of chimeras of the PKS and OLS STs with exchanged active-site flaps. PMID:22991895

  13. Human Activity Dampens the Benefits of Group Size on Vigilance in Khulan (Equus hemionus) in Western China.

    PubMed

    Wang, Mu-Yang; Ruckstuhl, Kathreen E; Xu, Wen-Xuan; Blank, David; Yang, Wei-Kang

    2016-01-01

    Animals receive anti-predator benefits from social behavior. As part of a group, individuals spend less time being vigilant, and vigilance decreases with increasing group size. This phenomenon, called "the many-eyes effect", together with the "encounter dilution effect", is considered among the most important factors determining individual vigilance behavior. However, in addition to group size, other social and environmental factors also influence the degree of vigilance, including disturbance from human activities. In our study, we examined vigilance behavior of Khulans (Equus hemionus) in the Xinjiang Province in western China to test whether and how human disturbance and group size affect vigilance. According to our results, Khulan showed a negative correlation between group size and the percentage time spent vigilant, although this negative correlation depended on the groups' disturbance level. Khulan in the more disturbed area had a dampened benefit from increases in group size, compared to those in the undisturbed core areas. Provision of continuous areas of high-quality habitat for Khulans will allow them to form larger undisturbed aggregations and to gain foraging benefits through reduced individual vigilance, as well as anti-predator benefits through increased probability of predator detection.

  14. The Dose-Response Relationship of Adolescent Religious Activity and Substance Use: Variation across Demographic Groups

    ERIC Educat